Marciniak, Andrzej; Wlazło, Michał
2010-05-27
The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, gamma(13)(infinity), for 37 solutes, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, ethers, ketones, and water, in the ionic liquid 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)pyridinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate [N-C(3)OHPY][FAP] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at the temperatures from 308.15 to 358.15 K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values DeltaH(1)(E,infinity) were calculated from the experimental gamma(13)(infinity) values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivities for aliphatics/aromatics hydrocarbons separation problem were calculated from the gamma(13)(infinity) values and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and sulfolane. It was found that the investigated [N-C(3)OHPY][FAP] ionic liquid shows much higher selectivity and capacity at infinite dilution than the generally used organic solvents such as NMP, sulfolane, and other ionic liquids. PMID:20429540
Activity coefficients of chlorophenols in water at infinite dilution
Tabai, S.; Rogalski, M.; Solimando, R.; Malanowski, S.K.
1997-11-01
The total pressure of aqueous solutions of chlorophenols was determined by a ebulliometric total pressure method for the aqueous solutions of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol in the temperature range from 40 to 90 C. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution and the Henry constants were derived.
Seol, Jiwoong; Lee, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Youn; Takeya, Satoshi; Ripmeester, John A; Lee, Huen
2010-01-21
This study focuses on the cage occupancy of guest molecules in the infinitely dilute state. At the extreme conditions of highly diluted guest concentrations the direct measurements of the cage occupancy ratio representing the competitive inclusion of multiguest species appear to be so difficult because of spectroscopic intensity limitation, but its thermodynamic significance might be considerable due to the fact that the infinite-dilution value of the cage occupancy ratio can provide the valuable thermodynamic information as a very unique and guest-specific parameter. To experimentally identify gaseous guest populations in structure I (sI) and structure II (sII) cages, we used the solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography, and direct gas measurements. Furthermore, we derived the simple and generalized thermodynamic equation related to cage occupancies at infinite dilution from the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. Both experimental and predicted values agree well within the experimental error range. PMID:20000371
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bufetov, A. I.
2016-04-01
The second paper in this series is devoted to the convergence of sequences of infinite determinantal measures, understood as the convergence of sequences of the corresponding finite determinantal measures. Besides the weak topology in the space of probability measures on the space of configurations, we also consider the natural immersion (defined almost surely with respect to the infinite Bessel process) of the space of configurations into the space of finite measures on the half-line, which induces a weak topology in the space of finite measures on the space of finite measures on the half-line. The main results of the present paper are sufficient conditions for the tightness of families and the convergence of sequences of induced determinantal processes as well as for the convergence of processes corresponding to finite-rank perturbations of operators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awe, O. E.; Oshakuade, O. M.
2016-04-01
A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ∞s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ∞s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ∞s of 10 binary alloys whose γ∞s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ∞s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ∞s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ∞s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ∞s and then used the γ∞s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ∞s of binary liquid alloys.
De Angelis, Maria Grazia; Boulougouris, Georgios C; Theodorou, Doros N
2010-05-20
The solubility of benzene in linear polyethylene melts was estimated via Monte Carlo simulations using a united-atom molecular model at temperatures between 373 and 573 K, in the infinite dilution limit. The excess chemical potential of the solute was evaluated with the direct particle deletion (DPD) method, whose rigorous derivation is presented here in detail: in this scheme, the benzene molecule united atoms are converted to hard spheres and then removed from the polymer system. The simulations were carried out in the N(1)N(2)PT ensemble using advanced Monte Carlo moves to equilibrate the polymeric phase. The evaluation of the accessible volume fraction for the "hard sphere" solute molecule required by the DPD method was performed analytically. The effect of the value of the arbitrary hard sphere diameter, d, on the computed thermodynamic quantities was determined, allowing us to establish an optimal range for the system considered. The values of Henry's law constant are in good agreement with experimental data from the literature in the temperature range considered and are comparable to those obtained with the lattice fluid and PC(SAFT) equations of state for the same system. PMID:20426442
Perruchot, Christian; Chehimi, Mohamed M.; Vaulay, Marie-Josephe; Benzarti, Karim . E-mail: benzarti@lcpc.fr
2006-02-15
The surface thermodynamic properties of three main inorganic compounds formed during hydration of Portland cement: calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}), ettringite (3CaO.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.3CaSO{sub 4}.32H{sub 2}O) and calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), respectively, and one mineral filler: calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), have been characterised by inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution (IGC-ID) at 35 deg. C. The thermodynamic properties have been investigated using a wide range of non-polar (n-alkane series), Lewis acidic (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and CHCl{sub 3}), Lewis basic (diethyl ether) and aromatic (benzene) and n-alkene series molecular probes, respectively. The tested samples are fairly high surface energy materials as judged by the high dispersive contribution to the total surface energy (the dispersive components {gamma} {sub s} {sup d} range from 45.6 up to 236.2 mJ m{sup -2} at 35 deg. C) and exhibit amphoteric properties, with a predominant acidic character. In the case of hydrated components (i.e. ettringite and C-S-H), the surface thermodynamic properties have been determined at various temperatures (from 35 up to 120 deg. C) in order to examine the influence of the water content. The changes of both dispersive and specific components clearly demonstrate that the material surface properties are activated with temperature. The changes in the acid-base properties are correlated with the extent of the overall water loss induced by the thermal treatment as demonstrated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The elemental surface composition of these compounds has been determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
Measures of correlations in infinite-dimensional quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirokov, M. E.
2016-05-01
Several important measures of correlations of the state of a finite-dimensional composite quantum system are defined as linear combinations of marginal entropies of this state. This paper is devoted to infinite-dimensional generalizations of such quantities and to an analysis of their properties. We introduce the notion of faithful extension of a linear combination of marginal entropies and consider several concrete examples, the simplest of which are quantum mutual information and quantum conditional entropy. Then we show that quantum conditional mutual information can be defined uniquely as a lower semicontinuous function on the set of all states of a tripartite infinite-dimensional system possessing all the basic properties valid in finite dimensions. Infinite-dimensional generalizations of some other measures of correlations in multipartite quantum systems are also considered. Applications of the results to the theory of infinite-dimensional quantum channels and their capacities are considered. The existence of a Fawzi-Renner recovery channel reproducing marginal states for all tripartite states (including states with infinite marginal entropies) is shown. Bibliography: 47 titles.
Mutelet, Fabrice; Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Rogalski, Marek; Harmand, Julie; Sindt, Michèle; Mieloszynski, Jean-Luc
2008-03-27
Activity coefficients at infinite dilution, gammainfinity, of organic compounds in two new room-temperature ionic liquids (n-methacryloyloxyhexyl-N-methylimidazolium bromide (C10H17O2MIM)(Br) at 313.15 and 323.15 K and n-acryloyloxypropyl-N-methylimidazolium bromide(C6H11O2MIM)(Br)) were determined using inverse gas chromatography. Phase loading studies of the net retention volume per gram of packing as a function of the percent phase loading were used to estimate the influence of concurrent retention mechanisms on the accuracy of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of solutes in both ionic liquids. It was found that most of the solutes were retained largely by partition with a small contribution from adsorption and that n-alkanes were retained predominantly by interfacial adsorption on ionic liquids studied in this work. The solvation characteristics of the two ionic liquids were evaluated using the Abraham solvation parameter model. PMID:18318530
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plyasunov, Andrey V.; O'Connell, John P.; Wood, Robert H.
2000-02-01
A semitheoretical expression for partial molar volumes at infinite dilution of aqueous nonelectrolyte solutes has been developed employing the collection of properties from fluctuation solution theory for use over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The form of the solution expression was suggested by a comparison of solute/solvent and solvent/solvent direct correlation function integrals (DCFI). The selection of solvent density and compressibility as model variables provides a correct description in the critical region while second virial coefficients have been used to give a rigorous expression in the low density region. The formulation has been integrated to obtain analytic expressions for thermodynamic properties of hydration at supercritical temperatures. The equation is limited to solutes for which B12 (the second cross virial coefficient between water and a solute molecule) is known or can be estimated. Regression of the three remaining parameters gives good correlations of the available experimental data. A strategy for estimating these parameters allows prediction from readily available data.
Second quantisation for skew convolution products of infinitely divisible measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Applebaum, David; van Neerven, Jan
2015-03-01
Suppose λ1 and λ2 are infinitely divisible Radon measures on real Banach spaces E1 and E2, respectively and let T : E1 → E2 be a Borel measurable mapping so that T(λ1) * ρ = λ2 for some Radon probability measure ρ on E2. Extending previous results for the Gaussian and the Poissonian case, we study the problem of representing the "transition operator" PT : Lp(E2, λ2) → Lp(E1, λ1) given by $PTf(x) = ∫ E{2}f(T(x) + y)dρ (y)$ as the second quantisation of a contraction operator acting between suitably chosen "reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces" associated with λ1 and λ2.
Wang, Jinyang; Zhong, Haimin; Qiu, Wenda; Chen, Liuping; Feng, Huajie
2014-03-14
The binary infinite dilute diffusion coefficients, D{sub 12}{sup ∞}, of some alkylbenzenes (Ph-C{sub n}, from Ph-H to Ph-C{sub 12}) from 313 K to 333 K at 15 MPa in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD values agree well with the experimental ones, which indicate MD simulation technique is a powerful way to predict and obtain diffusion coefficients of solutes in supercritical fluids. Besides, the local structures of Ph-C{sub n}/CO{sub 2} fluids are further investigated by calculating radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. It qualitatively convinces that the first solvation shell of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2} is significantly influenced by the structure of Ph-C{sub n} solute. Meanwhile, the mean end-to-end distance, the mean radius of gyration and dihedral angle distribution are calculated to gain an insight into the structural properties of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2}. The abnormal trends of radial distribution functions and coordination numbers can be reasonably explained in term of molecular flexibility. Moreover, the computed results of dihedral angle clarify that flexibility of long-chain Ph-C{sub n} is the result of internal rotation of C-C single bond (σ{sub c-c}) in alkyl chain. It is interesting that compared with n-alkane, because of the existence of benzene ring, the flexibility of alkyl chain in Ph-C{sub n} with same carbon atom number is significantly reduced, as a result, the carbon chain dependence of diffusion behaviors for long-chain n-alkane (n ≥ 5) and long-chain Ph-C{sub n} (n ≥ 4) in scCO{sub 2} are different.
Wang, Jinyang; Zhong, Haimin; Feng, Huajie; Qiu, Wenda; Chen, Liuping
2014-03-14
The binary infinite dilute diffusion coefficients, D₁₂(∞), of some alkylbenzenes (Ph-C(n), from Ph-H to Ph-C12) from 313 K to 333 K at 15 MPa in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD values agree well with the experimental ones, which indicate MD simulation technique is a powerful way to predict and obtain diffusion coefficients of solutes in supercritical fluids. Besides, the local structures of Ph-C(n)/CO2 fluids are further investigated by calculating radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. It qualitatively convinces that the first solvation shell of Ph-C(n) in scCO2 is significantly influenced by the structure of Ph-C(n) solute. Meanwhile, the mean end-to-end distance, the mean radius of gyration and dihedral angle distribution are calculated to gain an insight into the structural properties of Ph-C(n) in scCO2. The abnormal trends of radial distribution functions and coordination numbers can be reasonably explained in term of molecular flexibility. Moreover, the computed results of dihedral angle clarify that flexibility of long-chain Ph-C(n) is the result of internal rotation of C-C single bond (σ(c-c)) in alkyl chain. It is interesting that compared with n-alkane, because of the existence of benzene ring, the flexibility of alkyl chain in Ph-C(n) with same carbon atom number is significantly reduced, as a result, the carbon chain dependence of diffusion behaviors for long-chain n-alkane (n ≥ 5) and long-chain Ph-C(n) (n ≥ 4) in scCO2 are different. PMID:24628176
Revelli, Anne-Laure; Sprunger, Laura; Gibbs, Jennifer; Acree, William; Baker, Gary A; Mutelet, Fabrice
2009-01-01
Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic compounds in the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide were determined using inverse gas chromatography at three temperatures, T ) (302.45, 322.35, and 342.45) K. Linear free energy relationship (LFER) correlations have been obtained for describing the gas-to-IL and water-to-IL partition coefficients.
Isotropic probability measures in infinite-dimensional spaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George
1987-01-01
Let R be the real numbers, R(n) the linear space of all real n-tuples, and R(infinity) the linear space of all infinite real sequences x = (x sub 1, x sub 2,...). Let P sub in :R(infinity) approaches R(n) be the projection operator with P sub n (x) = (x sub 1,...,x sub n). Let p(infinity) be a probability measure on the smallest sigma-ring of subsets of R(infinity) which includes all of the cylinder sets P sub n(-1) (B sub n), where B sub n is an arbitrary Borel subset of R(n). Let p sub n be the marginal distribution of p(infinity) on R(n), so p sub n(B sub n) = p(infinity) (P sub n to the -1 (B sub n)) for each B sub n. A measure on R(n) is isotropic if it is invariant under all orthogonal transformations of R(n). All members of the set of all isotropic probability distributions on R(n) are described. The result calls into question both stochastic inversion and Bayesian inference, as currently used in many geophysical inverse problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plyasunov, Andrey V.
2015-11-01
Thermodynamic modeling of natural processes involving deep aqueous fluids requires the knowledge of the values of chemical potentials (the Gibbs energy) of aqueous species. An accurate prediction of thermodynamic properties at high T and P is a strong challenge. It is shown that geochemical models, including the well-known HKF-model, cannot be recommended for an indiscriminate use at supercritical temperatures to predict chemical potentials of nonelectrolytes at infinite dilution in water. Nevertheless, sufficiently accurate predictions of ϕ2∞ (the fugacity coefficients at infinite dilution in water) of aqueous nonelectrolytes up to 2000 K and water densities up to 1500 kg m-3, i.e. pressure up to 10-12 GPa, can be made relying on known theoretical relations valid at various parts of the phase diagram of water. In essence, the method, proposed in this work, consists in the interpolation of properties between two known limits: the first one, at low water densities, is defined by the values of the second virial coefficients for water-solute interactions, and the second, at high water densities - by predictions of the theory of a mixture of hard spheres. The interpolation at moderate temperatures (700-1300 K) and water densities (500-900 kg m-3) is simplified by sufficiently accurate predictions of properties using a semiempirical variant of a corresponding-states principle. Presented examples of the prediction of fugacity coefficients of "gases" at infinite dilution in water and of an aqueous solubility of corundum over very wide ranges of water densities/pressures demonstrate the potential and generality of the proposed methods of evaluating the thermodynamic properties of aqueous neutral compounds.
Paduszyński, Kamil
2016-08-22
The aim of the paper is to address all the disadvantages of currently available models for calculating infinite dilution activity coefficients (γ(∞)) of molecular solutes in ionic liquids (ILs)-a relevant property from the point of view of many applications of ILs, particularly in separations. Three new models are proposed, each of them based on distinct machine learning algorithm: stepwise multiple linear regression (SWMLR), feed-forward artificial neural network (FFANN), and least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM). The models were established based on the most comprehensive γ(∞) data bank reported so far (>34 000 data points for 188 ILs and 128 solutes). Following the paper published previously [J. Chem. Inf. Model 2014, 54, 1311-1324], the ILs were treated in terms of group contributions, whereas the Abraham solvation parameters were used to quantify an impact of solute structure. Temperature is also included in the input data of the models so that they can be utilized to obtain temperature-dependent data and thus related thermodynamic functions. Both internal and external validation techniques were applied to assess the statistical significance and explanatory power of the final correlations. A comparative study of the overall performance of the investigated SWMLR/FFANN/LSSVM approaches is presented in terms of root-mean-square error and average absolute relative deviation between calculated and experimental γ(∞), evaluated for different families of ILs and solutes, as well as between calculated and experimental infinite dilution selectivity for separation problems benzene from n-hexane and thiophene from n-heptane. LSSVM is shown to be a method with the lowest values of both training and generalization errors. It is finally demonstrated that the established models exhibit an improved accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art model, namely, temperature-dependent group contribution linear solvation energy relationship, published in 2011 [J. Chem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakagawa, Masaki; Aizawa, Yoji
2014-10-01
Universal aspects of a certain class of infinite ergodic systems are studied by using the infinite-modal maps with a special interest to their observed measures. It is shown that the ant-lion (AL) property is an important nature to realize the infinite ergodicity in the dissipative dynamics. The AL-property, which seems to be a little bit paradoxical one, is characterized by the monotonical relaxation of mean orbits into a singular stable point, but it causes the divergence of the Lyapunov exponent as well as the emergence of a number of absolutely-continuous invariant measures. Our main concern is to characterize the unique observed measure in those many admissible ergodic measures. To this end, firstly the randomization formulae are developed on the basis of the uniform distribution theorem by Weyl, to derive the stochastic aspects of the AL-property. Actually, it is shown that the statistical natures of the infinite-modal maps are well explained by the randomization formulae. Furthermore, it is shown that the observed measure derived from the randomization formulae is universal, and that the asymptotic form obeys the power law with the exponent -1, in agreement with numerical simulations.
A remark on the infinite-volume Gibbs measures of spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arguin, Louis-Pierre
2008-12-01
In this note, we point out that infinite-volume Gibbs measures of spin glass models on the hypercube can be identified as random probability measures on the unit ball of a Hilbert space. This simple observation follows from a result of Dovbysh and Sudakov on weakly exchangeable random matrices. Limiting Gibbs measures can then be studied as single well-defined objects. This approach naturally extends the space of random overlap structures as defined by Aizenman et al. We discuss the Ruelle probability cascades and the stochastic stability within this framework. As an application, we use an idea of Parisi and Talagrand to prove that if a sequence of finite-volume Gibbs measures satisfies the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities, then the infinite-volume measure must be singular as a measure on a Hilbert space.
Sphere power measuring in ophthalmic lenses by infinite fringe moiré deflectometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Ruelas, Jorge A.; Trujillo-Schiaffino, Gerardo; Salas-Peimbert, Didia P.; Anguiano-Morales, Marcelino; Corral-Martinez, Luis F.
2013-11-01
We present a method to measure spherical power in ophthalmic lenses based on the measurement of moiré patterns, using the technique called infinite fringe moiré deflectometry. We develop a theoretical model using a geometrical analysis that was validated by a computer simulation using the LabVIEW software; also we build an experimental setup in which we get experimental data. As results, we obtain a measurement of the spherical power of a set of ophthalmic test lenses in the range of +/- 0.50 to +/- 3.00 diopters. This power is obtained by measuring the separation between each fringe of moiré pattern, from the obtained data we analyze the theoretical model and we make the necessary corrections, using polynomial regression by the method of least squares, to comply with standard ISO8598. At the same time, some components of the experimental setup were being improved to facilitate its implementation and obtain better experimental data.
Accuracy of dilution techniques for access flow measurement during hemodialysis.
Krivitski, N M; MacGibbon, D; Gleed, R D; Dobson, A
1998-03-01
Access flow is now widely measured by creating artificial recirculation with the dialysis lines reversed and using dilution methods that sense either ultrasound velocity, electrical impedance, optical, or thermal changes. This study identifies and quantifies factors that influence the accuracy of access flow measurements and recommends ways to reduce these errors. Two major sources of access flow measurement error are identified, arising firstly from the second pass of the indicator by recirculation through the cardiopulmonary system (cardiopulmonary recirculation, CPR), and secondly from changes in venous line blood flow (Qb) and vascular access flow induced by the pressure of venous bolus injections. These errors are considered from theory, by direct measurement of access flow in a sheep model, and by analysis of clinical data. Two extremes for the venous introduction of indicator can be considered in access flow measurements, a slow infusion, which perturbs neither the venous line flow nor access flow but increases the error attributable to the second pass of the indicator by recirculation through cardiopulmonary system, or rapid injection, which eases separation of the second pass of the indicator signal but generates changes in the venous flow and access flow. If CPR is not eliminated, the area added to that of the first pass of indicator ranges up to 40%. Good time resolution could permit the separation of the areas generated by the first and second passage of the indicator. In sheep experiments, injections of 5 or 10 mL into a venous port close to the vascular access caused Qb to change by 20% to 40%. Both the animal experiments and analysis of raw data collected during routine clinical dialysis showed that moving the injection site sufficiently far from the patient, before or into the venous bubble trap, reduced the increase in Qb to only approximately 5% during the critical time when the concentration curve is changing for most tubing brands (Baxter, Belco
Piccirillo, Bruno; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico
2015-01-01
The standard method for experimentally determining the probability distribution of an observable in quantum mechanics is the measurement of the observable spectrum. However, for infinite-dimensional degrees of freedom, this approach would require ideally infinite or, more realistically, a very large number of measurements. Here we consider an alternative method which can yield the mean and variance of an observable of an infinite-dimensional system by measuring only a two-dimensional pointer weakly coupled with the system. In our demonstrative implementation, we determine both the mean and the variance of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam without acquiring the entire spectrum, but measuring the Stokes parameters of the optical polarization (acting as pointer), after the beam has suffered a suitable spin–orbit weak interaction. This example can provide a paradigm for a new class of useful weak quantum measurements. PMID:26477715
Piccirillo, Bruno; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico
2015-01-01
The standard method for experimentally determining the probability distribution of an observable in quantum mechanics is the measurement of the observable spectrum. However, for infinite-dimensional degrees of freedom, this approach would require ideally infinite or, more realistically, a very large number of measurements. Here we consider an alternative method which can yield the mean and variance of an observable of an infinite-dimensional system by measuring only a two-dimensional pointer weakly coupled with the system. In our demonstrative implementation, we determine both the mean and the variance of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam without acquiring the entire spectrum, but measuring the Stokes parameters of the optical polarization (acting as pointer), after the beam has suffered a suitable spin-orbit weak interaction. This example can provide a paradigm for a new class of useful weak quantum measurements. PMID:26477715
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piccirillo, Bruno; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico
2015-10-01
The standard method for experimentally determining the probability distribution of an observable in quantum mechanics is the measurement of the observable spectrum. However, for infinite-dimensional degrees of freedom, this approach would require ideally infinite or, more realistically, a very large number of measurements. Here we consider an alternative method which can yield the mean and variance of an observable of an infinite-dimensional system by measuring only a two-dimensional pointer weakly coupled with the system. In our demonstrative implementation, we determine both the mean and the variance of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam without acquiring the entire spectrum, but measuring the Stokes parameters of the optical polarization (acting as pointer), after the beam has suffered a suitable spin-orbit weak interaction. This example can provide a paradigm for a new class of useful weak quantum measurements.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Nambu, Y.
1967-01-01
The main ingredients of the method of infinite multiplets consist of: 1) the use of wave functions with an infinite number of components for describing an infinite tower of discrete states of an isolated system (such as an atom, a nucleus, or a hadron), 2) the use of group theory, instead of dynamical considerations, in determining the properties of the wave functions.
Kang, DongYel; Huang, Qiaojian; Li, Youzhi
2015-01-01
Recently, the measurement of indicator dilution curves using a photoacoustic (PA) technology was reported, which showed promising results on the noninvasive estimation of cardiac output (CO) that is an important hemodynamic parameter useful in various clinical situations. However, in clinical practice, measuring PA indicator dilution curves from an arterial blood vessel requires an ultrasound transducer array capable of focusing on the targeted artery. This causes several challenges on the clinical translation of the PA indicator dilution method, such as high sensor cost and complexity. In this paper, we theoretically derived that a composite PA indicator dilution curve simultaneously measured from both arterial and venous blood vessels can be used to estimate CO correctly. The ex-vivo and in-vivo experimental results with a flat ultrasound transducer verified the developed theory. We believe this new concept would overcome the main challenges on the clinical translation of the noninvasive PA indicator dilution technology. PMID:25780743
μ-PIV measurements of the ensemble flow fields surrounding a migrating semi-infinite bubble
Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Smith, Bradford J.; Gaver, Donald P.
2012-01-01
Microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) measurements of ensemble flow fields surrounding a steadily-migrating semi-infinite bubble through the novel adaptation of a computer controlled linear motor flow control system. The system was programmed to generate a square wave velocity input in order to produce accurate constant bubble propagation repeatedly and effectively through a fused glass capillary tube. We present a novel technique for re-positioning of the coordinate axis to the bubble tip frame of reference in each instantaneous field through the analysis of the sudden change of standard deviation of centerline velocity profiles across the bubble interface. Ensemble averages were then computed in this bubble tip frame of reference. Combined fluid systems of water/air, glycerol/air, and glycerol/Si-oil were used to investigate flows comparable to computational simulations described in Smith and Gaver (2008) and to past experimental observations of interfacial shape. Fluorescent particle images were also analyzed to measure the residual film thickness trailing behind the bubble. The flow fields and film thickness agree very well with the computational simulations as well as existing experimental and analytical results. Particle accumulation and migration associated with the flow patterns near the bubble tip after long experimental durations are discussed as potential sources of error in the experimental method. PMID:23049158
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George
1987-01-01
Let R be the real numbers, R(n) the linear space of all real n-tuples, and R(infinity) the linear space of all infinite real sequences x = (x sub 1, x sub 2,...). Let P sub n :R(infinity) approaches R(n) be the projection operator with P sub n (x) = (x sub 1,...,x sub n). Let p(infinity) be a probability measure on the smallest sigma-ring of subsets of R(infinity) which includes all of the cylinder sets P sub n(-1) (B sub n), where B sub n is an arbitrary Borel subset of R(n). Let p sub n be the marginal distribution of p(infinity) on R(n), so p sub n(B sub n) = p(infinity)(P sub n to the -1(B sub n)) for each B sub n. A measure on R(n) is isotropic if it is invariant under all orthogonal transformations of R(n). All members of the set of all isotropic probability distributions on R(n) are described. The result calls into question both stochastic inversion and Bayesian inference, as currently used in many geophysical inverse problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallot, T.; Fehler, M. C.; Brown, S. R.; Buns, D.; Szabo, T.; Malcolm, A. E.
2013-12-01
The nonlinear mechanical behavior of rocks is a well known phenomenon at a laboratory scale and has been observed during earthquakes, slow slip events, volcanic activity, reservoir fracturing, etc. he present work explores the possibility of measuring nonlinear parameters in a semi-infinite medium. Contrary to existing methods that rely on vibrating a sample at a fixed resonant frequency, a pulsed wave is used to create a high amplitude perturbation (the pump) responsible for the nonlinear response. At the same time, a low amplitude wave probes the material to measure changes in elastic properties. Laboratory experiments have been performed in rocks (berea sandstones) to explore the possibility of using such a method for Earth imaging. The strain created by the pump (a shear wave in the tens of kHz), is on the order of a microstrain and is measured by laser vibrometry and extrapolated to the whole sample by a finite difference simulation. A compressional pulse (in the hundreds of kHz range) probes the 15-cm size sample. The variation in time of flight is related to a change in elasticity as described as a function of the strain through quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Those nonlinear coefficients are shown to be sensitive to several environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, and also physical properties such as the amplitude of the strain and the relative orientation of the pump and the probing wave. Experimental set-up: a P-wave transducer generates an ultrasonic pulse at 500 kHz recorded by an identical transducer after propagation through the sample. The medium is then perturbed with a S-wave transducer on the top of the sample at 50 kHz .
Measuring the Soret coefficient of nanoparticles in a dilute suspension
Zhao, Chao; Fu, Jinxin; Oztekin, Alparslan; Cheng, Xuanhong
2014-01-01
Thermophoresis is an efficient process for the manipulation of molecules and nanoparticles due to the strong force it generates on the nanoscale. Thermophoresis is characterized by the Soret coefficient. Conventionally, the Soret coefficient of nanosized species is obtained by fitting the concentration profile under a temperature gradient at the steady state to a continuous phase model. However, when the number density of the target is ultralow and the dispersed species cannot be treated as a continuous phase, the bulk concentration fluctuates spatially, preventing extraction of temperature-gradient induced concentration profile. The present work demonstrates a strategy to tackle this problem by superimposing snapshots of nanoparticle distribution. The resulting image is suitable for the extraction of the Soret coefficient through the conventional data fitting method. The strategy is first tested through a discrete phase model that illustrates the spatial fluctuation of the nanoparticle concentration in a dilute suspension in response to the temperature gradient. By superimposing snapshots of the stochastic distribution, a thermophoretic depletion profile with low standard error is constructed, indicative of the Soret coefficient. Next, confocal analysis of nanoparticle distribution in response to a temperature gradient is performed using polystyrene nanobeads down to 1e-5% (v/v). The experimental results also reveal that superimposing enhances the accuracy of extracted Soret coefficient. The critical particle number density in the superimposed image for predicting the Soret coefficient is hypothesized to depend on the spatial resolution of the image. This study also demonstrates that the discrete phase model is an effective tool to study particle migration under thermophoresis in the liquid phase. PMID:25221433
Measuring the Soret coefficient of nanoparticles in a dilute suspension.
Zhao, Chao; Fu, Jinxin; Oztekin, Alparslan; Cheng, Xuanhong
2014-10-01
Thermophoresis is an efficient process for the manipulation of molecules and nanoparticles due to the strong force it generates on the nanoscale. Thermophoresis is characterized by the Soret coefficient. Conventionally, the Soret coefficient of nanosized species is obtained by fitting the concentration profile under a temperature gradient at the steady state to a continuous phase model. However, when the number density of the target is ultralow and the dispersed species cannot be treated as a continuous phase, the bulk concentration fluctuates spatially, preventing extraction of temperature-gradient induced concentration profile. The present work demonstrates a strategy to tackle this problem by superimposing snapshots of nanoparticle distribution. The resulting image is suitable for the extraction of the Soret coefficient through the conventional data fitting method. The strategy is first tested through a discrete phase model that illustrates the spatial fluctuation of the nanoparticle concentration in a dilute suspension in response to the temperature gradient. By superimposing snapshots of the stochastic distribution, a thermophoretic depletion profile with low standard error is constructed, indicative of the Soret coefficient. Next, confocal analysis of nanoparticle distribution in response to a temperature gradient is performed using polystyrene nanobeads down to 1e-5% (v/v). The experimental results also reveal that superimposing enhances the accuracy of extracted Soret coefficient. The critical particle number density in the superimposed image for predicting the Soret coefficient is hypothesized to depend on the spatial resolution of the image. This study also demonstrates that the discrete phase model is an effective tool to study particle migration under thermophoresis in the liquid phase. PMID:25221433
Thermal dilution measurement of cardiac output in dogs using an analog computer.
Hendriks, F F; Schipperheyn, J J; Quanjer, P H
1978-01-01
Thermal dilution cardiac output determinations in dogs were compared to simultaneously performed Fick oxygen measurements. The purpose of this study was to validate in dog experiments a method for thermal dilution measurement which employs a double-thermistor catheter combined with an automatic computer as described by Olsson et al. Dilution and injectate temperature are entered directly into the calculation. The method does not employ logarithmic extrapolation, integration of the dilution signal being terminated when a preset cut-off level is reached. Errors due to recirculation, thermal capacitance of the right heart and heat exchange with the catheter's dead space require the use of an empirically derived correction factor, which in dogs was found to be significantly different from the factor used for human thermal dilution curves. With the appropriate cut-off level and correction factor a good agreement was found between the results of the thermal dilution and the Fick method. The regression equation for 47 experiments was found to be COtd = 0.95 COFick + 0.08; the correlation coefficient was 0.94. PMID:728031
Cadmium fixation in soils measured by isotopic dilution
Smolders, E.; Brans, K.; Foeldi, A.; Merckx, R.
1999-01-01
There is conflicting evidence on the effect of time of contact between soil and Cd on Cd availability to plants. If Cd can be fixed in soil by aging, higher soil contamination may be tolerated. Fixation of Cd by soil can be studied by adding small quantities of {sup 109}Cd to the indigenous soil Cd. The ratio of {sup 109}Cd to indigenous Cd in soil extracts or in plants gives information on the lability of Cd in soil. This isotope exchange technique was used to measure the labile and fixed Cd fractions in 10 Belgian agricultural soils (Soils A--I) with both background and elevated Cd content. The isotopically exchangeable Cd pool (E value) was measured after equilibrating {sup 109}Cd spiked soil suspensions in CaCl{sub 2} 0.01 M for 7 d. The %E values (the E value relative to aqua regia soluble Cd) ranged from 62 to 90% in the eight soils where %E values could be detected. The plant labile Cd pool, relative to aqua regia soluble Cd (%L value) was measured from the specific activities in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings grown for 16 to 21 d on soils spiked with {sup 109}Cd. The Cd %L value varied from 55 to 109% (mean: 82%) with five soils having a significant (P < 0.05) fixed Cd fraction. Varying the soil incubation procedure after soil spiking and before plant growth marginally affected the specific activity of Cd in plants. The %L values always exceeded the respective %E value between 1.05- and 1.4-fold. It is concluded that Cd fixation, where found, is not very pronounced.
Haridas, Divya; P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B.
2014-10-15
Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.
Comparison of impedance cardiography and dye dilution method for measuring cardiac output
Spiering, W; van Es, P N; de Leeuw, P W
1998-01-01
Objective—To assess the degree of agreement between impedance cardiography, using the NCCOM3-R7 device, and the gold standard—the dye dilution method—both under basal conditions and after stimulation of cardiac output. Patients—35 paired measurements in five healthy male volunteers. Interventions—To obtain higher levels of cardiac output, cardiac performance was stimulated with a dopamine infusion. Results—In 35 paired measurements, the mean of all the impedance values was higher than that of the dye dilution values, at 10.2 v 7.4 l/min (p < 0.0001). The mean discrepancy between the two methods was 3.3 l/min, and the mean bias −2.9 l/min, with limits of agreement of −9.0 and 3.2 l/min. A change in cardiac output could not adequately be predicted by the NCCOM3-R7. In 20 of 25 measurements obtained during continuous intravenous dopamine infusions there was a rise in dye dilution cardiac output (range 0.2 to 5.9 l/min). Neither the magnitude nor the direction of the change in dye dilution values corresponded with the change measured by impedance cardiography. The mean discrepancy here between the two methods was 1.8 l/min, and the mean bias −0.8 l/min, with limits of agreement of −4.9 and 3.3 l/min. Conclusions—In healthy volunteers, impedance cardiography with NCCOM3-R7 is inadequate for assessing cardiac output when compared with the dye dilution method. Keywords: cardiac output; impedance cardiography; dye dilution PMID:9659188
Measurement of LNAPL flux using single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests.
Smith, Tim; Sale, Tom; Lyverse, Mark
2012-01-01
The stability of subsurface Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) is a key factor driving expectations for remedial measures at LNAPL sites. The conventional approach to resolving LNAPL stability has been to apply Darcy's Equation. This paper explores an alternative approach wherein single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are used to resolve LNAPL stability. As a first step, an implicit solution for single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests is derived. This includes key assumptions and limits on the allowable time between intermittent mixing events. Second, single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are conducted under conditions of known LNAPL flux. This includes a laboratory sand tank study and two field tests at active LNAPL recovery wells. Results from the sand tank studies indicate that LNAPL fluxes in wells can be transformed into formation fluxes using corrections for (1) LNAPL thicknesses in the well and formation and (2) convergence of flow to the well. Using the apparent convergence factor from the sand tank experiment, the average error between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes is 4%. Results from the field studies show nearly identical known and measured LNAPL fluxes at one well. At the second well the measured fluxes appear to exceed the known value by a factor of two. Agreement between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes, within a factor of two, indicates that single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing can be a viable means of resolving LNAPL stability. PMID:22489832
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Christopher; Torkelson, John; Northwestern University Team
2013-03-01
Using fluorescence, we measure the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of ultrathin (11-14 nm) polystyrene (PS, bulk Tg = 103 °C) layers which can be tuned over ~ 80 °C when sandwiched between two bulk neighboring layers of poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP), polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) or poly(tert-butyl acrylate). Between P4VP, an ultrathin PS layer has its dynamics slaved and reports the Tg of bulk P4VP. In contrast, an ultrathin PS layer is weakly perturbed (Tg = 97 °C) when placed between PVC. These perturbations to the PS Tg become evident even for layers 10s of nanometers in thickness. Additionally, binary blends were prepared with 0.1 wt% PS components surrounded by the same neighboring polymers as in the trilayers. The Tg reported by an ultrathin PS layer and a 0.1 wt% PS blend component are the same for a given polymer pair indicating that the Tg perturbations in these two systems arise from a common physical origin. The strength of perturbations to PS correlate with the fragility of the neighboring domain in both blends and multilayers indicating that it is a key variable in determining the strength of Tg-confinement effects. Fragility also tracks with the magnitude of Tg-confinement effects observed in single layer polymer films supported on silicon wafers.
In Situ Local Fracture Flow Measurement by the Double Packer Dilution Test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englert, A.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Klepikova, M.; Lavenant, N.
2011-12-01
For prediction of flow and transport in fractured media, prior estimation of the fracture network is essential, but challenging. Recent developments in hydraulic tomography have shown promising results for understanding connectivities between boreholes. However, as the hydraulic tomographic survey is typically based on the propagation of head only, it becomes a strongly non unique problem. To reduce the non uniqueness of tomographic surveys point conditioning has been found beneficial. Just as well, measurement of local flow in a fracture can serve as point conditioning for hydraulic and tracer tomographic surveys. Nevertheless, only few measurements of local fracture flow have been performed since this type of measurements implies several important technical issues. Dilution test in a packed off interval is a possible method for measuring fracture flow (e.g. Drost et al. 1968, Novakowski et al., 2005). However, a key issue for estimating flow with dilution tests is to ensure a full mixing of the tracer in the packed interval. This is typically done by including a mixing system within the packer. The design of such system can be challenging for deep wells and small diameters. Here, we propose a method where mixing is ensured by a recirculation loop including a surface tank. This method is adapted from the design proposed by Brouyere et al. (2008), who measured dilution in open wells. Dilution is quantified by measuring the concentration in the surface barrel as function of time. Together with the measurement of the circulating flow and the water filled volume in the surface barrel, the measured tracer dilution allows for calculation of the fracture flow. Since the method can be applied using a classical double packer system, it may provide a broader application of local flow measurements in heterogeneous media. We tested the approach on the Ploemeur fractured crystalline rock site. A one meter interval at depth 80 m with a single flowing fracture was isolated with
Pleural liquid clearance rate measured in awake sheep by the volume of dilution method
Broaddus, V.C.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Berthiaume, Y.; Staub, N.C.
1986-03-01
The authors reported 24h clearance of mock pleural effusions measured terminally in sheep. To measure effusion volume at different times in the same sheep, they injected /sup 111/In-transferrin and measured its dilution. In 5 sheep with effusions of known sizes, the method was accurate to +/-10%. In 5 awake sheep, the authors injected 10 ml/kg of a 1% protein solution via a non-penetrating rib capsule. At 6h, the authors measured the volume by the dilution method and at 24h by direct recovery. The clearance rate in each animal was constant at 2.9-6.0%/h (average 4.8 +/- 1.3%/h). This new method gives a reliable two point clearance rate and requires fewer animals.
Evaluation of the Boron Dilution Method for Moderator Temperature Coefficient Measurements
Demaziere, Christophe; Pazsit, Imre; Por, Gabor
2002-11-15
A measurement of the at-power moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) at the pressurized water reactor Unit 4 of the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden) during fuel cycle 16 is analyzed. The measurement was performed when the boron concentration decreased under 300 ppm in the reactor coolant system, by using the boron dilution method. Detailed calculations were made to estimate all reactivity effects taking place during such a measurement. These effects can only be accounted for through static core calculations that allow calculating contributions to the reactivity change induced by the moderator temperature change. All the calculations were performed with the Studsvik Scandpower SIMULATE-3 code. Analysis of the measurement showed that the contribution of the Doppler effect (in the fuel) was almost negligible, whereas the reactivity effects due to other than the Doppler fuel coefficient and the boron change were surprisingly significant. It was concluded that due to the experimental inaccuracies, the uncertainty associated with the boron dilution method could be much larger than previously expected. The MTC might then be close to -72 pcm/degC, whereas the main goal of the measurement is to verify that the MTC is larger (less negative) than this threshold. The usefulness of the boron dilution method for MTC measurements can therefore be questioned.
iFit and Light Dilution: Ultraviolet volcanic SO2 measurements under the microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burton, Michael; Sawyer, Georgina
2013-04-01
Volcanic SO2 flux measurement systems are a staple of volcano monitoring networks, as this volcanic gas flux reflects the magma input rate into the volcano's feeding system. SO2 flux monitoring has been used since the seventies, with some notable successes at Pinatubo, Mt. St. Helens, Montserrat and Italian volcanoes. However, there are some subtle aspects of the atmospheric radiative transfer processed inherent in the technique which have been ignored for many years; or perhaps better, they have been forgotten, as these subtleties were clearly spelt out in early COSPEC papers by Millán and co-workers. Recent work by Kern et al. (2010, 2012) has re-focussed attention on the light dilution effect during SO2 plume measurements. This occurs when solar radiation is scattered into the slant column observed by a UV spectrometer or imaging system below the height of the volcanic plume, such that it has not passed through the plume. This below-plume light dilutes the SO2 absorption produced by light passing through the plume from above, apparently reducing the amount of SO2 present. Fortunately, the light dilution process leaves a signature in the shape of the SO2 absorption spectrum, due to the non-linear behaviour of absorption lines with respect to gas amount, following the Beer-Lamber law. This signature can be used to quantify the magnitude of the light dilution in real field spectra. We developed a new intensity spectrum UV fitting code called iFit that allows fitting of the light dilution signature, and applied this to examples from Stromboli and Etna. here we summarise the results from these studies and highlight the importance of this previously ignored process for quantify SO2 gas emissions from volcanoes.
Global NOx Measurements in Turbulent Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Flames
Weiland, N.T.; Strakey, P.A.
2007-03-01
Turbulent hydrogen diffusion flames diluted with nitrogen are currently being studied to assess their ability to achieve the DOE Turbine Program’s aggressive emissions goal of 2 ppm NOx in a hydrogen-fueled IGCC gas turbine combustor. Since the unstrained adiabatic flame temperatures of these diluted flames are not low enough to eliminate thermal NOx formation the focus of the current work is to study how the effects of flame residence time and global flame strain can be used to help achieve the stated NOx emissions goal. Dry NOx measurements are presented as a function of jet diameter nitrogen dilution and jet velocity for a turbulent hydrogen/nitrogen jet issuing from a thin-lipped tube in an atmospheric pressure combustor. The NOx emission indices from these experiments are normalized by the flame residence time to ascertain the effects of global flame strain and fuel Lewis Number on the NOx emissions. In addition dilute hydrogen diffusion flame experiments were performed in a high-pressure combustor at 2 4 and 8 atm. The NOx emission data from these experiments are discussed as well as the results from a Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling effort currently underway to help explain the experimental data.
Structure of Finite-RSB Asymptotic Gibbs Measures in the Diluted Spin Glass Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panchenko, Dmitry
2016-01-01
We suggest a possible approach to proving the Mézard-Parisi formula for the free energy in the diluted spin glass models, such as diluted K-spin or random K-sat model at any positive temperature. In the main contribution of the paper, we show that a certain small modification of the Hamiltonian in any of these models forces all finite-RSB asymptotic Gibbs measures in the sense of the overlaps to satisfy the Mézard-Parisi ansatz for the distribution of spins. Unfortunately, what is still missing is a description of the general full-RSB asymptotic Gibbs measures. If one could show that the general case can be approximated by finite-RSB case in the right sense then one could a posteriori remove the small modification of the Hamiltonian to recover the Mézard-Parisi formula for the original model.
Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements
Miller, P.
1998-01-05
This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenci, Marco
2010-09-01
In the context of the long-standing issue of mixing in infinite ergodic theory, we introduce the idea of mixing for observables possessing an infinite-volume average. The idea is borrowed from statistical mechanics and appears to be relevant, at least for extended systems with a direct physical interpretation. We discuss the pros and cons of a few mathematical definitions that can be devised, testing them on a prototypical class of infinite measure-preserving dynamical systems, namely, the random walks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Socolovsky, Eduardo A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The cosine or correlation measures of similarity used to cluster high dimensional data are interpreted as projections, and the orthogonal components are used to define a complementary dissimilarity measure to form a similarity-dissimilarity measure pair. Using a geometrical approach, a number of properties of this pair is established. This approach is also extended to general inner-product spaces of any dimension. These properties include the triangle inequality for the defined dissimilarity measure, error estimates for the triangle inequality and bounds on both measures that can be obtained with a few floating-point operations from previously computed values of the measures. The bounds and error estimates for the similarity and dissimilarity measures can be used to reduce the computational complexity of clustering algorithms and enhance their scalability, and the triangle inequality allows the design of clustering algorithms for high dimensional distributed data.
Three-terminal capacitance cell for stopped-flow measurements of very dilute solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tjahjono, Martin; Davis, Thomas; Garland, Marc
2007-02-01
A capacitance cell has been designed, constructed, and tested for stopped-flow measurements of very dilute low-relative permittivity liquid solutions. The capacitance cell utilizes a three-terminal design and is connected to ultrahigh sensitivity capacitance bridge. The cell was designed for operating conditions T ≈243.15-373.15K and P ≈0-1MPa and tested with pure anhydrous cyclohexane and with dilute acetone/cyclohexane solutions at 298.15K and 0.1MPa under an argon blanket in a thermostated bath with a temperature variation of <0.001K. Details of the design and materials of construction are reported. The measured relative permittivity of cyclohexane was 2.015 565, in agreement with the literature, and the long term variation of the measurement was ±5×10-6. The relative permittivities of the acetone/cyclohexane solutions were very linear (R2=0.9997) in the measured interval of 0.001-0.008mole fraction. These measurements confirm that the design specifications for stability and resolution/sensitivity of better than 1×10-5 have been realized. Finally, the present online capacitance cell was connected online to an ultrasensitive densitometer and ultrasensitive refractometer and binary acetone/cyclohexane solutions were measured. The measurements of density, refractive index, and relative permittivity were combined to provide a dipole moment of acetone of 2.750±0.005D, which is in good agreement with literature.
Measurement of phloem transport rates by an indicator-dilution technique. [Triticum aestivum L
Fisher, D.B. )
1990-10-01
An indicator-dilution technique for the measurement of flow rates, commonly used by animal physiologists for circulation measurements, was adapted to the measurement of phloem translocation rates in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) peduncle. The approach is based on the observation that, during the transport of a given amount of solute, its mean concentration will be inversely proportional to flow rate. For phloem transport in the wheat peduncle, the necessary measurements are (a) the time course of tracer kinetics in the peduncle phloem, (b)the volume of sieve tubes and companion cells in the monitored segment of the peduncle, and (c) the amount of tracer transported past that point. The method was evaluated by in situ monitoring of {sup 32}PO{sub 4} transport in pulse-labeling experiments. Specific activities (i.e. {sup 32}P concentrations) of phloem exudate were in good agreement with those calculated from in situ count rates and measured phloem areas. Mass transport rates, calculated from volume flow rates and phloem exudate dry matter content, also agreed well with expected mass transport rates based on measurements of grain growth rate and net CO{sub 2} exchange by the ear. The indicator-dilution technique appears to offer good precision and accuracy for short-term measurements of phloem transport rates in the wheat peduncle and should be useful for other systems as well.
Automated measurement of respiratory gas exchange by an inert gas dilution technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawin, C. F.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.
1974-01-01
A respiratory gas analyzer (RGA) has been developed wherein a mass spectrometer is the sole transducer required for measurement of respiratory gas exchange. The mass spectrometer maintains all signals in absolute phase relationships, precluding the need to synchronize flow and gas composition as required in other systems. The RGA system was evaluated by comparison with the Douglas bag technique. The RGA system established the feasibility of the inert gas dilution method for measuring breath-by-breath respiratory gas exchange. This breath-by-breath analytical capability permits detailed study of transient respiratory responses to exercise.
The measurement of water vapor permeability of glove materials using dilute tritiated water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doughty, D. H.
As fusion technology progresses, there will be an increasing need to handle tritium and tritiated compounds. Protective clothing, especially drybox gloves, must be an effective barrier to minimize worker exposure. The water vapor permeability of glove materials and finished glove constructions is a crucial property of drybox gloves and is not sufficiently well characterized. We have built an apparatus that measures water vapor permeability of elastomers using dilute tritiated water. The technique is more sensitive than other methods currently available and allows us to make measurements on materials and under conditions previously inaccessible. In particular, we present results on laminated drybox gloves for which data is not currently available.
Hirtz, P.; Lovekin, J.
1995-12-31
The tracer dilution technique for the measurement of steam and water mass flowrates and total enthalpy of two-phase geothermal fluids has been in routine use in the U.S.A. for almost three years. The tracer technique was first tested and adopted on a field-wide basis at the Coso geothermal field in California. Validation of the method was performed at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal project in Utah and the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal projects in California by direct comparison to orifice-plate flowmeter measurements of the separated phases. Production well mass flowrates and total enthalpy are now regularly measured by this technique in the Coso, Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields. Implementation of the tracer method is currently underway for the Tiwi and Bulalo geothermal fields in the Philippines. This paper presents the conceptual design of the measurement process, the results of field validations, and operating experience during field-wide testing in Coso.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksel, Ertugrul Burtecin; Turkoglu, Ahu Nur; Ercan, Ayse Ece; Akin, Ata
2011-08-01
A method to locate an absorber embedded in a semi-infinite turbid medium by spatially-resolved continuous-wave (SRCW) diffuse reflectance measurements is introduced. The depth of the absorber is assessed by single wavelength SRCW diffuse reflectance measurements by two detectors in a radial row. The ratio of perturbations introduced by the defect at two detectors is used to be matched with the ratio-versus-depth curve, which are generated by approximate formulas of continuous wave diffuse reflectance. The error due to approximation and the error in depth assessment are studied for different cases revealing favorable source-detector placements with respect to planar position of the defect. The effect of lateral displacement of the source with respect to defect is studied. A strategy to overcome errors introduced by erroneous prediction of background medium optical properties is suggested. Theoretical results indicate that the depth of the absorber can be obtained with 0.1 mm precision independent of its absorption coefficient and its size for the values chosen in the study. The approach is tested experimentally and it is observed that theoretical results fit with experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, D.; Delkash, M.; Chow, F. K.; Imhoff, P. T.
