Sun, Chenhang; Berg, John C
2003-04-15
Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution has been widely used to access the nonspecific surface free energy of solid materials. Since most practical surfaces are heterogeneous, the effective surface energy given by IGC at infinite dilution is somehow averaged over the whole sample surface, but the rule of averaging has thus far not been established. To address this problem, infinite dilution IGC analysis was carried out on mixtures of known heterogeneity. These materials are obtained by mixing two types of solid particles with significantly different surface energies as characterized individually with IGC, and results are obtained for binary combinations in varying proportions. It is found that when all surface components have the same accessibility by probe molecules, the effective surface energy of such a heterogeneous surface is related to the surface energy distribution by a square root linear relationship, square root sigma(eff)(LW)= summation operator (i)phi(i) square root sigma(i)(LW), where sigma(i)(LW) refers to the nonspecific (Lifshitz-van der Waals) surface energy of patches i, and phi(i) to their area fraction.
Stryjek, R.; Bobbo, S.; Camporese, R.; Zilio, C.
1999-05-01
Activity coefficients at infinite dilution have been measured by gas chromatography for 14 refrigerants (R12, R22, R32, R124, R125, R134a, R142b, R143a, RE170, R236ea, R290, R600, R600a, and R236fa) as solutes, using a polyol ester oil (POE), EMKARATE by ICI, as a stationary phase (solvent). Instrumental analysis (NMR, IR) showed that the main components of the oil are pentaerithritol esters of carboxylic acids, and electrospray ionization spectrometry revealed an average molecular mass of the POE of 618 g/mol. The measurements were performed within a temperature range of 244 K to 313 K, but a specific temperature range for each refrigerant was adopted depending on its retention data. The experimental findings are well-represented by the equation: ln {gamma}{sub i}{sup {infinity}} = a{sub i} {minus} b{sub i}/T. Some refrigerants, i.e., R22, R124, R125, R236ea, and R236fa, show quite a considerable positive temperature dependence of their activity coefficients at infinite dilution, which can be attributed to hydrogen bonding with the POE, unlike other refrigerants that show a small, either positive or negative temperature dependence. To the authors` knowledge, there are no data in the literature on activity coefficients at infinite dilution for refrigerant and oil (lubricant) systems, and details on the solubility of refrigerants in oils are also extremely scarce.
Eljack, Mahmoud D; Wilson, Rachael E; Hussam, Abul; Khan, Shahamat U
2015-02-27
Fulvic acid (FA), the most important water soluble fraction of humic substances in nature, is known to form aggregate pseudophase and complexes with organic and inorganic species. Here, we report a novel equilibrium headspace gas chromatography (eHSGC) and a two-step reaction model to measure n-alkylbenzene-FA association constant (K11) and n-alkylbenzene-pseudophase FAn association constant (Kn1) without solute concentration and response factor. The K11 and Kn1 values were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those for sodium dodecylsulfate. Changes in peak area were used to calculate the critical FA-aggregation concentration (cfc), mole fraction based partition coefficients (Kx), activity coefficients of solute inside the aggregate pseudophase (γm(∞)), and transfer free energies of alkyl CH2 at infinite dilution. The cfc was found to be 10±0.5μM. The Kx values are of the order of 10(7) in the FA-aggregate pseudophase. The data shows that benzene has the lowest (0.0002) and n-butylbenzene has the highest (0.01) γm(∞) values, which are seven orders of magnitude smaller than γw(∞) in water. The transfer free energy of association of a CH2 group, -155cal/mol, compared to that of benzene, -9722cal/mol, indicates that the FA-aggregate pseudophase is more polarizable benzene-like and less n-alkane aliphatic-like.
Activity coefficients of chlorophenols in water at infinite dilution
Tabai, S.; Rogalski, M.; Solimando, R.; Malanowski, S.K.
1997-11-01
The total pressure of aqueous solutions of chlorophenols was determined by a ebulliometric total pressure method for the aqueous solutions of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol in the temperature range from 40 to 90 C. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution and the Henry constants were derived.
Infinite dilution activity coefficients from ab initio solvation calculations
Lin, S.T.; Sandler, S.I.
1999-12-01
A Group Contribution Solvation (GCS) model was developed to calculate infinite dilution activity coefficients ({gamma}{sup {chi}}) based on modern computational chemistry. The GCS model results in an average error of 7% in {gamma}{sup {chi}} for the limited number of data points among water, n-hexane, acetonitrile and n-octanol, whereas the errors are 47% and 52% with the UNIFAC model and the modified UNIFAC model, respectively. GCS was also used to calculate infinite dilution partition coefficients, which can be used to determine how a dilute solute partitions between two solvents. Solutes were examined in three different liquid-liquid systems: water/n-hexane, water/acetonitrile, and water/n-octanol. With GCS, the average errors are 22% (for 18 solutes), 18% (for 14 solutes) and 14% (for 15 solutes) for these solvent systems, while comparable errors are 237%, 286% and 226% with UNIFAC; and 342%, 414% and 306% with modified UNIFAC. The GCS model is a powerful new tool to predict the octanol-water partition coefficients.
Tse, G.; Sandler, S.I. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1994-04-01
The characterization of pollutants is of growing interest as concerns about the environment increase. One parameter useful in predicting the fate of a chemical in the environment, the infinite dilution activity coefficient, has been determined here for several EPA priority pollutants in 1-octanol at 25 C using a relative gas-liquid chromatographic measurement technique. A simple correlation has been developed relating the limiting activity coefficients of a species in pure water and in pure 1-octanol to its octanol/water partition coefficient. Agreement between the experimental results and published values is very good. The method developed here of computing the octanol/water partition coefficient from gas chromatographic measurements of its infinite dilution activity coefficients is an improvement over traditional partition coefficient determination methods in that it is easier and quicker, without a loss of accuracy. Furthermore, the authors show that this method is applicable to chemicals covering a large range of hydrophobicities (1.0 < log K[sub OW] < 5.0).
Kozłowska, Marta Karolina; Domańska, Urszula; Lempert, Małgorzata; Rogalski, Marek
2005-03-18
The partial molar volumes, V1(M), and the molar volume of isotactic crystalline low-molecular-weight poly(1-butene), iPBu-1, V1, have been calculated from the measured density of {iPBu-1 + solvent (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-nonane, n-decane, p-xylene, cyclohexane and chloroform)} systems. Some of the thermodynamic quantities were also obtained for the iPBu-1 with eight hydrocarbons (n-octane, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene) by the method of inverse gas chromatography at various temperatures. The weight fraction activity coefficients of the solvent at infinite dilution, omega2(infinity) and the Flory-Huggins thermodynamic interaction parameters, chi21(infinity), between polymer and solvents were determined. The partial molar free energy, deltaG2(infinity), the partial molar heat of mixing, deltaH2(infinity), at infinite dilution and the polymer solubility parameter, delta1, were calculated. Additionally, the (solid + liquid) binary mixtures equilibria, SLE, of iPBu-1 with three hydrocarbons (n-octane, n-decane and m-xylene) were studied by a dynamic method. By performing these experiments over a large concentration range, the T-x phase diagrams of the polymer-solvent systems were constructed. The excess Gibbs energy models were used to describe the nonideal behaviour of the liquid phase. The omega2(infinity) were determined from the solubility measurements and were predicted by using the UNIFAC FV model.
Study of Critical Behaviour in Diluted Ferromagnetic:. Thin Films and Semi-Infinites Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masrour, R.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.
By using the high-temperature series expansion technique, we have analyzed the phase transition and the critical phenomena of a ferromagnetic thin film and ferromagnetic semi-infinite film, through three models: Ising, XY and Heisenberg. The critical reduced temperature τC(v) is studied as a function of the thickness of the film. In the case of the magnetic film and semi-infinite film, on the simple cubic lattice and the face-centered cubic lattice, τC(v) is studied as a function of the exchange interactions in the bulk, and on the surface. A critical value of the surface exchange interaction in the film above which the surface and the interface magnetism appears is obtained. The dependence of the reduced critical temperature on the thickness of the film has been investigated. These shifts of the critical temperatures TC(L) from the bulk value can be described by a power law. The obtained values for the simple cubic lattice and face centered cubic ferromagnetic thin film are in qualitative accordance with the universality class hypothesis. The critical exponent associated with the magnetic susceptibility is studied as a function of interactions. In a defined range of the exchange interactions, the obtained values for Heisenberg, XY and Ising models, for simple cubic thin film are comparable to the universal ones and are independent of the film thickness. The asymmetry of the structure and the competition of the effects of the exchange coupling, are important for the magnetic properties of the system. A critical value of the surface exchange interaction above which the surface magnetism appears is obtained. For the dependence of the critical parameter of surface reduced coupling R2C as a function of the dilution x and the ratio of the exchange interaction between the surface and nearest neighbour layer to the bulk one R1 for the three studied models has been investigated. The magnetic phase diagrams are obtained for two structures. The percolation threshold is
Cerdà, Joan J; Sánchez, Pedro A; Lüsebrink, Daniel; Kantorovich, Sofia; Sintes, Tomàs
2016-05-14
In the present work we use Langevin dynamics computer simulations to understand how the presence of a constant external magnetic field modifies the conformational phase diagram of magnetic filaments in the limit of infinite dilution. We have considered the filaments immersed in either a good (non-sticky filaments) or a poor (Stockmayer polymers) solvent. It has been found that in the presence of an applied field, filaments turn out to be much more susceptible to parameters such as temperature and solvent conditions. Filaments owe this increased susceptibility to the fact that the external magnetic field tends to level the free energy landscape as compared to the zero-field case. The field induces equalization in the free energy of competing conformational states that were separated by large energy differences in the zero-field limit. In this new scenario multistability arises, and manifests itself in the existence of broad regions in the phase diagram where two or more equilibrium configurations coexist. The existence of multistability greatly enhances the possibility of tuning the properties of the filament.
Yang, Jing; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Calero, Carles; Martí, Jordi
2016-04-07
Exploring the free energy landscapes of metal cations on phospholipid membrane surfaces is important for the understanding of chemical and biological processes in cellular environments. Using metadynamics simulations we have performed systematic free energy calculations of sodium cations bound to DMPC phospholipid membranes with cholesterol concentration varying between 0% (cholesterol-free) and 50% (cholesterol-rich) at infinite dilution. The resulting free energy landscapes reveal the competition between binding of sodium to water and to lipid head groups. Moreover, the binding competitiveness of lipid head groups is diminished by cholesterol contents. As cholesterol concentration increases, the ionic affinity to membranes decreases. When cholesterol concentration is greater than 30%, the ionic binding is significantly reduced, which coincides with the phase transition point of DMPC-cholesterol membranes from a liquid-disordered phase to a liquid-ordered phase. We have also evaluated the contributions of different lipid head groups to the binding free energy separately. The DMPC's carbonyl group is the most favorable binding site for sodium, followed by DMPC's phosphate group and then the hydroxyl group of cholesterol.
Glass transition of adsorbed stereoregular PPMA by inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamieh, T.; Rezzaki, M.; Grohens, Y.; Schultz, J.
1998-10-01
In this paper, we used inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution that proved to be a powerful technique to determine glass transition and other transitions of PMMA adsorbed on α-alumina. We highlighted the glass transition temperature of the system PMMA/α-Al2O3 with defined polymer tacticity at various covered surface fractions. Thus, the Tg of the adsorbed isotactic PMMA increases strongly as compared to the bulk value. The study of the physical chemical properties of PMMA/α-alumina revealed an important difference in the acidic and basic behaviour, in Lewis terms, of aluminium oxide covered by various concentrations of PMMA. It appears that there is a stabilisation of the physical chemical properties of PMMA/α-Al2O3 for a surface coverage above 50%. This study also highlighted an important effect of the tacticity of the polymer on the acid-base character of the system PMMA/Al2O3. Dans cet article, nous montrons que la chromatographie gazeuse inverse (CGI) à dilution infinie se révèle être une technique très intéressante pour la détermination de la transition vitreuse de polymères stéréoréguliers adsorbés sur des substrats solides tels que l'alumine. Nous avons mis en évidence des transitions attribuées aux phénomènes de relaxation béta, transition vitreuse et autres transitions des systèmes PMMA/Al2O3 de tacticité définie à différents taux de recouvrement. Ainsi, la Tg du PMMA isotactique adsorbé augmente de façon significative par rapport a celle du polymère massique. L'étude des propriétés physico-chimiques du système PMMA/Al2O3, révèle une différence importante dans le comportement acido-basique, au sens de Lewis, de l'alumine pour de taux de recouvrement en PMMA variables. Il apparaît qu'il y a stabilisation des propriétés physico-chimiques de PMMA/Al2O3 pour un taux de recouvrement en PMMA supérieur à 50 %. Cette étude a montré également une influence importante de la tacticité du polymère sur le
Mutelet, Fabrice; Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Rogalski, Marek; Harmand, Julie; Sindt, Michèle; Mieloszynski, Jean-Luc
2008-03-27
Activity coefficients at infinite dilution, gammainfinity, of organic compounds in two new room-temperature ionic liquids (n-methacryloyloxyhexyl-N-methylimidazolium bromide (C10H17O2MIM)(Br) at 313.15 and 323.15 K and n-acryloyloxypropyl-N-methylimidazolium bromide(C6H11O2MIM)(Br)) were determined using inverse gas chromatography. Phase loading studies of the net retention volume per gram of packing as a function of the percent phase loading were used to estimate the influence of concurrent retention mechanisms on the accuracy of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of solutes in both ionic liquids. It was found that most of the solutes were retained largely by partition with a small contribution from adsorption and that n-alkanes were retained predominantly by interfacial adsorption on ionic liquids studied in this work. The solvation characteristics of the two ionic liquids were evaluated using the Abraham solvation parameter model.
Escape rate scaling in infinite measure preserving systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munday, Sara; Knight, Georgie
2016-02-01
We investigate the scaling of the escape rate from piecewise linear dynamical systems displaying intermittency due to the presence of an indifferent fixed point. Strong intermittent behaviour in the dynamics can result in the system preserving an infinite measure. We define a neighbourhood of the indifferent fixed point to be a hole through which points escape and investigate the scaling of the rate of this escape as the length of the hole decreases, both in the finite measure preserving case and infinite measure preserving case. In the infinite measure preserving systems we observe logarithmic corrections to and polynomial scaling of the escape rate with hole length. Finally we conjecture a relationship between the wandering rate and the observed scaling of the escape rate.
Kong, Chang Yi; Siratori, Tomoya; Funazukuri, Toshitaka; Wang, Guosheng
2014-10-03
The effects of temperature and density on retention of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical fluid chromatography were investigated at temperatures of 308.15-343.15K and pressure range from 8 to 40MPa by the chromatographic impulse response method with curve fitting. The retention factors were utilized to derive the infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide. The determined partial molar volumes were small and positive at high pressures but exhibited very large and negative values in the highly compressible near critical region of carbon dioxide.
Bhatai, S.R.; Sandler, S.I.
1995-11-01
The study of the fate and transport of volatile halogenated organic compounds in the environment is of interest as these chemicals, many of which have been classified as pollutants, are widely used as industrial solvents and are now appearing in water supplies. Infinite dilution activity coefficients and Henry`s law coefficients have been measured for 11 halogenated C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} compounds in 1-octanol above room temperature using a gas-liquid chromatographic measurement method. Then, using their earlier data for these substances in water and a correlation relating the limiting activity coefficients of a substance in pure water and in pure 1-octanol to their octanol/water partition coefficients, these latter quantities have been computed. One conclusion from these measurements is that the limiting activity coefficients in octanol and the octanol/water partition coefficients of the halogenated compounds studied are only weakly dependent on temperature over the range from 25 to 50 C. Also, from these and their earlier data, have estimated the infinite dilution partial molar excess enthalpies and excess entropies of these compounds in both 1-octanol and water.
Measures of correlations in infinite-dimensional quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirokov, M. E.
2016-05-01
Several important measures of correlations of the state of a finite-dimensional composite quantum system are defined as linear combinations of marginal entropies of this state. This paper is devoted to infinite-dimensional generalizations of such quantities and to an analysis of their properties. We introduce the notion of faithful extension of a linear combination of marginal entropies and consider several concrete examples, the simplest of which are quantum mutual information and quantum conditional entropy. Then we show that quantum conditional mutual information can be defined uniquely as a lower semicontinuous function on the set of all states of a tripartite infinite-dimensional system possessing all the basic properties valid in finite dimensions. Infinite-dimensional generalizations of some other measures of correlations in multipartite quantum systems are also considered. Applications of the results to the theory of infinite-dimensional quantum channels and their capacities are considered. The existence of a Fawzi-Renner recovery channel reproducing marginal states for all tripartite states (including states with infinite marginal entropies) is shown. Bibliography: 47 titles.
Sobota, Marek; Dohnal, Vladimír; Vrbka, Pavel
2009-04-02
Infinite dilution activity coefficients gamma(1)(infinity) and gas-liquid partition coefficients K(L) of 30 selected hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, ethers, esters, haloalkanes, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate [EMIM][NO(3)] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at five temperatures in the range from 318.15 to 353.15 K. Relative contribution of adsorption at gas-liquid interphase to the overall solute retention, as examined by varying sample size and IL loading in the column, was found negligible. Partial molar excess enthalpies and entropies at infinite dilution were derived from the temperature dependence of the gamma(1)(infinity) values. The linear free energy relationship (LFER) solvation model was used to correlate successfully the KL values. The LFER correlation parameters and excess thermodynamic functions were analyzed to disclose molecular interactions operating between the IL and the individual solutes. In addition, the promising potential of [EMIM][NO(3)] for applications in solvent-aided separation processes was identified, the selectivities of [EMIM][NO(3)] for separation of aromatic hydrocarbons and thiophene from saturated hydrocarbons ranking among the highest ever observed with ILs or molecular solvents.
Wlazło, Michał; Marciniak, Andrzej; Letcher, Trevor M
New data of activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ13(∞), for 65 different solutes including alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, ethers, ketones, aldehydes, esters and water in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate, were determined using inverse gas chromatography within the temperature range from 318.15 to 368.15 K. This is a continuation of our study of ionic liquids based on this anion. The results are compared with the other trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate ionic liquids. The γ13(∞) values were used to calculate thermodynamic functions such as partial molar excess Gibbs energies [Formula: see text], enthalpies [Formula: see text] and entropies [Formula: see text] as well as gas-liquid partition coefficients of the solutes, KL. These values were used to determine the linear free energy relationship (LFER) system constants as a function of temperature. The selectivities at infinite dilution needed for some extraction problems were calculated and compared with literature data of ionic liquids based on the trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate anion and the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation. Additionally, the density and viscosity of the investigated ionic liquid at temperatures from 298.15 to 348.15 K were measured.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leuzzi, L.; Parisi, G.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.
2015-02-01
We revisited, by means of numerical simulations, the one-dimensional bond diluted Levy Ising spin glasses outside the limit of validity of mean-field theories. In these models the probability that two spins at distance r interact (via disordered interactions, Ji j=±1 ) decays as r-ρ. We have estimated, using finite size scaling techniques, the infinite volume correlation length and spin glass susceptibility for ρ =5 /3 and ρ =9 /5 . We have obtained strong evidence for divergences of the previous observables at a nonzero critical temperature. We discuss the behavior of the critical exponents, especially when approaching the value ρ =2 , corresponding to a critical threshold beyond which the model has no phase transition. Finally, we numerically study the model right at the threshold value ρ =2 .
Approaching infinite temperature upon repeated measurements of a quantum system
Yi, Juyeon; Talkner, Peter; Ingold, Gert-Ludwig
2011-09-15
The influence of repeated projective measurements on the dynamics of the state of a quantum system is studied as a function of the time lag {tau} between successive measurements. In the limit of infinitely many measurements of the occupancy of a single state the total system approaches a uniform state. The asymptotic approach to this state is exponential in the case of finite Hilbert space dimension. The rate characterizing this approach undergoes a sharp transition from a monotonically increasing to an erratically varying function of the time between subsequent measurements.
Plyasunov, A.V.; O'Connell, J.P.; Wood, R.H.
2000-02-01
A semitheoretical expression for partial molar volumes at infinite dilution of aqueous nonelectrolyte solutes has been developed employing the collection of properties from fluctuation solution theory for use over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The form of the solution expression was suggested by a comparison of solute/solvent and solvent/solvent direct correlations function integrals (DCFI). The selection of solvent density and compressibility as model variables provides a correct description in the critical region while second virial coefficients have been used to give a rigorous expression in the low density region. The formulation has been integrated to obtain analytic expressions for thermodynamic properties of hydration at supercritical temperatures. The equation is limited to solutes for which B{sub 12} (the second cross virial coefficient between water and a solute molecule) is known or can be estimated. Regression of the three remaining parameters gives good correlations of the available experimental data. A strategy for estimating these parameters allows prediction from readily available data.
Wang, Jinyang; Zhong, Haimin; Qiu, Wenda; Chen, Liuping; Feng, Huajie
2014-03-14
The binary infinite dilute diffusion coefficients, D{sub 12}{sup ∞}, of some alkylbenzenes (Ph-C{sub n}, from Ph-H to Ph-C{sub 12}) from 313 K to 333 K at 15 MPa in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD values agree well with the experimental ones, which indicate MD simulation technique is a powerful way to predict and obtain diffusion coefficients of solutes in supercritical fluids. Besides, the local structures of Ph-C{sub n}/CO{sub 2} fluids are further investigated by calculating radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. It qualitatively convinces that the first solvation shell of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2} is significantly influenced by the structure of Ph-C{sub n} solute. Meanwhile, the mean end-to-end distance, the mean radius of gyration and dihedral angle distribution are calculated to gain an insight into the structural properties of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2}. The abnormal trends of radial distribution functions and coordination numbers can be reasonably explained in term of molecular flexibility. Moreover, the computed results of dihedral angle clarify that flexibility of long-chain Ph-C{sub n} is the result of internal rotation of C-C single bond (σ{sub c-c}) in alkyl chain. It is interesting that compared with n-alkane, because of the existence of benzene ring, the flexibility of alkyl chain in Ph-C{sub n} with same carbon atom number is significantly reduced, as a result, the carbon chain dependence of diffusion behaviors for long-chain n-alkane (n ≥ 5) and long-chain Ph-C{sub n} (n ≥ 4) in scCO{sub 2} are different.
Wang, Jinyang; Zhong, Haimin; Feng, Huajie; Qiu, Wenda; Chen, Liuping
2014-03-14
The binary infinite dilute diffusion coefficients, D₁₂(∞), of some alkylbenzenes (Ph-C(n), from Ph-H to Ph-C12) from 313 K to 333 K at 15 MPa in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD values agree well with the experimental ones, which indicate MD simulation technique is a powerful way to predict and obtain diffusion coefficients of solutes in supercritical fluids. Besides, the local structures of Ph-C(n)/CO2 fluids are further investigated by calculating radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. It qualitatively convinces that the first solvation shell of Ph-C(n) in scCO2 is significantly influenced by the structure of Ph-C(n) solute. Meanwhile, the mean end-to-end distance, the mean radius of gyration and dihedral angle distribution are calculated to gain an insight into the structural properties of Ph-C(n) in scCO2. The abnormal trends of radial distribution functions and coordination numbers can be reasonably explained in term of molecular flexibility. Moreover, the computed results of dihedral angle clarify that flexibility of long-chain Ph-C(n) is the result of internal rotation of C-C single bond (σ(c-c)) in alkyl chain. It is interesting that compared with n-alkane, because of the existence of benzene ring, the flexibility of alkyl chain in Ph-C(n) with same carbon atom number is significantly reduced, as a result, the carbon chain dependence of diffusion behaviors for long-chain n-alkane (n ≥ 5) and long-chain Ph-C(n) (n ≥ 4) in scCO2 are different.
Revelli, Anne-Laure; Sprunger, Laura; Gibbs, Jennifer; Acree, William; Baker, Gary A; Mutelet, Fabrice
2009-01-01
Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic compounds in the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide were determined using inverse gas chromatography at three temperatures, T ) (302.45, 322.35, and 342.45) K. Linear free energy relationship (LFER) correlations have been obtained for describing the gas-to-IL and water-to-IL partition coefficients.
Cares-Pacheco, M G; Vaca-Medina, G; Calvet, R; Espitalier, F; Letourneau, J-J; Rouilly, A; Rodier, E
2014-11-20
Nowadays, it is well known that surface interactions play a preponderant role in mechanical operations, which are fundamental in pharmaceutical processing and formulation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to correlate surface behaviour in processes to physical properties measurement. Indeed, most pharmaceutical solids have multiple surface energies because of varying forms, crystal faces and impurities contents or physical defects, among others. In this paper, D-mannitol polymorphs (α, β and δ) were studied through different characterization techniques highlighting bulk and surface behaviour differences. Due to the low adsorption behaviour of β and δ polymorphs, special emphasis has been paid to surface energy analysis by inverse gas chromatography, IGC. Surface energy behaviour has been studied in Henry's domain showing that, for some organic solids, the classical IGC infinite dilution zone is never reached. IGC studies highlighted, without precedent in literature, dispersive surface energy differences between α and β mannitol, with a most energetically active α form with a γ(s)(d) of 74.9 mJ·m⁻². Surface heterogeneity studies showed a highly heterogeneous α mannitol with a more homogeneous β (40.0 mJ·m⁻²) and δ mannitol (40.3 mJ·m⁻²). Moreover, these last two forms behaved similarly considering surface energy at different probe concentrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plyasunov, Andrey V.
2015-11-01
Thermodynamic modeling of natural processes involving deep aqueous fluids requires the knowledge of the values of chemical potentials (the Gibbs energy) of aqueous species. An accurate prediction of thermodynamic properties at high T and P is a strong challenge. It is shown that geochemical models, including the well-known HKF-model, cannot be recommended for an indiscriminate use at supercritical temperatures to predict chemical potentials of nonelectrolytes at infinite dilution in water. Nevertheless, sufficiently accurate predictions of ϕ2∞ (the fugacity coefficients at infinite dilution in water) of aqueous nonelectrolytes up to 2000 K and water densities up to 1500 kg m-3, i.e. pressure up to 10-12 GPa, can be made relying on known theoretical relations valid at various parts of the phase diagram of water. In essence, the method, proposed in this work, consists in the interpolation of properties between two known limits: the first one, at low water densities, is defined by the values of the second virial coefficients for water-solute interactions, and the second, at high water densities - by predictions of the theory of a mixture of hard spheres. The interpolation at moderate temperatures (700-1300 K) and water densities (500-900 kg m-3) is simplified by sufficiently accurate predictions of properties using a semiempirical variant of a corresponding-states principle. Presented examples of the prediction of fugacity coefficients of "gases" at infinite dilution in water and of an aqueous solubility of corundum over very wide ranges of water densities/pressures demonstrate the potential and generality of the proposed methods of evaluating the thermodynamic properties of aqueous neutral compounds.
Lavie, Nilli; Torralbo, Ana
2010-01-01
Load theory of attention proposes that distractor processing is reduced in tasks with high perceptual load that exhaust attentional capacity within task-relevant processing. In contrast, tasks of low perceptual load leave spare capacity that spills over, resulting in the perception of task-irrelevant, potentially distracting stimuli. Tsal and Benoni (2010) find that distractor response competition effects can be reduced under conditions with a high search set size but low perceptual load (due to a singleton color target). They claim that the usual effect of search set size on distractor processing is not due to attentional load but instead attribute this to lower level visual interference. Here, we propose an account for their findings within load theory. We argue that in tasks of low perceptual load but high set size, an irrelevant distractor competes with the search nontargets for remaining capacity. Thus, distractor processing is reduced under conditions in which the search nontargets receive the spillover of capacity instead of the irrelevant distractor. We report a new experiment testing this prediction. Our new results demonstrate that, when peripheral distractor processing is reduced, it is the search nontargets nearest to the target that are perceived instead. Our findings provide new evidence for the spare capacity spillover hypothesis made by load theory and rule out accounts in terms of lower level visual interference (or mere “dilution”) for cases of reduced distractor processing under low load in displays of high set size. We also discuss additional evidence that discounts the viability of Tsal and Benoni's dilution account as an alternative to perceptual load. PMID:21133554
Morgado, Jorge; Aquino-Olivos, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Hernández, Ranulfo; Corea, Mónica; Grolier, Jean Pierre E; del Río, José Manuel
2008-06-01
This work examines the binding in aqueous solution, through the experimental determination of specific volumes and specific adiabatic compressibility coefficients, of decyltrimethylammonium bromide to lysozyme and to non-charged polymeric particles (which have been specially synthesized by emulsion polymerization). A method was developed to calculate the specific partial properties at infinite dilution and it was shown that a Gibbs-Duhem type equation holds at this limit for two solutes. With this equation, it is possible to relate the behavior of the partial properties along different binding types at a constant temperature. It was found that the first binding type, specific with high affinity, is related to a significant reduction of surfactant compressibility. The second binding type is accompanied by the unfolding of the protein and the third one is qualitatively identical to the binding of the surfactant to non-charged polymeric particles.
Paduszyński, Kamil
2016-08-22
The aim of the paper is to address all the disadvantages of currently available models for calculating infinite dilution activity coefficients (γ(∞)) of molecular solutes in ionic liquids (ILs)-a relevant property from the point of view of many applications of ILs, particularly in separations. Three new models are proposed, each of them based on distinct machine learning algorithm: stepwise multiple linear regression (SWMLR), feed-forward artificial neural network (FFANN), and least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM). The models were established based on the most comprehensive γ(∞) data bank reported so far (>34 000 data points for 188 ILs and 128 solutes). Following the paper published previously [J. Chem. Inf. Model 2014, 54, 1311-1324], the ILs were treated in terms of group contributions, whereas the Abraham solvation parameters were used to quantify an impact of solute structure. Temperature is also included in the input data of the models so that they can be utilized to obtain temperature-dependent data and thus related thermodynamic functions. Both internal and external validation techniques were applied to assess the statistical significance and explanatory power of the final correlations. A comparative study of the overall performance of the investigated SWMLR/FFANN/LSSVM approaches is presented in terms of root-mean-square error and average absolute relative deviation between calculated and experimental γ(∞), evaluated for different families of ILs and solutes, as well as between calculated and experimental infinite dilution selectivity for separation problems benzene from n-hexane and thiophene from n-heptane. LSSVM is shown to be a method with the lowest values of both training and generalization errors. It is finally demonstrated that the established models exhibit an improved accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art model, namely, temperature-dependent group contribution linear solvation energy relationship, published in 2011 [J. Chem
Underestimation of access flow by ultrasound dilution flow measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bos, Clemens; Smits, Johannes H. M.; Zijlstra, Jan J.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bakker, Chris J. G.; Viergever, Max A.
2002-02-01
For hemodialysis access surveillance, flow measurements are increasingly considered important because they identify accesses at risk of thrombosis. Usually these flow measurements are performed with the ultrasound dilution technique. In a previous patient study it was observed that the resulting flow values were systematically low as compared to magnetic resonance flow measurements, but a satisfactory explanation was lacking. In the present study, we will demonstrate by hemodynamic calculations and in vitro experiments that this discrepancy can be explained by a temporary reduction of the access flow rate, caused by the reversed needle configuration during ultrasound dilution flow measurements. In this configuration, blood is injected retrogressively at one needle and flow between the needles is increased, causing an increased dissipation of energy. The proposed explanation is subsequently confirmed in a patient with a loop graft, by measuring the blood velocity by Doppler ultrasound as a function of reversed dialyzer flow rate. Apart from the ultrasound dilution technique, these findings are applicable to other recently proposed methods for measuring access flow that employ the reversed needle configuration.
THE SEMIGROUP OF METRIC MEASURE SPACES AND ITS INFINITELY DIVISIBLE PROBABILITY MEASURES
EVANS, STEVEN N.; MOLCHANOV, ILYA
2015-01-01
A metric measure space is a complete, separable metric space equipped with a probability measure that has full support. Two such spaces are equivalent if they are isometric as metric spaces via an isometry that maps the probability measure on the first space to the probability measure on the second. The resulting set of equivalence classes can be metrized with the Gromov–Prohorov metric of Greven, Pfaffelhuber and Winter. We consider the natural binary operation ⊞ on this space that takes two metric measure spaces and forms their Cartesian product equipped with the sum of the two metrics and the product of the two probability measures. We show that the metric measure spaces equipped with this operation form a cancellative, commutative, Polish semigroup with a translation invariant metric. There is an explicit family of continuous semicharacters that is extremely useful for, inter alia, establishing that there are no infinitely divisible elements and that each element has a unique factorization into prime elements. We investigate the interaction between the semigroup structure and the natural action of the positive real numbers on this space that arises from scaling the metric. For example, we show that for any given positive real numbers a, b, c the trivial space is the only space that satisfies a ⊞ b = c . We establish that there is no analogue of the law of large numbers: if X1, X2, … is an identically distributed independent sequence of random spaces, then no subsequence of 1n⊞k=1nXk converges in distribution unless each Xk is almost surely equal to the trivial space. We characterize the infinitely divisible probability measures and the Lévy processes on this semigroup, characterize the stable probability measures and establish a counterpart of the LePage representation for the latter class. PMID:28065980
Distributions of polynomials on multidimensional and infinite-dimensional spaces with measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogachev, V. I.
2016-08-01
This paper provides a survey of recent investigations connected with distributions of polynomials on multi- and infinite-dimensional spaces with measures. The most important results on estimates (independent of the number of variables) for distribution functions and integral norms and also on convergence of the distributions of polynomials in variation and in the Kantorovich metric are presented. Interesting open problems in this area at the junction of the theory of functions, probability theory, and measure theory are discussed. Bibliography: 131 titles.
Local Thermodynamic Measurements of Dilute Binary Alloys Using XAFS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newville, Matthew George
1995-01-01
Temperature-dependent x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) measurements are presented for pure Ag, pure Au, and the minority component of several dilute binary alloys with majority components of Ag or Au. The analyses of the XAFS data at and above room temperature are used to determine local thermodynamic quantities for the impurity -host bonds. Thermodynamic quantities are determined for interatomic bonds from the XAFS measurements using a one-dimensional anharmonic model for the interatomic potential between near-neighbor atoms. The effect on the XAFS for two atoms bound by such a potential is found in terms of the force constants of the potential. This formalism is then used in the analyses of the experimental XAFS data to find the force constants of the various interatomic bonds. Thermodynamic properties are written in terms of the force constants for this potential. The results of the XAFS analyses are used in this way to determine thermodynamic properties of the interatomic bonds between near-neighbors. The XAFS measurements of the thermodynamic parameters for pure Ag and Au are in reasonable agreement with bulk measurements. Based on this agreement, the newly developed ability of XAFS to determine thermodynamic properties of interatomic bonds is combined with the well-established ability of XAFS to measure impurity-host bonds in dilute alloys. This allows previously unavailable local thermodynamic parameters for interatomic bonds in dilute binary alloys to be determined. XAFS analysis techniques have been developed to exploit theoretical calculations from the computer code scFEFF. These techniques use the scFEFF calculations as theoretical standards to determine physical parameters about the atomic structure from the experimentally measured XAFS spectra. An R-space description of XAFS, based on the Fourier transform, is used in the analysis. This suggests a natural approach to the information content of XAFS data, and simplifies the estimation of the
Generalizations of SRB Measures to Nonautonomous, Random, and Infinite Dimensional Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Lai-Sang
2017-02-01
We review some developments that are direct outgrowths of, or closely related to, the idea of SRB measures as introduced by Sinai, Ruelle and Bowen in the 1970s. These new directions of research include the emergence of strange attractors in periodically forced dynamical systems, random attractors in systems defined by stochastic differential equations, SRB measures for infinite dimensional systems including those defined by large classes of dissipative PDEs, quasi-static distributions for slowly varying time-dependent systems, and surviving distributions in leaky dynamical systems.
A note on moments of limit log-infinitely divisible stochastic measures of Bacry and Muzy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostrovsky, Dmitry
2017-02-01
A multiple integral representation of single and joint moments of the total mass of the limit log-infinitely divisible stochastic measure of Bacry and Muzy (Commun Math Phys 236:449-475, 2003) is derived. The covariance structure of the total mass of the measure is shown to be logarithmic. A generalization of the Selberg integral corresponding to single moments of the limit measure is proposed and shown to satisfy a recurrence relation. The joint moments of the limit lognormal measure, classical Selberg integral with λ _1=λ _2=0, and Morris integral are represented in the form of multiple binomial sums. For application, low moments of the limit log-Poisson measure are computed exactly and low joint moments of the limit lognormal measure are considered in detail.
Measurement of shear-induced dispersion in a dilute emulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Michael R.; Leighton, David T.
2001-02-01
The time-dependent drop distribution of a dilute, polydisperse emulsion is measured in a simple shear flow. The suspending fluid is much more viscous than the dispersed phase (1:1000). Drops are found to drift away from either bounding wall and accumulate near the center of the gap, due to the anisotropy of droplet-plane interactions. An expression for this drift velocity has been derived for single drops by Chan and Leal [J. Fluid Mech. 92, 131 (1979)] and was in agreement with isolated drop migration observed in our work. Eventually the inward drift is balanced by a shear-induced gradient diffusivity, and a steady-state concentration distribution is reached. When the drops are sufficiently far from either wall a self-similar, parabolic concentration profile is predicted at all times. Droplet diffusivities were determined for capillary numbers Ca=γ˙āμ/σ between 0.17 and 0.92, where γ˙ is the shear rate, ā is the mean drop radius, μ is the viscosity of the suspending fluid, and σ the interfacial tension. The values obtained are an order of magnitude lower than theoretical predictions of Loewenberg made in the limit of small deformation.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Nambu, Y.
1967-01-01
The main ingredients of the method of infinite multiplets consist of: 1) the use of wave functions with an infinite number of components for describing an infinite tower of discrete states of an isolated system (such as an atom, a nucleus, or a hadron), 2) the use of group theory, instead of dynamical considerations, in determining the properties of the wave functions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George
1987-01-01
Let R be the real numbers, R(n) the linear space of all real n-tuples, and R(infinity) the linear space of all infinite real sequences x = (x sub 1, x sub 2,...). Let P sub n :R(infinity) approaches R(n) be the projection operator with P sub n (x) = (x sub 1,...,x sub n). Let p(infinity) be a probability measure on the smallest sigma-ring of subsets of R(infinity) which includes all of the cylinder sets P sub n(-1) (B sub n), where B sub n is an arbitrary Borel subset of R(n). Let p sub n be the marginal distribution of p(infinity) on R(n), so p sub n(B sub n) = p(infinity)(P sub n to the -1(B sub n)) for each B sub n. A measure on R(n) is isotropic if it is invariant under all orthogonal transformations of R(n). All members of the set of all isotropic probability distributions on R(n) are described. The result calls into question both stochastic inversion and Bayesian inference, as currently used in many geophysical inverse problems.
μ-PIV measurements of the ensemble flow fields surrounding a migrating semi-infinite bubble.
Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Smith, Bradford J; Gaver, Donald P
2009-08-01
Microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) measurements of ensemble flow fields surrounding a steadily-migrating semi-infinite bubble through the novel adaptation of a computer controlled linear motor flow control system. The system was programmed to generate a square wave velocity input in order to produce accurate constant bubble propagation repeatedly and effectively through a fused glass capillary tube. We present a novel technique for re-positioning of the coordinate axis to the bubble tip frame of reference in each instantaneous field through the analysis of the sudden change of standard deviation of centerline velocity profiles across the bubble interface. Ensemble averages were then computed in this bubble tip frame of reference. Combined fluid systems of water/air, glycerol/air, and glycerol/Si-oil were used to investigate flows comparable to computational simulations described in Smith and Gaver (2008) and to past experimental observations of interfacial shape. Fluorescent particle images were also analyzed to measure the residual film thickness trailing behind the bubble. The flow fields and film thickness agree very well with the computational simulations as well as existing experimental and analytical results. Particle accumulation and migration associated with the flow patterns near the bubble tip after long experimental durations are discussed as potential sources of error in the experimental method.
Measuring the Soret coefficient of nanoparticles in a dilute suspension.
Zhao, Chao; Fu, Jinxin; Oztekin, Alparslan; Cheng, Xuanhong
2014-10-01
Thermophoresis is an efficient process for the manipulation of molecules and nanoparticles due to the strong force it generates on the nanoscale. Thermophoresis is characterized by the Soret coefficient. Conventionally, the Soret coefficient of nanosized species is obtained by fitting the concentration profile under a temperature gradient at the steady state to a continuous phase model. However, when the number density of the target is ultralow and the dispersed species cannot be treated as a continuous phase, the bulk concentration fluctuates spatially, preventing extraction of temperature-gradient induced concentration profile. The present work demonstrates a strategy to tackle this problem by superimposing snapshots of nanoparticle distribution. The resulting image is suitable for the extraction of the Soret coefficient through the conventional data fitting method. The strategy is first tested through a discrete phase model that illustrates the spatial fluctuation of the nanoparticle concentration in a dilute suspension in response to the temperature gradient. By superimposing snapshots of the stochastic distribution, a thermophoretic depletion profile with low standard error is constructed, indicative of the Soret coefficient. Next, confocal analysis of nanoparticle distribution in response to a temperature gradient is performed using polystyrene nanobeads down to 1e-5% (v/v). The experimental results also reveal that superimposing enhances the accuracy of extracted Soret coefficient. The critical particle number density in the superimposed image for predicting the Soret coefficient is hypothesized to depend on the spatial resolution of the image. This study also demonstrates that the discrete phase model is an effective tool to study particle migration under thermophoresis in the liquid phase.
Measuring the Soret coefficient of nanoparticles in a dilute suspension
Zhao, Chao; Fu, Jinxin; Oztekin, Alparslan; Cheng, Xuanhong
2014-01-01
Thermophoresis is an efficient process for the manipulation of molecules and nanoparticles due to the strong force it generates on the nanoscale. Thermophoresis is characterized by the Soret coefficient. Conventionally, the Soret coefficient of nanosized species is obtained by fitting the concentration profile under a temperature gradient at the steady state to a continuous phase model. However, when the number density of the target is ultralow and the dispersed species cannot be treated as a continuous phase, the bulk concentration fluctuates spatially, preventing extraction of temperature-gradient induced concentration profile. The present work demonstrates a strategy to tackle this problem by superimposing snapshots of nanoparticle distribution. The resulting image is suitable for the extraction of the Soret coefficient through the conventional data fitting method. The strategy is first tested through a discrete phase model that illustrates the spatial fluctuation of the nanoparticle concentration in a dilute suspension in response to the temperature gradient. By superimposing snapshots of the stochastic distribution, a thermophoretic depletion profile with low standard error is constructed, indicative of the Soret coefficient. Next, confocal analysis of nanoparticle distribution in response to a temperature gradient is performed using polystyrene nanobeads down to 1e-5% (v/v). The experimental results also reveal that superimposing enhances the accuracy of extracted Soret coefficient. The critical particle number density in the superimposed image for predicting the Soret coefficient is hypothesized to depend on the spatial resolution of the image. This study also demonstrates that the discrete phase model is an effective tool to study particle migration under thermophoresis in the liquid phase. PMID:25221433
Dilution factor measurement setup for a vibrating steel string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo, Moises; Guston, Trevor; Daniel, Cade; Avila, Joe; Vazquez, Juan; Cagnoli, Gianpietro; Diaz, Mario
2012-10-01
Measurements of mechanical losses have been done in the past in configurations parallel and perpendicular to the gravitational potential of earth with different sample shapes. Gravity will modify the quality factor of resonances when the restoring force depends on it, like in a pendulum. The proposed configuration used for this experiment involves a steel string under tension. The restoring force will be due to the tension rather than gravity. The goal is to quantify the relation between the tension of a steel string and its quality factor for varied resonant modes.
Current from a dilute plasma measured through holes in insulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grier, N. T.; Domitz, S.
1975-01-01
The current collected from a plasma through holes in insulated electrodes was measured. Holes of 0.051- and 2.54-cm diameters in Kapton H film and plasma number densities of 100 and 10,000 electrons/cu cm were used. The current collected by bare electrodes, that is, electrodes with no surrounding insulation, is also presented. For all the samples the current at a given voltage was a function of the surrounding insulator area rather than of the hole size or the underlying electrode size. In addition, at the low plasma density the I-V characteristic showed very steep rises for voltages below 1 kV. In one case the current jumped by a factor of approximately 70 to 200 V. Results are given for positive biases to 10 kV. For negative biases, sparking prevented testing most samples to the 10-kV limit.
Measurement of cardiac output in adult and newborn animals by ascorbic acid dilution.
Smallwood, J K; Haselby, K A; Paradise, R R
1984-05-01
We have developed an ascorbic acid-dilution method for measuring cardiac output which requires minimal blood withdrawal. Ascorbate is injected into a central venous catheter. The indicator-dilution curve is obtained by drawing blood from an arterial catheter through an amperometric cell at 0.96 ml/min for 35 s. The current is measured by a picoammeter . A calibration curve is obtained in 15 s prior to each indicator-dilution curve. An on-line digital computer measures the curve areas and calculates the cardiac output. Cardiac outputs of heparinized dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital and halothane measured by this method (AA) compared closely to cardiac outputs measured by the dye-dilution method (CG) (AA = 0.96 CG + 20 ml/min, r = 0.98). Both the cardiac output and the arterial blood pressure remained stable during replicate measurements of the cardiac output of 1-day-old piglets. This system allows cardiac output determinations of neonatal subjects without excessive blood removal and, with further development, should be practical in human neonates.
Comparison of impedance cardiography and dye dilution method for measuring cardiac output
Spiering, W; van Es, P N; de Leeuw, P W
1998-01-01
Objective—To assess the degree of agreement between impedance cardiography, using the NCCOM3-R7 device, and the gold standard—the dye dilution method—both under basal conditions and after stimulation of cardiac output. Patients—35 paired measurements in five healthy male volunteers. Interventions—To obtain higher levels of cardiac output, cardiac performance was stimulated with a dopamine infusion. Results—In 35 paired measurements, the mean of all the impedance values was higher than that of the dye dilution values, at 10.2 v 7.4 l/min (p < 0.0001). The mean discrepancy between the two methods was 3.3 l/min, and the mean bias −2.9 l/min, with limits of agreement of −9.0 and 3.2 l/min. A change in cardiac output could not adequately be predicted by the NCCOM3-R7. In 20 of 25 measurements obtained during continuous intravenous dopamine infusions there was a rise in dye dilution cardiac output (range 0.2 to 5.9 l/min). Neither the magnitude nor the direction of the change in dye dilution values corresponded with the change measured by impedance cardiography. The mean discrepancy here between the two methods was 1.8 l/min, and the mean bias −0.8 l/min, with limits of agreement of −4.9 and 3.3 l/min. Conclusions—In healthy volunteers, impedance cardiography with NCCOM3-R7 is inadequate for assessing cardiac output when compared with the dye dilution method. Keywords: cardiac output; impedance cardiography; dye dilution PMID:9659188
Field measurements and modeling of dilution in the wake of a US navy frigate.