2014-12-01
Landfill methane emissions are difficult to estimate due to limited observation and uncertainty of the data. The tracer dilution method is a widely used approach that uses a tracer gas released at a known rate from one or more point sources, and the ratio of the concentration of tracer gas to concentration of methane measured at a downwind point is used to calculate the methane emissions rate. Here we use a high-resolution atmospheric model to examine the set-up of the tracer dilution method and its effects on the accuracy of methane emissions calculations. This method relies on optimal weather conditions and is limited by availability of locations where downwind measurements can be taken. Therefore using limited measurements taken with this method to estimate annual landfill emissions will yield totals of dubious accuracy. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is a mesoscale meteorological model that is commonly used for atmospheric research as well as operational forecasts. Here, a scalar tracking subroutine is added to WRF to simulate the methane emissions from the surface of the landfill and the tracer gas from point sources. Using this model, many different tracer release configurations (number and placement of tracer release points and downwind measurement locations) are simulated and compared. Wind speed dependence of methane emissions is examined by prescribing surface flux as a function of local wind speed. The tracer dilution method can only collect landfill emissions data during ideal weather conditions, so modeling emissions during non-ideal conditions will give a better idea of how to predict total annual emissions taking into account the emissions on days when emissions cannot accurately be measured. The WRF output is compared to output of an analogous model adapted from the existing atmospheric model Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) and to observation data from Sandtown Landfill in Delaware, USA. Future work includes adding
Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution
Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A. )
1990-09-01
The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by {sup 2}H or {sup 3}H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both {sup 2}HHO and {sup 3}HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with {sup 3}H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals.
Fan, Fan; Chen, Chun Cheng Andy; Zhang, Jin; Schreck, Carlos M N; Roman, Eric A; Williams, Jan M; Hirata, Takashi; Sharma, Mukut; Beard, Daniel A; Savin, Virginia J; Roman, Richard J
2015-12-15
This study describes a high-throughput fluorescence dilution technique to measure the albumin reflection coefficient (σAlb) of isolated glomeruli. Rats were injected with FITC-dextran 250 (75 mg/kg), and the glomeruli were isolated in a 6% BSA solution. Changes in the fluorescence of the glomerulus due to water influx in response to an imposed oncotic gradient was used to determine σAlb. Adjustment of the albumin concentration of the bath from 6 to 5, 4, 3, and 2% produced a 10, 25, 35, and 50% decrease in the fluorescence of the glomeruli. Pretreatment of glomeruli with protamine sulfate (2 mg/ml) or TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml) decreased σAlb from 1 to 0.54 and 0.48, respectively. Water and solute movement were modeled using Kedem-Katchalsky equations, and the measured responses closely fit the predicted behavior, indicating that loss of albumin by solvent drag or diffusion is negligible compared with the movement of water. We also found that σAlb was reduced by 17% in fawn hooded hypertensive rats, 33% in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats, 26% in streptozotocin-treated diabetic Dahl SS rats, and 21% in 6-mo old type II diabetic nephropathy rats relative to control Sprague-Dawley rats. The changes in glomerular permeability to albumin were correlated with the degree of proteinuria in these strains. These findings indicate that the fluorescence dilution technique can be used to measure σAlb in populations of isolated glomeruli and provides a means to assess the development of glomerular injury in hypertensive and diabetic models. PMID:26447220
A stable isotope dilution method for measuring bioavailability of organic contaminants
Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Gan, Jay
2014-01-01
Methods for determining bioavailability of organic contaminants suffer various operational limitations. We explored the use of stable isotope labeled references in developing an isotope dilution method (IDM) to measure the exchangeable pool (E) of pyrene and bifenthrin as an approximation of their bioavailability in sediments. The exchange of deuterated bifenthrin or pyrene with its native counterpart was completed within 48 h. The derived E was 38–82% for pyrene and 28–59% for bifenthrin. Regression between E and the sum of rapid and slow desorption fractions obtained from sequential desorption showed a slope close to 1.0. The ability of IDM to predict bioavailability was further shown from a strong relationship (r2 > 0.93) between E and bioaccumulation into Chironomus tentans. Given the abundance of stable isotope labeled references and their relatively easy analysis, the IDM has the potential to become a readily adoptable tool for estimating organic contaminants bioaccessibility in various matrices. PMID:23434573
In Vivo Measurements Of Coronary Blood Volumi By Dye And Inert Gas Dilution Technic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoeft, A.; Korb, H.; Wolpers, H. G.
1984-10-01
The application of a double fiberoptic device for measurements of arterial and coronary venous dye dilution curves facilitates the determination of coronary mean transit times even under clinical conditions. Since the dye, indocyanine green, is an intravascular tracer, the calculation of tissue blood flow would be possible if the intracoronary blood volume per unit of muscular weight is known. This study was therefore designed to investigate the physiologic range and the influence of coronary vasodilation and different hemodynamic conditions on the amount of myocardial blood volume. All experiments were carried out on anaesthetized close chest mongrel dogs in heart catheterization technic. Myocardial preload, afterload and inotropism and coronary vascular tone were varied by induction of hypo-, normo- and hypervolemia as well as by intravenous application of catecholamines, 13-blocking agents and vasodilating drugs. The determination of coronary blood volume was based on arterial and coronary venous kinetics of the intravascular tracer indocyanine green and the freely diffusible tracers helium and argon. Simultaneous measurements of the dye and the inert gases were obtained by a double fiberoptic system and a twin mass spectrometer, respectively. The intravascular and the tissue mean transit times as well as the coronary blood volume per unit of tissue weight were computed from the impulse response functions obtained by numerical deconvolution of the arterial and coronary venous indicator dilution curves. In contrast to reports of other authors coronary blood volume did not increase to a major extend during coronary vasodilation or elevated afterload. These new results suggest that the variation of coronary blood volume described in the literature is mainly due to methodological errors resulting from monoexponential extrapolation and distortion of the dye signal by the sampling catheter. These systematic errors, which, in particular, lead to an overestimation of
Berry Yelverton, T.L.; Roberts, W.L.
2008-10-15
Soot surface temperature was measured in laminar jet diffusion flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures. The soot surface temperature was measured in flames at one, two, four, and eight atmospheres with both pure and diluted (using helium, argon, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide individually) ethylene fuels with a calibrated two-color soot pyrometry technique. These two dimensional temperature profiles of the soot aid in the analysis and understanding of soot production, leading to possible methods for reducing soot emission. Each flame investigated was at its smoke point, i.e., at the fuel flow rate where the overall soot production and oxidation rates are equal. The smoke point was chosen because it was desirable to have similar soot loadings for each flame. A second set of measurements were also taken where the fuel flow rate was held constant to compare with earlier work. These measurements show that overall flame temperature decreases with increasing pressure, with increasing pressure the position of peak temperature shifts to the tip of the flame, and the temperatures measured were approximately 10% lower than those calculated assuming equilibrium and neglecting radiation. (author)
Validity of deuterium oxide dilution for the measurement of body fat among Singaporeans.
Deurenberg-Yap, Mabel; Deurenberg, Paul
2002-09-01
Body fat percent (BF%) was measured in 108 adult Chinese, 76 Malays, and 107 Indians in Singapore by densitometry, deuterium oxide dilution (hydrometry), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and a chemical four-compartment model (BF%4c). The hydration of the fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated. Subjects ranged in age from 18 to 69 years and their body mass index ranged from 16 to 40 kg/m2. BF%4c for the various subgroups were: Chinese females (33.5 +/- 7.5%), Chinese males (24.4 +/- 6.1%), Malay females (37.8 +/- 6.3%), Malay males (26.0 +/- 7.6%), Indian females (38.2 +/- 7.0%) and Indian males (28.1 +/- 5.5%). Biases were found between BF%4c and BF% measured by 2-compartment models (hydrometry, densitometry, DXA), with systematic underestimation by DXA and densitometry. On a group level hydrometry had the lowest bias while DXA gave the highest bias. When validated against BF%4c, 2-compartment models were found to be unsuitable for accurate measures of body fat due to high biases at the individual level and the violation of assumptions of constant hydration of FFM and density FFM among the ethnic groups. On a group level the best 2-compartment model for measuring body fat was found to be hydrometry. PMID:12362808
Image-based correction of the light dilution effect for SO2 camera measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campion, Robin; Delgado-Granados, Hugo; Mori, Toshiya
2015-07-01
Ultraviolet SO2 cameras are increasingly used in volcanology because of their ability to remotely measure the 2D distribution of SO2 in volcanic plumes, at a high frequency. However, light dilution, i.e., the scattering of ambient photons within the instrument's field of view (FoV) on air parcels located between the plume and the instrument, induces a systematic underestimation of the measurements, whose magnitude increases with distance, SO2 content, atmospheric pressure and turbidity. Here we describe a robust and straightforward method to quantify and correct this effect. We retrieve atmospheric scattering coefficients based on the contrast attenuation between the sky and the increasingly distant slope of the volcanic edifice. We illustrate our method with a case study at Etna volcano, where difference between corrected and uncorrected emission rates amounts to 40% to 80%, and investigate the temporal variations of the scattering coefficient during 1 h of measurements on Etna. We validate the correction method at Popocatépetl volcano by performing measurements of the same plume at different distances from the volcano. Finally, we reported the atmospheric scattering coefficients for several volcanoes at different latitudes and altitudes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soller, Babs R.; Favreau, Janice; Idwasi, Patrick O.
2003-01-01
The feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least-squares (PLS) regression was explored to measure electrolyte concentration in whole blood samples. Spectra were collected from diluted blood samples containing randomized, clinically relevant concentrations of Na+, K+, and Ca2+. Sodium was also studied in lysed blood. Reference measurements were made from the same samples using a standard clinical chemistry instrument. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to develop calibration models for each ion with acceptable results (Na+, R2 = 0.86, CVSEP = 9.5 mmol/L; K+, R2 = 0.54, CVSEP = 1.4 mmol/L; Ca2+, R2 = 0.56, CVSEP = 0.18 mmol/L). Slightly improved results were obtained using a narrower wavelength region (470-925 nm) where hemoglobin, but not water, absorbed indicating that ionic interaction with hemoglobin is as effective as water in causing measurable spectral variation. Good models were also achieved for sodium in lysed blood, illustrating that cell swelling, which is correlated with sodium concentration, is not required for calibration model development.
Katahira, Rui; Sluiter, Justin B; Schell, Daniel J; Davis, Mark F
2013-04-01
The lignin content measured after dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover indicates more lignin than could be accounted for on the basis of the untreated corn stover lignin content. This phenomenon was investigated using a combination of (13)C cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and lignin removal using acid chlorite bleaching. Only minimal contamination with carbohydrates and proteins was observed in the pretreated corn stover. Incorporating degradation products from sugars was also investigated using (13)C-labeled sugars. The results indicate that sugar degradation products are present in the pretreatment residue and may be intimately associated with the lignin. Studies comparing whole corn stover (CS) to extractives-free corn stover [CS(Ext)] clearly demonstrated that extractives are a key contributor to the high-lignin mass balance closure (MBC). Sugars and other low molecular weight compounds present in plant extractives polymerize and form solids during pretreatment, resulting in apparent Klason lignin measurements that are biased high. PMID:23428141
Pollard, P.C.; Moriarty, D.J.W.
1984-12-01
The rate of tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA was used to estimate bacterial growth rates in aquatic environments. To be accurate, the calculation of growth rates has to include a factor for the dilution of isotope before incorporation. The validity of an isotope dilution analysis to determine this factor was verified in experiments reported here with cultures of a marine bacterium growing in a chemostat. Growth rates calculated from data on chemostat dilution rates and cell density agreed well with rates calculated by tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA and isotope dilution analysis. With sufficiently high concentrations of exogenous thymidine, de novo synthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate was inhibited, thereby preventing the endogenous dilution of isoope. The thymidine technique was also shown to be useful for measuring growth rates of mixed suspensions of bacteria growing anaerobically. Thymidine was incorporated into the DNA of a range of marine pseudomonads that were investigated. Three species did not take up thymidine. The common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus species did not incorporate thymidine into DNA.
Measurement of the phonon entropy of alloying in dilute substitutional alloys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delaire, Olivier; Swan-Wood, Tabitha; Kresch, Max; Fultz, Brent
2004-03-01
In this study, we investigate the entropic effects associated with changes in the vibrational modes of crystals sustained upon dilute substitutional alloying. Using inelastic neutron scattering, we have measured the phonon density of states (DOS) and the change in the phonon entropy of vanadium associated with the alloying of a few percent impurities of Ni, Pd, Pt or Co. The phonon entropy change upon alloying in vanadium was shown to be large and negative. In the case of 6-7% Pt and Co impurities, it is equal in magnitude to the gain in configurational entropy of alloying. We also present recent experimental results on Mo-7%Fe alloys. Using a computational model based on the classical Born-von Karman approach, we extracted interatomic force-constants from our experimental data, in order to correct the phonon DOS for the neutron-weighting due to the different neutron cross-section of the impurity. From these, we calculated phonon dispersion curves and un-weighted density of states. We also performed ab-initio calculations on supercell impurity models, which we compare to our experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konig, S.; Munker, C.; Schuth, S.
2007-12-01
Assessing the behaviour of W during silicate Earth's differentiation is hampered by low abundances of W in terrestrial reservoirs, making sufficiently precise and accurate measurements difficult. Previous results (e.g., Newsom et al. 1996) indicate a lower W/Th of the mantle (ca. 0.19) compared to the Earth's crust, (ca. 0.26), suggesting that W appears to be more incompatible than Th. New data for MORB (Munker et al. 2007), however, demonstrate that W/Th is not significantly fractionated during dry peridotite melting, tentatively suggesting a fractionation of the two elements during crust formation by subduction related processes. We present high precision W and Nb-Ta, Zr-Hf data obtained by isotope dilution, using a mixed 183W-180Ta- 94Zr-180Hf-176Lu tracer and multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). This enables the direct determination of W and HFSE from one sample digestion. For some samples, a "nugget effect" as previously reported for PGE was observed, reflecting sample heterogeneity. Measured Ta and W abundances determined in basaltic glasses and whole rock powders from various island arc settings yield Ta/W ratios of 0.6 to 1.7, significantly lower than the values reported for MORB (4-6). In contrast, Nb/Ta for the samples overlap with MORB values, suggesting that Nb and Ta were not mobile in the magma sources. These systematic differences indicate that W does not behave as other HFSE (Nb-Ta, Zr-Hf) in subduction zones but rather displays a higher mobility in slab components. Intra-oceanic arc suites involving subducted pelagic sediment in their sources generally display higher W/Th compared to magmas without sediment-derived components in their sources, reflecting the higher initial W abundances in subducted pelagic sediments. A fractionation of W/Th during crust formation could consequently be explained by a selective W enrichment relative to Th during subduction processes.
Assay dilution factors confound measures of total antioxidant capacity in polyphenol-rich juices
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The extent to which sample dilution factor (DF) affects Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) values is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the impact of DF on the ORAC, FRAP, DPPH, and Total Phenols (TP) assays using pomegranate juice (PJ), grape juice (GJ), selected flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and ella...
Measurement of asphaltene particle size distributions in crude oils diluted with n-heptane
Ferworn, K.A.; Svrcek, W.Y.; Mehrotra, A.K. )
1993-05-01
The formation and growth of asphaltene particles from heavy crude oils diluted with n-heptane at 22 C and atmospheric pressure was studied using a laser particle analyzer. The results obtained with six crude oil samples indicate that the asphaltene precipitation is an instantaneous process leading to a unimodal, log-normal distribution. At typical laboratory conditions, the particles remained essentially unaltered in size and population density. A vast majority of the particles were noted to be far from round in shape, with the mean particle size ranging from 4.5 to 291 [mu]m. It was found that the oil-to-diluent ratio is an important parameter in determining the size of the generated asphaltene particles; higher dilution ratios yielded larger particles. The mean asphaltene particle size was also found to increase with the average molar mass and the asphaltene content of crude oils.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Riqiang; Li, Jun; Cui, Jingyu; Peng, Xinhua
2016-07-01
Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times (T1S) for dilute spins such as 13C have led to investigations of the motional dynamics of individual functional groups in solid materials. In this work, we revisit the Solomon equations and analyze how the heteronuclear cross relaxation between the dilute S (e.g. 13C) and abundant I (e.g. 1H) spins affects the measured T1S values in solid-state NMR in the absence of 1H saturation during the recovery time. It is found theoretically that at the beginning of the S spin magnetization recovery, the existence of non-equilibrium I magnetization introduces the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect onto the recovery of the S spin magnetization and confirmed experimentally that such a heteronuclear cross relaxation effect results in the recovery overshoot phenomena for the dilute spins when T1S is on the same order of T1H, leading to inaccurate measurements of the T1S values. Even when T1S is ten times larger than T1H, the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect on the measured T1S values is still noticeable. Furthermore, this cross relaxation effect on recovery trajectory of the S spins can be manipulated and even suppressed by preparing the initial I and S magnetization, so as to obtain the accurate T1S values. A sample of natural abundance L-isoleucine powder has been used to demonstrate the T1S measurements and their corresponding measured T1C values under various experimental conditions.
Fu, Riqiang; Li, Jun; Cui, Jingyu; Peng, Xinhua
2016-07-01
Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times (T1S) for dilute spins such as (13)C have led to investigations of the motional dynamics of individual functional groups in solid materials. In this work, we revisit the Solomon equations and analyze how the heteronuclear cross relaxation between the dilute S (e.g. (13)C) and abundant I (e.g. (1)H) spins affects the measured T1S values in solid-state NMR in the absence of (1)H saturation during the recovery time. It is found theoretically that at the beginning of the S spin magnetization recovery, the existence of non-equilibrium I magnetization introduces the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect onto the recovery of the S spin magnetization and confirmed experimentally that such a heteronuclear cross relaxation effect results in the recovery overshoot phenomena for the dilute spins when T1S is on the same order of T1H, leading to inaccurate measurements of the T1S values. Even when T1S is ten times larger than T1H, the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect on the measured T1S values is still noticeable. Furthermore, this cross relaxation effect on recovery trajectory of the S spins can be manipulated and even suppressed by preparing the initial I and S magnetization, so as to obtain the accurate T1S values. A sample of natural abundance l-isoleucine powder has been used to demonstrate the T1S measurements and their corresponding measured T1C values under various experimental conditions. PMID:27187211
Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang
2016-01-01
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment. PMID:26975333
Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang
2016-01-01
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment. PMID:26975333
Assay Dilution Factors Confound Measures of Total Antioxidant Capacity in Polyphenol-Rich Juices
Bolling, Bradley W.; Chen, Ya-Yen; Kamil, Alison G.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver
2016-01-01
The extent to which sample dilution factor (DF) affects total antioxidant capacity (TAC) values is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the impact of DF on the ORAC, FRAP, DPPH, and total phenols (TP) assays using pomegranate juice (PJ), grape juice (GJ), selected flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and ellagic acid. For ORAC, GJ was comparable to PJ at DF 750, but at DF 2000, the ORAC value of GJ was 40% more than PJ. Increasing DF increased GJ and PJ, DPPH, TP, and FRAP values 11% and 14%, respectively. Increased test concentrations of quercetin and catechin resulted in 51% and 126% greater ORAC values, but decreased naringenin by 68%. Flavonoids, but not ellagic acid or ascorbic acid, may contribute to the dilution effect on the variation of final TAC values. Thus, reporting TAC or TP using a single DF may introduce uncertainty about the confidence of TAC assay values, especially when comparing different juices. These results underscore the importance of using compatible test standards for reporting TAC values. PMID:22251245
Unification and Infinite Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.
2008-01-01
Some infinite series are analysed on the basis of the hypergeometric function and integer structure and modular rings. The resulting generalized functions are compared with differentiation of the "mother" series. (Contains 1 table.)
Gregory, J W; Greene, S A; Scrimgeour, C M; Rennie, M J
1991-01-01
Total body water was estimated as part of the assessment of body composition in children with growth disorders, using the newly commercially available method of bioelectrical impedance. This was undertaken to compare the precision and accuracy of the results with those derived from skinfold thickness against measurement of stable isotopically labelled water (H2(18)O) dilution as a standard. The comparisons were carried out to see to what extent the impedance method could be applied with confidence to assessment of children with growth disorders. Total body water was derived from impedance (I) using an association with height (Ht2/I). Impedance and skinfold thickness estimates of total body water were equally precise when compared with values obtained from H2(18)O dilution (limits of agreement -1.9 to +1.3 and -1.7 to +2.0 kg respectively). The mean intraobserver coefficient of variation for repeat measurements of impedance was 0.9% compared with 4.6% for skinfold thickness with an interobserver coefficient of variation for impedance of 2.8%. Bioelectrical impedance estimation of body composition is likely to be of value in the growth clinic when expertise in measurement of skinfold thickness is limited or repeated measurements are to be undertaken by different observers. PMID:2001107
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mudra, R.; Muroi, C.; Niederer, P.; Keller, E.
2008-09-01
The cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an important vital parameter in neurointensive care. Currently, there is no non-invasive method for its measurement that can easily be applied at the bedside. A new tool to determine CBF is based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) applied together with indocyanine green (ICG) dye dilution. From a bilateral measurement on selected regions on the head of infrared (IR) absorption at various wavelengths during the dilution maneuver, the vascular perfusion characteristics of the two brain hemispheres can be determined in terms of mean transit time (mtt) of ICG, cerebral blood volume (CBV) and CBF. So far, on nine healthy volunteers, NIRS ICG dye dilution bihemispheric measurements were performed, which yielded to mtt given as median (range) of 9.3 s (5.1-16.3 s), CBV of 3.5 ml/100 g (1.7-4.1 ml/100 g), and CBF of 18.2 ml/(100 g×min) [11.1-48.6 ml/(100 g×min)]. Additionally, the blood flow index (BFI) was calculated with BFI= 13.8 mg/(100 g×s) [6.6-15.2 mg/(100 g×s)]. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between CBF and BFI was RS = 0.76. However, as the Bland & Altman plot between CBFNIRS and the CBFBFI documents, the limits of agreement are rather wide (21.9±6.7). Under physiological conditions in healthy volunteers, no differences could be detected between the hemispheres.
Learning to See the Infinite: Measuring Visual Literacy Skills in a 1st-Year Seminar Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palmer, Michael S.; Matthews, Tatiana
2015-01-01
Visual literacy was a stated learning objective for the fall 2009 iteration of a first-year seminar course. To help students develop visual literacy skills, they received formal instruction throughout the semester and completed a series of carefully designed learning activities. The effects of these interventions were measured using a one-group…
Kim, Mi Eon; Kim, Yong Doo; Kang, Ji Hwan; Heo, Gwi Suk; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sangil
2016-04-01
Dimethyl sulphide (DMS) is an important compound in global atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Traceable international standards are essential for measuring accurately the long-term global trend in ambient DMS. However, developing accurate gas standards for sub-nanomole per mole (nmol/mol) mole fractions of DMS in a cylinder is challenging, because DMS is reactive and unstable. In this study, a dynamic dilution method that is traceable and precise was developed to generate sub-nmol/mol DMS gas mixtures with a dynamic dilution system based on sonic nozzles and a long-term (>5 years) stable 10 μmol/mol parent DMS primary standard gas mixtures (PSMs). The dynamic dilution system was calibrated with traceable methane PSMs, and its estimated dilution factors were used to calculate the mole fractions of the dynamically generated DMS gas mixtures. A dynamically generated DMS gas mixture and a 6 nmol/mol DMS PSM were analysed against each other by gas chromatography with flame-ionisation detection (GC/FID) to evaluate the dilution system. The mole fractions of the dynamically generated DMS gas mixture determined against a DMS PSM and calculated with the dilution factor agreed within 1% at 6 nmol/mol. In addition, the dynamically generated DMS gas mixtures at various mole fractions between 0.4 and 11.7 nmol/mol were analysed by GC/FID and evaluated for their linearity. The analytically determined mole fractions showed good linearity with the mole fractions calculated with the dilution factors. Results showed that the dynamic dilution method generates DMS gas mixtures ranging between 0.4 nmol/mol and 12 nmol/mol with relative expanded uncertainties of less than 2%. Therefore, the newly developed dynamic dilution method is a promising reference method for generating sub-nmol/mol DMS gas standards for accurate ambient measurements. PMID:26838438
Lyapunov exponents for infinite dimensional dynamical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mhuiris, Nessan Mac Giolla
1987-01-01
Classically it was held that solutions to deterministic partial differential equations (i.e., ones with smooth coefficients and boundary data) could become random only through one mechanism, namely by the activation of more and more of the infinite number of degrees of freedom that are available to such a system. It is only recently that researchers have come to suspect that many infinite dimensional nonlinear systems may in fact possess finite dimensional chaotic attractors. Lyapunov exponents provide a tool for probing the nature of these attractors. This paper examines how these exponents might be measured for infinite dimensional systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wehrmeyer, J. A.; Cheng, T. S.; Pitz, R. W.; Nandula, S.; Wilson, L. G.; Pellett, G. L.
1991-01-01
A narrowband UV Raman scattering system is used to obtain measurement profiles of major and minor species concentrations, temperature, and mixture fraction in opposed jet diffusion flames. The measurement profiles can be compared to previously obtained temperature and concentration profiles (Pellett et al., 1989), obtained using CARS, and they can also be qualitatively compared to the predicted concentration and temperature profiles in pure hydrogen/air flames (Gutheil and Williams, 1990) and in diluted hydrogen/air flames (Dixon-Lewis and Missaghi, 1988; Ho and Isaac, 1991). The applied stress-rates for the two flame conditions studied are 240/s and 340/s, with respective hydrogen concentrations in the fuel jet of 0.67 and 0.83, on a mole fraction basis (0.13 and 0.26 hydrogen mass fractions, respectively).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
2009-01-01
This article provides a historical context for the debate between Georg Cantor and Leopold Kronecker regarding the cardinality of different infinities and incorporates the short story "Welcome to the Hotel Infinity," which uses the analogy of a hotel with an infinite number of rooms to help explain this concept. Wanko makes use of this history and…
Jamin, P; Goderniaux, P; Bour, O; Le Borgne, T; Englert, A; Longuevergne, L; Brouyère, S
2015-11-01
Measurement of groundwater fluxes is the basis of all hydrogeological study, from hydraulic characterization to the most advanced reactive transport modeling. Usual groundwater flux estimation with Darcy's law may lead to cumulated errors on spatial variability, especially in fractured aquifers where local direct measurement of groundwater fluxes becomes necessary. In the present study, both classical point dilution method (PDM) and finite volume point dilution method (FVPDM) are compared on the fractured crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur, France. The manipulation includes the first use of the FVPDM in a fractured aquifer using a double packer. This configuration limits the vertical extent of the tested zone to target a precise fracture zone of the aquifer. The result of this experiment is a continuous monitoring of groundwater fluxes that lasted for more than 4 days. Measurements of groundwater flow rate in the fracture (Q(t)) by PDM provide good estimates only if the mixing volume (V(w)) (volume of water in which the tracer is mixed) is precisely known. Conversely, the FVPDM allows for an independent estimation of V(w) and Q(t), leading to better precision in case of complex experimental setup such as the one used. The precision of a PDM does not rely on the duration of the experiment while a FVPDM may require long experimental duration to guarantees a good precision. Classical PDM should then be used for rapid estimation of groundwater flux using simple experimental setup. On the other hand, the FVPDM is a more precise method that has a great potential for development but may require longer duration experiment to achieve a good precision if the groundwater fluxes investigated are low and/or the mixing volume is large. PMID:26519822
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamin, P.; Goderniaux, P.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Englert, A.; Longuevergne, L.; Brouyère, S.
2015-11-01
Measurement of groundwater fluxes is the basis of all hydrogeological study, from hydraulic characterization to the most advanced reactive transport modeling. Usual groundwater flux estimation with Darcy's law may lead to cumulated errors on spatial variability, especially in fractured aquifers where local direct measurement of groundwater fluxes becomes necessary. In the present study, both classical point dilution method (PDM) and finite volume point dilution method (FVPDM) are compared on the fractured crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur, France. The manipulation includes the first use of the FVPDM in a fractured aquifer using a double packer. This configuration limits the vertical extent of the tested zone to target a precise fracture zone of the aquifer. The result of this experiment is a continuous monitoring of groundwater fluxes that lasted for more than 4 days. Measurements of groundwater flow rate in the fracture (Qt) by PDM provide good estimates only if the mixing volume (Vw) (volume of water in which the tracer is mixed) is precisely known. Conversely, the FVPDM allows for an independent estimation of Vw and Qt, leading to better precision in case of complex experimental setup such as the one used. The precision of a PDM does not rely on the duration of the experiment while a FVPDM may require long experimental duration to guarantees a good precision. Classical PDM should then be used for rapid estimation of groundwater flux using simple experimental setup. On the other hand, the FVPDM is a more precise method that has a great potential for development but may require longer duration experiment to achieve a good precision if the groundwater fluxes investigated are low and/or the mixing volume is large.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhrner, U.; von Löwis, S.; Vehkamäki, H.; Wehner, B.; Bräsel, S.; Hermann, M.; Stratmann, F.; Kulmala, M.; Wiedensohler, A.
Vehicle particle emissions are studied extensively because of their health effects, contribution to ambient PM levels and possible impact on climate. The aim of this work was to obtain a better understanding of secondary particle formation and growth in a diluting vehicle exhaust plume using 3-d information of simulations together with measurements. Detailed coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and aerosol dynamics simulations have been conducted for H 2SO 4-H 2O and soot particles based on measurements within a vehicle exhaust plume under real conditions on public roads. Turbulent diffusion of soot and nucleation particles is responsible for the measured decrease of number concentrations within the diesel car exhaust plume and decreases coagulation rates. Particle size distribution measurements at 0.45 and 0.9 m distance to the tailpipe indicate a consistent soot mode (particle diameter Dp˜50 nm) at variable operating conditions. Soot mode number concentrations reached up to 10 13 m -3 depending on operating conditions and mixing. For nucleation particles the simulations showed a strong sensitivity to the spatial dilution pattern, related cooling and exhaust H 2SO 4(g). The highest simulated nucleation rates were about 0.05-0.1 m from the axis of the plume. The simulated particle number concentration pattern is in approximate accordance with measured concentrations, along the jet centreline and 0.45 and 0.9 m from the tailpipe. Although the test car was run with ultralow sulphur fuel, high nucleation particle ( Dp⩽15 nm) concentrations (>10 13 m -3) were measured under driving conditions of strong acceleration or the combination of high vehicle speed (>140 km h -1) and high engine rotational speed (>3800 revolutions per minute (rpm)). Strong mixing and cooling caused rapid nucleation immediately behind the tailpipe, so that the highest particle number concentrations were recorded at a distance, x=0.45 m behind the tailpipe. The simulated growth of H 2SO 4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clements, Ethan; Ross, Preston; Rapp, Anthony; Cai, Hong; Reigle, Alex; Schlonsky, Eli; Lee, Hoseong; Clemens, James; Bali, Samir
2016-05-01
We experimentally investigate optical lattices using three different methods: pump-probe spectroscopy of vibrational energy levels, photon correlation of light scattered by cold atoms, and fluorescence imaging. Photon correlations of the scattered light can be used to measure lattice dwell times and crossover times between lattice sites. From this information we can derive the diffusion constant which can then be compared to direct measurement via fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, by Fourier transforming the time delayed photon correlations we can obtain the intensity spectrum which can be compared directly to pump-probe spectroscopy of the vibrational energy levels. We plan to carefully study situations in which the atomic transport properties deviate from Boltzman Gibbs statistics.
Riek, A; Klinkert, A; Gerken, M; Hummel, J; Moors, E; Südekum, K-H
2013-03-01
Despite the fact that llamas have become increasingly popular as companion and farm animals in both Europe and North America, scientific knowledge on their nutrient requirements is scarce. Compared with other livestock species, relatively little is known especially about the nutrient and energy requirements for lactating llamas. Therefore, we aimed to measure milk output in llama dams using an isotope dilution technique and relate it to energy intakes at different stages of lactation. We also validated the dilution technique by measuring total water turnover (TWT) directly and comparing it with values estimated by the isotope dilution technique. Our study involved 5 lactating llama dams and their suckling young. Milk output and TWT were measured at 4 stages of lactation (wk 3, 10, 18, and 26 postpartum). The method involved the application of the stable hydrogen isotope deuterium ((2)H) to the lactating dam. Drinking water intake and TWT decreased significantly with lactation stage, whether estimated by the isotope dilution technique or calculated from drinking water and water ingested from feeds. In contrast, lactation stage had no effect on dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, or the milk water fraction (i.e., the ratio between milk water excreted and TWT). The ratios between TWT measured and TWT estimated (by isotope dilution) did not differ with lactation stage and were close to 100% in all measurement weeks, indicating that the D(2)O dilution technique estimated TWT with high accuracy and only small variations. Calculating the required ME intakes for lactation from milk output data and gross energy content of milk revealed that, with increasing lactation stage, ME requirements per day for lactation decreased but remained constant per kilogram of milk output. Total measured ME intakes at different stages of lactation were similar to calculated ME intakes from published recommendation models for llamas. PMID:23332845
Squashed entanglement in infinite dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirokov, M. E.
2016-03-01
We analyse two possible definitions of the squashed entanglement in an infinite-dimensional bipartite system: direct translation of the finite-dimensional definition and its universal extension. It is shown that the both definitions produce the same lower semicontinuous entanglement measure possessing all basis properties of the squashed entanglement on the set of states having at least one finite marginal entropy. It is also shown that the second definition gives an adequate lower semicontinuous extension of this measure to all states of the infinite-dimensional bipartite system. A general condition relating continuity of the squashed entanglement to continuity of the quantum mutual information is proved and its corollaries are considered. Continuity bound for the squashed entanglement under the energy constraint on one subsystem is obtained by using the tight continuity bound for quantum conditional mutual information (proved in the Appendix by using Winter's technique). It is shown that the same continuity bound is valid for the entanglement of formation. As a result the asymptotic continuity of the both entanglement measures under the energy constraint on one subsystem is proved.
Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fishel, Laurence A.
2010-01-01
Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…
Measured current drainage through holes in various dielectrics up to 2 kilovolts in a dilute plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grier, N. T.; Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.
1972-01-01
The electron current drained from a plasma through approximately 0.05 cm diameter holes in eight possible space applicable dielectrics placed on a probe biased at voltages up to 2000 V dc have been determined both theoretically and experimentally. The dielectrics tested were Parylene C and N, Teflon FEP type C, Teflon TFE, Nomex, quartz 7940 Corning Glass, Mylar A, and Kapton H polymide film. A Laplace field was used to predict an upper limit for the drainage current. The measured current was less than the computed current for quartz, Teflon FEP, and the 0.0123 cm thick sample of Parylene N for all voltages tested. The drainage current through the other dielectrics became equal to or greater than the computed current at a voltage below 2000 V. The magnitudes of the currents were between 0.1 and 10 microamperes for most of the dielectrics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.
1977-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.
Bogen, Kenneth T
2013-07-01
Average rates of total dermal uptake (Kup ) from short-term (e.g., bathing) contact with dilute aqueous organic chemicals (DAOCs) are typically estimated from steady-state in vitro diffusion-cell measures of chemical permeability (Kp ) through skin into receptor solution. Widely used ("PCR-vitro") methods estimate Kup by applying diffusion theory to increase Kp predictions made by a physico-chemical regression (PCR) model that was fit to a large set of Kp measures. Here, Kup predictions for 18 DAOCs made by three PCR-vitro models (EPA, NIOSH, and MH) were compared to previous in vivo measures obtained by methods unlikely to underestimate Kup . A new PCR model fit to all 18 measures is accurate to within approximately threefold (r = 0.91, p < 10(-5) ), but the PCR-vitro predictions (r > 0.63) all tend to underestimate the Kup measures by mean factors (UF, and p value for testing UF = 1) of 10 (EPA, p < 10(-6) ), 11 (NIOSH, p < 10(-8) ), and 6.2 (MH, p = 0.018). For all three PCR-vitro models, log(UF) correlates negatively with molecular weight (r(2) = 0.31 to 0.84, p = 0.017 to < 10(-6) ) but not with log(vapor pressure) as an additional predictor (p > 0.05), so vapor pressure appears not to explain the significant in vivo/PCR-vitro discrepancy. Until this discrepancy is explained, careful in vivo measures of Kup should be obtained for more chemicals, the expanded in vivo database should be compared to in vitro-based predictions, and in vivo data should be considered in assessing aqueous dermal exposure and its uncertainty. PMID:23051616
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, S.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.; Peters, P.; Kaukler, W. F.
1998-10-01
The solid/liquid (s/l) interfacial Seebeck technique was used to measure interfacial undercooling in a Pb-1 wt% Sn alloy. For plane front solidification an undercooling in the range of 0.54-0.57°C was recorded. However, for growth velocities between 6 and 15 μm/s the undercooling increased with increase in velocity. This is in contradiction to the theoretical predictions based on growth at the extremum condition. A modified analytical expression was developed based on the marginal stability criterion to predict undercooling for growth velocities immediately over the limit of morphological stability. Between 6 and 15 μm/s the trend predicted by this modified expression is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. This model is more consistent with the analysis of Venugopal and Kirkaldy which states that the extremum condition criterion is not applicable in the marginal stability regime. At higher growth velocities between 20 and 50 μm/s where stable cellular growth is expected the undercooling decreased with increase in velocity. The predictions of Burden and Hunt based on extremum criterion agree reasonably well with the experimental results in this velocity range. Finally, the importance of nonequilibrium phase diagram parameters such as partition coefficient and liquidus slope were also evaluated using the experimental undercooling results obtained in this investigation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.
1979-01-01
Experimental measurements were made of upwelled spectral signatures of various concentrations of industrial waste products mixed with water in a large water tank. Radiance and reflectance spectra for a biosolid waste product (sludge) mixed with conditioned tap water and natural river water are reported. Results of these experiments indicate that reflectance increases with increasing concentration of the sludge at practically all wavelengths for concentration of total suspended solids up to 117 ppm in conditioned tap water and 171 ppm in natural river water. Significant variations in the spectra were observed and may be useful in defining spectral characteristics for this waste product. No significant spectral differences were apparent in the reflectance spectra of the two experiments, especially for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance values, however, were generally greater in natural river water for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance may be considered to increase linearly with concentration of total suspended solids from 5 to 171 ppm at all wavelengths without introducing errors larger than 10 percent.
Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.
2015-03-17
Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determinemore » 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.« less
J.J. Horkley; K.P E.M. Gantz; J.E. Davis; R.R. Lewis; J.P. Crow; C.A. Poole; T.S. Grimes; J.J. Giglio
2015-03-01
t Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure ‘‘spike’’ solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for ‘‘age’’ determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution,
Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.
2015-03-17
Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eaton, John; Hwang, Wontae; Cabral, Patrick
2002-01-01
the addition of gravity as a variable parameter may help us to better understand the physics of turbulence attenuation. The experiments are conducted in a turbulence chamber capable of producing stationary or decaying isotropic turbulence with nearly zero mean flow and Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers up to nearly 500. The chamber is a 410 mm cubic box with the corners cut off to make it approximately spherical. Synthetic jet turbulence generators are mounted in each of the eight corners of the box. Each generator consists of a loudspeaker forcing a plenum and producing a pulsed jet through a 20 mm diameter orifice. These synthetic jets are directed into ejector tubes pointing towards the chamber center. The ejector tubes increase the jet mass flow and decrease the velocity. The jets then pass through a turbulence grid. Each of the eight loudspeakers is forced with a random phase and frequency. The resulting turbulence is highly Isotropic and matches typical behavior of grid turbulence. Measurements of both phases are acquired using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The gas is seeded with approximately 1 micron diameter seeding particles while the solid phase is typically 150 micron diameter spherical glass particles. A double-pulsed YAG laser and a Kodak ES-1.0 10-bit PIV camera provide the PIV images. Custom software is used to separate the images into individual images containing either gas-phase tracers or large particles. Modern high-resolution PIV algorithms are then used to calculate the velocity field. A large set of image pairs are acquired for each case, then the results are averaged both spatially and over the ensemble of acquired images. The entire apparatus is mounted in two racks which are carried aboard NASA's KC-135 Flying Microgravity Laboratory. The rack containing the turbulence chamber, the laser head, and the camera floats freely in the airplane cabin (constrained by competent NASA personnel) to minimize g-jitter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, K.; Bender, M. L.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Cassar, N.
2013-12-01
Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is one of the most important species in the ocean carbon system. An autonomous system using isotope dilution as its core method has been developed to obtain high-frequency measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in the surface ocean. This system accurately mixes a seawater sample and a 13C-labeled sodium bicarbonate solution (spike). The mixed solution is then acidified and sent through a gas permeable membrane contactor. CO2 derived from DIC in the mixture is extracted by a CO2-free gas stream, and is sent to a cavity ring-down spectrometer to analyze its 13C/12C ratio. [DIC] of the seawater can then be derived from the measured 13C/12C, the known mixing ratio and the [DI13C] of the spike. The method has been tested under a wide [DIC] range (1800-2800 μmol/kg) in the laboratory. It has also been deployed on a cruise that surveyed ocean waters to the south of Florida. At a sampling resolution of 4 minutes (15 samples per hour), the relative standard deviation of DIC determined from the laboratory tests and the field deployment is ×0.07% and ×0.09%, respectively. The accuracy of the method is better than 0.1% except where [DIC] varies faster than 5 μmol/kg per minute. Based on the laboratory and field evaluations, we conclude that this method can provide accurate underway [DIC] measurements at high resolution in most oceanic regions. Schematic illustration of the work flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merlin, Frederic; Quirico, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Gourgeot, F.
2012-10-01
Observations performed in the mid infrared (MIR) show evidence of large amount of ices in the Galaxy. Water ice is the most abundant but other chemical compounds, such as carbon monoxide and methanol, can be present and be enriched in molecular clouds or protostellar disks (Garrod & Pauly 2011). Methanol forms mainly on ice-covered dust grain surfaces primarily through hydrogenation of CO or from an electron-irradiated H2O-CH4 icy mixture (see Moore & Hudson 1998 or Dartois et al. 1999). These compounds appear to be pristine in the minor bodies of the solar system (Merlin et al. 2012) and were found in comets (Bockelée-Morvan et al. 2004) and on the surface of Trans-Neptunian Objects and Centaurs (Barucci et al. 2012 for instance for methanol). Laboratory measurements are needed to constrain information on the physical and chemical properties of these objects and give constraint on the formation and evolution of the solar system. In the aim to give constraints on the physical properties of H2O and CH3OH from their spectral behavior, we performed laboratory measurements in the observable wavelength ranges accessible from the space and ground based observatories (in the MIR and in the near IR, respectively). We present new laboratory measurements depending on the ratio of each component and the ambient temperature (from 18 to 145K) for the amorphous and the crystalline phases. We focus our analyses on the effects of the dilution level of CH3OH in H2O and the phase changes, especially on the absorption bands located at 2,3 and 3,45 microns (associated to CH asymmetric stretch) and the possible formation of the mono hydrate CH3OH:H2O based on the 3,12 micron band (associated to the OH stretch).
Coertjens, Patrícia Chaves; Knorst, Marli Maria; Dumke, Anelise; Pasqualoto, Adriane Schmidt; Riboldi, João; Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha Menna
2013-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To compare TLC and RV values obtained by the single-breath helium dilution (SBHD) method with those obtained by whole-body plethysmography (WBP) in patients with normal lung function, patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD), and patients with restrictive lung disease (RLD), varying in severity, and to devise equations to estimate the SBHD results. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 169 individuals, of whom 93 and 49 presented with OLD and RLD, respectively, the remaining 27 having normal lung function. All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume measurement by both methods. RESULTS: TLC and RV were higher by WBP than by SBHD. The discrepancy between the methods was more pronounced in the OLD group, correlating with the severity of airflow obstruction. In the OLD group, the correlation coefficient of the comparison between the two methods was 0.57 and 0.56 for TLC and RV, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). We used regression equations, adjusted for the groups studied, in order to predict the WBP values of TLC and RV, using the corresponding SBHD values. It was possible to create regression equations to predict differences in TLC and RV between the two methods only for the OLD group. The TLC and RV equations were, respectively, ∆TLCWBP-SBHD in L = 5.264 − 0.060 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.33; adjusted r2 = 0.32) and ∆RVWBP-SBHD in L = 4.862 − 0.055 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.31; adjusted r2 = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: The correction of TLC and RV results obtained by SBHD can improve the accuracy of this method for assessing lung volumes in patients with OLD. However, additional studies are needed in order to validate these equations. PMID:24473761
Sommer, Yuliya L; Verdon, Carl P; Fresquez, Mark R; Ward, Cynthia D; Wood, Elliott B; Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L
2014-08-01
The measurement of different mercury compounds in human blood can provide valuable information about the type of mercury exposure. To this end, our laboratory developed a biomonitoring method for the quantification of inorganic (iHg), methyl (MeHg), and ethyl (EtHg) mercury in whole blood using a triple-spike isotope dilution (TSID) quantification method employing capillary gas chromatography (GC) and inductively coupled dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). We used a robotic CombiPAL(®) sample handling station featuring twin fiber-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) injector heads. The use of two SPME fibers significantly reduces sample analysis cycle times making this method very suitable for high sample throughput, which is a requirement for large public health biomonitoring studies. Our sample preparation procedure involved solubilization of blood samples with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) followed by the derivatization with sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate (NaBPr(4)) to promote volatility of mercury species. We thoroughly investigated mercury species stability in the blood matrix during the course of sample treatment and analysis. The method accuracy for quantifying iHg, MeHg, and EtHg was validated using NIST standard reference materials (SRM 955c level 3) and the Centre de Toxicologie du Québec (CTQ) proficiency testing (PT) samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for iHg, MeHg, and EtHg in human blood was determined to be 0.27, 0.12, and 0.16 μg/L, respectively. PMID:24948088
Sommer, Yuliya L.; Verdon, Carl P.; Fresquez, Mark R.; Ward, Cynthia D.; Wood, Elliott B.; Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.
2015-01-01
The measurement of different mercury compounds in human blood can provide valuable information about the type of mercury exposure. To this end, our laboratory developed a biomonitoring method for the quantification of inorganic (iHg), methyl (MeHg) and ethyl (EtHg) mercury in whole blood using a triple spike isotope dilution (TSID) quantification method employing capillary gas chromatography (GC) and inductively coupled dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). We used a robotic CombiPAL® sample handling station featuring twin fiber-based solid phase microextraction (SPME) injector heads. The use of two SPME fibers significantly reduces sample analysis cycle times making this method very suitable for high sample throughput, which is a requirement for large public health biomonitoring studies. Our sample preparation procedure involved solubilization of blood samples with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) followed by the derivatization with sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate (NaBPr4) to promote volatility of mercury species. We thoroughly investigated mercury species stability in the blood matrix during the course of sample treatment and analysis. The method accuracy for quantifying iHg, MeHg and EtHg was validated using NIST standard reference materials (SRM 955c Level 3) and the Centre de Toxicologie du Québec (CTQ) proficiency testing (PT) samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for iHg, MeHg and EtHg in human blood was determined to be 0.27, 0.12, and 0.16 μg/L, respectively. PMID:24948088
Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H
2003-10-01
An improved version of the constant volume sampling (CVS) methodology that overcomes a number of obstacles that exist with the current CVS dilution tunnel system used in most diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions test facilities is presented. The key feature of the new sampling system is the introduction of dilution air immediately at the vehicle tailpipe. In the present implementation, this is done concentrically through a cylindrical air filter. Elimination of the transfer hose conventionally used to connect the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel significantly reduces the hydrocarbon and particulate matter (PM) storage release artifacts that can lead to wildly incorrect particle number counts and to erroneous filter-collected PM mass. It provides accurate representations of particle size distributions for diesel vehicles by avoiding the particle coagulation that occurs in the transfer hose. Furthermore, it removes the variable delay time that otherwise exists between the time that emissions exit the tailpipe and when they are detected in the dilution tunnel. The performance of the improved CVS system is examined with respect to diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. PMID:14604329
It has been fifty years since Kirkham and Bartholmew (1954) presented the conceptual framework and derived the mathematical equations that formed the basis of the now commonly employed method of 15N isotope dilution. Although many advances in methodology and analysis have been ma...
Students' Conception of Infinite Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinez-Planell, Rafael; Gonzalez, Ana Carmen; DiCristina, Gladys; Acevedo, Vanessa
2012-01-01
This is a report of a study of students' understanding of infinite series. It has a three-fold purpose: to show that students may construct two essentially different notions of infinite series, to show that one of the constructions is particularly difficult for students, and to examine the way in which these two different constructions may be…
Infinitely Large New Dimensions
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia; Kaloper, Nemanja
1999-07-29
We construct intersecting brane configurations in Anti-de-Sitter space localizing gravity to the intersection region, with any number n of extra dimensions. This allows us to construct two kinds of theories with infinitely large new dimensions, TeV scale quantum gravity and sub-millimeter deviations from Newton's Law. The effective 4D Planck scale M{sub Pl} is determined in terms of the fundamental Planck scale M{sub *} and the AdS radius of curvature L via the familiar relation M{sub Pl}{sup 2} {approx} M{sub *}{sup 2+n} L{sup n}; L acts as an effective radius of compactification for gravity on the intersection. Taking M{sub *} {approx} TeV and L {approx} sub-mm reproduces the phenomenology of theories with large extra dimensions. Alternately, taking M{sub *} {approx} L{sup -1} {approx} M{sub Pl}, and placing our 3-brane a distance {approx} 100M{sub Pl}{sup -1} away from the intersection gives us a theory with an exponential determination of the Weak/Planck hierarchy.
Science Notes: Dilution of a Weak Acid
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Talbot, Christopher; Wai, Chooi Khee
2014-01-01
This "Science note" arose out of practical work involving the dilution of ethanoic acid, the measurement of the pH of the diluted solutions and calculation of the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], for each diluted solution. The students expected the calculated values of K[subscript a] to be constant but they found that the…
Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.
2006-08-01
In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.
Eremenko, Alexsandr A; Safarov, Perviz N
2010-01-01
Assessment of cardiac output (CO) is crucial in the management of the critically ill, especially in post cardiac surgery intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In this study, we validated CO measured by the novel ultrasound dilution (COUD) with those measured by pulmonary artery (PA) thermodilution (COTD) in 26 adult post cardiac surgery patients. For COUD, blood was circulated through an extracorporeal arteriovenous (AV) loop from the radial artery catheter to the introducer of PA catheter for 5-8 minutes. Three to four injections of 25 ml body temperature isotonic saline were performed into the venous limb of the AV loop. For COTD, five injections of 10 ml ice cold saline were performed. A total of 77 COUD and COTD measurement sets were compared. Cardiac output measured by thermodilution ranged from 3.28 to 9.4 L/min, whereas COUD ranged from 2.85 to 10.1 L/min. The correlation between the methods was found to be r = 0.91, COUD = 0.93(COTD) + 0.42 L/min. Bias and precision (mean difference ± 2SDs) was -0.004 ± 1.34 L/min between the two methods. The percentage error (2SD/mean) was 22.2%, which is below the clinically acceptable limit (<30%). Cardiac output measured by ultrasound dilution and thermodilution methods agreed well in post cardiac surgery ICU patients and hence can be interchangeably used. PMID:21245798
Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.
1983-01-01
Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jingyu; Gao, Wenbin; Ding, Hongbing; Wu, Weiping
2015-11-01
The gas-solid two-phase flow has been widely applied in the power, chemical and metallurgical industries. It is of great significance in the research of gas-solid two-phase flow to measure particle velocity at different locations in the pipeline. Thus, an electrostatic sensor array comprising eight arc-shaped electrodes was designed. The relationship between the cross-correlation (CC) velocity and the distribution of particle velocity, charge density and electrode spatial sensitivity was analysed. Then the CC sensitivity and its calculation method were proposed. According to the distribution of CC sensitivity, it was found that, between different electrode pairs, it had different focus areas. The CC focus method was proposed for particle velocity measurement at different locations and validated by a belt-style electrostatic induction experiment facility. Finally, the particle velocities at different locations with different flow conditions were measured to research the particle velocity distribution in a dilute horizontal pneumatic conveying pipeline.
Krata, Agnieszka; Vassileva, Emilia; Bulska, Ewa
2016-11-01
The analytical procedures for reference measurements of the total Hg and methyl mercury (MeHg) mass fractions at various concentration levels in marine biota samples, candidates for certified reference materials (oyster and clam Gafrarium tumidum), were evaluated. Two modes of application of isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method (ID ICP-MS), namely direct isotope dilution and species-specific isotope dilution analysis with the use of two different quantification mass spectrometry techniques were compared. The entire ID ICP-MS measurement procedure was described by mathematical modelling and the combined uncertainty of measurement results was estimated. All factors influencing the final results as well as isotopic equilibrium were systematically investigated. This included the procedural blank, the moisture content in the biota samples and all factors affecting the blend ratio measurements (instrumental background, spectral interferences, dead time and mass discrimination effects as well as the repeatability of measured isotopic ratios). Modelling of the entire measurement procedures and the use of appropriate certified reference materials enable to assure the traceability of obtained values to the International System of Units (SI): the mole or the kilogram. The total mass fraction of mercury in oyster and clam biota samples, after correction for moisture contents, was found to be: 21.1 (1.1) 10(-9) kg kg(-1) (U =5.1% relative, k=2) and 390.0 (9.4) 10(-9) kg kg(-1) (U=2.4% relative, k=2), respectively. For the determination of mercury being present as methyl mercury, the non-chromatographic separation on anion-exchange resin AG1-X8 of the blended samples was applied. The content of MeHg (as Hg) in oyster sample was found: 4.81 (24) 10(-9)kgkg(-1) (U=5.0%, k=2) and 4.84 (21) 10(-9)kgkg(-1) (U=4.3%, k=2) with the use of quadrupole (ICP QMS) or sector field (ICP SFMS) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers, respectively. In the
Decoherence in infinite quantum systems
Blanchard, Philippe; Hellmich, Mario
2012-09-01
We review and discuss a notion of decoherence formulated in the algebraic framework of quantum physics. Besides presenting some sufficient conditions for the appearance of decoherence in the case of Markovian time evolutions we provide an overview over possible decoherence scenarios. The framework for decoherence we establish is sufficiently general to accommodate quantum systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom.
Word learning under infinite uncertainty.
Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Andrew D M; Smith, Kenny
2016-06-01
Language learners must learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite those words occurring in complex environments in which infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as a word's true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which word learning is possible. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is in fact possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints which allow learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could themselves be weak. This approach lifts the burden of explanation from 'smart' word learning constraints in learners, and suggests a programme of research into weak, unreliable, probabilistic constraints on the inference of word meaning in real word learners. PMID:26927884
Infinite dimensional quantum information geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grasselli, Matheus R.
2001-02-01
We present the construction of an infinite dimensional Banach manifold of quantum mechanical states on a Hilbert space H using different types of small perturbations of a given Hamiltonian H0. We provide the manifold with a flat connection, called the exponential connection, and comment on the possibility of introducing the dual mixture connection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kamin, Lawrence
1996-01-01
Presents problems appropriate for high school and college students that highlight dilution methods. Promotes an understanding of dilution methods in order to prevent the unnecessary waste of chemicals and glassware in biology laboratories. (JRH)
A unified approach to infinite-dimensional integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albeverio, S.; Mazzucchi, S.
2016-04-01
An approach to infinite-dimensional integration which unifies the case of oscillatory integrals and the case of probabilistic type integrals is presented. It provides a truly infinite-dimensional construction of integrals as linear functionals, as much as possible independent of the underlying topological and measure theoretical structure. Various applications are given, including, next to Feynman path integrals, Schrödinger and diffusion equations, as well as higher order hyperbolic and parabolic equations.
Tait, C.D.; Ekberg, S.A.; Palmer, P.D.; Morris, D.E.
1995-05-01
The stability fields for dilute Pu-carbonate species versus pH (8.4 to 12.0) and total carbonate concentrations (3 mM to 1.0 M) have been mapped-out using photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (PAS). At least four different plutonium species, characterized by absorption peaks at 486, 492, 500, and 513 rim, have been found. A redox change to a Pu(VI) complex can not account for the speciation change associated with the first two spectra (486 and 492 nm peaks). Moreover, the data are consistent with what is predicted from a previous YMP milestone. This previous study was performed under very different conditions of plutonium concentration and carbonate/pH changes, and extension of these conditions to much lower Pu concentrations and to more neutral pHs was made possible with PAS spectroscopy. These new results reinforce the previous results by extending the range of direct observation and by eliminating other possibilities such as dimerization/polymerization reactions. As bicarbonate concentration is increased from .01 M to 1.0 M at pH=8.4 to 8.9, predominately [Pu(OH){sub x+1}(CO{sub 3}){sub y}]{sup 4-(x+2y)} (492 nm peak) is converted to [Pu(OH){sub x}(CO{sub 3}){sub y+l}]{sup 4-(x+2y+2)} (486 nm peak). The starting stoichiometry (x and y values) remain undetermined, but the effect of ionic strength and temperature indicate that the 486 nm species is highly charged, and therefore x+2y{ge}3. The temperature effect on the equilibrium between these two species was also investigated, with the species giving rise to the 486 nm peak reversibly losing importance at elevated (50 and 75{degrees}C temperatures).
Serial Dilution Simulation Lab
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna
2010-01-01
Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.
An Infinite Restricted Boltzmann Machine.
Côté, Marc-Alexandre; Larochelle, Hugo
2016-07-01
We present a mathematical construction for the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) that does not require specifying the number of hidden units. In fact, the hidden layer size is adaptive and can grow during training. This is obtained by first extending the RBM to be sensitive to the ordering of its hidden units. Then, with a carefully chosen definition of the energy function, we show that the limit of infinitely many hidden units is well defined. As with RBM, approximate maximum likelihood training can be performed, resulting in an algorithm that naturally and adaptively adds trained hidden units during learning. We empirically study the behavior of this infinite RBM, showing that its performance is competitive to that of the RBM, while not requiring the tuning of a hidden layer size. PMID:27171012
Logic of infinite quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mundici, Daniele
1993-10-01
Limits of sequences of finite-dimensional (AF) C *-algebras, such as the CAR algebra for the ideal Fermi gas, are a standard mathematical tool to describe quantum statistical systems arising as thermodynamic limits of finite spin systems. Only in the infinite-volume limit one can, for instance, describe phase transitions as singularities in the thermodynamic potentials, and handle the proliferation of physically inequivalent Hilbert space representations of a system with infinitely many degrees of freedom. As is well known, commutative AF C *-algebras correspond to countable Boolean algebras, i.e., algebras of propositions in the classical two-valued calculus. We investigate the noncommutative logic properties of general AF C *-algebras, and their corresponding systems. We stress the interplay between Gödel incompleteness and quotient structures in the light of the “nature does not have ideals” program, stating that there are no quotient structures in physics. We interpret AF C *-algebras as algebras of the infinite-valued calculus of Lukasiewicz, i.e., algebras of propositions in Ulam's “ twenty questions” game with lies.
Grolier, Jean-Pierre E; del Río, Jose Manuel
2009-12-01
We have performed a detailed study of the thermodynamics of the titration process in an isothermal titration calorimeter with full cells. We show that the relationship between the enthalpy and the heat measured is better described in terms of the equation Delta H = W(inj) + Q (where W(inj) is the work necessary to carry out the titration) than in terms of DeltaH = Q. Moreover, we show that the heat of interaction between two components is related to the partial enthalpy of interaction at infinite dilution of the titrant component, as well as to its partial volume of interaction at infinite dilution. PMID:20054472
Grolier, Jean-Pierre E.; del Río, Jose Manuel
2009-01-01
We have performed a detailed study of the thermodynamics of the titration process in an isothermal titration calorimeter with full cells. We show that the relationship between the enthalpy and the heat measured is better described in terms of the equation Δ H = Winj + Q (where Winj is the work necessary to carry out the titration) than in terms of ΔH = Q. Moreover, we show that the heat of interaction between two components is related to the partial enthalpy of interaction at infinite dilution of the titrant component, as well as to its partial volume of interaction at infinite dilution. PMID:20054472
Teleportation schemes in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces
Fichtner, Karl-Heinz; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori
2005-10-01
The success of quantum mechanics is due to the discovery that nature is described in infinite dimension Hilbert spaces, so that it is desirable to demonstrate the quantum teleportation process in a certain infinite dimensional Hilbert space. We describe the teleportation process in an infinite dimensional Hilbert space by giving simple examples.
Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.
Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E
2014-01-01
Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2). PMID:24231765
Preston, Tom
2014-01-01
This paper discusses some of the recent improvements in instrumentation used for stable isotope tracer measurements in the context of measuring retinol stores, in vivo. Tracer costs, together with concerns that larger tracer doses may perturb the parameter under study, demand that ever more sensitive mass spectrometric techniques are developed. GCMS is the most widely used technique. It has high sensitivity in terms of sample amount and uses high resolution GC, yet its ability to detect low isotope ratios is limited by background noise. LCMSMS may become more accessible for tracer studies. Its ability to measure low level stable isotope tracers may prove superior to GCMS, but it is isotope ratio MS (IRMS) that has been designed specifically for low level stable isotope analysis through accurate analysis of tracer:tracee ratios (the tracee being the unlabelled species). Compound-specific isotope analysis, where GC is interfaced to IRMS, is gaining popularity. Here, individual 13C-labelled compounds are separated by GC, combusted to CO2 and transferred on-line for ratiometric analysis by IRMS at the ppm level. However, commercially-available 13C-labelled retinol tracers are 2 - 4 times more expensive than deuterated tracers. For 2H-labelled compounds, GC-pyrolysis-IRMS has now become more generally available as an operating mode on the same IRMS instrument. Here, individual compounds are separated by GC and pyrolysed to H2 at high temperature for analysis by IRMS. It is predicted that GC-pyrolysis-IRMS will facilitate low level tracer procedures to measure body retinol stores, as has been accomplished in the case of fatty acids and amino acids. Sample size requirements for GC-P-IRMS may exceed those of GCMS, but this paper discusses sample preparation procedures and predicts improvements, particularly in the efficiency of sample introduction. PMID:25537104
Jaruga, Pawel; Xiao, Yan; Nelson, Bryant C.; Dizdaroglu, Miral
2009-09-04
Oxidatively induced DNA lesions (5'R)- and (5'S)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosines (R-cdA and S-cdA) are detectable and accumulate in vivo due to disease states and defects in DNA repair. They block transcription and inhibit gene expression, and may play a role in disease processes. Accurate measurement of these lesions in DNA in vivo is necessary to understand their biological effects. We report on a methodology using liquid chromatography/isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry to measure R-cdA and S-cdA in DNA. This methodology permitted the detection of these compounds at a level of 0.1 fmol on-column. Levels of R-cdA and S-cdA in mouse liver DNA amounted to 0.133 {+-} 0.024 and 0.498 {+-} 0.065 molecules/10{sup 7} DNA 2'-deoxynucleosides, respectively. The successful measurement of R-cdA and S-cdA in DNA in vivo suggests that this methodology will be used for understanding of their repair and biological consequences, and that these compounds may be used as putative biomarkers for disease states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Jaeho; Choi, Wonsuk; Choi, Jaewon; Jang, Seong; Shirahama, Keiya; Kim, Eunseong
2013-03-01
In 2004, Kim and Chan observed the non-classical rotational inertia (NCRI) of solid helium-4 by using a torsional oscillator (TO). Below 200mK, the resonance period of solid helium dropped, which was originally interpreted as the mass decoupling of the fraction of solid helium. Recently, anomalous increase in the shear modulus of solid helium was found and showed striking similarity in temperature, frequency, 3He concentration, and drive dependence to those of the NCRI. To understand the connection between the NCRI and the shear modulus anomaly, we simultaneously measure the change in the resonance frequency and the stiffness of solid helium below 200mK. The torsion cell contains a pair of the concentric piezoelectric transducers (PZT) which defines an annular channel for the simultaneous measurements. We will report the interference between the motion of the TO at resonance and AC motion of the PZT in solid 4He with different 3He concentration. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Creative Research Initiatives.
Sparse Bayesian infinite factor models
Bhattacharya, A.; Dunson, D. B.
2011-01-01
We focus on sparse modelling of high-dimensional covariance matrices using Bayesian latent factor models. We propose a multiplicative gamma process shrinkage prior on the factor loadings which allows introduction of infinitely many factors, with the loadings increasingly shrunk towards zero as the column index increases. We use our prior on a parameter-expanded loading matrix to avoid the order dependence typical in factor analysis models and develop an efficient Gibbs sampler that scales well as data dimensionality increases. The gain in efficiency is achieved by the joint conjugacy property of the proposed prior, which allows block updating of the loadings matrix. We propose an adaptive Gibbs sampler for automatically truncating the infinite loading matrix through selection of the number of important factors. Theoretical results are provided on the support of the prior and truncation approximation bounds. A fast algorithm is proposed to produce approximate Bayes estimates. Latent factor regression methods are developed for prediction and variable selection in applications with high-dimensional correlated predictors. Operating characteristics are assessed through simulation studies, and the approach is applied to predict survival times from gene expression data. PMID:23049129
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sen, S.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Peters, P.; Curreri, P.; Kaukler, W. F.
1998-01-01
The solid/liquid (s/1) interfacial Seebeck technique was used to measure interfacial undercooling in a Pb-1 wt.% Sn alloy. For plane front solidification an undercooling in the range of 0.54-0.57C was recorded. However, for growth velocities between 6 to 15 micron/s the undercooling, increased with increase in velocity. 'Tbis is in contradiction to the theoretical predictions based on growth at the extremum condition. A modified analytical expression was developed based on the maro,,inal stability criterion to predict undercooling for growth velocities immediately over the limit of morphological stability. Between 6 to 15 microns/s the trend predicted by this modified expression is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. This model is more consistent with the analysis of Venugopal and Kirkaldy which states that the extremum condition criterion is not applicable in the marginal stability regime. At higher growth velocities between 20 and 50 microns/s where stable cellular growth is expected the undercooling, decreased with increase in velocity. The predictions of Burden and Hunt based on extremum criterion agree reasonably well with the experimental results in this velocity range. Finally, the importance of non-equilibrium phase diagram parameters such as partition coefficient and liquidus slope were also evaluated using the experimental undercooling results obtained in this investigation.
Clarke, Don B; Lloyd, Antony S; Botting, Nigel P; Oldfield, Mark F; Needs, Paul W; Wiseman, Helen
2002-10-01
A method has been developed for the analysis of phytoestrogens and their conjugates in human urine using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Stable isotopically labeled [13C(3)]daidzein and [13C(3)]genistein were synthesized and used as internal standards for isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Free aglycons and intact glucuronide, sulfate, diglucuronide, disulfate, and mixed sulfoglucuronide conjugates of isoflavones and lignans were observed in naturally incurred urine samples. Sample pretreatment was not necessary, other than addition of internal standards and pH adjustment. Urine was injected directly onto the analytical column. The limits of detection were generally <50ng/ml, precision was generally <10% CV for conjugates. Total hydrolyzed daidzein and genistein were measured against quality assurance urine sample and were accurate to within 12%. The accuracy of conjugate measurement can not be ascertained, as no reference samples are available. The mean sum of daidzein and its conjugates was within 20% of the hydrolyzed value. Concentrations of the free aglycons of up to 22% of genistein and 18% of daidzein were observed. The average pattern was ca. 54% 7-glucuronide, 25% 4(')-glucuronide, 13% monosulfates, 7% free daidzein, 0.9% sulfoglucuronides, 0.4% diglucuronide, and <0.1% disulfate. Selective enzymatic deconjugation with glucuronidase and mixed glucuronidase/sulfatase were used to validate the accuracy of the quantitation of the intact daidzein conjugates. There were no apparent sex differences, or conditioning effects on the conjugation profile of isoflavones after chronic dosing. PMID:12381375
Coskun, Erdem; Jaruga, Pawel; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Scanlan, Leona D; Tona, Alessandro; Lowenthal, Mark S; Helleday, Thomas; Dizdaroglu, Miral
2015-09-01
MTH1 protein sanitizes the nucleotide pool so that oxidized 2'-deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) cannot be used in DNA replication. Cancer cells require MTH1 to avoid incorporation of oxidized dNTPs into DNA that results in mutations and cell death. Inhibition of MTH1 eradicates cancer, validating MTH1 as an anticancer target. By overexpressing MTH1, cancer cells may mediate cancer growth and resist therapy. To date, there is unreliable evidence suggesting that MTH1 is increased in cancer cells, and available methods to measure MTH1 levels are indirect and semi-quantitative. Accurate measurement of MTH1 in disease-free tissues and malignant tumors of patients may be essential for determining if the protein is truly upregulated in cancers, and for the development and use of MTH1 inhibitors in cancer therapy. Here, we present a novel approach involving liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry to positively identify and accurately quantify MTH1 in human tissues. We produced full length (15)N-labeled MTH1 and used it as an internal standard for the measurements. Following trypsin digestion, seven tryptic peptides of both MTH1 and (15)N-MTH1 were identified by their full scan and product ion spectra. These peptides provided a statistically significant protein score that would unequivocally identify MTH1. Next, we identified and quantified MTH1 in human disease-free breast tissues and malignant breast tumors, and in four human cultured cell lines, three of which were cancer cells. Extreme expression of MTH1 in malignant breast tumors was observed, suggesting that cancer cells are addicted to MTH1 for their survival. The approach described is expected to be applicable to the measurement of MTH1 levels in malignant tumors vs. surrounding disease-free tissues in cancer patients. This attribute may help develop novel treatment strategies and MTH1 inhibitors as potential drugs, and guide therapies. PMID:26202347
Entanglement entropy at infinite-randomness fixed points in higher dimensions.
Lin, Yu-Cheng; Iglói, Ferenc; Rieger, Heiko
2007-10-01
The entanglement entropy of the two-dimensional random transverse Ising model is studied with a numerical implementation of the strong-disorder renormalization group. The asymptotic behavior of the entropy per surface area diverges at, and only at, the quantum phase transition that is governed by an infinite-randomness fixed point. Here we identify a double-logarithmic multiplicative correction to the area law for the entanglement entropy. This contrasts with the pure area law valid at the infinite-randomness fixed point in the diluted transverse Ising model in higher dimensions. PMID:17930713
Cook, Gillian R.; Krithika, S; Edwards, Melissa; Kavanagh, Paula
2014-01-01
Genetic association studies require a quantitative and reliable method for odor threshold assessment in order to examine the contribution of genetic variants to complex olfactory phenotypes. Our main goal was to assess the feasibility of a portable Scentroid air dilution olfactometer for use in such studies. Using the Scentroid SM110C and the SK5 n-butanol Sensitivity Kit (IDES Canada Inc.), n-butanol odor thresholds were determined for 182 individuals of diverse ancestry (mean age: 20.4 ± 2.5 years; n = 128 female; n = 54 male). Threshold scores from repeat participants were used to calculate a test–retest reliability coefficient, which was statistically significant (r = 0.754, p < 0.001, n = 29), indicating that the Scentroid provides reliable estimates of odor thresholds. In addition, we performed a preliminary genetic analysis evaluating the potential association of n-butanol odor thresholds to six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) putatively involved in general olfactory sensitivity (GOS). The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed no significant association between the SNPs tested and threshold scores. However, our sample size was relatively small, and our study was only powered to identify genetic markers with strong effects on olfactory sensitivity. Overall, we find that the Scentroid provides reliable quantitative measures of odor detection threshold and is well suited for genetic studies of olfactory sensitivity. PMID:25392755
Pelletier, O.; Arratoon, C.
1987-08-01
This improved isotope-dilution gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method, in which (/sup 13/C)glucose is the internal standard, meets the requirements of a Definitive Method. In a first study with five reconstituted lyophilized sera, a nested analysis of variance of GC/MS values indicated considerable among-vial variation. The CV for 32 measurements per serum ranged from 0.5 to 0.9%. However, concentration and uncertainty values (mmol/L per gram of serum) assigned to one serum by the NBS Definitive Method (7.56 +/- 0.28) were practically identical to those obtained with the proposed method (7.57 +/- 0.20). In the second study, we used twice more (/sup 13/C)glucose diluent to assay four serum pools and two lyophilized sera. The CV ranged from 0.26 to 0.5% for the serum pools and from 0.28 to 0.59% for the lyophilized sera. In comparison, results by the hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase reference method agreed within acceptable limits with those by the Definitive Method but tended to be slightly higher (up to 3%) for lyophilized serum samples or slightly lower (up to 2.5%) for serum pools.
Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )
1990-08-01
This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.
Shen, Chuan-Chou; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Moran, S Bradley; Edmonds, Henrietta N; Hoff, John A; Thomas, Rebecca B
2003-03-01
A technique has been developed to quantify ultratrace 231Pa (50-2000 ag; 1 ag = 10(-18) g) concentrations in seawater using isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). The method is a modification of a process developed by Pickett et al. (Pickett, D. A.; Murrell, M. T.; Williams, R. W. Anal. Chem. 1994, 66, 1044-1049) and extends the technique to very low levels of protactinium. The procedural blank is 16 +/- 15 ag (2sigma), and the ionization efficiency (ions generated/atom loaded) approaches 0.5%. Measurement time is <1 h. The amount of 231Pa needed to produce 231Pa data with an uncertainty of +/-4-12% is 100-1000 ag (approximately 3 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(6) atoms). Replicate measurements made on known standards and seawater samples demonstrate that the analytical precision approximates that expected from counting statistics and that, based on detection limits of 38 and 49 ag, protactinium can be detected in a minimum sample size of surface seawater of approximately 2 L for suspended particulate matter and <0.1 L for filtered (<0.4 microm) seawater, respectively. The concentration of 231Pa (tens of attograms per liter) can be determined with an uncertainty of +/-5-10% (2sigma) for suspended particulate matter filtered from 5 to 10 L of seawater. For the dissolved fraction, 0.5-1 L of seawater yields 231Pa measurements with a precision of 1-10%. Sample size requirements are orders of magnitude less than traditional decay-counting techniques and significantly less than previously reported ICP-MS techniques. Our technique can also be applied to other environmental samples, including cave waters, rivers, and igneous rocks. PMID:12641225
Watanabe, A; Kusajima, K; Kawaharada, N; Komatsu, K; Sugimoto, S; Doi, H; Tanaka, A; Takeda, H; Mishina, H; Komatsu, S
1990-11-01
The Extra Vascular Lung Water (EVLW) was measured using the thermal sodium double indicator dilution technique in 21 patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer. This measurement is an important parameter in the control of the respiratory function. In the 16 cases without pulmonary complications, the preoperative EVLW was 5.3 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SEM) ml/kg and the immediate postoperative EVLW was 4.8 +/- 0.4 ml/kg. This change was significant (p less than 0.05), but within 24 hours the EVLW returned to almost the same levels as those recorded before surgery. In only 3 cases, the EVLW were elevated beyond 7.5 ml/kg, but these high EVLW levels did not continue for more than 12 hours. Of the 5 patients with pulmonary complications, only two experienced pulmonary edema. Their preoperative EVLW levels were normal, but the immediate postoperative EVLW levels were significantly elevated beyond 10 ml/kg. These elevated levels were observed before the PaO2, the portable chest roentgenograms and the other test results changed following surgery. The high EVLW levels beyond 7.5 ml/kg continued for 72 hours after surgery. We found no correlation between the EVLW and measureable hemodynamic parameters (Cardiac Index, Pulmonary Wedge Pressure, Colloid Osmotic Pressure-Pulmonary Wedge Pressure gradient) during the observation period. In the other cases with pulmonary complications (2 cases were pneumonia, one was atelectasis with pneumonia), the changes in the EVLW levels were the same as for the cases without pulmonary complications. These results indicate that the EVLW is the optimum parameter for the control of the respiratory function and early diagnosis of pulmonary edema after surgery for esophageal cancer. PMID:2280095
Macallan, Derek C; Abaye, Daniel A; Dottin, Simone; Onanga, Myriam; Kombila, Maryvonne; Dzeing-Ella, Arnaud; Kremsner, Peter G; Krishna, Sanjeev; Planche, Timothy
2009-08-30
Understanding blood volume changes in children with malaria is important for managing fluid status. Traditionally, blood/red cell volume measurements have used radioactive chromium isotopes. We applied an alternative approach, using non-radioactive chromium-53 labelling and mass spectrometry to investigate red cell volume (RCV) in Gabonese children with malaria. Nineteen children with malaria participated (10 severe, 9 moderately severe; ages 15 months to 7 years). Blood labelled with (53)Cr-chromate ex vivo was re-injected, then sampled 30 min later. Pre- and post-injection (53)Cr content were measured by gas chromatography/electron ionisation mass spectrometry of the chromium-trifluoroacetylacetone (TFA) chelate, calibrated against (50)Cr standards. Blood and red cell volumes were calculated from isotopic dilution in 15 of 19 children (in four, insufficient signal mitigated analysis). In this small pilot study, there were no significant differences between moderate and severe cases. Including all subjects, the mean RCV was reduced compared with predicted values (184 vs. 269 mL; p = 0.016) but blood volume, 71 +/- 33 mL/kg (normalised for weight), was close to predicted, approximately 77 mL/kg, commensurate with reduced haematocrit. Blood lactate concentration correlated negatively with RCV/weight (r = -0.56, p = 0.028), consistent with anaemia. In one case, sequential samples over 42 days gave an estimated rate of (53)Cr disappearance of 1.4%/day (equivalent half-life: 70 days). (53)Cr-labelling of red cells may be used to estimate blood and red cell volumes and can be used as an investigative tool in situations such as childhood diseases and resource-constrained settings. Although the red cell mass is depleted in malaria, the blood volume appears relatively well preserved. PMID:19603467
Isotope dilution mass spectrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heumann, Klaus G.
1992-09-01
In the past isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has usually been applied using the formation of positive thermal ions of metals. Especially in calibrating other analytical methods and for the certification of standard reference materials this type of IDMS became a routine method. Today, the progress in this field lies in the determination of ultra trace amounts of elements, e.g. of heavy metals in Antarctic ice and in aerosols in remote areas down to the sub-pg g-1 and sub-pg m-3 levels respectively, in the analysis of uranium and thorium at concentrations of a few pg g-1 in sputter targets for the production of micro- electronic devices or in the determination of sub-picogram amounts of230Th in corals for geochemical age determinations and of226Ra in rock samples. During the last few years negative thermal ionization IDMS has become a frequently used method. The determination of very small amounts of selenium and technetium as well as of other transition metals such as vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and tungsten are important examples in this field. Also the measurement of silicon in connection with a re-determination of Avogadro's number and osmium analyses for geological age determinations by the Re/Os method are of special interest. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being used for multi-element analyses by the isotope dilution technique. Determinations of heavy metals in samples of marine origin are representative examples for this type of multi-element analysis by IDMS. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems have also been successfully applied after chelation of metals (for example Pt determination in clinical samples) or for the determination of volatile element species in the environment, e.g. dimethyl sulfide. However, IDMS--specially at low concentration levels in the environment--seems likely to be one of the most powerful analytical methods for speciation in the future. This has been shown, up to now, for species of
Envisioning the Infinite by Projecting Finite Properties
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ely, Robert
2011-01-01
We analyze interviews with 24 post-secondary students as they reason about infinite processes in the context of the tricky Tennis Ball Problem. By metaphorically projecting various properties from the finite states such as counting and indexing, participants envisioned widely varying final states for the infinite process. Depending on which…
Improving the Instruction of Infinite Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindaman, Brian; Gay, A. Susan
2012-01-01
Calculus instructors struggle to teach infinite series, and students have difficulty understanding series and related concepts. Four instructional strategies, prominently used during the calculus reform movement, were implemented during a 3-week unit on infinite series in one class of second-semester calculus students. A description of each…
Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.
2008-01-01
Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…
Inspiring Examples in Rearrangements of Infinite Products
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramasinghe, W.
2007-01-01
It is well known that simple examples are really encouraging in the understanding of rearrangements of infinite series. In this paper a similar role is played by simple examples in the case of infinite products. Iterated products of double products seem to have a similar spirit of rearrangements of products, although they are not the same.…
Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators
Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh
2015-09-18
In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.
Infinite sets and double binds.
Arden, M
1984-01-01
There have been many attempts to bring psychoanalytical theory up to date. This paper approaches the problem by discussing the work of Gregory Bateson and Ignacio Matte-Blanco, with particular reference to the use made by these authors of Russell's theory of logical types. Bateson's theory of the double bind and Matte-Blanco's bilogic are both based on concepts of logical typing. It is argued that the two theories can be linked by the idea that neurotic symptoms are based on category errors in thinking. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a middle-aged woman. The intention is to demonstrate that the process of making interpretations can be thought of as revealing errors in thinking. Changes in the patient's inner world are then seen to be the result of clarifying childhood experiences based on category errors. Matte-Blanco's theory of bilogic and infinite experiences is a re-evaluation of the place of the primary process in mental life. It is suggested that a combination of bilogic and double bind theory provides a possibility of reformulating psychoanalytical theory. PMID:6544755
Crow, Brian S.; Pantazides, Brooke G.; Quiñones-González, Jennifer; Garton, Joshua W.; Carter, Melissa D.; Perez, Jonas W.; Watson, Caroline M.; Tomcik, Dennis J.; Crenshaw, Michael D.; Brewer, Bobby N.; Riches, James R.; Stubbs, Sarah J.; Read, Robert W.; Evans, Ronald A.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Rudolph C.
2015-01-01
This work describes a new specific, sensitive, and rapid stable isotope dilution method for the simultaneous detection of the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), VR, VX, and VM adducts to tyrosine (Tyr). Serum, plasma, and lysed whole blood samples (50 µL) were prepared by protein precipitation followed by digestion with Pronase. Specific Tyr adducts were isolated from the digest by a single solid phase extraction (SPE) step, and the analytes were separated by reversed-phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) gradient elution in less than 2 min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using time-triggered selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The calibration range was characterized from 0.100–50.0 ng/mL for GB– and VR– Tyr and 0.250–50.0 ng/mL for GA–, GD–, GF–, and VX/VM–Tyr (R2 ≥ 0.995). Inter- and intra-assay precision had coefficients of variation of ≤17 and ≤10%, respectively, and the measured concentration accuracies of spiked samples were within 15% of the targeted value for multiple spiking levels. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.097, 0.027, 0.018, 0.074, 0.023, and 0.083 ng/mL for GA–, GB–, GD–, GF–, VR–, and VX/VM–Tyr, respectively. A convenience set of 96 serum samples with no known nerve agent exposure was screened and revealed no baseline values or potential interferences. This method provides a simple and highly specific diagnostic tool that may extend the time postevent that a confirmation of nerve agent exposure can be made with confidence. PMID:25286390
Crow, Brian S; Pantazides, Brooke G; Quiñones-González, Jennifer; Garton, Joshua W; Carter, Melissa D; Perez, Jonas W; Watson, Caroline M; Tomcik, Dennis J; Crenshaw, Michael D; Brewer, Bobby N; Riches, James R; Stubbs, Sarah J; Read, Robert W; Evans, Ronald A; Thomas, Jerry D; Blake, Thomas A; Johnson, Rudolph C
2014-10-21
This work describes a new specific, sensitive, and rapid stable isotope dilution method for the simultaneous detection of the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), VR, VX, and VM adducts to tyrosine (Tyr). Serum, plasma, and lysed whole blood samples (50 μL) were prepared by protein precipitation followed by digestion with Pronase. Specific Tyr adducts were isolated from the digest by a single solid phase extraction (SPE) step, and the analytes were separated by reversed-phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) gradient elution in less than 2 min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using time-triggered selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The calibration range was characterized from 0.100-50.0 ng/mL for GB- and VR-Tyr and 0.250-50.0 ng/mL for GA-, GD-, GF-, and VX/VM-Tyr (R(2) ≥ 0.995). Inter- and intra-assay precision had coefficients of variation of ≤17 and ≤10%, respectively, and the measured concentration accuracies of spiked samples were within 15% of the targeted value for multiple spiking levels. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.097, 0.027, 0.018, 0.074, 0.023, and 0.083 ng/mL for GA-, GB-, GD-, GF-, VR-, and VX/VM-Tyr, respectively. A convenience set of 96 serum samples with no known nerve agent exposure was screened and revealed no baseline values or potential interferences. This method provides a simple and highly specific diagnostic tool that may extend the time postevent that a confirmation of nerve agent exposure can be made with confidence. PMID:25286390
Steendam, C A Carina; Verstegen, Martin W A; Tamminga, Seerp; Boer, Huug; van 't End, Marianne; Verstappen, Berthe; Caine, William R; Visser, G Henk
2004-11-01
The (15)N-isotope dilution technique ((15)N-IDT), with either pulse-dose oral administration or continuous i.v. administration of [(15)N]-l-leucine (carotid artery), both at 5 mg/(kg body weight . d), was used to measure ileal (postvalve T-cecum cannula) endogenous nitrogen recovery (ENR) in pigs (9 +/- 0.6 kg). Diets were cornstarch, enzyme-hydrolyzed casein with no (control) or high (4%) content of quebracho extract (Schinopsis spp.) rich in condensed tannins. Blood was sampled from a catheter in the external jugular vein. Mean plasma (15)N-enrichment at d 8-10 was higher (P = 0.0009) after i.v. than after oral administration [0.0356 vs. 0.0379 atom% excess (APE)]. Plasma (15)N-enrichment for i.v. infused pigs was 0.01117 APE higher (P < 0.0001) and for orally dosed pigs 0.0081 APE lower (P < 0.0001) at 11 h postprandial compared with 1 h postprandial. Apparent ileal N digestibility was higher (P < 0.0001) for the control (85.5%) than for the quebracho diet (69.5%). ENR was calculated from the ratio of (15)N-enrichment of plasma and digesta. The ENR for the quebracho diet was approximately 300% higher than for the control diet (6.03 vs. 1.94 g/kg dry matter intake, P < 0.001). The real N digestibility (92.2 +/- 0.4%) was equal for both diets (P = 0.1030) and both tracer methods (P = 0.9730). We concluded that oral administration of [(15)N]leucine provides reasonable estimates of ENR in pigs fed semipurified diets with high or low content of tannins; however, one must be careful in extrapolating this conclusion to studies with other protein sources or feeding frequencies. PMID:15514277
40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...
40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...
40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...
40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...
40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... meter, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging Pitot tube, or a hot-wire anemometer. (c) Flow conditioning... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related...
Mineva, Ekaterina M; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Maw, Khin L; Botelho, Julianne C; Vesper, Hubert W; Pfeiffer, Christine M
2015-07-01
The inaccuracy of routine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements hampers the interpretation of data in patient care and public health research. We developed and validated a candidate reference measurement procedure (RMP) for highly accurate quantitation of two clinically important 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in serum, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. The two compounds of interest together with spiked deuterium-labeled internal standards [d 3-25(OH)D2 and d 6-25(OH)D3] were extracted from serum via liquid-liquid extraction. The featured isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method used reversed-phase chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. A pentafluorophenylpropyl-packed UHPLC column together with isocratic elution allowed for complete baseline resolution of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from their structural C-3 isomers within 12 min. We evaluated method trueness, precision, potential interferences, matrix effects, limits of quantitation, and measurement uncertainty. Calibration materials were, or were traceable to, NIST Standard Reference Materials 2972. Within-day and total imprecision (CV) averaged 1.9 and 2.0% for 25(OH)D3, respectively, and 2.4 and 3.5% for 25(OH)D2, respectively. Mean trueness was 100.3% for 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2. The limits of quantitation/limits of detection were 4.61/1.38 nmol/L for 25(OH)D3 and 1.46/0.13 nmol/L for 25(OH)D2. When we compared our RMP results to an established RMP using 40 serum samples, we found a nonsignificant mean bias of 0.2% for total 25(OH)D. This candidate RMP for 25(OH)D metabolites meets predefined method performance specifications (≤5% total CV and ≤1.7% bias) and provides sufficient sample throughput to meet the needs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vitamin D Standardization Certification Program. Graphical abstract Bias assessment using NIST standard reference materials. Legend CDC mean mass fractions (ng/g) ± U 95 (6
Raven, J. L.; Walker, P. L.; Barkhan, P.
1966-01-01
A comparison has been made of the radioisotope dilution-coated charcoal method and a microbiological assay (with L. leichmannii as test organism) for determining the concentration of vitamin B12 in serum. A satisfactory correlation was found between the results of the two methods. Under appropriate conditions the reproducibility of the radioisotope method compared favourably with that of the microbiological method. PMID:5333257
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The availability of deuterium-labeled nicotinic acid makes stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) an attractive option for the determination of the water-soluble B-vitamin, niacin, in food samples. We have developed a method based on AOAC Peer-Verif...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The availability of deuterium-labeled nicotinic acid makes stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) an attractive option for the determination of the water-soluble B-vitamin, niacin, in food samples. We have developed a method based on AOAC Peer-Verif...
Bonin, M A; Ashley, D L; Cardinali, F L; McCraw, J M; Wooten, J V
1995-01-01
We developed an isotope-dilution method for measuring methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in whole human blood using a purge-and-trap gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method. The labeled analogues for MTBE and TBA were [2H12]methyl tert-butyl ether and [2H9]-tert-butyl alcohol, respectively. Volatiles were removed from the blood by direct helium purging of the liquid; were trapped on a Tenax trap; and were desorbed, cryofocused, and chromatographed on a DB-624 capillary column that was connected directly to the ion source of a mass spectrometer. Detection was by mass analysis using a double-focusing magnetic-sector mass spectrometer operating in the full-scan mode at the medium mass resolution of 3000. For the isotope-dilution method, the minimum detection limits in blood (5-10 mL) are 0.01 microgram/L for MTBE and 0.06 microgram/L for TBA. The isotope-dilution method proved to be a big improvement in recovery, reproducibility, and sensitivity over our previous analytical method, which used the labeled ketone, [4-2H3]-2-butanone, as the internal standard for both MTBE and TBA. The isotope-dilution method has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring blood levels of MTBE and TBA in populations exposed to oxygenated fuels containing MTBE. PMID:7564298
Where Infinite Spin Particles are Localizable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longo, Roberto; Morinelli, Vincenzo; Rehren, Karl-Henning
2016-07-01
Particle states transforming in one of the infinite spin representations of the Poincaré group (as classified by E. Wigner) are consistent with fundamental physical principles, but local fields generating them from the vacuum state cannot exist. While it is known that infinite spin states localized in a spacelike cone are dense in the one-particle space, we show here that the subspace of states localized in any double cone is trivial. This implies that the free field theory associated with infinite spin has no observables localized in bounded regions. In an interacting theory, if the vacuum vector is cyclic for a double cone local algebra, then the theory does not contain infinite spin representations. We also prove that if a Doplicher-Haag-Roberts representation (localized in a double cone) of a local net is covariant under a unitary representation of the Poincaré group containing infinite spin, then it has infinite statistics. These results hold under the natural assumption of the Bisognano-Wichmann property, and we give a counter-example (with continuous particle degeneracy) without this property where the conclusions fail. Our results hold true in any spacetime dimension s + 1 where infinite spin representations exist, namely {s≥ 2}.
Evolution in random fitness landscapes: the infinite sites model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Su-Chan; Krug, Joachim
2008-04-01
We consider the evolution of an asexually reproducing population in an uncorrelated random fitness landscape in the limit of infinite genome size, which implies that each mutation generates a new fitness value drawn from a probability distribution g(w). This is the finite population version of Kingman's house of cards model (Kingman 1978 J. Appl. Probab. 15 1). In contrast to Kingman's work, the focus here is on unbounded distributions g(w) which lead to an indefinite growth of the population fitness. The model is solved analytically in the limit of infinite population size N \\to \\infty and simulated numerically for finite N. When the genome-wide mutation probability U is small, the long-time behavior of the model reduces to a point process of fixation events, which is referred to as a diluted record process (DRP). The DRP is similar to the standard record process except that a new record candidate (a number that exceeds all previous entries in the sequence) is accepted only with a certain probability that depends on the values of the current record and the candidate. We develop a systematic analytic approximation scheme for the DRP. At finite U the fitness frequency distribution of the population decomposes into a stationary part due to mutations and a traveling wave component due to selection, which is shown to imply a reduction of the mean fitness by a factor of 1-U compared to the U \\to 0 limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Plyasunov, Andrey V.
2014-02-01
for gaseous Si(OH)4 were approximated by a function and used in the treatment of data, see Table 1. The fitting procedure to evaluate the parameters of the Akinfiev-Diamond model also included the values of ΔfGo and S° of Si(OH)4 in ideal gas state at standard state conditions.First, to fit the EoS parameters, the dataset for g2∞ (Si(OH)4(aq)) has been generated using accepted experimental data on quartz solubility in water according to the reaction SiO2(quartz) + 2H2O = Si(OH)4(aq), as g2∞(SiOH(aq)(T,P)=g(quartz)(T,P)+2g(HO)(T,P)-RTlnm, where mSi corresponds to the molality of silica in the solution. Thermodynamic properties of quartz were adopted from SUPCRT database (Johnson et al., 1992), while g(H2O)(T, P) was computed using the Hill (1990) and/or Wagner and Pruß (2002) formulations.The fitting procedure was organized as described below. It is known that partial molar properties of dilute solutes close to the critical point of water are governed by the Krichevskii parameter, AKr (Levelt Sengers, 1991). Plyasunov (2012) recommended for Si(OH)4AKr = -190 ± 10 MPa evaluated from the available relevant data. We have used this value as an anchor while fitting. So, the fitting procedure was iterative. After any initial approximation for ξ, values of the a, b parameters of the EoS together with ΔfGo298(g) and So298(g) of Si(OH)4 were determined by a linear regression of the available g2∞ (Si(OH)4(aq)) experimental data. Then the ξ parameter was modified in compliance with the adopted AKr value (Eq. A7), and the fitting cycle was repeated until ξ ceased changing.The finally retrieved values for gaseous Si(OH)4 are ΔfGo298 = -1239.66 ± 1.7 kJ mol-1, So298 = 346.37 ± 3.5 J mol-1 K-1, and the EoS parameters are ξ = -1.8933; a = 0.9285 ± 1.1 cm3 g-1; b = -0.9409 ± 0.97 cm3 K0.5 g-1 (2σ confidence) (Table 1). Evaluated in this work values of ΔfGo298 and So298 for Si(OH)4 in the ideal gas state are very close to the data given in Plyasunov (2011b) on the
Dilution, Concentration, and Flotation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liang, Ling; Schmuckler, Joseph S.
2004-01-01
As both classroom teaching practice and literature show, many students have difficulties learning science concepts such as density. Here are some investigations that identify the relationship between density and floating through experimenting with successive dilution of a liquid, or the systematic change of concentration of a saltwater solution.…
Helium dilution refrigeration system
Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.
1988-09-13
A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.
Helium dilution refrigeration system
Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.
1988-01-01
A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.
Semi-infinite cohomology and string theory
Frenkel, I. B.; Garland, H.; Zuckerman, G. J.
1986-01-01
We develop the theory of semi-infinite cohomology of graded Lie algebras first introduced by Feigin. We show that the relative semi-infinite cohomology has a structure analogous to that of the de Rham cohomology in Kähler geometry. We prove a vanishing theorem for a special class of modules, and we apply our results to the case of the Virasoro algebra and the Fock module. In this case the zero cohomology is identified as the physical subspace of the Fock module and the no-ghost theorem follows. We reveal the profound relation of semi-infinite cohomology theory to the gauge-invariant free string theory constructed by Banks and Peskin. We then indicate the connection between gauge-invariant interacting string theories and the geometric realizations of the infinite-dimensional Lie algebras. PMID:16578792
Understanding the behaviour of infinite ladder circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.
2008-11-01
Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block of impedance is added. However, the impedance derived from this assumption may lead to incorrect conclusions if it is not treated carefully. Sometimes, in the literature, the input impedance behaviour of infinite ladder circuits is referred to as a paradox, leaving students and educators in doubt. This study intends to clarify this confusion and help to better comprehend the behaviour of the input impedance of infinite ladder circuits.
Semi-infinite cohomology and string theory.
Frenkel, I B; Garland, H; Zuckerman, G J
1986-11-01
We develop the theory of semi-infinite cohomology of graded Lie algebras first introduced by Feigin. We show that the relative semi-infinite cohomology has a structure analogous to that of the de Rham cohomology in Kähler geometry. We prove a vanishing theorem for a special class of modules, and we apply our results to the case of the Virasoro algebra and the Fock module. In this case the zero cohomology is identified as the physical subspace of the Fock module and the no-ghost theorem follows. We reveal the profound relation of semi-infinite cohomology theory to the gauge-invariant free string theory constructed by Banks and Peskin. We then indicate the connection between gauge-invariant interacting string theories and the geometric realizations of the infinite-dimensional Lie algebras. PMID:16578792
Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices.
Fay, C W; Liu, J W; Duxbury, P M
2006-05-01
Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem. PMID:16803003
Bulk Viscosity and Conformal Symmetry Breaking in the Dilute Fermi Gas near Unitarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dusling, Kevin; Schäfer, Thomas
2013-09-01
The dilute Fermi gas at unitarity is scale invariant and its bulk viscosity vanishes. We compute, in the high temperature limit, the leading contribution to the bulk viscosity when the scattering length is not infinite. A measure of scale breaking is provided by the ratio (P-2/3E)/P, where P is the pressure and E is the energy density. At high temperature this ratio scales as zλ/a, where z is the fugacity, λ is the thermal wavelength, and a is the scattering length. We show that the bulk viscosity ζ scales as the second power of this parameter, ζ˜(zλ/a)2λ-3.
Structure of local quantum operations and classical communication: Finite versus infinite rounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Scott M.
2015-04-01
Every measurement that can be implemented by local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) using an infinite number of rounds is the limit of a sequence of measurements, where each measurement in the sequence requires only a finite number of rounds. This rather obvious and well-known fact is nonetheless of interest as it shows that these infinite-round measurements can be approximated arbitrarily closely simply by using more and more rounds of communication. Here we demonstrate the perhaps less obvious result that (at least) for bipartite systems, the reverse relationship also holds. Specifically, we show that every finite-round bipartite LOCC measurement is the limit of a continuous sequence of LOCC measurements, where each measurement in that sequence can be implemented by LOCC, but only with the use of an infinite number of rounds. Thus, the set of LOCC measurements that require an infinite number of rounds is dense in the entirety of LOCC, as is the set of finite-round LOCC measurements. This means there exist measurements that can only be implemented by LOCC by using an infinite number of rounds, but can nonetheless be approximated closely by using one round of communication, and actually in some cases, no communication is needed at all. These results follow from a necessary condition presented here for finite-round LOCC, which is extremely simple to check, is very easy to prove, and which can be violated by utilizing an infinite number of rounds.
Automatic dilution gaging of rapidly varying flow
Duerk, M.D.
1983-01-01
The analysis showed that the discharges measured by dye-dilution techniques were generally within ± 10 percent of the discharges determined from ratings established by current-meter measurements. Larger differences were noted at the start of and on the rising limb of four hydrographs. Of the 20 storms monitored, dilution measurements on 17 were of acceptable accuracy. Peak discharges from the open-channel site ranged from 0 to 12 percent departures from the existing rating whereas the comparison of peak discharge at the storm sewer site ranged from 0 to 5 percent departures from the existing rating.
Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution
Kelleher, J.K.
1986-03-01
To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoA and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA.