Katz, C N; Chadwick, D B; Rohr, J; Hyman, M; Ondercin, D
2003-08-01
A field measurement and computer modeling effort was made to assess the dilution field of pulped waste materials discharged into the wake of a US Navy frigate. Pulped paper and fluorescein dye were discharged from the frigate's pulper at known rates. The subsequent particle and dye concentration field was then measured throughout the wake by a following vessel using multiple independent measures. Minimum dilution of the pulped paper reached 3.2 x 10(5) within 1900 m behind the frigate, or about 8 min after discharge. Independent measures typically agreed within 25% of one another and within 20% of model predictions. Minimum dilution of dye reached 2.3 x 10(5) at a down-wake distance of approximately 3500 m, or roughly 15 min. Comparison to model measurements were again within 20%. The field test was not only successful at characterizing wake dilution under one set of at-sea conditions, but was successful at validating the computer model used for assessing a wide range of ships and conditions.
Haridas, Divya; P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B.
2014-10-15
Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.
This environmental research brief reports on innovative measures for addressing 1) the source zone soils, 2) the concentrated portion of the ground-water plume, and 3) the dilute portion of the ground-water plume. For the source zone, surfactant-enhanced chromium extraction is ev...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Christopher; Torkelson, John; Northwestern University Team
2013-03-01
Using fluorescence, we measure the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of ultrathin (11-14 nm) polystyrene (PS, bulk Tg = 103 °C) layers which can be tuned over ~ 80 °C when sandwiched between two bulk neighboring layers of poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP), polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) or poly(tert-butyl acrylate). Between P4VP, an ultrathin PS layer has its dynamics slaved and reports the Tg of bulk P4VP. In contrast, an ultrathin PS layer is weakly perturbed (Tg = 97 °C) when placed between PVC. These perturbations to the PS Tg become evident even for layers 10s of nanometers in thickness. Additionally, binary blends were prepared with 0.1 wt% PS components surrounded by the same neighboring polymers as in the trilayers. The Tg reported by an ultrathin PS layer and a 0.1 wt% PS blend component are the same for a given polymer pair indicating that the Tg perturbations in these two systems arise from a common physical origin. The strength of perturbations to PS correlate with the fragility of the neighboring domain in both blends and multilayers indicating that it is a key variable in determining the strength of Tg-confinement effects. Fragility also tracks with the magnitude of Tg-confinement effects observed in single layer polymer films supported on silicon wafers.
Taylor, Diane M; Chow, Fotini K; Delkash, Madjid; Imhoff, Paul T
2016-10-01
Landfills are a significant contributor to anthropogenic methane emissions, but measuring these emissions can be challenging. This work uses numerical simulations to assess the accuracy of the tracer dilution method, which is used to estimate landfill emissions. Atmospheric dispersion simulations with the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) are run over Sandtown Landfill in Delaware, USA, using observation data to validate the meteorological model output. A steady landfill methane emissions rate is used in the model, and methane and tracer gas concentrations are collected along various transects downwind from the landfill for use in the tracer dilution method. The calculated methane emissions are compared to the methane emissions rate used in the model to find the percent error of the tracer dilution method for each simulation. The roles of different factors are examined: measurement distance from the landfill, transect angle relative to the wind direction, speed of the transect vehicle, tracer placement relative to the hot spot of methane emissions, complexity of topography, and wind direction. Results show that percent error generally decreases with distance from the landfill, where the tracer and methane plumes become well mixed. Tracer placement has the largest effect on percent error, and topography and wind direction both have significant effects, with measurement errors ranging from -12% to 42% over all simulations. Transect angle and transect speed have small to negligible effects on the accuracy of the tracer dilution method. These tracer dilution method simulations provide insight into measurement errors that might occur in the field, enhance understanding of the method's limitations, and aid interpretation of field data.
Pleural liquid clearance rate measured in awake sheep by the volume of dilution method
Broaddus, V.C.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Berthiaume, Y.; Staub, N.C.
1986-03-01
The authors reported 24h clearance of mock pleural effusions measured terminally in sheep. To measure effusion volume at different times in the same sheep, they injected /sup 111/In-transferrin and measured its dilution. In 5 sheep with effusions of known sizes, the method was accurate to +/-10%. In 5 awake sheep, the authors injected 10 ml/kg of a 1% protein solution via a non-penetrating rib capsule. At 6h, the authors measured the volume by the dilution method and at 24h by direct recovery. The clearance rate in each animal was constant at 2.9-6.0%/h (average 4.8 +/- 1.3%/h). This new method gives a reliable two point clearance rate and requires fewer animals.
iFit and Light Dilution: Ultraviolet volcanic SO2 measurements under the microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burton, Michael; Sawyer, Georgina
2013-04-01
Volcanic SO2 flux measurement systems are a staple of volcano monitoring networks, as this volcanic gas flux reflects the magma input rate into the volcano's feeding system. SO2 flux monitoring has been used since the seventies, with some notable successes at Pinatubo, Mt. St. Helens, Montserrat and Italian volcanoes. However, there are some subtle aspects of the atmospheric radiative transfer processed inherent in the technique which have been ignored for many years; or perhaps better, they have been forgotten, as these subtleties were clearly spelt out in early COSPEC papers by Millán and co-workers. Recent work by Kern et al. (2010, 2012) has re-focussed attention on the light dilution effect during SO2 plume measurements. This occurs when solar radiation is scattered into the slant column observed by a UV spectrometer or imaging system below the height of the volcanic plume, such that it has not passed through the plume. This below-plume light dilutes the SO2 absorption produced by light passing through the plume from above, apparently reducing the amount of SO2 present. Fortunately, the light dilution process leaves a signature in the shape of the SO2 absorption spectrum, due to the non-linear behaviour of absorption lines with respect to gas amount, following the Beer-Lamber law. This signature can be used to quantify the magnitude of the light dilution in real field spectra. We developed a new intensity spectrum UV fitting code called iFit that allows fitting of the light dilution signature, and applied this to examples from Stromboli and Etna. here we summarise the results from these studies and highlight the importance of this previously ignored process for quantify SO2 gas emissions from volcanoes.
Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements
Miller, P.
1998-01-05
This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.
Field Measurements and Modeling of Dilution in the Wake of a US Navy Frigate
2003-01-01
model used for assessing a wide range of ships and conditions. Published in Marine Pollution Bulletin. Volume 46, pp. 991-1005, 2003. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...Shipboard discharges Mathematical models Wake dispersion Waste disposal Marine pollution 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER...RakJYR-U PERGAMON Marine Pollution Bulletin 46 (2003) 991- 1005 www.elsevier.comnlocate/marpolbul Field measurements and modeling of dilution in the wake
Measurement of phloem transport rates by an indicator-dilution technique. [Triticum aestivum L
Fisher, D.B. )
1990-10-01
An indicator-dilution technique for the measurement of flow rates, commonly used by animal physiologists for circulation measurements, was adapted to the measurement of phloem translocation rates in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) peduncle. The approach is based on the observation that, during the transport of a given amount of solute, its mean concentration will be inversely proportional to flow rate. For phloem transport in the wheat peduncle, the necessary measurements are (a) the time course of tracer kinetics in the peduncle phloem, (b)the volume of sieve tubes and companion cells in the monitored segment of the peduncle, and (c) the amount of tracer transported past that point. The method was evaluated by in situ monitoring of {sup 32}PO{sub 4} transport in pulse-labeling experiments. Specific activities (i.e. {sup 32}P concentrations) of phloem exudate were in good agreement with those calculated from in situ count rates and measured phloem areas. Mass transport rates, calculated from volume flow rates and phloem exudate dry matter content, also agreed well with expected mass transport rates based on measurements of grain growth rate and net CO{sub 2} exchange by the ear. The indicator-dilution technique appears to offer good precision and accuracy for short-term measurements of phloem transport rates in the wheat peduncle and should be useful for other systems as well.
Automated measurement of respiratory gas exchange by an inert gas dilution technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawin, C. F.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.
1974-01-01
A respiratory gas analyzer (RGA) has been developed wherein a mass spectrometer is the sole transducer required for measurement of respiratory gas exchange. The mass spectrometer maintains all signals in absolute phase relationships, precluding the need to synchronize flow and gas composition as required in other systems. The RGA system was evaluated by comparison with the Douglas bag technique. The RGA system established the feasibility of the inert gas dilution method for measuring breath-by-breath respiratory gas exchange. This breath-by-breath analytical capability permits detailed study of transient respiratory responses to exercise.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Socolovsky, Eduardo A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The cosine or correlation measures of similarity used to cluster high dimensional data are interpreted as projections, and the orthogonal components are used to define a complementary dissimilarity measure to form a similarity-dissimilarity measure pair. Using a geometrical approach, a number of properties of this pair is established. This approach is also extended to general inner-product spaces of any dimension. These properties include the triangle inequality for the defined dissimilarity measure, error estimates for the triangle inequality and bounds on both measures that can be obtained with a few floating-point operations from previously computed values of the measures. The bounds and error estimates for the similarity and dissimilarity measures can be used to reduce the computational complexity of clustering algorithms and enhance their scalability, and the triangle inequality allows the design of clustering algorithms for high dimensional distributed data.
Monte Carlo simulations of NaI(Tl) spectra for measurements of semi-infinite plumes.
Korpach, Ed; Mekarski, Pawel; Ungar, R Kurt
2014-08-01
For the past 10 y Health Canada has operated a Fixed Point Surveillance Network of NaI(Tl) detectors across Canada. Deployed for both emergency response and daily monitoring of airborne radiation in the environment, a spectral stripping method allowed measurement of certain isotopes well below the ambient dose rate. These include (133)Xe, (135)Xe and (41)Ar, typical of emissions from operating nuclear reactors. In an effort to increase the number of isotopes measured at these low levels a new technique of spectral fitting using spectral templates is being implemented. However, this requires very accurate spectral templates that can be difficult or impossible to obtain empirically for environmental measurements of airborne radio-isotopes. Therefore, a method of efficiently using Monte Carlo techniques to create these templates was developed.
Evaluation of the combined measurement uncertainty in isotope dilution by MC-ICP-MS.
Fortunato, G; Wunderli, S
2003-09-01
The combination of metrological weighing, the measurement of isotope amount ratios by a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) and the use of high-purity reference materials are the cornerstones to achieve improved results for the amount content of lead in wine by the reversed isotope dilution technique. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and reversed IDMS have the potential to be a so-called primary method, with which close comparability and well-stated combined measurement uncertainties can be obtained. This work describes the detailed uncertainty budget determination using the ISO-GUM approach. The traces of lead in wine were separated from the matrix by ion exchange chromatography after HNO(3)/H(2)O(2) microwave digestion. The thallium isotope amount ratio ( n((205)Tl)/ n((203)Tl)) was used to correct for mass discrimination using an exponential model approach. The corrected lead isotope amount ratio n((206)Pb)/ n((208)Pb) for the isotopic standard SRM 981 measured in our laboratory was compared with ratio values considered to be the least uncertain. The result has been compared in a so-called pilot study "lead in wine" organised by the CCQM (Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière, BIPM, Paris; the highest measurement authority for analytical chemical measurements). The result for the lead amount content k(Pb) and the corresponding expanded uncertainty U given by our laboratory was:k(Pb)=1.329 x 10-10mol g-1 (amount content of lead in wine)U[k(Pb)]=1.0 x 10-12mol g-1 (expanded uncertainty U=kxuc, k=2)The uncertainty of the main influence parameter of the combined measurement uncertainty was determined to be the isotope amount ratio R(206,B) of the blend between the enriched spike and the sample.
Edge resonance in semi-infinite thick pipe: numerical predictions and measurements.
Ratassepp, M; Klauson, A; Chati, F; Léon, F; Maze, G
2008-08-01
This paper presents theoretical and experimental studies of axisymmetric longitudinal guided wave L(0,2) interaction with the free edge of the pipe. A numerical method based on normal mode superposition is applied to predict the edge resonance by an analysis of dispersion relations of separate modes. In parallel, the finite element analysis and experimental measurements prove the existence of edge resonance in the pipe in case of L(0,2) wave incidence. It is shown that the edge resonance is mainly caused by the first pair of complex modes. Additionally the behavior of edge resonance phenomenon as a function of the curvature of the pipe is studied. The displacement amplitudes measured at the edge demonstrate that the edge resonance is affected by the frequency and thickness to midradius ratio of the pipe, and it is losing its strength in thicker pipes, as the growing difference between the outer and inner radii destroys symmetry. The reflected energy amplitudes show that at the resonance frequencies the incident wave is strongly converted to L(0,1) and L(0,3) modes, depending also on the curvature parameter of the pipe.
Wind tunnel measurements of a large wind farm model approaching the infinite wind farm regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan
2016-11-01
A scaled wind farm, with 100 porous disk models of wind turbines, is used to study the effect of wind farm layout on the wind farm power output and its variability, in a wind tunnel study. The wind farm consists of 20 rows and 5 columns. The porous disk models have a diameter of 0 . 03 m and are instrumented with strain gages to measure the thrust force, as a surrogate for wind turbine power output. The frequency response of the measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the models and allows studying the spatio-temporal characteristics of the power output for different layouts. A variety of layouts are considered by shifting the individual rows in the spanwise direction. The reference layout has a regular streamwise spacing of Sx / D = 7 and a spanwise spacing of Sy / D = 5 . The parameter space is further expanded by considering layouts with an uneven streamwise spacing: Sx / D = 3 . 5 & 10 . 5 and Sx / D = 1 . 5 & 12 . 5 . We study how the mean row power changes as a function of wind farm layout and investigate the appearance of an asymptotic limiting behavior as previously described in the literature by application of the top-down model for the spatially averaged wind farm - boundary layer interaction. Work supported by ERC (Grant No. 306471, the ActiveWindFarms project) and by NSF (OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).
Smith, B J; Yamaguchi, E; Gaver, D P
2010-01-01
We have designed, fabricated and evaluated a novel translating stage system (TSS) that augments a conventional micro particle image velocimetry (µ-PIV) system. The TSS has been used to enhance the ability to measure flow fields surrounding the tip of a migrating semi-infinite bubble in a glass capillary tube under both steady and pulsatile reopening conditions. With conventional µ-PIV systems, observations near the bubble tip are challenging because the forward progress of the bubble rapidly sweeps the air-liquid interface across the microscopic field of view. The translating stage mechanically cancels the mean bubble tip velocity, keeping the interface within the microscope field of view and providing a tenfold increase in data collection efficiency compared to fixed-stage techniques. This dramatic improvement allows nearly continuous observation of the flow field over long propagation distances. A large (136-frame) ensemble-averaged velocity field recorded with the TSS near the tip of a steadily migrating bubble is shown to compare well with fixed-stage results under identical flow conditions. Use of the TSS allows the ensemble-averaged measurement of pulsatile bubble propagation flow fields, which would be practically impossible using conventional fixed-stage techniques. We demonstrate our ability to analyze these time-dependent two-phase flows using the ensemble-averaged flow field at four points in the oscillatory cycle.
Measurement of bronchial blood flow in the sheep by video dilution technique.
Link, D P; Parsons, G H; Lantz, B M; Gunther, R A; Green, J F; Cross, C E
1985-01-01
Bronchial blood flow was determined in five adult anaesthetised sheep by the video dilution technique. This is a new fluoroscopic technique for measuring blood flow that requires only arterial catheterisation. Catheters were placed into the broncho-oesophageal artery and ascending aorta from the femoral arteries for contrast injections and subsequent videotape recording. The technique yields bronchial blood flow as a percentage of cardiac output. The average bronchial artery blood flow was 0.6% (SD 0.20%) of cardiac output. In one sheep histamine (90 micrograms) injected directly into the bronchial artery increased bronchial blood flow by a factor of 6 and histamine (90 micrograms) plus methacholine (4.5 micrograms) augmented flow by a factor of 7.5 while leaving cardiac output unchanged. This study confirms the high degree of reactivity of the bronchial circulation and demonstrates the feasibility of using the video dilution technique to investigate the determinants of total bronchial artery blood flow in a stable animal model avoiding thoracotomy. Images PMID:3883564
Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution
Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A. )
1990-09-01
The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by {sup 2}H or {sup 3}H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both {sup 2}HHO and {sup 3}HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with {sup 3}H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals.
Fan, Fan; Chen, Chun Cheng Andy; Zhang, Jin; Schreck, Carlos M. N.; Williams, Jan M.; Hirata, Takashi; Sharma, Mukut; Beard, Daniel A.; Savin, Virginia J.; Roman, Richard J.
2015-01-01
This study describes a high-throughput fluorescence dilution technique to measure the albumin reflection coefficient (σAlb) of isolated glomeruli. Rats were injected with FITC-dextran 250 (75 mg/kg), and the glomeruli were isolated in a 6% BSA solution. Changes in the fluorescence of the glomerulus due to water influx in response to an imposed oncotic gradient was used to determine σAlb. Adjustment of the albumin concentration of the bath from 6 to 5, 4, 3, and 2% produced a 10, 25, 35, and 50% decrease in the fluorescence of the glomeruli. Pretreatment of glomeruli with protamine sulfate (2 mg/ml) or TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml) decreased σAlb from 1 to 0.54 and 0.48, respectively. Water and solute movement were modeled using Kedem-Katchalsky equations, and the measured responses closely fit the predicted behavior, indicating that loss of albumin by solvent drag or diffusion is negligible compared with the movement of water. We also found that σAlb was reduced by 17% in fawn hooded hypertensive rats, 33% in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats, 26% in streptozotocin-treated diabetic Dahl SS rats, and 21% in 6-mo old type II diabetic nephropathy rats relative to control Sprague-Dawley rats. The changes in glomerular permeability to albumin were correlated with the degree of proteinuria in these strains. These findings indicate that the fluorescence dilution technique can be used to measure σAlb in populations of isolated glomeruli and provides a means to assess the development of glomerular injury in hypertensive and diabetic models. PMID:26447220
A stable isotope dilution method for measuring bioavailability of organic contaminants
Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Gan, Jay
2014-01-01
Methods for determining bioavailability of organic contaminants suffer various operational limitations. We explored the use of stable isotope labeled references in developing an isotope dilution method (IDM) to measure the exchangeable pool (E) of pyrene and bifenthrin as an approximation of their bioavailability in sediments. The exchange of deuterated bifenthrin or pyrene with its native counterpart was completed within 48 h. The derived E was 38–82% for pyrene and 28–59% for bifenthrin. Regression between E and the sum of rapid and slow desorption fractions obtained from sequential desorption showed a slope close to 1.0. The ability of IDM to predict bioavailability was further shown from a strong relationship (r2 > 0.93) between E and bioaccumulation into Chironomus tentans. Given the abundance of stable isotope labeled references and their relatively easy analysis, the IDM has the potential to become a readily adoptable tool for estimating organic contaminants bioaccessibility in various matrices. PMID:23434573
[Renal function and plasma dabigatran level measured at trough by diluted thrombin time assay].
Martinuzzo, Marta E; Duboscq, Cristina; Viñuales, Estela S; Girardi, Beatriz; Penchasky, Diana; Ceresetto, José; Stemmelin, Germán; Otero, Victoria; Barrera, Luis H; López, Marina S; Otaso, Juan C; Hoyhamburu, José
2017-01-01
Dabigatran etexilate (direct thrombin inhibitor) is effective in preventing embolic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. It does not require laboratory control, but given the high renal elimination, its measurement in plasma is important in renal failure. The objectives of the study were to verify the analytical quality of the diluted thrombin time assay for measurement of dabigatran plasma concentration (cc), correlate cc with classic coagulation assays, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and evaluate them according to the creatinine clearance (CLCr). Forty plasma samples of patients (34 consecutive and 6 suspected of drug accumulation) receiving dabigatran at 150 (n = 19) or 110 (n = 21) mg/12 hours were collected. Blood samples were drawn at 10-14 hours of the last intake. Dabigatran concentration was determined by diluted thrombin time (HemosIl DTI, Instrumentation Laboratory (IL). PT and APTT (IL) were performed on two fotooptical coagulometers, ACL TOP 300 and 500 (IL). DTI presented intra-assay coefficient of variation < 5.4% and inter-assay < 6%, linearity range 0-493 ng/ml. Patients' cc: median 83 (4-945) ng/ml. Individuals with CLCr in the lowest tertile (22.6-46.1 ml/min) showed significantly higher median cc: 308 (49-945), compared to the average 72 (12-190) and highest tertile, 60 (4-118) ng/ml. Correlation between cc and APTT or PT were moderate, r2 = 0.59 and -0.66, p < 0.0001, respectively. DTI test allowed us to quantify plasma dabigatran levels, both in patients with normal or altered renal function, representing a useful tool in clinical situations such as renal failure, pre surgery or emergencies.
In Vivo Measurements Of Coronary Blood Volumi By Dye And Inert Gas Dilution Technic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoeft, A.; Korb, H.; Wolpers, H. G.
1984-10-01
The application of a double fiberoptic device for measurements of arterial and coronary venous dye dilution curves facilitates the determination of coronary mean transit times even under clinical conditions. Since the dye, indocyanine green, is an intravascular tracer, the calculation of tissue blood flow would be possible if the intracoronary blood volume per unit of muscular weight is known. This study was therefore designed to investigate the physiologic range and the influence of coronary vasodilation and different hemodynamic conditions on the amount of myocardial blood volume. All experiments were carried out on anaesthetized close chest mongrel dogs in heart catheterization technic. Myocardial preload, afterload and inotropism and coronary vascular tone were varied by induction of hypo-, normo- and hypervolemia as well as by intravenous application of catecholamines, 13-blocking agents and vasodilating drugs. The determination of coronary blood volume was based on arterial and coronary venous kinetics of the intravascular tracer indocyanine green and the freely diffusible tracers helium and argon. Simultaneous measurements of the dye and the inert gases were obtained by a double fiberoptic system and a twin mass spectrometer, respectively. The intravascular and the tissue mean transit times as well as the coronary blood volume per unit of tissue weight were computed from the impulse response functions obtained by numerical deconvolution of the arterial and coronary venous indicator dilution curves. In contrast to reports of other authors coronary blood volume did not increase to a major extend during coronary vasodilation or elevated afterload. These new results suggest that the variation of coronary blood volume described in the literature is mainly due to methodological errors resulting from monoexponential extrapolation and distortion of the dye signal by the sampling catheter. These systematic errors, which, in particular, lead to an overestimation of
Katori, R; Hayashi, T; Kanamasa, K; Ishikawa, K
1977-05-01
A non-invasive method for measuring cardiac output by an earpiece dye densitometer was proposed. The densitometer is dichromatic and has an air capsule to make subject's ear bloodless by inflation, so that it can calibrate indocyanine green dye concentration without blood sampling. Duplicate measurements of cardiac output showed a good agreement in 40 cases (r = 0.97, standard deviation (S.D.) = 8.9%), which was comparable to the result of the cuvette method (r = 0.98, S.D. = 8.1%). Simultaneous measurements of cardiac output by the earpiece method (x) and the standard cuvette method (y) revealed a good agreement (r = 0.91, y = 0.96x+0.34, S.D. = 16.4%) in 52 measurements of 25 cases. A similarly good correlation was obtained between the two methods during ergometer exercise in supine position in 5 cases. These suggest that this earpiece dye-dilution method is reliable for cardiac output measurement and advantageous for clinical use because of non-invasive technique.
Berry Yelverton, T.L.; Roberts, W.L.
2008-10-15
Soot surface temperature was measured in laminar jet diffusion flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures. The soot surface temperature was measured in flames at one, two, four, and eight atmospheres with both pure and diluted (using helium, argon, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide individually) ethylene fuels with a calibrated two-color soot pyrometry technique. These two dimensional temperature profiles of the soot aid in the analysis and understanding of soot production, leading to possible methods for reducing soot emission. Each flame investigated was at its smoke point, i.e., at the fuel flow rate where the overall soot production and oxidation rates are equal. The smoke point was chosen because it was desirable to have similar soot loadings for each flame. A second set of measurements were also taken where the fuel flow rate was held constant to compare with earlier work. These measurements show that overall flame temperature decreases with increasing pressure, with increasing pressure the position of peak temperature shifts to the tip of the flame, and the temperatures measured were approximately 10% lower than those calculated assuming equilibrium and neglecting radiation. (author)
Abass, Kasim Sakran
2014-01-01
Organophosphate compounds can bind to carboxylesterase, which may lower the concentration of organophosphate pesticides at the target site enzyme, cholinesterase. It is unclear from the literature whether it is the carboxylesterase affinity for the organophosphate and/or the number of carboxylesterase molecules that is the dominant factor in determining the protective potential of carboxylesterase. The fundamental dilutions and kinetic effects of esterase enzyme are still poorly understood. This study aims to confirm and extend our current knowledge about the effects of dilutions on esterases activities in the blood for birds with respect to protecting the enzyme from organophosphate inhibition. There was significantly higher esterases activities in dilution 1 : 10 in the all blood samples from quail, duck, and chick compared to other dilutions (1 : 5, 1 : 15, 1 : 20, and 1 : 25) in all cases. Furthermore, our results also pointed to the importance of estimating different dilutions effects prior to using in birds as biomarker tools of environmental exposure. Concentration-inhibition curves were determined for the inhibitor in the presence of dilutions 1 : 5, 1 : 10, plus 1 : 15 (to stimulate carboxylesterase). Point estimates (concentrations calculated to produce 20, 50, and 80% inhibition) were compared across conditions and served as a measure of esterase-mediated detoxification. Results with well-known inhibitors (malathion) were in agreement with the literature, serving to support the use of this assay. Among the thiol-esters dilution 1 : 5 was observed to have the highest specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)), and the K m and k cat values were 176 μM and 16,765 s(-1), respectively, for S-phenyl thioacetate ester, while detected in dilution 1: 15 was the lowest specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)), and the Km and k cat values were 943 μM and 1154 s(-1), respectively, for acetylthiocholine iodide ester.
Chew, Gina; Walczyk, Thomas
2013-04-02
Subtle variations in the isotopic composition of elements carry unique information about physical and chemical processes in nature and are now exploited widely in diverse areas of research. Reliable measurement of natural isotope abundance variations is among the biggest challenges in inorganic mass spectrometry as they are highly sensitive to methodological bias. For decades, double spiking of the sample with a mix of two stable isotopes has been considered the reference technique for measuring such variations both by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and multicollector-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). However, this technique can only be applied to elements having at least four stable isotopes. Here we present a novel approach that requires measurement of three isotope signals only and which is more robust than the conventional double spiking technique. This became possible by gravimetric mixing of the sample with an isotopic spike in different proportions and by applying principles of isotope dilution for data analysis (GS-IDA). The potential and principle use of the technique is demonstrated for Mg in human urine using MC-TIMS for isotopic analysis. Mg is an element inaccessible to double spiking methods as it consists of three stable isotopes only and shows great potential for metabolically induced isotope effects waiting to be explored.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soller, Babs R.; Favreau, Janice; Idwasi, Patrick O.
2003-01-01
The feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least-squares (PLS) regression was explored to measure electrolyte concentration in whole blood samples. Spectra were collected from diluted blood samples containing randomized, clinically relevant concentrations of Na+, K+, and Ca2+. Sodium was also studied in lysed blood. Reference measurements were made from the same samples using a standard clinical chemistry instrument. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to develop calibration models for each ion with acceptable results (Na+, R2 = 0.86, CVSEP = 9.5 mmol/L; K+, R2 = 0.54, CVSEP = 1.4 mmol/L; Ca2+, R2 = 0.56, CVSEP = 0.18 mmol/L). Slightly improved results were obtained using a narrower wavelength region (470-925 nm) where hemoglobin, but not water, absorbed indicating that ionic interaction with hemoglobin is as effective as water in causing measurable spectral variation. Good models were also achieved for sodium in lysed blood, illustrating that cell swelling, which is correlated with sodium concentration, is not required for calibration model development.
Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Hazen, Jennie E.; Donahue, Lillian; Li, Xin-Min; Hazen, Stanley L.
2014-01-01
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels in blood predict future risk for major adverse cardiac events including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Thus, the rapid determination of circulating TMAO concentration is of clinical interest. Here we report a method to measure TMAO in biological matrices by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with lower and upper limits of quantification of 0.05 and >200 µM, respectively. Spike and recovery studies demonstrate an accuracy at low (0.5 µM), mid (5 µM) and high (100 µM) levels of 98.2%, 97.3% and 101.6%, respectively. Additional assay performance metrics include intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variance of < 6.4% and < 9.9%, respectively, across the range of TMAO levels. Stability studies reveal TMAO in plasma is stable both during storage at −80 °C for 5 years and to multiple freeze thaw cycles. Fasting plasma normal range studies among apparently healthy subjects (n=349) shows a range of 0.73 – 126 µM, median (interquartile range) levels of 3.45 (2.25–5.79) µM, and increasing values with age. The LC/MS/MS based assay reported should be of value for further studies evaluating TMAO as a risk marker and for examining the effect of dietary, pharmacologic and environmental factors on TMAO levels. PMID:24704102
Bakkaus, Estelle; Collins, Richard N; Morel, Jean-Louis; Gouget, Barbara
2008-11-15
Isotope dilution is a useful technique to determine the potential phytoavailability of an element in soil. This method involves equilibrating an isotope with soil and then sampling the labile metal pool by analysis of the soil solution (E value) or plants growing in the soil (L value). The work reported here was conducted to evaluate the distribution coefficient (Kd), and the potential phytoavailability (E value) of cobalt (Co) in eight soils subjected to the atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic Co. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the K(d) of isotopically exchangeable Co in these soils was best modelled with two parameters: soil pH and organic carbon (OC) content (log Kd=0.85(pH)+1.1(logOC)-5.0, R2=0.94, p<0.01). Cobalt E values ranged from 1.5 to 37% of total soil Co concentrations. No evidence was obtained to suggest that Co(III), if present, was isotopically exchangeable in these soils and it was concluded that the Co E values consisted solely of Co(II). Cobalt L values, measured with Triticum aestivum L. (46 days), of two of these soils (varying in soil pH, e.g. 5.0 and 7.2) were statistically (p<0.05) different to E values. However, when changes of bulk soil pH on Co E values were considered, the two values were statistically (p<0.05) similar indicating that processes affecting soil pH during plant growth can alter isotopically exchangeable concentrations of Co.
Measurement of solute transport in the endothelial glycocalyx using indicator dilution techniques.
Gao, Lujia; Lipowsky, Herbert H
2009-09-01
A new method is presented to quantify changes in permeability of the endothelial glycocalyx to small solutes and fluid flow using techniques of indicator dilution. Following infusion of a bolus of fluorescent solutes (either FITC or FITC conjugated Dextran70) into the rat mesenteric circulation, its transient dispersion through post-capillary venules was recorded and analyzed offline. To represent dispersion of solute as a function of radial position in a microvessel, a virtual transit time (VTT) was calculated from the first moment of fluorescence intensity-time curves. Computer simulations and subsequent in vivo measurements showed that the radial gradient of VTT within the glycocalyx layer (Delta VTT/Delta r) may be related to the hydraulic resistance within the layer along the axial direction in a post-capillary venule and the effective diffusion coefficient within the glycocalyx. Modeling the inflammatory process by superfusion of the mesentery with 10(-7) M fMLP, Delta VTT/Delta r was found to decrease significantly from 0.23 +/- 0.08 SD s/microm to 0.18 +/- 0.09 SD s/microm. Computer simulations demonstrated that Delta VTT/Delta r is principally determined by three independent variables: glycocalyx thickness (delta), hydraulic resistivity (K(r)) and effective diffusion coefficient of the solute (D(eff)) within the glycocalyx. Based upon these simulations, the measured 20% decrease in Delta VTT/Delta r at the endothelial cell surface corresponds to a 20% increase in D(eff) over a broad range in K(r), assuming a constant thickness delta. The absolute magnitude of D(eff) required to match Delta VTT/Delta r between in vivo measurements and simulations was found to be on the order of 2.5 x 10(-3) x D(free), where D(free) is the diffusion coefficient of FITC in aqueous media. Thus the present method may provide a useful tool for elucidating structural and molecular alterations in the glycocalyx as occur with ischemia, metabolic and inflammatory events.
Abass, Kasim Sakran
2014-01-01
Organophosphate compounds can bind to carboxylesterase, which may lower the concentration of organophosphate pesticides at the target site enzyme, cholinesterase. It is unclear from the literature whether it is the carboxylesterase affinity for the organophosphate and/or the number of carboxylesterase molecules that is the dominant factor in determining the protective potential of carboxylesterase. The fundamental dilutions and kinetic effects of esterase enzyme are still poorly understood. This study aims to confirm and extend our current knowledge about the effects of dilutions on esterases activities in the blood for birds with respect to protecting the enzyme from organophosphate inhibition. There was significantly higher esterases activities in dilution 1 : 10 in the all blood samples from quail, duck, and chick compared to other dilutions (1 : 5, 1 : 15, 1 : 20, and 1 : 25) in all cases. Furthermore, our results also pointed to the importance of estimating different dilutions effects prior to using in birds as biomarker tools of environmental exposure. Concentration-inhibition curves were determined for the inhibitor in the presence of dilutions 1 : 5, 1 : 10, plus 1 : 15 (to stimulate carboxylesterase). Point estimates (concentrations calculated to produce 20, 50, and 80% inhibition) were compared across conditions and served as a measure of esterase-mediated detoxification. Results with well-known inhibitors (malathion) were in agreement with the literature, serving to support the use of this assay. Among the thiol-esters dilution 1 : 5 was observed to have the highest specificity constant (kcat/Km), and the Km and kcat values were 176 μM and 16,765 s−1, respectively, for S-phenyl thioacetate ester, while detected in dilution 1 : 15 was the lowest specificity constant (kcat/Km), and the Km and kcat values were 943 μM and 1154 s−1, respectively, for acetylthiocholine iodide ester. PMID:24864243
Measurement of asphaltene particle size distributions in crude oils diluted with n-heptane
Ferworn, K.A.; Svrcek, W.Y.; Mehrotra, A.K. )
1993-05-01
The formation and growth of asphaltene particles from heavy crude oils diluted with n-heptane at 22 C and atmospheric pressure was studied using a laser particle analyzer. The results obtained with six crude oil samples indicate that the asphaltene precipitation is an instantaneous process leading to a unimodal, log-normal distribution. At typical laboratory conditions, the particles remained essentially unaltered in size and population density. A vast majority of the particles were noted to be far from round in shape, with the mean particle size ranging from 4.5 to 291 [mu]m. It was found that the oil-to-diluent ratio is an important parameter in determining the size of the generated asphaltene particles; higher dilution ratios yielded larger particles. The mean asphaltene particle size was also found to increase with the average molar mass and the asphaltene content of crude oils.
Elliott, Adrian D; Skowno, Justin; Prabhu, Mahesh; Ansley, Les
2012-10-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of pulse contour analysis calibrated with lithium dilution in a single device (LiDCO) for measurement of cardiac output (Q) during exercise in healthy volunteers. We sought to; (a) compare pulse contour analysis (PulseCO) and lithium indicator dilution (LiDCO) for the measurement of Q during exercise, and (b) assess the requirement for recalibration of PulseCO with LiDCO during exercise. Ten trained males performed multi-stage cycling exercise at intensities below and above ventilatory threshold before constant load maximal exercise to exhaustion. Uncalibrated PulseCO Q (Qraw) was compared to that calibrated with lithium dilution at baseline Qbaseline, during submaximal exercise below (Qlow) and above (Qhigh) ventilatory threshold, and at each exercise stage individually (Qexercise). There was a significant difference between Qbaseline and all other calibration methods during exercise, but not at rest. No significant differences were observed between other methods. Closest agreement with Qexercise was observed for Qhigh (bias ± limits of agreement: 4.8 ± 30.0%). The difference between Qexercise and both Qlow and Qraw was characterized by low bias (4-7%) and wide limits of agreement (> ± 40%). Calibration of pulse contour analysis with lithium dilution prior to exercise leads to a systematic overestimation of exercising cardiac output. A single calibration performed during exercise above the ventilatory threshold provided acceptable limits of agreement with an approach incorporating multiple calibrations throughout exercise. Pulse contour analysis may be used for Q measurement during exercise providing the system is calibrated during exercise.
Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Kreke, P.J.
1995-06-24
Although the behavior of a fluid under shear near a surface can be expected to be critically important to its drag and lubrication properties, most shear measurements to date have been of the bulk. This paper outlines the use of a specially developed Poiseuille shear cell at grazing incidence to measure the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) signal from the first few tens of microns in the interfacial region. The authors illustrate the technique with measurements made on the near-surface ordering in flow past a quartz surface of dilute surfactant solutions comprising highly extended self-assembling ``threadlike`` micelles.
Fu, Riqiang; Li, Jun; Cui, Jingyu; Peng, Xinhua
2016-07-01
Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times (T1S) for dilute spins such as (13)C have led to investigations of the motional dynamics of individual functional groups in solid materials. In this work, we revisit the Solomon equations and analyze how the heteronuclear cross relaxation between the dilute S (e.g. (13)C) and abundant I (e.g. (1)H) spins affects the measured T1S values in solid-state NMR in the absence of (1)H saturation during the recovery time. It is found theoretically that at the beginning of the S spin magnetization recovery, the existence of non-equilibrium I magnetization introduces the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect onto the recovery of the S spin magnetization and confirmed experimentally that such a heteronuclear cross relaxation effect results in the recovery overshoot phenomena for the dilute spins when T1S is on the same order of T1H, leading to inaccurate measurements of the T1S values. Even when T1S is ten times larger than T1H, the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect on the measured T1S values is still noticeable. Furthermore, this cross relaxation effect on recovery trajectory of the S spins can be manipulated and even suppressed by preparing the initial I and S magnetization, so as to obtain the accurate T1S values. A sample of natural abundance l-isoleucine powder has been used to demonstrate the T1S measurements and their corresponding measured T1C values under various experimental conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang
2016-03-01
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment.
Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang
2016-01-01
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment. PMID:26975333
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harvey, M. J.; Brailsford, G. W.; Bromley, A. M.; Lassey, K. R.; Mei, Z.; Kristament, I. S.; Reisinger, A. R.; Walker, C. F.; Kelliher, F. M.
Following advances with methods for 13C/ 12C isotopic analysis of methane in small (⩽4 L) air samples, new isotope dilution techniques are proposed for measurement of methane emissions at the paddock scale from grazing ruminant animals. These techniques combine measurement of the isotopic δ13CH 4 composition of air samples with a non-intrusive mass balance method applied in the nocturnal boundary layer. Flux estimates from trials using the isotope dilution techniques are compared with estimates based on scaling up individual animal emission measurements using a rumen gas tracer technique. The methane flux assessed by the latter technique ranged from 35 to 70 mg (CH 4) m -2 d -1 with a stocking density between 10 and 20 sheep ha -1. The isotope dilution based nocturnal boundary-layer estimates generally agreed to better than a factor of 2 and usually to within 20% of the average of individual animal emission rate per unit area of paddock. Both static and advecting mass balance methods are developed. In the advecting case, the upwind/downwind contrast in δ13C was typically 0.2-0.5‰. Care was necessary with air sampling to avoid error in this small contrast contributing to error in the flux. Agreement between concentration- and isotope-based nocturnal boundary layer methods and the sheep breath measurements indicated that sample representativeness was generally good. Factors which affect the accuracy of the method are examined and include variability in nocturnal mixing height, the assumed δ13CH 4 composition of the source sheep breath and diurnal patterns in sheep emission. This paper establishes new techniques useful in the paddock to landscape scale although widespread application awaits further development of technology for rapid and repeatable field analysis of δ13CH 4 in small samples.
Unification and Infinite Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.
2008-01-01
Some infinite series are analysed on the basis of the hypergeometric function and integer structure and modular rings. The resulting generalized functions are compared with differentiation of the "mother" series. (Contains 1 table.)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hearn, C. P.; Bailey, M. C.; Czerner, M. J.; Dudley, K. L.; Vedeler, E.
1990-01-01
The feasibility of a continuous-wave, distance-measuring technique for measuring the distance from a spacecraft antenna to a highly ionized plasma surface is examined. The reflection coefficient angle is computed for several aperture models. It is concluded that aperture size and the presence of a nonablating dielectric cover over the antenna are critical factors.
Kim, Mi Eon; Kim, Yong Doo; Kang, Ji Hwan; Heo, Gwi Suk; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sangil
2016-04-01
Dimethyl sulphide (DMS) is an important compound in global atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Traceable international standards are essential for measuring accurately the long-term global trend in ambient DMS. However, developing accurate gas standards for sub-nanomole per mole (nmol/mol) mole fractions of DMS in a cylinder is challenging, because DMS is reactive and unstable. In this study, a dynamic dilution method that is traceable and precise was developed to generate sub-nmol/mol DMS gas mixtures with a dynamic dilution system based on sonic nozzles and a long-term (>5 years) stable 10 μmol/mol parent DMS primary standard gas mixtures (PSMs). The dynamic dilution system was calibrated with traceable methane PSMs, and its estimated dilution factors were used to calculate the mole fractions of the dynamically generated DMS gas mixtures. A dynamically generated DMS gas mixture and a 6 nmol/mol DMS PSM were analysed against each other by gas chromatography with flame-ionisation detection (GC/FID) to evaluate the dilution system. The mole fractions of the dynamically generated DMS gas mixture determined against a DMS PSM and calculated with the dilution factor agreed within 1% at 6 nmol/mol. In addition, the dynamically generated DMS gas mixtures at various mole fractions between 0.4 and 11.7 nmol/mol were analysed by GC/FID and evaluated for their linearity. The analytically determined mole fractions showed good linearity with the mole fractions calculated with the dilution factors. Results showed that the dynamic dilution method generates DMS gas mixtures ranging between 0.4 nmol/mol and 12 nmol/mol with relative expanded uncertainties of less than 2%. Therefore, the newly developed dynamic dilution method is a promising reference method for generating sub-nmol/mol DMS gas standards for accurate ambient measurements.
Tang, Yongjiang; Zhang, Mingke; Feng, Yulin; Liang, Binmiao
2016-01-01
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic airway disease characterized by persistent airflow limitation. Moreover, lung hyperinflation evaluated by lung volumes is also the key pathophysiologic process during COPD progression. Nevertheless, there is still no preferred method to evaluate lung volumes. For this study, we recruited 170 patients with stable COPD to assess lung volumes stratified by airflow limitation severity. Lung volumes including residual volume (RV) and total lung capacity (TLC) were determined by both body plethysmography and helium dilution methods. The discrepancies between these two methods were recorded as ΔRV%pred, ΔTLC%pred, and ΔRV/TLC. We found that ΔRV%pred, ΔTLC%pred, and ΔRV/TLC increased significantly with the severity of COPD. The differences of lung capacity between these two methods were negatively correlated with FEV1%pred, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO%pred). Moreover, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for ΔTLC%pred to distinguish severe COPD from non-severe COPD had an area under curve (AUC) of 0.886. The differences of lung volume parameters measured by body plethysmography and helium dilution methods were associated with airflow limitation and can effectively differentiate COPD severity, which may be a supportive method to assess the lung function of stable COPD patients. PMID:27876834
40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...
40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...
40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...
40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...
40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust flow... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air and diluted exhaust...
Jamin, P; Goderniaux, P; Bour, O; Le Borgne, T; Englert, A; Longuevergne, L; Brouyère, S
2015-11-01
Measurement of groundwater fluxes is the basis of all hydrogeological study, from hydraulic characterization to the most advanced reactive transport modeling. Usual groundwater flux estimation with Darcy's law may lead to cumulated errors on spatial variability, especially in fractured aquifers where local direct measurement of groundwater fluxes becomes necessary. In the present study, both classical point dilution method (PDM) and finite volume point dilution method (FVPDM) are compared on the fractured crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur, France. The manipulation includes the first use of the FVPDM in a fractured aquifer using a double packer. This configuration limits the vertical extent of the tested zone to target a precise fracture zone of the aquifer. The result of this experiment is a continuous monitoring of groundwater fluxes that lasted for more than 4 days. Measurements of groundwater flow rate in the fracture (Q(t)) by PDM provide good estimates only if the mixing volume (V(w)) (volume of water in which the tracer is mixed) is precisely known. Conversely, the FVPDM allows for an independent estimation of V(w) and Q(t), leading to better precision in case of complex experimental setup such as the one used. The precision of a PDM does not rely on the duration of the experiment while a FVPDM may require long experimental duration to guarantees a good precision. Classical PDM should then be used for rapid estimation of groundwater flux using simple experimental setup. On the other hand, the FVPDM is a more precise method that has a great potential for development but may require longer duration experiment to achieve a good precision if the groundwater fluxes investigated are low and/or the mixing volume is large.
Learning to See the Infinite: Measuring Visual Literacy Skills in a 1st-Year Seminar Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palmer, Michael S.; Matthews, Tatiana
2015-01-01
Visual literacy was a stated learning objective for the fall 2009 iteration of a first-year seminar course. To help students develop visual literacy skills, they received formal instruction throughout the semester and completed a series of carefully designed learning activities. The effects of these interventions were measured using a one-group…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappa, G.; Ferrari, S.
2016-12-01
Let X be a separable Banach space endowed with a non-degenerate centered Gaussian measure μ. The associated Cameron-Martin space is denoted by H. Let ν =e-U μ, where U : X → R is a sufficiently regular convex and continuous function. In this paper we are interested in the W 2 , 2 regularity of the weak solutions of elliptic equations of the type
Lyapunov exponents for infinite dimensional dynamical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mhuiris, Nessan Mac Giolla
1987-01-01
Classically it was held that solutions to deterministic partial differential equations (i.e., ones with smooth coefficients and boundary data) could become random only through one mechanism, namely by the activation of more and more of the infinite number of degrees of freedom that are available to such a system. It is only recently that researchers have come to suspect that many infinite dimensional nonlinear systems may in fact possess finite dimensional chaotic attractors. Lyapunov exponents provide a tool for probing the nature of these attractors. This paper examines how these exponents might be measured for infinite dimensional systems.
Pérez, José J.; Williams, Megan K.; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Smith, Kimberly; Whyatt, Robin M.; Needham, Larry L.; Barr, Dana Boyd
2010-01-01
We have developed a gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method for measuring pyrethroid, organophosphorus, carbamate and fipronil pesticides and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in human plasma. Plasma samples were extracted using solid phase extraction and were then concentrated for injection and analysis using isotope dilution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The limits of detection ranged from 10 to 158 pg/mL with relative recoveries at concentrations near the LODs (e.g., 25 or 250 pg/mL) ranging from 87% to 156% (9 of the 16 compounds were withing ± 15% of 100%). The extraction recoveries ranged from 20% to 98% and the overall method relative standard deviations were typically less than 20% with some exceptions. Analytical characteristics were determined at 25, 250, and 1000 pg/mL. PMID:20434413
Chang, Victor W C; Hildemann, Lynn M; Chang, Cheng-hisn
2009-06-01
The particle and gaseous pollutants in vehicle exhaust emissions undergo rapid dilution with ambient air after exiting the tailpipe. The rate and extent of this dilution can greatly affect both the size evolution of primary exhaust particles and the potential for formation of ultrafine particles. Dilution ratios were measured inside of a wind tunnel in the region immediately downstream of the tailpipe using model vehicles (approximately one-fifth to one-seventh scale models) representing a light-duty truck, a passenger car, and a heavy-duty tractor head (without the trailer). A tracer gas (ethene) was released at a measured flow rate from the tailpipe, and 60 sampling probes placed downstream of the vehicle simultaneously sampled gas tracer concentrations in the near-wake (first few vehicle heights) and far-wake regions (beyond 10 vehicle heights). Tests using different tunnel wind speeds show the range of dilution ratios that can be expected as a function of vehicle type and downstream distance (i.e., time). The vehicle shape quite strongly influences dilution profiles in the near-wake region but is much less important in the far-wake region. The tractor generally produces higher dilution rates than the automobile and light-duty truck under comparable conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korb, H.; Hoeft, A.; Hellige, G.