Minimal Coital Dilution in Accra, Ghana
Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo; Cassels, Susan
2015-01-01
Background Coital dilution, the reduction in the coital frequency per partner when an additional ongoing partner is added, may reduce the transmission potential of partnership concurrency for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Empirical estimates of dilution, especially dilution of sexual acts unprotected by condoms, are needed to inform prevention research. Methods Sexually active adults in Accra, Ghana were recruited in a multi-stage household probability sample. Degree (number of ongoing partners), total acts, and unprotected acts were measured retrospectively for each month in the past year through an event-history calendar. Random effects negative binomial models estimated the association between degree and coital frequency. Results Compared to person-months with a single partner (monogamy), 2.06 times as many total acts and 1.94 times as many unprotected acts occurred in months with 2 partners. In months with 3 partners, 2.90 times as many total acts and 2.39 times as many unprotected acts occurred compared to monogamous months. Total acts but not unprotected acts also declined with partnership duration. Conclusions No dilution was observed for total acts with up to three concurrent partners, but a small amount of dilution was observed for unprotected acts for months with multiple concurrencies. This suggests moderate selective condom use in months with multiple concurrencies. The implications of the observed dilution for future HIV transmission must be investigated with mathematical models. PMID:25622062
The solvent dependence of ionic properties in solution in the limit of infinite dilution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fawcett, W. Ronald
1998-10-01
The dependence of the Gibbs solvation energy and limiting ionic conductance for simple ions on the solvent nature is discussed for a collection of data in 18 polar solvents both protic and aprotic. It is shown that the Gibbs solvation energy depends on the acidity and basicity of the solvent, concepts based on a detailed quantum mechanical description of the solvent molecule and its interaction with ions in its vicinity. On the other hand, ionic mobility, after correction for solvent viscosity, depends on the size of the surrounding molecules, and to a lesser extent on their acid-base properties.
Zakry, Fitri Abdul Aziz; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H.; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Zakaria, Zin Zawawi; Rahim, Anuar Abdul
2012-01-01
There are increasing applications of diazotrophic rhizobacteria in the sustainable agriculture system. A field experiment on young immature oil palm was conducted to quantify the uptake of N derived from N2 fixation by the diazotroph Bacillus sphaericus strain UPMB-10, using the 15N isotope dilution method. Eight months after 15N application, young immature oil palms that received 67% of standard N fertilizer application together with B. sphaericus inoculation had significantly lower 15N enrichment than uninoculated palms that received similar N fertilizers. The dilution of labeled N served as a marker for the occurrence of biological N2 fixation. The proportion of N uptake that was derived from the atmosphere was estimated as 63% on the whole plant basis. The inoculation process increased the N and dry matter yields of the palm leaflets and rachis significantly. Field planting of young, immature oil palm in soil inoculated with B. sphaericus UPMB-10 might mitigate inorganic fertilizer-N application through supplementation by biological nitrogen fixation. This could be a new and important source of nitrogen biofertilizer in the early phase of oil palm cultivation in the field. PMID:22446306
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cobb, J. L.; Markert, J. T.
1994-06-01
We report the results and analysis of DC magnetization studies of grain-aligned powders of the infinite-layer electron-doped compounds Sr 0.90La 0.10CuO 2. Magnetization data in the reversible temperature regime were analyzed to obtain the anisotropic superconducting parameters for this system. Three samples of Sr 0.90La 0.10CuO 2 were studied, presumably with very slightly diffrent La or O concentrations. Typically, the extracted values of the coherence lengths (ξ ∥=46 Å, ξ ⊥=30 Å), the penetration depths (λ ∥=290 nm, λ ⊥=450 nm), the mass anisotrophy ( ( {m ⊥}/{m ∥}) {1}/{2}≈1.5 ), and the lower and upper critical fields are appreciably less anisotropic than reported values for the electron-doped T‧ phase materials, possibly because the infinite-layer compound has a significantly shorter interplanar spacing (3.4 Å versus 6.0 Å). One notable sample, moreover, exhibits an inverse anisotropy (( ( {m ⊥}/{m ∥}) {1}/{2}≈0.6 ), further suggesting that this system behaves much like a three-dimensional metal.
Seismic stability of gentle infinite slopes
Hadj-Hamou, T.; Kavazanjian, E.
1985-06-01
Deterministic and probabilistic analyses of the stability of gentle infinite slopes subject to seismically induced excess pore pressures and inertia forces are developed. In the deterministic analysis, classical equations for infinite slope stability are rewritten to explicitly include excess pore pressure and seismic acceleration. Equations for the factor of safety are developed that include these factors. In the probabilistic analysis, the seismic acceleration, excess pore pressure, and effective friction angle are considered random variables. Acceleration peaks are considered Rayleigh distributed. Excess pore pressure is predicted using a model that considers Rayleigh distributed shear stress peaks. The friction angle is modeled with a Beta distribution. Acceleration and pore pressure development within the gentle infinite slope are assumed the same as those in a horizontal deposit of the same average thicknesss. Finite element analyses are performed to investigate the limits of this assumption. Results from both analyses are compared to documented case histories of lateral spreading.
Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.
Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H
1983-02-01
The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. PMID:6338826
Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.
Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H
1983-01-01
The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826
Theory and experiment for infinite microstrip arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, S. M.; Lo, Y. T.
1985-01-01
Microstrip antennas are well suited for use in large scanning arrays. To obtain greater bandwidth, it is useful to use thicker substrates, which can increase the effects of mutual coupling and lead to significant mismatch or blindness for certain scan angles. Using an infinite array formulation, the impedance of a single element in an infinite array environment was solved with the method of moments. Mutual coupling is built into the solution, and the presence of surface waves is accounted for by using the periodic Green's function for the grounded dielectric substrate. Blindness in arrays of microstrip dipoles on various substrates, both with and without radomes is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macintosh Wilson, Alistair
1996-01-01
A conversation between Euclid and the ghost of Socrates. . . the paths of the moon and the sun charted by the stone-builders of ancient Europe. . .the Greek ideal of the golden mean by which they measured beauty. . . Combining historical fact with a retelling of ancient myths and legends, this lively and engaging book describes the historical, religious and geographical background that gave rise to mathematics in ancient Egypt, Babylon, China, Greece, India, and the Arab world. Each chapter contains a case study where mathematics is applied to the problems of the era, including the area of triangles and volume of the Egyptian pyramids; the Babylonian sexagesimal number system and our present measure of space and time which grew out of it; the use of the abacus and remainder theory in China; the invention of trigonometry by Arab mathematicians; and the solution of quadratic equations by completing the square developed in India. These insightful commentaries will give mathematicians and general historians a better understanding of why and how mathematics arose from the problems of everyday life, while the author's easy, accessible writing style will open fascinating chapters in the history of mathematics to a wide audience of general readers.
Ebulliometers for measuring the thermodynamic properties of fluids and fluid mixtures
Weber, L.A.; Silva, A.M.
1994-09-01
The design and operation of two ebulliometers is described. One is constructed of glass and is used for measuring vapor pressures of fluids at low reduced temperatures and pressures. The other is constructed of metal. It can be used for vapor pressure measurements, and also for the study of fluid mixture thermodynamics through the determination of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. The advantages and potential problems associated with ebulliometers are described, and typical results are given for the properties of alternative refrigerants.
Efficient analysis for infinite microstrip dipole arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, S. M.; Lo, Y. T.
1983-11-01
A moment method analysis of infinite microstrip dipole arrays which uses an efficient technique to evaluate the generalized impedance matrix is described. A particularly simple formulation is obtained through the use of the periodic Green function. Results for the reflection coefficient magnitude against scan angle are given for a typical array.
Stress on Second Conjugation Infinitives in Italian.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Stuart; And Others
1987-01-01
Reviews the limited amount of research regarding ways in which primary stress is assigned to second conjugation infinitives in Italian and then proposes a new perspective taking into consideration root vowels, root-final consonants, syllable onset, monosyllabic vs. polysyllabic roots, and canonical form. (CB)
Infinite Sums of M-Bonacci Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
A-iru, Muniru A.
2009-01-01
In this note, we construct infinite series using M-bonacci numbers in a manner similar to that used in previous studies and investigate the convergence of the series to an integer. Our results generalize the ones obtained for Fibonacci numbers.
On infinite-dimensional state spaces
Fritz, Tobias
2013-05-15
It is well known that the canonical commutation relation [x, p]=i can be realized only on an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. While any finite set of experimental data can also be explained in terms of a finite-dimensional Hilbert space by approximating the commutation relation, Occam's razor prefers the infinite-dimensional model in which [x, p]=i holds on the nose. This reasoning one will necessarily have to make in any approach which tries to detect the infinite-dimensionality. One drawback of using the canonical commutation relation for this purpose is that it has unclear operational meaning. Here, we identify an operationally well-defined context from which an analogous conclusion can be drawn: if two unitary transformations U, V on a quantum system satisfy the relation V{sup -1}U{sup 2}V=U{sup 3}, then finite-dimensionality entails the relation UV{sup -1}UV=V{sup -1}UVU; this implication strongly fails in some infinite-dimensional realizations. This is a result from combinatorial group theory for which we give a new proof. This proof adapts to the consideration of cases where the assumed relation V{sup -1}U{sup 2}V=U{sup 3} holds only up to {epsilon} and then yields a lower bound on the dimension.
On infinite-dimensional state spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritz, Tobias
2013-05-01
It is well known that the canonical commutation relation [x, p] = i can be realized only on an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. While any finite set of experimental data can also be explained in terms of a finite-dimensional Hilbert space by approximating the commutation relation, Occam's razor prefers the infinite-dimensional model in which [x, p] = i holds on the nose. This reasoning one will necessarily have to make in any approach which tries to detect the infinite-dimensionality. One drawback of using the canonical commutation relation for this purpose is that it has unclear operational meaning. Here, we identify an operationally well-defined context from which an analogous conclusion can be drawn: if two unitary transformations U, V on a quantum system satisfy the relation V-1U2V = U3, then finite-dimensionality entails the relation UV-1UV = V-1UVU; this implication strongly fails in some infinite-dimensional realizations. This is a result from combinatorial group theory for which we give a new proof. This proof adapts to the consideration of cases where the assumed relation V-1U2V = U3 holds only up to ɛ and then yields a lower bound on the dimension.
A Planar Calculus for Infinite Index Subfactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penneys, David
2013-05-01
We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II 1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.
Breidbach, Andreas; Ulberth, Franz
2015-04-01
Aflatoxins, mycotoxins of fungi of the Aspergillus sp., pose a risk to consumer health and are, therefore, regulated by more than 100 countries. To facilitate method development and validation as well as assessment of measurement capabilities, availability of certified reference materials and proficiency testing schemes is important. For these purposes, highly accurate determinations of the aflatoxin content in the materials used are necessary. We describe here the use of two-dimensional heart-cut LC-LC in combination with exact-matching double isotope dilution mass spectrometry to determine the content of aflatoxin B1 in three materials used in a proficiency testing scheme. The serious reduction in ionization suppression afforded by the two-dimensional heart-cut LC-LC had a positive effect on the precision of the measured isotope ratios of the exact-matching double isotope dilution mass spectrometry. This is evidenced by the expanded measurement uncertainty (k=2) of 0.017 μg/kg or 8.9 % relative to a mass fraction of aflatoxin B1 in a cereal-based baby food of 0.197 μg/kg. This value is in perfect agreement with the consensus value of this material from a proficiency test (PT) scheme for National Reference Laboratories executed by the European Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins. The effort necessary to perform the described methodology precludes its frequent use but for specific applications we see it as a valuable tool. PMID:25015044
Semi-Infinite Cohomology of Loop Spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shutler, Paul Maurice Edmund
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis attempts to construct a de Rham model for the Floer homology of the space of free loops on a symplectic manifold. It derives its inspiration principally from the work of Witten on topological quantum field theories. Chapter 1 consist of a review of background material followed by a number of elementary results. It is seen how Floer homology should naturally be representable by a semi-infinite generalisation of the ordinary de Rham theory associated to a manifold. In Chapter 2 the main attempt at constructing such a semi-infinite theory is made by defining an exterior derivative. Two different kinds of divergences are encountered and resolved. A suitable space of semi-infinite forms is constructed and some remarks are made about the likelihood that this model captures the Floer homology. In Chapter 3 the obstruction to the existence of a chiral factorisation of the bundle of fermionic Fock spaces over the loop space of the two-sphere is computed. For this purpose the ordinary cohomology ring of the loop space is calculated, also the action of the deck transformation on the cohomology of the simply connected covering space. In Chapter 4 the supersymmetric path integral approach to quantising topological field theories is developed formally. The semi-infinite dimensionality of the differential forms involved emerges naturally. The Floer homology of loop space is shown to be a ring. Its structure is calculated for the simple case of complex projective space. Chapter 5 concludes the thesis with some remarks about the action of the super-Virasoro algebra on the space of ordinary and semi-infinite differential forms respectively. Two short appendices are included describing a polynomial generating function for spherical harmonics and the spectrum of curl on vector fields on the three -sphere.
Limiting equilibrium and liquefaction potential in infinite submarine slopes
Denlinger, R.P.; Iverson, R.M.
1990-01-01
Stability evaluation of submarine slopes is hampered by the difficulty of making field measurements. Owing to the scarcity of detailed field data, stability is commonly assessed by assuming homogenous infinite slopes with steady seepage. For these conditions, it is necessary to measure only the slope angle, friction angle, cohesion, and pore pressure at some distance into the sediment to evaluate stability. Examination of available data shows that conditions close to those required for liquefaction are necessary for Coulomb failure in many continental shelf areas. This favors long landslide runouts and flow of sediment subsequent to failure. -from Authors
Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leenson, I. A.
2004-01-01
On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.
1984-01-01
Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.
Jones, Willis B; Donati, George L; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T
2015-02-17
Standard dilution analysis (SDA) is a novel calibration method that may be applied to most instrumental techniques that will accept liquid samples and are capable of monitoring two wavelengths simultaneously. It combines the traditional methods of standard additions and internal standards. Therefore, it simultaneously corrects for matrix effects and for fluctuations due to changes in sample size, orientation, or instrumental parameters. SDA requires only 200 s per sample with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Neither the preparation of a series of standard solutions nor the construction of a universal calibration graph is required. The analysis is performed by combining two solutions in a single container: the first containing 50% sample and 50% standard mixture; the second containing 50% sample and 50% solvent. Data are collected in real time as the first solution is diluted by the second one. The results are used to prepare a plot of the analyte-to-internal standard signal ratio on the y-axis versus the inverse of the internal standard concentration on the x-axis. The analyte concentration in the sample is determined from the ratio of the slope and intercept of that plot. The method has been applied to the determination of FD&C dye Blue No. 1 in mouthwash by molecular absorption spectrometry and to the determination of eight metals in mouthwash, wine, cola, nitric acid, and water by ICP OES. Both the accuracy and precision for SDA are better than those observed for the external calibration, standard additions, and internal standard methods using ICP OES. PMID:25599250
Scaling of Greenwood Peierls conductance on a diluted square lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwalm, William; Schmitz, Albert
The modified rectangle lattice of Dhar is a bond-diluted square lattice. The structure is self-similar and finitely ramified, like a fractal. Nevertheless certain discrete Schrödinger equation Green functions for the modified rectangle are known in closed form in the infinite lattice limit and the spectrum is continuous. By standard transfer matrix renormalization methods we present a study scaling properties of the Greenwood Peierls conductance distribution across the lattice with one dimensional lead wires attached as a function of lattice size and of additional disorder of several types.
History of the Infinitely Small and the Infinitely Large in Calculus.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kleiner, Israel
2001-01-01
Considers examples of aspects of the infinitely small and large as they unfolded in the history of calculus from the 17th through the 20th centuries. Presents didactic observations at relevant places in the historical account. (Author/MM)
Mädler, Stefanie; Todd, Aaron; Skip Kingston, H M; Pamuku, Matt; Sun, Fengrong; Tat, Cindy; Tooley, Robert J; Switzer, Teresa A; Furdui, Vasile I
2016-08-15
The reliable analysis of highly toxic hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), at ultra-trace levels remains challenging, given its easy conversion to non-toxic trivalent chromium. This work demonstrates a novel analytical method to quantify Cr(VI) at low ngL(-1) concentration levels in environmental water samples by using speciated isotope dilution (SID) analysis and double-spiking with Cr(III) and Cr(VI) enriched for different isotopes. Ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) was used for the analysis of Cr(VI) as HCrO4(-) → CrO3(-). Whereas the classical linear multipoint calibration (MPC) curve approach obtained a method detection limit (MDL) of 7ngL(-1) Cr(VI), the modified SID-MS method adapted from U. S. EPA 6800 allowed for the quantification of Cr(VI) with an MDL of 2ngL(-1) and provided results corrected for Cr(VI) loss occurred after sample collection. The adapted SID-MS approach proved to yield more accurate and precise results than the MPC method, allowed for compensation of Cr(VI) reduction during sample transportation and storage while eliminating the need for frequent external calibration. The developed method is a complementary tool to routinely used inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) MS and circumvents typically experienced interferences. PMID:27260441
Hu, Chiung-Wen; Shih, Ying-Ming; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chih-Ming; Chao, Mu-Rong
2016-06-01
N-nitrosamines (NAms) are well-documented for their carcinogenic potential. Human exposure to NAms may arise from the daily environment and endogenous formation via the reaction of secondary amines with nitrites or from bacteria infection. We describe the use of isotope dilution online solid-phase extraction (SPE) LC-MS/MS to quantify nine NAms in human urine. This method was validated and further applied to healthy subjects and patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were analyzed with an APCI source, while N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) were quantified with an ESI source, due to their effect on the sensitivity and chromatography. NDMA was the most abundant N-nitrosamine, while NDPhA was firstly identified in human. UTI patients had three to twelve-fold higher concentrations for NDMA, NPIP, NDEA, NMOR and NDBA in urine than healthy subjects, and the NAms were significantly decreased after antibiotics treatment. NDMA concentrations were also significantly correlated with the pH value, leukocyte esterase activity or nitrite in urines of UTI patients. Our findings by online SPE LC-MS/MS method evidenced that UTI patients experienced various NAms exposures, especially the potent carcinogen NDMA, which was likely induced by bacteria infection. PMID:26937867
Moore, B.D.; Kobza, J.; Seemann, J.R. )
1991-05-01
The level of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) in leaves of 12 species was determined by an isotope dilution assay. {sup 14}C-labeled standard was synthesized from (2-{sup 14}C)carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate using acid phosphatase, and was added at the initial point of leaf extraction. Leaf CA1P was purified and its specific activity determined. CA1P was found in dark-treated leaves of all species examined, including spinach (Spinacea oleracea), wheat (Triticum aestivum), Arabidopsis thaliana, and maize (Zea mays). The highest amounts were found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and petunia (Petunia hybrida), which had 1.5 to 1.8 moles CA1P per mole ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase catalytic sites. Most species had intermediate amounts of CA1P (0.2 to 0.8 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). Such intermediate to high levels of CA1P support the hypothesis that CA1P functions in many species as a light-dependent regulator of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and whole leaf photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation. However, CA1P levels in spinach, wheat, and A. thaliana were particularly low (less than 0.09 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). In such species, CA1P does not likely have a significant role in regulating ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, but could have a different physiological role.
Entanglement convertibility for infinite-dimensional pure bipartite states
Owari, Masaki; Matsumoto, Keiji; Murao, Mio
2004-11-01
It is shown that the order property of pure bipartite states under stochastic local operations and classical communications (SLOCC) changes radically when dimensionality shifts from finite to infinite. In contrast to finite-dimensional systems where there is no pure incomparable state, the existence of infinitely many mutually SLOCC incomparable states is shown for infinite-dimensional systems even under the bounded energy and finite information exchange condition. These results show that the effect of the infinite dimensionality of Hilbert space, the 'infinite workspace' property, remains even in physically relevant infinite-dimensional systems.
40 CFR 1066.610 - Dilution air background correction.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.610 Dilution air background correction. (a... ratio of the test fuel. You may measure a or use default values from Table 1 of 40 CFR 1065.655. b... 40 CFR 1065.655. ER28AP14.101 (c) Determine the dilution factor, DF, over the test interval...
A Stochastic Tikhonov Theorem in Infinite Dimensions
Buckdahn, Rainer Guatteri, Giuseppina
2006-03-15
The present paper studies the problem of singular perturbation in the infinite-dimensional framework and gives a Hilbert-space-valued stochastic version of the Tikhonov theorem. We consider a nonlinear system of Hilbert-space-valued equations for a 'slow' and a 'fast' variable; the system is strongly coupled and driven by linear unbounded operators generating a C{sub 0}-semigroup and independent cylindrical Brownian motions. Under well-established assumptions to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions, we deduce the required stability of the system from a dissipativity condition on the drift of the fast variable. We avoid differentiability assumptions on the coefficients which would be unnatural in the infinite-dimensional framework.
Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length
Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.
2015-01-15
A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.
Infinitely many singular interactions on noncompact manifolds
Kaynak, Burak Tevfik Turgut, O. Teoman
2015-05-15
We show that the ground state energy is bounded from below when there are infinitely many attractive delta function potentials placed in arbitrary locations, while all being separated at least by a minimum distance, on two dimensional non-compact manifold. To facilitate the reading of the paper, we first present the arguments in the setting of Cartan–Hadamard manifolds and then subsequently discuss the general case. For this purpose, we employ the heat kernel techniques as well as some comparison theorems of Riemannian geometry, thus generalizing the arguments in the flat case following the approach presented in Albeverio et al. (2004). - Highlights: • Schrödinger-operator for infinitely many singular interactions on noncompact manifolds. • Proof of the finiteness of the ground-state energy.
Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields.
Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin
2015-09-01
Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessity to specify a priori a fixed number of hidden states available but also of the problem of overfitting. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithms are often employed for inference in such models. However, convergence of such algorithms is rather difficult to verify, and as the complexity of the task at hand increases the computational cost of such algorithms often becomes prohibitive. These limitations can be overcome by variational techniques. In this paper, we present a generalized framework for infinite HCRF models, and a novel variational inference approach on a model based on coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures, the HCRF-DPM. We show that the variational HCRF-DPM is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and performs as well as the best parametric HCRFs-chosen via cross-validation-for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain in audiovisual sequences. PMID:26353136
Scan blindness in infinite phased arrays of printed dipoles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.
1984-01-01
A comprehensive study of infinite phased arrays of printed dipole antennas is presented, with emphasis on the scan blindness phenomenon. A rigorous and efficient moment method procedure is used to calculate the array impedance versus scan angle. Data are presented for the input reflection coefficient for various element spacings and substrate parameters. A simple theory, based on coupling from Floquet modes to surface wave modes on the substrate, is shown to predict the occurrence of scan blindness. Measurements from a waveguide simulator of a blindness condition confirm the theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Passman, Stephen L.
1989-01-01
Generally, two types of theory are used to describe the field equations for suspensions. The so-called postulated equations are based on the kinetic theory of mixtures, which logically should give reasonable equations for solutions. The basis for the use of such theory for suspensions is tenuous, though it at least gives a logical path for mathematical arguments. It has the disadvantage that it leads to a system of equations which is underdetermined, in a sense that can be made precise. On the other hand, the so-called averaging theory starts with a determined system, but the very process of averaging renders the resulting system underdetermined. A third type of theory is proposed in which the kinetic theory of gases is used to motivate continuum equations for the suspended particles. This entails an interpretation of the stress in the particles that is different from the usual one. Classical theory is used to describe the motion of the suspending medium. The result is a determined system for a dilute suspension. Extension of the theory to more concentrated systems is discussed.
Solvation Phenomena in Dilute Solutions: Formal, Experimental Evidence, and Modeling Implications
Chialvo, Ariel A
2013-01-01
We review the fundamentals underlying a general molecular-based formalism for the microscopic interpretation of the solvation phenomena involving sparingly soluble solutes in compressible media, an approach that hinges around the unambiguous splitting of the species correlation function integrals into short-(finite) and long-ranged (diverging) contributions at infinite dilution, where this condition is taken as the reference system for the derivation of composition expansions. Then, we invoke the formalism (a) to illustrate the well-behaved nature of the solvation contributions to the mechanical partial molecular properties of solutes at infinite dilution, (b) to guide the development of, and provide molecular-based support to, the macroscopic modeling of high-temperature dilute aqueous-electrolyte solutions, (c) to study solvation effects on the kinetic rate constants of reactions in near-critical solvents in an attempt to understand from a microscopic perspective the macroscopic evidence regarding the thermodynamic pressure effects, and (d) to interpret the microscopic mechanism behind synergistic solvation effects involving either co-solutes or co-solvents, and provide a molecular argument on the unsuitability of the van der Waals one-fluid (vdW-1f) mixing rules for the 2 description of weakly attractive solutes in compressible solvents. Finally, we develop thermodynamically consistent perturbation expansions, around the infinite dilution reference, for the species residual properties in binary and ternary mixtures, and discuss the theoretical and modeling implications behind ad hoc first-order truncated expansions.
On the principal and strictly particular solutions to infinite systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanova, O. F.; Pavlov, N. N.; Fedorov, F. M.
2016-03-01
The concepts of the principal solution to infinite systems of linear algebraic equations and the reduction method are defined more precisely. The principal solution, if it exists, is a strictly particular solution to the infinite system. If the reduction method is convergent, then it necessarily converges to Kramer's determinant; however, Kramer's determinant is not always a solution to the infinite system. To confirm the obtained results, analytical and numerical solutions of specific infinite system are considered.
Crow, Brian S; Quiñones-González, Jennifer; Pantazides, Brooke G; Perez, Jonas W; Winkeljohn, W Rucks; Garton, Joshua W; Thomas, Jerry D; Blake, Thomas A; Johnson, Rudolph C
2016-05-01
Chlorine is a public health concern and potential threat due to its high reactivity, ease and scale of production, widespread industrial use, bulk transportation, massive stockpiles and history as a chemical weapon. This work describes a new, sensitive and rapid stable isotope dilution method for the retrospective detection and quantitation of two chlorine adducts. The biomarkers 3-chlorotyrosine (Cl-Tyr) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (Cl2-Tyr) were isolated from the pronase digest of chlorine exposed whole blood, serum or plasma by solid-phase extraction (SPE), separated by reversed-phase HPLC and detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). The calibration range is 2.50-1,000 ng/mL (R(2)≥ 0.998) with a lowest reportable limit (LRL) of 2.50 ng/mL for both analytes, an accuracy of ≥93% and an LOD of 0.443 ng/mL for Cl-Tyr and 0.396 ng/mL for Cl2-Tyr. Inter- and intra-day precision of quality control samples had coefficients of variation of ≤10% and ≤7.0%, respectively. Blood and serum samples from 200 healthy individuals and 175 individuals with chronic inflammatory disease were analyzed using this method to assess background levels of chlorinated tyrosine adducts. Results from patients with no known inflammatory disease history (healthy) showed baseline levels of
The Bursting of the Dam (Infinite Sets, Countable and Otherwise).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Francis, Richard L.
1992-01-01
Examines infinite sets and cardinality classifications of empty, finite but not empty, and infinite through discussions of numbers that fall into particular categories. Categories discussed include perfect numbers, Mersenne primes, pseudoprimes, and transcendental numbers. Discusses the Null Or Infinite Set Effect (NOISE) and infinitude resulting…
Effects of dilution on vehicle emissions of primary particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayden, K. L.; Li, S.; Liggio, G.; McCurdy, M.; Chan, T.; Rostkowski, J.
2009-12-01
Dilution of primary aerosols from vehicles into the ambient atmosphere can change their physical and chemical characteristics. In order to study these processes, experiments were conducted in an engine testing facility at Environment Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. Exhaust from a light duty diesel engine was vented into a constant volume sampling (CVS) system where it underwent primary dilution at an ambient temperature of 25oC, leading to a primary dilution ratio of 10-15. From the CVS, the exhaust was further diluted using a combination of a Dekati ejection diluter and mixing with zero air in a flow tube, achieving secondary dilution ratios of up to 3000. Particle and gas measurements were made through multi-ports in the CVS and the flow tube using an SMPS, FMPS, AMS, and SP2, and instruments to measure CO, CO2, NOx, and total hydrocarbons (THC). Preliminary results indicate that regardless of dilution ratios, primary particles contain significant amounts of organic material that appear to reside on small black carbon cores. With increasing dilution ratios, the primary particle sizes become progressively smaller, suggesting volatilization of the adsorbed organic material. Results from various engine operating modes (simulating different driving conditions) will be presented.
Dry Dilution Refrigerator with High Cooling Power
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlig, K.
2008-03-01
We present the construction concept and cooling capacity measurements of a 3,4He dilution refrigerator (DR), which was pre-cooled by a commercial pulse tube refrigerator (PTR). No cryogens are needed for the operation of this type of cryostat. The condensation of the helium mash was done in an integrated Joule-Thomson circuit, which was part of the dilution unit. The composition of the dilution unit was standard, but its components (still, heat exchangers, mixing chamber) were designed for high 3He flow. For thermometry, calibrated RuO chip resistance thermometers were available. In order to condense the mixture before an experiment, the fridge was operated like a Joule-Thomson liquefier with a relatively high inlet pressure (4 bar), where the liquid fraction of the circulating 3,4He mixture was accumulated in the dilution unit. The condensation took about 2 hours, and after 2 more hours of running, the temperature of the mixing chamber approached its minimum temperature of 10 mK. The maximum flow rate of the fridge was 1 mmol/s, and the refrigeration capacity of the mixing chamber was 700 μW at 100 mK. High cooling capacity, ease of operation and reliability distinguish this type of milli-Kelvin cooler.
Dilution refrigeration for space applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Israelsson, U. E.; Petrac, D.
1990-01-01
Dilution refrigerators are presently used routinely in ground based applications where temperatures below 0.3 K are required. The operation of a conventional dilution refrigerator depends critically on the presence of gravity. To operate a dilution refrigerator in space many technical difficulties must be overcome. Some of the anticipated difficulties are identified in this paper and possible solutions are described. A single cycle refrigerator is described conceptually that uses forces other than gravity to function and the stringent constraints imposed on the design by requiring the refrigerator to function on the earth without using gravity are elaborated upon.
Infinite Maxwell fisheye inside a finite circle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yangjié; Chen, Huanyang
2015-12-01
This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional heterogeneous imaging medium composed of an isotropic refractive index. We exploit conformal-mapping to transfer the full Maxwell fisheye into a finite circle. Unlike our previous design that requires a mirror of Zhukovski airfoil shape, this approach can work without a mirror, while offering a comparable imaging resolution. This medium may also be used as an isotropic gradient index lens to transform a light source inside it into two identical sources of null interference. A merit of this approach is reduction of the near-zero-index area from an infinite zone into a finite one, which shall ease its realization.
The Great Celestial Numbers - The Infinitely Big and The Infinitely Small
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teodorani, M.
2009-11-01
This book is a travel that brings the reader to penetrate dimensionally the infinitely small and the infinitely large in the Universe, ranging from quarks to galaxies, and to compare these extreme numbers with the numbers that people encounters in normal life here on Earth. Several numerical examples are illustrated all over the text in a sort of scientific orienteering that describes dimensionally the realms of space, time and energy. The last part of the book shows how all spatial and temporal dimensions disappear when the mechanism of quantum entanglement is considered.
Dilution jet mixing program, supplementary report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; White, C.
1986-01-01
The velocity and temperature distributions predicted by a 3-D numerical model and experimental measurements are compared. Empirical correlations for the jet velocity trajectory developed are presented. The measured velocity distributions for all test cases of phase through phase 3 are presented in the form of contour and oblique plots. quantification of the effects of the following on the jet mixing characteristics with a confined crossflow are: (1) orifice geometry momentum flux ratio and density ratio; (2) nonuniform mainstream temperature and velocity profiles upstream of dilution orifices; (3) cold versus hot jet injection; (4) cross-stream flow are a convergence as encountered in practical dilution zone geometries; (5) 2-D slot versus circular orifices; (6) discrete noncirculcer orifices; (7) single-sided versus opposed jets; (8) single row of jets.
Intermittency in dilute granular flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Wenxuan; Zhang, Qiang; Wylie, Jonathan J.
2016-07-01
In this letter, we show that dilute granular systems can exhibit a type of intermittency that has no analogue in gas dynamics. We consider a simple system in which a very dilute set of granular particles falls under gravity through a nozzle. This setting is analogous to the classical problem of high-speed nozzle flow in the study of compressible gases. It is well known that very dilute granular systems exhibit behavior qualitatively similar to gases, and that gas flowing through a nozzle does not exhibit intermittency. Nevertheless, we show that the intermittency in dilute granular nozzle flows can occur and corresponds to complicated transitions between supersonic and subsonic regimes. We also provide detailed explanations of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.
Mutelet, Fabrice; Jaubert, Jean-Noël
2006-01-13
Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of 29 organic compounds in two room temperature ionic liquids were determined using inverse gas chromatography. The measurements were carried out at different temperatures between 323.15 and 343.15K. To establish the influence of concurrent retention mechanisms on the accuracy of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate, phase loading studies of the net retention volume per gram of packing as a function of the percent phase loading were used. It is shown that most of the solutes are retained largely by partition with a small contribution from adsorption on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and that the n-alkanes are retained predominantly by interfacial adsorption on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate. PMID:16310203
3D magnetometer for a dilution refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uchaikin, S.; Likhachev, A.; Cioata, F.; Perminov, I.; Sanghera, H.; Singh, I.; Spear, P.; Chavez, P.; Han, X.; Petroff, C.; Rich, C.
2012-12-01
In this report, we describe a development of a three dimensional system for measurements of magnetic field at a wide temperature range of 300K-4K. The system is based on 8 AMR sensors and allows for control of the magnetic environment in a dilution refrigerator during the cool down of a superconducting processor. With a low noise signal processing electronics and a special sensor saturation circuit, a magnetic induction resolution below of 1 nT was achieved.
Infinite densities for Lévy walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rebenshtok, A.; Denisov, S.; Hänggi, P.; Barkai, E.
2014-12-01
Motion of particles in many systems exhibits a mixture between periods of random diffusive-like events and ballistic-like motion. In many cases, such systems exhibit strong anomalous diffusion, where low-order moments <|x (t ) |q> with q below a critical value qc exhibit diffusive scaling while for q >qc a ballistic scaling emerges. The mixed dynamics constitutes a theoretical challenge since it does not fall into a unique category of motion, e.g., the known diffusion equations and central limit theorems fail to describe both aspects. In this paper we resolve this problem by resorting to the concept of infinite density. Using the widely applicable Lévy walk model, we find a general expression for the corresponding non-normalized density which is fully determined by the particles velocity distribution, the anomalous diffusion exponent α , and the diffusion coefficient Kα. We explain how infinite densities play a central role in the description of dynamics of a large class of physical processes and discuss how they can be evaluated from experimental or numerical data.
Configuration interaction calculations with infinite angular = expansions
Goldman, S.P.; Glickman, T.
1996-05-01
The Modified Configuration Interaction (MCI) method improves the angular convergence of Configuration Interaction (CI) calculations by several orders of magnitude by mixing a priori a large number of angular basis functions. With MCI one can therefore use basis functions with very large angular momentum quantum numbers, overcoming an important limitation of conventional CI. Although this is desirable given the excellent convergence obtained, the large number of angular integrations and the calculation of n-j symbols with large values of l to high accuracy, make the angular calculations lengthy. In this work a new angular representation for CI calculations is presented that is much more efficient and powerful. Instead of the large number of angular functions of MCI the authors use a basis set containing an infinite linear combination of angular functions. All the necessary integrations involving these infinite expansions are done in closed form and are actually easy and fast to compute. The linear coefficients in the angular expansion are optimized in terms of a few non-linear parameters. Several examples will be presented with applications to two-electron systems.
Kroll, Jesse H; Cross, Eben S; Hunter, James F; Pai, Sidhant; Wallace, Lisa M M; Croteau, Philip L; Jayne, John T; Worsnop, Douglas R; Heald, Colette L; Murphy, Jennifer G; Frankel, Sheila L
2015-04-01
The high atmospheric concentrations of toxic gases, particulate matter, and acids in the areas immediately surrounding volcanoes can have negative impacts on human and ecological health. To better understand the atmospheric fate of volcanogenic emissions in the near field (in the first few hours after emission), we have carried out real-time measurements of key chemical components of the volcanic plume from Kı̅lauea on the Island of Hawai'i. Measurements were made at two locations, one ∼ 3 km north-northeast of the vent and the other 31 km to the southwest, with sampling at each site spanning a range of meteorological conditions and volcanic influence. Instrumentation included a sulfur dioxide monitor and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor, allowing for a measurement of the partitioning between the two major sulfur species (gas-phase SO2 and particulate sulfate) every 5 min. During trade wind conditions, which sent the plume toward the southwest site, sulfur partitioning exhibited a clear diurnal pattern, indicating photochemical oxidation of SO2 to sulfate; this enabled the quantitative determination of plume age (5 h) and instantaneous SO2 oxidation rate (2.4 × 10(-6) s(-1) at solar noon). Under stagnant conditions near the crater, the extent of SO2 oxidation was substantially higher, suggesting faster oxidation. The particles within the plume were extremely acidic, with pH values (controlled largely by ambient relative humidity) as low as -0.8 and strong acidity (controlled largely by absolute sulfate levels) up to 2200 nmol/m(3). The high variability of sulfur partitioning and particle composition underscores the chemically dynamic nature of volcanic plumes, which may have important implications for human and ecological health. PMID:25734883
Statistical Mechanics of Infinite Gravitating Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saslaw, William C.
2008-01-01
The cosmological many-body problem was stated over 300 years ago, but its solution is quite recent and still incomplete. Imagine an infinite expanding universe essentially containing a very large number of objects moving in response to their mutual gravitational forces. What will be the spatial and velocity distributions of these objects and how will they evolve? This question fascinates on many levels. Though inherently non-linear, it turns out to be one of the few analytically solvable problems of statistical mechanics with long range forces. The partition function can be calculated. From this all the thermodynamic properties of the system can be obtained for the grand canonical ensemble. They confirm results derived independently directly from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The behavior of infinite gravitating systems is quite different from their finite relations such as star clusters. Infinite gravitating systems have regimes of negative specific heat, an unusual type of phase transition, and a very close relation to the observed large-scale structure of our universe. This last feature provides an additional astronomical motivation, especially since the statistical mechanics may be generalized to include effects of dark matter haloes around galaxies. Previously the cosmological many-body problem has mostly been studied using the BBGKY hierarchy (not so suitable in the non-linear regime) and by direct computer integrations of the objects' orbits. The statistical mechanics agrees with and substantially extends these earlier results. Most astrophysicists had previously thought that a statistical thermodynamic approach would not be applicable because: a) many-body gravitational systems have no rigorous equilibrium state, b) the unshielded nature of the long-range force would cause the partition function to diverge on large scales, and c) point masses would produce divergences on small scales. However, deeper considerations show that these are not
Infinite Index Subfactors and the GICAR Categories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Vaughan F. R.; Penneys, David
2015-10-01
Given a II1-subfactor of arbitrary index, we show that the rectangular GICAR category, also called the rectangular planar rook category, faithfully embeds as A - A bimodule maps among the bimodules . As a corollary, we get a lower bound on the dimension of the centralizer algebras for infinite index subfactors, and we also get that is nonabelian for , where is the Jones tower for . We also show that the annular GICAR/planar rook category acts as maps amongst the A-central vectors in , although this action may be degenerate. We prove these results in more generality using bimodules. The embedding of the GICAR category builds on work of Connes and Evans, who originally found GICAR algebras inside Temperley-Lieb algebras with finite modulus.
Nonlinear Shear Instabilities in an Infinite Slab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nepveu, M.
1982-08-01
The dynamical evolution of an infinite slab moving in denser and noisy (turbulent) surroundings is investigated with a 2D hydrodynamic code. The applicability of the results to astrophysical jets is discussed. Inviscid beams show internal shocks at regular intervals of a few beamwidths. Kinks are not obvious. In viscous beams shocks are less outspoken, but turbulence is triggered with maximum scales of a few beamwidths. These viscous beams broaden. Linear stability analysis may hold up to a few e-folding times, although the seed disturbance field is not infinitesimal. The computations suggest that viscous astrophysical beams may become blurred quite suddenly and may give rise to sudden change in radiation patterns (NGC 1265).
Simulating infinite vortex lattices in superfluids.
Mingarelli, Luca; Keaveny, Eric E; Barnett, Ryan
2016-07-20
We present an efficient framework to numerically treat infinite periodic vortex lattices in rotating superfluids described by the Gross-Pitaevskii theory. The commonly used split-step Fourier (SSF) spectral methods are inapplicable to such systems as the standard Fourier transform does not respect the boundary conditions mandated by the magnetic translation group. We present a generalisation of the SSF method which incorporates the correct boundary conditions by employing the so-called magnetic Fourier transform. We test the method and show that it reduces to known results in the lowest-Landau-level regime. While we focus on rotating scalar superfluids for simplicity, the framework can be naturally extended to treat multicomponent systems and systems under more general 'synthetic' gauge fields. PMID:27219843
Simulating infinite vortex lattices in superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mingarelli, Luca; Keaveny, Eric E.; Barnett, Ryan
2016-07-01
We present an efficient framework to numerically treat infinite periodic vortex lattices in rotating superfluids described by the Gross–Pitaevskii theory. The commonly used split-step Fourier (SSF) spectral methods are inapplicable to such systems as the standard Fourier transform does not respect the boundary conditions mandated by the magnetic translation group. We present a generalisation of the SSF method which incorporates the correct boundary conditions by employing the so-called magnetic Fourier transform. We test the method and show that it reduces to known results in the lowest-Landau-level regime. While we focus on rotating scalar superfluids for simplicity, the framework can be naturally extended to treat multicomponent systems and systems under more general ‘synthetic’ gauge fields.
Hanff, Erik; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Yanchev, Georgi Radoslavov; Maassen, Norbert; Haghikia, Arash; Tsikas, Dimitrios
2016-03-01
= 0.82, P < 0.0001) but did not correlate with hArg (r = 0.17, P = 0.52). The plasma concentrations of hArg, GAA and Arg measured in 9 patients suffering from stroke or transitory ischemic attack were 1.8 ± 0.6, 2.7 ± 0.4 and 82 ± 17 µM. The ratio values of the hArg, GAA and Arg concentrations measured after removal of plasma proteins by methanol precipitation or ultrafiltration were 0.94 ± 0.1, 0.94 ± 0.08, and 0.88 ± 0.07, respectively. Simultaneous measurement of hArg and GAA in human plasma may allow assessment of AGAT activity in vivo with respect both to GAA and to hArg and their relationship in health, disease, nutrition and pharmacotherapy. PMID:26573540
Algebraic independence properties related to certain infinite products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Taka-aki
2011-09-01
In this paper we establish algebraic independence of the values of a certain infinite product as well as its all successive derivatives at algebraic points other than its zeroes, using the fact that the logarithmic derivative of an infinite product gives a partial fraction expansion. Such an infinite product is generated by a linear recurrence. The method used for proving the algebraic independence is based on the theory of Mahler functions of several variables.
Precision of a field method for determination of pH in dilute lakes
Turk, J.T.
1986-01-01
Replicate pH measurements in three dilute lakes made during extreme conditions indicate that pH can be measured in the field with a variance due to measurement error of 0.005 unit. Error of the field technique in measuring the pH of dilute solutions in the laboratory ranges from less than 0.01 unit in dilute strong-acid solutions to about 0.05 unit in air-saturated deionized water.
Chao, Mu-Rong; Shih, Ying-Ming; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chang, Yuan-Jhe; Lin, Bo-Huei; Hu, Chiung-Wen
2016-04-01
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infection. Traditionally, the presence of white blood cells and microorganisms in the urine provides objective evidence for UTI diagnosis. Here, we describe the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure the nitrite and nitrate levels in urine and investigate the potential of this method for UTI diagnosis. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode. After adding (15)N-labeled internal standards and derivatizing with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN), the urinary nitrite content was directly analyzed by LC-MS/MS, whereas the urinary nitrate was first reduced to nitrite before derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis. The derivatization of nitrite and enzymatic reduction of nitrate were optimized. This method was then applied to 241 healthy subjects and 73 UTI patients. Optimization tests revealed that 1 mL of crude urine required at least 6.25 μmol of DAN to completely derivatize nitrite and 2.5 U of nitrate reductase to completely reduce nitrate to nitrite. Urinary analysis showed that the urinary concentration of nitrite and the nitrite/nitrate ratio were higher in UTI patients than in healthy subjects. Compared with the dipstick-based urinary nitrite test and using LC-MS/MS to determine the nitrite concentration (sensitivity: 23-25%), the nitrite/nitrate ratio was significantly more sensitive (95%) and exhibited a satisfactory specificity (91%) in the screening of UTIs. Taken together, the nitrite/nitrate ratio, which reflects the reducing ability of pathogenic bacteria, could be a better method for the diagnosis of UTIs that is not subject to variations in urine specimen quality. PMID:26829019
Surugaya, Naoki; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Verbruggen, André; Wellum, Roger
2008-02-01
A stable solid spike for the measurement of uranium and plutonium content in nitric acid solutions of spent nuclear fuel by isotope dilution mass spectrometry has been prepared at the European Commission Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements in Belgium. The spike contains about 50 mg of uranium with a 19.838% (235)U enrichment and 2 mg of plutonium with a 97.766% (239)Pu abundance in each individual ampoule. The dried materials were covered with a thin film of cellulose acetate butyrate as a protective organic stabilizer to resist shocks encountered during transportation and to eliminate flaking-off during long-term storage. It was found that the cellulose acetate butyrate has good characteristics, maintaining a thin film for a long time, but readily dissolving on heating with nitric acid solution. The solid spike containing cellulose acetate butyrate was certified as a reference material with certified quantities: (235)U and (239)Pu amounts and uranium and plutonium amount ratios, and was validated by analyzing spent fuel dissolver solutions of the Tokai reprocessing plant in Japan. This paper describes the preparation, certification and validation of the solid spike coated with a cellulose derivative. PMID:18270417
Angelides, Kimon; Matsunami, Risë K.; Engler, David A.
2015-01-01
Background: We evaluated the accuracy, precision, and linearity of the In Touch® blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS), a new color touch screen and cellular-enabled blood glucose meter, using a new rapid, highly precise and accurate 13C6 isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method (IDLC-MS). Methods: Blood glucose measurements from the In Touch® BGMS were referenced to a validated UPLC-MRM standard reference measurement procedure previously shown to be highly accurate and precise. Readings from the In Touch® BGMS were taken over the blood glucose range of 24-640 mg/dL using 12 concentrations of blood glucose. Ten In Touch® BGMS and 3 lots of test strips were used with 10 replicates at each concentration. A lay user study was also performed to assess the ease of use. Results: At blood glucose concentrations <75 mg/dL 100% of the measurements are within ±8 mg/dL from the true reference standard; at blood glucose levels >75 mg/dL 100% of the measurements are within ±15% of the true reference standard. 100% of the results are within category A of the consensus grid. Within-run precision show CV < 3.72% between 24-50 mg/dL and CV<2.22% between 500 and 600 mg/dL. The results show that the In Touch® meter exceeds the minimum criteria of both the ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 standards. The results from a user panel show that 100% of the respondents reported that the color touch screen, with its graphic user interface (GUI), is well labeled and easy to navigate. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first touch screen glucose meter and the first study where accuracy of a new BGMS has been measured against a true primary reference standard, namely IDLC-MS. PMID:26002836
Infinite invariant density determines statistics of time averages for weak chaos.
Korabel, N; Barkai, E
2012-02-10
Weakly chaotic nonlinear maps with marginal fixed points have an infinite invariant measure. Time averages of integrable and nonintegrable observables remain random even in the long time limit. Temporal averages of integrable observables are described by the Aaronson-Darling-Kac theorem. We find the distribution of time averages of nonintegrable observables, for example, the time average position of the particle, x[over ¯]. We show how this distribution is related to the infinite invariant density. We establish four identities between amplitude ratios controlling the statistics of the problem. PMID:22401047
Dynamics of Bubbles Rising in Finite and Infinite Media
C.C. Maneri; P.F. Vassallo
2000-10-27
The dynamic behavior of single bubbles rising in quiescent liquid Suva (R134a) in a duct has been examined through the use of a high speed video system. Size, shape and velocity measurements obtained with the video system reveal a wide variety of characteristics for the bubbles as they rise in both finite and infinite media. This data, coupled with previously published data for other working fluids, has been used to assess and extend a rise velocity model given by Fan and Tsuchiya. As a result of this assessment, a new rise velocity model has been developed which maintains the physically consistent characteristics of the surface tension in the distorted bubbly regime. In addition, the model is unique in that it covers the entire range of bubble sizes contained in the spherical, distorted and planar slug regimes.
Pang, Yu; Liu, Yu-Shan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie
2016-04-01
In this paper, SH bulk/surface waves propagating in the corresponding infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric (PE)/piezomagnetic (PM) and PM/PE periodically layered composites are investigated by two methods, the stiffness matrix method and the transfer matrix method. For a semi-infinite PE/PM or PM/PE medium, the free surface is parallel to the layer interface. Both PE and PM materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic solids. Dispersion equations are derived by the stiffness/transfer matrix methods, respectively. The effects of electric-magnetic (ME) boundary conditions at the free surface and the layer thickness ratios on dispersion curves are considered in detail. Numerical examples show that the results calculated by the two methods are the same. The dispersion curves of SH surface waves are below the bulk bands or inside the frequency gaps. The ratio of the layer thickness has an important effect not only on the bulk bands but also on the dispersion curves of SH surface waves. Electric and magnetic boundary conditions, respectively, determine the dispersion curves of SH surface waves for the PE/PM and PM/PE semi-infinite structures. The band structures of SH bulk waves are consistent for the PE/PM and PM/PE structures, however, the dispersive behaviors of SH surface waves are indeed different for the two composites. The realization of the above-mentioned characteristics of SH waves will make it possible to design PE/PM acoustic wave devices with periodical structures and achieve the better performance. PMID:26836289
Stone, P.J.; Bryan-Rhadfi, J.; Lucey, E.C.; Ciccolella, D.E.; Crombie, G.; Faris, B.; Snider, G.L.; Franzblau, C. )
1991-08-01
The accuracy of methods employed to measure the elastin-specific crosslinks, desmosine (DES) and isodesmosine (IDES), has been called into question because contaminants in the urine may cause elevated values. In the present study urine samples were spiked with a known amount of (14C)DES and refluxed in 6 N HCl. Sephadex G-15 chromatography of the hydrolyzed urine employed to remove contaminants. DES and IDES were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as well as by amino acid analysis. The amount of isotope recovered was used to determine losses during the overall procedure and the isotope dilution to calculate the amounts of endogenous DES and IDES originally present in the urine. Because similar values were obtained by both methods, the more rapid HPLC method was used for all succeeding analyses. In one experiment, the DES amounts in urine collected from hamsters for 3 days after intratracheal treatment with human neutrophil elastase (300 micrograms) or porcine pancreatic elastase (300 micrograms) were 0.212 {plus minus} 0.012 (mean {plus minus} SEM, two measurements on a single pool) and 0.816 {plus minus} 0.005 (two measurements) microgram per hamster per day, respectively. Urine from control hamsters had a mean value of 0.074 {plus minus} 0.008 (eight measurements) microgram per hamster per day. The HNE- and PPE-treated hamsters had mean linear intercept values of 119 and 159% of control values, respectively, giving a positive correlation between increase in airspace size and elevation of urinary DES.
Infinite networks and variation of conductance functions in discrete Laplacians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jorgensen, Palle; Tian, Feng
2015-04-01
For a given infinite connected graph G = (V, E) and an arbitrary but fixed conductance function c, we study an associated graph Laplacian Δc; it is a generalized difference operator where the differences are measured across the edges E in G; and the conductance function c represents the corresponding coefficients. The graph Laplacian (a key tool in the study of infinite networks) acts in an energy Hilbert space ℋE computed from c. Using a certain Parseval frame, we study the spectral theoretic properties of graph Laplacians. In fact, for fixed c, there are two versions of the graph Laplacian, one defined naturally in the l2 space of V and the other in ℋE. The first is automatically selfadjoint, but the second involves a Krein extension. We prove that, as sets, the two spectra are the same, aside from the point 0. The point zero may be in the spectrum of the second, but not the first. We further study the fine structure of the respective spectra as the conductance function varies, showing now how the spectrum changes subject to variations in the function c. Specifically, we study an order on the spectra of the family of operators Δc, and we compare it to the ordering of pairs of conductance functions. We show how point-wise estimates for two conductance functions translate into spectral comparisons for the two corresponding graph Laplacians, involving a certain similarity: We prove that point-wise ordering of two conductance functions c on E induces a certain similarity of the corresponding (Krein extensions computed from the) two graph Laplacians Δc. The spectra are typically continuous, and precise notions of fine-structure of spectrum must be defined in terms of equivalence classes of positive Borel measures (on the real line). Our detailed comparison of spectra is analyzed this way.
Kerstel, Erik R T; Piersma, Theunis; Piersma, Theunis A J; Gessaman, James A; Gessaman, G Jim; Dekinga, Anne; Meijer, Harro A J; Visser, G Henk
2006-03-01
We have used the isotope dilution technique to study changes in the body composition of a migratory shorebird species (Red Knot, Calidris canutus) through an assessment of the amount of body water in it. Birds were quantitatively injected with a dose of water with elevated concentrations of 2H, (17)O, and (18)O. Thereafter, blood samples were taken and distilled. The resulting water samples were analysed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (for 2H and (18)O only) and a stable isotope ratio infrared laser spectrometry (2H, (17)O, and (18)O) to yield estimates of the amount of body water in the birds, which in turn could be correlated to the amount of body fat. Here, we validate laser spectrometry against mass spectrometry and show that all three isotopes may be used for body water determinations. This opens the way to the extension of the doubly labelled water method, used for the determination of energy expenditure, to a triply labelled water method, incorporating an evaporative water loss correction on a subject-by-subject basis or, alternatively, the reduction of the analytical errors by statistically combining the (17)O and (18)O measurements. PMID:16500750
Field observations of dilution on the Ipanema Beach outfall.
Roldão, J; Carvalho, J L; Roberts, P J
2001-01-01
Field observations of the Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro, ocean sewage outfall are presented. Measurements of dilution and other wastefield characteristics were obtained by adding dye tracer to the effluent and measuring in-situ. Simultaneous measurements of oceanographic conditions were made by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, thermistor strings, and profiling instruments. Four experiments were performed, two during unstratified conditions when the plume was surfacing, and two during conditions of strong stratification when the plume was submerged. The minimum dilution varied from 30 to 130. The measurements reflect the worst case conditions as the campaigns were all made for weak currents. PMID:11443984
Infinite statistics condensate as a model of dark matter
Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir
2013-11-01
In some models, dark matter is considered as a condensate bosonic system. In this paper, we prove that condensation is also possible for particles that obey infinite statistics and derive the critical condensation temperature. We argue that a condensed state of a gas of very weakly interacting particles obeying infinite statistics could be considered as a consistent model of dark matter.
The Infinite Challenge: Levels of Conceiving the Endlessness of Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Falk, Ruma
2010-01-01
To conceive the infinity of integers, one has to realize: (a) the unending possibility of increasing/decreasing numbers (potential infinity), (b) that the cardinality of the set of numbers is greater than that of any finite set (actual infinity), and (c) that the leap from a finite to an infinite set is itself infinite (immeasurable gap). Three…
A New Look at Infinitives in Business and Technical Writing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myers, Marshall
2002-01-01
Argues the infinitive phrase has not been taken seriously in writing because writers have been too concerned with Bishop Robert Lowth's proscription against the split infinitive. Notes that examination of three types of technical prose (instructions, annual reports, and "junk mail") reveals that more than one sentence in four contains an…
Use of Physical Analogs to Evaluate Infinite Series.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Epstein, D. J.; Smith, A. C.
1979-01-01
Discusses the paradoxes that can result when physical examples lead to infinite series. Two examples are presented: the Madelung energy of a one-dimensional array of alternating positive and negative charges, and a point charge between infinite parallel plates. (BB)
Solenoid magnetic fields calculated from superposed semi-infinite solenoids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, G. V.; Flax, L.
1966-01-01
Calculation of a thick solenoid coils magnetic field components is made by a superposition of the fields produced by four solenoids of infinite length and zero inner radius. The field produced by this semi-infinite solenoid is dependent on only two variables, the radial and axial field point coordinates.
Axion cosmology, lattice QCD and the dilute instanton gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borsanyi, Sz.; Dierigl, M.; Fodor, Z.; Katz, S. D.; Mages, S. W.; Nogradi, D.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.; Szabo, K. K.
2016-01-01
Axions are one of the most attractive dark matter candidates. The evolution of their number density in the early universe can be determined by calculating the topological susceptibility χ (T) of QCD as a function of the temperature. Lattice QCD provides an ab initio technique to carry out such a calculation. A full result needs two ingredients: physical quark masses and a controlled continuum extrapolation from non-vanishing to zero lattice spacings. We determine χ (T) in the quenched framework (infinitely large quark masses) and extrapolate its values to the continuum limit. The results are compared with the prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation (DIGA). A nice agreement is found for the temperature dependence, whereas the overall normalization of the DIGA result still differs from the non-perturbative continuum extrapolated lattice results by a factor of order ten. We discuss the consequences of our findings for the prediction of the amount of axion dark matter.
Strongly-correlated fermionic matter in the dilute limit
Mihaila, Bogdan; Cardenas, Andres L
2008-01-01
We study 'the ground-state properties of the many-body system composed of spin-l/2 fermions interacting via a zero-range, infinite scattering length contact interaction.' Sometimes referred to as the George Bertsch problem, it is of particular interest in astrophysics in connection with the equation of state for neutron matter and has been revisited recently with the advent of experimental studies of the BCS to BEC crossover in ultracold fermionic atom gases. We will show that new insights into the solution to this problem are obtained in the context of a coupled-cluster (exp S) expansion approach to calculating the equation of state for dilute fermionic systems and that present state-of-the-art Monte Carlo calculations have not yet provided the definitive answer.
Hearing and Infinite-Period Bifurcations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Seung; Bozovic, Dolores; Bruinsma, Robijn
2011-03-01
Auditory and vestibular systems present us with biological sensors that can achieve sub-nanometer sensitivity orders of magnitude in the dynamic range, while operating in a fluid-immersed, room-temperature environment. While the mechanisms behind this extreme sensitivity and robustness of the inner ear have not been fully explained, nonlinear response has been shown to be crucial to its proper function. Recent experiments have recorded innate motility of hair cells of the bullfrog sacculus, under varying degrees of steady-state offset. The bundle deflection was shown to suppress or enhance spontaneous oscillations, and affect the sensitivity of the mechanical response. We will present a theoretical model based on cubic nonlinearity and show that in different parameter regimes, the system can be induced to cross a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, an infinite-period bifurcation, or a multi-critical point. Comparing the numerical simulation to the experiment, we will present evidence that the multi-critical point corresponds most closely to the dynamic state of saccular hair cells. Further, we will discuss the crossing of the bifurcation, and the sensitivity of the phase-locked response in various frequency regimes.
Control system for an infinitely variable transmission
Sakai, Y.
1986-12-09
This patent describes a control system for an infinitely variable belt-drive transmission having a selector device including a drive range position and a neutral position, a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc, and a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc. It also has a belt engaged with both the pulleys, a hydraulic control circuit for supplying oil to the servo chambers and for draining the servo chambers. The hydraulic control circuit is provided with a pressure regulator valve for providing a line pressure and a transmission ratio control valve for applying the line pressure to the servo chamber of the drive pulley. The improvement described here comprises: a lubricating oil circuit provided in the hydraulic control circuit for supplying lubricating oil to the drive and driven pulleys; a passage for supplying a part of the lubricating oil to the servo chamber of the drive pulley; a check valve provided in the passage for preventing the reverse flow of the lubricating oil; and a select position detecting valve for enabling the supply of the lubricating oil to the servo chamber at the selection of the neutral position.
Control system for an infinitely variable transmission
Morimoto, Y.
1987-07-21
A system is described for controlling an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine through a clutch for driving a motor vehicle. The transmission comprises a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc, a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc of the driven pulley, and a belt engaged with both pulleys. The system includes a pressure oil circuit having a pump for supplying pressurized oil, and a transmission ratio control valve having a spool for controlling the pressurized oil so as to move the disc of the drive pulley to change the actual transmission ratio of the transmission. The improvement in the system comprises: first means for moving the spool of the transmission ratio control valve; second means responsive to disengagement of the clutch, when speed of the vehicle is below a predetermined speed, for producing a coasting signal; third means responsive to the coasting signal for producing a drive pulley speed set signal; fourth means responsive to the drive pulley speed set signal for producing a shifting signal representing a quantity of shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve in upshifting direction, and fifth means responsive to the shifting signal for shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve in the upshifting direction via the first means thereby decreasing the drive pulley speed.
Countable Infinite Sets and Inflationary Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezin, Alexander A.
2000-04-01
Unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics (E.Wigner) recasts pythagorean "all things are made of numbers". Hypotheses of eternal inflation (A.Linde) and/or quantum branching (H.Everett) buttressed by platonic pressure principle (PPP) resonates with "for deriving all from nothing there suffices a single principle" (G.W.Leibnitz). Externalization of PPP uses patterns of factorizations of super-long integers (tower exponents, TE). PPP-TE explosive emergence of space-time-matter-energy rests on infinite complexity of factorizational and iterational patterns of integers. Thus, PPP is direct translation of metaphysical principle to physics of material world ("metaphysics works"). Countability of quantum states of bounded systems allows "listing" of all states of all baby universes through Godel-like counting with TE of primes. At each breeding step upper (Nth) prime of TE stack p1...pN counts (by multidimensional Cantor diagonal scheme) all universes AND all states in them. Exclusive use of primes in TEs assures non-overlapping counting. Cantor counting with non-crossing subsets of primes (and actual PPP emergence) can proceed both in "forward" and "backward" direction in megauniversal ("Newtonian") time. format.
Motion of a mirror under infinitely fluctuating quantum vacuum stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qingdi; Unruh, William G.
2014-04-01
The actual value of the quantum vacuum energy density is generally regarded as irrelevant in nongravitational physics. However, this paper presents a nongravitational system where this value does have physical significance. The system is a mirror with an internal degree of freedom that interacts with a scalar field. We find that the force exerted on the mirror by the field vacuum undergoes wild fluctuations with a magnitude proportional to the value of the vacuum energy density, which is mathematically infinite. This infinite fluctuating force gives infinite instantaneous acceleration of the mirror. We show that this infinite fluctuating force and infinite instantaneous acceleration make sense because they will not result in infinite fluctuation of the mirror's position. On the contrary, the mirror's fluctuating motion will be confined in a small region due to two special properties of the quantum vacuum: (1) the vacuum friction that resists the mirror's motion and (2) the strong anticorrelation of vacuum fluctuations that constantly changes the direction of the mirror's infinite instantaneous acceleration and thus cancels the effect of infinities to make the fluctuation of the mirror's position finite.
On the Atkinson-Johnson Homogeneous Solution for Infinite Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laraudogoitia, Jon Pérez
2015-05-01
This paper shows that the general homogeneous solution to equations of evolution for some infinite systems of particles subject to mutual binary collisions does not depend on a single arbitrary constant but on a potentially infinite number of such constants. This is because, as I demonstrate, a single self-excitation of a system of particles can depend on a potentially infinite number of parameters. The recent homogeneous solution obtained by Atkinson and Johnson, which depends on a single arbitrary constant, is only a particular case.
Inequality for the infinite-cluster density in Bernoulli percolation
Chayes, J.T.; Chayes, L.
1986-04-21
Under a certain assumption (which is satisfied whenever there is a dense infinite cluster in the half-space), we prove a differential inequality for the infinite-cluster density, P/sub infinity/(p), in Bernoulli percolation. The principal implication of this result is that if P/sub infinity/(p) vanishes with critical exponent ..beta.., then ..beta.. obeys the mean-field bound ..beta..< or =1. As a corollary, we also derive an inequality relating the backbone density, the truncated susceptibility, and the infinite-cluster density.
Tight Lower Bound for Percolation Threshold on an Infinite Graph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, Kathleen E.; Pryadko, Leonid P.
2014-11-01
We construct a tight lower bound for the site percolation threshold on an infinite graph, which becomes exact for an infinite tree. The bound is given by the inverse of the maximal eigenvalue of the Hashimoto matrix used to count nonbacktracking walks on the original graph. Our bound always exceeds the inverse spectral radius of the graph's adjacency matrix, and it is also generally tighter than the existing bound in terms of the maximum degree. We give a constructive proof for existence of such an eigenvalue in the case of a connected infinite quasitransitive graph, a graph-theoretic analog of a translationally invariant system.
Parabosons, parafermions, and explicit representations of infinite-dimensional algebras
Stoilova, N. I.; Van der Jeugt, J.
2010-03-15
The goal of this paper is to give an explicit construction of the Fock spaces of the parafermion and the paraboson algebra, for an infinite set of generators. This is equivalent to constructing certain unitary irreducible lowest weight representations of the (infinite rank) Lie algebra so({infinity}) and of the Lie superalgebra osp(1 vertical bar {infinity}). A complete solution to the problem is presented, in which the Fock spaces have basis vectors labeled by certain infinite but stable Gelfand-Zetlin patterns, and the transformation of the basis is given explicitly. Alternatively, the basis vectors can be expressed as semi-standard Young tableaux.
Interpretation of pile-oscillation measurements by the integral data assimilation technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noguere, G.; Archier, P.; Gruel, A.; Leconte, P.; Bernard, D.
2011-02-01
The Integral Data Assimilation (IDA) was designed to deduce values of infinite dilute neutron cross-sections from specific integral measurements. Performances of the IDA procedure are demonstrated with pile-oscillation measurements carried out on 155Gd in the pool type reactor MINERVE (CEA Cadarache, France). At low neutron energies, the Integral Data Assimilation is based on the Neutron Resonance Shape Analysis technique routinely used in neutron spectroscopy measurements. As a result of the IDA analysis, a value of (61 900±1500) b has been obtained for the 155Gd thermal capture cross-section at ( Eth=25.3 meV).
An Infinite Mixture Model for Coreference Resolution in Clinical Notes.
Liu, Sijia; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhary, Vipin; Li, Dingcheng
2016-01-01
It is widely acknowledged that natural language processing is indispensable to process electronic health records (EHRs). However, poor performance in relation detection tasks, such as coreference (linguistic expressions pertaining to the same entity/event) may affect the quality of EHR processing. Hence, there is a critical need to advance the research for relation detection from EHRs. Most of the clinical coreference resolution systems are based on either supervised machine learning or rule-based methods. The need for manually annotated corpus hampers the use of such system in large scale. In this paper, we present an infinite mixture model method using definite sampling to resolve coreferent relations among mentions in clinical notes. A similarity measure function is proposed to determine the coreferent relations. Our system achieved a 0.847 F-measure for i2b2 2011 coreference corpus. This promising results and the unsupervised nature make it possible to apply the system in big-data clinical setting. PMID:27595047
An Infinite Mixture Model for Coreference Resolution in Clinical Notes
Liu, Sijia; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhary, Vipin; Li, Dingcheng
2016-01-01
It is widely acknowledged that natural language processing is indispensable to process electronic health records (EHRs). However, poor performance in relation detection tasks, such as coreference (linguistic expressions pertaining to the same entity/event) may affect the quality of EHR processing. Hence, there is a critical need to advance the research for relation detection from EHRs. Most of the clinical coreference resolution systems are based on either supervised machine learning or rule-based methods. The need for manually annotated corpus hampers the use of such system in large scale. In this paper, we present an infinite mixture model method using definite sampling to resolve coreferent relations among mentions in clinical notes. A similarity measure function is proposed to determine the coreferent relations. Our system achieved a 0.847 F-measure for i2b2 2011 coreference corpus. This promising results and the unsupervised nature make it possible to apply the system in big-data clinical setting. PMID:27595047
Gacs quantum algorithmic entropy in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces
Benatti, Fabio; Oskouei, Samad Khabbazi Deh Abad, Ahmad Shafiei
2014-08-15
We extend the notion of Gacs quantum algorithmic entropy, originally formulated for finitely many qubits, to infinite dimensional quantum spin chains and investigate the relation of this extension with two quantum dynamical entropies that have been proposed in recent years.
A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone
2014-01-01
We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.
Optimal feedback control infinite dimensional parabolic evolution systems: Approximation techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, H. T.; Wang, C.
1989-01-01
A general approximation framework is discussed for computation of optimal feedback controls in linear quadratic regular problems for nonautonomous parabolic distributed parameter systems. This is done in the context of a theoretical framework using general evolution systems in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Conditions are discussed for preservation under approximation of stabilizability and detectability hypotheses on the infinite dimensional system. The special case of periodic systems is also treated.
Stoichiometric controls of mercury dilution by growth.
Karimi, Roxanne; Chen, Celia Y; Pickhardt, Paul C; Fisher, Nicholas S; Folt, Carol L
2007-05-01
Rapid growth could significantly reduce methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in aquatic organisms by causing a greater than proportional gain in biomass relative to MeHg (somatic growth dilution). We hypothesized that rapid growth from the consumption of high-quality algae, defined by algal nutrient stoichiometry, reduces MeHg concentrations in zooplankton, a major source of MeHg for lake fish. Using a MeHg radiotracer, we measured changes in MeHg concentrations, growth and ingestion rates in juvenile Daphnia pulex fed either high (C:P = 139) or low-quality (C:P = 1317) algae (Ankistrodesmus falcatus) for 5 d. We estimated Daphnia steady-state MeHg concentrations, using a biokinetic model parameterized with experimental rates. Daphnia MeHg assimilation efficiencies (approximately 95%) and release rates (0.04 d(-1)) were unaffected by algal nutrient quality. However, Daphnia growth rate was 3.5 times greater when fed high-quality algae, resulting in pronounced somatic growth dilution. Steady-state MeHg concentrations in Daphnia that consumed high-quality algae were one-third those of Daphnia that consumed low-quality algae due to higher growth and slightly lower ingestion rates. Our findings show that rapid growth from high-quality food consumption can significantly reduce the accumulation and trophic transfer of MeHg in freshwater food webs. PMID:17456601
Stoichiometric controls of mercury dilution by growth
Karimi, Roxanne; Chen, Celia Y.; Pickhardt, Paul C.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Folt, Carol L.
2007-01-01
Rapid growth could significantly reduce methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in aquatic organisms by causing a greater than proportional gain in biomass relative to MeHg (somatic growth dilution). We hypothesized that rapid growth from the consumption of high-quality algae, defined by algal nutrient stoichiometry, reduces MeHg concentrations in zooplankton, a major source of MeHg for lake fish. Using a MeHg radiotracer, we measured changes in MeHg concentrations, growth and ingestion rates in juvenile Daphnia pulex fed either high (C:P = 139) or low-quality (C:P = 1317) algae (Ankistrodesmus falcatus) for 5 d. We estimated Daphnia steady-state MeHg concentrations, using a biokinetic model parameterized with experimental rates. Daphnia MeHg assimilation efficiencies (≈95%) and release rates (0.04 d−1) were unaffected by algal nutrient quality. However, Daphnia growth rate was 3.5 times greater when fed high-quality algae, resulting in pronounced somatic growth dilution. Steady-state MeHg concentrations in Daphnia that consumed high-quality algae were one-third those of Daphnia that consumed low-quality algae due to higher growth and slightly lower ingestion rates. Our findings show that rapid growth from high-quality food consumption can significantly reduce the accumulation and trophic transfer of MeHg in freshwater food webs. PMID:17456601
A century of indicator dilution technique.
Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W
2014-01-01
This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals and human during the next decades. Multiple indicators, radioactive tracers, inlet-outlet detection and residue detection were introduced in the 1950s and 1960s, and refined along with the development of indicator kinetics. From the 1970s, a wide clinical use in the study of heart, brain, lungs, liver and kidneys developed, and powerful computers in the 1980s and 1990s accorded the technique a new dimension. Today, the indicator dilution technique, on one hand, is applied in the same way as 100 years ago, on the other hand it forms the basis of quantitative SPECT, positron emission tomography, and dynamic MR scans. The technique still undergoes refinement and elaboration as a lasting concept with a high potential for further development. PMID:23869947
Dilute acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment.
Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E
2009-01-01
Exposure of cellulosic biomass to temperatures of about 120-210 degrees C can remove most of the hemicellulose and produce cellulose-rich solids from which high glucose yields are possible with cellulase enzymes. Furthermore, the use of dilute sulfuric acid in this pretreatment operation can increase recovery of hemicellulose sugars substantially to about 85-95% of the maximum possible versus only about 65% if no acid is employed. The use of small-diameter tubes makes it possible to employ high solids concentrations similar to those preferred for commercial operations, with rapid heat-up, good temperature control, and accurate closure of material balances. Mixed reactors can be employed to pretreat larger amounts of biomass than possible in such small-diameter tubes, but solids concentrations are limited to about 15% or less to provide uniform temperatures. Pretreatment of large amounts of biomass at high solids concentrations is best carried out using direct steam injection and rapid pressure release, but closure of material balances in such "steam gun" devices is more difficult. Although flow of water alone or containing dilute acid is not practical commercially, such flow-through configurations provide valuable insight into biomass deconstruction kinetics not possible in the batch tubes, mixed reactors, or steam gun systems. PMID:19768619
A Microgravity Helium Dilution Cooler
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roach, Pat R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
We are developing a He-3-He-4 dilution cooler to operate in microgravity. It uses charcoal adsorption pumps and heaters for its operation; it has no moving parts. It currently operates cyclically to well below 0.1 K and we have designed a version to operate continuously. We expect that the continuous version will be able to provide the long-duration cooling that many experiments need at temperatures down to 0.040 K. More importantly, such a dilution cooler could provide the precooling that enables the use of adiabatic demagnetization techniques that can reach temperatures below 0.001 K. At temperatures below 0.002 K many fascinating microgravity experiments on superfluid He-3 become possible. Among the possibilities are: research into a superfluid He-3 gyroscope, study of the nucleation of the B-phase of superfluid He-3 when the sample is floating out of contact with walls, study of the anisotropy of the surface tension of the B-phase, and NMR experiments on tiny free-floating clusters of superfluid He-3 atoms that should model the shell structure of nuclei.
Isotope dilution study of exchangeable oxygen in premium coal samples
Finseth, D.
1987-01-01
A difficulty with improving the ability to quantitate water in coal is that truly independent methods do not always exist. The true value of any analytical parameter is always easier to determine if totally independent methods exist to determine that parameter. This paper describes the possibility of using a simple isotope dilution technique to determine the water content of coal and presents a comparison of these isotope dilution measurements with classical results for the set of Argonne coals from the premium coal sample program. Isotope dilution is a widely used analytical method and has been applied to the analysis of water in matrices as diverse as chicken fat, living humans, and coal. Virtually all of these applications involved the use of deuterium as the diluted isotope. This poses some problems if the sample contains a significant amount of exchangeable organic hydrogen and one is interested in discriminating exchangeable organic hydrogen from water. This is a potential problem in the coal system. To avoid this potential problem /sup 18/O was used as the diluted isotope in this work.
[Wound healing by homeopathic silica dilutions in mice].
Oberbaum, M; Markovits, R; Weisman, Z; Kalinkevits, A; Bentwich, Z
1992-08-01
Highly diluted solutions of silica are widely used in homeopathic medicine to treat lesions such as chronic wounds, ulcers, and abscesses. We tested the therapeutic effects of homeopathic dilutions of silica on induced chronic wounds. Holes were made in the ears of mice by dental wire, which then remained hanging from the ear to cause persistent mechanical irritation. In each experiment 3 or 4 groups of 10 mice each were treated by adding homeopathic dilutions of silica (10(-10), 10(-60), 10(-400)) and of saline (10(-10), respectively, to the drinking water of the mice for 4-20 days. The size of the wound holes was measured every second day (grades 0-4) and/or by an objective image analysis system. The results showed that in 7/11 experiments the ear holes of the silica-treated animals were significantly smaller (p less than 0.05-0.001) and healed faster than in those treated with saline. Also the therapeutic effect increased progressively with increase in dilution of the silica (10(-10) less than 10(-60) less than 10(-400)). These results show that homeopathic dilutions of silica (even well beyond Avogadro's number) clearly have a therapeutic effect on wound healing and that our experimental model for studying wound healing is a very useful tool for such studies. PMID:1325402
Evaluation of two gas-dilution methods for instrument calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, A., Jr.
1977-01-01
Two gas dilution methods were evaluated for use in the calibration of analytical instruments used in air pollution studies. A dual isotope fluorescence carbon monoxide analyzer was used as the transfer standard. The methods are not new but some modifications are described. The rotary injection gas dilution method was found to be more accurate than the closed loop method. Results by the two methods differed by 5 percent. This could not be accounted for by the random errors in the measurements. The methods avoid the problems associated with pressurized cylinders. Both methods have merit and have found a place in instrument calibration work.
Roberts, C.B.; Zhang, J.; Chateauneuf, J.E.; Brennecke, J.F.
1995-06-21
The absolute reactivity of triplet benzophenone ({sup 3}BP) and benzyl free radical (PhCH{sub 2}) toward molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in supercritical CO{sub 2} and CHF{sub 3} has been measured by laser flash photolysis (LFP). The transient reactants may be considered to be infinitely dilute solutes reacting with a gaseous cosolvent in a supercritical fluid mixture. Both reactants were found to undergo kinetically controlled reactivity with O{sub 2} and the measured bimolecular rate constants (k{sub hi}) were found to decrease with a decrease in solvent density at reduced pressures between 1.0 and 2.5. These results are consistent with solute reactivity with a `nonattractive` cosolvent. The results are compared with those previously obtained for the reaction of {sup 3}BP with an `attractive` cosolvent, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, in supercritical CO{sub 2} and CHF{sub 3}, in which enhanced {sup 3}BP reactivity was observed due to preferential cosolvent/solute solvation. Integral equation theory has also been applied to model these ternary systems, and the results indicate how the strengths of local solvation forces can influence kinetically controlled reactions in supercritical fluids. 36 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.
Thermal diffusion in dilute nanofluids investigated by photothermal interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philip, J.; Nisha, M. R.
2010-03-01
We have carried out a theoretical analysis of the dependence of the particle mass fraction on the thermal diffusivity of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids (dilute nanofluids). The analysis takes in to account adsorption of an ordered layer of solvent molecules around the nanoparticles. It is found that thermal diffusivity decreases with mass fraction for sufficiently small particle sizes. Beyond a critical particle size thermal diffusivity begins to increase with mass fraction for the same system. The results have been verified experimentally by measuring the thermal diffusivity of dilute suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) medium. The effect is attributed to Kapitza resistance of thermal waves in the medium.
Gas dilution system results and application to acid rain utilities
Jolley-Souders, K.; Geib, R.; Dunn, C.
1997-12-31
In 1997, the United States EPA will remove restrictions preventing acid rain utilities from using gas dilution systems for calibration or linearity studies for continuous emissions monitoring, Test Method 205 in 40CFR51 requires that a gas dilution system must produce calibration gases whose measured values are within {+-}2% of predicted values. This paper presents the evaluation of the Environics/CalMat 2020 Dilution System for use in calibration studies. Internal studies show that concentrations generated by this unit are within {+-}0.5% of predicted values. Studies are being conducted by several acid rain utilities to evaluate the Environics/CalMat system using single minor component calibration standards. In addition, an internally generated study is being performed to demonstrate the system`s accuracy using a multi-component gas mixture. Data from these tests will be presented in the final version of the paper.
Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system
Reimann, Robert C.
1984-01-01
A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.
Residual Resistivity of Dilute Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vora, Aditya M.
The residual resistivity for 156 dilute alloys of 19 hosts of different groups of the periodic table has been studied on the basis of the single parametric model potential formalism. Ashcroft's empty core model (EMC) potential is explored for the first time with five different local field correction functions, viz, Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F), and Sarkar et al. (S) to investigate the effect of the exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. The comparison of the presently computed outcomes with the available theoretical and experimental data is highly encouraging. The investigation of residual resistivity is found to be quite sensitive to the selection of local field correction function, showing a significant variation with the change in the function.
Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides
Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.
2003-12-23
Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.
Desynchronization in diluted neural networks
Zillmer, Ruediger; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro
2006-09-15
The dynamical behavior of a weakly diluted fully inhibitory network of pulse-coupled spiking neurons is investigated. Upon increasing the coupling strength, a transition from regular to stochasticlike regime is observed. In the weak-coupling phase, a periodic dynamics is rapidly approached, with all neurons firing with the same rate and mutually phase locked. The strong-coupling phase is characterized by an irregular pattern, even though the maximum Lyapunov exponent is negative. The paradox is solved by drawing an analogy with the phenomenon of 'stable chaos', i.e., by observing that the stochasticlike behavior is 'limited' to an exponentially long (with the system size) transient. Remarkably, the transient dynamics turns out to be stationary.
XAFS in dilute magnetic semiconductors.
Sun, Zhihu; Yan, Wensheng; Yao, Tao; Liu, Qinghua; Xie, Yi; Wei, Shiqiang
2013-10-14
X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy has experienced a rapid development in the last four decades and has proved to be a powerful structure characterization technique in the study of local environments in condensed matter. In this article, we first introduce the XAFS basic principles including theory, data analysis and experiment in some detail. Then we attempt to make a review on the applications of XAFS to the study of atomic and electronic structure in dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) systems. The power of XAFS in characterizing this interesting material system, such as determining the occupation sites and distribution of the dopants, detecting the presence of metal clusters or secondary phases, as well as identifying the defect types and dopant valence, will be illuminated by selected examples. This review should be of interest both to newcomers in the DMS field and to an interdisciplinary community of researchers working in synthesis, characterization and utilization of DMS materials. PMID:23884341
Sibling dilution hypothesis: a regression surface analysis.
Marjoribanks, K
2001-08-01
This study examined relationships between sibship size (the number of children in a family), birth order, and measures of academic performance, academic self-concept, and educational aspirations at different levels of family educational resources. As part of a national longitudinal study of Australian secondary school students data were collected from 2,530 boys and 2,450 girls in Years 9 and 10. Regression surfaces were constructed from models that included terms to account for linear, interaction, and curvilinear associations among the variables. Analysis suggests the general propositions (a) family educational resources have significant associations with children's school-related outcomes at different levels of sibling variables, the relationships for girls being curvilinear, and (b) sibling variables continue to have small significant associations with affective and cognitive outcomes, after taking into account variations in family educational resources. That is, the investigation provides only partial support for the sibling dilution hypothesis. PMID:11729548
An investigation of the critical liquid-vapor properties of dilute KCl solutions
Potter, R.W., II; Babcock, R.S.; Czamanske, G.K.
1976-01-01
The three parameters that define the critical point, temperature, pressure, and volume have been experimentally determined by means of filling studies in a platinum-lined system for five KCl solutions ranging from 0.006 to 0.568 m. The platinum-lined vessels were used to overcome the problems with corrosion experienced by earlier workers. The critical temperature (tc), pressure (Pc), and volume (Vc) were found to fit the equations {Mathematical expression} from infinite dilution to 1.0 m. ?? 1976 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
Chialvo, Ariel A; Chialvo, Sebastian; Simonson, J Michael {Mike}
2009-01-01
Truncated series expansions for the species partial molar fugacity coefficients in ternary dilute systems are derived for the systematic study of mixed solutes in highly compressible media. Then, explicit molecularbased expressions for the expansion coefficients are drawn in terms of direct and total correlation function integrals associated with the actual microstructure of the reference infinite dilute system. Finally, these selfconsistent formal expressions are used (a) to derive the corresponding expressions for special systems, (b) to highlight, and discuss with examples from the literature, some frequent pitfalls in the molecular modeling of these mixtures leading to serious thermodynamic inconsistencies, and (c) to illustrate how the proposed expressions reduce exactly, in the zero-density limit, to those for the partial molar properties of mixtures obeying the 1st-order truncated virial equation of state.
Direct observation of infinite NiO2 planes in LaNiO2 films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeda, Ai; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Irie, Hiroshi; Naito, Michio; Yamamoto, Hideki
2016-06-01
Epitaxial thin films of LaNiO2, which is an oxygen-deficient perovskite with “infinite layers” of Ni1+O2, were prepared by a low-temperature reduction of LaNiO3 single-crystal films on NdGaO3 substrates. We report the high-angle annular dark-field and bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy observations of infinite NiO2 planes of c-axis-oriented LaNiO2 epitaxial thin films with a layer stacking sequence of NiO2/La/NiO2. Resistivity measurements on the films show T 2 dependence between 400 and 150 K and a negative Hall coefficient.
Structural analysis of infinite layer superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Vecchio, A.; Tapfer, L.; Aruta, C.; Balestrino, G.; Petrocelli, G.
1996-07-01
In this work we investigate the structural properties of SrCuO2/CaCuO2 infinite layer superlattices by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and x-ray specular reflectivity measurements. The infinite layer superlattices are grown by pulsed laser deposition on slightly misoriented (001) SrTiO3 substrates. We demonstrate that good quality superlattices with few monolayers thick constituent SrCuO2 and CaCuO2 layers can be grown having an interface roughness of less than 3-4 Å. A strain analysis of the epitaxial film shows that the SrCuO2 layers are completely relaxed with respect to the substrate. However, the CaCuO2 layers are elastically strained with respect to the SrCuO2 layer. The Poisson ratio of the CaCuO2 is estimated to be 0.40±0.08.
On the problem of quantum control in infinite dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilela Mendes, R.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.
2011-04-01
In the framework of bilinear control of the Schrödinger equation, it has been proved that the reachable set has a dense complement in {S} \\cap {H}^{2}. Hence, in this setting, exact quantum control in infinite dimensions is not possible. On the other hand, it is known that there is a simple choice of operators which, when applied to an arbitrary state, generate dense orbits in Hilbert space. Compatibility of these two results is established in this paper and, in particular, it is proved that the closure of the reachable set of bilinear control is dense in {S} \\cap {H}^{2}. The requirements for controllability in infinite dimensions are also related to the properties of the infinite-dimensional unitary group.
40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, purified air, or... for background concentrations (40 CFR 1066.610 for vehicle testing). (2) Measure these...
Dynamics with infinitely many derivatives: the initial value problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnaby, Neil; Kamran, Niky
2008-02-01
Differential equations of infinite order are an increasingly important class of equations in theoretical physics. Such equations are ubiquitous in string field theory and have recently attracted considerable interest also from cosmologists. Though these equations have been studied in the classical mathematical literature, it appears that the physics community is largely unaware of the relevant formalism. Of particular importance is the fate of the initial value problem. Under what circumstances do infinite order differential equations possess a well-defined initial value problem and how many initial data are required? In this paper we study the initial value problem for infinite order differential equations in the mathematical framework of the formal operator calculus, with analytic initial data. This formalism allows us to handle simultaneously a wide array of different nonlocal equations within a single framework and also admits a transparent physical interpretation. We show that differential equations of infinite order do not generically admit infinitely many initial data. Rather, each pole of the propagator contributes two initial data to the final solution. Though it is possible to find differential equations of infinite order which admit well-defined initial value problem with only two initial data, neither the dynamical equations of p-adic string theory nor string field theory seem to belong to this class. However, both theories can be rendered ghost-free by suitable definition of the action of the formal pseudo-differential operator. This prescription restricts the theory to frequencies within some contour in the complex plane and hence may be thought of as a sort of ultra-violet cut-off. Our results place certain recent attempts to study inflation in the context of nonlocal field theories on a much firmer mathematical footing.
Infinite tension limit of the pure spinor superstring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berkovits, Nathan
2014-03-01
Mason and Skinner recently constructed a chiral infinite tension limit of the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz superstring which was shown to compute the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae for tree-level d = 10 Yang-Mills amplitudes and the NS-NS sector of tree-level d = 10 supergravity amplitudes. In this letter, their chiral infinite tension limit is generalized to the pure spinor superstring which computes a d = 10 superspace version of the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae for tree-level d = 10 super-Yang-Mills and supergravity amplitudes.
Superlinear nonlocal fractional problems with infinitely many solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binlin, Zhang; Molica Bisci, Giovanni; Servadei, Raffaella
2015-07-01
In this paper we study the existence of infinitely many weak solutions for equations driven by nonlocal integrodifferential operators with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. A model for these operators is given by the fractional Laplacian where s ∈ (0, 1) is fixed. We consider different superlinear growth assumptions on the nonlinearity, starting from the well-known Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz condition. In this framework we obtain three different results about the existence of infinitely many weak solutions for the problem under consideration, by using the Fountain Theorem. All these theorems extend some classical results for semilinear Laplacian equations to the nonlocal fractional setting.
Gravitational waves from kinks on infinite cosmic strings
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori
2010-05-15
Gravitational waves emitted by kinks on infinite strings are investigated using detailed estimations of the kink distribution on infinite strings. We find that gravitational waves from kinks can be detected by future pulsar timing experiments such as SKA for an appropriate value of the string tension, if the typical size of string loops is much smaller than the horizon at their formation. Moreover, the gravitational wave spectrum depends on the thermal history of the Universe and hence it can be used as a probe into the early evolution of the Universe.
Robust Consumption-Investment Problem on Infinite Horizon
Zawisza, Dariusz
2015-12-15
In our paper we consider an infinite horizon consumption-investment problem under a model misspecification in a general stochastic factor model. We formulate the problem as a stochastic game and finally characterize the saddle point and the value function of that game using an ODE of semilinear type, for which we provide a proof of an existence and uniqueness theorem for its solution. Such equation is interested on its own right, since it generalizes many other equations arising in various infinite horizon optimization problems.
Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report
Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.
2000-05-31
Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.
Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report
Riley, Michael F.
2000-05-31
Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.
Tracer-dilution method indicates flowrate through compressor
Lagus, P.L.; Flanagan, B.S. ); Peterson, M.E. ); Clowney, S.L. )
1991-02-25
A technique for measuring compressor flowrate through an operating natural-gas centrifugal compressor has been tested and found to have a precisions approaching {plus minus}1.5%. The technique employs constant-flow tracer dilution. Testing demonstrated that use of a critical-flow nozzle to inject a constant, known flow of tracer into a flowing natural-gas stream is feasible. Effects of potential pulsation on a tracer flow measurement appear to be eliminated by this technique. With experimental and operational streamlining, the constant-flow tracer dilution technique is capable of being used to measure the flowrate through operating centrifugal compressors with sufficient precisions and accuracy to allow compressor operating characteristics to be determined. This technique is especially useful in situations in which an orifice-flow measurement cannot be performed because of physical space limits or economic considerations.
Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets
Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A.
2014-01-01
Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops. PMID:25379096
The ring phenomenon of diluted blood droplets.
Ramsthaler, Frank; Schlote, J; Wagner, C; Fiscina, J; Kettner, M
2016-05-01
Bloodstain pattern analysis is occasionally required in practical forensic casework. Misinterpretations may occur in cases in which diluted bloodstains are formed either within the course of the crime or during cleaning attempts after the original crime. The resulting pale or diluted aspect of the bloodstains may also be produced by passive serum separation. To differentiate between diluted and non-diluted stains and the artifacts of pure serum separation, dripping experiments were performed using droplets of multiple sizes and dilutions dripped onto common indoor and fabric surfaces. In addition, pools of blood of different volumes were applied to solid surfaces with different inclinations to determine the conditions and properties of serum separation. This study yielded morphological characteristics that enable differentiation between stains of diluted and non-diluted blood: a prominent ring phenomenon indicates dilution with water. To elucidate the underlying physical mechanism of particle distribution within a blood stain, photomicrographs were taken during the drying process. The so-called contact line pinning effect was identified as the formation mechanism of this ring phenomenon. Serum separation was highly dependent on the applied blood volume, the ambient temperature, the time elapsed since the initial deposition, and the degree of floor inclination. PMID:26718842
Commutative law for products of infinitely large isotropic random matrices.
Burda, Zdzislaw; Livan, Giacomo; Swiech, Artur
2013-08-01
Ensembles of isotropic random matrices are defined by the invariance of the probability measure under the left (and right) multiplication by an arbitrary unitary matrix. We show that the multiplication of large isotropic random matrices is spectrally commutative and self-averaging in the limit of infinite matrix size N→∞. The notion of spectral commutativity means that the eigenvalue density of a product ABC... of such matrices is independent of the order of matrix multiplication, for example, the matrix ABCD has the same eigenvalue density as ADCB. In turn, the notion of self-averaging means that the product of n independent but identically distributed random matrices, which we symbolically denote by AAA..., has the same eigenvalue density as the corresponding power A(n) of a single matrix drawn from the underlying matrix ensemble. For example, the eigenvalue density of ABCCABC is the same as that of A(2)B(2)C(3). We also discuss the singular behavior of the eigenvalue and singular value densities of isotropic matrices and their products for small eigenvalues λ→0. We show that the singularities at the origin of the eigenvalue density and of the singular value density are in one-to-one correspondence in the limit N→∞: The eigenvalue density of an isotropic random matrix has a power-law singularity at the origin ~|λ|(-s) with a power sε(0,2) when and only when the density of its singular values has a power-law singularity ~λ(-σ) with a power σ=s/(4-s). These results are obtained analytically in the limit N→∞. We supplement these results with numerical simulations for large but finite N and discuss finite-size effects for the most common ensembles of isotropic random matrices. PMID:24032775
Stability of infinite slopes under transient partially saturated seepage conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godt, Jonathan W.; ŞEner-Kaya, BaşAk; Lu, Ning; Baum, Rex L.
2012-05-01
Prediction of the location and timing of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is desired by organizations responsible for hazard management and warnings. However, hydrologic and mechanical processes in the vadose zone complicate such predictions. Infiltrating rainfall must typically pass through an unsaturated layer before reaching the irregular and usually discontinuous shallow water table. This process is dynamic and a function of precipitation intensity and duration, the initial moisture conditions and hydrologic properties of the hillside materials, and the geometry, stratigraphy, and vegetation of the hillslope. As a result, pore water pressures, volumetric water content, effective stress, and thus the propensity for landsliding vary over seasonal and shorter time scales. We apply a general framework for assessing the stability of infinite slopes under transient variably saturated conditions. The framework includes profiles of pressure head and volumetric water content combined with a general effective stress for slope stability analysis. The general effective stress, or suction stress, provides a means for rigorous quantification of stress changes due to rainfall and infiltration and thus the analysis of slope stability over the range of volumetric water contents and pressure heads relevant to shallow landslide initiation. We present results using an analytical solution for transient infiltration for a range of soil texture and hydrological properties typical of landslide-prone hillslopes and show the effect of these properties on the timing and depth of slope failure. We follow by analyzing field-monitoring data acquired prior to shallow landslide failure of a hillside near Seattle, Washington, and show that the timing of the slide was predictable using measured pressure head and volumetric water content and show how the approach can be used in a forward manner using a numerical model for transient infiltration.
DAVINCI a Dilute Aperture Coronagraph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Michael
2009-01-01
The motivation for DAVINCI was originally to make use of the technology developed for space interferometers like SIM to build a coronagraph from four 1.1m telescopes that was dramatically lower in cost than a 4 5m filled aperture offaxis coronagraph. Our initial studies through team X have shown this cost savings to be real. But a more careful analysis showed that DAVINCI would have an inner working angle of 35mas a factor of 2 smaller than a 2 lambda/D 4 meter coronagraph or 70m external occulter, resulting in a 10X increase in the number of potential Earth-Clone targets. DAVINCI uses a nulling interferometer as a coronagraph, a nulling interferometer is one the few coronagraph architectures that are compatible with segmented and dilute aperture telescopes. Combined with a post coronagraph wavefront sensor several ultra-demanding tolerances of conventional coronagraphs can be relaxed by factors of 100. The post coronagraph wavefront sensor is also much less affected by local and exozodi background than wavefront sensors that use the science camera as the wavefront sensor. The post coronagraph interferometer is also used on ground based extreme AO coronagraphs, GPI, and P1640.
Application of the Thermodynamic Solution Model of Dilute Binary Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luáek, J.
1997-12-01
The thermodynamic solution model by Tanaka et al. for liquid binary systems was extended to solid binary systems. On the basis of this extension the activity coefficients of solute elements in the solid phase in infinite dilution for transition metals were calculated in Part I of this paper. The determination of the activity coefficients in both solid and liquid phases can enable one to predict the equilibrium segregation coefficient of the solute elements in transition metal base alloys without the knowledge of equilibrium binary phase diagrams. The model was applied on Ti, Zr and Hf-base dilute alloys at their melting points. The calculated values of equilibrium segregation coefficients are compared with values derived by other methods. The effect of the model parameters on the value of equilibrium segregation coefficients was discussed. Das thermodynamische Modell für flüssige binäre Systeme nach Tanaka wurde auf feste binäre Systeme ausgedehnt. Auf dieser Grundlage wurden die Aktivitätskoeffizienten der gelösten Elemente in der Solidusphase für die Übergangsmetalle in Teil I dieser Arbeit berechnet. Die Bestimmung der Aktivitätskoeffizienten in der Solidus- und Liquidusphase ermöglicht die Vorhersage des Gleichgewichtsverteilungskoeffizienten der gelösten Elemente in den Legierungen der Übergangsmetalle ohne Kenntnis ihrer Zustandsdiagramme. Das Modell wurde auf Ti, Zr und Hf-Legierungen im Bereich der Schmelztemperatur der Hauptkomponente angewandt. Die berechneten Werte der Gleichgewichtsverteilungskoeffizienten wurden mit den Werten anderer Methoden verglichen. Der Einfluss der Eingangsparameter in unserem Modell auf die Werte der Gleichgewichtsverteilungskoeffizienten wurde diskutiert.
Color-dilution alopecia in dogs.
Kim, Jae Hoon; Kang, Kyung Il; Sohn, Hyun Joo; Woo, Gye Hyeong; Jean, Young Hwa; Hwang, Eui Kyung
2005-09-01
Color-dilution alopecia is a relatively uncommon hereditary skin disease seen in "Blue" and other color-diluted dogs. This syndrome is associated with a color-dilution gene. The initial clinical signs are the gradual onset of a dry, dull and poor hair coat quality. Hair shafts and hair regrowth are poor, and follicular papules may develop and progress to frank comedones. Hair loss and comedo formation are usually most severe on the trunk, especially color-diluted area on the skin. Six cases of color-dilution alopecia are reported in 3 months to 10 years old dogs. The breeds of dogs are blue Doberman Pinscher, Miniature Pinscher, Dachshund, and Schnauzer. Grossly, extensive partial hair loss was seen on the skin. Histopathologically, the epidermis is relatively normal but may be hyperplastic. Hair follicles are characterized by atrophy and distortion. Heavily clumped melanin is present in the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles. PMID:16131833
Entanglement and local extremes at an infinite-order quantum phase transition
Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S.
2010-03-15
The characterization of an infinite-order quantum phase transition (QPT) by entanglement measures is analyzed. To this aim, we consider two closely related solvable spin-1/2 chains, namely, the Ashkin-Teller and the staggered XXZ models. These systems display a distinct pattern of eigenstates but exhibit the same thermodynamics, that is, the same energy spectrum. By performing exact diagonalization, we investigate the behavior of pairwise and block entanglement in the ground state of both models. In contrast with the XXZ chain, we show that pairwise entanglement fails in the characterization of the infinite-order QPT in the Ashkin-Teller model, although it can be achieved by analyzing the distance of the pair state from the separability boundary. Concerning block entanglement, we show that both XXZ and Ashkin-Teller models exhibit identical von Neumann entropies as long as a suitable choice of blocks is performed. Entanglement entropy is then shown to be able to identify the quantum phase diagram, even though its local extremes (either maximum or minimum) may also appear in the absence of any infinite-order QPT.
The physics of FEL in an infinite electron beam
Wang, G.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Webb, S.
2010-10-07
We solve linearized Vlasov-Maxwell FEL equations for a 3-D perturbation in the infinite electron beam with Lorentzian energy distributions using paraxial approximation. We present analytical solutions for various initial perturbations and discuss the effect of optical guiding in such system.
The infinite interface limit of multiple-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics
Dennis, G. R.; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J.; Hudson, S. R.
2013-03-15
We show the stepped-pressure equilibria that are obtained from a generalization of Taylor relaxation known as multi-region, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRXMHD) are also generalizations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (ideal MHD). We show this by proving that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, MRXMHD reduces to ideal MHD. Numerical convergence studies illustrating this limit are presented.
Plasmonic waves of a semi-infinite random nanocomposite
Moradi, Afshin
2013-10-15
The dispersion curves of the plasmonic waves of a semi-infinite random metal-dielectric nanocomposite, consisting of bulk metal embedded with dielectric inclusions, are presented. Two branches of p-polarized surface plasmon-polariton modes are found to exist. The possibility of experimentally observing the surface waves by attenuated total reflection is demonstrated.