1984-10-01
Previous studies have shown that intramyocardial blood volume does not vary to a major extent even during extreme variation of hemodynamics and coronary vascular tone. Based on a constant intramyocardial blood volume it is therefore possible to calculate tissue blood flow from the mean transit time of an intravascular tracer. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically applicable method for measurement of coronary blood flow. The new method was based on indocyanine green, a dye which is bound to albumin and intravasally detectable by means of a fiberoptic catheter device. One fiberoptic catheter was placed in the aortic root and another in the coronary sinus. After central venous dye injection the resulting arterial and coronary venous dye dilution curves were processed on-line by a micro-computer. The mean transit time as well as myocardial blood flow were calculated from the step response function of the deconvoluted arterial and coronary venous signals. Reference flow was determined with an extracorporeal electromagnetic flowprobe within a coronary sinus bypass system. 38 steady states with coronary blood flow ranging from 49 - 333 ml/min*100g were analysed in 5 dogs. Mean transit times varied from 2.9 to 16.6 sec. An average intracoronary blood volume of 13.9 -7 1.8 m1/100g was calculated. The correlation between flow determined by the dye dilution technique and flow measured with the reference method was 0.98. According to these results determination of coronary blood flow with a double fiberoptic system and indocyanine green should be possible even under clinical conditions. Furthermore, the arterial and coronary venous oxygen saturation can be monitored continuously by the fiberoptic catheters. Therefore, additional information about the performance of the heart such as myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial efficiency is available with the same equipment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhrner, U.; von Löwis, S.; Vehkamäki, H.; Wehner, B.; Bräsel, S.; Hermann, M.; Stratmann, F.; Kulmala, M.; Wiedensohler, A.
Vehicle particle emissions are studied extensively because of their health effects, contribution to ambient PM levels and possible impact on climate. The aim of this work was to obtain a better understanding of secondary particle formation and growth in a diluting vehicle exhaust plume using 3-d information of simulations together with measurements. Detailed coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and aerosol dynamics simulations have been conducted for H 2SO 4-H 2O and soot particles based on measurements within a vehicle exhaust plume under real conditions on public roads. Turbulent diffusion of soot and nucleation particles is responsible for the measured decrease of number concentrations within the diesel car exhaust plume and decreases coagulation rates. Particle size distribution measurements at 0.45 and 0.9 m distance to the tailpipe indicate a consistent soot mode (particle diameter Dp˜50 nm) at variable operating conditions. Soot mode number concentrations reached up to 10 13 m -3 depending on operating conditions and mixing. For nucleation particles the simulations showed a strong sensitivity to the spatial dilution pattern, related cooling and exhaust H 2SO 4(g). The highest simulated nucleation rates were about 0.05-0.1 m from the axis of the plume. The simulated particle number concentration pattern is in approximate accordance with measured concentrations, along the jet centreline and 0.45 and 0.9 m from the tailpipe. Although the test car was run with ultralow sulphur fuel, high nucleation particle ( Dp⩽15 nm) concentrations (>10 13 m -3) were measured under driving conditions of strong acceleration or the combination of high vehicle speed (>140 km h -1) and high engine rotational speed (>3800 revolutions per minute (rpm)). Strong mixing and cooling caused rapid nucleation immediately behind the tailpipe, so that the highest particle number concentrations were recorded at a distance, x=0.45 m behind the tailpipe. The simulated growth of H 2SO 4
Pryor, Owen; Barak, Samuel; Lopez, Joseph; ...
2017-03-30
For this study, ignition delay times and methane species time-histories were measured for methane/O2 mixtures in a high CO2 diluted environment using shock tube and laser absorption spectroscopy. The experiments were performed between 1300 K and 2000 K at pressures between 6 and 31 atm. The test mixtures were at an equivalence ratio of 1 with CH4 mole fractions ranging from 3.5% -5% and up to 85% CO2 with a bath of argon gas as necessary. The ignition delay times and methane time histories were measured using pressure, emission, and laser diagnostics. Predictive ability of two literature kinetic mechanisms (GRImore » 3.0 and ARAMCO Mech 1.3) was tested against current data. In general, both mechanisms performed reasonably well against measured ignition delay time data. The methane time-histories showed good agreement with the mechanisms for most of the conditions measured. A correlation for ignition delay time was created taking into the different parameters showing that the ignition activation energy for the fuel to be 49.64 kcal/mol. Through a sensitivity analysis, CO2 is shown to slow the overall reaction rate and increase the ignition delay time. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first shock tube data during ignition of methane/CO2/O2 under these conditions. In conclusion, current data provides crucial validation data needed for development of future kinetic mechanisms.« less
Pryor, Owen; Barak, Samuel; Lopez, Joseph; ...
2017-03-16
For this study, ignition delay times and methane species time-histories were measured for methane/O2 mixtures in a high CO2 diluted environment using shock tube and laser absorption spectroscopy. The experiments were performed between 1300 K and 2000 K at pressures between 6 and 31 atm. The test mixtures were at an equivalence ratio of 1 with CH4 mole fractions ranging from 3.5% -5% and up to 85% CO2 with a bath of argon gas as necessary. The ignition delay times and methane time histories were measured using pressure, emission, and laser diagnostics. Predictive ability of two literature kinetic mechanisms (GRImore » 3.0 and ARAMCO Mech 1.3) was tested against current data. In general, both mechanisms performed reasonably well against measured ignition delay time data. The methane time-histories showed good agreement with the mechanisms for most of the conditions measured. A correlation for ignition delay time was created taking into the different parameters showing that the ignition activation energy for the fuel to be 49.64 kcal/mol. Through a sensitivity analysis, CO2 is shown to slow the overall reaction rate and increase the ignition delay time. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first shock tube data during ignition of methane/CO2/O2 under these conditions. In conclusion, current data provides crucial validation data needed for development of future kinetic mechanisms.« less
Smith, Reginald W; Zhu, Xiaohe; Tunnicliffe, Mark C; Smith, Timothy J N; Misener, Lowell; Adamson, Josee
2002-10-01
It is now well known that the diffusion coefficient (D) measured in a laboratory in low earth orbit (LEO) is less than the corresponding value measured in a terrestrial laboratory. However, all LEO laboratories are subject to transient accelerations (g-jitter) superimposed on the steady reduced gravity environment of the space platform. In measurements of the diffusion coefficients for dilute binary alloys of Pb-(Ag, Au,Sb), Sb-(Ga,In), Bi-(Ag,Au,Sb), Sn-(Au,Sb), Al-(Fe, Ni,Si), and In-Sb in which g-jitter was suppressed, it was found that D proportional to T (temperature) if g-jitter was suppressed, rather than D proportional to T(2) as observed by earlier workers with g-jitter present. Furthermore, when a forced g-jitter was applied to a diffusion couple, the value measured for D increased. The significance of these results is reviewed in the light of recent work in which ab initio molecular dynamics simulations predicted a D proportional to T relationship.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
2009-01-01
This article provides a historical context for the debate between Georg Cantor and Leopold Kronecker regarding the cardinality of different infinities and incorporates the short story "Welcome to the Hotel Infinity," which uses the analogy of a hotel with an infinite number of rooms to help explain this concept. Wanko makes use of this history and…
Measurement of labile Cu in soil using stable isotope dilution and isotope ratio analysis by ICP-MS.
Nolan, Annette L; Ma, Yibing; Lombi, Enzo; McLaughlin, Mike J
2004-11-01
Isotope dilution is a useful technique to measure the labile metal pool, which is the amount of metal in soil in rapid equilibrium (<7 days) with the soil solution. This is normally performed by equilibrating soil with a metal isotope, and sampling the labile metal pool by using an extraction (E value), or by growing plants (L value). For Cu, this procedure is problematic for E values, and impossible for L values, due to the short half-life of the 64Cu radioisotope (12.4 h), which makes access and handling very difficult. We therefore developed a technique using enriched 65Cu stable isotope and measurement of 63Cu/65Cu ratios by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure labile pools of Cu in soils using E value techniques. Mass spectral interferences in detection of 63Cu/65Cu ratios in soil extracts were found to be minimal. Isotope ratios determined by quadrupole ICP-MS compared well to those determined by high-resolution (magnetic sector) ICP-MS. E values determined using the stable isotope technique compared well to those determined using the radioisotope for both uncontaminated and Cu-contaminated soils.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.
1977-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.
Riek, A; Klinkert, A; Gerken, M; Hummel, J; Moors, E; Südekum, K-H
2013-03-01
Despite the fact that llamas have become increasingly popular as companion and farm animals in both Europe and North America, scientific knowledge on their nutrient requirements is scarce. Compared with other livestock species, relatively little is known especially about the nutrient and energy requirements for lactating llamas. Therefore, we aimed to measure milk output in llama dams using an isotope dilution technique and relate it to energy intakes at different stages of lactation. We also validated the dilution technique by measuring total water turnover (TWT) directly and comparing it with values estimated by the isotope dilution technique. Our study involved 5 lactating llama dams and their suckling young. Milk output and TWT were measured at 4 stages of lactation (wk 3, 10, 18, and 26 postpartum). The method involved the application of the stable hydrogen isotope deuterium ((2)H) to the lactating dam. Drinking water intake and TWT decreased significantly with lactation stage, whether estimated by the isotope dilution technique or calculated from drinking water and water ingested from feeds. In contrast, lactation stage had no effect on dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, or the milk water fraction (i.e., the ratio between milk water excreted and TWT). The ratios between TWT measured and TWT estimated (by isotope dilution) did not differ with lactation stage and were close to 100% in all measurement weeks, indicating that the D(2)O dilution technique estimated TWT with high accuracy and only small variations. Calculating the required ME intakes for lactation from milk output data and gross energy content of milk revealed that, with increasing lactation stage, ME requirements per day for lactation decreased but remained constant per kilogram of milk output. Total measured ME intakes at different stages of lactation were similar to calculated ME intakes from published recommendation models for llamas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.
1979-01-01
Experimental measurements were made of upwelled spectral signatures of various concentrations of industrial waste products mixed with water in a large water tank. Radiance and reflectance spectra for a biosolid waste product (sludge) mixed with conditioned tap water and natural river water are reported. Results of these experiments indicate that reflectance increases with increasing concentration of the sludge at practically all wavelengths for concentration of total suspended solids up to 117 ppm in conditioned tap water and 171 ppm in natural river water. Significant variations in the spectra were observed and may be useful in defining spectral characteristics for this waste product. No significant spectral differences were apparent in the reflectance spectra of the two experiments, especially for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance values, however, were generally greater in natural river water for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance may be considered to increase linearly with concentration of total suspended solids from 5 to 171 ppm at all wavelengths without introducing errors larger than 10 percent.
Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fishel, Laurence A.
2010-01-01
Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…
Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; ...
2015-03-17
Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determinemore » 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.« less
J.J. Horkley; K.P E.M. Gantz; J.E. Davis; R.R. Lewis; J.P. Crow; C.A. Poole; T.S. Grimes; J.J. Giglio
2015-03-01
t Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure ‘‘spike’’ solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for ‘‘age’’ determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution,
Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.
2015-03-17
Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eaton, John; Hwang, Wontae; Cabral, Patrick
2002-01-01
the addition of gravity as a variable parameter may help us to better understand the physics of turbulence attenuation. The experiments are conducted in a turbulence chamber capable of producing stationary or decaying isotropic turbulence with nearly zero mean flow and Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers up to nearly 500. The chamber is a 410 mm cubic box with the corners cut off to make it approximately spherical. Synthetic jet turbulence generators are mounted in each of the eight corners of the box. Each generator consists of a loudspeaker forcing a plenum and producing a pulsed jet through a 20 mm diameter orifice. These synthetic jets are directed into ejector tubes pointing towards the chamber center. The ejector tubes increase the jet mass flow and decrease the velocity. The jets then pass through a turbulence grid. Each of the eight loudspeakers is forced with a random phase and frequency. The resulting turbulence is highly Isotropic and matches typical behavior of grid turbulence. Measurements of both phases are acquired using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The gas is seeded with approximately 1 micron diameter seeding particles while the solid phase is typically 150 micron diameter spherical glass particles. A double-pulsed YAG laser and a Kodak ES-1.0 10-bit PIV camera provide the PIV images. Custom software is used to separate the images into individual images containing either gas-phase tracers or large particles. Modern high-resolution PIV algorithms are then used to calculate the velocity field. A large set of image pairs are acquired for each case, then the results are averaged both spatially and over the ensemble of acquired images. The entire apparatus is mounted in two racks which are carried aboard NASA's KC-135 Flying Microgravity Laboratory. The rack containing the turbulence chamber, the laser head, and the camera floats freely in the airplane cabin (constrained by competent NASA personnel) to minimize g-jitter.
Dalluge, J J; Hashizume, T; McCloskey, J A
1996-01-01
A method has been developed for the microscale determination of 5,6-dihydrouridine, the most common post-transcriptional modification in bacterial and eukaryotic tRNA. The method is based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) using [1,3-15N2]dihydrouridine and [1,3-15N2]uridine as internal standards. RNA samples were enzymatically digested to nucleosides before addition of the internal standards and subsequently analyzed by LC/MS with selected ion monitoring of protonated molecular ions of the labeled and unlabeled nucleosides. Sample quantities of approximately 1 pmol tRNA and 5 pmol 23S rRNA were analyzed for mole% dihydrouridine. Dihydrouridine content of Escherichia coli tRNASer(VGA) and tRNAThr(GGU) as controls were measured as 2.03 and 2.84 residues/tRNA molecule, representing accuracies of 98 and 95%. Overall precision values for the analyses of E. coli tRNASer(VGA) and E. coli tRNAThr(GGU), unfractionated tRNA from E. coli and 23S rRNA from E. coli were within the range 0.43-2.4%. The mole% dihydrouridine in unfractionated tRNA and 23S rRNA from E. coli were determined as 1.79 and 0.0396%, corresponding to 1.4 and 1.1 residues/RNA molecule respectively. PMID:8774907
Wang, Tianshu
2006-01-01
This study has developed a method for measuring the enthalpy of volatilization (Delta(vol)H) of a compound in a dilute solution via ion-molecule reactions and gas-phase analysis using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). The Delta(vol)H/R value was obtained using an equation with three variant forms either from the headspace concentration of the solution or from individual product ion(s). Under certain experimental conditions, the equation has the simplest form [formula: see text], where R is the gas constant (8.314 J . mol(-1) . K(-1)), i(n) and I are the respective product and precursor ion count rates, and T is the temperature of the solution. As an example, a series of 27.0 micromol/L aqueous solutions of acetone was analyzed over a temperature range of 25-50 degrees C at 5 degrees C intervals using H3O+, NO+ and O2+* precursor ions, producing a mean Delta(vol)H/R value of 4700 +/- 200 K. This corresponds with current literature values and supports the consistency of the new method. Notably, using this method, as long as the concentration of the solution falls into the range of Henry's law, the exact concentration does not have to be known and it can require only one sample at each temperature. Compared with previous methods which involve the measurement of Henry's law constant at each temperature, this method significantly reduces the number of samples required and avoids the labour and difficulties in preparing standard solutions at very low concentrations. Further to this, if the contents of a solution were unknown the measured Delta(vol)H/R from individual product ion(s) can help to identify the origin of the ion(s).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, K.; Bender, M. L.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Cassar, N.
2013-12-01
Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is one of the most important species in the ocean carbon system. An autonomous system using isotope dilution as its core method has been developed to obtain high-frequency measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in the surface ocean. This system accurately mixes a seawater sample and a 13C-labeled sodium bicarbonate solution (spike). The mixed solution is then acidified and sent through a gas permeable membrane contactor. CO2 derived from DIC in the mixture is extracted by a CO2-free gas stream, and is sent to a cavity ring-down spectrometer to analyze its 13C/12C ratio. [DIC] of the seawater can then be derived from the measured 13C/12C, the known mixing ratio and the [DI13C] of the spike. The method has been tested under a wide [DIC] range (1800-2800 μmol/kg) in the laboratory. It has also been deployed on a cruise that surveyed ocean waters to the south of Florida. At a sampling resolution of 4 minutes (15 samples per hour), the relative standard deviation of DIC determined from the laboratory tests and the field deployment is ×0.07% and ×0.09%, respectively. The accuracy of the method is better than 0.1% except where [DIC] varies faster than 5 μmol/kg per minute. Based on the laboratory and field evaluations, we conclude that this method can provide accurate underway [DIC] measurements at high resolution in most oceanic regions. Schematic illustration of the work flow.
Hogan, D L; Turken, D; Stern, A I; Isenberg, J I
1983-11-01
Two in vivo methods that permit quantitation of gastric acid secretion immediately after the meal are currently in use: intragastric titration and the serial dilution indicator method. During intragastric titration, intragastric pH is artificially maintained at 5.5 to 7 by the continuous addition of alkali to the gastric contents, while during serial dilution the intragastric pH is permitted to seek its natural pH. This study compared gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin in response to a liquid protein meal measured by both techniques in 10 subjects. Mean (+/- SE) 3-hr acid outputs were almost identical (53.6 +/- 6.0 mmol/3 hr with intragastric titration and 52.0 +/- 8.5 mmol/3 hr with serial dilution indicator). Furthermore, 30 min secretory responses in individual subjects were highly correlated (r = 0.98 +/- 0.01, P less than 0.001). Also, in spite of intragastric pH being less than 1.5 by 90 min after the meal during the serial dilution method, total integrated serum gastrin concentrations after the meal were similar (intragastric titration = 20.6 +/- 7.3 ng min/ml versus serial dilution indicator = 23.5 +/- 9.8 ng min/ml) and individual 30-min gastrins during the two separate tests were highly correlated (r = 0.80 +/- 0.06, P less than 0.01). It is concluded that both meal-stimulated gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin concentrations as measured by intragastric titration and by the serial dilution indicator method produced similar results.
Vasu, Subith S.; Pryor, Owen; Barak, Samuel; ...
2017-03-12
Common definitions for ignition delay time are often hard to determine due to the issue of bifurcation and other non-idealities that result from high levels of CO2 addition. Using high-speed camera imagery in comparison with more standard methods (e.g., pressure, emission, and laser absorption spectroscopy) to measure the ignition delay time, the effect of bifurcation has been examined in this study. Experiments were performed at pressures between 0.6 and 1.2 atm for temperatures between 1650 and 2040 K. The equivalence ratio for all experiments was kept at a constant value of 1 with methane as the fuel. The CO2 molemore » fraction was varied between a value of XCO2 = 0.00 to 0.895. The ignition delay time was determined from three different measurements at the sidewall: broadband chemiluminescent emission captured via a photodetector, CH4 concentrations determined using a distributed feedback interband cascade laser centered at 3403.4 nm, and pressure recorded via a dynamic Kistler type transducer. All methods for the ignition delay time were compared to high-speed camera images taken of the axial cross-section during combustion. Methane time-histories and the methane decay times were also measured using the laser. It was determined that the flame could be correlated to the ignition delay time measured at the side wall but that the flame as captured by the camera was not homogeneous as assumed in typical shock tube experiments. The bifurcation of the shock wave resulted in smaller flames with large boundary layers and that the flame could be as small as 30% of the cross-sectional area of the shock tube at the highest levels of CO2 dilution. Here, comparisons between the camera images and the different ignition delay time methods show that care must be taken in interpreting traditional ignition delay data for experiments with large bifurcation effects as different methods in measuring the ignition delay time could result in different interpretations of kinetic
Stepanauskas, R.; Davidsson, E. T.; Leonardson, L.
1996-01-01
The effect of water infiltration rate (IR) on nitrogen cycling in a saturated wetland soil was investigated by applying a (sup15)N isotope dilution and pairing method. Water containing [(sup15)N]nitrate was infiltrated through 10-cm-long cores of sieved and homogenized soil at rates of 72, 168, 267, and 638 mm day(sup-1). Then the frequencies of (sup30)N(inf2), (sup29)N(inf2), (sup15)NO(inf3)(sup-), and (sup15)NH(inf4)(sup+) in the outflow water were measured. This method allowed simultaneous determination of nitrification, coupled and uncoupled denitrification, and nitrate assimilation rates. From 3% (at the highest IR) to 95% (at the lowest IR) of nitrate was removed from the water, mainly by denitrification. The nitrate removal was compensated for by the net release of ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen. Lower oxygen concentrations in the soil at lower IRs led to a sharper decrease in the nitrification rate than in the ammonification rate, and, consequently, more ammonium leaked from the soil. The decreasing organic-carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (from 12.8 to 5.1) and the increasing light A(inf250)/A(inf365) ratio (from 4.5 to 5.2) indicated an increasing bioavailability of the outflowing dissolved organic matter with increasing IR. The efflux of nitrous oxide was also very sensitive to IR and increased severalfold when a zone of low oxygen concentration was close to the outlet of the soil cores. N(inf2)O then constituted 8% of the total gaseous N lost from the soil. PMID:16535352
Coertjens, Patrícia Chaves; Knorst, Marli Maria; Dumke, Anelise; Pasqualoto, Adriane Schmidt; Riboldi, João; Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha Menna
2013-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To compare TLC and RV values obtained by the single-breath helium dilution (SBHD) method with those obtained by whole-body plethysmography (WBP) in patients with normal lung function, patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD), and patients with restrictive lung disease (RLD), varying in severity, and to devise equations to estimate the SBHD results. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 169 individuals, of whom 93 and 49 presented with OLD and RLD, respectively, the remaining 27 having normal lung function. All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume measurement by both methods. RESULTS: TLC and RV were higher by WBP than by SBHD. The discrepancy between the methods was more pronounced in the OLD group, correlating with the severity of airflow obstruction. In the OLD group, the correlation coefficient of the comparison between the two methods was 0.57 and 0.56 for TLC and RV, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). We used regression equations, adjusted for the groups studied, in order to predict the WBP values of TLC and RV, using the corresponding SBHD values. It was possible to create regression equations to predict differences in TLC and RV between the two methods only for the OLD group. The TLC and RV equations were, respectively, ∆TLCWBP-SBHD in L = 5.264 − 0.060 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.33; adjusted r2 = 0.32) and ∆RVWBP-SBHD in L = 4.862 − 0.055 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.31; adjusted r2 = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: The correction of TLC and RV results obtained by SBHD can improve the accuracy of this method for assessing lung volumes in patients with OLD. However, additional studies are needed in order to validate these equations. PMID:24473761
It has been fifty years since Kirkham and Bartholmew (1954) presented the conceptual framework and derived the mathematical equations that formed the basis of the now commonly employed method of 15N isotope dilution. Although many advances in methodology and analysis have been ma...
Students' Conception of Infinite Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinez-Planell, Rafael; Gonzalez, Ana Carmen; DiCristina, Gladys; Acevedo, Vanessa
2012-01-01
This is a report of a study of students' understanding of infinite series. It has a three-fold purpose: to show that students may construct two essentially different notions of infinite series, to show that one of the constructions is particularly difficult for students, and to examine the way in which these two different constructions may be…
Infinitely variable steering transmission
Reed, B.O.
1989-04-04
A steering transmission is described comprising: first and second drive units each driven at a substantially constant speed for producing respective first and second unidirectional, continuous outputs infinitely variable between a minimum speed and a maximum speed; a first output planetary gear drivingly connected to a first transmission output; a second output planetary gear set drivingly connected to a second transmission output; an input gear set; means interconnecting the first and second output planetary gear sets; means connecting the first drive unit to the first output planetary gear set; means applying the second drive unit output to the second output planetary gear set; means applying a substantially constant speed input to the input gear set; means for selectively conditioning the input gear set to drive the one output planetary gear set at a speed having a first predetermined fixed ratio to the constant speed input, whereby to operate the transmission in one speed range; and means for selectively applying the first drive unit output to second output planetary gear set, whereby to operate the transmission in another speed range different from the one speed range.
Infinitely Large New Dimensions
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia; Kaloper, Nemanja
1999-07-29
We construct intersecting brane configurations in Anti-de-Sitter space localizing gravity to the intersection region, with any number n of extra dimensions. This allows us to construct two kinds of theories with infinitely large new dimensions, TeV scale quantum gravity and sub-millimeter deviations from Newton's Law. The effective 4D Planck scale M{sub Pl} is determined in terms of the fundamental Planck scale M{sub *} and the AdS radius of curvature L via the familiar relation M{sub Pl}{sup 2} {approx} M{sub *}{sup 2+n} L{sup n}; L acts as an effective radius of compactification for gravity on the intersection. Taking M{sub *} {approx} TeV and L {approx} sub-mm reproduces the phenomenology of theories with large extra dimensions. Alternately, taking M{sub *} {approx} L{sup -1} {approx} M{sub Pl}, and placing our 3-brane a distance {approx} 100M{sub Pl}{sup -1} away from the intersection gives us a theory with an exponential determination of the Weak/Planck hierarchy.
Field-based measurements of gross N2O production in soils using a 15N2O pool dilution technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, W. H.; Teh, Y.; Silver, W. L.
2011-12-01
Soils are a major source and sink of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas and catalyst for stratospheric ozone depletion. The controls on soil N2O emissions are poorly understood due to the difficulty in measuring gross N2O production and consumption rates. We tested a 15N2O pool dilution technique for simultaneously measuring gross N2O production and consumption rates from soils in the field. Our study site was a managed grassland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta that exhibited high N2O emissions, averaging 6.4 ± 2.6 mg N m-2 d-1. In the laboratory, gross N2O production and consumption compared well between the 15N2O pool dilution and acetylene inhibition methods whereas the 15NO3- tracer method measured significantly higher rates. In the field, N2O emissions were not significantly affected by increasing chamber headspace concentrations up to 100 ppb 15N2O. The pool dilution model estimates of 14N2O and 15N¬2O concentrations as well as net N2O fluxes fit observed data very well, suggesting that the technique yielded robust estimates of gross N2O production. Gross N2O production rates averaged 8.4 ± 3.2 mg N m-2 d-1 and were most strongly correlated to mineral N concentrations and denitrifying enzyme activity together (R2 = 0.73). Gross N2O consumption rates estimated using the pool dilution technique were 55 ± 1 % less than rates calculated as the difference between gross N2O production rates and net N2O fluxes, possibly due to heterogeneous and/or inadequate 15N2O tracer diffusion to deeper layers in the soil profile. Estimated and calculated gross N2O consumption rates constrained the proportion of produced N2O released to the atmosphere (termed the N2O yield) from 0.70 to 0.84. Gross N2O consumption rates and N2O yields were not strongly correlated to any soil property measured (i.e., soil moisture, pH, DEA, mineral N concentration, soil O2 concentration). Our study demonstrates that the 15N2O pool dilution technique is a valuable tool for
Wilson, P W; Haymet, A D J
2010-10-07
Workman-Reynolds freezing potentials have been measured across the interface between ice and dilute NaCl solutions as a function of ice growth rate for three salt concentrations. Growth rates of up to 40 μm·s(-1) are used, and it is found that the measured voltage peaks at rates of ∼25 μm·s(-1). Our initial results indicate that the freezing potential can be used as a probe into various aspects of the DC electrical resistance of ice as a function of variables such as salt concentration.
Surface layering effect of diluted Intralipid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foschum, F.; Bodenschatz, N.; Krauter, P.; Nothelfer, S.; Liemert, A.; Simon, E.; Kröner, S.; Kienle, A.
2015-07-01
In this study the formation of a surface layer on top of an Intralipid dilution was studied. By use of spatial frequency reflectance and spatially resolved reflectance the surface layer could be characterized. The influence on the determination of the optical properties assuming a semi-infinite medium in the theory was investigated. By use of an angularly resolved reflectance device the formation even on a horizontally orientated glass slide could be shown.
Science Notes: Dilution of a Weak Acid
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Talbot, Christopher; Wai, Chooi Khee
2014-01-01
This "Science note" arose out of practical work involving the dilution of ethanoic acid, the measurement of the pH of the diluted solutions and calculation of the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], for each diluted solution. The students expected the calculated values of K[subscript a] to be constant but they found that the…
Satterfield, Mary B; Lippa, Katrice; Lu, Z Q; Salit, Marc L
2008-01-01
To investigate scanner performance and guide development of an instrument qualification method, slides with replicates of successive dilutions of cyanine 5 (Cy5) and cyanine 3 (Cy3) dyes (referred to as dye slides) were scanned. The successive dilutions form a dose-response curve from which performance can be assessed. The effects of a variety of factors, including the number of scans and slide storage conditions, on scanner performance over a five-week period were investigated and tracked with time series charts of dye signal intensity, signal-to-noise (S/N), signal background, slope, and limit of detection (LOD). Scanner drift was tracked with a known stable reference material, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2242. The greatest effect on the figures of merit was the dye, with the Cy5 dye showing signs of degradation after one week of scanning independent of all other factors while the Cy3 dye remained relatively stable. Use of the charts to track scanner performance over time holds promise for development of a method for microarray scanner performance qualification. Although not a prescription for performance qualification, this introductory study provides sufficient information regarding the use of dye slides to enable the user to institute a preliminary test method.
Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.
1983-01-01
Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…
Infinite swapping in curved spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curotto, E.; Mella, Massimo
2014-01-01
We develop an extension of the infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping techniques [N. Plattner, J. D. Doll, P. Dupuis, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. E. Gubernatis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134111 (2011)] to curved spaces. Furthermore, we test the performance of infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping in a series of flat spaces characterized by the same potential energy surface model. We develop a second order variational algorithm for general curved spaces without the extended Lagrangian formalism to include holonomic constraints. We test the new methods by carrying out NVT classical ensemble simulations on a set of multidimensional toroids mapped by stereographic projections and characterized by a potential energy surface built from a linear combination of decoupled double wells shaped purposely to create rare events over a range of temperatures.
Infinite swapping in curved spaces.
Curotto, E; Mella, Massimo
2014-01-07
We develop an extension of the infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping techniques [N. Plattner, J. D. Doll, P. Dupuis, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. E. Gubernatis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134111 (2011)] to curved spaces. Furthermore, we test the performance of infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping in a series of flat spaces characterized by the same potential energy surface model. We develop a second order variational algorithm for general curved spaces without the extended Lagrangian formalism to include holonomic constraints. We test the new methods by carrying out NVT classical ensemble simulations on a set of multidimensional toroids mapped by stereographic projections and characterized by a potential energy surface built from a linear combination of decoupled double wells shaped purposely to create rare events over a range of temperatures.
Raman measurements of dilute nitride alloys GaP(As)N grown on GaP substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarenko, A.; Pirogov, E.; Sobolev, M.; Bukatin, A.; Nikitina, E.
2016-08-01
The structural properties of GaP(As)N dilute nitrides alloys grown on GaP substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy are investigated. The samples were studied by Raman scattering and high-resolution X-ray diffraction. In this work the impact of lattice mismatch of GaP(As)N layer and GaP substrate on the form of the spectrum of Raman scattering of samples was detected. It was shown that the addition of arsenic in solid solution GaPAsN can compensate the elastic stresses in the crystal lattice, and we can estimate the lattice mismatch between epitaxial layer GaP(As)N and GaP substrate by the intensity ratio of LOX/TOr phonon peaks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jingyu; Gao, Wenbin; Ding, Hongbing; Wu, Weiping
2015-11-01
The gas-solid two-phase flow has been widely applied in the power, chemical and metallurgical industries. It is of great significance in the research of gas-solid two-phase flow to measure particle velocity at different locations in the pipeline. Thus, an electrostatic sensor array comprising eight arc-shaped electrodes was designed. The relationship between the cross-correlation (CC) velocity and the distribution of particle velocity, charge density and electrode spatial sensitivity was analysed. Then the CC sensitivity and its calculation method were proposed. According to the distribution of CC sensitivity, it was found that, between different electrode pairs, it had different focus areas. The CC focus method was proposed for particle velocity measurement at different locations and validated by a belt-style electrostatic induction experiment facility. Finally, the particle velocities at different locations with different flow conditions were measured to research the particle velocity distribution in a dilute horizontal pneumatic conveying pipeline.
Prendergast, Jocelyn L; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Welch, Michael J; Phinney, Karen W
2010-07-01
The definitive method (DM), now known as the reference measurement procedure (RMP), for the analysis of glucose in serum was originally published in 1982 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Over the years the method has been subject to a number of modifications to adapt to newer technologies and simplify sample preparation. We discuss here an adaptation of the method associated with serum glucose measurements using a modified isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) method. NIST has used this modified method to certify the concentrations of glucose in SRM 965b, Glucose in Frozen Human Serum, and SRM 1950, Metabolites in Human Plasma. Comparison of results from the revised method with certified values for existing Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) demonstrated that these modifications have not affected the quality of the measurements, giving both good precision and accuracy, while reducing the sample preparation time by a day and a half.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kamin, Lawrence
1996-01-01
Presents problems appropriate for high school and college students that highlight dilution methods. Promotes an understanding of dilution methods in order to prevent the unnecessary waste of chemicals and glassware in biology laboratories. (JRH)
Serial Dilution Simulation Lab
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna
2010-01-01
Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.
Decoherence in infinite quantum systems
Blanchard, Philippe; Hellmich, Mario
2012-09-01
We review and discuss a notion of decoherence formulated in the algebraic framework of quantum physics. Besides presenting some sufficient conditions for the appearance of decoherence in the case of Markovian time evolutions we provide an overview over possible decoherence scenarios. The framework for decoherence we establish is sufficiently general to accommodate quantum systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom.
2007-06-01
and heart rate measured by the transducer were transmitted continuously to a receiver plate (wirelessly), and were displayed and recorded by a...applicators away from the wound until the bleeding stopped. The bleeding times from the injury sites were recorded and averaged for each measurement. Blood...loss from these injuries was negligible (1 mL). A 10-minute stabilization period was allowed and baseline blood pressure data recorded . A stable mean
Grolier, Jean-Pierre E; del Río, Jose Manuel
2009-12-09
We have performed a detailed study of the thermodynamics of the titration process in an isothermal titration calorimeter with full cells. We show that the relationship between the enthalpy and the heat measured is better described in terms of the equation Delta H = W(inj) + Q (where W(inj) is the work necessary to carry out the titration) than in terms of DeltaH = Q. Moreover, we show that the heat of interaction between two components is related to the partial enthalpy of interaction at infinite dilution of the titrant component, as well as to its partial volume of interaction at infinite dilution.
Grolier, Jean-Pierre E.; del Río, Jose Manuel
2009-01-01
We have performed a detailed study of the thermodynamics of the titration process in an isothermal titration calorimeter with full cells. We show that the relationship between the enthalpy and the heat measured is better described in terms of the equation Δ H = Winj + Q (where Winj is the work necessary to carry out the titration) than in terms of ΔH = Q. Moreover, we show that the heat of interaction between two components is related to the partial enthalpy of interaction at infinite dilution of the titrant component, as well as to its partial volume of interaction at infinite dilution. PMID:20054472
Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.
Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E
2014-01-07
Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2).
An Infinite Restricted Boltzmann Machine.
Côté, Marc-Alexandre; Larochelle, Hugo
2016-07-01
We present a mathematical construction for the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) that does not require specifying the number of hidden units. In fact, the hidden layer size is adaptive and can grow during training. This is obtained by first extending the RBM to be sensitive to the ordering of its hidden units. Then, with a carefully chosen definition of the energy function, we show that the limit of infinitely many hidden units is well defined. As with RBM, approximate maximum likelihood training can be performed, resulting in an algorithm that naturally and adaptively adds trained hidden units during learning. We empirically study the behavior of this infinite RBM, showing that its performance is competitive to that of the RBM, while not requiring the tuning of a hidden layer size.
Chatterjee, Barun Kumar
2014-04-01
The major objection to homeopathic medicine is that the doses of medicine prescribed in some cases are too dilute for any active ingredient to be present. The medicines would hence be rendered inactive, necessitating novel explanations for the action. A further examination of dilution in the light of the Langmuir equation shows that homeopathic medicines may not be as dilute as a simplistic application of Avogadro's Principle suggests, due to surface effects.
Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Valencia, Mauro E.
2017-01-01
In Mexico, infants (0–2 years old) show the highest prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), measured by serum retinol concentrations. Thus, we consider that low vitamin A (VA) intake through breast milk (BM) combined with poor weaning practices are the main factors that contribute to VAD in this group. We combined the assessment of VA status in lactating women using BM retinol and a stable isotope ‘dose-to-mother’ technique to measure BM production in women from urban and agricultural areas. Infants’ mean BM intake was 758 ± 185 mL, and no difference was observed between both areas (p = 0.067). Mean BM retinol concentration was 1.09 μmol/L, which was significantly lower for the agricultural area (p = 0.028). Based on BM retinol concentration, 57% of women were VAD; although this prevalence fell to 16% when based on fat content. Regardless of the VA biomarker used here, infants from the urban and agricultural areas cover only 66% and 49% of their dietary adequate intake from BM, respectively (p = 0.054). Our data indicate that VAD is still a public health concern in Mexico. Adopting both methods to assess VA transfer from the mother to the breastfed child offers an innovative approach towards the nutritional assessment of vulnerable groups. PMID:28230781
Liu, Hong; Wong, Lingkai; Yong, Sharon; Liu, Qinde; Lee, Tong Kooi
2015-10-01
The development of reference measurement methods for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is important for quality assurance in diabetes management. The IFCC reference method using purified proteins as calibration standards is the recommended accuracy-based reference method for the standardization of HbA1c measurement. We developed a highly precise and accurate liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS) procedure, which can serve as an alternative accuracy-based method for HbA1c measurement. In this method, enzymatic proteolysis was applied to sample preparation, followed by LC-IDMS/MS measurement of hemoglobin A0 (HbA0) and HbA1c, using two "signature" hexapeptides for calibration. The concentrations of the signature hexapeptide calibration solutions were, in turn, determined using a hydrolysis method with HCl, followed by LC-IDMS/MS measurement using amino acid solutions as calibration standards. These solutions were gravimetrically prepared from pure amino acid certified reference materials (CRMs). The developed LC-IDMS/MS method was used in participation in an IFCC ring trial for reference laboratories (RELA 2013 and 2014) for HbA1c, where our results were compared with those using the IFCC reference method. The deviations were found to be 0.4-1.7 mmol mol(-1) [or 0.04-0.16% in National Glygohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) units], revealing good comparability with the IFCC reference method. The relative expanded uncertainty of the LC-IDMS/MS was in the range of 2.6% to 2.8% (1.6% to 2.2% after converting to NGSP units). With excellent method precision, good comparability with the IFCC reference method, and a small measurement uncertainty, the developed LC-IDMS/MS method may be used as an alternative accuracy-based reference method for HbA1c measurement.
Jaruga, Pawel; Xiao, Yan; Nelson, Bryant C.; Dizdaroglu, Miral
2009-09-04
Oxidatively induced DNA lesions (5'R)- and (5'S)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosines (R-cdA and S-cdA) are detectable and accumulate in vivo due to disease states and defects in DNA repair. They block transcription and inhibit gene expression, and may play a role in disease processes. Accurate measurement of these lesions in DNA in vivo is necessary to understand their biological effects. We report on a methodology using liquid chromatography/isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry to measure R-cdA and S-cdA in DNA. This methodology permitted the detection of these compounds at a level of 0.1 fmol on-column. Levels of R-cdA and S-cdA in mouse liver DNA amounted to 0.133 {+-} 0.024 and 0.498 {+-} 0.065 molecules/10{sup 7} DNA 2'-deoxynucleosides, respectively. The successful measurement of R-cdA and S-cdA in DNA in vivo suggests that this methodology will be used for understanding of their repair and biological consequences, and that these compounds may be used as putative biomarkers for disease states.
Doveil, F.; Lejeune, A.; Chérigier-Kovacic, L.
2013-05-15
The interaction between a metastable H(2s) atomic hydrogen beam and an external electric field leads to the emission of the Lyman-α line. It originates in the Stark mixing of the near-degenerate 2s{sub 1/2} and 2p{sub 1/2} levels separated by the Lamb shift. The quenched radiation proportional to the square of the electric field amplitude is recovered in vacuum by using such an atomic probe beam. For larger electric field, saturation is observed and related to the beam finite transit time. We also observe the strong enhancement of the signal when the field is oscillating at the Lamb shift frequency. This technique is applied in a plasma, offering an alternative way to measure weak electric fields by direct and non-intrusive means.
Teleportation schemes in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces
Fichtner, Karl-Heinz; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori
2005-10-01
The success of quantum mechanics is due to the discovery that nature is described in infinite dimension Hilbert spaces, so that it is desirable to demonstrate the quantum teleportation process in a certain infinite dimensional Hilbert space. We describe the teleportation process in an infinite dimensional Hilbert space by giving simple examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sen, S.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Peters, P.; Curreri, P.; Kaukler, W. F.
1998-01-01
The solid/liquid (s/1) interfacial Seebeck technique was used to measure interfacial undercooling in a Pb-1 wt.% Sn alloy. For plane front solidification an undercooling in the range of 0.54-0.57C was recorded. However, for growth velocities between 6 to 15 micron/s the undercooling, increased with increase in velocity. 'Tbis is in contradiction to the theoretical predictions based on growth at the extremum condition. A modified analytical expression was developed based on the maro,,inal stability criterion to predict undercooling for growth velocities immediately over the limit of morphological stability. Between 6 to 15 microns/s the trend predicted by this modified expression is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. This model is more consistent with the analysis of Venugopal and Kirkaldy which states that the extremum condition criterion is not applicable in the marginal stability regime. At higher growth velocities between 20 and 50 microns/s where stable cellular growth is expected the undercooling, decreased with increase in velocity. The predictions of Burden and Hunt based on extremum criterion agree reasonably well with the experimental results in this velocity range. Finally, the importance of non-equilibrium phase diagram parameters such as partition coefficient and liquidus slope were also evaluated using the experimental undercooling results obtained in this investigation.
Kurnaz, M.L.; Maher, J.V.
1997-01-01
Colloidal suspensions of charge-stabilized polystyrene latex spheres in near-critical mixtures of 2,6-lutidine and water aggregate reversibly on the side of the coexistence curve rich in the nonpreferred liquid. We have used static light scattering and a Zimm analysis to determine the second virial coefficient B{sub 2} for this system. Measurements were made as a function of temperature for different solvent compositions. On the aggregation side of the coexistence curve, as the temperature is brought near but not into the aggregation zone, the virial coefficient plunges through zero to large, negative values. On the nonaggregating side of the coexistence curve, the virial coefficient drops to a small negative value very close to coexistence. On the critical trajectory we have observed similar behavior of the virial coefficient to that seen on the aggregating side even though aggregation does not occur on this thermodynamic trajectory. We have also used lower surface charge density particles where the aggregation occurs on the opposite side of the coexistence curve. The results are similar to those just described for the high surface charge density particles. The combined evidence points to a gradual and continuous change in solvent fluctuation-colloidal particle interaction near the solvent coexistence curve, as solvent composition is varied through the critical composition. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, Nicholas; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán
2014-11-01
The wake of a wind was investigated experimentally through stereo-PIV measurements made in planes parallel to the rotor. Phase-locked data were collected at four angles of rotor orientation beginning from one blade at top-dead-center. The phase angle of the turbine rotor was measured with a remote optical sensor detecting a reflective portion of the rotor blades. Measurements in the wind turbine array include turbulent effects and mixing from leading devices, making phase dependence in turbulent structures difficult to detect for small differences in phase angle of the turbine rotor. Analysis of the flow field from a polar-cylindrical reference frame (r, θ,x) with the axial coordinate aligned with the hub of the rotor highlights differences in the Reynolds stress tensor not evident in the Cartesian frame. The axial normal stress becomes independent of the phase angle of the rotor for x/D >= 1.5. Stresses including the radial and azimuthal velocity fluctuations retain phase dependence throughout the near wake of the turbine. Deterministic stresses are approximately two orders of magnitude smaller than the turbulent stresses indicating that they can be neglected at first order. The flux of kinetic energy and production of turbulence composed with phase-locked turbulent stresses make periodic contributions to the time-averaged values.
Gokarn, Yatin R; Fesinmeyer, R Matthew; Saluja, Atul; Razinkov, Vladimir; Chase, Susan F; Laue, Thomas M; Brems, David N
2011-01-01
Specific-ion effects are ubiquitous in nature; however, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Although Hofmeister-ion effects on proteins are observed at higher (>0.3M) salt concentrations, in dilute (<0.1M) salt solutions nonspecific electrostatic screening is considered to be dominant. Here, using effective charge (Q*) measurements of hen-egg white lysozyme (HEWL) as a direct and differential measure of ion-association, we experimentally show that anions selectively and preferentially accumulate at the protein surface even at low (<100 mM) salt concentrations. At a given ion normality (50 mN), the HEWL Q* was dependent on anion, but not cation (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, GdnH+, and Ca2+), identity. The Q* decreased in the order F− > Cl− > Br− > NO3− ∼ I− > SCN− > ClO4− ≫ SO42−, demonstrating progressively greater binding of the monovalent anions to HEWL and also show that the SO42− anion, despite being strongly hydrated, interacts directly with the HEWL surface. Under our experimental conditions, we observe a remarkable asymmetry between anions and cations in their interactions with the HEWL surface. PMID:21432935
Counting Multiplicity over Infinite Alphabets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manuel, Amaldev; Ramanujam, R.
In the theory of automata over infinite alphabets, a central difficulty is that of finding a suitable compromise between expressiveness and algorithmic complexity. We propose an automaton model where we count the multiplicity of data values on an input word. This is particularly useful when such languages represent behaviour of systems with unboundedly many processes, where system states carry such counts as summaries. A typical recognizable language is: “every process does at most k actions labelled a”. We show that emptiness is elementarily decidable, by reduction to the covering problem on Petri nets.
McDonald, Jeffrey G; Hites, Ronald A
2003-02-01
Toxaphene was a highly chlorinated pesticide that was used in the United States from the 1950s until its restriction and ban in the 1980s. It was primarily used on cotton in the southern United States, and perhaps as a result, toxaphene is found in high concentrations in the southern United States. Toxaphene has also been detected at remote locations, such as in the high Canadian Arctic. However, these and other studies focused on selected regions of the United States and Canada, which only allowed for a limited interpretation of these data. We report here the concentrations of toxaphene measured in 46 tree bark samples collected in the United States and Canada. Concentrations were found to be greatest in the Mississippi River Valley along the borders of southern Missouri and Arkansas. We created a simple model based on radial dilution from a central location in the south central United States to describe toxaphene concentrations in tree bark and in air throughout the United States and Canada. The toxaphene concentrations were successfully described by this inverse square distance model. A bark-atmosphere partition coefficient for toxaphene was also calculated that was similar to literature-derived octanol-air partition coefficients. High concentrations of toxaphene still exist in areas where it was heavily used but decline rapidly with distance.
Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )
1990-08-01
This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.