Reparametrization of the Relativistic Infinitely Extended Charged Particle Action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadat, Hassan; Pourhassan, Behnam
2016-09-01
In this letter, relativistic infinitely extended particles formulated. Correct form of action with possibility of reparametrization obtained and effect of electric field considered. It may be one of the first step to re-introduce theory of every things given by Nakano and Hessaby many years ago.
Young Students Exploring Cardinality by Constructing Infinite Processes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahn, Ken; Sendova, Evgenia; Sacristan, Ana Isabel; Noss, Richard
2011-01-01
In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of computer programming activities aimed at introducing young students (9-13 years old) to the idea of infinity, and in particular, to the cardinality of infinite sets. This research was part of the "WebLabs" project where students from several European countries explored topics in…
Functional DNA: Teaching Infinite Series through Genetic Analogy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kowalski, R. Travis
2011-01-01
This article presents an extended analogy that connects infinite sequences and series to the science of genetics, by identifying power series as "DNA for a function." This analogy allows standard topics such as convergence tests or Taylor approximations to be recast in a "forensic" light as mathematical analogs of genetic concepts such as DNA…
On the sound fields of infinitely long strips.
Mellow, Tim; Kärkkäinen, Leo
2011-07-01
Exact solutions are derived for sound radiation from four kinds of infinitely-long strips: namely a rigid strip in a baffle of finite width, a resilient strip in free space, and a resilient or rigid strip in an infinite baffle. In one limit, the strip in a finite baffle becomes a rigid strip in free space and in the other, a line source in a finite baffle. Here "rigid" means that the surface velocity is uniform, whereas "resilient" means that the surface pressure is uniform, and the strip is assumed to have zero mass or stiffness, as if a force were driving the acoustic medium directly. According to the Babinet-Bouwkamp principle, radiation from a resilient strip in an infinite baffle is equivalent to diffraction of a plane wave through a slit in the same. Plots are shown for the radiation impedances, far-field directivity patterns, and on-axis pressure responses of the four kinds of strip. A simple relationship between the radiation admittance of the rigid strip in an infinite baffle and the resilient strip in free space is presented. The two-dimensional rectangular wave functions developed in this paper can be applied to related problems. PMID:21786886
The Limits of Some Infinite Families of Complex Contracting Mappings
Pagon, Dusan
2008-11-13
Self-similarity is strongly presented in modern mathematics and physics. We study a broad class of planar fractals--strongly self-similar sets of points in complex plane, obtained from a unit interval as geometric limits of certain infinite families of contracting mappings. Different 1-1 correspondences between the constructed set and the initial unit interval are established.
Infinite and Finite Games: Play and Visual Culture
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hicks, Laurie E.
2004-01-01
In this article, I shall argue for the value of conceptualizing, and practicing art education as a kind of play or game, drawing inspiration from the concepts of finite and infinite games articulated by philosopher James Carse (1986). In so doing, I seek to encourage a continuing dialogue with the assumptions that constrain the theoretical basis…
Finding sums for an infinite class of alternating series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-07-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the following form ?
Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-01-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…
Stability analysis of a stochastic logistic model with infinite delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Meng; Fan, Dejun; Wang, Ke
2013-09-01
This report is concerned with a stochastic logistic equation with infinite delay. We establish the sufficient conditions for global asymptotical stability of the zero solution and the positive equilibrium. Some classical results are improved and extended. Several numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate the main results.
Explaining the Distribution of Infinitives of Impersonals in Russian
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fortuin, Egbert
2011-01-01
In Russian infinitives of impersonal verbs have a peculiar distribution: they are not acceptable in most syntactic contexts, but there are also syntactic contexts in which they are perfectly acceptable. Based on a qualitative analysis of data from corpora, the Internet and an acceptability survey, it is argued that the restrictions on impersonals…
On the steady propagation of a semi-infinite crack
Paukshto, M.V.; Sulimov, M.G.
1994-12-25
We consider the rectilinear propagation of a semi-infinite crack with constant velocity in a crystal structure. We obtain the solutions of homogeneous boundary-value problems for the corresponding difference-differential operators in spaces of one and two dimensions. We give a justification of the computational aspect of the problem.
Extremely correlated Fermi liquids in the limit of infinite dimensions
Perepelitsky, Edward Sriram Shastry, B.
2013-11-15
We study the infinite spatial dimensionality limit (d→∞) of the recently developed Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquid (ECFL) theory (Shastry 2011, 2013) [17,18] for the t–J model at J=0. We directly analyze the Schwinger equations of motion for the Gutzwiller projected (i.e. U=∞) electron Green’s function G. From simplifications arising in this limit d→∞, we are able to make several exact statements about the theory. The ECFL Green’s function is shown to have a momentum independent Dyson (Mori) self energy. For practical calculations we introduce a partial projection parameter λ, and obtain the complete set of ECFL integral equations to O(λ{sup 2}). In a related publication (Zitko et al. 2013) [23], these equations are compared in detail with the dynamical mean field theory for the large U Hubbard model. Paralleling the well known mapping for the Hubbard model, we find that the infinite dimensional t–J model (with J=0) can be mapped to the infinite-U Anderson impurity model with a self-consistently determined set of parameters. This mapping extends individually to the auxiliary Green’s function g and the caparison factor μ. Additionally, the optical conductivity is shown to be obtainable from G with negligibly small vertex corrections. These results are shown to hold to each order in λ. -- Highlights: •Infinite-dimensional t–J model (J=0) studied within new ECFL theory. •Mapping to the infinite U Anderson model with self consistent hybridization. •Single particle Green’s function determined by two local self energies. •Partial projection through control variable λ. •Expansion carried out to O(λ{sup 2}) explicitly.
One-dimensional gravity in infinite point distributions.
Gabrielli, A; Joyce, M; Sicard, F
2009-10-01
The dynamics of infinite asymptotically uniform distributions of purely self-gravitating particles in one spatial dimension provides a simple and interesting toy model for the analogous three dimensional problem treated in cosmology. In this paper we focus on a limitation of such models as they have been treated so far in the literature: the force, as it has been specified, is well defined in infinite point distributions only if there is a centre of symmetry (i.e., the definition requires explicitly the breaking of statistical translational invariance). The problem arises because naive background subtraction (due to expansion, or by "Jeans swindle" for the static case), applied as in three dimensions, leaves an unregulated contribution to the force due to surface mass fluctuations. Following a discussion by Kiessling of the Jeans swindle in three dimensions, we show that the problem may be resolved by defining the force in infinite point distributions as the limit of an exponentially screened pair interaction. We show explicitly that this prescription gives a well defined (finite) force acting on particles in a class of perturbed infinite lattices, which are the point processes relevant to cosmological N -body simulations. For identical particles the dynamics of the simplest toy model (without expansion) is equivalent to that of an infinite set of points with inverted harmonic oscillator potentials which bounce elastically when they collide. We discuss and compare with previous results in the literature and present new results for the specific case of this simplest (static) model starting from "shuffled lattice" initial conditions. These show qualitative properties of the evolution (notably its "self-similarity") like those in the analogous simulations in three dimensions, which in turn resemble those in the expanding universe. PMID:19905274
An infinite-dimensional calculus for generalized connections on hypercubic lattices
Mendes, R. Vilela
2011-05-15
A space for gauge theories is defined, using projective limits as subsets of Cartesian products of homomorphisms from a lattice on the structure group. In this space, non-interacting and interacting measures are defined as well as functions and operators. From projective limits of test functions and distributions on products of compact groups, a projective gauge triplet is obtained, which provides a framework for the infinite-dimensional calculus in gauge theories. The gauge measure behavior on non-generic strata is also obtained.
Transient Effects in Planar Solidification of Dilute Binary Alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazuruk, Konstantin; Volz, Martin P.
2008-01-01
The initial transient during planar solidification of dilute binary alloys is studied in the framework of the boundary integral method that leads to the non-linear Volterra integral governing equation. An analytical solution of this equation is obtained for the case of a constant growth rate which constitutes the well-known Tiller's formula for the solute transient. The more physically relevant, constant ramping down temperature case has been studied both numerically and analytically. In particular, an asymptotic analytical solution is obtained for the initial transient behavior. A numerical technique to solve the non-linear Volterra equation is developed and the solution is obtained for a family of the governing parameters. For the rapid solidification condition, growth rate spikes have been observed even for the infinite kinetics model. When recirculating fluid flow is included into the analysis, the spike feature is dramatically diminished. Finally, we have investigated planar solidification with a fluctuating temperature field as a possible mechanism for frequently observed solute trapping bands.
Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul L.; Sonne, Anne T.; Balbarini, Nicola; Rosenberg, Louise; Binning, Philip J.
2015-01-01
An analytical solution to describe dilution and volatilization of a continuous groundwater contaminant plume into streams is developed for risk assessment. The location of groundwater plume discharge into the stream (discharge through the side versus bottom of the stream) and different distributions of the contaminant plume concentration (Gaussian, homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution) are considered. The model considering the plume discharged through the bank of the river, with a uniform concentration distribution was the most appropriate for risk assessment due to its simplicity and limited data requirements. The dilution and volatilization model is able to predict the entire concentration field, and thus the mixing zone, maximum concentration and fully mixed concentration in the stream. It can also be used to identify groundwater discharge zones from in-stream concentration measurement. The solution was successfully applied to published field data obtained in a large and a small Danish stream and provided valuable information on the risk posed by the groundwater contaminant plumes. The results provided by the dilution and volatilization model are very different to those obtained with existing point source models, with a distributed source leading to a larger mixing length and different concentration field. The dilution model can also provide recommendations for sampling locations and the size of impact zones in streams. This is of interest for regulators, for example when developing guidelines for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.
Rahman, G M Mizanur; Wolle, Mesay Mulugeta; Fahrenholz, Timothy; Kingston, H M Skip; Pamuku, Matt
2014-06-17
A biomonitoring method was developed for the determination of inorganic-, methyl-, and ethylmercury (Hg(2+), CH3Hg(+), and C2H5Hg(+), respectively) in whole blood by triple-spiking speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) using headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatographic (GC) separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection. After spiking the blood sample with isotopically enriched analogues of the analytes ((199)Hg(2+), CH3(200)Hg(+) and C2H5(201)Hg(+)), the endogenous Hg species were solubilized in 2.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 and equilibrated with the spikes using a microwave-enhanced protocol. The microwaved sample was treated with a 1% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium tetrapropylborate (buffered to pH 5.2), and the propylated Hg species were sampled in the HS using a Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane-coated SPME fiber. The extracted species were thermally desorbed from the fiber in the GC injection port and determined by GC-ICP-MS. The analytes were quantified, with simultaneous correction for their method-induced transformation, on the basis of the mathematical relationship in triple-spiking SIDMS. The method was validated using a bovine blood standard reference material (SRM 966, Level 2). Analysis of human blood samples demonstrated the accuracy and reproducibility of the method, which can detect the Hg species down to 30 pg g(-1) in blood. The validity of the analytical results found for the blood samples was demonstrated using mass balance by comparing the sum of the concentrations of the individual Hg species with the total Hg in the corresponding samples; the latter was determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) after decomposing the blood using EPA Method 3052 with single-spiking. PMID:24845130
Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions
Gebbie, Matthew A.; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.
2013-01-01
We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force–distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion–surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high–free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends. PMID:23716690
Infinite-randomness critical point in the two-dimensional disordered contact process.
Vojta, Thomas; Farquhar, Adam; Mast, Jason
2009-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium phase transition in the two-dimensional contact process on a randomly diluted lattice by means of large-scale Monte Carlo simulations for times up to 10;{10} and system sizes up to 8000x8000 sites. Our data provide strong evidence for the transition being controlled by an exotic infinite-randomness critical point with activated (exponential) dynamical scaling. We calculate the critical exponents of the transition and find them to be universal, i.e., independent of disorder strength. The Griffiths region between the clean and the dirty critical points exhibits power-law dynamical scaling with continuously varying exponents. We discuss the generality of our findings and relate them to a broader theory of rare region effects at phase transitions with quenched disorder. Our results are of importance beyond absorbing state transitions because, according to a strong-disorder renormalization group analysis, our transition belongs to the universality class of the two-dimensional random transverse-field Ising model. PMID:19257005
Theory of carrier mediated ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic oxides
Calderon, M.J. Das Sarma, S.
2007-11-15
We analyze the origin of ferromagnetism as a result of carrier mediation in diluted magnetic oxide semiconductors in the light of the experimental evidence reported in the literature. We propose that a combination of percolation of magnetic polarons at lower temperature and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida ferromagnetism at higher temperature may be the reason for the very high critical temperatures measured (up to {approx}700 K)
ESR study of AuEr dilute alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dokter, H. D.; Davidov, D.; Hoekstra, F. R.; Nieuwenhuys, G. J.
1981-06-01
ESR linewidth and signal intensity measurements of AuEr (0.2%, 1%, 3%) dilute alloys have been carried out as a function of temperature in order to resolve previous discrepancies regarding the crystal field splitting. The data analysis indicates a splitting of (16 ± 4) K between the Γ 7 ground state and the Γ (1)8 first excited state. No evidence for an additional broadening mechanism associated with Er-Er exchange interactions was observed.
Accelerated Gibbs Sampling for Infinite Sparse Factor Analysis
Andrzejewski, D M
2011-09-12
The Indian Buffet Process (IBP) gives a probabilistic model of sparse binary matrices with an unbounded number of columns. This construct can be used, for example, to model a fixed numer of observed data points (rows) associated with an unknown number of latent features (columns). Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are often used for IBP inference, and in this technical note, we provide a detailed review of the derivations of collapsed and accelerated Gibbs samplers for the linear-Gaussian infinite latent feature model. We also discuss and explain update equations for hyperparameter resampling in a 'full Bayesian' treatment and present a novel slice sampler capable of extending the accelerated Gibbs sampler to the case of infinite sparse factor analysis by allowing the use of real-valued latent features.
Conformal field theories with infinitely many conservation laws
Todorov, Ivan
2013-02-15
Globally conformal invariant quantum field theories in a D-dimensional space-time (D even) have rational correlation functions and admit an infinite number of conserved (symmetric traceless) tensor currents. In a theory of a scalar field of dimension D-2 they were demonstrated to be generated by bilocal normal products of free massless scalar fields with an O(N), U(N), or Sp(2N) (global) gauge symmetry [B. Bakalov, N. M. Nikolov, K.-H. Rehren, and I. Todorov, 'Unitary positive energy representations of scalar bilocal fields,' Commun. Math. Phys. 271, 223-246 (2007); e-print arXiv:math-ph/0604069v3; and 'Infinite dimensional Lie algebras in 4D conformal quantum field theory,' J. Phys. A Math Theor. 41, 194002 (2008); e-print arXiv:0711.0627v2 [hep-th
Infinite-Order Symmetries for Quantum Separable Systems
Miller, W.; Kalnins, E.G.; Kress, J.M.; Pogosyan, G.S.
2005-10-01
We develop a calculus to describe the (in general) infinite-order differential operator symmetries of a nonrelativistic Schroedinger eigenvalue equation that admits an orthogonal separation of variables in Riemannian n space. The infinite-order calculus exhibits structure not apparent when one studies only finite-order symmetries. The search for finite-order symmetries can then be reposed as one of looking for solutions of a coupled system of PDEs that are polynomial in certain parameters. Among the simple consequences of the calculus is that one can generate algorithmically a canonical basis for the space. Similarly, we can develop a calculus for conformal symmetries of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation if it admits R separation in some coordinate system. This leads to energy-shifting symmetries.
Predictive Rate-Distortion for Infinite-Order Markov Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzen, Sarah E.; Crutchfield, James P.
2016-06-01
Predictive rate-distortion analysis suffers from the curse of dimensionality: clustering arbitrarily long pasts to retain information about arbitrarily long futures requires resources that typically grow exponentially with length. The challenge is compounded for infinite-order Markov processes, since conditioning on finite sequences cannot capture all of their past dependencies. Spectral arguments confirm a popular intuition: algorithms that cluster finite-length sequences fail dramatically when the underlying process has long-range temporal correlations and can fail even for processes generated by finite-memory hidden Markov models. We circumvent the curse of dimensionality in rate-distortion analysis of finite- and infinite-order processes by casting predictive rate-distortion objective functions in terms of the forward- and reverse-time causal states of computational mechanics. Examples demonstrate that the resulting algorithms yield substantial improvements.
LES investigation of infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2014-12-01
The layouts of turbines affect the turbine wake interactions and thus the wind farm performance. The wake interactions in infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays are investigated and compared with infinite aligned turbine arrays in this paper. From the numerical results we identify three types of wake behaviours, which are significantly different from wakes in aligned wind-turbine arrays. For the first type, each turbine wake interferes with the pair of staggered downstream turbine wakes and the aligned downstream turbine. For the second type, each turbine wake interacts with the first two downstream turbine wakes but does not show significant interference with the second aligned downstream turbine. For the third type, each turbine wake recovers immediately after passing through the gap of the first two downstream turbines and has little interaction with the second downstream turbine wakes The extracted power density and power efficiency are also studied and compared with aligned wind-turbine arrays.
The development of infinitives from three to five.
Eisenberg, S L; Cairns, H S
1994-10-01
This study investigated the form of infinitival sentences produced by young children and their knowledge of the control properties of this sentence form. Twenty-five children between the ages of 3;7 and 5;4 participated in a story completion task designed to elicit infinitive sentences and in an act-out comprehension task. Although the infinitive form was productive for even the youngest children in this study, development of this form was not complete even for the five-year-olds, nor did any child demonstrate adult knowledge of control. In addition, two competing claims regarding order of acquisition (that of Limber, 1973, and Hyams, 1985) were evaluated. PMID:7852479
Infinite number of MSSMs from heterotic line bundles?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groot Nibbelink, Stefan; Loukas, Orestis; Ruehle, Fabian; Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S.
2015-08-01
We consider heterotic E8×E8 supergravity compactified on smooth Calabi-Yau manifolds with line bundle gauge backgrounds. Infinite sets of models that satisfy the Bianchi identities and flux quantization conditions can be constructed by letting their background flux quanta grow without bound. Even though we do not have a general proof, we find that all examples are at the boundary of the theory's validity: the Donaldson-Uhlenbeck-Yau equations, which can be thought of as vanishing D-term conditions, cannot be satisfied inside the Kähler cone unless a growing number of scalar vacuum expectation values is switched on. As they are charged under various line bundles simultaneously, the gauge background gets deformed by these VEVs to a non-Abelian bundle. In general, our physical expectation is that such infinite sets of models should be impossible, since they never seem to occur in exact conformal field theory constructions.
Approximation of Optimal Infinite Dimensional Compensators for Flexible Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, J. S.; Mingori, D. L.; Adamian, A.; Jabbari, F.
1985-01-01
The infinite dimensional compensator for a large class of flexible structures, modeled as distributed systems are discussed, as well as an approximation scheme for designing finite dimensional compensators to approximate the infinite dimensional compensator. The approximation scheme is applied to develop a compensator for a space antenna model based on wrap-rib antennas being built currently. While the present model has been simplified, it retains the salient features of rigid body modes and several distributed components of different characteristics. The control and estimator gains are represented by functional gains, which provide graphical representations of the control and estimator laws. These functional gains also indicate the convergence of the finite dimensional compensators and show which modes the optimal compensator ignores.
Predictive Rate-Distortion for Infinite-Order Markov Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzen, Sarah E.; Crutchfield, James P.
2016-05-01
Predictive rate-distortion analysis suffers from the curse of dimensionality: clustering arbitrarily long pasts to retain information about arbitrarily long futures requires resources that typically grow exponentially with length. The challenge is compounded for infinite-order Markov processes, since conditioning on finite sequences cannot capture all of their past dependencies. Spectral arguments confirm a popular intuition: algorithms that cluster finite-length sequences fail dramatically when the underlying process has long-range temporal correlations and can fail even for processes generated by finite-memory hidden Markov models. We circumvent the curse of dimensionality in rate-distortion analysis of finite- and infinite-order processes by casting predictive rate-distortion objective functions in terms of the forward- and reverse-time causal states of computational mechanics. Examples demonstrate that the resulting algorithms yield substantial improvements.
Sample Diluter for Detecting Hypergolic Propellants and other Toxic or Hazardous Gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barile, R. G.; Hodge, T. R.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Gursky, R.; Lueck, D. E.
1997-01-01
Hardware was developed to dilute vapor samples of purged hypergolic propellants (with air) into the range of existing instruments for detection of such toxic vapors. Since these detectors are normally used to monitor at the threshold limit value (TLV), most do not have quantitative capability at percent levels which relate to lower explosion limit (LEL) and fire hazards. For example, the upper limits of Energetic Sciences (ESI) 6000 series detectors used at KSC are 200 parts per million (ppm) for monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and 500 ppm for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) arising from decomposition of nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4). Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) personnel servicing Shuttle thrusters need to measure up to 250 ppm MMH and 7,500 ppm NO2 with portable, intrinsically safe instruments. Our objective was to quickly fabricate a sample diluter out of existing materials as a temporary measure while other parallel efforts were conducted to provide a commercial or in-house-developed instrument to detect high propellant levels. A 3 to 1 diluter would bring 500 ppm MMH into the range of the existing fuel ESI, and a 30 to 1 diluter would do the same for NO2. In this way, familiar equipment already available would be used, resulting in minimal paperwork, safety, and training impacts and low cost. An MMH vapor sample-diluter was constructed from a 1/4-inch Kynar tee, along with specially designed lengths of sample and dilution tubing. The sample line was 3 feet of Bev-A-Line 4, 1/4-inch tube leading to the straight run of the tee. The side run of the tee had a 17-inch length of Bev-A-Line 4, 1/4-inch tube, for nominal 3 to 1 dilution. A gas sample bag was prepared and assayed at 113 ppm ppm MMH, and diluted vapor samples were assayed at 39.5 ppm, or a measured dilution of 2.9 to 1. For NO2, a 316 stainless steel (SS) 1/8-inch tee with 49.5 inches of coiled, 1/8-inch outside diameter (OD) 316 SS tubing was used as the sampling end of the dilution system. The side run of the tee
DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS
Kishore K. Mohanty
2005-01-01
There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.
Estimation method for serial dilution experiments.
Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E
2014-12-01
Titration of microorganisms in infectious or environmental samples is a corner stone of quantitative microbiology. A simple method is presented to estimate the microbial counts obtained with the serial dilution technique for microorganisms that can grow on bacteriological media and develop into a colony. The number (concentration) of viable microbial organisms is estimated from a single dilution plate (assay) without a need for replicate plates. Our method selects the best agar plate with which to estimate the microbial counts, and takes into account the colony size and plate area that both contribute to the likelihood of miscounting the number of colonies on a plate. The estimate of the optimal count given by our method can be used to narrow the search for the best (optimal) dilution plate and saves time. The required inputs are the plate size, the microbial colony size, and the serial dilution factors. The proposed approach shows relative accuracy well within ±0.1log10 from data produced by computer simulations. The method maintains this accuracy even in the presence of dilution errors of up to 10% (for both the aliquot and diluent volumes), microbial counts between 10(4) and 10(12) colony-forming units, dilution ratios from 2 to 100, and plate size to colony size ratios between 6.25 to 200. PMID:25205541
Global Stability for Infinite Delay Lotka-Volterra Type Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Y.; Smith, H. L.
1993-06-01
In this paper, sufficient conditions are established for the global stability of the saturated equilibrium of an infinite delay, nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type system. The present work is distinguished from previous work principally be allowing the system to be nonautonomous and relaxing the traditional requirement that the undelayed intraspecific competition dominates both the delayed intraspecific competition as well as the interspecific interactions. We require the undelayed intraspecific competition to dominate the latter but not the former.
Analysis of Multiple Cracks in an Infinite Functionally Graded Plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shbeeb, N. I.; Binienda, W. K.; Kreider, K. L.
1999-01-01
A general methodology was constructed to develop the fundamental solution for a crack embedded in an infinite non-homogeneous material in which the shear modulus varies exponentially with the y coordinate. The fundamental solution was used to generate a solution to fully interactive multiple crack problems for stress intensity factors and strain energy release rates. Parametric studies were conducted for two crack configurations. The model displayed sensitivity to crack distance, relative angular orientation, and to the coefficient of nonhomogeneity.
Subdifferential of Optimal Value Functions in Nonlinear Infinite Programming
Huy, N. Q. Giang, N. D.; Yao, J.-C.
2012-02-15
This paper presents an exact formula for computing the normal cones of the constraint set mapping including the Clarke normal cone and the Mordukhovich normal cone in infinite programming under the extended Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification condition. Then, we derive an upper estimate as well as an exact formula for the limiting subdifferential of the marginal/optimal value function in a general Banach space setting.
Some characterizations of quantum channel in infinite Hilbert spaces
Sun, Xiu-Hong; Li, Yuan
2014-05-15
We first show that for any quantum states ρ on H and σ on K there exists a quantum channel Φ such that Φ(ρ) = σ, where H and K are finite or infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Then we consider some conclusions for the quantum channel Φ such that Φ(ρ) = σ and Φ(I{sub H}) exists or Φ(I{sub H})=I{sub K}.
Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.
2009-02-01
Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.
Volumetric Properties of Dilute Aqueous Solutions of 1- and 2-propanol to 50 MPa and 373.15 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seitz, J.; Bahramian, J.; Blackwell, R.; Inaki, T.; York, D.; Schulte, M. D.
2014-12-01
The need to accurately model and understand reactions among organic compounds and biomolecules in solution is necessary to develop realistic chemical models for the reactions leading to the emergence of life and metabolic processes of extremophiles under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. Unfortunately, the scarcity of experimentally determined volumetric (and other) properties for important compounds at high temperatures and pressures leads to uncertainty in the calculation of reaction properties. Experimentally determined volumetric properties of aqueous solutions at non-standard conditions provide direct tests of current estimation methods and aid in the refinement of these methods. The goal of our research is to provide a database of experimentally determined volumetric properties. In previous studies, we have examined important organic molecules and biomolecules such as adenosine, coenzyme M and D-ribose. In this study, we investigate the volumetric properties of the structural isomers 1- and 2-propanol. 1-propanol (n-propanol) is a primary alcohol (CH3CH2CH2OH) and 2-propanol (isopropanol) is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol (CH3CHOHCH3). These compounds differ slightly in structure depending on to which carbon atom the hydroxyl group is bonded and will provide a sensitive test of current estimation methods and lead to more accurate predictions of the properties of complex aqueous systems at elevated temperatures and pressures. We obtained the densities of aqueous solutions of the alchohols using an Anton Paar DMA HP vibrating tube densimeter. Pressure was measured (pressure transducer) to an accuracy of ±0.01% and temperature was measured (integrated platinum thermometer) with an accuracy of ±0.05 K. Experimental uncertainty of density measurements is less than ±0.0001 g·cm-3. The partial molar volumes at infinite dilution (V∞) for 1- and 2-propanol were calculated from the measured densities and are shown in the figure at 0
Single file diffusion into a semi-infinite tube.
Farrell, Spencer G; Brown, Aidan I; Rutenberg, Andrew D
2015-12-01
We investigate single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a semi-infinite tube, such as luminal diffusion of proteins into microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no impact on the evolution of particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0, tracked particles are initially super-diffusive after entering the system, but asymptotically diffusive at later times. For finite time intervals, the ratio of the net displacement of individual single-file particles to the average displacement of untracked particles is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times. When each particle is numbered, from the first to enter (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of this distance ratio for all n. Experimental techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching of fluorescently tagged proteins, should be able to observe these single-file effects. However, biological phenomena that depend on local concentration, such as flagellar extension or luminal enzymatic activity, should not exhibit single-file effects. PMID:26595123
Finite and infinite wavelength elastocapillary instabilities with cylindrical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biggins, John; Xuan, Chen
In an elastic cylinder with shear modulus μ, radius R0 and surface tension γ we can define an emergent elastocapillary length l = γ / μ . When this length becomes comparable to R0 the cylinder becomes undergoes a Rayleigh-Plateaux type instability, but surprisingly, with infinite wavelength λ rather than with wavelength λ ~R0 ~ l . Here we take advantage of this infinite wavelength behaviour to construct a simple 1-D model of the elastocapillary instability in a cylindrical gel which permits a high-amplitude fully non-linear treatment. In particular, we show that the instability is sub-critical and entirely dependent on the elastic cylinder being subject to tension. We also discuss elastocapillary instabilities in a range of other cylindrical geometries, such a cylindrical cavities through a bulk elastic solid, or a solid cylinder embedded in a bulk elastic solid, and show that in these cases instability has finite wavelength. Thus infinite wavelength behaviour is a curiosity of elastic cylinders rather than the generic behaviour or elasto-capiliarity. Also Fudan University Shanghai.
Infinite variance in fermion quantum Monte Carlo calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei
2016-03-01
For important classes of many-fermion problems, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods allow exact calculations of ground-state and finite-temperature properties without the sign problem. The list spans condensed matter, nuclear physics, and high-energy physics, including the half-filled repulsive Hubbard model, the spin-balanced atomic Fermi gas, and lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations at zero density with Wilson Fermions, and is growing rapidly as a number of problems have been discovered recently to be free of the sign problem. In these situations, QMC calculations are relied on to provide definitive answers. Their results are instrumental to our ability to understand and compute properties in fundamental models important to multiple subareas in quantum physics. It is shown, however, that the most commonly employed algorithms in such situations have an infinite variance problem. A diverging variance causes the estimated Monte Carlo statistical error bar to be incorrect, which can render the results of the calculation unreliable or meaningless. We discuss how to identify the infinite variance problem. An approach is then proposed to solve the problem. The solution does not require major modifications to standard algorithms, adding a "bridge link" to the imaginary-time path integral. The general idea is applicable to a variety of situations where the infinite variance problem may be present. Illustrative results are presented for the ground state of the Hubbard model at half-filling.
Single file diffusion into a semi-infinite tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrell, Spencer G.; Brown, Aidan I.; Rutenberg, Andrew D.
2015-12-01
We investigate single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a semi-infinite tube, such as luminal diffusion of proteins into microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no impact on the evolution of particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0, tracked particles are initially super-diffusive after entering the system, but asymptotically diffusive at later times. For finite time intervals, the ratio of the net displacement of individual single-file particles to the average displacement of untracked particles is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times. When each particle is numbered, from the first to enter (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of this distance ratio for all n. Experimental techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching of fluorescently tagged proteins, should be able to observe these single-file effects. However, biological phenomena that depend on local concentration, such as flagellar extension or luminal enzymatic activity, should not exhibit single-file effects.
Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions
Lu, N.; Godt, J.
2008-01-01
[1] We present a generalized framework for the stability of infinite slopes under steady unsaturated seepage conditions. The analytical framework allows the water table to be located at any depth below the ground surface and variation of soil suction and moisture content above the water table under steady infiltration conditions. The framework also explicitly considers the effect of weathering and porosity increase near the ground surface on changes in the friction angle of the soil. The factor of safety is conceptualized as a function of the depth within the vadose zone and can be reduced to the classical analytical solution for subaerial infinite slopes in the saturated zone. Slope stability analyses with hypothetical sandy and silty soils are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the framework. These analyses indicate that for hillslopes of both sandy and silty soils, failure can occur above the water table under steady infiltration conditions, which is consistent with some field observations that cannot be predicted by the classical infinite slope theory. A case study of shallow slope failures of sandy colluvium on steep coastal hillslopes near Seattle, Washington, is presented to examine the predictive utility of the proposed framework. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
Symmetry-protected local minima in infinite DMRG
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfeifer, Robert N. C.
2015-11-01
The infinite density matrix renormalization group (iDMRG) algorithm is a highly successful numerical algorithm for the study of low-dimensional quantum systems, and is also frequently used to initialize the more popular finite DMRG algorithm. Implementations of both finite and infinite DMRG frequently incorporate support for the protection and exploitation of symmetries of the Hamiltonian. In common with other variational tensor network algorithms, convergence of iDMRG to the ground state is not guaranteed, with the risk that the algorithm may become stuck in a local minimum. In this paper, I demonstrate the existence of a particularly harmful class of physically irrelevant local minima affecting both iDMRG and to a lesser extent also infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD), for which the ground state is compatible with the protected symmetries of the Hamiltonian but cannot be reached using the conventional iDMRG or iTEBD algorithms. I describe a modified iDMRG algorithm which evades these local minima, and which also admits a natural interpretation on topologically ordered systems with a boundary.
Analysis of transitional separation bubbles on infinite swept wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, R. L.; Carter, J. E.
1986-01-01
A previously developed two-dimensional local inviscid-viscous interaction technique for the analysis of airfoil transitional separation bubbles, ALESEP (Airfoil Leading Edge Separation), has been extended for the calculation of transitional separation bubbles over infinite swept wings. As part of this effort, Roberts' empirical correlation, which is interpreted as a separated flow empirical extension of Mack's stability theory for attached flows, has been incorporated into the ALESEP procedure for the prediction of the transition location within the separation bubble. In addition, the viscous procedure used in the ALESEP techniques has been modified to allow for wall suction. A series of two-dimensional calculations is presented as a verification of the prediction capability of the interaction techniques with the Roberts' transition model. Numerical tests have shown that this two-dimensional natural transition correlation may also be applied to transitional separation bubbles over infinite swept wings. Results of the interaction procedure are compared with Horton's detailed experimental data for separated flow over a swept plate which demonstrates the accuracy of the present technique. Wall suction has been applied to a similar interaction calculation to demonstrate its effect on the separation bubble. The principal conclusion of this paper is that the prediction of transitional separation bubbles over two-dimensional or infinite swept geometries is now possible using the present interacting boundary layer approach.
Tomograms for open quantum systems: In(finite) dimensional optical and spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thapliyal, Kishore; Banerjee, Subhashish; Pathak, Anirban
2016-03-01
Tomograms are obtained as probability distributions and are used to reconstruct a quantum state from experimentally measured values. We study the evolution of tomograms for different quantum systems, both finite and infinite dimensional. In realistic experimental conditions, quantum states are exposed to the ambient environment and hence subject to effects like decoherence and dissipation, which are dealt with here, consistently, using the formalism of open quantum systems. This is extremely relevant from the perspective of experimental implementation and issues related to state reconstruction in quantum computation and communication. These considerations are also expected to affect the quasiprobability distribution obtained from experimentally generated tomograms and nonclassicality observed from them.
Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report
Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.
2005-09-30
A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions
Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report
Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.
1997-10-31
A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions
Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report
1997-10-01
A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric
Measurement of thermodiffusion coefficient in n-alkane binary mixtures: composition dependence.
Madariaga, J A; Santamaría, C; Bou-Ali, M Mounir; Urteaga, P; Alonso De Mezquia, D
2010-05-27
In this work, we have measured the thermodiffusion coefficient of different n-alkane binary mixtures at several concentrations using the thermogravitational technique. In particular, we have studied the n-dodecane/n-heptane system as a function of composition and other systems covering a large range of mass differences and concentration at 25 degrees C and 1 atm. The results show that for any concentration the thermodiffusion coefficient of n-alkane mixtures is proportional to the mass difference between the components and to the ratio of the thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of the mixture. The obtained equation allows us to determine the infinite dilution values of the thermodiffusion coefficient. We compare these values with recent experimental results in dilute polymer solutions and analyze the Brenner theory of thermodiffusion. Finally, it is shown that the thermodiffusion coefficient depends linearly with the mass fraction, and it can be calculated from the viscosity and thermal expansion of the pure components. PMID:20429569
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris
2016-04-01
The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.
Cortical attractor network dynamics with diluted connectivity.
Rolls, Edmund T; Webb, Tristan J
2012-01-24
The connectivity of the cerebral cortex is diluted, with the probability of excitatory connections between even nearby pyramidal cells rarely more than 0.1, and in the hippocampus 0.04. To investigate the extent to which this diluted connectivity affects the dynamics of attractor networks in the cerebral cortex, we simulated an integrate-and-fire attractor network taking decisions between competing inputs with diluted connectivity of 0.25 or 0.1, and with the same number of synaptic connections per neuron for the recurrent collateral synapses within an attractor population as for full connectivity. The results indicated that there was less spiking-related noise with the diluted connectivity in that the stability of the network when in the spontaneous state of firing increased, and the accuracy of the correct decisions increased. The decision times were a little slower with diluted than with complete connectivity. Given that the capacity of the network is set by the number of recurrent collateral synaptic connections per neuron, on which there is a biological limit, the findings indicate that the stability of cortical networks, and the accuracy of their correct decisions or memory recall operations, can be increased by utilizing diluted connectivity and correspondingly increasing the number of neurons in the network, with little impact on the speed of processing of the cortex. Thus diluted connectivity can decrease cortical spiking-related noise. In addition, we show that the Fano factor for the trial-to-trial variability of the neuronal firing decreases from the spontaneous firing state value when the attractor network makes a decision. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Neural Coding". PMID:21875702
Modality, Infinitives, and Finite Bare Verbs in Dutch and English Child Language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blom, Elma
2007-01-01
This article focuses on the meaning of nonfinite clauses ("root infinitives") in Dutch and English child language. I present experimental and naturalistic data confirming the claim that Dutch root infinitives are more often modal than English root infinitives. This cross-linguistic difference is significantly smaller than previously assumed,…
On finite truncation of infinite shot noise series representation of tempered stable laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imai, Junichi; Kawai, Reiichiro
2011-11-01
Tempered stable processes are widely used in various fields of application as alternatives with finite second moment and long-range Gaussian behaviors to stable processes. Infinite shot noise series representation is the only exact simulation method for the tempered stable process and has recently attracted attention for simulation use with ever improved computational speed. In this paper, we derive series representations for the tempered stable laws of increasing practical interest through the thinning, rejection, and inverse Lévy measure methods. We make a rigorous comparison among those representations, including the existing one due to Imai and Kawai [29] and Rosiński (2007) [3], in terms of the tail mass of Lévy measures which can be simulated under a common finite truncation scheme. The tail mass are derived in closed form for some representations thanks to various structural properties of the tempered stable laws. We prove that the representation via the inverse Lévy measure method achieves a much faster convergence in truncation to the infinite sum than all the other representations. Numerical results are presented to support our theoretical analysis.
Magnetic relaxation of diluted and self-assembled cobalt nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, X. X.; Wen, G. H.; Xiao, Gang; Sun, Shouheng
2003-04-01
We have studied the magnetic relaxation of monodispersed 4 nm cubic ɛ-cobalt nanocrystals in both randomly oriented and pre-aligned assemblies. The blocking temperature TB, for the closely packed Co nanocrystal assemblies, is 30% higher than that of the highly diluted and well-dispersed Co nanocrystal-organic composites. This increase is attributed to the strong magnetic dipole interaction induced from the close packing of the nanocrystals. It is found that the frequency-dependent susceptibility data, obtained from the diluted samples, can be fitted to the half-circle Argand Diagrams, indicating a single barrier (or very narrow energy distribution) of the nanocrystals. This agrees well with the physical observation from TEM that the nanocrystals are monodispersed. The long time magnetic relaxation measurements reveal that energy barrier distribution in a pre-aligned nanocrystal assembly is significantly different from that in a randomly oriented one.
Praxair's dilute oxygen combustion technology for pyrometallurgical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, M. F.; Kobayashi, H.; Deneys, A. C.
2001-05-01
Dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) technology uses separate high-velocity fuel and oxygen jets to generate strong in-furnace gas recirculation, producing combustion between the fuel and a highly diluted oxygen and furnace-gas mixture. These very low NOx oxy-fuel burners have been developed and commercially demonstrated in steel reheating furnaces. The burner design meets industry needs for increased productivity and lower operating costs with minimal capital expense and low maintenance. The performance of DOC technology has been measured under laboratory and industrial conditions encompassing both natural gas and coke oven gas firing, and a wide range of furnace temperatures and nitrogen levels that simulate air infiltration. This paper describes the results of the tests using natural gas as the fuel and lists potential applications for DOC technology in the non-ferrous metals industry.
Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect.
Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Magnusson, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger
2016-01-01
The "dilution effect" implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. For directly transmitted pathogens, non-host species may "dilute" infection directly (1) and indirectly (2). Competitors and predators may (1) alter host behavior to reduce pathogen transmission or (2) reduce host density. In a well-studied system, we tested the dilution of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) by two competitors and a predator. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003-2013) in northern Sweden. The field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus) are bank vole competitors and Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) is a main predator of bank voles. Infection probability in bank voles decreased when common shrew density increased, suggesting that common shrews reduced PUUV transmission. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. Further, Tengmalm's owl decline in 1980-2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003-2013 compared to 1979-1986. Our study provides further evidence for dilution effect and suggests that owls may have an important role in reducing disease risk. PMID:27499001
Molecular dissociation in dilute gas
Renfrow, S.N.; Duggan, J.L.; McDaniel, F.D. |
1999-06-01
The charge state distributions (CSD) produced during molecular dissociation are important to both Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) and the ion implantation industry. The CSD of 1.3{endash}1.7 MeV SiN{sup +}, SiMg{sup +}, SiMn{sup +}, and SiZn{sup +} molecules have been measured for elements that do not form atomic negative ions (N, Mg, Mn, and Zn) using a NEC Tandem Pelletron accelerator. The molecules were produced in a Cs sputter negative ion source, accelerated, magnetically analyzed, and then passed through an N{sub 2} gas cell. The neutral and charged breakups where analyzed using an electrostatic deflector and measured with particle detectors. Equilibrium CSD were determined and comparisons made between molecular and atomic ion data. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Perspectives On Dilution Jet Mixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holdeman, J. D.; Srinivasan, R.
1990-01-01
NASA recently completed program of measurements and modeling of mixing of transverse jets with ducted crossflow, motivated by need to design or tailor temperature pattern at combustor exit in gas turbine engines. Objectives of program to identify dominant physical mechanisms governing mixing, extend empirical models to provide near-term predictive capability, and compare numerical code calculations with data to guide future analysis improvement efforts.
Spin dynamics in paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phan, Van-Nham; Tran, Minh-Tien
2015-10-01
Microscopic properties of low-energy spin dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductor are addressed in a framework of the Kondo lattice model including random distribution of magnetic dopants. Based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we derive an explicit dependence of the spin diffusion coefficient on the single-particle Green function which is directly evaluated by dynamical mean-field theory. In the paramagnetic state, the magnetic scattering has been manifested to suppress spin diffusion. In agreement with other ferromagnet systems, we also point out that the spin diffusion in diluted magnetic semiconductors at small carrier concentration displays a monotonic 1 /T -like temperature dependence. By investigating the spin diffusion coefficient on a wide range of the model parameters, the obtained results have provided a significant scenario to understand the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujitani, Youhei
2014-08-01
We consider a spherical liquid droplet immersed in a near-critical binary fluid mixture whose components interact with the droplet slightly unequally. Assuming uniform viscosity of the mixture, we use the Gaussian free-energy functional to calculate the pressure and velocity fields occurring when a weak linear shear flow is imposed far from the droplet. These fields in the limit of infinite droplet viscosity give those for a rigid sphere. Using these fields, we calculate the effective viscosity emerging when identical droplets or rigid spheres are dilutely dispersed in the mixture.
Spring back of infinite honeycomb sheets beyond plastic deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonfanti, A.; Bhaskar, A.
2015-02-01
Cellular structures are promising for applications where high stiffness and strength are required with the minimal use of material. They are often used in applications where the plastic deformation plays an important role, such as those involving crashworthiness, energy absorption, and stents. The elastic analysis of a honeycomb sheet has been carried out in the past [1]. The present analysis extends this classical work in the elasto-plastic regime. Recoil analysis due to elastic recovery is absent from the published literature. This work aims to develop an analytical model to calculate the spring back for a simplified case, that of an infinite honeycomb sheet. An elastic-perfectly plastic material model is assumed. The recoil for a clamped beam with a load and moment applied at the free edge is analytically calculated first. This is carried out by relating the stress distribution of the cross section to the final deformed shape. The part corresponding to the elastic contribution is subsequently subtracted in order to obtain the final configuration after the external load is removed. This simple elasto-plastic analysis is then incorporated into the analysis of an infinite sheet made of uniform hexagonal cells. The translational symmetry of the lattice is exploited along with the analysis of a beam under tip loading through to plastic stage and recoil. The final shape of the struts upon the removal of the remote stress is completely determined by the plastic deformation which cannot be recovered. The expression for the beam thus obtained is then used to build an analytical model for an infinite honeycomb sheet loaded in both directions.
Spin transport of weakly disordered Heisenberg chain at infinite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khait, Ilia; Gazit, Snir; Yao, Norman Y.; Auerbach, Assa
2016-06-01
We study the disordered Heisenberg spin chain, which exhibits many-body localization at strong disorder, in the weak to moderate disorder regime. A continued fraction calculation of dynamical correlations is devised, using a variational extrapolation of recurrents. Good convergence for the infinite chain limit is shown. We find that the local spin correlations decay at long times as C ˜t-β , whereas the conductivity exhibits a low-frequency power law σ ˜ωα . The exponents depict subdiffusive behavior β <1 /2 ,α >0 at all finite disorders and convergence to the scaling result α +2 β =1 at large disorders.
J-integral estimates for cracks in infinite bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowling, N. E.
1986-01-01
An analysis and discussion is presented of existing estimates of the J-integral for cracks in infinite bodies. Equations are presented which provide convenient estimates for Ramberg-Osgood type elastoplastic materials containing cracks and subjected to multiaxial loading. The relationship between J and the strain normal to the crack is noted to be only weakly dependent on state of stress. But the relationship between J and the stress normal to the crack is strongly dependent on state of stress. A plastic zone correction term often employed is found to be arbitrary, and its magnitude is seldom significant.
Rotor-router walk on a semi-infinite cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papoyan, Vl V.; Poghosyan, V. S.; Priezzhev, V. B.
2016-07-01
We study the rotor-router walk with the clockwise ordering of outgoing edges on the semi-infinite cylinder. Imposing uniform conditions on the boundary of the cylinder, we consider growth of the cluster of visited sites and its internal structure. The average width of the surface region of the cluster evolves with time to the stationary value by a scaling law whose parameters are close to the standard KPZ exponents. We introduce characteristic labels corresponding to closed clockwise contours formed by rotors and show that the sequence of labels has in average an ordered helix structure.
Anomalous properties of the Hubbard model in infinite dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarrell, M.; Pruschke, Th.
1994-01-01
Anomalies are found in the resistivity ρ and NMR rate 1/T1 of the infinite-dimensional Hubbard model using quantum Monte Carlo calculations and the noncrossing approximation. For temperatures greater than the ``Kondo scale'' T0, we obtain 1/T1~a+bT and ρ~c+dT (a, b, c, d constants). For temperatures T<
Crack problems for a rectangular plate and an infinite strip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Civelek, M. B.; Erdogan, F.
1980-01-01
The general plane problem for an infinite strip containing multiple cracks perpendicular to its boundaries is considered. The problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations. Two specific problems of practical interest are then studied in detail. The first problem explores the interaction effect of multiple edge cracks in a plate or beam under tension or bending. The second problem is that of a rectangular plate containing an arbitrarily oriented crack in the plane of symmetry. Particular emphasis is placed on the problem of a plate containing an edge crack and subjected to concentrated forces.
Infinite impulse response modal filtering in visible adaptive optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agapito, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.
2012-07-01
Diffraction limited resolution adaptive optics (AO) correction in visible wavelengths requires a high performance control. In this paper we investigate infinite impulse response filters that optimize the wavefront correction: we tested these algorithms through full numerical simulations of a single-conjugate AO system comprising an adaptive secondary mirror with 1127 actuators and a pyramid wavefront sensor (WFS). The actual practicability of the algorithms depends on both robustness and knowledge of the real system: errors in the system model may even worsen the performance. In particular we checked the robustness of the algorithms in different conditions, proving that the proposed method can reject both disturbance and calibration errors.
Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance
Yang, Peidong; Choi, Heonjin; Lee, Sangkwon; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kuykendal, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter
2011-08-23
A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.
Ignition and Unburned Hydrogen Escaping from Hydrogen Diffusion Jet Flame Diluted with Nitrogen
Tran, P.X.; Soong, Yee
2007-07-01
Ignition and unburned hydrogen escaping from hydrogen jet diffusion flames diluted with nitrogen up to 70% were experimentally studied. The successful ignition locations were about 2/3 of the flame length above the jet exit for undiluted flames and moved much closer to the exit for diluted flames. For higher levels of dilution or higher flow rates, there existed a region within which a diluted hydrogen diffusion flame can be ignited and burns with a stable liftoff height. This is contrary to previous findings that pure and diluted hydrogen jet diffusion cannot achieve a stable lifted flame configuration. With liftoff, the flame is noisy and short with significant amount of unburned hydrogen escaping into the product gases. If ignition is initiated below this region, the flame propagates upstream quickly and attaches to the burner rim. Results from measurements of unburned hydrogen in the combustion products showed that the amount of unburned hydrogen increased as the nitrogen dilution level was increased. Thus, hydrogen diffusion flame diluted with nitrogen cannot burn completely.
The Effect of SF6 dilution in an Argon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koirala, Sudip; Gordon, Matt
2010-02-01
Plasma etching is widely used in semiconductor industries. There have been extensive studies in the dilution of rare gases; however, limited studies are found in the dilution of electronegative gases. In this work, SF6 content is varied from 5% to 60% in an Ar plasma in a deep reactive ion etching system. A Langmuir probe is used to measure electron temperature (Te), electron density (ne), and electron energy distribution function (eedf). Te decreases monotonically with increasing SF6 at first, and then increases for SF6 content greater than 20%. This increase is attributed to the loss of low energy electrons in attachment and high energy electrons in excitation and ionization. As the content of SF6 is increased above 20%, the dissociation of SF6 increases and most of the low energy electrons are lost in attachment and hence the average electron temperature increases. ne decreases by an order of magnitude as the SF6 dilution is increased from 5% to 60%. eedf shows that the distribution shifts towards high energy with the increase of SF6 content, which is because of the depletion of low energy electrons. )
Dry dilution refrigerator with He-4 precool loop
Uhlig, Kurt
2014-01-29
He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ∼ 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR has been improved compared to previous work: The base temperature of the mixing chamber at a small He-3 flow rate is now 4.1 mK; at the highest He-3 flow rate of 1.2 mmol/s this temperature increases to 13 mK. Mixing chamber temperatures were measured with a cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) thermometer which was calibrated with a superconducting fixed point device.
Probabilistic context-free grammars estimated from infinite distributions.
Corazza, Anna; Satta, Giorgio
2007-08-01
In this paper, we consider probabilistic context-free grammars, a class of generative devices that has been successfully exploited in several applications of syntactic pattern matching, especially in statistical natural language parsing. We investigate the problem of training probabilistic context-free grammars on the basis of distributions defined over an infinite set of trees or an infinite set of sentences by minimizing the cross-entropy. This problem has applications in cases of context-free approximation of distributions generated by more expressive statistical models. We show several interesting theoretical properties of probabilistic context-free grammars that are estimated in this way, including the previously unknown equivalence between the grammar cross-entropy with the input distribution and the so-called derivational entropy of the grammar itself. We discuss important consequences of these results involving the standard application of the maximum-likelihood estimator on finite tree and sentence samples, as well as other finite-state models such as Hidden Markov Models and probabilistic finite automata. PMID:17568142
Relativistic regular approximations revisited: An infinite-order relativistic approximation
Dyall, K.G.; van Lenthe, E.
1999-07-01
The concept of the regular approximation is presented as the neglect of the energy dependence of the exact Foldy{endash}Wouthuysen transformation of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Expansion of the normalization terms leads immediately to the zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) and first-order regular approximation (FORA) Hamiltonians as the zeroth- and first-order terms of the expansion. The expansion may be taken to infinite order by using an un-normalized Foldy{endash}Wouthuysen transformation, which results in the ZORA Hamiltonian and a nonunit metric. This infinite-order regular approximation, IORA, has eigenvalues which differ from the Dirac eigenvalues by order E{sup 3}/c{sup 4} for a hydrogen-like system, which is a considerable improvement over the ZORA eigenvalues, and similar to the nonvariational FORA energies. A further perturbation analysis yields a third-order correction to the IORA energies, TIORA. Results are presented for several systems including the neutral U atom. The IORA eigenvalues for all but the 1s spinor of the neutral system are superior even to the scaled ZORA energies, which are exact for the hydrogenic system. The third-order correction reduces the IORA error for the inner orbitals to a very small fraction of the Dirac eigenvalue. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Infinite Factorial Unbounded-State Hidden Markov Model.
Valera, Isabel; Ruiz, Francisco J R; Perez-Cruz, Fernando
2016-09-01
There are many scenarios in artificial intelligence, signal processing or medicine, in which a temporal sequence consists of several unknown overlapping independent causes, and we are interested in accurately recovering those canonical causes. Factorial hidden Markov models (FHMMs) present the versatility to provide a good fit to these scenarios. However, in some scenarios, the number of causes or the number of states of the FHMM cannot be known or limited a priori. In this paper, we propose an infinite factorial unbounded-state hidden Markov model (IFUHMM), in which the number of parallel hidden Markovmodels (HMMs) and states in each HMM are potentially unbounded. We rely on a Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) prior over integer-valued matrices, in which the columns represent the Markov chains, the rows the time indexes, and the integers the state for each chain and time instant. First, we extend the existent infinite factorial binary-state HMM to allow for any number of states. Then, we modify this model to allow for an unbounded number of states and derive an MCMC-based inference algorithm that properly deals with the trade-off between the unbounded number of states and chains. We illustrate the performance of our proposed models in the power disaggregation problem. PMID:26571511
Masses of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model
Satpathy, L.; Nayak, R.C.
1988-07-01
We present mass excesses of 3481 nuclei in the range 18less than or equal toAless than or equal to267 using the infinite nuclear matter model based on the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem. In this model the ground-state energy of a nucleus of asymmetry ..beta.. is considered equivalent to the energy of a perfect sphere made up of the infinite nuclear matter of the same asymmetry plus the residual energy due to shell effects, deformation, etc., called the local energy eta. In this model there are two kinds of parameters: global and local. The five global parameters characterizing the properties of the above sphere are determined by fitting the mass of all nuclei (756) in the recent mass table of Wapstra et al. having error bar less than 30 keV. The local parameters are determined for 25 regions each spanning 8 or 10 A values. The total number of parameters including the five global ones is 238. The root-mean-square deviation for the calculated masses from experiment is 397 keV for the 1572 nuclei used in the least-squares fit. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bensoussan, A.; Delfour, M. C.; Mitter, S. K.
1976-01-01
Available published results are surveyed for a special class of infinite-dimensional control systems whose evolution is characterized by a semigroup of operators of class C subscript zero. Emphasis is placed on an approach that clarifies the system-theoretic relationship among controllability, stabilizability, stability, and the existence of a solution to an associated operator equation of the Riccati type. Formulation of the optimal control problem is reviewed along with the asymptotic behavior of solutions to a general system of equations and several theorems concerning L2 stability. Examples are briefly discussed which involve second-order parabolic systems, first-order hyperbolic systems, and distributed boundary control.
STABLE ISOTOPE DILUTION FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION
The report gives results of a project to determine if a proposed catalytic exchange procedure could be adapted to produce the labeled analog materials necessary for isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. It is related to a general evaluation of th...
LAKE RESTORATION BY DILUTION: MOSES LAKE, WASHINGTON
Dilution water, low in macronutrients, was added to Moses Lake on three occasions in 1977 and once in 1978 during the spring-summer period. The addition resulted in reducing the annual average inflow concentration of phosphorus from about 130-140 micrograms/l to 100 micrograms/l....
Phase Transition of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, M. K.; Lee, S. J.; Yuldashev, S. U.; Ihm, G.; Kang, T. W.
2011-12-01
Three types of phase transitions in diluted magnetic semiconductor, first-order, second-order and mixed-order, are found in theory. Especially the mixed type transition shows two steps transition and novel specific heat property. Specific heat properties disclose a possible meta ferromagnetic phase confirmed by the experimental qualitative result.
Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect
Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Magnusson, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger
2016-01-01
The “dilution effect” implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. For directly transmitted pathogens, non-host species may “dilute” infection directly (1) and indirectly (2). Competitors and predators may (1) alter host behavior to reduce pathogen transmission or (2) reduce host density. In a well-studied system, we tested the dilution of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) by two competitors and a predator. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003–2013) in northern Sweden. The field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus) are bank vole competitors and Tengmalm’s owl (Aegolius funereus) is a main predator of bank voles. Infection probability in bank voles decreased when common shrew density increased, suggesting that common shrews reduced PUUV transmission. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. Further, Tengmalm’s owl decline in 1980–2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003–2013 compared to 1979–1986. Our study provides further evidence for dilution effect and suggests that owls may have an important role in reducing disease risk. PMID:27499001
Analysis of an infinite array of rectangular microstrip patches with idealized probe feeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.
1984-01-01
A solution is presented to the problem of an infinite array of microstrip patches fed by idealized current probes. The input reflection coefficient is calculated versus scan angle in an arbitrary scan plane, and the effects of substrate parameters and grid spacing are considered. It is pointed out that even when a Galerkin method is used the impedance matrix is not symmetric due to phasing through a unit cell, as required for scanning. The mechanism by which scan blindness can occur is discussed. Measurement results are presented for the reflection coefficient magnitude variation with angle for E-plane, H-plane, and D-plane scans, for various substrate parameters. Measured results from waveguide simulators are also presented, and the scan blindness phenomenon is observed and discussed in terms of forced surface waves and a modified grating lobe diagram.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sitko, Rafał
2009-11-01
X-ray fluorescence spectrometry due to its nondestructive nature is widely applied in analysis of single layers and multiple layer films (e.g. semiconductors, electrooptic and solar cell devices, coatings, corrosion and paint layers), individual particles (airborne, fly ash, gunshot residue particles, etc.), art and archeological objects (manuscripts, paintings, icons) and many others. Quantitative analysis of these materials, frequently classified as samples of less than infinite thickness (thin or intermediate-thickness samples), required applying adequate matrix correction methods taking into account complex dependence of analyte fluorescent radiation intensity on full matrix composition and sample thickness. In this article, the matrix correction methods including fundamental parameters, Monte Carlo simulations, influence coefficients algorithms and methods based on X-ray transmission measurements are reviewed. The difficulties in the analysis of single layer and multiple layer films and the accuracy of fundamental parameter methods in simultaneous determination of their thickness and composition are discussed. The quantitative analysis of individual particles and inhomogeneous and/or complex structure materials using fundamental parameter and Monte Carlo simulation methods in micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are also reviewed. Some references are devoted to the analysis of light matrix samples, e.g. geological, environmental and biological samples, in which undetectable low-Z elements are present (so-called 'dark matrix') using backscattered fundamental parameter methods. Since the samples of less than infinite thickness are partially transparent for X-ray beams, the transmission measurements present possibilities that are unattainable for bulk samples. Thus, the emission-transmission method and also new instruments allowing measurements of the primary X-ray beam transmitted through the sample together with measurements of X-ray fluorescence
Using isotope dilution mass spectrometry to determine aqueous trichloroacetic acid
Norwood, D.L.; Christman, R.F.; Johnson, J.D.; Hass, J.R.
1986-01-01
The development, verification, and application of a method based on isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine aqueous trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) at the micrograms per litre level are described. The simultaneous determination of aqueous chloroform is also demonstrated. Trichloroacetic acid is shown to be a significant by-product of the chlorination of raw waters in the laboratory and to constitute a large fraction of the total organic halide (TOX) formed. Analysis of finished-water samples indicated that TCAA, like trihalomethanes is ubiquitous. Positive correlations exist between the levels of TCAA in laboratory-chlorinated raw waters and in finished waters and measured TOX.
[Influence of dissolved gases on highly diluted aqueous media].
Belovolova, L V; Glushkov, M V; Vinogradov, E A
2014-01-01
In the experiments on redox potential measurement for a series of identical samples of purified and presettled water it was found that the response to ultraviolet irradiation varies appreciably within a few days after treatment, including stepwise changes. In a few hours after exposure, leading to a higher content of reactive oxygen species as compared with the equilibrium values, long-term changes including variations in redox potential and optical system parameters are recorded in water and diluted aqueous media. We propose a heuristic organization model of the water-gas system with an increased content of reactive oxygen species. PMID:25707230
Degradation of Sodium-Polyacrylate in Dilute Aqueous Solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saita, Takao
1980-12-01
It is shown using a capillary viscometer that the viscosity of a dilute aqueous solution of sodium-polyacrylate at 20°C decreases gradually for each flow time measurement and also decreases with the time of rest. Assuming that the polymer degradation is caused by shearing stress and oxidation, their effects are discussed with the data obtained using a closed-type capillary viscometer derived for this investigation. It is proved from the results that rupture of the Na-PAA molecule is caused by mechanochemical degradation, and also photo-degradation under the usual illumination and sunlight in a laboratory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olson, L. E.; Dvorak, F. A.
1976-01-01
The viscous subsonic flow past two-dimensional and infinite-span swept multi-component airfoils is studied theoretically and experimentally. The computerized analysis is based on iteratively coupled boundary-layer and potential-flow analysis. The method, which is restricted to flows with only slight separation, gives surface pressure distribution, chordwise and spanwise boundary-layer characteristics, lift, drag, and pitching moment for airfoil configurations with up to four elements. Merging confluent boundary layers are treated. Theoretical predictions are compared with an exact theoretical potential flow solution and with experimental measures made in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for both two-dimensional and infinite-span swept wing configurations. Section lift characteristics are accurately predicted for zero and moderate sweep angles where flow separation effects are negligible.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olson, L. E.; Dvorak, F. A.
1975-01-01
The viscous subsonic flow past two-dimensional and infinite-span swept multi-component airfoils is studied theoretically and experimentally. The computerized analysis is based on iteratively coupled boundary layer and potential flow analysis. The method, which is restricted to flows with only slight separation, gives surface pressure distribution, chordwise and spanwise boundary layer characteristics, lift, drag, and pitching moment for airfoil configurations with up to four elements. Merging confluent boundary layers are treated. Theoretical predictions are compared with an exact theoretical potential flow solution and with experimental measures made in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for both two-dimensional and infinite-span swept wing configurations. Section lift characteristics are accurately predicted for zero and moderate sweep angles where flow separation effects are negligible.
Wang, R T; van de Hulst, H C
1995-05-20
A new algorithm for cylindrical Bessel functions that is similar to the one for spherical Bessel functions allows us to compute scattering functions for infinitely long cylinders covering sizes ka = 2πa/λ up to 8000 through the use of only an eight-digit single-precision machine computation. The scattering function and complex extinction coefficient of a finite cylinder that is seen near perpendicular incidence are derived from those of an infinitely long cylinder by the use of Huygens's principle. The result, which contains no arbitrary normalization factor, agrees quite well with analog microwave measurements of both extinction and scattering for such cylinders, even for an aspect ratio p = l/(2a) as low as 2. Rainbows produced by cylinders are similar to those for spherical drops but are brighter and have a lower contrast. PMID:21052428
Infinite phased array of microstrip dipoles in two layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castaneda, Jesus A.
1989-01-01
A method has been devised for the analysis of the infinite printed strip dipole array in a two layer microstrip substrate structure. The complete dynamic Green's function appropriate to the two-layer substrate-superstrate structure was used in the formulation of the method of moments solution. In this way all the substrate effects, including the surface wave related phenomena, have been included in the development and solution. The solution provides a means by which the most important performance characteristics of the finite-but-large phase-scanned microstrip array can be studied. Attention has been focused on the characterization of the active input impedance as a function of the equivalent scan angle.
A General No-Cloning Theorem for an infinite Multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauthier, Yvon
2013-10-01
In this paper, I formulate a general no-cloning theorem which covers the quantum-mechanical and the theoretical quantum information cases as well as the cosmological multiverse theory. However, the main argument is topological and does not involve the peculiar copier devices of the quantum-mechanical and information-theoretic approaches to the no-cloning thesis. It is shown that a combinatorial set-theoretic treatment of the mathematical and physical spacetime continuum in cosmological or quantum-mechanical terms forbids an infinite (countable or uncountable) number of exact copies of finite elements (states) in the uncountable multiverse cosmology. The historical background draws on ideas from Weyl to Conway and Kochen on the free will theorem in quantum mechanics.
On q-deformed infinite-dimensional n-algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Lu; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Ke; Yan, Zhao-Wen; Zhao, Wei-Zhong
2016-03-01
The q-deformation of the infinite-dimensional n-algebras is investigated. Based on the structure of the q-deformed Virasoro-Witt algebra, we derive a nontrivial q-deformed Virasoro-Witt n-algebra which is nothing but a sh-n-Lie algebra. Furthermore in terms of the pseud-differential operators, we construct the (co)sine n-algebra and the q-deformed S Diff (T2)n-algebra. We find that they are the sh-n-Lie algebras for the n even case. In terms of the magnetic translation operators, an explicit physical realization of the (co)sine n-algebra is given.
Multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selig, M. S.
1994-04-01
This paper describes a method for the design of an infinite cascade in incompressible flow. The method is based on conformal mapping and does not allow for multipoint design. The cascade blade is to determined is divided into a number of segments. Over each segment, the velocity distribution is prescribed together with an inlet or outlet flow angle at which this velocity distributions is to be achieved. In this way multipoint design requirements can be met. It is necessary to satisfy several conditions that arise to guarantee compatibility with the inlet and outlet flow as well as closure of the cascade blade. Satisfaction of these conditions does not necessarily result in a cascade with all of the desired characteristucs. For example, the cascade blades may be bulbous or crossed. Through Newtonian iteration, however, the desired characteristics may be prescribed directly. Four examples will be illustrated to demonstrate the capability of the method.
Variational optimization with infinite projected entangled-pair states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corboz, Philippe
2016-07-01
We present a scheme to perform an iterative variational optimization with infinite projected entangled-pair states, a tensor network ansatz for a two-dimensional wave function in the thermodynamic limit, to compute the ground state of a local Hamiltonian. The method is based on a systematic summation of Hamiltonian contributions using the corner-transfer-matrix method. Benchmark results for challenging problems are presented, including the two-dimensional Heisenberg model, the Shastry-Sutherland model, and the t -J model, which show that the variational scheme yields considerably more accurate results than the previously best imaginary-time evolution algorithm, with a similar computational cost and with a faster convergence towards the ground state.
Recurrent kernel machines: computing with infinite echo state networks.
Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin
2012-01-01
Echo state networks (ESNs) are large, random recurrent neural networks with a single trained linear readout layer. Despite the untrained nature of the recurrent weights, they are capable of performing universal computations on temporal input data, which makes them interesting for both theoretical research and practical applications. The key to their success lies in the fact that the network computes a broad set of nonlinear, spatiotemporal mappings of the input data, on which linear regression or classification can easily be performed. One could consider the reservoir as a spatiotemporal kernel, in which the mapping to a high-dimensional space is computed explicitly. In this letter, we build on this idea and extend the concept of ESNs to infinite-sized recurrent neural networks, which can be considered recursive kernels that subsequently can be used to create recursive support vector machines. We present the theoretical framework, provide several practical examples of recursive kernels, and apply them to typical temporal tasks. PMID:21851278
Unstable infinite nuclear matter in stochastic mean field approach
Colonna, M.; Chomaz, P. Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Viale Andrea Doria, Catania )
1994-04-01
In this article, we consider a semiclassical stochastic mean-field approach. In the case of unstable infinite nuclear matter, we calculate the characteristic time of the exponential growing of fluctuations and the diffusion coefficients associated to the unstable modes, in the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin theory. These two quantities are essential to describe the dynamics of fluctuations and instabilities since, in the unstable regions, the evolution of the system will be dominated by the amplification of fluctuations. In order to make realistic 3D calculations feasible, we suggest to replace the complicated Boltzmann-Langevin theory by a simpler stochastic mean-field approach corresponding to a standard Boltzmann evolution, complemented by a simple noise chosen to reproduce the dynamics of the most unstable modes. Finally we explain how to approximately implement this method by simply tuning the noise associated to the use of a finite number of test particles in Boltzman-like calculations.
Doubly infinite separation of quantum information and communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zi-Wen; Perry, Christopher; Zhu, Yechao; Koh, Dax Enshan; Aaronson, Scott
2016-01-01
We prove the existence of (one-way) communication tasks with a subconstant versus superconstant asymptotic gap, which we call "doubly infinite," between their quantum information and communication complexities. We do so by studying the exclusion game [C. Perry et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030504] for which there exist instances where the quantum information complexity tends to zero as the size of the input n increases. By showing that the quantum communication complexity of these games scales at least logarithmically in n , we obtain our result. We further show that the established lower bounds and gaps still hold even if we allow a small probability of error. However in this case, the n -qubit quantum message of the zero-error strategy can be compressed polynomially.
Phases of the infinite U Hubbard model on square lattices.
Liu, Li; Yao, Hong; Berg, Erez; White, Steven R; Kivelson, Steven A
2012-03-23
We apply the density matrix renormalization group to study the phase diagram of the infinite U Hubbard model on 2- to 6-leg ladders. Where the results are largely insensitive to the ladder width, we consider the results representative of the 2D square lattice. We find a fully polarized ferromagnetic Fermi liquid phase when n, the density of electrons per site, is in the range 1>n≳0.800. For n=3/4 we find an unexpected insulating checkerboard phase with coexisting bond-density order with 4 sites per unit cell and block-spin antiferromagnetic order with 8 sites per unit cell. For 3/4>n, all ladders with width >2 have unpolarized ground states. PMID:22540606
Exploring percolative landscapes: Infinite cascades of geometric phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timonin, P. N.; Chitov, Gennady Y.
2016-01-01
The evolution of many kinetic processes in 1+1 (space-time) dimensions results in 2 D directed percolative landscapes. The active phases of these models possess numerous hidden geometric orders characterized by various types of large-scale and/or coarse-grained percolative backbones that we define. For the patterns originated in the classical directed percolation (DP) and contact process we show from the Monte Carlo simulation data that these percolative backbones emerge at specific critical points as a result of continuous phase transitions. These geometric transitions belong to the DP universality class and their nonlocal order parameters are the capacities of corresponding backbones. The multitude of conceivable percolative backbones implies the existence of infinite cascades of such geometric transitions in the kinetic processes considered. We present simple arguments to support the conjecture that such cascades of transitions are a generic feature of percolation as well as of many other transitions with nonlocal order parameters.
Infinite-noise criticality: Nonequilibrium phase transitions in fluctuating environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, Jose
We study the effects of time-varying environmental noise on nonequilibrium phase transitions in spreading and growth processes. Using the examples of the logistic evolution equation as well as the contact process, we show that such temporal disorder gives rise to a distinct type of critical points at which the effective noise amplitude diverges on long time scales. This leads to enormous density fluctuations characterized by an infinitely broad probability distribution at criticality. We develop a real-time renormalization-group theory that provides a general framework for the effects of temporal disorder on nonequilibrium processes. We also discuss how general this exotic critical behavior is, we illustrate the results by computer simulations, and we touch upon experimental applications of our theory. Supported by the NSF under Grant No. DMR-1205803, by Simons Foundation, by FAPESP under Grant No. 2013/09850-7, and by CNPq under Grant Nos. 590093/2011-8 and 305261/2012-6.
Exploring percolative landscapes: Infinite cascades of geometric phase transitions.
Timonin, P N; Chitov, Gennady Y
2016-01-01
The evolution of many kinetic processes in 1+1 (space-time) dimensions results in 2D directed percolative landscapes. The active phases of these models possess numerous hidden geometric orders characterized by various types of large-scale and/or coarse-grained percolative backbones that we define. For the patterns originated in the classical directed percolation (DP) and contact process we show from the Monte Carlo simulation data that these percolative backbones emerge at specific critical points as a result of continuous phase transitions. These geometric transitions belong to the DP universality class and their nonlocal order parameters are the capacities of corresponding backbones. The multitude of conceivable percolative backbones implies the existence of infinite cascades of such geometric transitions in the kinetic processes considered. We present simple arguments to support the conjecture that such cascades of transitions are a generic feature of percolation as well as of many other transitions with nonlocal order parameters. PMID:26871019
The gravitational field of an infinite flat slab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fulling, S. A.; Bouas, J. D.; Carter, H. B.
2015-08-01
We study Einstein's equations with a localized plane-symmetric source, with close attention to gauge freedom/fixing and to listing all physically distinct solutions. In the vacuum regions there are only two qualitatively different solutions, one curved and one flat; in addition, on each of the two sides there is a free parameter describing how the slab is embedded into the vacuum region. Surprisingly, for a generic slab source the solution must be curved on one side and flat on the other. We treat infinitely thin slabs in full detail and indicate how thick slabs can increase the variety of external geometry pairs. Positive energy density seems to force external geometries with curvature singularities at some distance from the slab; we speculate that such singularities occur in regions where the solution cannot be physically relevant anyway.
Persistence in nonautonomous predator-prey systems with infinite delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teng, Zhidong; Rehim, Mehbuba
2006-12-01
This paper studies the general nonautonomous predator-prey Lotka-Volterra systems with infinite delays. The sufficient and necessary conditions of integrable form on the permanence and persistence of species are established. A very interesting and important property of two-species predator-prey systems is discovered, that is, the permanence of species and the existence of a persistent solution are each other equivalent. Particularly, for the periodic system with delays, applying these results, the sufficient and necessary conditions on the permanence and the existence of positive periodic solutions are obtained. Some well-known results on the nondelayed periodic predator-prey Lotka-Volterra systems are strongly improved and extended to the delayed case.
Degradation of Sodium-Polyacrylate in Dilute Aqueous Solution, II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saita, Takao; Matumura, On
1983-08-01
It has been found that Na-PAA molecules in dilute aqueous solution are degraded by shearing stress, oxidation and photolysis during usual viscosity measurements with a capillary viscometer. The results of previous viscosity measurements, mainly about the mechanochemical degradation in air and in air-free conditions, showed that the degradation rate increases with increasing shear stress, and with decreasing polymer concentration. In this work, the effects of the molecular weight and temperature on the degradation rate are measured using a capillary viscometer in air, and the photodegradation of Na-PAA and PAA in aqueous solution irradiated with UV light are studied by viscosity measurements in air, and by UV absorption and ESR methods. The results show that the degradation of molecules is enhanced by an increase in the molecular weight and strongly accelerated by a rise in temperature and by UV irradiation, and is accompanied by free-radical chain reactions.
Exact solutions of a modified fractional diffusion equation in the finite and semi-infinite domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Gang; Li, Kun; Wang, Yuhui
2015-01-01
We investigate the solutions of a modified fractional diffusion equation which has a secondary fractional time derivative acting on a diffusion operator. We obtain analytical solutions for the modified equation in the finite and semi-infinite domains subject to absorbing boundary conditions. Most of the results have been derived by using the Laplace transform, the Fourier Cosine transform, the Mellin transform and the properties of Fox H function. We show that the semi-infinite solution can be expressed using an infinite series of Fox H functions similar to the infinite case, while the finite solution requires double infinite series including both Fox H functions and trigonometric functions instead of one infinite series. The characteristic crossover between more and less anomalous behaviour as well as the effect of absorbing boundary conditions are clearly demonstrated according to the analytical solutions.
Infinite-range Heisenberg model and high-temperature superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tahir-Kheli, Jamil; Goddard, William A., III
1993-11-01
A strongly coupled variational wave function, the doublet spin-projected Néel state (DSPN), is proposed for oxygen holes in three-band models of high-temperature superconductors. This wave function has the three-spin system of the oxygen hole plus the two neighboring copper atoms coupled in a spin-1/2 doublet. The copper spins in the neighborhood of a hole are in an eigenstate of the infinite-range Heisenberg antiferromagnet (SPN state). The doublet three-spin magnetic polaron or hopping polaron (HP) is stabilized by the hopping terms tσ and tτ, rather than by the copper-oxygen antiferromagnetic coupling Jpd. Although, the HP has a large projection onto the Emery (Dg) polaron, a non-negligible amount of doublet-u (Du) character is required for optimal hopping stabilization. This is due to Jdd, the copper-copper antiferromagnetic coupling. For the copper spins near an oxygen hole, the copper-copper antiferromagnetic coupling can be considered to be almost infinite ranged, since the copper-spin-correlation length in the superconducting phase (0.06-0.25 holes per in-plane copper) is approximately equal to the mean separation of the holes (between 2 and 4 lattice spacings). The general DSPN wave function is constructed for the motion of a single quasiparticle in an antiferromagnetic background. The SPN state allows simple calculations of various couplings of the oxygen hole with the copper spins. The energy minimum is found at symmetry (π/2,π/2) and the bandwidth scales with Jdd. These results are in agreement with exact computations on a lattice. The coupling of the quasiparticles leads to an attraction of holes and its magnitude is estimated.
Geochemical Detection of Carbon Dioxide in Dilute Aquifers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Y.; Carroll, S.; Aines, R.
2008-12-01
Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. In this study we use the reactive transport simulations performed by the Nonisothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) code to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO2 gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO2 to the atmosphere. We address the relationships between CO2 flux, groundwater flow, and detection time and distance. The CO2 flux ranges from 103 to 2 x106t/yr to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure. The simulation results show the CO2 leakage into a dilute groundwater creates a slightly acid plume that can be detected at some distance from the leak source due to groundwater flow and CO2 buoyancy. Detection of CO2 leaks in aquifers by changes in pH and carbonate chemistry is readily available and well understood. Reactive transport modeling is a critical component to the design and effective performance of measurement, monitoring, and verification plans for carbon storage. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Dilute nanoemulsions via separation of satellite droplets.
Deen, Shad; Sajjadi, Shahriar
2013-10-01
A facile method is suggested for fabrication of dilute nanoemulsions. In a typical emulsification process, drops are usually accompanied by off-grade satellite droplets. The size of these satellite droplets ranges from hundreds of nanometers to above microns. Experiments were carried out to assess the possibility of separation of nanodrops from macroemulsions made via a conventional method in order to produce nanoemulsions. A low-power homogenizer was used to produce parent emulsions which were then injected from the bottom to a glass column containing water and allowed to cream. By monitoring drops remaining in the bottom of the column, it is clearly shown how progressively smaller they become with time yielding eventually dilute nanoemulsions. The average diameter of drops reduced to 100 nm when oil with high viscosity was used. The concentration of resulting nanoemulsions increased with increasing viscosity and ratio of the disperse phase of parent emulsions. PMID:23830283
Kinetic model for dilute traffic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana A.
The flow of traffic represents a many-particle non-equilibrium problem with important practical consequences. Traffic behavior has been studied using a variety of approaches, including fluid dynamics models, Boltzmann equation, and recently cellular automata (CA). The CA model for traffic flow that Nagel and Schreckenberg (NS) introduced can successfully mimic many of the known features of the traffic flow. We show that in the dilute limit of the NS model, where vehicles exhibit free flow, cars show significant nearest neighbor correlation primarily via a short-range repulsion. introduce an approximate analytic model to describe this dilute limit. We show that the distribution of the distance between consecutive vehicles obeys a drift-diffusion equation. We compared this model with direct simulations. The steady state solution and relaxation of this model agrees well with direct simulations. We explore how this model breaks down as the transition to jams occurs.
Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry
Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.
1995-09-01
This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.
THE ANISOTROPIC TRANSPORT EFFECTS ON DILUTE PLASMAS
Devlen, Ebru
2011-04-20
We examine the linear stability analysis of a hot, dilute, and differentially rotating plasma by considering anisotropic transport effects. In dilute plasmas, the ion Larmor radius is small compared with its collisional mean free path. In this case, the transport of heat and momentum along the magnetic field lines becomes important. This paper presents a novel linear instability that may be more powerful and greater than ideal magnetothermal instability and ideal magnetorotational instability in the dilute astrophysical plasmas. This type of plasma is believed to be found in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters and radiatively ineffective accretion flows around black holes. We derive the dispersion relation of this instability and obtain the instability condition. There is at least one unstable mode that is independent of the temperature gradient direction for a helical magnetic field geometry. This novel instability is driven by the gyroviscosity coupled with differential rotation. Therefore, we call it gyroviscous-modified magnetorotational instability (GvMRI). We examine how the instability depends on signs of the temperature gradient and the gyroviscosity and also on the magnitude of the thermal frequency and on the values of the pitch angle. We provide a detailed physical interpretation of the obtained results. The GvMRI is applicable not only to the accretion flows and ICM but also to the transition region between cool dense gas and the hot low-density plasma in stellar coronae, accretion disks, and the multiphase interstellar medium because it is independent of the temperature gradient direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Day, John Henry, Jr.
1982-03-01
A theory is formulated in which the concentration of a radionuclide uniformly distributed throughout an infinite medium is related to the photopeak count rate of a signature gamma ray acquired by a detector within the medium. The mass fraction of the i('th) radionuclide in the medium is given by f(,i) = W(,i)(psi)(,i) (E)/(lamda)(,i)I(,I)(E)K(E); where (psi)(,i)(E) and I(,i)(E) are the observed photopeak count rate and absolute intensity for a gamma-ray emission of energy E. (lamda)(,i) and W(,i) are the decay constant and isotopic mass, respectively. It is shown that the function K(E) is a source volume integration over(' )(epsilon)(E,R)B(E,R)exp( -(SIGMA)(mu)(E)r(R))/(VBAR)R(VBAR)('2) which depends on gamma-ray energy only. Values of the narrow-beam attenuation coefficient (mu) are known for many materials. However, several laboratory experiments are performed in order to obtain data from which to empirically determine the detector response function (epsilon)(E,R)(' )and the gamma-ray build -up-factor(' )B(E,R). Special experimental instrumentation for analyzing radionuclides in infinite composite materials using high -resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is introduced. A probe is constructed which contains a coaxial high-purity germanium crystal to detect the gamma rays, a cryostat to cool the crystal and electronic circuitry to process the signal from the detector. Laboratory models of natural formations are prepared using high-grade radioactive samples diluted with silicon dioxide to obtain the desired concentrations. Each model is sampled to obtain X-ray fluorescence, delayed neutron and fluorimetric analysis from independent laboratories to compare with results using the method presented in this work.
Effects of dilution on elastohydrodynamic coating flow of an anti-HIV microbicide vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szeri, Andrew; Park, Su Chan; Tasoglu, Savas; Katz, David F.
2009-11-01
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication over soft substrates characterizes the drug delivery of anti-HIV topical microbicides carried in gel vehicles. These gels are under development to prevent HIV transmission into vulnerable vaginal mucosa during intercourse. Their effectiveness depends on completeness and durability of coating, as well as on the active ingredients. Here we investigate the influence of dilution by vaginal fluid on the coating flows that serve to protect the user. The effects of dilution by vaginal fluid simulant are assessed through rheological experiments at variable dilution of the gel vehicle. This involves determination of the way parameters in a Carreau model of a shear-thinning gel are modified by dilution. The changes in coating are determined from a computational model, based on dilution rheology measured in the laboratory. The elastohydrodynamic lubrication model of Szeri, et al. Physics of Fluids (2008) is supplemented with a convective-diffusive transport equation to handle dilution, and solved using a multi-step scheme in a moving domain.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...
Helium 3/Helium 4 dilution cryocooler for space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, John B.; Dingus, Michael L.
1991-01-01
Prototype dilution cryocoolers based on dilution refrigeration and adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration (ADR) cycles were designed, constructed, and tested. Although devices the devices did not operate as fully functional dilution cryocoolers, important information was gathered. The porous metal phase separator was demonstrated to operate in the -1-g configuration; this phase separation is the critical element in the He-3 circulation dilution cryocooler. Improvements in instrumentation needed for additional tests and development were identified.
Defect formation and carrier doping in epitaxial films of the infinite layer compound
Feenstra, R.; Pennycook, S.J.; Chisholm, M.F.
1996-02-01
The correlation between defect formation and carrier doping in epitaxial films of the infinite layer compound SrCuO{sub 2} has been studied via molecular beam epitaxy controlled layer-by-layer growth experiments, chemically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray diffraction, electrical transport measurements, and post-growth oxidation-reduction annealing. Based on the complementary information provided by these experiments, it is concluded that the carrier doping is dominated by the formation of an electron-doped, Sr and O deficient matrix under mildly oxidizing growth conditions. Hole-doping is induced by extended defects containing excess Sr atoms and may lead to superconductivity after high-temperature oxidation.
Lasaygues, Philippe; Le Marrec, Loïc
2008-01-01
Comparisons were made between the results obtained using two quantitative ultrasound imaging methods on the solid cross section of a cylindrical tube that is infinite in the axial direction. The first method tested was the classical reflection tomography method based on the first-order Born approximation, which can only be used under conditions to obtain limited reconstruction of the external boundaries of the high contrast scatterer. The results were compared with those obtained using another inversion scheme based on the Intercepting Canonical Body Approximation (ICBA) in a large frequency range, which gives accurate complete geometrical information about the tube (thickness measurements). The numerical and experimental results obtained show the feasibility of the latter approach. PMID:18564595
Observation of a relaxed plasma state in a quasi-infinite cylinder.
Gray, T; Brown, M R; Dandurand, D
2013-02-22
A helical relaxed plasma state is observed in a long cylindrical volume. The cylinder is long enough so that the predicted minimum energy state is a close approximation to the infinite cylinder solution. The plasma is injected at v ≥ 50 km/s by a coaxial magnetized plasma gun located at one end of the cylindrical volume. The relaxed state is rapidly attained in 1-2 axial Alfvén times after initiation of the plasma. Magnetic data are favorably compared with an analytical model. Magnetic data exhibit broadband fluctuations of the measured axial modes during the formation period. The broadband activity rapidly decays as the energy condenses into the lowest energy mode, which is in agreement with the minimum energy eigenstate of [Symbol: see text] × B = λB. PMID:23473157
Evaluation of two swept-infinite-wing potential/viscous-flow computer programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arimilli, R. V.
1976-01-01
Two computer programs capable of predicting the potential and viscous interacting flow around wings of infinite aspect ratio was evaluated. The programs are compared in terms of their capabilities, the approximations and the methods of solution used, and the input requirements. Six airfoils, each representative of a class of airfoils, are used as test airfoils. The results predicted by the programs are presented for each airfoil at sweep angles of 0, 20, and 40 degrees over a range of angles of attack. The results show that at zero sweep both programs predicted the aerodynamic coefficients well and generally in good agreement with measurements. At 20 and 40 degrees of sweep, as there are no experimental data available, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn about the accuracy of the predictions although the results are presented and discussed. The execution times are approximately the same for the two programs.
Infinite capacity multi-server queue with second optional service channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Jau-Chuan; Wu, Chia-Huang; Pearn, Wen Lea
2013-02-01
This paper deals with an infinite-capacity multi-server queueing system with a second optional service (SOS) channel. The inter-arrival times of arriving customers, the service times of the first essential service (FES) and the SOS channel are all exponentially distributed. A customer may leave the system after the FES channel with probability (1-θ), or at the completion of the FES may immediately require a SOS with probability θ (0 <= θ <= 1). The formulae for computing the rate matrix and stationary probabilities are derived by means of a matrix analytical approach. A cost model is developed to determine the optimal values of the number of servers and the two service rates, simultaneously, at the minimal total expected cost per unit time. Quasi-Newton method are employed to deal with the optimization problem. Under optimal operating conditions, numerical results are provided in which several system performance measures are calculated based on assumed numerical values of the system parameters.
Observation of a Relaxed Plasma State in a Quasi-Infinite Cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, T.; Brown, M. R.; Dandurand, D.
2013-02-01
A helical relaxed plasma state is observed in a long cylindrical volume. The cylinder is long enough so that the predicted minimum energy state is a close approximation to the infinite cylinder solution. The plasma is injected at v≥50km/s by a coaxial magnetized plasma gun located at one end of the cylindrical volume. The relaxed state is rapidly attained in 1-2 axial Alfvén times after initiation of the plasma. Magnetic data are favorably compared with an analytical model. Magnetic data exhibit broadband fluctuations of the measured axial modes during the formation period. The broadband activity rapidly decays as the energy condenses into the lowest energy mode, which is in agreement with the minimum energy eigenstate of ∇×B=λB.
Structural ordering and chemical configuration of Ba-based infinite-layer superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Vecchio, A.; Mirenghi, L.; De Caro, L.; Tapfer, L.; Aruta, C.; Petrocelli, G.; Balestrino, G.
1997-12-01
In this work, we present a detailed structural and microanalytical study of BaCuO2/CaCuO2 superlattices grown on (001) SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. Our analyses were performed by using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, reciprocal space mapping, x-ray specular reflectivity, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We found that the BaCuO2/CaCuO2 superlattices are grown pseudomorphically on the SrTiO3 substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that the Ca is partially oxidized having both Ca-O and Ca-Ca bonds, while Ba is completely oxidized (Ba-O bonds). The results of our analyses demonstrate that the pulsed laser deposition technique allows one to fabricate high quality infinite-layer superlattices of high structural and chemical ordering.
Scattering from an infinite array of periodic broken wires buried in a dielectric sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallagher, J. G.; Brammer, D. J.
1985-02-01
The scattering of a plane wave from a periodic broken-wire grid buried in a dielectric sheet is studied for a general angle of incidence and for arbitrary linear polarization. The scattered field is expanded in a set of Floquet modes, and the modal coefficients are obtained through the current expansion for a reflecting antenna. The general formulation of the problem is applicable for grids in an infinite dielectric and when located at the boundary interface of two dielectrics. A moment method is used to determine the current on the grid elements and numerical results for the transmission characteristics of several different grid configurations are presented. In addition, the effect on the resonant frequency of parametric variations in the grid geometry is determined. Predicted results are compared with measured transmission characteristics and show excellent agreement.
Effect of modularity on the Glauber dynamics of the dilute spin glass model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jeong-Man
2014-11-01
We study the Glauber dynamics of the dilute, infinite-ranged spin glass model, the so-called dilute Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (dSK) model. The dSK model has sparse couplings and can be classified by the modularity ( M) of the coupling matrix. We investigate the effect of the modularity on the relaxation dynamics starting from a random initial state. By using the Glauber dynamics and the replica method, we derive the relaxation dynamics equations for the magnetization ( m) and the energy per spin ( r), in addition to the equation for the spin glass order parameter ( q αβ ). In the replica symmetric (RS) analysis, we find that there are two solutions for the RS spin glass order parameter ( q): q = 0which is stable for r < 1/2 and q = (-1+4 r 2)/(32 r 4) which is stable for r > 1/2 in the non-modular system and q = 0 which is stable for r < 1/ and q = (-1+8 r 2)/(128 r 4) which is stable for r > 1/ in the completely modular system. By substituting the proper q values into the equations for r, we find that the relaxation dynamics of r depends on the modularity, M. These results suggest that, in the context of evolutionary theory, the modularity may emerge spontaneously in the point-mutation-only framework (Glauber dynamics) under a changing environment.
Solvaton Phenomena in Dilute Multicomponent Solutions I. Formal Results and Molecular Outlook
Chialvo, Ariel A; Chialvo, Sebastian; Simonson, J Michael {Mike}; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu
2008-01-01
We derive 2nd-order thermodynamically consistent truncated composition-expansions for the species residual partial molar properties ⎯ including volume, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy ⎯ of dilute ternary systems aimed at the molecular account of solvation phenomena in compressible media. Then, we provide explicit microscopic interpretation of the expansion coefficients in terms of direct and total correlation function integrals over the microstructure of the corresponding infinite dilution reference system, as well as their pressure and temperature derivatives, allowing for the direct prediction of the species partial molar properties from the knowledge of the effective intermolecular interactions. Finally, we apply these formal results (a) to derive consistent expressions for the corresponding properties of the binary system counterparts, (b) to illustrate how the formal expressions converge, at the zero density limit, to those for multicomponent mixtures of imperfect gases obeying the virial equation of state Z=1+BP/kT, and (c) to discuss, and highlight with examples from the literature, the thermodynamic inconsistencies encountered in the currently available 1st-order truncated expansions, by pinpointing the mathematical origin and physical meaning of the inconsistencies that render the 1st-order truncated expansions invalid.
Solvation phenomena in dilute multicomponent solutions I. Formal results and molecular outlook.
Chialvo, Ariel A; Chialvo, Sebastian; Simonson, J Michael; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu V
2008-06-01
We derive second-order thermodynamically consistent truncated composition expansions for the species residual partial molar properties--including volume, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy--of dilute ternary systems aimed at the molecular account of solvation phenomena in compressible media. Then, we provide explicit microscopic interpretation of the expansion coefficients in terms of direct and total correlation function integrals over the microstructure of the corresponding infinite dilution reference system, as well as their pressure and temperature derivatives, allowing for the direct prediction of the species partial molar properties from the knowledge of the effective intermolecular interactions. Finally, we apply these formal results (a) to derive consistent expressions for the corresponding properties of the binary system counterparts, (b) to illustrate how the formal expressions converge, at the zero density limit, to those for multicomponent mixtures of imperfect gases obeying the virial equation of state Z = 1 + BPkT, and (c) to discuss, and highlight with examples from the literature, the thermodynamic inconsistencies encountered in the currently available first-order truncated expansions, by pinpointing the mathematical origin and physical meaning of the inconsistencies that render the first-order truncated expansions invalid. PMID:18537438
21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...
21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...
21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicant prior to application to...
21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...
21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...
A piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shuwen; Shao, Shubao; Chen, Jie; Xu, Minglong
2015-11-01
Under certain application conditions like nanoindentation technology and the mechanical property measurement of soft materials, the elastic deformation of strain-type load sensors affects their displacement measurement accuracy. In this work, a piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors that compensates for this elastic deformation is presented. The piezoelectric material-based deformation compensation method is proposed. An Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH (HBM) Z30A/50N load sensor acts as the foundation of the method presented in this work. The piezoelectric stack is selected based on its size, maximum deformation value, blocking force and stiffness. Then, a clamping and fixing structure is designed to integrate the HBM sensor with the piezoelectric stack. The clamping and fixing structure, piezoelectric stack and HBM load sensor comprise the sensing part of the enhanced load sensor. The load-deformation curve and the voltage-deformation curve of the enhanced load sensor are then investigated experimentally. Because a hysteresis effect exists in the piezoelectric structure, the relationship between the control signal and the deformation value of the piezoelectric material is nonlinear. The hysteresis characteristic in a quasi-static condition is studied and fitted using a quadratic polynomial, and its coefficients are analyzed to enable control signal prediction. Applied arithmetic based on current theory and the fitted data is developed to predict the control signal. Finally, the experimental effects of the proposed method are presented. It is shown that when a quasi-static load is exerted on this enhanced strain-type load sensor, the deformation is reduced and the equivalent stiffness appears to be almost infinite.
Strain analysis and structural characterization of SrCuO 2/CaCuO 2 infinite layer superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Vecchio, A.; Mirenghi, L.; Tapfer, L.; Aruta, C.; Petrocelli, G.; Balestrino, G.
1997-02-01
A detailed structural characterization of SrCuO 2/CaCuO 2 infinite layer superlattices is presented. The analyses are performed by using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, reciprocal space mapping and X-ray specular reflectivity. In addition, preliminary results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are reported. The X-ray analyses confirm the high structural quality of infinite layer superlattices deposited by pulsed laser technique on slightly misoriented SrTiO 3 substrates. The strain analyses indicate that (i) a macroscopic tilt of the superlattice with respect to the substrate lattice occurs, and (ii) the SrCuO 2 layers are in a relaxed state, while the CaCuO 2 unit cells are tetragonally distorted with respect the SrCuO 2 lattice. The low-angle X-ray measurements reveal good interfacial properties and indicate a partial correlation of the interface roughness across the layers. A computer simulation of the experimental X-ray specular reflectivity patterns yields an average interface roughness of about 4 Å. Finally, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations confirm the good quality of the infinite layer superlattices with a correct stoichiometric contents and, particularly, a chemical state of CuO 2 planes similar to that of typical high quality superconducting YBCO thin films.
Investigation of effects of dilute oxygen solute on nucleation of zirconium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wert, Melissa Jane
Classical nucleation theory is the foundation of considerations of the freezing of liquids. The presence of a dilute solute has been shown to affect nucleation, however, classical theory does not account for the rates seen experimentally. This work investigates the effects of a dilute amount of oxygen solute on the nucleation of solidification in otherwise pure zirconium. Undercooling distributions were obtained for mid and high purity zirconium samples via electrostatic levitation experiments and the critical work of formation, DeltaG*, and kinetic prefactor, log Kv, were determined using statistical analysis. Oxygen content of each sample was determined using glow discharge mass spectrometry. Both kinetic parameters were seen to increase with increasing sample purity. In order to examine these effects of oxygen, a sharp interface model was assumed to allow separation of total free energy change accompanying nucleation into volume free energy and interfacial free energy components. It was shown that dilute amounts of oxygen (<0.2 at %) had a minimal effect on the volume free energy change for this system. Thus, the interfacial free energy term was found to be the dominant factor in the total free energy change for nucleation. Spaepen and Turnbull's temperature-dependent reduced interfacial free energy, alpha, was used to examine the interfacial free energy which arises as a result of the decrease in configurational entropy at the interface. Experimentally-determined values for alpha were significantly less than theoretical predictions of their negentropic model, which assumed an infinite planar interface between a pure liquid and pure close-packed crystal. The interface configurational entropy is greater than the theoretical prediction due to the curvature of the interface and the presence of oxygen. The addition of oxygen increases the number of available configurations, increasing the configurational entropy at the interface, decreasing the interfacial free
Magnetic Properties of Diluted Fcc System Nickel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhen
Starting from Ni and Mg nitrates, about 20 samples of Ni_{rm p}Mg _{rm 1-p}O (0.06 <=q p <=q 0.86) were prepared and X-ray diffraction studies showed the samples to have the NaCl structure with the lattice constant fitting the equation a(p) = 4.2115 - 0.0340p A. Temperature dependent dc magnetic susceptibility (chi ) studies of the samples were carried out between 1.8K and 600K using a SQUID magnetometer and the Neel temperature T_{rm N} were determined from the peak in partial(chiT)/ partialT. The variation of t = T _{rm N}(p)/T _{rm N}(1) versus p is compared with that in Co_{rm p}Mg _{rm 1-p}O. For both systems, the variations for p > 0.31 are found to fit the predicted values for a simple cubic Heisenberg antiferromagnet and a theoretical basis for this anomalous results is advanced. The experimental percolation threshold p_{rm c} = 0.15 +/- 0.01. For p_ {rm c} <=q p <=q 0.33, chi below T_{rm N} shows irreversible behavior for the zero-field-cooled and field -cooled cases, suggestive of spin-glass-like behavior, also observed in other diluted fcc antiferromagnets such as Co_{rm p}Mg _{rm 1-p}O and Eu _{rm p}Sr_ {rm 1-p}Te. It is suggested that the differences in the t vs p variations for p < 0.33 in Ni_{rm p} Mg_{rm 1-p}O, Co_{rm p}Mg _{rm 1-p}O and Eu _{rm p}Sr_ {rm 1-p}Te may be related to the differences in the ratio of the next-nearest-neighbor to nearest-neighbor exchange constants in these systems. A higher order correction to Curie-Weiss law was applied for sample with 0.19 <=q p <=q 0.59 which explains why 1/ chi curve versus T bends downward with decreasing temperatures. For the sample Ni_{0.33} Mg_{0.67}O, the magnetization M versus magnetic field H (0 to 0.2T) are measured with temperature ranging from 5.2K to 13.4K at intervals of 0.2K. The magnitude of the non-linear susceptibility, a_3, is determined from the M versus H data at different temperatures. The divergence of a _3 around 9.4 +/- 0.6K indicates spin-glass behavior in this system.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsamir, Pessia
1999-01-01
Describes a course in Cantorian Set Theory relating to prospective secondary mathematics teachers' tendencies to overgeneralize from finite to infinite sets. Indicates that when comparing the number of elements in infinite sets, teachers who took the course were more successful and more consistent in their use of single method than those who…
Confusing Aspects in the Calculation of the Electrostatic Potential of an Infinite Line of Charge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, I.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.
2012-01-01
In this work we discuss the trick of eliminating infinite potential of reference arguing that it corresponds to a constant of integration, in the problem of determining the electrostatic potential of an infinite line of charge with uniform density, and show how the problem must be tackled properly. The usual procedure is confusing for most…
Monreal, Marisa J; Seaman, Lani A; Goff, George S; Michalczyk, Ryszard; Morris, David E; Scott, Brian L; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L
2016-03-01
Two organometallic 1D infinite coordination polymers and two organometallic monometallic complexes of thorium diazide have been synthesized and characterized. Steric control of these self-assembled arrays, which are dense in thorium and nitrogen, has also been demonstrated: infinite chains can be circumvented by using steric bulk either at the metallocene or with a donor ligand in the wedge. PMID:26865502
Infinite dimensional variational inequalities and dynamic network disequilibrium modeling
Friesz, T.; Bernstein, D.