Shen, Chuan-Chou; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Moran, S Bradley; Edmonds, Henrietta N; Hoff, John A; Thomas, Rebecca B
2003-03-01
A technique has been developed to quantify ultratrace 231Pa (50-2000 ag; 1 ag = 10(-18) g) concentrations in seawater using isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). The method is a modification of a process developed by Pickett et al. (Pickett, D. A.; Murrell, M. T.; Williams, R. W. Anal. Chem. 1994, 66, 1044-1049) and extends the technique to very low levels of protactinium. The procedural blank is 16 +/- 15 ag (2sigma), and the ionization efficiency (ions generated/atom loaded) approaches 0.5%. Measurement time is <1 h. The amount of 231Pa needed to produce 231Pa data with an uncertainty of +/-4-12% is 100-1000 ag (approximately 3 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(6) atoms). Replicate measurements made on known standards and seawater samples demonstrate that the analytical precision approximates that expected from counting statistics and that, based on detection limits of 38 and 49 ag, protactinium can be detected in a minimum sample size of surface seawater of approximately 2 L for suspended particulate matter and <0.1 L for filtered (<0.4 microm) seawater, respectively. The concentration of 231Pa (tens of attograms per liter) can be determined with an uncertainty of +/-5-10% (2sigma) for suspended particulate matter filtered from 5 to 10 L of seawater. For the dissolved fraction, 0.5-1 L of seawater yields 231Pa measurements with a precision of 1-10%. Sample size requirements are orders of magnitude less than traditional decay-counting techniques and significantly less than previously reported ICP-MS techniques. Our technique can also be applied to other environmental samples, including cave waters, rivers, and igneous rocks.
Dilution and the elusive baseline.
Likens, Gene E; Buso, Donald C
2012-04-17
Knowledge of baseline conditions is critical for evaluating quantitatively the effect of human activities on environmental conditions, such as the impact of acid deposition. Efforts to restore ecosystems to prior, "pristine" condition require restoration targets, often based on some presumed or unknown baseline condition. Here, we show that rapid and relentless dilution of surface water chemistry is occurring in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, following decades of acid deposition. Extrapolating measured linear trends using a unique data set of up to 47 years, suggest that both precipitation and streamwater chemistry (r(2) >0.84 since 1985) in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) will approximate demineralized water within one to three decades. Because such dilute chemistry is unrealistic for surface waters, theoretical baseline compositions have been calculated for precipitation and streamwater: electrical conductivity of 3 and 5 μS/cm, base cation concentrations of 7 and 39 μeq/liter, acid-neutralizing capacity values of <1 and 14 μeq/liter, respectively; and pH 5.5 for both. Significantly large and rapid dilution of surface waters to values even more dilute than proposed for Pre-Industrial Revolution (PIR) conditions has important ecological, biogeochemical and water resource management implications, such as for the success of early reproductive stages of aquatic organisms.
Sun, Guohui; Zhao, Lijiao; Fan, Tengjiao; Ren, Ting; Zhong, Rugang
2016-10-15
The repair of DNA mediated by O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) provides protection against DNA damage from endogenous or exogenous alkylation of the O(6) position of guanine. However, this repair acts as a double-edged sword in cancer treatment, as it not only protects normal cells from chemotherapy-associated toxicities, but also results in cancer cell resistance to guanine O(6)-alkylating antitumour agents. Thus, AGT plays an important role in predicting the individual susceptibility to guanine O(6)-alkylating carcinogens and chemotherapies. Accordingly, it is necessary to establish a quantitative method for determining AGT activity with high accuracy, sensitivity and practicality. Here, we describe a novel nonradioactive method for measuring AGT activity using stable isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). This method is based on the irreversibility of the removal of the O(6)-alkyl group from guanine by AGT and on the high affinity of O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BG) as an AGT substrate. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was used to measure the AGT activities in cell protein extracts from eight tumour lines, demonstrating that AGT activity was quite variable among different cell lines, ranging from nondetectable to 1021 fmol/mg protein. The experiments performed in intact tumour cells yielded similar results but exhibited slightly higher activities than those observed in cell protein extracts. The accuracy of this method was confirmed by an examination of AGT expression levels using western blotting analysis. To our knowledge, this method is the first mass spectrometry-based AGT activity assay, and will likely provide assistance in the screening of cancer risk or the application of chemotherapies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Patience C.; Palmer, Donald A.
1997-08-01
The limiting molar conductances ( Λ0) and ion association constants of dilute (<0.01 mol · kg -1) aqueous potassium chloride and hydroxide solutions were determined by electrical conductance measurements from 200 to 600°C and from 100 to 600°C, respectively, and pressures up to 300 MPa. The limiting molar conductances of KOH (aq) increase with increasing temperature up to 300°C and decreasing density. Above 400°C and densities between 0.8 and 0.4 g · cm -3 for KCl (aq) and between 0.8 and 0.6 g· cm -3 for KOH (aq), Λ0 is nearly temperature-independent but increases linearly with decreasing density. The molal ion association constants ( KA(m)) for both KCl (aq) and KOH (aq) increase with increasing temperature and decreasing solution density. At corresponding temperatures and densities, ion association of KCl (aq) is similar in extent to NaCl (aq), whereas for KOH (aq) the values are slightly lower than for NaOH (aq). The log KA(m) values for KCl (aq) and KOH( aq) were calculated using the Shedlovsky equation exclusively from data obtained at temperatures ≥400°C and can be represented as functions of temperature ( T, Kelvin) and the logarithm of water density ( ϱw, g · cm -3) as follows: log K A(m)(KCI) = 0.753 100.21/T - (10.316 - 3598.9/T) log φ w and log K A(m)(KOH) = 10183 - 132.61/T - (13.002 - 621.8/T) logφ w These expressions apply strictly at ϱw ≥ 0.4 g · cm -3 where the measurements are most precise.
Van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien A; West, Clive E; van Breemen, Richard B; Zhu, Dongwei; Siebelink, Els; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M; van Lieshout, Machteld; Russel, Frans G M; Schaafsma, Gertjan; Naber, Ton H J
2009-06-01
Data on the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in food are inconsistent. We quantified the vitamin A equivalency (microg) of beta-carotene in two diets using the dual-isotope dilution technique and the oral-faecal balance technique. A diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study was conducted in twenty-four healthy adults. Each subject followed two diets for 3 weeks each: a diet containing vegetables low in beta-carotene with supplemental beta-carotene in salad dressing oil ('oil diet') and a diet containing vegetables and fruits high in beta-carotene ('mixed diet'). During all 6 weeks, each subject daily consumed a mean of 55 (sd 0.5) microg [13C10]beta-carotene and 55 (sd 0.5) microg [13C10]retinyl palmitate in oil capsules. The vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene was calculated as the dose-corrected ratio of [13C5]retinol to [13C10]retinol in serum and from apparent absorption by oral-faecal balance. Isotopic data quantified a vitamin A equivalency of [13C10]beta-carotene in oil of 3.4 microg (95 % CI 2.8, 3.9), thus the bio-efficacy of the beta-carotene in oil was 28 % in the presence of both diets. However, data from oral-faecal balance estimated vitamin A equivalency as 6:1 microg (95 % CI 4, 7) for beta-carotene in the 'oil diet'. beta-Carotene in the 'oil diet' had 2.9-fold higher vitamin A equivalency than beta-carotene in the 'mixed diet'. In conclusion, this extrinsic labelling technique cannot measure effects of mixed vegetables and fruits matrices, but can measure precisely the vitamin A equivalency of the beta-carotene in oil capsules.
40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... mode for bag measurements and diesel heat exchanger system measurements is determined from the..., for diesel heat exchanger systems, average hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample...
Asymptotic properties of infinite Leslie matrices.
Gosselin, Frédéric; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique
2009-01-21
The stable population theory is classically applicable to populations in which there is a maximum age after which individuals die. Demetrius [1972. On an infinite population matrix. Math. Biosci. 13, 133-137] extended this theory to infinite Leslie matrices, in which the longevity of individuals is potentially infinite. However, Demetrius had to assume that the survival probability per time step tends to 0 with age. We generalise here the conditions of application of the stable population theory to infinite Leslie matrix models and apply these results to two examples, including or not senescence.
Crow, Brian S; Pantazides, Brooke G; Quiñones-González, Jennifer; Garton, Joshua W; Carter, Melissa D; Perez, Jonas W; Watson, Caroline M; Tomcik, Dennis J; Crenshaw, Michael D; Brewer, Bobby N; Riches, James R; Stubbs, Sarah J; Read, Robert W; Evans, Ronald A; Thomas, Jerry D; Blake, Thomas A; Johnson, Rudolph C
2014-10-21
This work describes a new specific, sensitive, and rapid stable isotope dilution method for the simultaneous detection of the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), VR, VX, and VM adducts to tyrosine (Tyr). Serum, plasma, and lysed whole blood samples (50 μL) were prepared by protein precipitation followed by digestion with Pronase. Specific Tyr adducts were isolated from the digest by a single solid phase extraction (SPE) step, and the analytes were separated by reversed-phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) gradient elution in less than 2 min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using time-triggered selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The calibration range was characterized from 0.100-50.0 ng/mL for GB- and VR-Tyr and 0.250-50.0 ng/mL for GA-, GD-, GF-, and VX/VM-Tyr (R(2) ≥ 0.995). Inter- and intra-assay precision had coefficients of variation of ≤17 and ≤10%, respectively, and the measured concentration accuracies of spiked samples were within 15% of the targeted value for multiple spiking levels. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.097, 0.027, 0.018, 0.074, 0.023, and 0.083 ng/mL for GA-, GB-, GD-, GF-, VR-, and VX/VM-Tyr, respectively. A convenience set of 96 serum samples with no known nerve agent exposure was screened and revealed no baseline values or potential interferences. This method provides a simple and highly specific diagnostic tool that may extend the time postevent that a confirmation of nerve agent exposure can be made with confidence.
Crow, Brian S.; Pantazides, Brooke G.; Quiñones-González, Jennifer; Garton, Joshua W.; Carter, Melissa D.; Perez, Jonas W.; Watson, Caroline M.; Tomcik, Dennis J.; Crenshaw, Michael D.; Brewer, Bobby N.; Riches, James R.; Stubbs, Sarah J.; Read, Robert W.; Evans, Ronald A.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Rudolph C.
2015-01-01
This work describes a new specific, sensitive, and rapid stable isotope dilution method for the simultaneous detection of the organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), VR, VX, and VM adducts to tyrosine (Tyr). Serum, plasma, and lysed whole blood samples (50 µL) were prepared by protein precipitation followed by digestion with Pronase. Specific Tyr adducts were isolated from the digest by a single solid phase extraction (SPE) step, and the analytes were separated by reversed-phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) gradient elution in less than 2 min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using time-triggered selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The calibration range was characterized from 0.100–50.0 ng/mL for GB– and VR– Tyr and 0.250–50.0 ng/mL for GA–, GD–, GF–, and VX/VM–Tyr (R2 ≥ 0.995). Inter- and intra-assay precision had coefficients of variation of ≤17 and ≤10%, respectively, and the measured concentration accuracies of spiked samples were within 15% of the targeted value for multiple spiking levels. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.097, 0.027, 0.018, 0.074, 0.023, and 0.083 ng/mL for GA–, GB–, GD–, GF–, VR–, and VX/VM–Tyr, respectively. A convenience set of 96 serum samples with no known nerve agent exposure was screened and revealed no baseline values or potential interferences. This method provides a simple and highly specific diagnostic tool that may extend the time postevent that a confirmation of nerve agent exposure can be made with confidence. PMID:25286390
Nonequilibrium phase transition on a randomly diluted lattice.
Vojta, Thomas; Lee, Man Young
2006-01-27
We show that the interplay between geometric criticality and dynamical fluctuations leads to a novel universality class of the contact process on a randomly diluted lattice. The nonequilibrium phase transition across the percolation threshold of the lattice is characterized by unconventional activated (exponential) dynamical scaling and strong Griffiths effects. We calculate the critical behavior in two and three space dimensions, and we also relate our results to the recently found infinite-randomness fixed point in the disordered one-dimensional contact process.
Mineva, Ekaterina M; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Maw, Khin L; Botelho, Julianne C; Vesper, Hubert W; Pfeiffer, Christine M
2015-07-01
The inaccuracy of routine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements hampers the interpretation of data in patient care and public health research. We developed and validated a candidate reference measurement procedure (RMP) for highly accurate quantitation of two clinically important 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in serum, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. The two compounds of interest together with spiked deuterium-labeled internal standards [d 3-25(OH)D2 and d 6-25(OH)D3] were extracted from serum via liquid-liquid extraction. The featured isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method used reversed-phase chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. A pentafluorophenylpropyl-packed UHPLC column together with isocratic elution allowed for complete baseline resolution of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from their structural C-3 isomers within 12 min. We evaluated method trueness, precision, potential interferences, matrix effects, limits of quantitation, and measurement uncertainty. Calibration materials were, or were traceable to, NIST Standard Reference Materials 2972. Within-day and total imprecision (CV) averaged 1.9 and 2.0% for 25(OH)D3, respectively, and 2.4 and 3.5% for 25(OH)D2, respectively. Mean trueness was 100.3% for 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2. The limits of quantitation/limits of detection were 4.61/1.38 nmol/L for 25(OH)D3 and 1.46/0.13 nmol/L for 25(OH)D2. When we compared our RMP results to an established RMP using 40 serum samples, we found a nonsignificant mean bias of 0.2% for total 25(OH)D. This candidate RMP for 25(OH)D metabolites meets predefined method performance specifications (≤5% total CV and ≤1.7% bias) and provides sufficient sample throughput to meet the needs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vitamin D Standardization Certification Program. Graphical abstract Bias assessment using NIST standard reference materials. Legend CDC mean mass fractions (ng/g) ± U 95 (6
Tai, Susan S-C; Nelson, Michael A
2015-08-04
The two major forms of vitamin D, vitamin D3 and vitamin D2, are metabolized in the liver through hydroxylation to 25-hydroxyvitamin D species, and then further hydroxylated in the kidney to various dihydroxyvitamin D species. (24R),25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 ((24R),25(OH)2D3) is a major catabolite of 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolism and is an important vitamin D metabolite used as a catabolism marker and indicator of kidney disease. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has recently developed a reference measurement procedure for the determination of (24R),25(OH)2D3 in human serum using isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS. The (24R),25(OH)2D3 and added deuterated labeled internal standard (24R),25(OH)2D3-d6 were extracted from serum matrix using liquid-liquid extraction prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed using a fused-core C18 column. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring were used for LC-MS/MS. The accuracy of the measurement of (24R),25(OH)2D3 was evaluated by recovery studies of measuring (24R),25(OH)2D3 in gravimetrically prepared spiked samples of human serum with known (24R),25(OH)2D3 levels. The recoveries of the added (24R),25(OH)2D3 averaged 99.0% (0.8% SD), and the extraction efficiencies averaged 95% (2% SD). Excellent repeatability was demonstrated with CVs of ∼1%. The limit of quantitation at a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼10 was 0.2 ng/g. Potential isomeric interferences from other endogenous species and from impurity components of the reference standard were investigated. LC baseline resolution of (24R),25(OH)2D3 from these isomers was achieved within 35 min. This method was used for value assignment of (24R),25(OH)2D3 in Standard Reference Materials of Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Serum, which can serve as an accuracy base for routine methods used in clinical laboratories.
Microfluidic serial dilution circuit.
Paegel, Brian M; Grover, William H; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Joyce, Gerald F
2006-11-01
In vitro evolution of RNA molecules requires a method for executing many consecutive serial dilutions. To solve this problem, a microfluidic circuit has been fabricated in a three-layer glass-PDMS-glass device. The 400-nL serial dilution circuit contains five integrated membrane valves: three two-way valves arranged in a loop to drive cyclic mixing of the diluent and carryover, and two bus valves to control fluidic access to the circuit through input and output channels. By varying the valve placement in the circuit, carryover fractions from 0.04 to 0.2 were obtained. Each dilution process, which is composed of a diluent flush cycle followed by a mixing cycle, is carried out with no pipeting, and a sample volume of 400 nL is sufficient for conducting an arbitrary number of serial dilutions. Mixing is precisely controlled by changing the cyclic pumping rate, with a minimum mixing time of 22 s. This microfluidic circuit is generally applicable for integrating automated serial dilution and sample preparation in almost any microfluidic architecture.
Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.
2008-01-01
Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…
Envisioning the Infinite by Projecting Finite Properties
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ely, Robert
2011-01-01
We analyze interviews with 24 post-secondary students as they reason about infinite processes in the context of the tricky Tennis Ball Problem. By metaphorically projecting various properties from the finite states such as counting and indexing, participants envisioned widely varying final states for the infinite process. Depending on which…
Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators
Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh
2015-09-18
In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.
Improving the Instruction of Infinite Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindaman, Brian; Gay, A. Susan
2012-01-01
Calculus instructors struggle to teach infinite series, and students have difficulty understanding series and related concepts. Four instructional strategies, prominently used during the calculus reform movement, were implemented during a 3-week unit on infinite series in one class of second-semester calculus students. A description of each…
Subdivisions with infinitely supported mask
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Song; Pan, Yali
2008-04-01
In this paper we investigate the convergence of subdivision schemes associated with masks being polynomially decay sequences. Two-scale vector refinement equations are the formwhere the vector of functions [phi]=([phi]1,E..,[phi]r)T is in and is polynomially decay sequence of rxr matrices called refinement mask. Associated with the mask a is a linear operator on given byBy using same methods in [B. Han, R. Q. Jia, Characterization of Riesz bases of wavelets generated from multiresolution analysis, manuscript]; [BE Han, Refinable functions and cascade algorithms in weighted spaces with infinitely supported masks, manuscript]; [R.Q. Jia, Q.T. Jiang, Z.W. Shen, Convergence of cascade algorithms associated with nonhomogeneous refinement equations, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 129 (2001) 415-427]; [R.Q. Jia, Convergence of vector subdivision schemes and construction of biorthogonal multiple wavelets, in: Advances in Wavelet, Hong Kong,1997, Springer, Singapore, 1998, pp. 199-227], a characterization of convergence of the sequences in the L2-norm is given, which extends the main results in [R.Q. Jia, S.D. Riemenschneider, D.X. Zhou, Vector subdivision schemes and multiple wavelets, Math. Comp. 67 (1998) 1533-1563] on convergence of the subdivision schemes associated with a finitely supported mask to the case in which mask a is polynomially decay sequence. As an application, we also obtain a characterization of smoothness of solutions of the refinement equation mentioned above for the case r=1.
Infinite sets and double binds.
Arden, M
1984-01-01
There have been many attempts to bring psychoanalytical theory up to date. This paper approaches the problem by discussing the work of Gregory Bateson and Ignacio Matte-Blanco, with particular reference to the use made by these authors of Russell's theory of logical types. Bateson's theory of the double bind and Matte-Blanco's bilogic are both based on concepts of logical typing. It is argued that the two theories can be linked by the idea that neurotic symptoms are based on category errors in thinking. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a middle-aged woman. The intention is to demonstrate that the process of making interpretations can be thought of as revealing errors in thinking. Changes in the patient's inner world are then seen to be the result of clarifying childhood experiences based on category errors. Matte-Blanco's theory of bilogic and infinite experiences is a re-evaluation of the place of the primary process in mental life. It is suggested that a combination of bilogic and double bind theory provides a possibility of reformulating psychoanalytical theory.
Teo, Hui Ling; Wong, Lingkai; Liu, Qinde; Teo, Tang Lin; Lee, Tong Kooi; Lee, Hian Kee
2016-03-17
To achieve fast and accurate analysis of carbamazepine in surface water, we developed a novel porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) method, followed by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS) analysis. The μ-SPE device (∼0.8 × 1 cm) was fabricated by heat-sealing edges of a polypropylene membrane sheet to devise a bag enclosing the sorbent. The analytes (both carbamazepine and isotope-labelled carbamazepine) were first extracted by μ-SPE device in the sample (10 mL) via agitation, then desorbed in an organic solvent (1 mL) via ultrasonication. Several parameters such as organic solvent for pre-conditioning of μ-SPE device, amount of sorbent, adsorption time, and desorption solvent and time were investigated to optimize the μ-SPE efficiency. The optimized method has limits of detection and quantitation estimated to be 0.5 ng L(-1) and 1.6 ng L(-1), respectively. Surface water samples spiked with different amounts of carbamazepine (close to 20, 500, and 1600 ng L(-1), respectively) were analysed for the validation of method precision and accuracy. Good precision was obtained as demonstrated by relative standard deviations of 0.7% for the samples with concentrations of 500 and 1600 ng kg(-1), and 5.8% for the sample with concentration of 20 ng kg(-1). Good accuracy was also demonstrated by the relative recoveries in the range of 96.7%-103.5% for all samples with uncertainties of 1.1%-5.4%. Owing to the same chemical properties of carbamazepine and isotope-labelled carbamazepine, the isotope ratio in the μ-SPE procedure was accurately controlled. The use of μ-SPE coupled with IDMS analysis significantly facilitated the fast and accurate measurement of carbamazepine in surface water.
Helium dilution refrigeration system
Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.
1988-09-13
A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.
Helium dilution refrigeration system
Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.
1988-01-01
A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holdeman, J. D.
1983-01-01
Studies to characterize dilution zone mixing; experiments on the effects of free-stream turbulence on a jet in crossflow; and the development of an interactive computer code for the analysis of the mixing of jets with a confined crossflow are reviewed.
Dilution, Concentration, and Flotation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liang, Ling; Schmuckler, Joseph S.
2004-01-01
As both classroom teaching practice and literature show, many students have difficulties learning science concepts such as density. Here are some investigations that identify the relationship between density and floating through experimenting with successive dilution of a liquid, or the systematic change of concentration of a saltwater solution.…
Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fay, C. W., IV; Liu, J. W.; Duxbury, P. M.
2006-05-01
Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Plyasunov, Andrey V.
2014-02-01
for gaseous Si(OH)4 were approximated by a function and used in the treatment of data, see Table 1. The fitting procedure to evaluate the parameters of the Akinfiev-Diamond model also included the values of ΔfGo and S° of Si(OH)4 in ideal gas state at standard state conditions.First, to fit the EoS parameters, the dataset for g2∞ (Si(OH)4(aq)) has been generated using accepted experimental data on quartz solubility in water according to the reaction SiO2(quartz) + 2H2O = Si(OH)4(aq), as g2∞(SiOH(aq)(T,P)=g(quartz)(T,P)+2g(HO)(T,P)-RTlnm, where mSi corresponds to the molality of silica in the solution. Thermodynamic properties of quartz were adopted from SUPCRT database (Johnson et al., 1992), while g(H2O)(T, P) was computed using the Hill (1990) and/or Wagner and Pruß (2002) formulations.The fitting procedure was organized as described below. It is known that partial molar properties of dilute solutes close to the critical point of water are governed by the Krichevskii parameter, AKr (Levelt Sengers, 1991). Plyasunov (2012) recommended for Si(OH)4AKr = -190 ± 10 MPa evaluated from the available relevant data. We have used this value as an anchor while fitting. So, the fitting procedure was iterative. After any initial approximation for ξ, values of the a, b parameters of the EoS together with ΔfGo298(g) and So298(g) of Si(OH)4 were determined by a linear regression of the available g2∞ (Si(OH)4(aq)) experimental data. Then the ξ parameter was modified in compliance with the adopted AKr value (Eq. A7), and the fitting cycle was repeated until ξ ceased changing.The finally retrieved values for gaseous Si(OH)4 are ΔfGo298 = -1239.66 ± 1.7 kJ mol-1, So298 = 346.37 ± 3.5 J mol-1 K-1, and the EoS parameters are ξ = -1.8933; a = 0.9285 ± 1.1 cm3 g-1; b = -0.9409 ± 0.97 cm3 K0.5 g-1 (2σ confidence) (Table 1). Evaluated in this work values of ΔfGo298 and So298 for Si(OH)4 in the ideal gas state are very close to the data given in Plyasunov (2011b) on the
Evolution in random fitness landscapes: the infinite sites model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Su-Chan; Krug, Joachim
2008-04-01
We consider the evolution of an asexually reproducing population in an uncorrelated random fitness landscape in the limit of infinite genome size, which implies that each mutation generates a new fitness value drawn from a probability distribution g(w). This is the finite population version of Kingman's house of cards model (Kingman 1978 J. Appl. Probab. 15 1). In contrast to Kingman's work, the focus here is on unbounded distributions g(w) which lead to an indefinite growth of the population fitness. The model is solved analytically in the limit of infinite population size N \\to \\infty and simulated numerically for finite N. When the genome-wide mutation probability U is small, the long-time behavior of the model reduces to a point process of fixation events, which is referred to as a diluted record process (DRP). The DRP is similar to the standard record process except that a new record candidate (a number that exceeds all previous entries in the sequence) is accepted only with a certain probability that depends on the values of the current record and the candidate. We develop a systematic analytic approximation scheme for the DRP. At finite U the fitness frequency distribution of the population decomposes into a stationary part due to mutations and a traveling wave component due to selection, which is shown to imply a reduction of the mean fitness by a factor of 1-U compared to the U \\to 0 limit.
Yau, Yunki Y; Duo, Xizi; Leong, Rupert W L; Wasinger, Valerie C
2015-02-01
Matrix effect is the alteration of an analyte's concentration-signal response caused by co-existing ion components. With electrospray ionization (ESI), matrix effects are believed to be a function of the relative concentrations, ionization efficiency, and solvation energies of the analytes within the electrospray ionization droplet. For biological matrices such as plasma, the interactions between droplet components is immensely complex and the effect on analyte signal response not well elucidated. This study comprised of three sequential quantitative analyses: we investigated whether there is a generalizable correlation between the range of unique ions in a sample matrix (complexity); the amount of matrix components (concentration); and matrix effect, by comparing an E. coli digest matrix (∼2600 protein proteome) with phospholipid depleted human blood plasma, and unfractionated, nondepleted human plasma matrices (∼10(7) proteome) for six human plasma peptide multiple reaction monitoring assays. Our data set demonstrated analyte-specific interactions with matrix complexity and concentration properties resulting in significant ion suppression for all peptides (p < 0.01), with nonuniform effects on the ion signals of the analytes and their stable-isotope analogs. These matrix effects were then assessed for translation into relative residual error and precision effects in a low concentration (∼0-250 ng/ml) range across no-matrix, complex matrix, and highly complex matrix, when a standard addition stable isotope dilution calibration method was used. Relative residual error (%) and precision (CV%) by stable isotope dilution were within <20%; however, error in phospholipid-depleted and nondepleted plasma matrices were significantly higher compared with no-matrix (p = 0.006). Finally a novel reverse-polynomial dilution calibration method with and without phospholipid-depletion was compared with stable isotope dilution for relative residual error and precision
Hanff, Erik; Böhmer, Anke; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios
2014-11-01
A specific, sensitive and fast LC-MS/MS method with positive electrospray ionization for the quantitative determination of nitrite in human plasma is reported. Added [(15)N]nitrite served as the internal standard (IS). Endogenous nitrite and IS were converted to their S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) derivatives, i.e., GS(14)NO and GS(15)NO, respectively, by using excess glutathione (GSH) and HCl. For plasmatic nitrite, fresh plasma (0.5 mL) was spiked with the IS (1000 nM) and ultrafiltered (cut-off 10 kDa). Ultrafiltrate aliquots (100 μL) were treated with aqueous GSH at a final concentration of 1 mM and 1 μL of 5M HCl for 5 min. After final sample dilution (1:1, v/v) with acetonitrile-water (70:30, v/v), 2 μL aliquots were injected via a thermostated (4 °C) autosampler. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (70:30, v/v), contained 20mM ammonium formate, had a pH value of 7, and was pumped isocratically at 0.5 mL/min. A Nucleoshell column was used for LC separation. The retention time of GSNO was about 0.8 min and the total analysis time 5 min. Quantification was performed by selected-reaction monitoring the specific mass transition m/z337([M+H](+))→m/z 307([M+H-(14)NO](+·)) for GS(14)NO (i.e., for endogenous nitrite) and m/z338([M+H](+))→m/z307([M+H-(15)NO](+·)) for GS(15)NO (i.e., for the IS). The method was thoroughly validated in human plasma (range, 0-2000 nM). The LOD and LOQ values of the LC-MS/MS method were determined to be 1 fmol and 5 nM [(15)N]nitrite, respectively. The relative matrix-effect of about 21% was outweighed entirely by the IS. In freshly prepared plasma samples from heparinized blood donated by three healthy subjects, nitrite concentration was determined by LC-MS/MS to be 516, 199 and 369 nM. These concentrations were confirmed by using a previously reported GC-MS method and agree with those measured previously by HPLC-UV (334 nm) after nitrite conversion to S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC) by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Measurement
Entropy exchange for infinite-dimensional systems
Duan, Zhoubo; Hou, Jinchuan
2017-01-01
In this paper the entropy exchange for channels and states in infinite-dimensional systems are defined and studied. It is shown that, this entropy exchange depends only on the given channel and the state. An explicit expression of the entropy exchange in terms of the state and the channel is proposed. The generalized Klein’s inequality, the subadditivity and the triangle inequality about the entropy including infinite entropy for the infinite-dimensional systems are established, and then, applied to compare the entropy exchange with the entropy change. PMID:28164995
Dynamics and ergodicity of the infinite harmonic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Hemmen, J. L.
1980-10-01
This is a comprehensive, relatively formal study of the a priori infinite harmonic crystal. A phase space is introduced and the equations of motion of a harmonic crystal, which need not be a primitive one, are explicitly solved by several methods. The crystal is taken infinite right at the beginni ng. Exploiting the fact that the dynamics is known we derive the thermal equilibrium state of the infinite system. In so doing we use the classical Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) condition. The thermal equilibrium state is a, so-called, gaussian measure on the phase space. The traditional procedure of the thermodynamic limit is considered as well. In both cases we exploit the advantages of the technique of Fourier transforms of measures. This technique is elucidated in a separate section, where the many connections with Euclidean quantum field theory are also indicated. Finally we settle the problem of the existence of a crystalline state in its appropriate setting: the infinite system. The system is a “crystal” only if it is three-dimensional. The three essential ingredients of the ergodic analysis are a phase space, a dynamics, and an invariant state, here the thermal equilibrium state. A system is ergodic when the time average of any observable equals its phase average. There are, however, stronger notions of ergodicity which are classified in an “ergodic hierarchy”. When a system is Bernoulli it is at the top of this hierarchy. A finite harmonic system is never ergodic. Here it is shown that, generally speaking, a perfect, infinite harmonic crystal in thermal equilibrium has to be Bernoulli. A detailed discussion of the physical relevance of this result has been included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimada, Kayori; Kato, Haruhisa; Saito, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Shigetomo; Kinugasa, Shinichi
2005-06-01
Uniform poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) oligomers, with a degree of polymerization n =1-40, were separated by preparative supercritical fluid chromatography from commercial monodispersed samples. Diffusion coefficients, D, for separated uniform PEG oligomers were measured in dilute solutions of deuterium oxide (D2O) at 30 ° C, using pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance. The measured D for each molecular weight was extrapolated to infinite dilution. Diffusion coefficients obtained at infinite dilution follow the scaling behavior of Zimm-type diffusion, even in the lower molecular weight range. Molecular-dynamics simulations for PEG in H2O also showed this scaling behavior, and reproduced close hydrodynamic interactions between PEG and water. These findings suggest that diffusion of PEG in water is dominated by hydrodynamic interaction over a wide molecular weight range, including at low molecular weights around 1000.
Semi-infinite cohomology and string theory
Frenkel, I. B.; Garland, H.; Zuckerman, G. J.
1986-01-01
We develop the theory of semi-infinite cohomology of graded Lie algebras first introduced by Feigin. We show that the relative semi-infinite cohomology has a structure analogous to that of the de Rham cohomology in Kähler geometry. We prove a vanishing theorem for a special class of modules, and we apply our results to the case of the Virasoro algebra and the Fock module. In this case the zero cohomology is identified as the physical subspace of the Fock module and the no-ghost theorem follows. We reveal the profound relation of semi-infinite cohomology theory to the gauge-invariant free string theory constructed by Banks and Peskin. We then indicate the connection between gauge-invariant interacting string theories and the geometric realizations of the infinite-dimensional Lie algebras. PMID:16578792
The Basic Infinitive: A Reply to Langston.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoeing, Robert G.
1990-01-01
Argues that the traditional method for learning German verbs by their infinitives is a more practical and communicative approach to German language instruction than a recent pedagogically harmful suggestion that verbs be introduced by their stems. (Author/CB)
Automatic dilution gaging of rapidly varying flow
Duerk, M.D.
1983-01-01
The analysis showed that the discharges measured by dye-dilution techniques were generally within ± 10 percent of the discharges determined from ratings established by current-meter measurements. Larger differences were noted at the start of and on the rising limb of four hydrographs. Of the 20 storms monitored, dilution measurements on 17 were of acceptable accuracy. Peak discharges from the open-channel site ranged from 0 to 12 percent departures from the existing rating whereas the comparison of peak discharge at the storm sewer site ranged from 0 to 5 percent departures from the existing rating.
Harris, T R; Bernard, G R; Brigham, K L; Higgins, S B; Rinaldo, J E; Borovetz, H S; Sibbald, W J; Kariman, K; Sprung, C L
1990-02-01
We conducted indicator dilution studies on the lungs of patients in the early phases of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to test the hypothesis that capillary permeability was increased in patients with respiratory failure. Indicator dilution studies were performed using 51Cr-erythrocytes, 125I-albumin, 14C-urea, and 3H-water as tracers. The injectate was infused as a bolus into a central venous line. Peripheral arterial blood was collected and counted for radioactivity. Mathematical analysis of the indicator curves yielded cardiac output, measures of the product of capillary permeability and surface area for urea (PS and D1/2S), the intravascular lung volume (Vv), and the extravascular lung water volume (Ve). Permeability was separated from surface area by normalizing PS and D1/2S to Vv. Patients could be divided into 16 in whom blood gas determinations and radiologic criteria for ARDS were reversed and 23 in whom they were not. We examined indicator dilution and other measures of lung function in the two groups to determine whether significant differences in microvascular function existed. PS and PS/Vv were significantly higher in the nonreversal patients. Ve was above normal, but not different between groups. Linear regression analysis showed significant correlations for all of the following in the nonreversal group: Ve and all measures of permeability, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and the inverse of permeability-surface area measures and AaDO2 and PVR. Only measures of Ve and PS correlated in the reversal group. These results support the hypothesis that capillary permeability is increased in patients with early ARDS and continuing respiratory failure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Zakry, Fitri Abdul Aziz; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H.; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Zakaria, Zin Zawawi; Rahim, Anuar Abdul
2012-01-01
There are increasing applications of diazotrophic rhizobacteria in the sustainable agriculture system. A field experiment on young immature oil palm was conducted to quantify the uptake of N derived from N2 fixation by the diazotroph Bacillus sphaericus strain UPMB-10, using the 15N isotope dilution method. Eight months after 15N application, young immature oil palms that received 67% of standard N fertilizer application together with B. sphaericus inoculation had significantly lower 15N enrichment than uninoculated palms that received similar N fertilizers. The dilution of labeled N served as a marker for the occurrence of biological N2 fixation. The proportion of N uptake that was derived from the atmosphere was estimated as 63% on the whole plant basis. The inoculation process increased the N and dry matter yields of the palm leaflets and rachis significantly. Field planting of young, immature oil palm in soil inoculated with B. sphaericus UPMB-10 might mitigate inorganic fertilizer-N application through supplementation by biological nitrogen fixation. This could be a new and important source of nitrogen biofertilizer in the early phase of oil palm cultivation in the field. PMID:22446306
Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.
Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H
1983-01-01
The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826
Dispersion serial dilution methods using the gradient diluter device.
Walling, Leslie; Schulz, Craig; Johnson, Michael
2012-12-01
A solute aspirated into a prefilled tube of diluent undergoes a dilution effect known as dispersion. Traditionally the effects of dispersion have been considered a negative consequence of using liquid-filled fixed-tip liquid handlers. We present a novel device and technique that utilizes the effects of dispersion to the benefit of making dilutions. The device known as the Gradient Diluter extends the dilution range of practical serial dilutions to six orders of magnitude in final volumes as low as 10 μL. Presented are the device, dispersion methods, and validation tests using fluorescence detection of sulforhodamine and the high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet detection of furosemide. In addition, a T-cell inhibition assay of a relevant downstream protein is used to demonstrate IC(50) curves made with the Gradient Diluter compare favorably with those generated by hand.
Planning a serial dilution test with multiple dilutions.
Blodgett, Robert J
2009-06-01
The dilutions used in a serial dilution test determine which concentrations it can estimate well. Two criteria help to select how many and which dilutions to use. The first criterion is a low probability of outcomes with either all growth or all non-growth tubes at the concentrations of interest. The second criterion considers how far the estimated concentration (MPN) is likely to be from the actual concentration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.
1984-01-01
Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.
Statistical inference for serial dilution assay data.
Lee, M L; Whitmore, G A
1999-12-01
Serial dilution assays are widely employed for estimating substance concentrations and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The Poisson-Bernoulli model for such assays is appropriate for count data but not for continuous measurements that are encountered in applications involving substance concentrations. This paper presents practical inference methods based on a log-normal model and illustrates these methods using a case application involving bacterial toxins.
Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leenson, I. A.
2004-01-01
On equilibrium properties of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid, Julius Thomsen has marked that the heat evolved on diluting liquid sulfuric acid with water is a continuous function of the water used, and excluded absolutely the acceptance of definite hydrates as existing in the solution. Information about thermochemical measurement, a discussion…
Mädler, Stefanie; Todd, Aaron; Skip Kingston, H M; Pamuku, Matt; Sun, Fengrong; Tat, Cindy; Tooley, Robert J; Switzer, Teresa A; Furdui, Vasile I
2016-08-15
The reliable analysis of highly toxic hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), at ultra-trace levels remains challenging, given its easy conversion to non-toxic trivalent chromium. This work demonstrates a novel analytical method to quantify Cr(VI) at low ngL(-1) concentration levels in environmental water samples by using speciated isotope dilution (SID) analysis and double-spiking with Cr(III) and Cr(VI) enriched for different isotopes. Ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) was used for the analysis of Cr(VI) as HCrO4(-) → CrO3(-). Whereas the classical linear multipoint calibration (MPC) curve approach obtained a method detection limit (MDL) of 7ngL(-1) Cr(VI), the modified SID-MS method adapted from U. S. EPA 6800 allowed for the quantification of Cr(VI) with an MDL of 2ngL(-1) and provided results corrected for Cr(VI) loss occurred after sample collection. The adapted SID-MS approach proved to yield more accurate and precise results than the MPC method, allowed for compensation of Cr(VI) reduction during sample transportation and storage while eliminating the need for frequent external calibration. The developed method is a complementary tool to routinely used inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) MS and circumvents typically experienced interferences.
Moore, B.D.; Kobza, J.; Seemann, J.R. )
1991-05-01
The level of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) in leaves of 12 species was determined by an isotope dilution assay. {sup 14}C-labeled standard was synthesized from (2-{sup 14}C)carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate using acid phosphatase, and was added at the initial point of leaf extraction. Leaf CA1P was purified and its specific activity determined. CA1P was found in dark-treated leaves of all species examined, including spinach (Spinacea oleracea), wheat (Triticum aestivum), Arabidopsis thaliana, and maize (Zea mays). The highest amounts were found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and petunia (Petunia hybrida), which had 1.5 to 1.8 moles CA1P per mole ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase catalytic sites. Most species had intermediate amounts of CA1P (0.2 to 0.8 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). Such intermediate to high levels of CA1P support the hypothesis that CA1P functions in many species as a light-dependent regulator of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and whole leaf photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation. However, CA1P levels in spinach, wheat, and A. thaliana were particularly low (less than 0.09 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). In such species, CA1P does not likely have a significant role in regulating ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, but could have a different physiological role.
Hu, Chiung-Wen; Shih, Ying-Ming; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chih-Ming; Chao, Mu-Rong
2016-06-05
N-nitrosamines (NAms) are well-documented for their carcinogenic potential. Human exposure to NAms may arise from the daily environment and endogenous formation via the reaction of secondary amines with nitrites or from bacteria infection. We describe the use of isotope dilution online solid-phase extraction (SPE) LC-MS/MS to quantify nine NAms in human urine. This method was validated and further applied to healthy subjects and patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were analyzed with an APCI source, while N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) were quantified with an ESI source, due to their effect on the sensitivity and chromatography. NDMA was the most abundant N-nitrosamine, while NDPhA was firstly identified in human. UTI patients had three to twelve-fold higher concentrations for NDMA, NPIP, NDEA, NMOR and NDBA in urine than healthy subjects, and the NAms were significantly decreased after antibiotics treatment. NDMA concentrations were also significantly correlated with the pH value, leukocyte esterase activity or nitrite in urines of UTI patients. Our findings by online SPE LC-MS/MS method evidenced that UTI patients experienced various NAms exposures, especially the potent carcinogen NDMA, which was likely induced by bacteria infection.
Scaling of Greenwood Peierls conductance on a diluted square lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwalm, William; Schmitz, Albert
The modified rectangle lattice of Dhar is a bond-diluted square lattice. The structure is self-similar and finitely ramified, like a fractal. Nevertheless certain discrete Schrödinger equation Green functions for the modified rectangle are known in closed form in the infinite lattice limit and the spectrum is continuous. By standard transfer matrix renormalization methods we present a study scaling properties of the Greenwood Peierls conductance distribution across the lattice with one dimensional lead wires attached as a function of lattice size and of additional disorder of several types.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macintosh Wilson, Alistair
1996-01-01
A conversation between Euclid and the ghost of Socrates. . . the paths of the moon and the sun charted by the stone-builders of ancient Europe. . .the Greek ideal of the golden mean by which they measured beauty. . . Combining historical fact with a retelling of ancient myths and legends, this lively and engaging book describes the historical, religious and geographical background that gave rise to mathematics in ancient Egypt, Babylon, China, Greece, India, and the Arab world. Each chapter contains a case study where mathematics is applied to the problems of the era, including the area of triangles and volume of the Egyptian pyramids; the Babylonian sexagesimal number system and our present measure of space and time which grew out of it; the use of the abacus and remainder theory in China; the invention of trigonometry by Arab mathematicians; and the solution of quadratic equations by completing the square developed in India. These insightful commentaries will give mathematicians and general historians a better understanding of why and how mathematics arose from the problems of everyday life, while the author's easy, accessible writing style will open fascinating chapters in the history of mathematics to a wide audience of general readers.
Infinite Sums of M-Bonacci Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
A-iru, Muniru A.
2009-01-01
In this note, we construct infinite series using M-bonacci numbers in a manner similar to that used in previous studies and investigate the convergence of the series to an integer. Our results generalize the ones obtained for Fibonacci numbers.
Extinction properties of infinitely long graphite cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jazbi, B.; Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.
1991-12-01
The extinction efficiencies of randomly oriented infinite graphite cylinders, including hollow cylinders are calculated, using the rigorous Kerker-Matijevic formulas. The peak in the mid-UV extinction varies in wavelength with particle radius and cavity size in a way that makes such particles of limited interest as models of interstellar grains.
Convex aggregative modelling of infinite memory nonlinear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wachel, Paweł
2016-08-01
The convex aggregation technique is applied for modelling general class of nonlinear systems with unknown structure and infinite memory. The finite sample size properties of the algorithm are formally established and compared to the standard least-squares counterpart of the method. The proposed algorithm demonstrates its advantages when the a-priori knowledge and the measurement data are both scarce, that is, when the information about the actual system structure is unknown or uncertain and the measurement set is small and disturbed by a noise. Numerical experiments illustrate application and practical benefits of the method for various nonlinear systems.
Limiting equilibrium and liquefaction potential in infinite submarine slopes
Denlinger, R.P.; Iverson, R.M.
1990-01-01
Stability evaluation of submarine slopes is hampered by the difficulty of making field measurements. Owing to the scarcity of detailed field data, stability is commonly assessed by assuming homogenous infinite slopes with steady seepage. For these conditions, it is necessary to measure only the slope angle, friction angle, cohesion, and pore pressure at some distance into the sediment to evaluate stability. Examination of available data shows that conditions close to those required for liquefaction are necessary for Coulomb failure in many continental shelf areas. This favors long landslide runouts and flow of sediment subsequent to failure. -from Authors
Crow, Brian S; Quiñones-González, Jennifer; Pantazides, Brooke G; Perez, Jonas W; Winkeljohn, W Rucks; Garton, Joshua W; Thomas, Jerry D; Blake, Thomas A; Johnson, Rudolph C
2016-05-01
Chlorine is a public health concern and potential threat due to its high reactivity, ease and scale of production, widespread industrial use, bulk transportation, massive stockpiles and history as a chemical weapon. This work describes a new, sensitive and rapid stable isotope dilution method for the retrospective detection and quantitation of two chlorine adducts. The biomarkers 3-chlorotyrosine (Cl-Tyr) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (Cl2-Tyr) were isolated from the pronase digest of chlorine exposed whole blood, serum or plasma by solid-phase extraction (SPE), separated by reversed-phase HPLC and detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). The calibration range is 2.50-1,000 ng/mL (R2 ≥ 0.998) with a lowest reportable limit (LRL) of 2.50 ng/mL for both analytes, an accuracy of ≥93% and an LOD of 0.443 ng/mL for Cl-Tyr and 0.396 ng/mL for Cl2-Tyr. Inter- and intra-day precision of quality control samples had coefficients of variation of ≤10% and ≤7.0%, respectively. Blood and serum samples from 200 healthy individuals and 175 individuals with chronic inflammatory disease were analyzed using this method to assess background levels of chlorinated tyrosine adducts. Results from patients with no known inflammatory disease history (healthy) showed baseline levels of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Passman, Stephen L.
1989-01-01
Generally, two types of theory are used to describe the field equations for suspensions. The so-called postulated equations are based on the kinetic theory of mixtures, which logically should give reasonable equations for solutions. The basis for the use of such theory for suspensions is tenuous, though it at least gives a logical path for mathematical arguments. It has the disadvantage that it leads to a system of equations which is underdetermined, in a sense that can be made precise. On the other hand, the so-called averaging theory starts with a determined system, but the very process of averaging renders the resulting system underdetermined. A third type of theory is proposed in which the kinetic theory of gases is used to motivate continuum equations for the suspended particles. This entails an interpretation of the stress in the particles that is different from the usual one. Classical theory is used to describe the motion of the suspending medium. The result is a determined system for a dilute suspension. Extension of the theory to more concentrated systems is discussed.
History of the Infinitely Small and the Infinitely Large in Calculus.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kleiner, Israel
2001-01-01
Considers examples of aspects of the infinitely small and large as they unfolded in the history of calculus from the 17th through the 20th centuries. Presents didactic observations at relevant places in the historical account. (Author/MM)
Thermodynamics of a dilute XX chain in a field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timonin, P. N.