1994-12-31
In this paper we explain the importance of modeling disequilibrium flow patterns occurring on networks, with special emphasis on automobile networks and the role of information technology. We show how elementary notions of disequilibrium, whether abstract, physical or economic in nature, give rise to an adjustment process expressible as a dynamical system. We comment that when such a system is autonomous its steady states can be given the traditional finite dimensional variational inequality/fixed point representations common to static network equilibria. Beyond this, and unique to our work, we show that if the disequilibrium dynamical system is nonautonomous it may tend toward moving or dynamic (instead of static) network equilibria expressible as infinite dimensional variational inequalities. Using concepts of fast and slow dynamic systems, we show how day-to-day and within-day aspects of automobile travel decision making can be combined to yield a nonautonomous dynamical system with the mathematical properties reviewed previously. We introduce axioms for a proper predictive model of urban network flows which integrates both day-to-day and within-day considerations and postulate one such model for further study.
Oscillating laminar electrokinetic flow in infinitely extended circular microchannels.
Bhattacharyya, A; Masliyah, J H; Yang, J
2003-05-01
This article addresses the problem of oscillating laminar electrokinetic liquid flow in an infinitely extended circular microchannel. Based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for low surface potential at the channel wall, a complex variable approach is used to obtain an analytical solution for the flow. The complex counterparts of the flow rate and the current are linearly dependent on the pressure gradient and the external electric field. This property is used to show that Onsager's principle of reciprocity continues to be valid (involving the complex quantities) for the stated problem. During oscillating pressure-driven flow, the electroviscous effect for a given value of the normalized reciprocal electrical double-layer (EDL) thickness is observed to attain a maximum at a certain normalized frequency. In general, an increasing normalized frequency results in a reduction of EDL effects, leading to (i). a volumetric flow rate in the case of streaming potential approaching that predicted by the theory without EDL effects, and (ii). a reduction in the volumetric flow rate in the case of electroosmosis. PMID:12725819
Infinite hidden conditional random fields for human behavior analysis.
Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja
2013-01-01
Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF (iHCRF), which is a nonparametric model based on hierarchical Dirichlet processes and is capable of automatically learning the optimal number of hidden states for a classification task. We show how we learn the model hyperparameters with an effective Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling technique, and we explain the process that underlines our iHCRF model with the Restaurant Franchise Rating Agencies analogy. We show that the iHCRF is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and outperforms the best finite HCRFs--chosen via cross-validation--for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain. Moreover, the iHCRF manages to achieve this performance in significantly less total training, validation, and testing time. PMID:24808217
Communication Tasks with Infinite Quantum-Classical Separation.
Perry, Christopher; Jain, Rahul; Oppenheim, Jonathan
2015-07-17
Quantum resources can be more powerful than classical resources-a quantum computer can solve certain problems exponentially faster than a classical computer, and computing a function of two parties' inputs can be done with exponentially less communication with quantum messages than with classical ones. Here we consider a task between two players, Alice and Bob where quantum resources are infinitely more powerful than their classical counterpart. Alice is given a string of length n, and Bob's task is to exclude certain combinations of bits that Alice might have. If Alice must send classical messages, then she must reveal nearly n bits of information to Bob, but if she is allowed to send quantum bits, the amount of information she must reveal goes to zero with increasing n. Next, we consider a version of the task where the parties may have access to entanglement. With this assistance, Alice only needs to send a constant number of bits, while without entanglement, the number of bits Alice must send grows linearly with n. The task is related to the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem which arises in the context of the foundations of quantum theory. PMID:26230777
(1)/(N) expansion of the nonequilibrium infinite- U Anderson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratiani, Zurab; Mitra, Aditi
2009-06-01
Results are presented for the nonequilibrium infinite- U Anderson model using a large N approach, where N is the degeneracy of the impurity level, and where nonequilibrium is established by coupling the level to two leads at two different chemical potentials so that there is current flow. A slave-boson representation combined with Keldysh functional integral methods is employed. Expressions for the static spin susceptibility χS and the conductance G are presented to O((1)/(N)) and for an applied voltage difference V less than the Kondo temperature. The correlation function for the slave boson is found to be significantly modified from its equilibrium form in that it acquires a rapid decay in time with a rate that equals the current-induced decoherence rate. Physical observables are found to have a rather complex dependence on the coupling strength to the two leads which can lead to asymmetric behavior χS(V)≠χS(-V) , G(V)≠G(-V) both in the mixed valence and in the Kondo regime.
Scattering by infinitely rising one-dimensional potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, E. M.; Sesma, J.
2015-12-01
Infinitely rising one-dimensional potentials constitute impenetrable barriers which reflect totally any incident wave. However, the scattering by such kind of potentials is not structureless: resonances may occur for certain values of the energy. Here we consider the problem of scattering by the members of a family of potentials Va(x) = - sgn(x) | x | a, where sgn represents the sign function and a is a positive rational number. The scattering function and the phase shifts are obtained from global solutions of the Schrödinger equation. For the determination of the Gamow states, associated to resonances, we exploit their close relation with the eigenvalues of the PT-symmetric Hamiltonians with potentials VaPT(x) = - i sgn(x) | x | a. Calculation of the time delay in the scattering at real energies is used to characterize the resonances. As an additional result, the breakdown of the PT-symmetry of the family of potentials VaPT for a < 3 may be conjectured.
Infinite bandwidth of a Mott-Hubbard insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freericks, James; Cohn, Jeffrey; van Dongen, Peter; Krishnamurthy, Hulikal
The conventional viewpoint of the strongly correlated electron metal-insulator transition is that a single band splits into two upper and lower Hubbard bands at the metal-insulator transition. Much work has investigated whether this transition is continuous or discontinuous. Here we focus on another aspect and ask the question of whether there are additional upper and lower Hubbard bands, which stretch all the way out to infinity|leading to an infinite bandwidth for the Mott insulator. While we are not yet able to provide a rigorous proof of this result, we use exact diagonalization studies on small clusters to motivate the existence of these additional bands, and we discuss some different methods that might be utilized to provide a rigorous proof of this result. Even though the extra upper and lower Hubbard bands have very low total spectral weight, those states are expected to have extremely long lifetimes, leading to a nontrivial contribution to the transport density of states for dc transport and modifying the high temperature limit for the electrical resistivity. JKF supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER46542, and by the McDevitt bequest at Georgetown University. HRK supported by the Indian Science Foundation.
Semiclassical limits of quantum partition functions on infinite graphs
Güneysu, Batu
2015-02-15
We prove that if H denotes the operator corresponding to the canonical Dirichlet form on a possibly locally infinite weighted graph (X, b, m), and if v : X → ℝ is such that H + v/ħ is well-defined as a form sum for all ħ > 0, then the quantum partition function tr(e{sup −βħ(H+v/ħ)}) converges to ∑{sub x∈X}e{sup −βv(x)} as ħ → 0 +, for all β > 0, regardless of the fact whether e{sup −βv} is a priori summable or not. This fact can be interpreted as a semiclassical limit, and it allows geometric Weyl-type convergence results. We also prove natural generalizations of this semiclassical limit to a large class of covariant Schrödinger operators that act on sections in Hermitian vector bundle over (X, m, b), a result that particularly applies to magnetic Schrödinger operators that are defined on (X, m, b)
Water waves as a spatial dynamical system; infinite depth case.
Barrandon, Matthieu; Iooss, Gérard
2005-09-01
We review the mathematical results on traveling waves in one or several superposed layers of potential flow, subject to gravity, with or without surface and interfacial tension, where the bottom layer is infinitely deep. The problem is formulated as a "spatial dynamical system," and it is shown that the linearized operator of the resulting reversible system has an essential spectrum filling the real line. We consider three cases where bifurcation occurs. (i) The first case is when, in moving a parameter, two pairs of imaginary eigenvalues merge into one pair of double eigenvalues, and then split into four symmetric complex conjugate eigenvalues. (ii) The second case is when one pair of imaginary eigenvalues meet in 0, and disappear; (iii) the third case is when the phenomenon described in (ii) is superposed to the presence of another pair of imaginary eigenvalues sitting at finite distance from 0. We give a physical example for each case and more specially study the solitary waves and generalized solitary waves, emphasizing the differences, in the methods and in the results, between these cases and the finite depth case. PMID:16253007
Spectral Methods Using Rational Basis Functions on an Infinite Interval
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd, John P.
1987-03-01
By using the map y = L cot( t) where L is a constant, differential equations on the interval yɛ [- ∞, ∞] can be transformed into tɛ [0, π] and solved by an ordinary Fourier series. In this article, earlier work by Grosch and Orszag ( J. Comput. Phys.25, 273 (1977)), Cain, Ferziger, and Reynolds ( J. Comput. Phys.56, 272 (1984)), and Boyd ( J. Comput. Phys.25, 43 (1982); 57, 454 (1985); SIAM J. Numer. Anal. (1987)) is extended in several ways. First, the series of orthogonal rational functions converge on the exterior of bipolar coordinate surfaces in the complex y-plane. Second, Galerkin's method will convert differential equations with polynomial or rational coefficients into banded matrix problems. Third, with orthogonal rational functions it is possible to obtain exponential convergence even for u( y) that asymptote to a constant although this behavior would wreck alternatives such as Hermite or sinc expansions. Fourth, boundary conditions are usually "natural" rather than "essential" in the sense that the singularities of the differential equation will force the numerical solution to have the correct behavior at infinity even if no constraints are imposed on the basis functions. Fifth, mapping a finite interval to an infinite one and then applying the rational Chebyshev functions gives an exponentially convergent method for functions with bounded endpoint singularities. These concepts are illustrated by five numerical examples.
A conformal truncation framework for infinite-volume dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Emanuel; Khandker, Zuhair U.; Walters, Matthew T.
2016-07-01
We present a new framework for studying conformal field theories deformed by one or more relevant operators. The original CFT is described in infinite volume using a basis of states with definite momentum, P , and conformal Casimir, C. The relevant deformation is then considered using lightcone quantization, with the resulting Hamiltonian expressed in terms of this CFT basis. Truncating to states with C ≤ C_{max } , one can numerically find the resulting spectrum, as well as other dynamical quantities, such as spectral densities of operators. This method requires the introduction of an appropriate regulator, which can be chosen to preserve the conformal structure of the basis. We check this framework in three dimensions for various perturbative deformations of a free scalar CFT, and for the case of a free O( N ) CFT deformed by a mass term and a non-perturbative quartic interaction at large- N . In all cases, the truncation scheme correctly reproduces known analytic results. We also discuss a general procedure for generating a basis of Casimir eigenstates for a free CFT in any number of dimensions.
Causal field theory with an infinite speed of sound
Afshordi, Niayesh; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Geshnizjani, Ghazal
2007-04-15
We introduce a model of scalar field dark energy, Cuscuton, which can be realized as the incompressible (or infinite speed of sound) limit of a scalar field theory with a noncanonical kinetic term (or k-essence). Even though perturbations of Cuscuton propagate superluminally, we show that they have a locally degenerate phase space volume (or zero entropy), implying that they cannot carry any microscopic information, and thus the theory is causal. Even coupling to ordinary scalar fields cannot lead to superluminal signal propagation. Furthermore, we show that the family of constant field hypersurfaces is the family of constant mean curvature hypersurfaces, which are the analogs of soap films (or soap bubbles) in Euclidian space. This enables us to find the most general solution in 1+1 dimensions, whose properties motivate conjectures for global degeneracy of the phase space in higher dimensions. Finally, we show that the Cuscuton action can model the continuum limit of the evolution of a field with discrete degrees of freedom and argue why it is protected against quantum corrections at low energies. While this paper mainly focuses on interesting features of Cuscuton in a Minkowski space-time, a companion paper examines cosmology with Cuscuton dark energy.
A simple extrapolation of thermodynamic perturbation theory to infinite order.
Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F; Elliott, J Richard
2015-09-21
Recent analyses of the third and fourth order perturbation contributions to the equations of state for square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains show trends that persist across orders and molecular models. In particular, the ratio between orders (e.g., A3/A2, where A(i) is the ith order perturbation contribution) exhibits a peak when plotted with respect to density. The trend resembles a Gaussian curve with the peak near the critical density. This observation can form the basis for a simple recursion and extrapolation from the highest available order to infinite order. The resulting extrapolation is analytic and therefore cannot fully characterize the critical region, but it remarkably improves accuracy, especially for the binodal curve. Whereas a second order theory is typically accurate for the binodal at temperatures within 90% of the critical temperature, the extrapolated result is accurate to within 99% of the critical temperature. In addition to square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains, we demonstrate how the method can be applied semi-empirically to the Perturbed Chain - Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT). PMID:26395687
A simple extrapolation of thermodynamic perturbation theory to infinite order
Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard
2015-09-21
Recent analyses of the third and fourth order perturbation contributions to the equations of state for square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains show trends that persist across orders and molecular models. In particular, the ratio between orders (e.g., A{sub 3}/A{sub 2}, where A{sub i} is the ith order perturbation contribution) exhibits a peak when plotted with respect to density. The trend resembles a Gaussian curve with the peak near the critical density. This observation can form the basis for a simple recursion and extrapolation from the highest available order to infinite order. The resulting extrapolation is analytic and therefore cannot fully characterize the critical region, but it remarkably improves accuracy, especially for the binodal curve. Whereas a second order theory is typically accurate for the binodal at temperatures within 90% of the critical temperature, the extrapolated result is accurate to within 99% of the critical temperature. In addition to square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains, we demonstrate how the method can be applied semi-empirically to the Perturbed Chain - Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT)
The Effect of Dilution on the Structure of Microbial Communities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mills, Aaron L.
2000-01-01
To determine how dilution of microbial communities affects the diversity of the diluted assemblage a series of numerical simulations were conducted that determined the theoretical change in diversity, richness, and evenness of the community with serial dilution. The results of the simulation suggested that the effects are non linear with a high degree of dependence on the initial evenness of the community being diluted. A series of incubation experiments using a range of dilutions of raw sewage as an inoculum into sterile sewage was used for comparison to the simulations. The diluted communities were maintained in batch fed reactors (three day retention time) for nine days. The communities were harvested and examined by conventional plating and by molecular analysis of the whole-community DNA using AFLP and T-RFLP. Additional, CLPP analysis was also applied. The effects on richness predicted by the numerical simulations were confirmed by the analyses used. The diluted communities fell into three groups, a low dilution, intermediate dilution, and high dilution group, which corresponded well with the groupings obtained for community richness in simulation. The grouping demonstrated the non-linear nature of dilution of whole communities. Furthermore, the results implied that the undiluted community consisted of a few dominant types accompanied by a number of rare (low abundance) types as is typical in unevenly distributed communities.
Diluted magnetic III-V semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munekata, H.; Ohno, H.; von Molnar, S.; Segmüller, Armin; Chang, L. L.; Esaki, L.
1989-10-01
A new diluted magnetic III-V semiconductor of In1-xMnxAs (x<=0.18) has been produced by molecular-beam epitaxy. Films grown at 300 °C are predominantly ferromagnetic and their properties suggest the presence of MnAs clusters. Films grown 200 °C, however, are predominantly paramagnetic, and the lattice constant decreases with increasing Mn composition; both are indicative of the formation of a homogeneous alloy. These films have n-type conductivity and reduced band gaps.
Steadiness in Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, B. J.
2015-12-01
Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are often unsteady, as evidenced by direct observations of dilute lobes or jets emerging from the fronts of larger currents and by deposits that indicate transient transport and depositional regimes. We used scaled experiments to investigate unsteadiness in dilute PDCs. The experimental currents were run in an 8.5x6.1x2.6 m tank and comprised heated or ambient temperature 20-μm talc powder turbulently suspended in air. Experiments were scaled such that densimetric and thermal Richardson numbers, Froude number, and particle Stokes and settling numbers were dynamically similar to natural dilute PDCs. Although the experiment Reynolds numbers are substantially lower than those of natural PDCs, the experiments are fully turbulent. Experiments were observed with video and high-speed cameras and high-frequency thermocouples. Currents were generated with total eruption durations of 100 s. Unsteadiness in source conditions was produced by interrupting supply for intervals, t, with durations of 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 s in the experimental runs at 35 and 70 s. When t<2.5 s, the currents are indistinguishable from currents with steady supply. In runs with t=2.5-5 s, the individual pulses comprising each current are readily apparent near the source, but decay with distance downstream until the currents appear as single (e.g. steady) flows. In experiments with t=10 s, the 3 pulses comprising each run never merge and the currents remain unsteady. Comparison with the integral turbulent timescale, τ, and current velocity, U, show that unsteadiness is persistent when t>3<τ but currents are steady when t<τ. In currents with 3τ>t>τ, unsteadiness decays such that at a distance of ~4Ut, the currents are again steady. Applied to natural dilute PDCs, our results suggest that currents and their resulting deposits, will only show evidence of unsteadiness if they are disrupted for many seconds and those breaks may "heal" over distances of 100s of meters.
Magnetopolaron effect in diluted semimagnetic semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarasov, Georgiy G.; Mazur, Yuri I.; Rakitin, Andrey S.; Lavoric, S. R.; Tomm, Jens W.; Hoerstel, W.
1997-08-01
Phonon-assisted self-trapping of free carrier is considered in diluted semimagnetics. It is shown that the binding energy of free magnetic polaron can be substantially larger when the 'spin-phonon' coupling is taken into account. For the particular case of 'soft' lattice dynamics the region of stability for hole-induced polaron can be promoted to the temperature of tenths of degrees and magnetic field of a few Tesla. The possible hybridized excitations with the partition of free magnetic polaron are discussed in semimagnetic semiconductors.
Supershell structure in trapped dilute Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Y.; Ögren, M.; Åberg, S.; Reimann, S. M.; Brack, M.
2005-11-01
We show that a dilute harmonically trapped two-component gas of fermionic atoms with a weak repulsive interaction has a pronounced super-shell structure: The shell fillings due to the spherical harmonic trapping potential are modulated by a beat mode. This changes the “magic numbers” occurring between the beat nodes by half a period. The length and amplitude of this beating mode depend on the strength of the interaction. We give a simple interpretation of the beat structure in terms of a semiclassical trace formula for the symmetry breaking U(3)→SO(3) .
Supershell structure in trapped dilute Fermi gases
Yu, Y.; Oegren, M.; Aaberg, S.; Reimann, S. M.; Brack, M.
2005-11-15
We show that a dilute harmonically trapped two-component gas of fermionic atoms with a weak repulsive interaction has a pronounced super-shell structure: The shell fillings due to the spherical harmonic trapping potential are modulated by a beat mode. This changes the ''magic numbers'' occurring between the beat nodes by half a period. The length and amplitude of this beating mode depend on the strength of the interaction. We give a simple interpretation of the beat structure in terms of a semiclassical trace formula for the symmetry breaking U(3){yields}SO(3)
Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.
1985-01-01
The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.
Flow rate estimation by optical coherence tomography using contrast dilution approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Štohanzlová, Petra; Kolář, Radim
2015-07-01
This paper describes experiments and methodology for flow rate estimation using optical coherence tomography and dilution method in single fiber setup. The single fiber is created from custom made glass capillary and polypropylene hollow fiber. As a data source, measurements on single fiber phantom with continuous flow of carrier medium and bolus of Intralipid solution as a contrast agent were used using Thorlabs OCT OCS1300SS. The measured data were processed by methods of image processing, in order to precisely align the individual images in the sequence and extract dilution curves from the area inside the fiber. An experiment proved that optical coherence tomography can be used for flow rate estimation by the dilution method with precision around 7%.
Spin mixing conductance in Cu–Ir dilute alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Sei; Kimata, Motoi; Omori, Yasutomo; Niimi, Yasuhiro; Otani, YoshiChika
2016-06-01
We have investigated the spin mixing conductance at the interface of Py and Cu–Ir dilute alloys by means of spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) measurements for Cu–Ir. From systematic studies of the effective spin mixing conductance as a function of Ir concentration, we found that the interfacial spin mixing conductance g \\uparrow \\downarrow was proportional to the Ir concentration. This result is consistent with a scenario based on the impurity-dependent density of states at the Fermi energy. From the ISHE measurements as a function of Ir concentration, we show that the mechanism of the spin Hall effect is skew scattering and that the spin Hall angle is comparable to the previously determined value by using the lateral spin valve structures.
Geochemical detection of carbon dioxide in dilute aquifers
Carroll, S; Hao, Y; Aines, R
2009-03-27
Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO{sub 2} gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO{sub 2} storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO{sub 2} flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO{sub 2} flux ranges from 10{sup 3} to 2 x 10{sup 6} t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m{sup 2}/yr) to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure.
Dilute NiPt alloy interactions with Si
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corni, F.; Grignaffini Gregorio, B.; Ottaviani, G.; Queirolo, G.; Follegot, J. P.
1993-11-01
The reaction between a dilute Ni 95Pt 5 alloy and <111>Si has been investigated as a function of the annealing temperature and time, and the film thickness. Contrary to the concentrate alloys the first phase formed is Ni 2Si and the growth kinetics in the initial steps are similar to the case of pure Ni. Pt segregates in the alloy and its presence slows down the silicide growth rate suggesting that a new mechanism, namely the release of Ni from the alloy, is competing with the diffusion process in the silicide. In all the cases here considered NiSi starts to form only when all the Ni is reacted, indicating that the Pt never reaches high enough concentrations to inhibit the Ni 2Si growth. The further evolution of the system is similar to the ones reported for bilayers and non-dilute alloys. The I-V characteristics measured after annealing give a barrier height of 0.70 ± 0.01 eV.
Thermal conductivity and sound attenuation in dilute atomic Fermi gases
Braby, Matt; Chao Jingyi; Schaefer, Thomas
2010-09-15
We compute the thermal conductivity and sound attenuation length of a dilute atomic Fermi gas in the framework of kinetic theory. Above the critical temperature for superfluidity, T{sub c}, the quasiparticles are fermions, whereas below T{sub c}, the dominant excitations are phonons. We calculate the thermal conductivity in both cases. We find that at unitarity the thermal conductivity {kappa} in the normal phase scales as {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 3/2}. In the superfluid phase we find {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 2}. At high temperature the Prandtl number, the ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusion constants, is 2/3. The ratio increases as the temperature is lowered. As a consequence we expect sound attenuation in the normal phase just above T{sub c} to be dominated by shear viscosity. We comment on the possibility of extracting the shear viscosity of the dilute Fermi gas at unitarity using measurements of the sound absorption length.
High-dilution effects revisited. 1. Physicochemical aspects.
Bellavite, Paolo; Marzotto, Marta; Olioso, Debora; Moratti, Elisabetta; Conforti, Anita
2014-01-01
Several lines of evidence suggest that homeopathic high dilutions (HDs) can effectively have a pharmacological action, and so cannot be considered merely placebos. However, until now there has been no unified explanation for these observations within the dominant paradigm of the dose-response effect. Here the possible scenarios for the physicochemical nature of HDs are reviewed. A number of theoretical and experimental approaches, including quantum physics, conductometric and spectroscopic measurements, thermoluminescence, and model simulations investigated the peculiar features of diluted/succussed solutions. The heterogeneous composition of water could be affected by interactive phenomena such as coherence, epitaxy and formation of colloidal nanobubbles containing gaseous inclusions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, silica and, possibly, the original material of the remedy. It is likely that the molecules of active substance act as nucleation centres, amplifying the formation of supramolecular structures and imparting order to the solvent. Three major models for how this happens are currently being investigated: the water clusters or clathrates, the coherent domains postulated by quantum electrodynamics, and the formation of nanoparticles from the original solute plus solvent components. Other theoretical approaches based on quantum entanglement and on fractal-type self-organization of water clusters are more speculative and hypothetical. The problem of the physicochemical nature of HDs is still far from to be clarified but current evidence strongly supports the notion that the structuring of water and its solutes at the nanoscale can play a key role. PMID:24439452
Weighted Geometric Dilution of Precision Calculations with Matrix Multiplication
Chen, Chien-Sheng
2015-01-01
To enhance the performance of location estimation in wireless positioning systems, the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) is widely used as a criterion for selecting measurement units. Since GDOP represents the geometric effect on the relationship between measurement error and positioning determination error, the smallest GDOP of the measurement unit subset is usually chosen for positioning. The conventional GDOP calculation using matrix inversion method requires many operations. Because more and more measurement units can be chosen nowadays, an efficient calculation should be designed to decrease the complexity. Since the performance of each measurement unit is different, the weighted GDOP (WGDOP), instead of GDOP, is used to select the measurement units to improve the accuracy of location. To calculate WGDOP effectively and efficiently, the closed-form solution for WGDOP calculation is proposed when more than four measurements are available. In this paper, an efficient WGDOP calculation method applying matrix multiplication that is easy for hardware implementation is proposed. In addition, the proposed method can be used when more than exactly four measurements are available. Even when using all-in-view method for positioning, the proposed method still can reduce the computational overhead. The proposed WGDOP methods with less computation are compatible with global positioning system (GPS), wireless sensor networks (WSN) and cellular communication systems. PMID:25569755
Neutron scattering study of dilute supercritical solutions
Cochran, H.D.; Wignall, G.D.; Shah, V.M.; Londono, J.D.; Bienkowski, P.R.
1994-10-01
Dilute solutions in supercritical solvents exhibit interesting microstructures that are related to their dramatic macroscopic behavior. In typical attractive solutions, solutes are believed to be surrounded by clusters of solvent molecules, and solute molecules are believed to congregate in the vicinity of one another. Repulsive solutions, on the other hand, exhibit a local region of reduced solvent density around the solute with solute-solute congregation. Such microstructures influence solubility, partial molar volume, reaction kinetics, and many other properties. We have undertaken to observe these interesting microstructures directly by neutron scattering experiments on dilute noble gas systems including Ar. The three partial structure factors for such systems and the corresponding pair correlation functions can be determined by using the isotope substitution technique. The systems studied are uniquely suited for our objectives because of the large coherent neutron scattering length of the isotope {sup 36}Ar and because of the accurate potential energy functions that are available for use in molecular simulations and theoretical calculations to be compared with the scattering results. We will describe our experiment, the unique apparatus we have built for it, and the neutron scattering results from our initial allocations of beam time. We will also describe planned scattering experiments to follow those with noble gases, including study of long-chain molecules in supercritical solvents. Such studies will involve hydrocarbon mixtures with and without deuteration to provide contrast.
Dilute Potts model in two dimensions.
Qian, Xiaofeng; Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W J
2005-11-01
We study the two-dimensional dilute q-state Potts model by means of transfer-matrix and Monte Carlo methods. Using the random-cluster representation, we include noninteger values of q. We locate phase transitions in the three-dimensional parameter space of q, the Potts coupling K>0, and the chemical potential of the vacancies. The critical plane is found to contain a line of fixed points that divides into a critical branch and a tricritical one, just as predicted by the renormalization scenario formulated by Nienhuis et al for the dilute Potts model. The universal properties along the line of fixed points agree with the theoretical predictions. We also determine the density of the vacancies along these branches. For q=2-squareroot of 2 we obtain the phase diagram in a three-dimensional parameter space that also includes a coupling V> or = 0 between the vacancies. For q=2, the latter space contains the Blume-Capel model as a special case. We include a determination of the tricritical point of this model, as well as an analysis of percolation clusters constructed on tricritical Potts configurations for noninteger q. This percolation study is based on Monte Carlo algorithms that include local updates flipping between Potts sites and vacancies. The bond updates are performed locally for and by means of a cluster algorithm for q>1. The updates for q>1 use a number of operations per site independent of the system size. PMID:16383713
Dilute Potts model in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Xiaofeng; Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W. J.
2005-11-01
We study the two-dimensional dilute q -state Potts model by means of transfer-matrix and Monte Carlo methods. Using the random-cluster representation, we include noninteger values of q . We locate phase transitions in the three-dimensional parameter space of q , the Potts coupling K⩾0 , and the chemical potential of the vacancies. The critical plane is found to contain a line of fixed points that divides into a critical branch and a tricritical one, just as predicted by the renormalization scenario formulated by Nienhuis for the dilute Potts model. The universal properties along the line of fixed points agree with the theoretical predictions. We also determine the density of the vacancies along these branches. For q=2-2 we obtain the phase diagram in a three-dimensional parameter space that also includes a coupling V⩾0 between the vacancies. For q=2 , the latter space contains the Blume-Capel model as a special case. We include a determination of the tricritical point of this model, as well as an analysis of percolation clusters constructed on tricritical Potts configurations for noninteger q . This percolation study is based on Monte Carlo algorithms that include local updates flipping between Potts sites and vacancies. The bond updates are performed locally for q<1 and by means of a cluster algorithm for q>1 . The updates for q>1 use a number of operations per site independent of the system size.
Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Kusenko, Alexander
2015-11-01
We present a model where sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the range ˜keV to ˜MeV can be the dark matter and be consistent with all laboratory, cosmological, and large-scale structure, as well as x-ray constraints. These sterile neutrinos are assumed to freeze out of thermal and chemical equilibrium with matter and radiation in the very early Universe, prior to an epoch of prodigious entropy generation ("dilution") from out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy particles. In this work, we consider heavy, entropy-producing particles in the ˜TeV to ˜EeV rest-mass range, possibly associated with new physics at high-energy scales. The process of dilution can give the sterile neutrinos the appropriate relic densities, but it also alters their energy spectra so that they could act like cold dark matter, despite relatively low rest masses as compared to conventional dark matter candidates. Moreover, since the model does not rely on active-sterile mixing for producing the relic density, the mixing angles can be small enough to evade current x-ray or lifetime constraints. Nevertheless, we discuss how future x-ray observations, future lepton number constraints, and future observations and sophisticated simulations of large-scale structure could, in conjunction, provide evidence for this model and/or constrain and probe its parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Zhewei; Hu, Zixi; Li, Jinglai
2016-07-01
Many scientific and engineering problems require to perform Bayesian inferences in function spaces, where the unknowns are of infinite dimension. In such problems, choosing an appropriate prior distribution is an important task. In particular, when the function to infer is subject to sharp jumps, the commonly used Gaussian measures become unsuitable. On the other hand, the so-called total variation (TV) prior can only be defined in a finite-dimensional setting, and does not lead to a well-defined posterior measure in function spaces. In this work we present a TV-Gaussian (TG) prior to address such problems, where the TV term is used to detect sharp jumps of the function, and the Gaussian distribution is used as a reference measure so that it results in a well-defined posterior measure in the function space. We also present an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to draw samples from the posterior distribution of the TG prior. With numerical examples we demonstrate the performance of the TG prior and the efficiency of the proposed MCMC algorithm.
Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems
He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.
2011-12-01
Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacoin, Hubert
2014-03-01
Let be the number of self-avoiding paths of length starting from the origin on the infinite cluster obtained after performing Bernoulli percolation on with parameter . The object of this paper is to study the connective constant of the dilute lattice , which is a non-random quantity. We want to investigate if the inequality obtained with the Borel-Cantelli Lemma is strict or not. In other words, we want to know if the quenched and annealed versions of the connective constant are equal. On a heuristic level, this indicates whether or not localization of the trajectories occurs. We prove that when is sufficiently large there exists such that the inequality is strict for.
Motor-mediated microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions.
Swaminathan, S.; Ziebert, F.; Aranson, I. S.; Karpeev, D.
2011-01-01
We study molecular motor-induced microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions. In the dilute case, we use a probabilistic model of microtubule interaction via molecular motors to investigate microtubule bundle dynamics. Microtubules are modeled as polar rods interacting through fully inelastic, binary collisions. Our model indicates that initially disordered systems of interacting rods exhibit an orientational instability resulting in spontaneous ordering. We study the existence and dynamic interaction of microtubule bundles analytically and numerically. Our results reveal a long term attraction and coalescing of bundles indicating a clear coarsening in the system; microtubule bundles concentrate into fewer orientations on a slow logarithmic time scale. In semi-dilute filament solutions, multiple motors can bind a filament to several others and, for a critical motor density, induce a transition to an ordered phase with a nonzero mean orientation. Motors attach to a pair of filaments and walk along the pair bringing them into closer alignment. We develop a spatially homogenous, mean-field theory that explicitly accounts for a force-dependent detachment rate of motors, which in turn affects the mean and the fluctuations of the net force acting on a filament. We show that the transition to the oriented state can be both continuous and discontinuous when the force-dependent detachment of motors is important.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Le-Le; Wei, Jiu-Chuan; Niu, Chao; Shi, Long-Qing; Zhai, Pei-He; Yin, Hui-Yong; Xie, Dao-Lei
2015-07-01
The Pole-Pole (PP) array is widely used for measurements that incorporate two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) multi-electrode electrical resistivity surveys, although an effective equilibrium has not yet been achieved between two factors, the location of 'infinite' electrodes and the data utilisation of the effective resistivity, which affects the detection accuracy; thus, the data collected under the conditions of 'infinite' electrodes that are as finite as possible are maximally effective. Studies have shown that the optimum 'infinite' electrode distance must be greater than 20 times the current-potential electrode distance AM; this value is much greater than the currently used value of 5 to 10 times AM. However, limitations imposed by landforms and topographic conditions, such as mountainous areas and coal mine roadways, often prevent the 'infinite' condition from being satisfied. In this study, a field test was designed and performed by adopting a particular PP array to collect sounding data under different 'infinite' electrode distances, and the differences were analysed in the apparent resistivity curves calculated with different geometric coefficients. The results reveal that when the 'infinite' electrode space is finite relative to AM, significant distortion may occur, and a minimum inflection point may appear in the sounding curve of apparent resistivity that is calculated with the geometric coefficient Kpp. Although the data past the minimum inflection point of ρs-mpp curve lose their value for the sounding application, a portion of the first segment of the distorted curve can be used, therefore, a correction formula under the condition of non-infinite electrode (Bing and Greenhalgh, 1998) space in a PP array is derived based on traditional electric field theories and formulas of apparent resistivity under different electrode arrays. The error analysis after correction indicates that the data utilisation ratio in the corrected effective
The infinite range Heisenberg model and high temperature superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tahir-Kheli, Jamil
1992-01-01
The thesis deals with the theory of high temperature superconductivity from the standpoint of three-band Hubbard models.Chapter 1 of the thesis proposes a strongly coupled variational wavefunction that has the three-spin system of an oxygen hole and its two neighboring copper spins in a doublet and the background Cu spins in an eigenstate of the infinite range antiferromagnet. This wavefunction is expected to be a good "zeroth order" wavefunction in the superconducting regime of dopings. The three-spin polaron is stabilized by the hopping terms rather than the copper-oxygen antiferromagnetic coupling Jpd. Considering the effect of the copper-copper antiferromagnetic coupling Jdd, we show that the three-spin polaron cannot be pure Emery (Dg), but must have a non-negligible amount of doublet-u (Du) character for hopping stabilization. Finally, an estimate is made for the magnitude of the attractive coupling of oxygen holes.Chapter 2 presents an exact solution to a strongly coupled Hamiltonian for the motion of oxygen holes in a 1-D Cu-O lattice. The Hamiltonian separates into two pieces: one for the spin degrees of freedom of the copper and oxygen holes, and the other for the charge degrees of freedom of the oxygen holes. The spinon part becomes the Heisenberg antiferromagnet in 1-D that is soluble by the Bethe Ansatz. The holon piece is also soluble by a Bethe Ansatz with simple algebraic relations for the phase shifts.Finally, we show that the nearest neighbor Cu-Cu spin correlation increases linearly with doping and becomes positive at x [...] 0.70.
User's manual for GILDA: An infinite lattice diffusion theory calculation
Le, T.T.
1991-11-01
GILDA is a static two-dimensional diffusion theory code that performs either buckling (B[sup 2]) or k-effective (k[sub eff]) calculations for an infinite hexagonal lattice which is constructed by repeating identical seven-cell zones (one cell is one or seven identical homogenized hexes). GILDA was written by J. W. Stewart in 1973. This user's manual is intended to provide all of the information necessary to set up and execute a GILDA calculation and to interpret the output results. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the computer (VAX/VMS or IBM/MVS) and the JOSHUA system database on which the code is implemented. Users who are not familiar with the JOSHUA database are advised to consult additional references to understand the structure of JOSHUA records and data sets before turning to section 4 of this manual. Sections 2 and 3 of this manual serve as a theory document in which the basic diffusion theory and the numerical approximations behind the code are described. Section 4 describes the functions of the program's subroutines. Section 5 describes the input data and tutors the user how to set up a problem. Section 6 describes the output results and the error messages which may be encountered during execution. Users who only wish to learn how to run the code without understanding the theory can start from section 4 and use sections 2 and 3 as references. Finally, the VAX/VMS and the IBM execution command files together with sample input records are provided in the appendices at the end of this manual.
Cerebral blood flow measured by NMR indicator dilution in cats
Ewing, J.R.; Branch, C.A.; Helpern, J.A.; Smith, M.B.; Butt, S.M.; Welch, K.M.
1989-02-01
We developed techniques to assess the utility of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicator for cerebral blood flow studies in cats, using Freon-22 for the first candidate. A PIN-diode-switched NMR experiment allowed the acquisition of an arterial as well as a cerebral fluorine-19 signal proportional to concentration vs. time in a 1.89 T magnet. Mean +/- SD blood:brain partition coefficients for Freon-22 were estimated at 0.93 +/- 0.08 for gray matter and 0.77 +/- 0.12 for white matter. Using maximum-likelihood curve fitting, estimates of mean +/- SD resting cerebral blood flow were 50 +/- 19 ml/100 g-min for gray matter and 5.0 +/- 2.0 ml/100 g-min for white matter. Hypercapnia produced the expected increases in gray and white matter blood flow. The physiologic effects of Freon-22, including an increase in cerebral blood flow itself with administration of 40% by volume, may limit its use as an indicator. Nevertheless, the NMR techniques described demonstrate the feasibility of fluorine-19-labeled compounds as cerebral blood flow indicators and the promise for their use in humans.
Deconvolution of gravity gradient tensor data using an infinite dike model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beiki, M.; Pedersen, L. B.
2010-12-01
The Gravity Gradient Tensor (GGT) contains the second derivatives of the earth’s gravitational potential in the three Cartesian directions. GGT data can be measured either using land, airborne, marine or space platforms. In recent years, the applications of GGT data in hydrocarbon exploration, mineral exploration and structural geology have increased considerably. In two dimensions, assuming that the mass in infinitely long in the y direction and has a uniform cross section of arbitrary shape in xz-plane, GGT only contains two independent components; horizontal and vertical derivatives of the vertical component of the gravity vector, represented by gxz and gzz respectively. For gravity gradients gxz and gzz corresponding to a dike with infinite depth extent, unknown source location, width, dip angle, depth to the top and density contrast can be estimated using a nonlinear least squares method for a collection of measurement points located within a 2D window with adjustable side lengths. With larger windows more data points are used and generally the uncertainty of the estimated model parameters will decrease until eventually data points may become more influenced by neighboring sources. In our algorithm, the model parameters are estimated for different windows centered at the maximum of gzz. The window size is increased until data fit error reaches a minimum or the window length exceeds a predefined limit. The results are improved by joint inversion of gxz and gzz for unknown model parameters. In practice the measured profile is not perpendicular to the strike direction of the 2D structure generally. This causes error in estimation of dike parameters. For a given measurement point above a quasi 2D structure, the eigenvectors corresponding to the minimum eigenvalue is directed along the strike of the causative body. Then, for a fixed strike direction, the GGT components can be transformed into the strike coordinate system. The application of the method is
Stochastic mean-field formulation of the dynamics of diluted neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angulo-Garcia, D.; Torcini, A.
2015-02-01
We consider pulse-coupled leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks with randomly distributed synaptic couplings. This random dilution induces fluctuations in the evolution of the macroscopic variables and deterministic chaos at the microscopic level. Our main aim is to mimic the effect of the dilution as a noise source acting on the dynamics of a globally coupled nonchaotic system. Indeed, the evolution of a diluted neural network can be well approximated as a fully pulse-coupled network, where each neuron is driven by a mean synaptic current plus additive noise. These terms represent the average and the fluctuations of the synaptic currents acting on the single neurons in the diluted system. The main microscopic and macroscopic dynamical features can be retrieved with this stochastic approximation. Furthermore, the microscopic stability of the diluted network can be also reproduced, as demonstrated from the almost coincidence of the measured Lyapunov exponents in the deterministic and stochastic cases for an ample range of system sizes. Our results strongly suggest that the fluctuations in the synaptic currents are responsible for the emergence of chaos in this class of pulse-coupled networks.
FREISE, K. J.; SCHMIDT, R. L.; GINGERICH, E. L.; VENG-PEDERSEN, P.; WIDNESS, J. A.
2010-01-01
SUMMARY The objective of the study was to determine whether selected hematologic parameters measured on umbilical cord blood samples using an automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex XE-2100) were affected by (i) anticoagulant (the specimens were collected in EDTA vs. sodium heparin), (ii) temperature (the specimens were maintained at 4° C vs. room temperature for up to 72 h) and (iii) 1 : 5 dilution vs. undiluted using the manufacturer's diluting solution. Use of heparin, instead of EDTA, had little effect on the hematologic results (n = 8) except for lower platelet and progenitor cell counts. Results were remarkably stable for 72 h at either room temperature or 4° C except for modest red blood cell swelling at 24 h. Specimens of blood diluted at 1 : 5 had an immediate small, but significant change on white cell count (+13.3%), reticulocyte count (−11.2%) and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (−19.6%). Diluted samples did not change further over 4 h at room temperature. With a 1 : 5 dilution, analysis of 40 μl of cord blood stored for 3 days at room temperature may provide useful hematologic information with little phlebotomy loss. PMID:18422712
The diversity-disease relationship: evidence for and criticisms of the dilution effect.
Huang, Z Y X; VAN Langevelde, F; Estrada-Peña, A; Suzán, G; DE Boer, W F
2016-08-01
The dilution effect, that high host species diversity can reduce disease risk, has attracted much attention in the context of global biodiversity decline and increasing disease emergence. Recent studies have criticized the generality of the dilution effect and argued that it only occurs under certain circumstances. Nevertheless, evidence for the existence of a dilution effect was reported in about 80% of the studies that addressed the diversity-disease relationship, and a recent meta-analysis found that the dilution effect is widespread. We here review supporting and critical studies, point out the causes underlying the current disputes. The dilution is expected to be strong when the competent host species tend to remain when species diversity declines, characterized as a negative relationship between species' reservoir competence and local extinction risk. We here conclude that most studies support a negative competence-extinction relationship. We then synthesize the current knowledge on how the diversity-disease relationship can be modified by particular species in community, by the scales of analyses, and by the disease risk measures. We also highlight the complex role of habitat fragmentation in the diversity-disease relationship from epidemiological, evolutionary and ecological perspectives, and construct a synthetic framework integrating these three perspectives. We suggest that future studies should test the diversity-disease relationship across different scales and consider the multiple effects of landscape fragmentation. PMID:27041655
Plettner, T.; Byer, R.L.; Colby, E.; Cowan, B.; Sears, C.M.S.; Spencer, J.E.; Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC
2006-03-01
We recently achieved the first experimental observation of laser-driven particle acceleration of relativistic electrons from a single Gaussian near-infrared laser beam in a semi-infinite vacuum. This article presents an in-depth account of key aspects of the experiment. An analysis of the transverse and longitudinal forces acting on the electron beam is included. A comparison of the observed data to the acceleration viewed as an inverse transition radiation process is presented. This is followed by a detailed description of the components of the experiment and a discussion of future measurements.
New method to assess dilution of secretions for immunological and microbiological assays.
Virolainen, A; Mäkelä, M J; Esko, E; Jero, J; Alfthan, G; Sundvall, J; Leinonen, M
1993-01-01
Accurate quantitation of pathogens and antibody concentrations in secretions has been difficult because of unpredictable dilution of secretion with th diluent at the time of sample collection. We added an inert substance, lithium chloride (LiCl), to the sample diluent and measured its concentration with an atomic absorption spectrometer before and after the specimen was added. LiCl, at a concentration of 2 mmol of Li per liter, has no negative effect on the survival of common respiratory pathogens or on the results of immunoassays. The method is applicable to any sample collecting in which dilution of the specimen is necessary. PMID:8388894
Detection of dilute organic acids in water by inelastic tunneling spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skarlatos, Y.; Barker, R. C.; Haller, G. L.; Yelon, A.
1974-01-01
Study of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) spectra obtained from junctions exposed to dilute solutions of organic molecules in both liquid and vapor phases. The results indicate that it is possible in principle to detect the presence and to measure the concentration of at least some organic molecules in dilute aqueous solution by means of the IETS technique. Some fine points pertaining to the application of this technique are discussed, and it is pointed out that through appropriate refinements IETS may become a valuable tool for analytical water chemistry.
40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... condensation at any point in the dilution system. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this... requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) must...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pety, Stephen J.; Lu, Hang; Thio, Yonathan S.
2011-01-01
This paper describes a student laboratory experiment to determine the molecular weight of a polymer sample by measuring the viscosity of dilute polymer solutions in a PDMS microfluidic viscometer. Sample data are given for aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). A demonstration of shear thinning behavior using the microviscometer is…
Disorder Problem In Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, Ryky; Ekuma, Chinedu; Terletska, Hanna; Sudhindra, Vidhyadhiraja; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark
2015-03-01
Motivated by experimental studies addressing the role of impurity disorder in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), we investigate the effects of disorder using a simple tight-binding Hamiltonian with random impurity potential and spin-fermion exchange which is self-consistently solved using the typical medium theory. Adopting the typical density of states (TDoS) as the order parameter, we find that the TDoS vanishes below a critical concentration of the impurity, which indicates an Anderson localization transition in the system. Our results qualitatively explain why at concentrations lower than a critical value DMS are insulating and paramagnetic, while at larger concentrations are ferromagnetic. We also compare several simple models to explore the interplay between ferromagnetic order and disorder induced insulating behavior, and the role of the spin-orbit interaction on this competition. We apply our findings to (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)N to compare and contrast their phase diagrams.
Crystallization of a dilute atomic dipolar condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisset, Russell; Blakie, Blair
2016-05-01
A recent experiment found that a dilute BEC of highly-magnetic dysprosium atoms may spontaneously break up into a crystal of droplets, a process reminiscent of the Rosensweig instability [ArXiv:1508.05007]. We dynamically simulate this scenario and find that the standard dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) cannot explain such a droplet crystal. Indeed, the GPE predicts too much heating during the violent droplet formation, and a droplet lifetime that is much shorter than observed in the experiment. We investigate the requisite properties of the unknown stabilization mechanism, and find that an effective repulsive interaction with a higher order density dependence than the usual two-body interactions is required to quantitatively reproduce the experimental results.
Dilution Jet Mixing Program, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Berenfeld, A.; Mongia, H. C.
1982-01-01
The effect of jet to mainstream density ratio, flow area convergence as encounted in transition sections, and nonuniform mainstream profile upstream of dilution orifices on the mixing of a row of jets with a confined cross flow was quantified. It is found that: (1) jet spreading rate in transverse direction is increased with increasing J, H/D and with decreasing S/D; (2) the density ratio has only a second order effect on the jet mixing characteristics for a constant momentum ratio; (3) the temperature distributions in the jet mixing region are strongly influenced by the undisturbed mainstream profile; (4) flow area convergence enhances mixing in radial and transverse directions. An asymmetric convergent duct with flat wall injection has the same jet mixing characteristics as a symmetric convergent duct. An asymmetric convergent duct with slant wall injection has a faster jet spreading rate in the transverse direction.
Computational modeling of dilute biomass slurries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sprague, Michael; Stickel, Jonathan; Fischer, Paul; Lischeske, James
2012-11-01
The biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels involves a multitude of physical and chemical transformations that occur in several distinct processing steps (e.g., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation). In this work we focus on development of a computational fluid dynamics model of a dilute biomass slurry, which is a highly viscous particle-laden fluid that can exhibit yield-stress behavior. Here, we model the biomass slurry as a generalized Newtonian fluid that accommodates biomass transport due to settling and biomass-concentration-dependent viscosity. Within a typical mixing vessel, viscosity can vary over several orders of magnitude. We solve the model with the Nek5000 spectral-finite-element solver in a simple vane mixer, and validate against experimental results. This work is directed towards our goal of a fully coupled computational model of fluid dynamics and reaction kinetics for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.
Negative magnetophoresis in diluted ferrofluid flow.
Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung
2015-07-21
We report magnetic manipulation of non-magnetic particles suspended in diluted ferrofluid. Diamagnetic particles were introduced into a circular chamber to study the extent of their deflection under the effect of a non-uniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Since ferrofluid is a paramagnetic medium, it also experiences a bulk magnetic force that in turn induces a secondary flow opposing the main hydrodynamic flow. Sheath flow rate, particle size, and magnetic field strength were varied to examine this complex behaviour. The combined effect of negative magnetophoresis and magnetically induced secondary flow leads to various operation regimes, which can potentially find applications in separation, trapping and mixing of diamagnetic particles such as cells in a microfluidic system. PMID:26054840
Dynamical Threshold of Diluteness of Soft Colloids
Chen, Wei-Ren; Do, Changwoo; Egami, T; Falus, Peter; Li, Xin; Liu, Dazhi; Porcar, L.; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E; Smith, Gregory Scott; Wu, Bin
2014-01-01
The dynamics of soft colloids in solutions is characterized by internal collective motion as well as center-of-mass diffusion. Using neutron scattering we demonstrate that the competition between the relaxation processes associated with these two degrees of freedom results in strong dependence of dynamics and structure on colloid concentration, c, well below the overlap concentration c*. Triggered by the increasing inter-particle collisions, substantial structural dehydration and slowing-down of internal dynamics occurs before geometrically defined colloidal overlap develops. This observation is surprising since it is generally believed that the internal dynamics and conformation of soft colloidal particles essentially remain invariant below c*. The competition between these two relaxation processes gives rise to a new dynamically-defined dilute threshold concentration well below c*.