2016-06-01
Gapless phases in ground states of low-dimensional quantum spin systems are rather ubiquitous. Their peculiarity is a remarkable sensitivity to external perturbations due to permanent criticality of such phases manifested by a slow (power-low) decay of pair correlations and the divergence of the corresponding susceptibility. A strong influence of various defects on the properties of the system in such a phase can then be expected. Here, we consider the influence of vacancies on the thermodynamics of the simplest quantum model with a gapless phase, the isotropic spin-1/2 XX chain. The existence of the exact solution of this model gives a unique opportunity to describe in detail the dramatic effect of dilution on the gapless phase—the appearance of an infinite series of quantum phase transitions resulting from level crossing under the variation of a longitudinal magnetic field. We calculate the jumps in the field dependences of the ground-state longitudinal magnetization, susceptibility, entropy, and specific heat appearing at these transitions and show that they result in a highly nonlinear temperature dependence of these parameters at low T. Also, the effect of enhancement of the magnetization and longitudinal correlations in the dilute chain is established. The changes of the pair spin correlators under dilution are also analyzed. The universality of the mechanism of the quantum transition generation suggests that similar effects of dilution can also be expected in gapless phases of other low-dimensional quantum spin systems.
Infinitely many singular interactions on noncompact manifolds
Kaynak, Burak Tevfik Turgut, O. Teoman
2015-05-15
We show that the ground state energy is bounded from below when there are infinitely many attractive delta function potentials placed in arbitrary locations, while all being separated at least by a minimum distance, on two dimensional non-compact manifold. To facilitate the reading of the paper, we first present the arguments in the setting of Cartan–Hadamard manifolds and then subsequently discuss the general case. For this purpose, we employ the heat kernel techniques as well as some comparison theorems of Riemannian geometry, thus generalizing the arguments in the flat case following the approach presented in Albeverio et al. (2004). - Highlights: • Schrödinger-operator for infinitely many singular interactions on noncompact manifolds. • Proof of the finiteness of the ground-state energy.
A Stochastic Tikhonov Theorem in Infinite Dimensions
Buckdahn, Rainer Guatteri, Giuseppina
2006-03-15
The present paper studies the problem of singular perturbation in the infinite-dimensional framework and gives a Hilbert-space-valued stochastic version of the Tikhonov theorem. We consider a nonlinear system of Hilbert-space-valued equations for a 'slow' and a 'fast' variable; the system is strongly coupled and driven by linear unbounded operators generating a C{sub 0}-semigroup and independent cylindrical Brownian motions. Under well-established assumptions to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions, we deduce the required stability of the system from a dissipativity condition on the drift of the fast variable. We avoid differentiability assumptions on the coefficients which would be unnatural in the infinite-dimensional framework.
Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length
Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.
2015-01-15
A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.
Scan blindness in infinite phased arrays of printed dipoles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.
1984-01-01
A comprehensive study of infinite phased arrays of printed dipole antennas is presented, with emphasis on the scan blindness phenomenon. A rigorous and efficient moment method procedure is used to calculate the array impedance versus scan angle. Data are presented for the input reflection coefficient for various element spacings and substrate parameters. A simple theory, based on coupling from Floquet modes to surface wave modes on the substrate, is shown to predict the occurrence of scan blindness. Measurements from a waveguide simulator of a blindness condition confirm the theory.
Infinite Products of Random Isotropically Distributed Matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Il'yn, A. S.; Sirota, V. A.; Zybin, K. P.
2017-01-01
Statistical properties of infinite products of random isotropically distributed matrices are investigated. Both for continuous processes with finite correlation time and discrete sequences of independent matrices, a formalism that allows to calculate easily the Lyapunov spectrum and generalized Lyapunov exponents is developed. This problem is of interest to probability theory, statistical characteristics of matrix T-exponentials are also needed for turbulent transport problems, dynamical chaos and other parts of statistical physics.
Dilution refrigeration for space applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Israelsson, U. E.; Petrac, D.
1990-01-01
Dilution refrigerators are presently used routinely in ground based applications where temperatures below 0.3 K are required. The operation of a conventional dilution refrigerator depends critically on the presence of gravity. To operate a dilution refrigerator in space many technical difficulties must be overcome. Some of the anticipated difficulties are identified in this paper and possible solutions are described. A single cycle refrigerator is described conceptually that uses forces other than gravity to function and the stringent constraints imposed on the design by requiring the refrigerator to function on the earth without using gravity are elaborated upon.
Infinite Coordination Polymer Nano- and Micro-Particles
2015-06-12
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Infinite coordination polymer (ICP) particles and metal- organic frameworks (MOFs) are attractive materials for a diverse...Coordination Polymer Nano- and Micro- Particles Report Title Infinite coordination polymer (ICP) particles and metal- organic frameworks (MOFs) are...Abstract Infinite coordination polymer (ICP) particles and metal- organic frameworks (MOFs) are attractive materials for a diverse array of
DeLacy, Brendan G; Bandy, Alan R
2008-01-01
An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopically labeled standard (APIMS/ILS) method has been developed for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration. Descriptions of the instrumental components, the ionization chemistry, and the statistics associated with the analytical method are provided. This method represents an alternative to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) technique, which is currently used in the atmospheric community to determine atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. The APIMS/ILS and NDIR methods exhibit a decreased sensitivity for CO(2) in the presence of water vapor. Therefore, dryers such as a nafion dryer are used to remove water before detection. The APIMS/ILS method measures mixing ratios and demonstrates linearity and range in the presence or absence of a dryer. The NDIR technique, on the other hand, measures molar concentrations. The second half of this paper describes errors in molar concentration measurements that are caused by drying. An equation describing the errors was derived from the ideal gas law, the conservation of mass, and Dalton's Law. The purpose of this derivation was to quantify errors in the NDIR technique that are caused by drying. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the errors created solely by the dryer in CO(2) concentration measurements post-dryer. The laboratory experiments verified the theoretically predicted errors in the derived equations. There are numerous references in the literature that describe the use of a dryer in conjunction with the NDIR technique. However, these references do not address the errors that are caused by drying.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saari, Mohd Mawardi; Tsukamoto, Yuya; Kusaka, Toki; Ishihara, Yuichi; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukada, Keiji
2015-11-01
The magnetization curve of iron oxide nanoparticles in low-concentration solutions was investigated by a highly sensitive high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The diamagnetic contribution of water that was used as the carrier liquid was observed in the measured magnetization curves in the high magnetic field region over 100 mT. The effect of the diamagnetic contribution of water on the generation of harmonics during the application of AC and DC magnetic fields was simulated on the basis of measured magnetization curves. Although the diamagnetic effect depends on concentration, a linear relation was observed between the detected harmonics and concentration in the simulated and measured results. The simulation results suggested that improvement could be expected in harmonics generation because of the diamagnetic effect when the iron concentration was lower than 72 μg/ml. The use of second harmonics with an appropriate bias of the DC magnetic field could be utilized for realization of a fast and highly sensitive detection of magnetic nanoparticles in a low-concentration solution.
Mutelet, Fabrice; Jaubert, Jean-Noël
2006-01-13
Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of 29 organic compounds in two room temperature ionic liquids were determined using inverse gas chromatography. The measurements were carried out at different temperatures between 323.15 and 343.15K. To establish the influence of concurrent retention mechanisms on the accuracy of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate, phase loading studies of the net retention volume per gram of packing as a function of the percent phase loading were used. It is shown that most of the solutes are retained largely by partition with a small contribution from adsorption on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and that the n-alkanes are retained predominantly by interfacial adsorption on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate.
Susantitaphong, Paweena; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Katavetin, Pisut; Hanwiwatwong, Orawadee; Wittayalertpanya, Supeecha; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai
2012-12-01
Mid-dilution and mixed-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) techniques are innovated to overcome the limitations of two standard techniques including predilution and postdilution. Unfortunately, the head-to-head comparisons between these two novel techniques in the same study are still limited. Moreover, the original mid-dilution and mixed-dilution OL-HDF need special dialyzers and special machines. In the present study, simple mid-dilution and simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF were settled with the aim for clinical use in general hemodialysis (HD) centers. The efficacies of uremic toxins removal between both modalities were measured and compared. This prospective randomized crossover study was conducted on 12 stable HD patients undergoing simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. HD prescriptions were similar in both techniques. The dialysis efficacies were determined by calculating small- (urea, creatinine, and phosphate) and middle-molecule (beta-2 microglobulin [β2M]) removal. Moreover, potential complications such as high transmembrane pressure (TMP) and protein loss were also observed. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF provided significantly greater clearances of urea, creatinine, and β2M when compared with the simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. Phosphate clearances in both techniques were comparable. In addition, TMP and dialysate albumin loss were not different. There were no intradialytic complications in both techniques. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF could provide greater efficacy for small- and middle-molecule clearances and acceptable potential risks, while phosphate removal is comparable.
Kroll, Jesse H; Cross, Eben S; Hunter, James F; Pai, Sidhant; Wallace, Lisa M M; Croteau, Philip L; Jayne, John T; Worsnop, Douglas R; Heald, Colette L; Murphy, Jennifer G; Frankel, Sheila L
2015-04-07
The high atmospheric concentrations of toxic gases, particulate matter, and acids in the areas immediately surrounding volcanoes can have negative impacts on human and ecological health. To better understand the atmospheric fate of volcanogenic emissions in the near field (in the first few hours after emission), we have carried out real-time measurements of key chemical components of the volcanic plume from Kı̅lauea on the Island of Hawai'i. Measurements were made at two locations, one ∼ 3 km north-northeast of the vent and the other 31 km to the southwest, with sampling at each site spanning a range of meteorological conditions and volcanic influence. Instrumentation included a sulfur dioxide monitor and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor, allowing for a measurement of the partitioning between the two major sulfur species (gas-phase SO2 and particulate sulfate) every 5 min. During trade wind conditions, which sent the plume toward the southwest site, sulfur partitioning exhibited a clear diurnal pattern, indicating photochemical oxidation of SO2 to sulfate; this enabled the quantitative determination of plume age (5 h) and instantaneous SO2 oxidation rate (2.4 × 10(-6) s(-1) at solar noon). Under stagnant conditions near the crater, the extent of SO2 oxidation was substantially higher, suggesting faster oxidation. The particles within the plume were extremely acidic, with pH values (controlled largely by ambient relative humidity) as low as -0.8 and strong acidity (controlled largely by absolute sulfate levels) up to 2200 nmol/m(3). The high variability of sulfur partitioning and particle composition underscores the chemically dynamic nature of volcanic plumes, which may have important implications for human and ecological health.
Smith, R W; Yang, B J; Huang, W D
2004-11-01
Liquid diffusion experiments conducted on the MIR space station using the Canadian Space Agency QUELD II processing facility and the microgravity isolation mount (MIM) showed that g-jitter significantly increased the measured solute diffusion coefficients. In some experiments, milli-g forced vibration was superimposed on the sample when isolated from the ambient g-jitter; this resulted in markedly increased solute transport. To further explore the effects arising in these long capillary diffusion couples from the absence of unit-gravity and the presence of the forced g-jitter, the effects of a 1 milli-g forcing vibration on the mass transport in a 1.5 mm diameter long capillary diffusion couple have been simulated. In addition, to increase understanding of the role of unit gravity in determining the extent to which gravity can influence measured diffusion coefficient values, comparative experiments involving gold, silver, and antimony diffusing in liquid lead have been carried out using a similar QUELD II facility to that employed in the QUELD II/MIM/MIR campaign but under terrestrial conditions. It was found that buoyancy-driven convection may still persist in the liquid even when conditions are arranged for a continuously decreasing density gradient up the axis of a vertical long capillary diffusion couple due to the presence of small radial temperature gradients.
The Great Celestial Numbers - The Infinitely Big and The Infinitely Small
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teodorani, M.
2009-11-01
This book is a travel that brings the reader to penetrate dimensionally the infinitely small and the infinitely large in the Universe, ranging from quarks to galaxies, and to compare these extreme numbers with the numbers that people encounters in normal life here on Earth. Several numerical examples are illustrated all over the text in a sort of scientific orienteering that describes dimensionally the realms of space, time and energy. The last part of the book shows how all spatial and temporal dimensions disappear when the mechanism of quantum entanglement is considered.
Quantum Machine Learning over Infinite Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Pooser, Raphael; Siopsis, George; Weedbrook, Christian
2017-02-01
Machine learning is a fascinating and exciting field within computer science. Recently, this excitement has been transferred to the quantum information realm. Currently, all proposals for the quantum version of machine learning utilize the finite-dimensional substrate of discrete variables. Here we generalize quantum machine learning to the more complex, but still remarkably practical, infinite-dimensional systems. We present the critical subroutines of quantum machine learning algorithms for an all-photonic continuous-variable quantum computer that can lead to exponential speedups in situations where classical algorithms scale polynomially. Finally, we also map out an experimental implementation which can be used as a blueprint for future photonic demonstrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Shuqiang; Yang, Yuanxi
2017-02-01
Although purely using the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) users cannot obtain the theoretical GDOP minimum unless the GNSS positioning is aided by a certain number of pseudolites, discussing this problem is still meaningful in understanding the issues about the positioning geometry, such as the PDOP minimization. Many literatures have pointed that the GDOP (Geometric Dilution of Precision) minimum in 3-D positioning is the root square of 10/n where n is the total number of GNSS satellites or ground-based beacons with known coordinates. As the case with five known points concerned in this paper, the current knowledge indicates that the GDOP can reach the minimum the root square of 2, but our discussion shows that the GDOP minimum with five known points cannot get the theoretical minimum the root square of 2, although there are infinite positioning configurations with the lowest PDOP. Fortunately, we can find a positioning configuration with the GDOP 1.428 which is very close to the theoretical minimum 1.414. The PDOP can always reach the theoretical minimum the root square of 9/n, and there are infinite solutions for n > 4. However for GDOP minimization, only when n > 5, infinite solutions can be obtained. The configurations with the lowest GDOPs can be given by solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations.
Chao, Mu-Rong; Shih, Ying-Ming; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chang, Yuan-Jhe; Lin, Bo-Huei; Hu, Chiung-Wen
2016-04-01
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infection. Traditionally, the presence of white blood cells and microorganisms in the urine provides objective evidence for UTI diagnosis. Here, we describe the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure the nitrite and nitrate levels in urine and investigate the potential of this method for UTI diagnosis. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode. After adding (15)N-labeled internal standards and derivatizing with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN), the urinary nitrite content was directly analyzed by LC-MS/MS, whereas the urinary nitrate was first reduced to nitrite before derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis. The derivatization of nitrite and enzymatic reduction of nitrate were optimized. This method was then applied to 241 healthy subjects and 73 UTI patients. Optimization tests revealed that 1 mL of crude urine required at least 6.25 μmol of DAN to completely derivatize nitrite and 2.5 U of nitrate reductase to completely reduce nitrate to nitrite. Urinary analysis showed that the urinary concentration of nitrite and the nitrite/nitrate ratio were higher in UTI patients than in healthy subjects. Compared with the dipstick-based urinary nitrite test and using LC-MS/MS to determine the nitrite concentration (sensitivity: 23-25%), the nitrite/nitrate ratio was significantly more sensitive (95%) and exhibited a satisfactory specificity (91%) in the screening of UTIs. Taken together, the nitrite/nitrate ratio, which reflects the reducing ability of pathogenic bacteria, could be a better method for the diagnosis of UTIs that is not subject to variations in urine specimen quality.
Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.
Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang
2005-08-15
We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.
Surugaya, Naoki; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Verbruggen, André; Wellum, Roger
2008-02-01
A stable solid spike for the measurement of uranium and plutonium content in nitric acid solutions of spent nuclear fuel by isotope dilution mass spectrometry has been prepared at the European Commission Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements in Belgium. The spike contains about 50 mg of uranium with a 19.838% (235)U enrichment and 2 mg of plutonium with a 97.766% (239)Pu abundance in each individual ampoule. The dried materials were covered with a thin film of cellulose acetate butyrate as a protective organic stabilizer to resist shocks encountered during transportation and to eliminate flaking-off during long-term storage. It was found that the cellulose acetate butyrate has good characteristics, maintaining a thin film for a long time, but readily dissolving on heating with nitric acid solution. The solid spike containing cellulose acetate butyrate was certified as a reference material with certified quantities: (235)U and (239)Pu amounts and uranium and plutonium amount ratios, and was validated by analyzing spent fuel dissolver solutions of the Tokai reprocessing plant in Japan. This paper describes the preparation, certification and validation of the solid spike coated with a cellulose derivative.
Biomathematical modeling for diluted drugs.
Chattopadhyay, S
2003-07-01
Several workers have proven that succussed ultra high dilution of a drug molecule in water or alcoholic medium, even exceeding Avogadro number, can bring forth noticeable physiological changes of an organism. Homeopathic drugs are prepared by dissolving such drug ingredients in distilled water and then the solution is centesimally diluted serially by ethanol. A mathematical model has been proposed by the present worker, which explains why the drug does not become non-molecular even in ultra-high dilution. This is due to loss of homogeneity in the solution, caused by increase of dielectric constant of the medium during the process of potentization. Facilitated binding of the drug molecules with minute physiologically important protein factors may be the cause of visible physiological alterations.
Precision of a field method for determination of pH in dilute lakes
Turk, J.T.
1986-01-01
Replicate pH measurements in three dilute lakes made during extreme conditions indicate that pH can be measured in the field with a variance due to measurement error of 0.005 unit. Error of the field technique in measuring the pH of dilute solutions in the laboratory ranges from less than 0.01 unit in dilute strong-acid solutions to about 0.05 unit in air-saturated deionized water.
Fibrinogen Concentrate in Dilutional Coagulopathy: a Dose Study in Pigs
2014-01-01
measurements, animals underwent a 60% normovolemic hemodilution (HD) with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius Co., Bad Homburg...improves whole blood clot firmness after dilution with hydroxyethyl starch in bleeding patients undergoing radical cystectomy: a randomized, placebo...clinically relevant overestimation of fibrinogen concentration in plasma diluted with hydroxyethyl starch . Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2010;16:461-71. 28
Supersymmetric infinite wells and coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiset, M.-A.; Hussin, V.
2015-06-01
Gaussian Klauder coherent states are discussed in the context of the infinite well quantum model, otherwise known as the particle in a box. A supersymmetric partner system is also presented, as well as a construction of coherent states in this new system. We show that these states can be chosen, in both systems to have many properties usually expected for coherent states. In particular, they yield highly localised wave packets for a short period of time, which evolve in a quasi-classical manner and which saturate approximately Heisenberg uncertainty relation. These studies are elaborated in one- and two-dimensional contexts. Finally, some relations are established between the Gaussian states being mostly used here and the generalised coherent states, which are more standardly found in the literature.
Thermal convection at infinite Prandtl number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herring, J. R.
1969-01-01
Numerical solutions are developed for the full scaled three dimensional thermal convection problem, at infinite Prandtl number, and for rigid boundaries. The procedure is designed to give an approximate account of horizontally homogeneous and isotropic flow situations. Results, which included a maximum of 36 horizontal wave number vectors and 20 vertical wave numbers, appear to adequately describe the flow fill up to R = 100,000; beyond this R the results appear to show horizontal wave number truncation error. This error seems to affect the boundary slope of the mean temperature field more than other mean quantities. Despite some numerical uncertainities, certain of the qualitative features of the flow fill are predicted with reasonable confidence.
Dynamics for QCD on an Infinite Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grundling, Hendrik; Rudolph, Gerd
2017-02-01
We prove the existence of the dynamics automorphism group for Hamiltonian QCD on an infinite lattice in R^3, and this is done in a C*-algebraic context. The existence of ground states is also obtained. Starting with the finite lattice model for Hamiltonian QCD developed by Kijowski, Rudolph (cf. J Math Phys 43:1796-1808 [15], J Math Phys 46:032303 [16]), we state its field algebra and a natural representation. We then generalize this representation to the infinite lattice, and construct a Hilbert space which has represented on it all the local algebras (i.e., kinematics algebras associated with finite connected sublattices) equipped with the correct graded commutation relations. On a suitably large C*-algebra acting on this Hilbert space, and containing all the local algebras, we prove that there is a one parameter automorphism group, which is the pointwise norm limit of the local time evolutions along a sequence of finite sublattices, increasing to the full lattice. This is our global time evolution. We then take as our field algebra the C*-algebra generated by all the orbits of the local algebras w.r.t. the global time evolution. Thus the time evolution creates the field algebra. The time evolution is strongly continuous on this choice of field algebra, though not on the original larger C*-algebra. We define the gauge transformations, explain how to enforce the Gauss law constraint, show that the dynamics automorphism group descends to the algebra of physical observables and prove that gauge invariant ground states exist.
Field observations of dilution on the Ipanema Beach outfall.
Roldão, J; Carvalho, J L; Roberts, P J
2001-01-01
Field observations of the Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro, ocean sewage outfall are presented. Measurements of dilution and other wastefield characteristics were obtained by adding dye tracer to the effluent and measuring in-situ. Simultaneous measurements of oceanographic conditions were made by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, thermistor strings, and profiling instruments. Four experiments were performed, two during unstratified conditions when the plume was surfacing, and two during conditions of strong stratification when the plume was submerged. The minimum dilution varied from 30 to 130. The measurements reflect the worst case conditions as the campaigns were all made for weak currents.
Multi/infinite dimensional neural networks, multi/infinite dimensional logic theory.
Murthy, Garimella Rama
2005-06-01
A mathematical model of an arbitrary multi-dimensional neural network is developed and a convergence theorem for an arbitrary multi-dimensional neural network represented by a fully symmetric tensor is stated and proved. The input and output signal states of a multi-dimensional neural network/logic gate are related through an energy function, defined over the fully symmetric tensor (representing the connection structure of a multi-dimensional neural network). The inputs and outputs are related such that the minimum/maximum energy states correspond to the output states of the logic gate/neural network realizing a logic function. Similarly, a logic circuit consisting of the interconnection of logic gates, represented by a block symmetric tensor, is associated with a quadratic/higher degree energy function. Infinite dimensional logic theory is discussed through the utilization of infinite dimension/order tensors.
Pang, Yu; Liu, Yu-Shan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie
2016-04-01
In this paper, SH bulk/surface waves propagating in the corresponding infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric (PE)/piezomagnetic (PM) and PM/PE periodically layered composites are investigated by two methods, the stiffness matrix method and the transfer matrix method. For a semi-infinite PE/PM or PM/PE medium, the free surface is parallel to the layer interface. Both PE and PM materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic solids. Dispersion equations are derived by the stiffness/transfer matrix methods, respectively. The effects of electric-magnetic (ME) boundary conditions at the free surface and the layer thickness ratios on dispersion curves are considered in detail. Numerical examples show that the results calculated by the two methods are the same. The dispersion curves of SH surface waves are below the bulk bands or inside the frequency gaps. The ratio of the layer thickness has an important effect not only on the bulk bands but also on the dispersion curves of SH surface waves. Electric and magnetic boundary conditions, respectively, determine the dispersion curves of SH surface waves for the PE/PM and PM/PE semi-infinite structures. The band structures of SH bulk waves are consistent for the PE/PM and PM/PE structures, however, the dispersive behaviors of SH surface waves are indeed different for the two composites. The realization of the above-mentioned characteristics of SH waves will make it possible to design PE/PM acoustic wave devices with periodical structures and achieve the better performance.
Sorption-cooled continuous miniature dilution refrigeration for astrophysical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, Andrew J.; Calisse, Paolo G.; Coppi, Gabriele; Haynes, Vic; Martinis, Lorenzo; McCulloch, Mark A.; Melhuish, Simon J.; Piccirillo, Lucio
2016-07-01
A progress report is provided on the development of a tiltable continuous miniature dilution refrigerator and associated 3He/4He sorption coolers. These systems are currently being developed to provide sub-Kelvin cooling of the bolometer arrays for several ground- and balloon-based experiments which aim to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (QUBIC, LSPE and POLARBEAR-2). The novel tiltable miniaturised system benefits from a lack of external circulation pumps and a mechanically simple design. The condenser of the twin-pumped recirculating diluter is cooled continuously by two 3He/4He sorption coolers. The sorption pumps are operated by convective heat switches. The dilution unit features a thermally separated mixing chamber, still and step heat exchangers. The designs and analyses of both the sorption coolers and the diluter are reported; both systems have been manufactured and are presently under test.
Low shear viscosity of dilute polymer solutions
Chiou, C.S.; Gordon, R.J.
1980-09-01
A modification of a viscometer originally proposed by Zimm and Crothers is studied, which may be used to measure ultra low shear viscosity for highly dilute polymer solutions. This may provide useful information on polymer coil dimensions and relaxation time. Use of the low shear viscosity data leads to large value of relaxation time induced by polymer addition to a concentration of only 2 to 3 ppM by wt. This finding is consistent with the marked viscoelastic effects exhibited by these solutions.
Geometric Exponents of Dilute Loop Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Provencher, Guillaume; Saint-Aubin, Yvan; Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen
2012-04-01
The fractal dimensions of the hull, the external perimeter and of the red bonds are measured through Monte Carlo simulations for dilute minimal models, and compared with predictions from conformal field theory and SLE methods. The dilute models used are those first introduced by Nienhuis. Their loop fugacity is β=-2 \\cos(π/bar{kappa}) where the parameter bar{kappa} is linked to their description through conformal loop ensembles. It is also linked to conformal field theories through their central charges c(bar{kappa})=13-6(bar{kappa}+bar{kappa}^{-1}) and, for the minimal models of interest here, bar{kappa}=p/p' where p and p' are two coprime integers. The geometric exponents of the hull and external perimeter are studied for the pairs ( p, p')=(1,1),(2,3),(3,4),(4,5),(5,6),(5,7), and that of the red bonds for ( p, p')=(3,4). Monte Carlo upgrades are proposed for these models as well as several techniques to improve their speeds. The measured fractal dimensions are obtained by extrapolation on the lattice size H, V→∞. The extrapolating curves have large slopes; despite these, the measured dimensions coincide with theoretical predictions up to three or four digits. In some cases, the theoretical values lie slightly outside the confidence intervals; explanations of these small discrepancies are proposed.
Commuting Flows and Infinite-Dimensional Tori: Sine-Gordon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, Martin
2017-02-01
The present work concerns the periodic sine-Gordon equation. We explain why the complete set of conserved functionals for sine-Gordon is an infinite-dimensional torus; the periodic sine-Gordon solution is almost periodic in time on an infinite-dimensional torus.
The Infinite Challenge: Levels of Conceiving the Endlessness of Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Falk, Ruma
2010-01-01
To conceive the infinity of integers, one has to realize: (a) the unending possibility of increasing/decreasing numbers (potential infinity), (b) that the cardinality of the set of numbers is greater than that of any finite set (actual infinity), and (c) that the leap from a finite to an infinite set is itself infinite (immeasurable gap). Three…
Infinite statistics condensate as a model of dark matter
Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir
2013-11-01
In some models, dark matter is considered as a condensate bosonic system. In this paper, we prove that condensation is also possible for particles that obey infinite statistics and derive the critical condensation temperature. We argue that a condensed state of a gas of very weakly interacting particles obeying infinite statistics could be considered as a consistent model of dark matter.
Use of Physical Analogs to Evaluate Infinite Series.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Epstein, D. J.; Smith, A. C.
1979-01-01
Discusses the paradoxes that can result when physical examples lead to infinite series. Two examples are presented: the Madelung energy of a one-dimensional array of alternating positive and negative charges, and a point charge between infinite parallel plates. (BB)
Nonanalyticities of entropy functions of finite and infinite systems.
Casetti, Lapo; Kastner, Michael
2006-09-08
In contrast to the canonical ensemble where thermodynamic functions are smooth for all finite system sizes, the microcanonical entropy can show nonanalytic points also for finite systems. The relation between finite and infinite system nonanalyticities is illustrated by means of a simple classical spinlike model which is exactly solvable for both finite and infinite system sizes, showing a phase transition in the latter case. The microcanonical entropy is found to have exactly one nonanalytic point in the interior of its domain. For all finite system sizes, this point is located at the same fixed energy value epsilon(c)(finite), jumping discontinuously to a different value epsilon(c)(infinite) in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, epsilon(c)(finite) equals the average potential energy of the infinite system at the phase transition point. The result indicates that care is required when trying to infer infinite system properties from finite system nonanalyticities.
Many-body localization in infinite chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enss, T.; Andraschko, F.; Sirker, J.
2017-01-01
We investigate the phase transition between an ergodic and a many-body localized phase in infinite anisotropic spin-1 /2 Heisenberg chains with binary disorder. Starting from the Néel state, we analyze the decay of antiferromagnetic order ms(t ) and the growth of entanglement entropy Sent(t ) during unitary time evolution. Near the phase transition we find that ms(t ) decays exponentially to its asymptotic value ms(∞ ) ≠0 in the localized phase while the data are consistent with a power-law decay at long times in the ergodic phase. In the localized phase, ms(∞ ) shows an exponential sensitivity on disorder with a critical exponent ν ˜0.9 . The entanglement entropy in the ergodic phase grows subballistically, Sent(t ) ˜tα , α ≤1 , with α varying continuously as a function of disorder. Exact diagonalizations for small systems, on the other hand, do not show a clear scaling with system size and attempts to determine the phase boundary from these data seem to overestimate the extent of the ergodic phase.
Nonlinear dynamos at infinite magnetic Prandtl number.
Alexakis, Alexandros
2011-03-01
The dynamo instability is investigated in the limit of infinite magnetic Prandtl number. In this limit the fluid is assumed to be very viscous so that the inertial terms can be neglected and the flow is enslaved to the forcing. The forcing consist of an external forcing function that drives the dynamo flow and the resulting Lorentz force caused by the back reaction of the magnetic field. The flows under investigation are the Archontis flow and the ABC flow forced at two different scales. The investigation covers roughly 3 orders of magnitude of the magnetic Reynolds number above onset. All flows show a weak increase of the averaged magnetic energy as the magnetic Reynolds number is increased. Most of the magnetic energy is concentrated in flat elongated structures that produce a Lorentz force with small solenoidal projection so that the resulting magnetic field configuration is almost force free. Although the examined system has zero kinetic Reynolds number at sufficiently large magnetic Reynolds number the structures are unstable to small scale fluctuations that result in a chaotic temporal behavior.
Büttler, Rahel M; Martens, Frans; Kushnir, Mark M; Ackermans, Mariette T; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Heijboer, Annemieke C
2015-01-01
The adrenal and gonadal androgens, testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) play an important role in sexual development as well as in other processes. We developed a method for simultaneous quantitative analysis of serum and plasma testosterone, androstenedione and DHEA levels using Isotope-Dilution Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS). Samples underwent liquid-liquid extraction and were analyzed on an Acquity 2D-UPLC-System and a Xevo TQ-S tandem mass spectrometer (Waters). The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were <4.0%, <6.3% and <7.0% and <6.0%, <8.1% and <7.7% for testosterone, androstenedione and DHEA, respectively. Inter-assay CVs at the lower limit were 10.6%, 16.9% and 9.0% for testosterone (0.10nmol/L), androstenedione (0.10nmol/L) and DHEA (1.0nmol/L), respectively. Recoveries of spiked analytes were 93-107%. The present testosterone method compared well (y=1.00x-0.04; r=0.998) to a published ID-LC-MS/MS method for testosterone in our lab. The latter method being concordant with a published reference method (Bui et al., 2013). The present method compared well to a published ID-LC-MS/MS method (Kushnir et al., 2010) (y=1.06x-0.06; r=0.996 for testosterone; y=1.04x-0.04; r=0.995 for androstenedione and y=1.03x+0.01; r=0.991 for DHEA). In conclusion, we developed a sensitive and accurate ID-LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously measure serum testosterone, androstenedione and DHEA in serum and plasma.
Mineva, Ekaterina M.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Maw, Khin L.; Botelho, Julianne C.; Vesper, Hubert W.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.
2016-01-01
The inaccuracy of routine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements hampers the interpretation of data in patient care and public health research. We developed and validated a candidate reference measurement procedure (RMP) for highly accurate quantitation of two clinically important 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in serum, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. The two compounds of interest together with spiked deuterium-labeled internal standards [d3-25(OH)D2 and d6-25(OH)D3] were extracted from serum via liquid-liquid extraction. The featured isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method used reversed-phase chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. A pentafluorophenylpropyl-packed UHPLC column together with isocratic elution allowed for complete baseline resolution of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from their structural C-3 isomers within 12 min. We evaluated method trueness, precision, potential interferences, matrix effects, limits of quantitation, and measurement uncertainty. Calibration materials were, or were traceable to, NIST Standard Reference Materials 2972. Within-day and total imprecision (CV) averaged 1.9% and 2.0% for 25(OH)D3, respectively, and 2.4% and 3.5% for 25(OH)D2, respectively. Mean trueness was 100.4% for 25(OH)D3 and 100.3% for 25(OH)D2. The limits of quantitation/limits of detection were 4.61/1.38 nmol/L for 25(OH)D3 and 1.46/0.13 nmol/L for 25(OH)D2. When we compared our RMP results to an established RMP using 40 serum samples, we found a nonsignificant mean bias of 0.2% for total 25(OH)D. This candidate RMP for 25(OH)D metabolites meets predefined method performance specifications (≤5% total CV and ≤1.7% bias) and provides sufficient sample throughput to meet the needs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vitamin D Standardization Certification Program. PMID:25967149
40 CFR 1066.610 - Dilution air background correction.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... interval. x CO = amount of CO measured in the sample over the test interval. a = atomic hydrogen-to-carbon... = atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio of the test fuel. You may measure b or use default values from Table 1 of.... ER28AP14.102 (d) Determine the time-weighted dilution factor, DF w, over the duty cycle using the...
40 CFR 1066.140 - Diluted exhaust flow calibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...: (i) The mean flow rate of the reference flow meter, Q ref. This may include several measurements of... v, at measured values of pressure, temperature and air flow. Calibrate the CFV at the lowest... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diluted exhaust flow calibration....
40 CFR 1065.340 - Diluted exhaust flow (CVS) calibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Flow-Related Measurements § 1065... quantities: (i) The mean flow rate of the reference flow meter, n ref. This may include several measurements... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diluted exhaust flow (CVS)...
Infinite systems in problems for a stiffened rectangular plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baburchenkov, M. F.; Borodachev, N. M.
2016-07-01
A method is proposed for obtaining analytic solutions of a set of infinite systems of linear algebraic equations arising in problems of elasticity for stiffened rectangular plates with stiffening ribs. The method is based on a transformation of a set of infinite systems to a single system and on determining a majorant of the function generating the system series with regard to the order of the unknowns. It is proved that the constructed solution satisfies the infinite system for large indices of the unknowns. The amount of computations is decreased, and the reliability of the results increases. Some realization examples are given.
Inequality for the infinite-cluster density in Bernoulli percolation
Chayes, J.T.; Chayes, L.
1986-04-21
Under a certain assumption (which is satisfied whenever there is a dense infinite cluster in the half-space), we prove a differential inequality for the infinite-cluster density, P/sub infinity/(p), in Bernoulli percolation. The principal implication of this result is that if P/sub infinity/(p) vanishes with critical exponent ..beta.., then ..beta.. obeys the mean-field bound ..beta..< or =1. As a corollary, we also derive an inequality relating the backbone density, the truncated susceptibility, and the infinite-cluster density.
Tight Lower Bound for Percolation Threshold on an Infinite Graph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, Kathleen E.; Pryadko, Leonid P.
2014-11-01
We construct a tight lower bound for the site percolation threshold on an infinite graph, which becomes exact for an infinite tree. The bound is given by the inverse of the maximal eigenvalue of the Hashimoto matrix used to count nonbacktracking walks on the original graph. Our bound always exceeds the inverse spectral radius of the graph's adjacency matrix, and it is also generally tighter than the existing bound in terms of the maximum degree. We give a constructive proof for existence of such an eigenvalue in the case of a connected infinite quasitransitive graph, a graph-theoretic analog of a translationally invariant system.
Infinitely Challenging: Pitowsky's Subjective Interpretation and the Physics of Infinite Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruetsche, Laura; Earman, John
On Itamar Pitowsky's subjective interpretation of quantum mechanics, "the Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics [QM] is just a new kind of probability theory" (2006, 213), one whose probabilities correspond to odds rational agents would accept on the outcomes of gambles concerning quantum event structures. Our aim here is to ask whether Pitowsky's approach can be extended from its original context, of quantum theories for systems with an finite number of degrees of freedom, to systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, such as quantum field theory and quantum statistical mechanics in the thermodynamic limit. An impediment to generalization is that Pitowsky adopts the framework of event structures encoded by atomic algebras, whereas the algebras typical of QM for infinitely many degrees of freedom are usually non-atomic. We describe challenges to Pitowsky's approach deriving from this impediment, and sketch and assess strategies Pitowsky might use to meet those challenges. Although we offer no final verdict about the eventual success of those strategies, a testament to the worth of Pitowsky's approach is that attempting to extend it engages us in provocative foundational issues.
Stoichiometric controls of mercury dilution by growth.
Karimi, Roxanne; Chen, Celia Y; Pickhardt, Paul C; Fisher, Nicholas S; Folt, Carol L
2007-05-01
Rapid growth could significantly reduce methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in aquatic organisms by causing a greater than proportional gain in biomass relative to MeHg (somatic growth dilution). We hypothesized that rapid growth from the consumption of high-quality algae, defined by algal nutrient stoichiometry, reduces MeHg concentrations in zooplankton, a major source of MeHg for lake fish. Using a MeHg radiotracer, we measured changes in MeHg concentrations, growth and ingestion rates in juvenile Daphnia pulex fed either high (C:P = 139) or low-quality (C:P = 1317) algae (Ankistrodesmus falcatus) for 5 d. We estimated Daphnia steady-state MeHg concentrations, using a biokinetic model parameterized with experimental rates. Daphnia MeHg assimilation efficiencies (approximately 95%) and release rates (0.04 d(-1)) were unaffected by algal nutrient quality. However, Daphnia growth rate was 3.5 times greater when fed high-quality algae, resulting in pronounced somatic growth dilution. Steady-state MeHg concentrations in Daphnia that consumed high-quality algae were one-third those of Daphnia that consumed low-quality algae due to higher growth and slightly lower ingestion rates. Our findings show that rapid growth from high-quality food consumption can significantly reduce the accumulation and trophic transfer of MeHg in freshwater food webs.
[Formation of oxalate in oxaliplatin injection diluted with infusion solutions].
Eto, Seiji; Yamamoto, Kie; Shimazu, Kounosuke; Sugiura, Toshimune; Baba, Kaori; Sato, Ayaka; Goromaru, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Hara, Keiko; Shinohara, Yoshitake; Takahashi, Kojiro
2014-01-01
Oxaliplatin use can cause acute peripheral neuropathy characterized by sensory paresthesias, which are markedly exacerbated by exposure to cold temperatures, and is a dose-limiting factor in the treatment of colorectal cancer.Oxalate is eliminated in a series of nonenzymatic conversions of oxaliplatin in infusion solutions or biological fluids.Elimination of oxalate from oxaliplatin has been suggested as one of the reasons for the development of acute neuropathy.In this study, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)-based method to detect oxalate formation, and investigated the time dependent formation of oxalate in oxaliplatin diluted with infusion solutions.The results obtained showed that the amount of oxalate in the solution corresponded to 1.6% of oxaliplatin 8 h after oxaliplatin dilution with a 5% glucose solution. On the other hand, oxalate formation from oxaliplatin diluted with a saline solution was ten-fold higher than that from oxaliplatin diluted with the 5% glucose solution.Most patients who were intravenously injected with oxaliplatin experienced venous pain.As a preventive measure against venous pain, dexamethasone was added to the oxaliplatin injection.We measured the amount of oxalate formed in the dexamethasone-containing oxaliplatin injection diluted with a 5% glucose solution.The amount of oxalate formed when dexamethasone was added did not differ significantly from that formed when dexamethasone was not added.Thus, there are no clinical problems associated with the stability of oxaliplatin solutions.
A Microgravity Helium Dilution Cooler
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roach, Pat R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
We are developing a He-3-He-4 dilution cooler to operate in microgravity. It uses charcoal adsorption pumps and heaters for its operation; it has no moving parts. It currently operates cyclically to well below 0.1 K and we have designed a version to operate continuously. We expect that the continuous version will be able to provide the long-duration cooling that many experiments need at temperatures down to 0.040 K. More importantly, such a dilution cooler could provide the precooling that enables the use of adiabatic demagnetization techniques that can reach temperatures below 0.001 K. At temperatures below 0.002 K many fascinating microgravity experiments on superfluid He-3 become possible. Among the possibilities are: research into a superfluid He-3 gyroscope, study of the nucleation of the B-phase of superfluid He-3 when the sample is floating out of contact with walls, study of the anisotropy of the surface tension of the B-phase, and NMR experiments on tiny free-floating clusters of superfluid He-3 atoms that should model the shell structure of nuclei.
An Infinite Mixture Model for Coreference Resolution in Clinical Notes
Liu, Sijia; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhary, Vipin; Li, Dingcheng
2016-01-01
It is widely acknowledged that natural language processing is indispensable to process electronic health records (EHRs). However, poor performance in relation detection tasks, such as coreference (linguistic expressions pertaining to the same entity/event) may affect the quality of EHR processing. Hence, there is a critical need to advance the research for relation detection from EHRs. Most of the clinical coreference resolution systems are based on either supervised machine learning or rule-based methods. The need for manually annotated corpus hampers the use of such system in large scale. In this paper, we present an infinite mixture model method using definite sampling to resolve coreferent relations among mentions in clinical notes. A similarity measure function is proposed to determine the coreferent relations. Our system achieved a 0.847 F-measure for i2b2 2011 coreference corpus. This promising results and the unsupervised nature make it possible to apply the system in big-data clinical setting. PMID:27595047
Infinite dimensional symmetries of self-dual Yang-Mills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansfield, Paul; Wardlow, Adam
2009-08-01
We construct symmetries of the Chalmers-Siegel action describing self-dual Yang-Mills theory using a canonical transformation to a free theory. The symmetries form an infinite dimensional Lie algebra in the group algebra of isometries.
The Pythagorean Theorem: II. The infinite discrete case
Kadison, Richard V.
2002-01-01
The study of the Pythagorean Theorem and variants of it as the basic result of noncommutative, metric, Euclidean Geometry is continued. The emphasis in the present article is the case of infinite discrete dimensionality. PMID:16578869
Gacs quantum algorithmic entropy in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces
Benatti, Fabio; Oskouei, Samad Khabbazi Deh Abad, Ahmad Shafiei
2014-08-15
We extend the notion of Gacs quantum algorithmic entropy, originally formulated for finitely many qubits, to infinite dimensional quantum spin chains and investigate the relation of this extension with two quantum dynamical entropies that have been proposed in recent years.
Aspects of infinite dimensional ℓ-super Galilean conformal algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aizawa, N.; Segar, J.
2016-12-01
In this work, we construct an infinite dimensional ℓ-super Galilean conformal algebra, which is a generalization of the ℓ = 1 algebra found in the literature. We give a classification of central extensions, the vector field representation, the coadjoint representation, and the operator product expansion of the infinite dimensional ℓ-super Galilean conformal algebra, keeping possible applications in physics and mathematics in mind.
Packing Infinite Number of Cubes in a Finite Volume Box
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yao, Haishen; Wajngurt, Clara
2006-01-01
Packing an infinite number of cubes into a box of finite volume is the focus of this article. The results and diagrams suggest two ways of packing these cubes. Specifically suppose an infinite number of cubes; the side length of the first one is 1; the side length of the second one is 1/2 , and the side length of the nth one is 1/n. Let n approach…
A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone
2014-01-01
We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.
Borsuk-Ulam theorem in infinite-dimensional Banach spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gel'man, B. D.
2002-02-01
The well-known classical Borsuk-Ulam theorem has a broad range of applications to various problems. Its generalization to infinite-dimensional spaces runs across substantial difficulties because its statement is essentially finite-dimensional. A result established in the paper is a natural generalization of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem to infinite-dimensional Banach spaces. Applications of this theorem to various problems are discussed.
Desynchronization in diluted neural networks.
Zillmer, Rüdiger; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro
2006-09-01
The dynamical behavior of a weakly diluted fully inhibitory network of pulse-coupled spiking neurons is investigated. Upon increasing the coupling strength, a transition from regular to stochasticlike regime is observed. In the weak-coupling phase, a periodic dynamics is rapidly approached, with all neurons firing with the same rate and mutually phase locked. The strong-coupling phase is characterized by an irregular pattern, even though the maximum Lyapunov exponent is negative. The paradox is solved by drawing an analogy with the phenomenon of "stable chaos," i.e., by observing that the stochasticlike behavior is "limited" to an exponentially long (with the system size) transient. Remarkably, the transient dynamics turns out to be stationary.
Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides
Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.
2003-12-23
Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.
Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle
2016-01-01
Background The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non‐diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. Methods For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non‐diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Results Non‐diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non‐diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. PMID:27101776
Evaluation of two gas-dilution methods for instrument calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, A., Jr.
1977-01-01
Two gas dilution methods were evaluated for use in the calibration of analytical instruments used in air pollution studies. A dual isotope fluorescence carbon monoxide analyzer was used as the transfer standard. The methods are not new but some modifications are described. The rotary injection gas dilution method was found to be more accurate than the closed loop method. Results by the two methods differed by 5 percent. This could not be accounted for by the random errors in the measurements. The methods avoid the problems associated with pressurized cylinders. Both methods have merit and have found a place in instrument calibration work.
Electronic bandstructure of semiconductor dilute bismide structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erucar, T.; Nutku, F.; Donmez, O.; Erol, A.
2017-02-01
In this work electronic band structure of dilute bismide GaAs/GaAs1-xBix quantum well structures with 1.8% and 3.75% bismuth compositions have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal that effective bandgap of the samples decreases approximately 65 meV per bismuth concentration. Temperature dependence of the effective bandgap is obtained to be higher for the sample with higher bismuth concentration. Moreover, both asymmetric characteristic at the low energy tail of the PL and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL peak increase with increasing bismuth composition as a result of increased Bi related defects located above valence band (VB). In order to explain composition dependence of the effective bandgap quantitatively, valence band anti-crossing (VBAC) model is used. Bismuth composition and temperature dependence of effective bandgap in a quantum well structure is modeled by solving Schrödinger equation and compared with experimental PL data.
Gas dilution system results and application to acid rain utilities
Jolley-Souders, K.; Geib, R.; Dunn, C.
1997-12-31
In 1997, the United States EPA will remove restrictions preventing acid rain utilities from using gas dilution systems for calibration or linearity studies for continuous emissions monitoring, Test Method 205 in 40CFR51 requires that a gas dilution system must produce calibration gases whose measured values are within {+-}2% of predicted values. This paper presents the evaluation of the Environics/CalMat 2020 Dilution System for use in calibration studies. Internal studies show that concentrations generated by this unit are within {+-}0.5% of predicted values. Studies are being conducted by several acid rain utilities to evaluate the Environics/CalMat system using single minor component calibration standards. In addition, an internally generated study is being performed to demonstrate the system`s accuracy using a multi-component gas mixture. Data from these tests will be presented in the final version of the paper.
Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system
Reimann, Robert C.
1984-01-01
A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.
Cold dilute neutron matter on the lattice. II. Results in the unitary limit
Lee, Dean; Schaefer, Thomas
2006-01-15
This is the second of two articles that investigate cold dilute neutron matter on the lattice using pionless effective field theory. In the unitary limit, where the effective range is zero and scattering length is infinite, simple scaling relations relate thermodynamic functions at different temperatures. When the second virial coefficient is properly tuned, we find that the lattice results obey these scaling relations. We compute the energy per particle, pressure, spin susceptibility, dineutron correlation function, and an upper bound for the superfluid critical temperature.
An investigation of the critical liquid-vapor properties of dilute KCl solutions
Potter, R.W.; Babcock, R.S.; Czamanske, G.K.
1976-01-01
The three parameters that define the critical point, temperature, pressure, and volume have been experimentally determined by means of filling studies in a platinum-lined system for five KCl solutions ranging from 0.006 to 0.568 m. The platinum-lined vessels were used to overcome the problems with corrosion experienced by earlier workers. The critical temperature (tc), pressure (Pc), and volume (Vc) were found to fit the equations {Mathematical expression} from infinite dilution to 1.0 m. ?? 1976 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
Kinetic approach to the Gaussian thermostat in a dilute sheared gas in the thermodynamic limit.
van Zon, R
1999-10-01
A dilute gas of particles with short range interactions is considered in a shearing stationary state. A Gaussian thermostat keeps the total kinetic energy constant. For infinitely many particles it is shown that the thermostat becomes a friction force with constant friction coefficient. For finite number of particles N, the fluctuations around this constant are of order 1/squareroot[N], and distributed approximately Gaussian with deviations for large fluctuations. These deviations prohibit a derivation of fluctuation-dissipation relations far from equilibrium, based on the fluctuation theorem.
Superposition, Transition Probabilities and Primitive Observables in Infinite Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchholz, Detlev; Størmer, Erling
2015-10-01
The concepts of superposition and of transition probability, familiar from pure states in quantum physics, are extended to locally normal states on funnels of type I∞ factors. Such funnels are used in the description of infinite systems, appearing for example in quantum field theory or in quantum statistical mechanics; their respective constituents are interpreted as algebras of observables localized in an increasing family of nested spacetime regions. Given a generic reference state (expectation functional) on a funnel, e.g. a ground state or a thermal equilibrium state, it is shown that irrespective of the global type of this state all of its excitations, generated by the adjoint action of elements of the funnel, can coherently be superimposed in a meaningful manner. Moreover, these states are the extreme points of their convex hull and as such are analogues of pure states. As further support of this analogy, transition probabilities are defined, complete families of orthogonal states are exhibited and a one-to-one correspondence between the states and families of minimal projections on a Hilbert space is established. The physical interpretation of these quantities relies on a concept of primitive observables. It extends the familiar framework of observable algebras and avoids some counter intuitive features of that setting. Primitive observables admit a consistent statistical interpretation of corresponding measurements and their impact on states is described by a variant of the von Neumann-Lüders projection postulate.
An inline QC method for determining serial dilution performance of DMSO-based systems.
Walling, Leslie A
2011-06-01
Serial dilution of compounds solubilized in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for dose-response curves is a common method for efficacy analysis of potential drug candidates. In general, serial dilution methods are particularly prone to error propagation because each dilution is dependent on the previous concentration. Moreover, assumptions about quality control parameters (i.e., dye linearity) can lead to an erroneous process. Here, an inline performance measurement is sought to improve the precision and accuracy of dilution plates. Sulforhodamine 101 (S101) dye is introduced as the quantitative fluorometric method of choice for DMSO-based systems. Although S101 in DMSO behaves in a nonlinear fashion over its detectable range, we account for this with a direct calibration method that includes every point of the dilution template. This report contains dye selection rationale for the S101 dye and its use in quantifying the performance of 96- and 384-well dilution protocols as tested on five identical instruments.
Representations of Canonical Commutation Relations Describing Infinite Coherent States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco
2016-10-01
We investigate the infinite volume limit of quantized photon fields in multimode coherent states. We show that for states containing a continuum of coherent modes, it is mathematically and physically natural to consider their phases to be random and identically distributed. The infinite volume states give rise to Hilbert space representations of the canonical commutation relations which we construct concretely. In the case of random phases, the representations are random as well and can be expressed with the help of Itô stochastic integrals. We analyze the dynamics of the infinite state alone and the open system dynamics of small systems coupled to it. We show that under the free field dynamics, initial phase distributions are driven to the uniform distribution. We demonstrate that coherences in small quantum systems, interacting with the infinite coherent state, exhibit Gaussian time decay. The decoherence is qualitatively faster than the one caused by infinite thermal states, which is known to be exponentially rapid only. This emphasizes the classical character of coherent states.
On the impedance of infinite LC ladder networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimo, Paul
2017-01-01
The subject of electrical impedance is on the syllabi of most undergraduate courses in physics and electrical engineering. For example, Richard Feynman in his famous undergraduate text Lectures on Physics shows how to calculate the impedance of an infinite LC ladder. However, the formula he obtains has no useful physical interpretation if considered in the steady state frequency domain. In fact the value of this impedance becomes infinite unless one assumes that the energy flow along the infinite LC ladder is spatially uniform and in one direction only. This ad-hoc assumption, which renders the solution non-causal, is entirely unnecessary if the problem is considered in the time domain. It is important for students to appreciate that the concept of impedance works well only in dissipative circuits where the effects of transients are largely short lived. The purpose of this paper is to show that the same problem treated in the time domain by the Laplace transform method provides a qualitatively different and more satisfying explanation. We show that the current response of an infinite LC ladder, which is in the zero state before a causal harmonic driving voltage is applied, contains a significant non-harmonic component. This component, which is present in addition to the forced harmonic waveform, decays only very slowly and extracts an infinite amount of energy from the source.
Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets.
Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A
2014-07-01
Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops.
Electrocoalescence based serial dilution of microfluidic droplets
Bhattacharjee, Biddut; Vanapalli, Siva A.
2014-01-01
Dilution of microfluidic droplets where the concentration of a reagent is incrementally varied is a key operation in drop-based biological analysis. Here, we present an electrocoalescence based dilution scheme for droplets based on merging between moving and parked drops. We study the effects of fluidic and electrical parameters on the dilution process. Highly consistent coalescence and fine resolution in dilution factor are achieved with an AC signal as low as 10 V even though the electrodes are separated from the fluidic channel by insulator. We find that the amount of material exchange between the droplets per coalescence event is high for low capillary number. We also observe different types of coalescence depending on the flow and electrical parameters and discuss their influence on the rate of dilution. Overall, we find the key parameter governing the rate of dilution is the duration of coalescence between the moving and parked drop. The proposed design is simple incorporating the channel electrodes in the same layer as that of the fluidic channels. Our approach allows on-demand and controlled dilution of droplets and is simple enough to be useful for assays that require serial dilutions. The approach can also be useful for applications where there is a need to replace or wash fluid from stored drops. PMID:25379096
Noguerol-Arias, Joan; Rodríguez-Abalde, Angela; Romero-Merino, Eva; Flotats, Xavier
2012-07-03
This paper reports the development of an innovative sample preparation method for the determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in heterogeneous solid or semisolid samples, with high suspended solids and COD concentrations, using an optimized closed reflux colorimetric method. The novel method, named solid dilution (SD), is based on a different technique of sample preparation, diluting the sample with magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) previous to COD determination. With this, it is possible to obtain a solid homogeneous mixture much more easily analyzable. Besides, a modification of concentration and ratio of reagents was optimized to make the closed reflux colorimetric method suitable for complex substrates with COD levels ranging from 5 to 2500 g O(2) kg(-1) TS. The optimized method has been tested with potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) as primary solid standard and using different solid or semiliquid substrates like pig slaughterhouse waste and sewage sludge, among others. Finally, the optimized method (SD/SM-CRC) was intensively tested in comparison to the standard titrimetric method (SM-ORT) using different certified reference materials (CRM). The developed method was found to give higher accuracy, 1.4% relative standard deviation (RSD) vs 10.4%, and bias of 2.8% vs 8.0%, in comparison to the standard open reflux titrimetric method.
The Effect of Dilution on Microsegregation in AWS ER NiCrMo-14 Alloy Welding Claddings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miná, Émerson Mendonça; da Silva, Yuri Cruz; Dille, Jean; Silva, Cleiton Carvalho
2016-12-01
Dilution and microsegregation are phenomena inherent to claddings, which, in turn, directly affect their main properties. This study evaluated microsegregation in the fusion zone with different dilution levels. The overlays were welded by the TIG cold wire feed process. Dilution was calculated from the geometric characteristics of the claddings and from the conservation of mass equation using chemical composition measurements. Microsegregation was calculated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements of the dendrites and the chemical composition of the fusion zone. The dilution of the claddings was increased by reducing the wire feed rate. Fe showed potential to be incorporated into the solid phase ( k > 1), and this increased with the increase of dilution. Mo, in turn, was segregated into the liquid phase ( k < 1) and also increased with the increase of dilution. However, Cr and W showed a slight decrease in their partition coefficients ( k) with the increase of dilution.
Elasticity and hydrodynamic properties of ``doped solvent dilute'' lamellar phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nallet, Frédéric; Roux, Didier; Quilliet, Catherine; Fabre, Pascale; Milner, Scott T.
1994-09-01
The equilibrium fluctuations and weakly out-of-equilibrium relaxation properties of “doped solvent" dilute lamellar phases are investigated, both theoretically and experimentally, in the low-frequency, long-wavelength limit. The physical system of interest is a three-component smectic A lyotropic liquid crystal where surfactant bilayers infinite in extent are periodically stacked along one direction in space and separated by a colloidal solution. Two experimentally relevant modes are found in the lowest frequency part of the fluctuation spectrum of such multicomponent systems. Both are associated to the relaxation of coupled layer displacement and colloid concentration waves. In the limit of small coupling, one mode is close to the well-known undulation/baroclinic mode of two-component lamellar phases, while the other corresponds to the Brownian diffusive motion of the colloid in an anisotropic medium. Elastic constants of the smectic liquid crystal and diffusion parameters of the colloidal solution may be deduced from a measurement of the anisotropic dispersion relation of these two modes, as illustrated by dynamic light scattering experiments on the ferrosmectic system. Les fluctuations à l'équilibre ainsi que la relaxation des états légèrement en dehors de l'équilibre des phases lamellaires à “solvant dopé” sont étudiées, aussi bien d'un point de vue théorique qu'expérimental, dans la limite de basses fréquences et de grandes longueurs d'onde. Les systèmes décrits sont des cristaux-liquides smectiques A lyotropes formés de trois constituants : un tensioactif en solution dans une suspension colloïdale forme des bicouches de grande extension latérale qui s'empilent de façon périodique le long d'une direction dans l'espace. Avec de tels systèmes anisotropes et à plusieurs constituants deux modes présents dans la partie à basse fréquence du spectre des fluctuations (associés à la relaxation d'ondes, couplées, de concentration collo
Permittivity and permeability of semi-infinite metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porvatkina, O. V.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.
2016-08-01
In our work we investigate dielectric and magnetic properties of semi-infinite metamaterial consisting of particles of different possible nature: atoms, molecules, nanoparticles, etc. It is important that these particles would have magnetic properties. Polarization of a near-surface layer is known to differ from its bulk value for non-magnetic materials; for magnetic materials, including metamaterials, the situation should be similar, which is the subject of our research. We obtain analogues of the Clausius-Mossotti relation both for permittivity and permeability taking into account the local field effects in the longwave approximation for semi-infinite metamaterial. These relations describe the connection between macroscopic characteristics of the semi-infinite metamaterial (permittivity and permeability) and characteristics of constituent particles (dielectric polarizability and magnetic polarizability), which is a bright example of multi-scale approach - method very popular today in physical and computer simulating.
40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... emission level (HC, CO, CO2, PM, or NOX) in g/kW-hr. gi = Mass flow in grams per hour, = grams measured...CO× (COconc/106) (4) Carbon dioxide mass: CO2mass= Vmix× DensityCO2 × (CO2conc/102) (c) The mass of... the dilute air as measured, in ppm. (3) For carbon monoxide equations: CO mass=Carbon...
40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... emission level (HC, CO, CO2, PM, or NOX) in g/kW-hr. gi = Mass flow in grams per hour, = grams measured...CO× (COconc/106) (4) Carbon dioxide mass: CO2mass= Vmix× DensityCO2 × (CO2conc/102) (c) The mass of... the dilute air as measured, in ppm. (3) For carbon monoxide equations: CO mass=Carbon...
40 CFR 89.424 - Dilute emission sampling calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... emission level (HC, CO, CO2, PM, or NOX) in g/kW-hr. gi = Mass flow in grams per hour, = grams measured...CO× (COconc/106) (4) Carbon dioxide mass: CO2mass= Vmix× DensityCO2 × (CO2conc/102) (c) The mass of... the dilute air as measured, in ppm. (3) For carbon monoxide equations: CO mass=Carbon...
Quantum control of infinite-dimensional many-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bliss, Roger S.; Burgarth, Daniel
2014-03-01
A major challenge to the control of infinite-dimensional quantum systems is the irreversibility which is often present in the system dynamics. Here we consider systems with discrete-spectrum Hamiltonians operating over a Schwartz space domain and show that by utilizing the implications of the quantum recurrence theorem this irreversibility may be overcome, in the case of individual states more generally, but also in certain specified cases over larger subsets of the Hilbert space. We discuss briefly the possibility of using these results in the control of infinite-dimensional coupled harmonic oscillators and also draw attention to some of the issues and open questions arising from this and related work.
Robust Consumption-Investment Problem on Infinite Horizon
Zawisza, Dariusz
2015-12-15
In our paper we consider an infinite horizon consumption-investment problem under a model misspecification in a general stochastic factor model. We formulate the problem as a stochastic game and finally characterize the saddle point and the value function of that game using an ODE of semilinear type, for which we provide a proof of an existence and uniqueness theorem for its solution. Such equation is interested on its own right, since it generalizes many other equations arising in various infinite horizon optimization problems.
Infinite time interval backward stochastic differential equations with continuous coefficients.
Zong, Zhaojun; Hu, Feng
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the existence theorem for [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] solutions to a class of 1-dimensional infinite time interval backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs) under the conditions that the coefficients are continuous and have linear growths. We also obtain the existence of a minimal solution. Furthermore, we study the existence and uniqueness theorem for [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] solutions of infinite time interval BSDEs with non-uniformly Lipschitz coefficients. It should be pointed out that the assumptions of this result is weaker than that of Theorem 3.1 in Zong (Turkish J Math 37:704-718, 2013).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Fuke; Yin, George; Mei, Hongwei
2017-02-01
This work is devoted to stochastic functional differential equations (SFDEs) with infinite delay. First, existence and uniqueness of the solutions of such equations are examined. Because the solutions of the delay equations are not Markov, a viable alternative for studying further asymptotic properties is to use solution maps or segment processes. By examining solution maps, this work investigates the Markov properties as well as the strong Markov properties. Also obtained are adaptivity and continuity, mean-square boundedness, and convergence of solution maps from different initial data. This paper then examines the ergodicity of underlying processes and establishes existence of the invariant measure for SFDEs with infinite delay under suitable conditions.
Stability of infinite slopes under transient partially saturated seepage conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godt, Jonathan W.; ŞEner-Kaya, BaşAk; Lu, Ning; Baum, Rex L.
2012-05-01
Prediction of the location and timing of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is desired by organizations responsible for hazard management and warnings. However, hydrologic and mechanical processes in the vadose zone complicate such predictions. Infiltrating rainfall must typically pass through an unsaturated layer before reaching the irregular and usually discontinuous shallow water table. This process is dynamic and a function of precipitation intensity and duration, the initial moisture conditions and hydrologic properties of the hillside materials, and the geometry, stratigraphy, and vegetation of the hillslope. As a result, pore water pressures, volumetric water content, effective stress, and thus the propensity for landsliding vary over seasonal and shorter time scales. We apply a general framework for assessing the stability of infinite slopes under transient variably saturated conditions. The framework includes profiles of pressure head and volumetric water content combined with a general effective stress for slope stability analysis. The general effective stress, or suction stress, provides a means for rigorous quantification of stress changes due to rainfall and infiltration and thus the analysis of slope stability over the range of volumetric water contents and pressure heads relevant to shallow landslide initiation. We present results using an analytical solution for transient infiltration for a range of soil texture and hydrological properties typical of landslide-prone hillslopes and show the effect of these properties on the timing and depth of slope failure. We follow by analyzing field-monitoring data acquired prior to shallow landslide failure of a hillside near Seattle, Washington, and show that the timing of the slide was predictable using measured pressure head and volumetric water content and show how the approach can be used in a forward manner using a numerical model for transient infiltration.
Transient Effects in Planar Solidification of Dilute Binary Alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M.P.
2008-01-01
The initial transient during planar solidification of dilute binary alloys is studied in the framework of the boundary integral method that leads to the non-linear Volterra integral governing equation. An analytical solution of this equation is obtained for the case of a constant growth rate which constitutes the well-known Tiller's formula for the solute transient. The more physically relevant, constant ramping down temperature case has been studied both numerically and analytically. In particular, an asymptotic analytical solution is obtained for the initial transient behavior. A numerical technique to solve the non-linear Volterra equation is developed and the solution is obtained for a family of the governing parameters. For the rapid solidification condition, growth rate spikes have been observed even for the infinite kinetics model. When recirculating fluid flow is included into the analysis, the spike feature is dramatically diminished. Finally, we have investigated planar solidification with a fluctuating temperature field as a possible mechanism for frequently observed solute trapping bands.
Entanglement and local extremes at an infinite-order quantum phase transition
Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S.
2010-03-15
The characterization of an infinite-order quantum phase transition (QPT) by entanglement measures is analyzed. To this aim, we consider two closely related solvable spin-1/2 chains, namely, the Ashkin-Teller and the staggered XXZ models. These systems display a distinct pattern of eigenstates but exhibit the same thermodynamics, that is, the same energy spectrum. By performing exact diagonalization, we investigate the behavior of pairwise and block entanglement in the ground state of both models. In contrast with the XXZ chain, we show that pairwise entanglement fails in the characterization of the infinite-order QPT in the Ashkin-Teller model, although it can be achieved by analyzing the distance of the pair state from the separability boundary. Concerning block entanglement, we show that both XXZ and Ashkin-Teller models exhibit identical von Neumann entropies as long as a suitable choice of blocks is performed. Entanglement entropy is then shown to be able to identify the quantum phase diagram, even though its local extremes (either maximum or minimum) may also appear in the absence of any infinite-order QPT.
Tomograms for open quantum systems: In(finite) dimensional optical and spin systems
Thapliyal, Kishore; Banerjee, Subhashish; Pathak, Anirban
2016-03-15
Tomograms are obtained as probability distributions and are used to reconstruct a quantum state from experimentally measured values. We study the evolution of tomograms for different quantum systems, both finite and infinite dimensional. In realistic experimental conditions, quantum states are exposed to the ambient environment and hence subject to effects like decoherence and dissipation, which are dealt with here, consistently, using the formalism of open quantum systems. This is extremely relevant from the perspective of experimental implementation and issues related to state reconstruction in quantum computation and communication. These considerations are also expected to affect the quasiprobability distribution obtained from experimentally generated tomograms and nonclassicality observed from them. -- Highlights: •Tomograms are constructed for open quantum systems. •Finite and infinite dimensional quantum systems are studied. •Finite dimensional systems (phase states, single & two qubit spin states) are studied. •A dissipative harmonic oscillator is considered as an infinite dimensional system. •Both pure dephasing as well as dissipation effects are studied.
Solute dilution at the Borden and Cape Cod groundwater tracer tests
Thierrin, Joseph; Kitanidis, Peter K.
1994-01-01
This study presents an analysis of the rate of dilution of a conservative nonreactive tracer in two well-known field experiments: The Borden (Ontario, Canada) experiment and the Cape Cod (Massachusetts) experiment. In evaluating the dilution of injected sodium bromide, in addition to computing the second spatial moments, we have used the dilution index and the reactor ratio. The dilution index is a measure of the formation volume occupied by the solute plume, and the reactor ratio is a shape factor, which measures how stretched and deformed the plume is. Unlike the second moments, which may go up or down during an experiment, the dilution index should increase monotonically. The results for both plumes were quite similar. After an initial period the dilution index increased linearly with time, which is macroscopically equivalent to transport in two-dimensional uniform flow. The reactor ratio was relatively constant during the period of the experiments. Their values, about 0.72 for the Borden test and 0.63 for the Cape Cod test, indicate that the Cape Cod plume was more stretched and deformed than the Borden plume. The maximum concentration, which is an alternative to the dilution index for quantifying dilution, was found to be more erratic and more susceptible to sampling error.
Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul L.; Sonne, Anne T.; Balbarini, Nicola; Rosenberg, Louise; Binning, Philip J.
2015-01-01
An analytical solution to describe dilution and volatilization of a continuous groundwater contaminant plume into streams is developed for risk assessment. The location of groundwater plume discharge into the stream (discharge through the side versus bottom of the stream) and different distributions of the contaminant plume concentration (Gaussian, homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution) are considered. The model considering the plume discharged through the bank of the river, with a uniform concentration distribution was the most appropriate for risk assessment due to its simplicity and limited data requirements. The dilution and volatilization model is able to predict the entire concentration field, and thus the mixing zone, maximum concentration and fully mixed concentration in the stream. It can also be used to identify groundwater discharge zones from in-stream concentration measurement. The solution was successfully applied to published field data obtained in a large and a small Danish stream and provided valuable information on the risk posed by the groundwater contaminant plumes. The results provided by the dilution and volatilization model are very different to those obtained with existing point source models, with a distributed source leading to a larger mixing length and different concentration field. The dilution model can also provide recommendations for sampling locations and the size of impact zones in streams. This is of interest for regulators, for example when developing guidelines for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.
Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams.
Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul L; Sonne, Anne T; Balbarini, Nicola; Rosenberg, Louise; Binning, Philip J
2015-01-01
An analytical solution to describe dilution and volatilization of a continuous groundwater contaminant plume into streams is developed for risk assessment. The location of groundwater plume discharge into the stream (discharge through the side versus bottom of the stream) and different distributions of the contaminant plume concentration (Gaussian, homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution) are considered. The model considering the plume discharged through the bank of the river, with a uniform concentration distribution was the most appropriate for risk assessment due to its simplicity and limited data requirements. The dilution and volatilization model is able to predict the entire concentration field, and thus the mixing zone, maximum concentration and fully mixed concentration in the stream. It can also be used to identify groundwater discharge zones from in-stream concentration measurement. The solution was successfully applied to published field data obtained in a large and a small Danish stream and provided valuable information on the risk posed by the groundwater contaminant plumes. The results provided by the dilution and volatilization model are very different to those obtained with existing point source models, with a distributed source leading to a larger mixing length and different concentration field. The dilution model can also provide recommendations for sampling locations and the size of impact zones in streams. This is of interest for regulators, for example when developing guidelines for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.
Bathelier, C; Mercier, G; Lucotte, G
1996-12-01
We describe a semiquantitative method to measure hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral particle numbers, by carrying out reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serial dilutions of serum samples. The virus concentrations measured were 10(3)-10(6) viral particles ml-1 of serum. The method described is relatively quick, and the only required manipulation is dilution of the serum. An optimal RT-PCR method is used for diluted and undiluted samples.
What Causes Adverbial Infinitives to Spread? Evidence from Romance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schulte, K.
2007-01-01
It is cross-linguistically common for languages to undergo a diachronic increase in the range of adverbial notions that can be expressed by means of infinitival constructions, and the Romance languages are a good example of this process. Examining the development of adverbial "prepositional infinitive" constructions in Spanish, Portuguese and…
Plasmonic waves of a semi-infinite random nanocomposite
Moradi, Afshin
2013-10-15
The dispersion curves of the plasmonic waves of a semi-infinite random metal-dielectric nanocomposite, consisting of bulk metal embedded with dielectric inclusions, are presented. Two branches of p-polarized surface plasmon-polariton modes are found to exist. The possibility of experimentally observing the surface waves by attenuated total reflection is demonstrated.
Explaining Infinite Series--An Exploration of Students' Images
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Champney, Danielle Dawn
2013-01-01
This study uses self-generated representations (SGR)--images produced in the act of explaining--as a means of uncovering what university calculus students understand about infinite series convergence. It makes use of student teaching episodes, in which students were asked to explain to a peer what that student might have missed had they been…
Reparametrization of the Relativistic Infinitely Extended Charged Particle Action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadat, Hassan; Pourhassan, Behnam
2016-09-01
In this letter, relativistic infinitely extended particles formulated. Correct form of action with possibility of reparametrization obtained and effect of electric field considered. It may be one of the first step to re-introduce theory of every things given by Nakano and Hessaby many years ago.
Infinite Töplitz Lipschitz matrices and operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliasson, H. L.; Kuksin, S. B.
2008-01-01
We introduce a class of infinite matrices {(A_{ss', s, s' in mathbb{Z}^d)} , which are asymptotically ( as | s| + | s'| → ∞) close to Hankel Töplitz matrices. We prove that this class forms an algebra, and that flow-maps of nonautonomous linear equations with coefficients from the class also belong to it.
Functional DNA: Teaching Infinite Series through Genetic Analogy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kowalski, R. Travis
2011-01-01
This article presents an extended analogy that connects infinite sequences and series to the science of genetics, by identifying power series as "DNA for a function." This analogy allows standard topics such as convergence tests or Taylor approximations to be recast in a "forensic" light as mathematical analogs of genetic concepts such as DNA…
On Hamilton-Jacobi equation in infinite dimensions
Sritharan, S.S.
1994-12-31
A relationship between the notion of viscosity solution in the sense of Crandall and Lions and the generalized solution in the sense of Clarke for the infinite dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is established. This problem arises in optimal control of fluids.
The Limits of Some Infinite Families of Complex Contracting Mappings
Pagon, Dusan
2008-11-13
Self-similarity is strongly presented in modern mathematics and physics. We study a broad class of planar fractals--strongly self-similar sets of points in complex plane, obtained from a unit interval as geometric limits of certain infinite families of contracting mappings. Different 1-1 correspondences between the constructed set and the initial unit interval are established.
Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-01-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…
The Limits of Some Infinite Families of Complex Contracting Mappings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagon, Dušan
2008-11-01
Self-similarity is strongly presented in modern mathematics and physics. We study a broad class of planar fractals—strongly self-similar sets of points in complex plane, obtained from a unit interval as geometric limits of certain infinite families of contracting mappings. Different 1-1 correspondences between the constructed set and the initial unit interval are established.
The physics of FEL in an infinite electron beam
Wang, G.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Webb, S.
2010-10-07
We solve linearized Vlasov-Maxwell FEL equations for a 3-D perturbation in the infinite electron beam with Lorentzian energy distributions using paraxial approximation. We present analytical solutions for various initial perturbations and discuss the effect of optical guiding in such system.
An infinite-dimensional calculus for generalized connections on hypercubic lattices
Mendes, R. Vilela
2011-05-15
A space for gauge theories is defined, using projective limits as subsets of Cartesian products of homomorphisms from a lattice on the structure group. In this space, non-interacting and interacting measures are defined as well as functions and operators. From projective limits of test functions and distributions on products of compact groups, a projective gauge triplet is obtained, which provides a framework for the infinite-dimensional calculus in gauge theories. The gauge measure behavior on non-generic strata is also obtained.
Infinite possibility: clowning with elderly people.
McMahan, Selena Clare
2008-01-01
Over the past 30 years, there has been aplentitude of research into the health benefits of humor and laughter for healthy, sick, or depressed adults and children as well as for senior citizens. Medical research supports our human instinct that people who smile and laugh are happy, whereas those who are inexpressive are usually not happy. Research shows that humor stimulus results in mirth, which elicits a primarily emotional response with psychological efects, and laughter, which elicits a physical response with physiological effects. The many physiological benefits of laughter in older adults have been clearly demonstrated. Yet much of the medical research is based on experiments using funny videos and cartoons for humor sessions. I argue that "clowning around" with elderly people brings greater benefits than laughter alone. These benefits are clearly evident, though they may not be scientifically measurable: When the game is rooted in the patient's own imagination, thereby giving agency to a powerless individual it is many times more personal and transformative. In this article, I focus on my experiences with older adults while working with Clowns Without Borders and Risaterapia as well as on my own relationship with my grandfather. I provide a framework for why humanitarian clowning and the principles behind it can be incredibly well suited for working with the elderly.
One-dimensional gravity in infinite point distributions.
Gabrielli, A; Joyce, M; Sicard, F
2009-10-01
The dynamics of infinite asymptotically uniform distributions of purely self-gravitating particles in one spatial dimension provides a simple and interesting toy model for the analogous three dimensional problem treated in cosmology. In this paper we focus on a limitation of such models as they have been treated so far in the literature: the force, as it has been specified, is well defined in infinite point distributions only if there is a centre of symmetry (i.e., the definition requires explicitly the breaking of statistical translational invariance). The problem arises because naive background subtraction (due to expansion, or by "Jeans swindle" for the static case), applied as in three dimensions, leaves an unregulated contribution to the force due to surface mass fluctuations. Following a discussion by Kiessling of the Jeans swindle in three dimensions, we show that the problem may be resolved by defining the force in infinite point distributions as the limit of an exponentially screened pair interaction. We show explicitly that this prescription gives a well defined (finite) force acting on particles in a class of perturbed infinite lattices, which are the point processes relevant to cosmological N -body simulations. For identical particles the dynamics of the simplest toy model (without expansion) is equivalent to that of an infinite set of points with inverted harmonic oscillator potentials which bounce elastically when they collide. We discuss and compare with previous results in the literature and present new results for the specific case of this simplest (static) model starting from "shuffled lattice" initial conditions. These show qualitative properties of the evolution (notably its "self-similarity") like those in the analogous simulations in three dimensions, which in turn resemble those in the expanding universe.
Helium Dilution Cryocooler for Space Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roach, Pat; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
NASA's New Millenium Program Space Technology presents the Helium Dilution Cryocooler for Space Applications. The topics include: 1) Capability; 2) Applications; and 3) Advantages. This paper is in viewgraph form.
Rheology of Dilute Aqueous Dispersions of Monodisperse Phytoglycogen Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamana, Hurmiz; Dutcher, John
The viscosity of dilute colloidal dispersions is well described by the Einstein relation, which is linear in the volume fraction of the particles. For hard spheres, this allows the calculation of the specific volume of the spheres. For soft colloidal particles, the analysis of the data can be complicated by the uptake of the solvent by the particles. We have measured the concentration dependence of the zero shear viscosity of dilute aqueous dispersions of monodisperse phytoglycogen nanoparticles, which absorb a large amount of water (each nanoparticle contains about 250% of its mass in water). By using values of the particle size and the hydrated and dehydrated molecular weights determined using neutron scattering, we can interpret the measured viscosity-concentration data in terms of the Einstein relation to obtain the particle density and corresponding volume fraction of the dispersions.
Dilution Refrigerator Technology for Scalable Quantum Computing
2014-05-22
has successfully designed, built, tested, and delivered a cryogen free dilution refrigerator for scalable quantum computing. This document is intended... Cryogenics , quantum computing REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8. PERFORMING...W911NF-10-C-0004. High Precision Devices, Inc. has successfully designed, built, tested, and delivered a cryogen free dilution refrigerator for
DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS
Kishore K. Mohanty
2005-01-01
There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.
Ultraviolet absorption spectra of metalorganic molecules diluted in hydrogen gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, Hideo; Watanabe, Masanobu; Mukai, Seiji; Yajima, Hiroyoshi
1988-12-01
Ultraviolet absorption spectra of trimethyl gallium, triethyl gallium, and trimethyl aluminum diluted in hydrogen gas were measured as a function of the wavelength (185-350 nm) and the concentration of the molecules (4.8×10 -6 -1.6×10 -4 mol/liter). Their absorbances changed linearly with the concentration of the molecules, which allowed us to calculate the molar absorption coefficients of the molecules on the basis of the Beer-Lambert law.
Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.
2009-02-01
Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.
Isotope dilution spaces of mice injected simultaneously with deuterium, tritium and oxygen-18.
Król, E; Speakman, J R
1999-10-01
The isotope dilution technique for measuring total body water (TBW), and the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for measuring energy expenditure, are both sensitive to small variations in the ratio of the hydrogen to oxygen-18 dilution space. Since the dilution space ratio varies between individuals, there has been much recent debate over what causes this variability (i.e. physiological differences between individuals or analytical error in the isotope determinations), and thus which values (individual or a population mean dilution space ratio) should be employed for TBW and DLW calculations. To distinguish between physiological and analytical variability, we injected 15 non-reproductive and 12 lactating mice (Mus musculus, outbred MF1) simultaneously with deuterium, tritium and oxygen-18. The two hydrogen labels were administered and analysed independently, therefore we expected a strong correlation between dilution space ratios based on deuterium and tritium if most of the variation in dilution spaces was physiological, but only a weak correlation if most of the variation was analytical. Dilution spaces were significantly influenced by reproductive status. Dilution spaces expressed as a percentage of body mass averaged 15.7 % greater in lactating mice than in non-reproductive mice. In addition, the hydrogen tracer employed had a significant effect (deuterium spaces were 2.0 % larger than tritium spaces). Deuterium and tritium dilution spaces, expressed as a percentage of body mass, were highly correlated. Dilution space ratios ranged from 0.952 to 1. 146 when using deuterium, and from 0.930 to 1.103 when using tritium. Dilution space ratios based on deuterium and tritium were also highly correlated. Comparison of standard deviations of the dilution space ratio based on deuterium in vivo and in vitro indicated that only 4.5 % of the variation in the dilution space ratios observed in the mice could be accounted for by analytical variation in the deuterium and
Sample Diluter for Detecting Hypergolic Propellants and other Toxic or Hazardous Gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barile, R. G.; Hodge, T. R.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Gursky, R.; Lueck, D. E.
1997-01-01
Hardware was developed to dilute vapor samples of purged hypergolic propellants (with air) into the range of existing instruments for detection of such toxic vapors. Since these detectors are normally used to monitor at the threshold limit value (TLV), most do not have quantitative capability at percent levels which relate to lower explosion limit (LEL) and fire hazards. For example, the upper limits of Energetic Sciences (ESI) 6000 series detectors used at KSC are 200 parts per million (ppm) for monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and 500 ppm for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) arising from decomposition of nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4). Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) personnel servicing Shuttle thrusters need to measure up to 250 ppm MMH and 7,500 ppm NO2 with portable, intrinsically safe instruments. Our objective was to quickly fabricate a sample diluter out of existing materials as a temporary measure while other parallel efforts were conducted to provide a commercial or in-house-developed instrument to detect high propellant levels. A 3 to 1 diluter would bring 500 ppm MMH into the range of the existing fuel ESI, and a 30 to 1 diluter would do the same for NO2. In this way, familiar equipment already available would be used, resulting in minimal paperwork, safety, and training impacts and low cost. An MMH vapor sample-diluter was constructed from a 1/4-inch Kynar tee, along with specially designed lengths of sample and dilution tubing. The sample line was 3 feet of Bev-A-Line 4, 1/4-inch tube leading to the straight run of the tee. The side run of the tee had a 17-inch length of Bev-A-Line 4, 1/4-inch tube, for nominal 3 to 1 dilution. A gas sample bag was prepared and assayed at 113 ppm ppm MMH, and diluted vapor samples were assayed at 39.5 ppm, or a measured dilution of 2.9 to 1. For NO2, a 316 stainless steel (SS) 1/8-inch tee with 49.5 inches of coiled, 1/8-inch outside diameter (OD) 316 SS tubing was used as the sampling end of the dilution system. The side run of the tee
Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report
Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.
2005-09-30
A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions
Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report
1997-10-01
A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric
Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report
Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.
1997-10-31
A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions
Volumetric Properties of Dilute Aqueous Solutions of 1- and 2-propanol to 50 MPa and 373.15 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seitz, J.; Bahramian, J.; Blackwell, R.; Inaki, T.; York, D.; Schulte, M. D.
2014-12-01
The need to accurately model and understand reactions among organic compounds and biomolecules in solution is necessary to develop realistic chemical models for the reactions leading to the emergence of life and metabolic processes of extremophiles under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. Unfortunately, the scarcity of experimentally determined volumetric (and other) properties for important compounds at high temperatures and pressures leads to uncertainty in the calculation of reaction properties. Experimentally determined volumetric properties of aqueous solutions at non-standard conditions provide direct tests of current estimation methods and aid in the refinement of these methods. The goal of our research is to provide a database of experimentally determined volumetric properties. In previous studies, we have examined important organic molecules and biomolecules such as adenosine, coenzyme M and D-ribose. In this study, we investigate the volumetric properties of the structural isomers 1- and 2-propanol. 1-propanol (n-propanol) is a primary alcohol (CH3CH2CH2OH) and 2-propanol (isopropanol) is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol (CH3CHOHCH3). These compounds differ slightly in structure depending on to which carbon atom the hydroxyl group is bonded and will provide a sensitive test of current estimation methods and lead to more accurate predictions of the properties of complex aqueous systems at elevated temperatures and pressures. We obtained the densities of aqueous solutions of the alchohols using an Anton Paar DMA HP vibrating tube densimeter. Pressure was measured (pressure transducer) to an accuracy of ±0.01% and temperature was measured (integrated platinum thermometer) with an accuracy of ±0.05 K. Experimental uncertainty of density measurements is less than ±0.0001 g·cm-3. The partial molar volumes at infinite dilution (V∞) for 1- and 2-propanol were calculated from the measured densities and are shown in the figure at 0
Infinite-randomness critical point in the two-dimensional disordered contact process.
Vojta, Thomas; Farquhar, Adam; Mast, Jason
2009-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium phase transition in the two-dimensional contact process on a randomly diluted lattice by means of large-scale Monte Carlo simulations for times up to 10;{10} and system sizes up to 8000x8000 sites. Our data provide strong evidence for the transition being controlled by an exotic infinite-randomness critical point with activated (exponential) dynamical scaling. We calculate the critical exponents of the transition and find them to be universal, i.e., independent of disorder strength. The Griffiths region between the clean and the dirty critical points exhibits power-law dynamical scaling with continuously varying exponents. We discuss the generality of our findings and relate them to a broader theory of rare region effects at phase transitions with quenched disorder. Our results are of importance beyond absorbing state transitions because, according to a strong-disorder renormalization group analysis, our transition belongs to the universality class of the two-dimensional random transverse-field Ising model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris
2016-04-01
The combination of isotope dilution and mass spectrometry has become an ubiquitous tool of chemical analysis. Often perceived as one of the most accurate methods of chemical analysis, it is not without shortcomings. Current isotope dilution equations are not capable of fully addressing one of the key problems encountered in chemical analysis: the possible effect of sample matrix on measured isotope ratios. The method of standard addition does compensate for the effect of sample matrix by making sure that all measured solutions have identical composition. While it is impossible to attain such condition in traditional isotope dilution, we present equations which allow for matrix-matching between all measured solutions by fusion of isotope dilution and standard addition methods.
Accelerated Gibbs Sampling for Infinite Sparse Factor Analysis
Andrzejewski, D M
2011-09-12
The Indian Buffet Process (IBP) gives a probabilistic model of sparse binary matrices with an unbounded number of columns. This construct can be used, for example, to model a fixed numer of observed data points (rows) associated with an unknown number of latent features (columns). Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are often used for IBP inference, and in this technical note, we provide a detailed review of the derivations of collapsed and accelerated Gibbs samplers for the linear-Gaussian infinite latent feature model. We also discuss and explain update equations for hyperparameter resampling in a 'full Bayesian' treatment and present a novel slice sampler capable of extending the accelerated Gibbs sampler to the case of infinite sparse factor analysis by allowing the use of real-valued latent features.
Infinite-Order Symmetries for Quantum Separable Systems
Miller, W.; Kalnins, E.G.; Kress, J.M.; Pogosyan, G.S.
2005-10-01
We develop a calculus to describe the (in general) infinite-order differential operator symmetries of a nonrelativistic Schroedinger eigenvalue equation that admits an orthogonal separation of variables in Riemannian n space. The infinite-order calculus exhibits structure not apparent when one studies only finite-order symmetries. The search for finite-order symmetries can then be reposed as one of looking for solutions of a coupled system of PDEs that are polynomial in certain parameters. Among the simple consequences of the calculus is that one can generate algorithmically a canonical basis for the space. Similarly, we can develop a calculus for conformal symmetries of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation if it admits R separation in some coordinate system. This leads to energy-shifting symmetries.
Defocusing of null rays in infinite derivative gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conroy, Aindriú; Koshelev, Alexey S.; Mazumdar, Anupam
2017-01-01
Einstein's General theory of relativity permits spacetime singularities, where null geodesic congruences focus in the presence of matter, which satisfies an appropriate energy condition. In this paper, we provide a minimal defocusing condition for null congruences without assuming any ansatz-dependent background solution. The two important criteria are: (1) an additional scalar degree of freedom, besides the massless graviton must be introduced into the spacetime; and (2) an infinite derivative theory of gravity is required in order to avoid tachyons or ghosts in the graviton propagator. In this regard, our analysis strengthens earlier arguments for constructing non-singular bouncing cosmologies within an infinite derivative theory of gravity, without assuming any ansatz to solve the full equations of motion.
Magnetic levitation force of semi-infinite type-II superconductors
Coffey, M.W.
1995-10-01
The levitation force acting on a point magnetic dipole above a semi-infinite type-II superconductor in both the Meissner and mixed states is studied. A formalism is developed for axisymmetric problems using London theory. The magnetostatic interaction energy and corresponding force can be put into closed form for such problems for arbitrary height of the magnetic point source. The results for stray fields have ready application to magnetic-force microscopy (MFM) with point probes. The results are useful for a range of experiments including the low-temperature MFM imaging of vortices and decoration measurements. Special cases include earlier results and previous approximations are obviated.
Toroidal insulating inhomogeneity in an infinite space and related problems
Radi, E.
2016-01-01
An analytic solution for the steady-state temperature distribution in an infinite conductive medium containing an insulated toroidal inhomogeneity and subjected to remotely applied uniform heat flux is obtained. The temperature flux on the torus surface is then determined as a function of torus parameters. This result is used to calculate the resistivity contribution tensor for the toroidal inhomogeneity required to evaluate the effective conductive properties of a material containing multiple inhomogeneities of this shape. PMID:27118919
Private algebras in quantum information and infinite-dimensional complementarity
Crann, Jason; Kribs, David W.; Levene, Rupert H.; Todorov, Ivan G.
2016-01-15
We introduce a generalized framework for private quantum codes using von Neumann algebras and the structure of commutants. This leads naturally to a more general notion of complementary channel, which we use to establish a generalized complementarity theorem between private and correctable subalgebras that applies to both the finite and infinite-dimensional settings. Linear bosonic channels are considered and specific examples of Gaussian quantum channels are given to illustrate the new framework together with the complementarity theorem.
Analysis of Multiple Cracks in an Infinite Functionally Graded Plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shbeeb, N. I.; Binienda, W. K.; Kreider, K. L.
1999-01-01
A general methodology was constructed to develop the fundamental solution for a crack embedded in an infinite non-homogeneous material in which the shear modulus varies exponentially with the y coordinate. The fundamental solution was used to generate a solution to fully interactive multiple crack problems for stress intensity factors and strain energy release rates. Parametric studies were conducted for two crack configurations. The model displayed sensitivity to crack distance, relative angular orientation, and to the coefficient of nonhomogeneity.
Subdifferential of Optimal Value Functions in Nonlinear Infinite Programming
Huy, N. Q. Giang, N. D.; Yao, J.-C.
2012-02-15
This paper presents an exact formula for computing the normal cones of the constraint set mapping including the Clarke normal cone and the Mordukhovich normal cone in infinite programming under the extended Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification condition. Then, we derive an upper estimate as well as an exact formula for the limiting subdifferential of the marginal/optimal value function in a general Banach space setting.
Infinite Phased Array of Microstrip Dipoles in Two Layers
1989-01-01
Green’s function appropriate to the two-layer substrate- superstrate structure was used in the formulation of the method of moMents - (continued on back) 20...analysis is presented for an infinite phased array of microstrip dipoles embedded within a two layer substrate structure (sub- strate- superstrate ...characterization of input impedance as a function of phase scan angle. Results for several sub- strate- superstrate structures illustrate the utility of the single
Effect of dilution on compressibility of naproxen in acetonitrile studied by ultrasonic method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marczak, W.; Kowalska, T.; Bucek, M.; Piotrowski, D.; Sajewicz, M.
2006-11-01
Naproxen, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. All of them belong to chiral 2-arylpropionic acids (2-APAs). Chiral compounds may remain in a patient's body as two antimers, even if administered as a single one, due to transenantiomerization. That is dangerous if therapeutic enantiomer has a toxic antipode. Chromatographic data suggest that solutions of S-(+)-naproxen in acetonitrile are stiffer than the pure solvent that favours oscillatory transenantiomerisation. Acoustic and volumetric studies of dilute solutions of naproxen in acetonitrile have been undertaken to verify that supposition. The molar adiabatic compressibility and volume depend linearly on the molar percent of naproxen at temperatures from 298.15 K to 313.15 K. Limiting partial compressibility of naproxen is close to zero and decreases slightly with increasing temperature. Thus, the compressibility of dilute solutions is mainly due to compressibility of acetonitrile, while naproxen is virtually incompressible. The hydrogen-bonded dimers of naproxen probably remain intact, even at infinite dilution.
Transport experiments on dilute, spin-polarized Fermi fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Candela, D.; McAllaster, D. R.; Wei, L.-J.; Kalechofsky, N.
1992-10-01
A series of experiments has been carried out on very dilute3He-4He mixtures and on pure3He liquid at very high field/temperature ratios (H≤8 T, T≥4.3mK). In this regime these systems display a strong Leggett-Rice effect, weakly damped paramagnetic spin waves, and significant polarization effects on spin and momentum transport. The dilute mixture experiments used NMR to observe standing spin waves, and vibrating-wire viscometry to measure momentum transport. A very satisfactory agreement is found with the recent kinetic-equation calculations of Jeon and Mullin. The pure3He experiments may provide the first evidence for field-induced relaxation of transverse spin currents.
Fuhrman, Marco Hu, Ying
2007-09-15
In this paper we prove the existence of a solution to backward stochastic differential equations in infinite dimensions with continuous driver under various assumptions. We apply our results to a stochastic game problem with infinitely many players.
Evaluation of a digital dispenser for direct curve dilutions in a vaccine potency assay.
Roselle, Christopher; Whitehouse, Dana; Follmer, Thy; Ansbro, Fran; Bouaraphan, Silikhone; Guan, Liming; Wang, Sha-Ke; Shank-Retzlaff, Mary; Verch, Thorsten
2017-03-01
Dilutions are a common source of analytical error, both in terms of accuracy and precision, and a common source of analyst mistakes. When serial dilutions are used, errors compound, even when employing laboratory automation. Direct point dilutions instead of serial dilutions can reduce error but is often impractical as they require either large diluent volumes or very small sample volumes when performed with traditional liquid handling equipment. We evaluated preparation of dilution curves using a picoliter digital dispenser, the HP, Inc. / TECAN D300 which is capable of accurately delivering picoliter volumes directly into sample wells filled with assay diluent. Dilution linearity and variability of the direct dilutions were similar to or less than those generated with a traditional liquid handler as measured using a fluorophore assay and an ELISA used to measure vaccine potency. Minimum concentrations for detergent in the dispensed sample were identified but no correlation with detergent characteristics was observed. The tolerance to protein in the sample was evaluated as well with up to 5% BSA having no impact on dispense linearity and precision. We found the digital dispenser to reduce automation complexity while maintaining or improving assay performance in addition to facilitating complex plate lay-outs.
Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions
Lu, N.; Godt, J.
2008-01-01
[1] We present a generalized framework for the stability of infinite slopes under steady unsaturated seepage conditions. The analytical framework allows the water table to be located at any depth below the ground surface and variation of soil suction and moisture content above the water table under steady infiltration conditions. The framework also explicitly considers the effect of weathering and porosity increase near the ground surface on changes in the friction angle of the soil. The factor of safety is conceptualized as a function of the depth within the vadose zone and can be reduced to the classical analytical solution for subaerial infinite slopes in the saturated zone. Slope stability analyses with hypothetical sandy and silty soils are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the framework. These analyses indicate that for hillslopes of both sandy and silty soils, failure can occur above the water table under steady infiltration conditions, which is consistent with some field observations that cannot be predicted by the classical infinite slope theory. A case study of shallow slope failures of sandy colluvium on steep coastal hillslopes near Seattle, Washington, is presented to examine the predictive utility of the proposed framework. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan
2008-11-01
We present a generalized framework for the stability of infinite slopes under steady unsaturated seepage conditions. The analytical framework allows the water table to be located at any depth below the ground surface and variation of soil suction and moisture content above the water table under steady infiltration conditions. The framework also explicitly considers the effect of weathering and porosity increase near the ground surface on changes in the friction angle of the soil. The factor of safety is conceptualized as a function of the depth within the vadose zone and can be reduced to the classical analytical solution for subaerial infinite slopes in the saturated zone. Slope stability analyses with hypothetical sandy and silty soils are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the framework. These analyses indicate that for hillslopes of both sandy and silty soils, failure can occur above the water table under steady infiltration conditions, which is consistent with some field observations that cannot be predicted by the classical infinite slope theory. A case study of shallow slope failures of sandy colluvium on steep coastal hillslopes near Seattle, Washington, is presented to examine the predictive utility of the proposed framework.
Infinite variance in fermion quantum Monte Carlo calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei
2016-03-01
For important classes of many-fermion problems, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods allow exact calculations of ground-state and finite-temperature properties without the sign problem. The list spans condensed matter, nuclear physics, and high-energy physics, including the half-filled repulsive Hubbard model, the spin-balanced atomic Fermi gas, and lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations at zero density with Wilson Fermions, and is growing rapidly as a number of problems have been discovered recently to be free of the sign problem. In these situations, QMC calculations are relied on to provide definitive answers. Their results are instrumental to our ability to understand and compute properties in fundamental models important to multiple subareas in quantum physics. It is shown, however, that the most commonly employed algorithms in such situations have an infinite variance problem. A diverging variance causes the estimated Monte Carlo statistical error bar to be incorrect, which can render the results of the calculation unreliable or meaningless. We discuss how to identify the infinite variance problem. An approach is then proposed to solve the problem. The solution does not require major modifications to standard algorithms, adding a "bridge link" to the imaginary-time path integral. The general idea is applicable to a variety of situations where the infinite variance problem may be present. Illustrative results are presented for the ground state of the Hubbard model at half-filling.
Single file diffusion into a semi-infinite tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrell, Spencer G.; Brown, Aidan I.; Rutenberg, Andrew D.
2015-12-01
We investigate single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a semi-infinite tube, such as luminal diffusion of proteins into microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no impact on the evolution of particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0, tracked particles are initially super-diffusive after entering the system, but asymptotically diffusive at later times. For finite time intervals, the ratio of the net displacement of individual single-file particles to the average displacement of untracked particles is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times. When each particle is numbered, from the first to enter (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of this distance ratio for all n. Experimental techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching of fluorescently tagged proteins, should be able to observe these single-file effects. However, biological phenomena that depend on local concentration, such as flagellar extension or luminal enzymatic activity, should not exhibit single-file effects.
Drop impact onto semi-infinite solid surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Huanchen; Amirfazli, Alidad
2016-11-01
The drop impact onto solid surfaces has been studied intensively due to its importance in different applications, e.g. spray coating, inkjet printing and agricultural sprays. The previous studies on this topic were typically focused either on the drop impact onto an infinite solid surface (i.e. a solid surface that is large, and the impact happens far away from the surface edges), or onto a finite solid surface (e.g. drop impact onto a target smaller than the droplet). However, in practice, it is also possible for the impact onto a large surface but close to its edge (named as semi-infinite surface). In this first study of its kind, the process of drop impact onto a semi-infinite surface (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic) was investigated experimentally. During the impact process, part of the liquid lamella can spread out of the surface (free lamella). Depending on the distance between the impact point and surface edge, the free lamella can recede, or partially recede back to the surface, or completely break apart at the surface edge. The behavior of free lamella can also affect the morphology of the part of liquid lamella which remains in contact with the solid surface, especially in the receding phase (e.g. occurrence of drop rebound). Various morphologies observed for lamella breakage at the surface edge will also be discussed for surfaces of different wettabilities.
Verifying the Simulation Hypothesis via Infinite Nested Universe Simulacrum Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Vikrant
2017-01-01
The simulation hypothesis proposes that local reality exists as a simulacrum within a hypothetical computer's dimension. More specifically, Bostrom's trilemma proposes that the number of simulations an advanced 'posthuman' civilization could produce makes the proposition very likely. In this paper a hypothetical method to verify the simulation hypothesis is discussed using infinite regression applied to a new type of infinite loop. Assign dimension n to any computer in our present reality, where dimension signifies the hierarchical level in nested simulations our reality exists in. A computer simulating known reality would be dimension (n-1), and likewise a computer simulating an artificial reality, such as a video game, would be dimension (n +1). In this method, among others, four key assumptions are made about the nature of the original computer dimension n. Summations show that regressing such a reality infinitely will create convergence, implying that the verification of whether local reality is a grand simulation is feasible to detect with adequate compute capability. The action of reaching said convergence point halts the simulation of local reality. Sensitivities to the four assumptions and implications are discussed.
Infinite variance in fermion quantum Monte Carlo calculations.
Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei
2016-03-01
For important classes of many-fermion problems, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods allow exact calculations of ground-state and finite-temperature properties without the sign problem. The list spans condensed matter, nuclear physics, and high-energy physics, including the half-filled repulsive Hubbard model, the spin-balanced atomic Fermi gas, and lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations at zero density with Wilson Fermions, and is growing rapidly as a number of problems have been discovered recently to be free of the sign problem. In these situations, QMC calculations are relied on to provide definitive answers. Their results are instrumental to our ability to understand and compute properties in fundamental models important to multiple subareas in quantum physics. It is shown, however, that the most commonly employed algorithms in such situations have an infinite variance problem. A diverging variance causes the estimated Monte Carlo statistical error bar to be incorrect, which can render the results of the calculation unreliable or meaningless. We discuss how to identify the infinite variance problem. An approach is then proposed to solve the problem. The solution does not require major modifications to standard algorithms, adding a "bridge link" to the imaginary-time path integral. The general idea is applicable to a variety of situations where the infinite variance problem may be present. Illustrative results are presented for the ground state of the Hubbard model at half-filling.
Single file diffusion into a semi-infinite tube.
Farrell, Spencer G; Brown, Aidan I; Rutenberg, Andrew D
2015-11-23
We investigate single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a semi-infinite tube, such as luminal diffusion of proteins into microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no impact on the evolution of particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0, tracked particles are initially super-diffusive after entering the system, but asymptotically diffusive at later times. For finite time intervals, the ratio of the net displacement of individual single-file particles to the average displacement of untracked particles is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times. When each particle is numbered, from the first to enter (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of this distance ratio for all n. Experimental techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching of fluorescently tagged proteins, should be able to observe these single-file effects. However, biological phenomena that depend on local concentration, such as flagellar extension or luminal enzymatic activity, should not exhibit single-file effects.
Dilute bismuthides on inp platform: growth, characterization, modeling and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Yujun
solar cell design with the incorporation of dilute bismuthides, which is expected to enable very high solar cell efficiency. Finally, this dissertation discussed some future directions in this field: high bismuth concentration films, a measurement to fully understand the band structure of InGaBiAs and a proposal of temperature-insensitive application. As a conclusion, dilute bismuthides remain promising as optoelectronic materials.
Modality, Infinitives, and Finite Bare Verbs in Dutch and English Child Language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blom, Elma
2007-01-01
This article focuses on the meaning of nonfinite clauses ("root infinitives") in Dutch and English child language. I present experimental and naturalistic data confirming the claim that Dutch root infinitives are more often modal than English root infinitives. This cross-linguistic difference is significantly smaller than previously assumed,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galvez, M.; Manning, C. E.
2014-12-01
Fluids are major agents of mass and heat transport in the Earth crust and in subduction zones. Fluid inclusions, metasomatic field relations and experimental evidence suggest that these fluids can contain important ligands, including halogens, sulfates, sulfides, etc. The ligands participate in the complexation of rock-forming elements during mineral dissolution to high-T and P. Although models of high- element metasomatism typically assume that H2O dominates the fluid's solvent properties, however, H2O may be a relatively minor component in the high-PT brines that are increasingly recognized in the lower crust and mantle. Understanding the evolution of solubility mechanisms as fluids change from dilute aqueous solutions to salt-rich brines is hindered by the absence of experimental investigation of this transition. To address this problem, we conducted experiments on the solubility of calcite in sodium-halide solutions at 8 kbar and 700 °C using hydrothermal piston-cylinder weight-loss methods. Investigated salts were NaL , where L=F, Cl, Br, I, at concentrations ranging from 0.15 molal to 20 molal (XNaL ~ 0.3). At these conditions, the fluid is a single supercritical fluid phase . Run durations were 4 to 20 hours. Results demonstrate systematic trends with ligand ionic size, and locate a major mechanistic transition in the vicinity of XNaL~ 0.1 for all calcite-H2O-NaL systems. At lower than this critical composition (Xcrit), calcite solubility displays a pronounced concave shape indicating involvement of water during the dissolution process. At XNaL> Xcrit , the shape becomes convex with no apparent effect of decreased H2O activity in the fluid. The solubility patterns suggest that the solvent properties are dominated by those of H2O at XNaL< Xcrit, but at XNaL> Xcrit, H2O is a solute in a solution behaving as a molten salt. Geological evidence suggests that salt concentrations may reach values similar to or greater than Xcrit in a range of metamorphic and
Gao, Lianghui; Golubović, Leonardo
2003-02-01
In this paper, we first elucidate the classical problem of the elastic free energy of a semi-infinite smectic-A liquid crystals, that fills the semispace above an interface (a boundary smectic layer) of a given shape. For the free energy of this interface, we obtain an effective interface Hamiltonian that takes into account the system discreteness introduced by the layered character of smectic-A liquid crystals. It is thus applicable to both short and long wavelength fluctuations of the interface shape. Next, we use our interface Hamiltonian to develop an efficient approach to the statistical mechanics of stacks of N semiflexible manifolds, such as two-dimensional smectic phases of long semiflexible polymers and three-dimensional lamellar fluid membrane phases. Within our approach, doing the practically interesting thermodynamic limit N--> infinity is reduced to considering a small stack, with just a few interacting manifolds, representing a subsystem of an infinite smectic. This dramatic reduction in the number of degrees of freedom is achieved by treating the first (the last) manifold of the small stack as an interface with the semi-infinite smectic medium below (above) the small stack. We illustrate our approach by considering in detail two-dimensional sterically stabilized smectic liquid crystals of long semiflexible polymers with hard-core repulsion. Smectic bulk (N= infinity ) equation of state and the universal constant characterizing entropic repulsion in these phases are obtained with a high accuracy from numerical simulations of small subsystems with just a few semiflexible polymers.
Drug susceptibility testing by dilution methods.
Jeannot, Katy; Plésiat, Patrick
2014-01-01
Serial twofold dilution methods are widely used to assess the bacteriostatic activities of antibiotics. This can be achieved by dilution of considered drugs in agar medium or in culture broth, and inoculation by calibrated inoculums. Although seemingly simple, these methods are greatly influenced by the experimental conditions used and may lead to discrepant results, in particular with untrained investigators. The present step-by-step protocol has been validated for Pseudomonas species, including P. aeruginosa. Introduction of appropriate control strains is crucial to ascertain minimal inhibitory concentration values and compare the results of independent experiments.
Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance
Yang, Peidong; Choi, Heonjin; Lee, Sangkwon; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kuykendal, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter
2011-08-23
A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.
Reducing geometric dilution of precision using ridge regression signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, R. J.
The authors propose a method for reducing the effects of GDOP (geometric dilution of precision) in position-fix navigation systems. The idea is to incorporate ridge regression into the aircraft navigation signal processor. MSE (mean square error) performance of an ordinary LMS (least mean square) signal processor was compared with one using ridge regression. Computer simulations confirmed the theory that variance inflation caused by GDOP can be measurably reduced by the ridge regression algorithm. The technique is applicable not only to DME/DME (distance measuring equipment) and GPS but applies also to any position-fix navigation aid, e.g. Loran-C, Omega, and JTIDS relative navigation.
Dilution control and vibration studies at an underground mine
Mohanty, B. |; Yang, R.; Leblanc, M.; Kelly, C.
1995-12-31
A total of 33 blasts in the pillar recovery program at INCO-Crean Hill has been investigated by means of an extensive set of diagnostic techniques. These included, borehole deviation measurements, stope cavity survey, near-field seismics in both rock and backfill, in-hole VOD and fragment size analysis. The 200 mm diameter VCR blasts employed a variety of explosives types (ANFO, slurry and ANFO/Polystyrene) and deck sizes. The objective of the investigation was to control dilution and backbreak through optimal choice of explosive type and charge weight, without exceeding vibration limits in the adjacent backfill or causing significant degradation in fragmentation. The high quality experimental data, along with closely monitored borehole deviations and in-hole detonation properties of the explosive decks allowed the establishment of comprehensive near-field vibration vs. scaled distance relationship in both rock and backfill. The study helped identify the principal factors responsible for dilution from backfill at the mine. The analysis also showed that the two types of slurry explosive used in the mine and regular ANFO had equivalent damage potential to backfill. The key conclusions of the study were further confirmed in a second pillar recovery program, with significant potential benefits in terms of both dilution control and increased productivity. The paper details the steps in this investigation, and highlights the strengths and limitations of the methodology adopted in solving blasting problems in full-scale production blast environment.
Dry dilution refrigerator with He-4 precool loop
Uhlig, Kurt
2014-01-29
He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ∼ 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR has been improved compared to previous work: The base temperature of the mixing chamber at a small He-3 flow rate is now 4.1 mK; at the highest He-3 flow rate of 1.2 mmol/s this temperature increases to 13 mK. Mixing chamber temperatures were measured with a cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) thermometer which was calibrated with a superconducting fixed point device.
Dipole and slot elements and arrays on semi-infinite substrates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kominami, M.; Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.
1985-01-01
The printed dipole or slot antenna on a semi-infinite substrate and infinite phased arrays of these elements are investigated. The solution is based on the moment method in the Fourier transform domain. The generalized impedance or admittance matrix can be expressed in rapidly converging infinite-integral or infinite-summation forms, allowing the accurate determination of the current distributions. Using the present formulation, the input impedance, resonant length, and radiation pattern for the isolated antennas, and the reflection coefficient for infinite phased arrays, are calculated.
Serial dilution microchip for cytotoxicity test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bang, Hyunwoo; Lim, Sun Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Chung, Seok; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun
2004-08-01
Today's pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges resulting from the vast increases in sample numbers produced by high-throughput screening (HTS). In addition, the bottlenecks created by increased demand for cytotoxicity testing (required to assess compound safety) are becoming a serious problem. We have developed a polymer PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device that can perform a cytotoxicity test in a rapid and reproducible manner. The concept that the device includes is well adjustable to automated robots in huge HTS systems, so we can think of it as a potential dilution and delivery module. Cytotoxicity testing is all about the dilution and dispensing of a drug sample. Previously, we made a PDMS based microfluidic device which automatically and precisely diluted drugs with a buffer solution with serially increasing concentrations. This time, the serially diluted drug solution was directly delivered to 96 well plates for cytotoxicity testing. Cytotoxic paclitaxel solution with 2% RPMI 1640 has been used while carrying out cancerous cell based cytotoxicity tests. We believe that this rapid and robust use of the PDMS microchip will overcome the growing problem in cytotoxicity testing for HTS.
Osmosis is not driven by water dilution.
Kramer, Eric M; Myers, David R
2013-04-01
There is a misconception among plant scientists that osmosis is driven by the tendency of solutes to dilute water. In this opinion article, we discuss the quantitative and qualitative failures of this view, and go on to review the correct kinetic picture of osmosis as it appears in physics textbooks.
Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect
Khalil, Hussein; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Magnusson, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger
2016-01-01
The “dilution effect” implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. For directly transmitted pathogens, non-host species may “dilute” infection directly (1) and indirectly (2). Competitors and predators may (1) alter host behavior to reduce pathogen transmission or (2) reduce host density. In a well-studied system, we tested the dilution of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) by two competitors and a predator. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003–2013) in northern Sweden. The field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus) are bank vole competitors and Tengmalm’s owl (Aegolius funereus) is a main predator of bank voles. Infection probability in bank voles decreased when common shrew density increased, suggesting that common shrews reduced PUUV transmission. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. Further, Tengmalm’s owl decline in 1980–2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003–2013 compared to 1979–1986. Our study provides further evidence for dilution effect and suggests that owls may have an important role in reducing disease risk. PMID:27499001
Calculation of Geometric Dilution of Precision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jijie
1992-07-01
In this short communication, a very simple closed-form formula for the calculation of the Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) in Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation and in Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) navigation is presented, which requires less than 40 multiplications.
Seo, Kyo Seong; Chang, Ho Nam; Park, Joong Kon; Choo, Kwang-Ho
2007-09-01
The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) value is still a key parameter that can determine the level of organics, particularly the content of biodegradable organics in water. In this work, the effects of sample dilution, which should be done inevitably to get appropriate dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion, on the measurement of 5-day BOD (BOD(5)), was investigated with and without seeding using natural and synthetic water. The dilution effects were also evaluated for water samples taken in different seasons such as summer and winter because water temperature can cause a change in the types of microbial species, thus leading to different oxygen depletion profiles during BOD testing. The predation phenomenon between microbial cells was found to be dependent on the inorganic nutrients and carbon sources, showing a change in cell populations according to cell size after 5-day incubation. The dilution of water samples for BOD determination was linked to changes in the environment for microbial growth such as nutrition. The predation phenomenon between microbial cells was more important with less dilution. BOD(5) increased with the specific amount of inorganic nutrient per microbial mass when the natural water was diluted. When seeding was done for synthetic water samples, the seed volume also affected BOD due to the rate of organic uptake by microbes. BOD(5) increased with the specific bacterial population per organic source supplied at the beginning of BOD measurement. For more accurate BOD measurements, specific guidelines on dilution should be established.
Geometric MCMC for infinite-dimensional inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beskos, Alexandros; Girolami, Mark; Lan, Shiwei; Farrell, Patrick E.; Stuart, Andrew M.
2017-04-01
Bayesian inverse problems often involve sampling posterior distributions on infinite-dimensional function spaces. Traditional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms are characterized by deteriorating mixing times upon mesh-refinement, when the finite-dimensional approximations become more accurate. Such methods are typically forced to reduce step-sizes as the discretization gets finer, and thus are expensive as a function of dimension. Recently, a new class of MCMC methods with mesh-independent convergence times has emerged. However, few of them take into account the geometry of the posterior informed by the data. At the same time, recently developed geometric MCMC algorithms have been found to be powerful in exploring complicated distributions that deviate significantly from elliptic Gaussian laws, but are in general computationally intractable for models defined in infinite dimensions. In this work, we combine geometric methods on a finite-dimensional subspace with mesh-independent infinite-dimensional approaches. Our objective is to speed up MCMC mixing times, without significantly increasing the computational cost per step (for instance, in comparison with the vanilla preconditioned Crank-Nicolson (pCN) method). This is achieved by using ideas from geometric MCMC to probe the complex structure of an intrinsic finite-dimensional subspace where most data information concentrates, while retaining robust mixing times as the dimension grows by using pCN-like methods in the complementary subspace. The resulting algorithms are demonstrated in the context of three challenging inverse problems arising in subsurface flow, heat conduction and incompressible flow control. The algorithms exhibit up to two orders of magnitude improvement in sampling efficiency when compared with the pCN method.
A simple deep monitoring well dilution technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogiers, Bart; Labat, Serge; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn
2015-04-01
Well dilution techniques are well known and studied as one of the basic techniques to quantify groundwater fluxes. A typical well dilution test consists of the injection of a tracer, a mixing mechanism (e.g. water circulation with a pump) to achieve a homogeneous concentration distribution within the well, and monitoring of the evolution of tracer concentration with time. An apparent specific discharge can be obtained from such a test, and when details on the well construction are known, it can be converted into a specific discharge representative of the undisturbed aquifer. For deep wells however, the injection of tracer becomes less practical and the use of pumps for circulating and mixing the water becomes problematic. This is due to the limited pressure that common pumps can endure at the outlet, as well as the large volume of water that makes it difficult to achieve a homogeneous concentration, and the impracticalities of getting a lot of equipment to large depths in very small monitoring wells. Injection and monitoring of tracer at a specific depth omits several of the problems with deep wells. We present a very simple device that can be used to perform a dilution test at a specific depth in deep wells. The injection device consists of a PVC tube with a detachable rubber seal at its bottom. To minimize disturbance of the water column in the well, we integrated an EC sensor in this injection device, which enables us to use demineralized water or dissolved salts as a tracer. Once at the target depth, the PVC tube is retracted and the EC sensor and tracer become subject to groundwater flow. The device was tested on a shallow well, on which different types of dilution tests were performed. The results of the other tests agree well with the injection tube results. Finally, the device was used to perform a dilution test in a deep well in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.
Lattice bosons with infinite-range checkerboard interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Mueller, Erich J.
2016-09-01
Motivated by experiments performed by Landig et al. [Nature (London) 532, 476 (2016), 10.1038/nature17409], we consider a two-dimensional Bose gas in an optical lattice, trapped inside a single mode superradiant Fabry-Perot cavity. The cavity mediates infinite-range checkerboard interactions between the atoms, which produces competition between Mott insulator, charge-density wave, superfluid, and supersolid phases. We calculate the phase diagram of this Bose gas in a homogeneous system and in the presence of a harmonic trap.
A Generic Result in Linear Semi-Infinite Optimization
Goberna, Miguel A. Lopez, Marco A. Todorov, Maxim I.
2003-10-15
In this paper we consider the space of all the linear semi-infinite programming problems with the same index set, endowed with a suitable topology. We provide a constructive proof of the following generic result:if we confine ourselves to the class of problems having a bounded set of coefficient vectors (those vectors appearing in the left-hand side of the constraints), the set of those problems which have a strongly unique optimal solution contains an open and dense subset of the set of solvable problems in the same class.
Examples of infinite direct sums of spectral triples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falk, Kevin
2017-02-01
We study two ways of summing an infinite family of noncommutative spectral triples. First, we propose a definition of the integration of spectral triples and give an example using algebras of Toeplitz operators acting on weighted Bergman spaces over the unit ball of Cn. Secondly, we construct a spectral triple associated to a general polygonal self-similar set in C using algebras of Toeplitz operators on Hardy spaces. In this case, we show that we can recover the Hausdorff dimension of the fractal set.
Infinite volume of noncommutative black hole wrapped by finite surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Baocheng; You, Li
2017-02-01
The volume of a black hole under noncommutative spacetime background is found to be infinite, in contradiction with the surface area of a black hole, or its Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy, which is well-known to be finite. Our result rules out the possibility of interpreting the entropy of a black hole by counting the number of modes wrapped inside its surface if the final evaporation stage can be properly treated. It implies the statistical interpretation for the BH entropy can be independent of the volume, provided spacetime is noncommutative. The effect of radiation back reaction is found to be small and doesn't influence the above conclusion.
Capabilities and Limitations of Infinite-Time Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, James Thomas, III
The relatively new field of infinitary computability strives to characterize the capabilities and limitations of infinite-time computation; that is, computations of potentially transfinite length. Throughout our work, we focus on the prototypical model of infinitary computation: Hamkins and Lewis' infinite-time Turing machine (ITTM), which generalizes the classical Turing machine model in a natural way. This dissertation adopts a novel approach to this study: whereas most of the literature, starting with Hamkins and Lewis' debut of the ITTM model, pursues set-theoretic questions using a set-theoretic approach, we employ arguments that are truly computational in character. Indeed, we fully utilize analogues of classical results from finitary computability, such as the s mn Theorem and existence of universal machines, and for the most part, judiciously restrict our attention to the classical setting of computations over the natural numbers. In Chapter 2 of this dissertation, we state, and derive, as necessary, the aforementioned analogues of the classical results, as well as some useful constructs for ITTM programming. With this due paid, the subsequent work in Chapters 3 and 4 requires little in the way of programming, and that programming which is required in Chapter 5 is dramatically streamlined. In Chapter 3, we formulate two analogues of one of Rado's busy beaver functions from classical computability, and show, in analogy with Rado's results, that they grow faster than a wide class of infinite-time computable functions. Chapter 4 is tasked with developing a system of ordinal notations via a natural approach involving infinite-time computation, as well as an associated fast-growing hierarchy of functions over the natural numbers. We then demonstrate that the busy beaver functions from Chapter 3 grow faster than the functions which appear in a significant portion of this hierarchy. Finally, we debut, in Chapter 5, two enhancements of the ITTM model which can self
Finite de Finetti theorem for infinite-dimensional systems.
D'Cruz, Christian; Osborne, Tobias J; Schack, Rüdiger
2007-04-20
We formulate and prove a de Finetti representation theorem for finitely exchangeable states of a quantum system consisting of k infinite-dimensional subsystems. The theorem is valid for states that can be written as the partial trace of a pure state |Psi/Psi| chosen from a family of subsets {Cn} of the full symmetric subspace for n subsystems. We show that such states become arbitrarily close to mixtures of pure power states as n increases. We give a second equivalent characterization of the family {Cn}.
J-integral estimates for cracks in infinite bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowling, N. E.
1986-01-01
An analysis and discussion is presented of existing estimates of the J-integral for cracks in infinite bodies. Equations are presented which provide convenient estimates for Ramberg-Osgood type elastoplastic materials containing cracks and subjected to multiaxial loading. The relationship between J and the strain normal to the crack is noted to be only weakly dependent on state of stress. But the relationship between J and the stress normal to the crack is strongly dependent on state of stress. A plastic zone correction term often employed is found to be arbitrary, and its magnitude is seldom significant.
J-integral estimates for cracks in infinite bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowling, N. E.
1987-01-01
An analysis and discussion is presented of existing estimates of the J-integral for cracks in infinite bodies. Equations are presented which provide convenient estimates for Ramberg-Osgood type elasto-plastic materials containing cracks and subjected to multiaxial loading. The relationship between J and the strain normal to the crack is noted to be only weakly dependent on state of stress. But the relationship between J and the stress normal to the crack is strongly dependent on state of stress. A plastic zone correction term often employed is found to be arbitrary, and its magnitude is seldom significant.
Quantitative determination of infinite inhibition concentrations of antimicrobial agents.
Marwan, A G; Nagel, C W
1986-01-01
We developed a method to determine the infinite inhibition concentrations (IICs) of antimicrobial agents. This method was based on finding the relative effectiveness of an inhibitor at various concentrations. Benzoic acid and parabens were tested on Saccharomyces bayanus, Hansenula sp., and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The relative effectiveness values of these compounds were established. A plot of the inhibitor concentration versus the reciprocal of relative effectiveness was linear. The chi-axis intercept was the concentration of the inhibitor which gave infinite microbial inhibition. For S. bayanus the IICs were 330, 930, 480, and 220 ppm (330, 930, 480, and 220 ml/liter) for benzoic acid and methyl-, ethyl-, and propylparabens, respectively. For Hansenula sp. the IIC was 180 ppm for benzoic acid. For P. fluorescens the IICs were 1,310, 960, and 670 ppm for methyl-, ethyl-, and propylparabens, respectively. Our results indicated that the IIC is affected by the growth medium. The advantages and applications of this method are discussed. PMID:3083773
Nuclear Matter Phase Transition in Infinite and Finite Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terranova, S.; Bonasera, A.
2005-04-01
A new "semiclassical" model of the nuclear matter, composed of u, d colored quarks, is proposed. The approach, named Constrained Molecular Dynamics (CoMD) is based on the molecular dynamics simulation of the quarks, which interact through the Richardson's potential, and on a constraint due to Pauli blocking. With a suitable choice of the quark masses, some possible Equation of State (EOS) of the nuclear matter, at temperature equal to zero and finite baryon density, are obtained. These equations of state, not only present some known properties of the nuclear matter, as the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) phase transition, but also shown the existence of a new state, the Exotic Color Clustering (ECC) state, in which cluster of quarks with the same color are formed. Some new quantities, "indicators" of the phase transition, are introduced: three order parameters, Mc2, Mc3, Mc4 defined trough the Gell-Mann matrices λα, and the lifetime of the J/Ψ particle. The behavior of the J/Ψ particle is studied also in the "finite" systems, obtained by expanding the corresponding "infinite" systems. It seems that the dynamics and the finite size effects do not wash completely the phase transition occurred in infinite systems, and the J/Ψ particle is still a good signature.
Spectra of Semi-Infinite Quantum Graph Tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shipman, Stephen P.; Tillay, Jeremy
2016-10-01
The spectrum of a semi-infinite quantum graph tube with square period cells is analyzed. The structure is obtained by rolling up a doubly periodic quantum graph into a tube along a period vector and then retaining only a semi-infinite half of the tube. The eigenfunctions associated to the spectrum of the half-tube involve all Floquet modes of the full tube. This requires solving the complex dispersion relation {D(λ,k_1,k_2)=0} with {(k_1,k_2)in({C}/2π{Z})^2} subject to the constraint {a k_1 + b k_2 ≡ 0} (mod {2π}), where a and b are integers. The number of Floquet modes for a given {λin{R}} is {2max{ a, b }}. Rightward and leftward modes are determined according to an indefinite energy flux form. The spectrum may contain eigenvalues that depend on the boundary conditions, and some eigenvalues may be embedded in the continuous spectrum.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bensoussan, A.; Delfour, M. C.; Mitter, S. K.
1976-01-01
Available published results are surveyed for a special class of infinite-dimensional control systems whose evolution is characterized by a semigroup of operators of class C subscript zero. Emphasis is placed on an approach that clarifies the system-theoretic relationship among controllability, stabilizability, stability, and the existence of a solution to an associated operator equation of the Riccati type. Formulation of the optimal control problem is reviewed along with the asymptotic behavior of solutions to a general system of equations and several theorems concerning L2 stability. Examples are briefly discussed which involve second-order parabolic systems, first-order hyperbolic systems, and distributed boundary control.
He, L; Huang, G H; Lu, H W
2009-04-01
A number of inexact programming methods have been developed for municipal solid waste management under uncertainty. However, most of them do not allow the parameters in the objective and constraints of a programming problem to be functional intervals (i.e., the lower and upper bounds of the intervals are functions of impact factors). In this study, a flexible interval mixed-integer bi-infinite programming (FIMIBIP) method is developed in response to the above concern. A case study is also conducted; the solutions are then compared with those obtained from interval mixed-integer bi-infinite programming (IMIBIP) and fuzzy interval mixed-integer programming (FIMIP) methods. It is indicated that the solutions through FIMIBIP can provide decision support for cost-effectively diverting municipal solid waste, and for sizing, timing and siting the facilities' expansion during the entire planning horizon. These schemes are more flexible than those identified through IMIBIP since the tolerance intervals are introduced to measure the level of constraints satisfaction. The FIMIBIP schemes may also be robust since the solutions are "globally-optimal" under all scenarios caused by the fluctuation of gas/energy prices, while the conventional ones are merely "locally-optimal" under a certain scenario.
About the infinite dimensional skew and obliquely reflected Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Röckner, Michael; Trutnau, Gerald
2015-12-01
Based on an integration by parts formula for closed and convex subsets Γ of a separable real Hilbert space H with respect to a Gaussian measure, we first construct and identify the infinite dimensional analogue of the obliquely reflected Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process (perturbed by a bounded drift B) by means of a Skorokhod type decomposition. The variable oblique reflection at a reflection point of the boundary ∂Γ is uniquely described through a reflection angle and a direction in the tangent space (more precisely through an element of the orthogonal complement of the normal vector) at the reflection point. In case of normal reflection at the boundary of a regular convex set and under some monotonicity condition on B, we prove the existence and uniqueness of a strong solution to the corresponding SDE. Subsequently, we consider an increasing sequence (Γαk)k∈ℤ of closed and convex subsets of H and the skew reflection problem at the boundaries of this sequence. We present concrete examples and obtain as a special case the infinite dimensional analogue of the p-skew reflected Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreischuh, Tanja N.; Gurdev, Ljuan L.; Vankov, Orlin I.; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.
2015-01-01
The experimental investigations on different aspects of optical tomography require the knowledge of the optical parameters of tissues and tissue-like phantoms in order to unambiguously interpret the experimental data and specify characteristic inhomogeneities in tissue diagnostics. The main optical parameters of interest are the absorption coefficient, the scattering, backscattering, and reduced-scattering coefficients, the total attenuation (extinction) coefficient and the anisotropy factor. In this work, we extend our investigations of the optical properties of tissuemimicking phantoms, such as Intralipid-20% fat emulsion, using an approach we have developed recently based on the peculiarities of laser radiation beams propagating through semi-infinite turbid media. The dependence of the total attenuation coefficient on the Intralipid concentration, for laser radiation wavelengths λ=405, 672, 850, and 1314 nm, is studied, by using a set of phantoms consisting of different dilutions of Intralipid in distilled water. The experimental results for the extinction are in agreement with our previous results and with empiric formulae found by other authors concerning the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient of Intralipid -10% and Intralipid - 20%. They are also in agreement with known data of the water absorptance. As a whole, the results obtained in this work confirm the consideration of the experimental phantoms as semi-infinite media. They also confirm and extend theoretical and experimental results obtained previously, and reveal advantages of using longer wavelengths for deeper diagnostics of tissues and mimic turbid media.
Serial dilutions: a new area of research for animal behavior.
Nolf, Sondra L; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Abramson, Charles I
2012-10-01
This paper attempts to stimulate the psychological investigation of homeopathy and serially agitated dilutions. The history of homeopathy and serial dilutions is provided in a literature review of selected research areas. Two original illustrative experiments are also presented and discussed. The first examined the effect of serially agitated dilutions of Sevin on the mortality rate of honey bees (Apis mellifera). In a second experiment, the effect of serially agitated dilutions of sucrose on proboscis extension in honey bees was assessed. No differences were found between serially agitated dilutions of pesticides and sucrose compared with dilutions alone. Implications, limitations, and proposed further work are discussed.
Diluting the burden of load: perceptual load effects are simply dilution effects.
Tsal, Yehoshua; Benoni, Hanna
2010-12-01
The substantial distractor interference obtained for small displays when the target appears alone is reduced in large displays when the target is embedded among neutral letters. This finding has been interpreted as reflecting low-load and high-load processing, respectively, thereby supporting the theory of perceptual load (Lavie & Tsal, 1994). However, a possible alternative interpretation of this effect is that the distractor is similarly processed in both displays, yet its interference in the large ones is diluted by the presence of the neutral letters. We separated the effects of load and dilution by introducing dilution displays. They contained as many letters as the high-load displays but were clearly distinguished from the target, thus allowing for a low-load processing mode. Distractor interference obtained under both the low-load and high-load conditions disappeared under the dilution condition. Hence, the display size effect traditionally misattributed to perceptual load is fully accounted for by dilution. Furthermore, when dilution is controlled for, it is high load not low load producing greater interference.
Analysis of an infinite array of rectangular microstrip patches with idealized probe feeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.
1984-01-01
A solution is presented to the problem of an infinite array of microstrip patches fed by idealized current probes. The input reflection coefficient is calculated versus scan angle in an arbitrary scan plane, and the effects of substrate parameters and grid spacing are considered. It is pointed out that even when a Galerkin method is used the impedance matrix is not symmetric due to phasing through a unit cell, as required for scanning. The mechanism by which scan blindness can occur is discussed. Measurement results are presented for the reflection coefficient magnitude variation with angle for E-plane, H-plane, and D-plane scans, for various substrate parameters. Measured results from waveguide simulators are also presented, and the scan blindness phenomenon is observed and discussed in terms of forced surface waves and a modified grating lobe diagram.
Lorenzian analysis of infinite Poissonian populations and the phenomena of Paretian ubiquity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2007-12-01
The Lorenz curve is a universally calibrated statistical tool measuring quantitatively the distribution of wealth within human populations. We consider infinite random populations modeled by inhomogeneous Poisson processes defined on the positive half-line-the randomly scattered process-points representing the wealth of the population-members (or any other positive-valued measure of interest such as size, mass, energy, etc.). For these populations the notion of “macroscopic Lorenz curve” is defined and analyzed, and the notion of “Lorenzian fractality” is defined and characterized. We show that the only non-degenerate macroscopically observable Lorenz curves are power-laws manifesting Paretian statistics-thus providing a universal “Lorenzian explanation” to the ubiquitous appearance of Paretian probability laws in nature.
A nanoliter microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor
Gu, Guo-Yue; Lee, Yi-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Chung; Yang, Ya-Tang
2015-01-01
Bacterial culture is a basic technique in both fundamental and applied microbiology. The excessive reagent consumption and laborious maintenance of bulk bioreactors for microbial culture have prompted the development of miniaturized on-chip bioreactors. With the minimal choice of two compartments (N = 2) and discrete time, periodic dilution steps, we realize a microfluidic bioreactor that mimics macroscopic serial dilution transfer culture. This device supports automated, long-term microbial cultures with a nanoliter-scale working volume and real-time monitoring of microbial populations at single-cell resolution. Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio, the device also operates as an effective biofilm-flow reactor to support cogrowth of planktonic and biofilm populations. We expect that such devices will open opportunities in many fields of microbiology. PMID:26392828
Kinetic model for dilute traffic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana A.
The flow of traffic represents a many-particle non-equilibrium problem with important practical consequences. Traffic behavior has been studied using a variety of approaches, including fluid dynamics models, Boltzmann equation, and recently cellular automata (CA). The CA model for traffic flow that Nagel and Schreckenberg (NS) introduced can successfully mimic many of the known features of the traffic flow. We show that in the dilute limit of the NS model, where vehicles exhibit free flow, cars show significant nearest neighbor correlation primarily via a short-range repulsion. introduce an approximate analytic model to describe this dilute limit. We show that the distribution of the distance between consecutive vehicles obeys a drift-diffusion equation. We compared this model with direct simulations. The steady state solution and relaxation of this model agrees well with direct simulations. We explore how this model breaks down as the transition to jams occurs.
The dilution of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in the tear film.
Friedlaender, Mitchell H; Breshears, Daphne; Amoozgar, Bahram; Sheardown, Heather; Senchyna, Michelle
2006-01-01
The claim that benzalkonium chloride (BAK) synergistically enhances the antibiotic efficacy of gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.3% (preserved with 0.005% BAK [50 microg/mL), Zymar; Allergan Inc., Irvine, Calif, USA) has been the subject of several studies. The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to test the hypothesis that BAK would be significantly diluted shortly after topical ocular administration and would thereafter have little or no effect on the enhancement of the antibiotic efficacy of commercial gatifloxacin on the ocular surface. This hypothesis was tested by investigators who measured the concentration of tear film BAK at successive time points after topical administration of commercial gatifloxacin. After subjects (N=10) received 5 separate instillations of a single 35-microL drop of gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution in each eye, tear samples were collected at 30 sec, 1 min, 3 min, 5 min, and 20 min, with the use of graduated 5-microL glass microcapillaries. A validated high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to measure the concentration of BAK in each tear sample. The results showed rapid BAK dilution to 6.4 microg/mL, 3.2 microg/mL, 1.4 microg/mL, below the detection limit, and below the detection limit at 30 sec, 1 min, 3 min, 5 min, and 20 min after instillation of a single 35-microL drop of gatifloxacin. Because such rapid dilution reduces the concentration of BAK to near zero in minutes and does not allow the time (1 h) required for effective bacterial kill power, BAK is not expected to have a clinically significant effect on enhancement of the antimicrobial efficacy of gatifloxacin on the human ocular surface.
Half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors.
Akai, H; Ogura, M
2006-07-14
The possibility of half-metallic antiferromagnetism, a special case of ferrimagnetism with a compensated magnetization, in the diluted magnetic semiconductors is highlighted on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation. As typical examples, the electrical and magnetic properties of II-VI compound semiconductors doped with 3d transition metal ion pairs--(V, Co) and (Fe, Cr)--are discussed.
Dynamic scaling of dilute polymer solutions
Marqusee, J.A.; Deutch, J.M.
1981-04-15
Dynamic scaling relations are presented for the diffusion coefficient and intrinsic viscosity of dilute polymer solutions in D dimensions. The functional integration description of Adler and Freed is used with the correct D-dimensional hydrodynamic interaction and assumptions of power law dependence to obtain the scaling relations. Recursion relations for the exponents are determined in the asymptotic region of large N by an interdimensional scaling argument. 19 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sitko, Rafał
2009-11-01
X-ray fluorescence spectrometry due to its nondestructive nature is widely applied in analysis of single layers and multiple layer films (e.g. semiconductors, electrooptic and solar cell devices, coatings, corrosion and paint layers), individual particles (airborne, fly ash, gunshot residue particles, etc.), art and archeological objects (manuscripts, paintings, icons) and many others. Quantitative analysis of these materials, frequently classified as samples of less than infinite thickness (thin or intermediate-thickness samples), required applying adequate matrix correction methods taking into account complex dependence of analyte fluorescent radiation intensity on full matrix composition and sample thickness. In this article, the matrix correction methods including fundamental parameters, Monte Carlo simulations, influence coefficients algorithms and methods based on X-ray transmission measurements are reviewed. The difficulties in the analysis of single layer and multiple layer films and the accuracy of fundamental parameter methods in simultaneous determination of their thickness and composition are discussed. The quantitative analysis of individual particles and inhomogeneous and/or complex structure materials using fundamental parameter and Monte Carlo simulation methods in micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are also reviewed. Some references are devoted to the analysis of light matrix samples, e.g. geological, environmental and biological samples, in which undetectable low-Z elements are present (so-called 'dark matrix') using backscattered fundamental parameter methods. Since the samples of less than infinite thickness are partially transparent for X-ray beams, the transmission measurements present possibilities that are unattainable for bulk samples. Thus, the emission-transmission method and also new instruments allowing measurements of the primary X-ray beam transmitted through the sample together with measurements of X-ray fluorescence
Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution
Sherman, Max H.; Turner, William J.N.; Walker, Iain S.
2011-06-01
The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.
Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry
Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.
1995-09-01
This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.
Growth dilution of metals in microalgal biofilms.
Hill, Walter R; Larsen, Ingvar L
2005-03-15
Despite the key role microalgae play in introducing toxicants into aquatic food webs, little is known about the effects of environmental factors on metal accumulation by these primary producers. Environmental factors such as light and nutrients alter growth rates and may consequently influence metal concentrations in microalgae through growth dilution. Laboratory experiments suggested that metal uptake and elimination by microalgal biofilms were gradual enough to enable dilution of metals within the biofilms by photosynthetically accrued carbon, and a simple kinetic model of metal accumulation predicted significant variation in metal content due to growth dilution over the natural range of microalgal growth rates. The ratio of metal uptake to carbon uptake by microalgal biofilms decreased exponentially with increasing light in short-term laboratory experiments because photosynthesis was much more sensitive to a light gradient than was metal uptake. The effect of light on biofilm metal concentrations was confirmed in situ with a long-term experiment in which experimental shading of biofilms in a metal-contaminated stream decreased biofilm growth rates and caused a 3x increase in biofilm concentrations of twelve metals, including methylmercury. Slow growth at the primary producer level is a likely contributor to higher biotic metal concentrations in shaded, oligotrophic, or cold ecosystems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olson, L. E.; Dvorak, F. A.
1975-01-01
The viscous subsonic flow past two-dimensional and infinite-span swept multi-component airfoils is studied theoretically and experimentally. The computerized analysis is based on iteratively coupled boundary layer and potential flow analysis. The method, which is restricted to flows with only slight separation, gives surface pressure distribution, chordwise and spanwise boundary layer characteristics, lift, drag, and pitching moment for airfoil configurations with up to four elements. Merging confluent boundary layers are treated. Theoretical predictions are compared with an exact theoretical potential flow solution and with experimental measures made in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for both two-dimensional and infinite-span swept wing configurations. Section lift characteristics are accurately predicted for zero and moderate sweep angles where flow separation effects are negligible.
Tai, Susan S-C; Yeh, Chia-Yi; Phinney, Karen W
2011-10-01
Phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbital (PHB), lamotrigine (LTG), and topiramate (TPM) are some of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Monitoring of their concentrations in serum is important for the treatment of epilepsy. A reference measurement procedure (RMP) for certification of PHT, PHB, LTG, and TPM in serum has been developed and critically evaluated. Isotopically labeled compounds of PHT, PHB, LTG, and TPM are used as internal standards for the four AEDs. The four drugs and their respective labeled internal standards are simultaneously extracted from serum using solid-phase extraction prior to reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed using a C(18) column. Electrospray ionization (ESI) in the positive ion mode for PHT and LTG, and in the negative ion mode for PHB and TPM were used. The recovery of AEDs added to serum (accuracy of the extraction method) was evaluated by recovery studies of measuring the four drugs in spiked samples with known drug levels. The recoveries of the added drugs ranged from 98.6% to 102.0%. The absolute recoveries (extraction efficiencies) of the four drugs with this method ranged from 97% to 100%. Excellent repeatability was obtained for the four drugs with between-set coefficients of variation (CVs) within 1%. The type B components estimates are conservatively large and are considerably larger than the type A component. Therefore, we use the usual metrological expansion factor of 2 to provide an approximate 95% coverage interval. The relative expanded uncertainties for the four AEDs ranged from 2.3% to 2.4%. This LC-MS/MS RMP for PHT, PHB, LTG, and TPM in serum demonstrating good accuracy and precision can be used to assess the accuracy of routine methods used in clinical laboratories.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...
Exact solutions of a modified fractional diffusion equation in the finite and semi-infinite domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Gang; Li, Kun; Wang, Yuhui
2015-01-01
We investigate the solutions of a modified fractional diffusion equation which has a secondary fractional time derivative acting on a diffusion operator. We obtain analytical solutions for the modified equation in the finite and semi-infinite domains subject to absorbing boundary conditions. Most of the results have been derived by using the Laplace transform, the Fourier Cosine transform, the Mellin transform and the properties of Fox H function. We show that the semi-infinite solution can be expressed using an infinite series of Fox H functions similar to the infinite case, while the finite solution requires double infinite series including both Fox H functions and trigonometric functions instead of one infinite series. The characteristic crossover between more and less anomalous behaviour as well as the effect of absorbing boundary conditions are clearly demonstrated according to the analytical solutions.
Effects of dilution on elastohydrodynamic coating flow of an anti-HIV microbicide vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szeri, Andrew; Park, Su Chan; Tasoglu, Savas; Katz, David F.
2009-11-01
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication over soft substrates characterizes the drug delivery of anti-HIV topical microbicides carried in gel vehicles. These gels are under development to prevent HIV transmission into vulnerable vaginal mucosa during intercourse. Their effectiveness depends on completeness and durability of coating, as well as on the active ingredients. Here we investigate the influence of dilution by vaginal fluid on the coating flows that serve to protect the user. The effects of dilution by vaginal fluid simulant are assessed through rheological experiments at variable dilution of the gel vehicle. This involves determination of the way parameters in a Carreau model of a shear-thinning gel are modified by dilution. The changes in coating are determined from a computational model, based on dilution rheology measured in the laboratory. The elastohydrodynamic lubrication model of Szeri, et al. Physics of Fluids (2008) is supplemented with a convective-diffusive transport equation to handle dilution, and solved using a multi-step scheme in a moving domain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taher Ghahramani, Farhad; Tirandaz, Arash
2017-01-01
We examine the dynamics of the chiral states of chiral molecules with high tunneling rates in dilute and condensed phases in the context of time-dependent perturbation theory. The chiral molecule is effectively described by an asymmetric double-well potential, whose asymmetry is a measure of chiral interactions. The dilute and condensed phases are conjointly described by a collection of harmonic oscillators but with temperature-dependent sub-ohmic and temperature-independent ohmic spectral densities, respectively. We examine our method quantitatively by applying the dynamics to an isotopic ammonia molecule, NHDT, in an inert background gas (as the dilute phase) and in water (as the condensed phase). As the different spectral densities imply, the extension of the dynamics from the dilute phase to the condensed phase is not trivial. While the dynamics in the dilute phase leads to racemization, the chiral interactions in the condensed phase induce the quantum Zeno effect. Moreover, contrary to the condensed phase, the short-time dynamics in the dilute phase is sensitive to the initial state of the chiral molecule and to the strength of the coupling between the molecule and the environment.
Dilution of Wastewater Discharges from Moving Cruise Ships
2003-09-01
et al. estimate that effluent discharged at a rate of 200 meters3 second-1 from a cruise ship traveling at between 6 and 10 knots would be diluted...that would elapse before this level of dilution was achieved. The Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative Science Panel has also made estimates of the dilution...field. To quantify dilution, we spiked wastewater tanks with rhodamine dye. The crew of the cruise ship then emptied the tanks while the vessel was
Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Schauerte, Celina; Kling, Katharina; Herbers, Jan; Beckmann, Bibiana; Engeli, Stefan; Jordan, Jens; Zoerner, Alexander A; Tsikas, Dimitrios
2017-03-15
2-Arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) is an endocannabinoid that activates cannabinoid (CB) receptors CB1 and CB2. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inactivates 2AG through hydrolysis to arachidonic acid (AA) and glycerol, thus modulating the activity at CB receptors. In the brain, AA released from 2AG by the action of MAGL serves as a substrate for cyclooxygenases which produce pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. Here we report stable-isotope GC-MS and LC-MS/MS assays for the reliable measurement of MAGL activity. The assays utilize deuterium-labeled 2AG (d8-2AG; 10μM) as the MAGL substrate and measure deuterium-labeled AA (d8-AA; range 0-1μM) as the MAGL product. Unlabelled AA (d0-AA, 1μM) serves as the internal standard. d8-AA and d0-AA are extracted from the aqueous buffered incubation mixtures by ethyl acetate. Upon solvent evaporation the residue is reconstituted in the mobile phase prior to LC-MS/MS analysis or in anhydrous acetonitrile for GC-MS analysis. LC-MS/MS analysis is performed in the negative electrospray ionization mode by selected-reaction monitoring the mass transitions [M-H](-)→[M-H - CO2](-), i.e., m/z 311→m/z 267 for d8-AA and m/z 303→m/z 259 for d0-AA. Prior to GC-MS analysis d8-AA and d0-AA were converted to their pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) esters by means of PFB-Br. GC-MS analysis is performed in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode by selected-ion monitoring the ions [M-PFB](-), i.e., m/z 311 for d8-AA and m/z 303 for d0-AA. The GC-MS and LC-MS/MS assays were cross-validated. Linear regression analysis between the concentration (range, 0-1μM) of d8-AA measured by LC-MS/MS (y) and that by GC-MS (x) revealed a straight line (r(2)=0.9848) with the regression equation y=0.003+0.898x, indicating a good agreement. In dog liver, we detected MAGL activity that was inhibitable by the MAGL inhibitor JZL-184. Exogenous eicosatetraynoic acid is suitable as internal standard for the quantitative determination of d8-AA produced from d8
Infinite finitely generated fields are biinterpretable with {{N}}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scanlon, Thomas
2008-07-01
Using the work of several other mathematicians, principally the results of Poonen refining the work of Pop that algebraic independence is definable within the class of finitely generated fields and of Rumely that the ring of rational integers is uniformly interpreted in global fields, and a theorem on the definability of valuations on function fields of curves, we show that each infinite finitely generated field considered in the ring language is parametrically biinterpretable with {N} . As a consequence, for any finitely generated field there is a first-order sentence in the language of rings which is true in that field but false in every other finitely generated field and, hence, Pop's conjecture that elementarily equivalent finitely generated fields are isomorphic is true.
Infinite-noise criticality: Nonequilibrium phase transitions in fluctuating environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.
2015-11-01
We study the effects of time-varying environmental noise on nonequilibrium phase transitions in spreading and growth processes. Using the examples of the logistic evolution equation as well as the contact process, we show that such temporal disorder gives rise to a distinct type of critical points at which the effective noise amplitude diverges on long time scales. This leads to enormous density fluctuations characterized by an infinitely broad probability distribution at criticality. We develop a real-time renormalization-group theory that provides a general framework for the effects of temporal disorder on nonequilibrium processes. We also discuss how general this exotic critical behavior is, we illustrate the results by computer simulations, and we touch upon experimental applications of our theory.
Infinite-noise criticality: Nonequilibrium phase transitions in fluctuating environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, Jose
We study the effects of time-varying environmental noise on nonequilibrium phase transitions in spreading and growth processes. Using the examples of the logistic evolution equation as well as the contact process, we show that such temporal disorder gives rise to a distinct type of critical points at which the effective noise amplitude diverges on long time scales. This leads to enormous density fluctuations characterized by an infinitely broad probability distribution at criticality. We develop a real-time renormalization-group theory that provides a general framework for the effects of temporal disorder on nonequilibrium processes. We also discuss how general this exotic critical behavior is, we illustrate the results by computer simulations, and we touch upon experimental applications of our theory. Supported by the NSF under Grant No. DMR-1205803, by Simons Foundation, by FAPESP under Grant No. 2013/09850-7, and by CNPq under Grant Nos. 590093/2011-8 and 305261/2012-6.
Three-body hyperspherical method with infinite angular expansions
Han Huili; Tang Liyan; Shi Tingyun
2011-12-15
The hyperspherical method based on infinite angular expansions is introduced. We approximate the cusp behavior of a wave function using B-spline techniques. Calculations for the ground-state energies of the atomic helium and the e{sup +}Li system are presented as two examples for testing this method. The computed ground-state energy of He is -2.903 724 a.u. with single particle orbitals l{sub max}=8. For the e{sup +}Li system, with l{sub max}=9, the ground-state energy is -0.250 83 a.u., which is better than the configuration interaction result of -0.250 107 82 a.u. with l{sub max}=30.
Infinite geometric frustration in a cubic dipole cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schönke, Johannes; Schneider, Tobias M.; Rehberg, Ingo
2015-01-01
The geometric arrangement of interacting (magnetic) dipoles is a question of fundamental importance in physics, chemistry, and engineering. Motivated by recent progress concerning the self-assembly of magnetic structures, the equilibrium orientation of eight interacting dipoles in a cubic cluster is investigated in detail. Instead of discrete equilibria we find a type of ground state consisting of infinitely many orientations. This continuum of energetically degenerate states represents a yet unknown form of magnetic frustration. The corresponding dipole rotations in the flat potential valley of this Goldstone mode enable the construction of frictionless magnetic couplings. Using computer-assisted algebraic geometry methods, we moreover completely enumerate all equilibrium configurations. The seemingly simple cubic system allows for exactly 9536 unstable discrete equilibria falling into 183 distinct energy families.
Doubly infinite separation of quantum information and communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zi-Wen; Perry, Christopher; Zhu, Yechao; Koh, Dax Enshan; Aaronson, Scott
2016-01-01
We prove the existence of (one-way) communication tasks with a subconstant versus superconstant asymptotic gap, which we call "doubly infinite," between their quantum information and communication complexities. We do so by studying the exclusion game [C. Perry et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030504] for which there exist instances where the quantum information complexity tends to zero as the size of the input n increases. By showing that the quantum communication complexity of these games scales at least logarithmically in n , we obtain our result. We further show that the established lower bounds and gaps still hold even if we allow a small probability of error. However in this case, the n -qubit quantum message of the zero-error strategy can be compressed polynomially.
New infinite-dimensional algebras, sine brackets, and SU (infinity)
Zachos, C.K.; Fairlie, D.B.
1989-01-01
We investigate the infinite dimensional algebras we have previously introduced, which involve trigonometric functions in their structure constants. We find a realization for them which provides a basis-independent formulation, identified with the algebra of sine brackets. A special family of them, the cyclotomic ones, contain SU(N) as invariant subalgebras. In this basis, it is evident by inspection that the algebra of SU(infinity) is equivalent to the centerless algebra of SDiff/sub 0/ on two-dimensional manifolds. Gauge theories of SU(infinity) are thus simply reformulated in terms of surface (sheet) coordinates. Spacetime-independent configurations of their gauge fields describe strings through the quadratic Schild action. 11 refs.
Broadband computation of the scattering coefficients of infinite arbitrary cylinders.
Blanchard, Cédric; Guizal, Brahim; Felbacq, Didier
2012-07-01
We employ a time-domain method to compute the near field on a contour enclosing infinitely long cylinders of arbitrary cross section and constitution. We therefore recover the cylindrical Hankel coefficients of the expansion of the field outside the circumscribed circle of the structure. The recovered coefficients enable the wideband analysis of complex systems, e.g., the determination of the radar cross section becomes straightforward. The prescription for constructing such a numerical tool is provided in great detail. The method is validated by computing the scattering coefficients for a homogeneous circular cylinder illuminated by a plane wave, a problem for which an analytical solution exists. Finally, some radiation properties of an optical antenna are examined by employing the proposed technique.
Solutions of evolution equations associated to infinite-dimensional Laplacian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouerdiane, Habib
2016-05-01
We study an evolution equation associated with the integer power of the Gross Laplacian ΔGp and a potential function V on an infinite-dimensional space. The initial condition is a generalized function. The main technique we use is the representation of the Gross Laplacian as a convolution operator. This representation enables us to apply the convolution calculus on a suitable distribution space to obtain the explicit solution of the perturbed evolution equation. Our results generalize those previously obtained by Hochberg [K. J. Hochberg, Ann. Probab. 6 (1978) 433.] in the one-dimensional case with V=0, as well as by Barhoumi-Kuo-Ouerdiane for the case p=1 (See Ref. [A. Barhoumi, H. H. Kuo and H. Ouerdiane, Soochow J. Math. 32 (2006) 113.]).
Defect energy of infinite-component vector spin glasses.
Lee, L W; Young, A P
2005-09-01
We compute numerically the zero-temperature defect energy DeltaE of the vector spin glass in the limit of an infinite number of spin components m , for a range of dimensions 2< or d < or =5 . Fitting to DeltaE approximately L(theta) , where L is the system size, we obtain: theta similar to-1.54 (d=2) , theta similar to-1.04 (d=3) , theta similar to -0.67 (d=4) , and theta similar to -0.37 (d=5) . These results show that the lower critical dimension dl (the dimension where theta changes sign) is significantly higher for m=infinity than for finite m (where 2< dl <3 ).
Double resonance in the infinite-range quantum Ising model.
Han, Sung-Guk; Um, Jaegon; Kim, Beom Jun
2012-08-01
We study quantum resonance behavior of the infinite-range kinetic Ising model at zero temperature. Numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the presence of an external magnetic field in the z direction is performed at various transverse field strengths g. It is revealed that two resonance peaks occur when the energy gap matches the external driving frequency at two distinct values of g, one below and the other above the quantum phase transition. From the similar observations already made in classical systems with phase transitions, we propose that the double resonance peaks should be a generic feature of continuous transitions, for both quantum and classical many-body systems.
Quantum dynamics of a semi-infinite homogeneous harmonic chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prato, Domingo; Lamberti, Pedro W.
1993-07-01
The quantum dynamics of a semi-infinite homogeneous harmonic chain is studied. Assuming the system to be in its ground state, a harmonic motion, A sin(ω t), is imposed on the mass at the beginning of the chain. The quantum state of the system for t>0 is calculated by means of the evolution operator. Two different regimes occur: one for angular frequencies ω outside the allowed band ω>ω 0 and the other one for ω inside the band. After a transient the time derivative of the total energy of the chain vanishes for the first regime and tends to a constant for the second one. The mean values of the displacements from their equilibrium position are also calculated for masses along the chain. These averaged displacements and the time derivative of the total energy are shown to give exactly the same expression as in the classical case.
Constructing a Chaotic System with an Infinite Number of Equilibrium Points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Viet-Thanh; Jafari, Sajad; Kapitaniak, Tomasz
2016-12-01
The chaotic systems with hidden attractors, such as chaotic systems with a stable equilibrium, chaotic systems with infinite equilibria or chaotic systems with no equilibrium have been investigated recently. However, the relationships between them still need to be discovered. This work explains how to transform a system with one stable equilibrium into a new system with an infinite number of equilibrium points by using a memristive device. Furthermore, some other new systems with infinite equilibria are also constructed to illustrate the introduced methodology.
Effect of modularity on the Glauber dynamics of the dilute spin glass model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jeong-Man
2014-11-01
We study the Glauber dynamics of the dilute, infinite-ranged spin glass model, the so-called dilute Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (dSK) model. The dSK model has sparse couplings and can be classified by the modularity ( M) of the coupling matrix. We investigate the effect of the modularity on the relaxation dynamics starting from a random initial state. By using the Glauber dynamics and the replica method, we derive the relaxation dynamics equations for the magnetization ( m) and the energy per spin ( r), in addition to the equation for the spin glass order parameter ( q αβ ). In the replica symmetric (RS) analysis, we find that there are two solutions for the RS spin glass order parameter ( q): q = 0which is stable for r < 1/2 and q = (-1+4 r 2)/(32 r 4) which is stable for r > 1/2 in the non-modular system and q = 0 which is stable for r < 1/ and q = (-1+8 r 2)/(128 r 4) which is stable for r > 1/ in the completely modular system. By substituting the proper q values into the equations for r, we find that the relaxation dynamics of r depends on the modularity, M. These results suggest that, in the context of evolutionary theory, the modularity may emerge spontaneously in the point-mutation-only framework (Glauber dynamics) under a changing environment.
Magnetic Exchange Interactions in Long Range Ordered Diluted Organometallic Semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rawat, Naveen; Manning, Lane; Furis, Madalina
2015-03-01
Exchange Interactions in diluted organometallic crystalline thin films of Phthalocyanines made of a mixture of organo-soluble derivatives of metal-free (H2Pc) molecule and MnPc is investigated. The tuning of optical and magnetic properties in organometallics is driven by their emergence in optoelectronic applications involving flexible electronics. Thin films with metal to metal-free Pc ratios ranging from 1: 1 to 1:10 were fabricated using solution processing that produces macroscopic grains. In the case of Mn-Pc, our previos measurements showed enhanced hybridization of ligand π-electronic states with the Mn d-orbitals as well as indirect exchange interaction similar to that of RKKY type exchange. The evolution of Zeeman splitting of specific MCD-active states resulted in enhanced effective π-electrons g-factors, analogous to diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) systems. Recent Variable temperature Magnetic Circular Dichroism (VTVH-MCD) measurements has now revealed that the exchange interaction is Antiferromagnetic. Recent MCD data for mixed derivatives will be presented along with their temperature dependance that further probes this exchange interaction. NSF award 1056589
Mori, N.; Hiejima, K.; Kubo, H.; Patane, A.; Eaves, L.
2011-12-23
Magnetic field modulated photoreflectance measurements are performed on the dilute nitride semiconductor Ga(AsN) in quantizing magnetic fields. From the measured cyclotron energies, the conduction band effective mass and its dependence on the nitrogen content are determined. The effective mass is found to become significantly heavier in samples with high nitrogen composition (>0.1%).
40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... measurement of hydrocarbon emissions noted in the following paragraph and to prevent condensation of water at... zone for hydrocarbon measurement and as required to prevent condensation at any point in the dilution... temperature observed during the test with the simultaneous requirement that condensation does not occur....
Semi-infinite photocarrier radiometric model for the characterization of semiconductor wafer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xianming; Li, Bincheng; Huang, Qiuping
2010-03-01
The analytical expression is derived to describe the photocarrier radiometric (PCR) signal for a semi-infinite semiconductor wafer excited by a square-wave modulated laser. For comparative study, the PCR signals are calculated by the semi-infinite model and the finite thickness model with several thicknesses. The fitted errors of the electronic transport properties by semi-infinite model are analyzed. From these results it is evident that for thick samples or at high modulation frequency, the semiconductor can be considered as semi-infinite.
Wang, Yan Jason; Yang, Bo; Lipsky, Eric M; Robinson, Allen L; Zhang, K Max
2013-01-15
Experimental results from laboratory emission testing have indicated that particulate emission measurements are sensitive to the dilution process of exhaust using fabricated dilution systems. In this paper, we first categorize the dilution parameters into two groups: (1) aerodynamics (e.g., mixing types, mixing enhancers, dilution ratios, residence time); and (2) mixture properties (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, particle size distributions of both raw exhaust and dilution gas). Then we employ the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model to investigate the effects of those parameters on a set of particulate emission measurements comparing two dilution tunnels, i.e., a T-mixing lab dilution tunnel and a portable field dilution tunnel with a type of coaxial mixing. The turbulent flow fields and aerosol dynamics of particles are simulated inside two dilution tunnels. Particle size distributions under various dilution conditions predicted by CTAG are evaluated against the experimental data. It is found that in the area adjacent to the injection of exhaust, turbulence plays a crucial role in mixing the exhaust with the dilution air, and the strength of nucleation dominates the level of particle number concentrations. Further downstream, nucleation terminates and the growth of particles by condensation and coagulation continues. Sensitivity studies reveal that a potential unifying parameter for aerodynamics, i.e., the dilution rate of exhaust, plays an important role in new particle formation. The T-mixing lab tunnel tends to favor the nucleation due to a larger dilution rate of the exhaust than the coaxial mixing field tunnel. Our study indicates that numerical simulation tools can be potentially utilized to develop strategies to reduce the uncertainties associated with dilution samplings of emission sources.
Miller, J W; Nestler, F H M; Schrag, J L
2004-12-20
Oscillatory flow birefringence (OFB) properties have been measured for dilute solutions of bovine fibrinogen in 65-68% aqueous glycerol with the Miller-Schrag Thin Fluid Layer (TFL) apparatus employing either titanium or stainless steel surfaces in contact with the solutions. The shearing frequency range was 1 to 2500 Hz, the concentrations ranged from 4 to 8 mg/ml, and measurement temperatures were 9.9, 10.0, and 15.8 degrees C. The data showed evidence of significant amounts of aggregation that apparently is caused by the presence of glycerol; contributions from the various aggregates were readily detected since the staggered half-overlap aggregation in this system results in substantial differences in the rotational relaxation times of the various effectively rigid aggregates. The combination of oscillatory flow birefringence and viscoelasticity (VE) data provided sensitive and precise characterization of aggregation in these example systems; all aggregates exhibited the expected positive optical anisotropy. The length of unaggregated fibrinogen in solution was found to be that obtained via electron microscopy. Addition of guanidine hydrochloride to hopefully reduce aggregation did so but also resulted in formation of a very large (2800 to 3500 A), apparently nearly monodisperse, negatively birefringent aggregate, suggesting that this new species might be formed by lateral aggregation.
Observation of a Relaxed Plasma State in a Quasi-Infinite Cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, T.; Brown, M. R.; Dandurand, D.
2013-02-01
A helical relaxed plasma state is observed in a long cylindrical volume. The cylinder is long enough so that the predicted minimum energy state is a close approximation to the infinite cylinder solution. The plasma is injected at v≥50km/s by a coaxial magnetized plasma gun located at one end of the cylindrical volume. The relaxed state is rapidly attained in 1-2 axial Alfvén times after initiation of the plasma. Magnetic data are favorably compared with an analytical model. Magnetic data exhibit broadband fluctuations of the measured axial modes during the formation period. The broadband activity rapidly decays as the energy condenses into the lowest energy mode, which is in agreement with the minimum energy eigenstate of ∇×B=λB.
Observation of a relaxed plasma state in a quasi-infinite cylinder.
Gray, T; Brown, M R; Dandurand, D
2013-02-22
A helical relaxed plasma state is observed in a long cylindrical volume. The cylinder is long enough so that the predicted minimum energy state is a close approximation to the infinite cylinder solution. The plasma is injected at v ≥ 50 km/s by a coaxial magnetized plasma gun located at one end of the cylindrical volume. The relaxed state is rapidly attained in 1-2 axial Alfvén times after initiation of the plasma. Magnetic data are favorably compared with an analytical model. Magnetic data exhibit broadband fluctuations of the measured axial modes during the formation period. The broadband activity rapidly decays as the energy condenses into the lowest energy mode, which is in agreement with the minimum energy eigenstate of [Symbol: see text] × B = λB.
Infinite capacity multi-server queue with second optional service channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Jau-Chuan; Wu, Chia-Huang; Pearn, Wen Lea
2013-02-01
This paper deals with an infinite-capacity multi-server queueing system with a second optional service (SOS) channel. The inter-arrival times of arriving customers, the service times of the first essential service (FES) and the SOS channel are all exponentially distributed. A customer may leave the system after the FES channel with probability (1-θ), or at the completion of the FES may immediately require a SOS with probability θ (0 <= θ <= 1). The formulae for computing the rate matrix and stationary probabilities are derived by means of a matrix analytical approach. A cost model is developed to determine the optimal values of the number of servers and the two service rates, simultaneously, at the minimal total expected cost per unit time. Quasi-Newton method are employed to deal with the optimization problem. Under optimal operating conditions, numerical results are provided in which several system performance measures are calculated based on assumed numerical values of the system parameters.
Effective viscosity of dilute bacterial suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haines, Brian M.
This dissertation explores the bulk (volume averaged) properties of suspensions of microswimmers in a fluid. A microswimmer is a microscopic object that propels itself through a fluid. A common example of a microswimmer is a bacterium, such as Bacillus subtilis. Our particular interest is the bulk rheological properties of suspensions of bacteria -- that is, studying how such a suspension deforms under the application of an external force. In the simplest case, the rheology of a fluid can be described by a scalar effective viscosity. The goal of this dissertation is to find explicit formulae for the effective viscosity in terms of known geometric and physical parameters characterizing bacteria and use them to explain experimental observations. Throughout the dissertation, we consider bacterial suspensions in the dilute limit, where bacteria are assumed to be so far apart that interactions between them are negligible. This simplifies calculations significantly and is the regime in which the most striking experimental results have been observed. We first study suspensions of self-propelled particles using a two-dimensional (2D) Partial Differential Equation (PDE) model. A bacterium is modeled as a disk in 2D with self-propulsion provided by a point force in the fluid. A formula is obtained for the effective viscosity of such suspensions in the dilute limit. This formula includes the two terms that are found in the 2D version of Einstein's classical result for a passive suspension of spheres. To this, our main contribution is added, an additional term due to self-propulsion which depends on the physical and geometric properties of the suspension. This work demonstrates how bacterial self-propulsion can alter the viscosity of a fluid and highlights the importance of bacterial orientation. Next, we present a more realistic PDE model for dilute suspensions of swimming bacteria in a three-dimensional fluid. In this work, a bacterium is modeled as a prolate spheroid with
Indekeu, J O; Koga, K; Hooyberghs, H; Parry, A O
2013-08-01
We study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the wetting phase transitions of infinite order and of continuously varying order, recently discovered within a mean-field density-functional model for three-phase equilibria in systems with short-range forces and a two-component order parameter. Using linear functional renormalization group calculations within a local interface Hamiltonian approach, we show that the infinite-order transitions are robust. The exponential singularity (implying 2-α(s)=∞) of the surface free energy excess at infinite-order wetting as well as the precise algebraic divergence (with β(s)=-1) of the wetting layer thickness are not modified as long as ω<2, with ω the dimensionless wetting parameter that measures the strength of thermal fluctuations. The interface width diverges algebraically and universally (with ν([perpendicular])=1/2). In contrast, the nonuniversal critical wetting transitions of finite but continuously varying order are modified when thermal fluctuations are taken into account, in line with predictions from earlier calculations on similar models displaying weak, intermediate, and strong fluctuation regimes.
Percolation quantum phase transitions in diluted magnets.
Vojta, Thomas; Schmalian, Jörg
2005-12-02
We show that the interplay of geometric criticality and quantum fluctuations leads to a novel universality class for the percolation quantum phase transition in diluted magnets. All critical exponents involving dynamical correlations are different from the classical percolation values, but in two dimensions they can nonetheless be determined exactly. We develop a complete scaling theory of this transition, and we relate it to recent experiments in La2Cu(1-p)(Zn,Mg)(p)O4. Our results are also relevant for disordered interacting boson systems.
Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.
1985-01-01
The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.
Steadiness in Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, B. J.
2015-12-01
Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are often unsteady, as evidenced by direct observations of dilute lobes or jets emerging from the fronts of larger currents and by deposits that indicate transient transport and depositional regimes. We used scaled experiments to investigate unsteadiness in dilute PDCs. The experimental currents were run in an 8.5x6.1x2.6 m tank and comprised heated or ambient temperature 20-μm talc powder turbulently suspended in air. Experiments were scaled such that densimetric and thermal Richardson numbers, Froude number, and particle Stokes and settling numbers were dynamically similar to natural dilute PDCs. Although the experiment Reynolds numbers are substantially lower than those of natural PDCs, the experiments are fully turbulent. Experiments were observed with video and high-speed cameras and high-frequency thermocouples. Currents were generated with total eruption durations of 100 s. Unsteadiness in source conditions was produced by interrupting supply for intervals, t, with durations of 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 s in the experimental runs at 35 and 70 s. When t<2.5 s, the currents are indistinguishable from currents with steady supply. In runs with t=2.5-5 s, the individual pulses comprising each current are readily apparent near the source, but decay with distance downstream until the currents appear as single (e.g. steady) flows. In experiments with t=10 s, the 3 pulses comprising each run never merge and the currents remain unsteady. Comparison with the integral turbulent timescale, τ, and current velocity, U, show that unsteadiness is persistent when t>3<τ but currents are steady when t<τ. In currents with 3τ>t>τ, unsteadiness decays such that at a distance of ~4Ut, the currents are again steady. Applied to natural dilute PDCs, our results suggest that currents and their resulting deposits, will only show evidence of unsteadiness if they are disrupted for many seconds and those breaks may "heal" over distances of 100s of meters.
The Effect of Dilution on the Structure of Microbial Communities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mills, Aaron L.
2000-01-01
To determine how dilution of microbial communities affects the diversity of the diluted assemblage a series of numerical simulations were conducted that determined the theoretical change in diversity, richness, and evenness of the community with serial dilution. The results of the simulation suggested that the effects are non linear with a high degree of dependence on the initial evenness of the community being diluted. A series of incubation experiments using a range of dilutions of raw sewage as an inoculum into sterile sewage was used for comparison to the simulations. The diluted communities were maintained in batch fed reactors (three day retention time) for nine days. The communities were harvested and examined by conventional plating and by molecular analysis of the whole-community DNA using AFLP and T-RFLP. Additional, CLPP analysis was also applied. The effects on richness predicted by the numerical simulations were confirmed by the analyses used. The diluted communities fell into three groups, a low dilution, intermediate dilution, and high dilution group, which corresponded well with the groupings obtained for community richness in simulation. The grouping demonstrated the non-linear nature of dilution of whole communities. Furthermore, the results implied that the undiluted community consisted of a few dominant types accompanied by a number of rare (low abundance) types as is typical in unevenly distributed communities.
Flow rate estimation by optical coherence tomography using contrast dilution approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Štohanzlová, Petra; Kolář, Radim
2015-07-01
This paper describes experiments and methodology for flow rate estimation using optical coherence tomography and dilution method in single fiber setup. The single fiber is created from custom made glass capillary and polypropylene hollow fiber. As a data source, measurements on single fiber phantom with continuous flow of carrier medium and bolus of Intralipid solution as a contrast agent were used using Thorlabs OCT OCS1300SS. The measured data were processed by methods of image processing, in order to precisely align the individual images in the sequence and extract dilution curves from the area inside the fiber. An experiment proved that optical coherence tomography can be used for flow rate estimation by the dilution method with precision around 7%.
Weighted Geometric Dilution of Precision Calculations with Matrix Multiplication
Chen, Chien-Sheng
2015-01-01
To enhance the performance of location estimation in wireless positioning systems, the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) is widely used as a criterion for selecting measurement units. Since GDOP represents the geometric effect on the relationship between measurement error and positioning determination error, the smallest GDOP of the measurement unit subset is usually chosen for positioning. The conventional GDOP calculation using matrix inversion method requires many operations. Because more and more measurement units can be chosen nowadays, an efficient calculation should be designed to decrease the complexity. Since the performance of each measurement unit is different, the weighted GDOP (WGDOP), instead of GDOP, is used to select the measurement units to improve the accuracy of location. To calculate WGDOP effectively and efficiently, the closed-form solution for WGDOP calculation is proposed when more than four measurements are available. In this paper, an efficient WGDOP calculation method applying matrix multiplication that is easy for hardware implementation is proposed. In addition, the proposed method can be used when more than exactly four measurements are available. Even when using all-in-view method for positioning, the proposed method still can reduce the computational overhead. The proposed WGDOP methods with less computation are compatible with global positioning system (GPS), wireless sensor networks (WSN) and cellular communication systems. PMID:25569755
Weighted geometric dilution of precision calculations with matrix multiplication.
Chen, Chien-Sheng
2015-01-05
To enhance the performance of location estimation in wireless positioning systems, the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) is widely used as a criterion for selecting measurement units. Since GDOP represents the geometric effect on the relationship between measurement error and positioning determination error, the smallest GDOP of the measurement unit subset is usually chosen for positioning. The conventional GDOP calculation using matrix inversion method requires many operations. Because more and more measurement units can be chosen nowadays, an efficient calculation should be designed to decrease the complexity. Since the performance of each measurement unit is different, the weighted GDOP (WGDOP), instead of GDOP, is used to select the measurement units to improve the accuracy of location. To calculate WGDOP effectively and efficiently, the closed-form solution for WGDOP calculation is proposed when more than four measurements are available. In this paper, an efficient WGDOP calculation method applying matrix multiplication that is easy for hardware implementation is proposed. In addition, the proposed method can be used when more than exactly four measurements are available. Even when using all-in-view method for positioning, the proposed method still can reduce the computational overhead. The proposed WGDOP methods with less computation are compatible with global positioning system (GPS), wireless sensor networks (WSN) and cellular communication systems.
Modeling the myocardial dilution curve of a pure intravascular indicator.
Lee, J S; Karch, J; Jayaweera, A R; Lindner, J R; Lee, L P; Skyba, D M; Kaul, S
1997-10-01
The dispersion and dilution of contrast medium through the myocardial vasculature is examined first with a serial model comprised of arterial, capillary, and venous components in series to determine their time-concentration curves (TCC) and the myocardial dilution curve (MDC). Analysis of general characteristics shows that the first moment of the MDC, adjusted for that of the aortic TCC and mean transit time (MTT) from the aorta to the first intramyocardial artery, is one-half the MTT of the myocardial vasculature and that the ratio of the area of the MDC and aortic TCC is the fractional myocardial blood volume (MBV). The use of known coronary vascular morphometry and a set of transport functions indicates that the temporal change in MDC is primarily controlled by the MTT. An analysis of several models with heterogeneous flow distributions justifies the procedures to calculate MTT and MBV from the measured MDC. Compared with previously described models, the present model is more general and provides a physical basis for the effects of flow dispersion and heterogeneity on the characteristics of the MDC.
Geochemical detection of carbon dioxide in dilute aquifers
Carroll, S; Hao, Y; Aines, R
2009-03-27
Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO{sub 2} gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO{sub 2} storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO{sub 2} flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO{sub 2} flux ranges from 10{sup 3} to 2 x 10{sup 6} t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m{sup 2}/yr) to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure.
Thermal conductivity and sound attenuation in dilute atomic Fermi gases
Braby, Matt; Chao Jingyi; Schaefer, Thomas
2010-09-15
We compute the thermal conductivity and sound attenuation length of a dilute atomic Fermi gas in the framework of kinetic theory. Above the critical temperature for superfluidity, T{sub c}, the quasiparticles are fermions, whereas below T{sub c}, the dominant excitations are phonons. We calculate the thermal conductivity in both cases. We find that at unitarity the thermal conductivity {kappa} in the normal phase scales as {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 3/2}. In the superfluid phase we find {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 2}. At high temperature the Prandtl number, the ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusion constants, is 2/3. The ratio increases as the temperature is lowered. As a consequence we expect sound attenuation in the normal phase just above T{sub c} to be dominated by shear viscosity. We comment on the possibility of extracting the shear viscosity of the dilute Fermi gas at unitarity using measurements of the sound absorption length.
ANALYSIS OF BORON DILUTION TRANSIENTS IN PWRS.
DIAMOND,D.J.BROMLEY,B.P.ARONSON,A.L.
2004-02-04
A study has been carried out with PARCS/RELAP5 to understand the consequences of hypothetical boron dilution events in pressurized water reactors. The scenarios of concern start with a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. If the event leads to boiling in the core and then the loss of natural circulation, a boron-free condensate can accumulate in the cold leg. The dilution event happens when natural circulation is re-established or a reactor coolant pump (RCP) is restarted in violation of operating procedures. This event is of particular concern in B&W reactors with a lowered-loop design and is a Generic Safety Issue for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The results of calculations with the reestablishment of natural circulation show that there is no unacceptable fuel damage. This is determined by calculating the maximum fuel pellet enthalpy, based on the three-dimensional model, and comparing it with the criterion for damage. The calculation is based on a model of a B&W reactor at beginning of the fuel cycle. If an RCP is restarted, unacceptable fuel damage may be possible in plants with sufficiently large volumes of boron-free condensate in the cold leg.
Confusing Aspects in the Calculation of the Electrostatic Potential of an Infinite Line of Charge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, I.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.
2012-01-01
In this work we discuss the trick of eliminating infinite potential of reference arguing that it corresponds to a constant of integration, in the problem of determining the electrostatic potential of an infinite line of charge with uniform density, and show how the problem must be tackled properly. The usual procedure is confusing for most…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsamir, Pessia
1999-01-01
Describes a course in Cantorian Set Theory relating to prospective secondary mathematics teachers' tendencies to overgeneralize from finite to infinite sets. Indicates that when comparing the number of elements in infinite sets, teachers who took the course were more successful and more consistent in their use of single method than those who…
A Corpus-Based Study of the Infinitive Errors Made by Chinese College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xia, Lixin
2012-01-01
The paper discusses the infinitive errors made by Chinese college students. From the CLEC, all infinitive errors tagged as [vp5] are collected, and then the general distribution of the errors among 4 groups of college students is shown. Moreover, these errors are classified into 12 categories according to the characteristics of the usage. After…
Masiero, Federica
2007-05-15
Semilinear elliptic partial differential equations are solved in a mild sense in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. These results are applied to a stochastic optimal control problem with infinite horizon. Applications to controlled stochastic heat and wave equations are given.
Monreal, Marisa J; Seaman, Lani A; Goff, George S; Michalczyk, Ryszard; Morris, David E; Scott, Brian L; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L
2016-03-07
Two organometallic 1D infinite coordination polymers and two organometallic monometallic complexes of thorium diazide have been synthesized and characterized. Steric control of these self-assembled arrays, which are dense in thorium and nitrogen, has also been demonstrated: infinite chains can be circumvented by using steric bulk either at the metallocene or with a donor ligand in the wedge.
Stress distribution in a semi-infinite body symmetrically loaded over a circular area
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcginness, H.
1980-01-01
Algorithms are developed for computing stresses in a semi-infinite body when loaded by a uniform pressure acting over a circular area. The algorithm allows easy determination of any stress component in a semi-infinite body having a known Poisson's ratio. Example curves are plotted for Portland cement grout and metal representative values.
Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems
He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.
2011-12-01
Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous
A simple extrapolation of thermodynamic perturbation theory to infinite order
Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard
2015-09-21
Recent analyses of the third and fourth order perturbation contributions to the equations of state for square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains show trends that persist across orders and molecular models. In particular, the ratio between orders (e.g., A{sub 3}/A{sub 2}, where A{sub i} is the ith order perturbation contribution) exhibits a peak when plotted with respect to density. The trend resembles a Gaussian curve with the peak near the critical density. This observation can form the basis for a simple recursion and extrapolation from the highest available order to infinite order. The resulting extrapolation is analytic and therefore cannot fully characterize the critical region, but it remarkably improves accuracy, especially for the binodal curve. Whereas a second order theory is typically accurate for the binodal at temperatures within 90% of the critical temperature, the extrapolated result is accurate to within 99% of the critical temperature. In addition to square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains, we demonstrate how the method can be applied semi-empirically to the Perturbed Chain - Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT)
Infinite hidden conditional random fields for human behavior analysis.
Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja
2013-01-01
Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF (iHCRF), which is a nonparametric model based on hierarchical Dirichlet processes and is capable of automatically learning the optimal number of hidden states for a classification task. We show how we learn the model hyperparameters with an effective Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling technique, and we explain the process that underlines our iHCRF model with the Restaurant Franchise Rating Agencies analogy. We show that the iHCRF is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and outperforms the best finite HCRFs--chosen via cross-validation--for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain. Moreover, the iHCRF manages to achieve this performance in significantly less total training, validation, and testing time.
Semiclassical limits of quantum partition functions on infinite graphs
Güneysu, Batu
2015-02-15
We prove that if H denotes the operator corresponding to the canonical Dirichlet form on a possibly locally infinite weighted graph (X, b, m), and if v : X → ℝ is such that H + v/ħ is well-defined as a form sum for all ħ > 0, then the quantum partition function tr(e{sup −βħ(H+v/ħ)}) converges to ∑{sub x∈X}e{sup −βv(x)} as ħ → 0 +, for all β > 0, regardless of the fact whether e{sup −βv} is a priori summable or not. This fact can be interpreted as a semiclassical limit, and it allows geometric Weyl-type convergence results. We also prove natural generalizations of this semiclassical limit to a large class of covariant Schrödinger operators that act on sections in Hermitian vector bundle over (X, m, b), a result that particularly applies to magnetic Schrödinger operators that are defined on (X, m, b)
Causal field theory with an infinite speed of sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshordi, Niayesh; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Geshnizjani, Ghazal
2007-04-01
We introduce a model of scalar field dark energy, Cuscuton, which can be realized as the incompressible (or infinite speed of sound) limit of a scalar field theory with a noncanonical kinetic term (or k-essence). Even though perturbations of Cuscuton propagate superluminally, we show that they have a locally degenerate phase space volume (or zero entropy), implying that they cannot carry any microscopic information, and thus the theory is causal. Even coupling to ordinary scalar fields cannot lead to superluminal signal propagation. Furthermore, we show that the family of constant field hypersurfaces is the family of constant mean curvature hypersurfaces, which are the analogs of soap films (or soap bubbles) in Euclidian space. This enables us to find the most general solution in 1+1 dimensions, whose properties motivate conjectures for global degeneracy of the phase space in higher dimensions. Finally, we show that the Cuscuton action can model the continuum limit of the evolution of a field with discrete degrees of freedom and argue why it is protected against quantum corrections at low energies. While this paper mainly focuses on interesting features of Cuscuton in a Minkowski space-time, a companion paper examines cosmology with Cuscuton dark energy.
Infinite bandwidth of a Mott-Hubbard insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freericks, James; Cohn, Jeffrey; van Dongen, Peter; Krishnamurthy, Hulikal
The conventional viewpoint of the strongly correlated electron metal-insulator transition is that a single band splits into two upper and lower Hubbard bands at the metal-insulator transition. Much work has investigated whether this transition is continuous or discontinuous. Here we focus on another aspect and ask the question of whether there are additional upper and lower Hubbard bands, which stretch all the way out to infinity|leading to an infinite bandwidth for the Mott insulator. While we are not yet able to provide a rigorous proof of this result, we use exact diagonalization studies on small clusters to motivate the existence of these additional bands, and we discuss some different methods that might be utilized to provide a rigorous proof of this result. Even though the extra upper and lower Hubbard bands have very low total spectral weight, those states are expected to have extremely long lifetimes, leading to a nontrivial contribution to the transport density of states for dc transport and modifying the high temperature limit for the electrical resistivity. JKF supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER46542, and by the McDevitt bequest at Georgetown University. HRK supported by the Indian Science Foundation.
Bifurcation analysis of an infinite array of von Karman Streets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaemi Oskouei, Babak; Kanso, Eva; Newton, Paul K.
2008-11-01
This research investigates the behavior of an infinite array of (inverse) von Karman streets. Primary motivation is to model the wake dynamics in large fish schools. Ignoring the fish we focus on the dynamic interaction of multiple wakes. In particular, we investigate the problem of fluid transport between adjacent vortex streets for its relevance to understanding the transport of oxygen and nutrients to inner fish in large schools as well as understanding flow barriers to passive locomotion. We prove that the configuration of vortices is in relative equilibrium, meaning that the streamline pattern remains steady in the frame moving with vortices. We look at the topology of these streamline patterns plotted in the moving frame which lends insight to fluid transport through the mid-wake region. Fluid is advected along different paths depending on the distance separating two adjacent streets. When the streets are far apart, the dynamics is decoupled and fluid is transported globally between two adjacent streets. When the streets get closer to each other, the number of streets that enter into partnership in transporting fluid among themselves increases. This observation motivates a bifurcation analysis which links the distance between streets to the maximum number of streets transporting fluid among themselves.
Causal field theory with an infinite speed of sound
Afshordi, Niayesh; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Geshnizjani, Ghazal
2007-04-15
We introduce a model of scalar field dark energy, Cuscuton, which can be realized as the incompressible (or infinite speed of sound) limit of a scalar field theory with a noncanonical kinetic term (or k-essence). Even though perturbations of Cuscuton propagate superluminally, we show that they have a locally degenerate phase space volume (or zero entropy), implying that they cannot carry any microscopic information, and thus the theory is causal. Even coupling to ordinary scalar fields cannot lead to superluminal signal propagation. Furthermore, we show that the family of constant field hypersurfaces is the family of constant mean curvature hypersurfaces, which are the analogs of soap films (or soap bubbles) in Euclidian space. This enables us to find the most general solution in 1+1 dimensions, whose properties motivate conjectures for global degeneracy of the phase space in higher dimensions. Finally, we show that the Cuscuton action can model the continuum limit of the evolution of a field with discrete degrees of freedom and argue why it is protected against quantum corrections at low energies. While this paper mainly focuses on interesting features of Cuscuton in a Minkowski space-time, a companion paper examines cosmology with Cuscuton dark energy.
Second law analysis of an infinitely segmented magnetohydrodynamic generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arash, Ardeshir; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan; Najafi, Mohammad
2017-03-01
The performance of an infinitely segmented magnetohydrodynamic generator is analyzed using the second law of thermodynamics entropy generation criterion. The exact analytical solution of the velocity and temperature fields are provided by applying the modified Hartmann flow model, taking into account the occurrence of the Hall effect in the considered generator. Contributions of heat transfer, fluid friction, and ohmic dissipation to the destruction of useful available work are found, and the nature of irreversibilities in the considered generator is determined. In addition, the electrical isotropic efficiency scheme is used to evaluate the generator performance. Finally, the implication of the Hall parameter, Hartmann number, and load factor for the entropy generation and the generator performance are studied and the optimal operating conditions are determined. The results show that the heat transfer has the smallest contribution to the entropy generation compared to that of the friction and ohmic dissipation. The application of the Hall effect on the system showed an appreciable augmentation of entropy generation rate which is along with what the logic implies. A parametric study is conducted and its results provide the generated entropy and also efficiency diagrams which show the influence of the Hall effect on the considered generator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Zhewei; Hu, Zixi; Li, Jinglai
2016-07-01
Many scientific and engineering problems require to perform Bayesian inferences in function spaces, where the unknowns are of infinite dimension. In such problems, choosing an appropriate prior distribution is an important task. In particular, when the function to infer is subject to sharp jumps, the commonly used Gaussian measures become unsuitable. On the other hand, the so-called total variation (TV) prior can only be defined in a finite-dimensional setting, and does not lead to a well-defined posterior measure in function spaces. In this work we present a TV-Gaussian (TG) prior to address such problems, where the TV term is used to detect sharp jumps of the function, and the Gaussian distribution is used as a reference measure so that it results in a well-defined posterior measure in the function space. We also present an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to draw samples from the posterior distribution of the TG prior. With numerical examples we demonstrate the performance of the TG prior and the efficiency of the proposed MCMC algorithm.
Dilution Jet Mixing Program, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Berenfeld, A.; Mongia, H. C.
1982-01-01
The effect of jet to mainstream density ratio, flow area convergence as encounted in transition sections, and nonuniform mainstream profile upstream of dilution orifices on the mixing of a row of jets with a confined cross flow was quantified. It is found that: (1) jet spreading rate in transverse direction is increased with increasing J, H/D and with decreasing S/D; (2) the density ratio has only a second order effect on the jet mixing characteristics for a constant momentum ratio; (3) the temperature distributions in the jet mixing region are strongly influenced by the undisturbed mainstream profile; (4) flow area convergence enhances mixing in radial and transverse directions. An asymmetric convergent duct with flat wall injection has the same jet mixing characteristics as a symmetric convergent duct. An asymmetric convergent duct with slant wall injection has a faster jet spreading rate in the transverse direction.
Negative magnetophoresis in diluted ferrofluid flow.
Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung
2015-07-21
We report magnetic manipulation of non-magnetic particles suspended in diluted ferrofluid. Diamagnetic particles were introduced into a circular chamber to study the extent of their deflection under the effect of a non-uniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Since ferrofluid is a paramagnetic medium, it also experiences a bulk magnetic force that in turn induces a secondary flow opposing the main hydrodynamic flow. Sheath flow rate, particle size, and magnetic field strength were varied to examine this complex behaviour. The combined effect of negative magnetophoresis and magnetically induced secondary flow leads to various operation regimes, which can potentially find applications in separation, trapping and mixing of diamagnetic particles such as cells in a microfluidic system.
Random bilayer phases of dilute surfactant solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cates, M. E.; Roux, D.
1990-12-01
Surfactant molecules in dilute solution may aggregate reversibly into extended structures. For suitably chosen molecules, the preferred packing involves a locally flat bilayer which tends to wander entropically at large distances. At low temperatures (and/or high concentrations) the system forms a stack of flat sheets with one-dimensional quasi-long range order (a smectic liquid crystal), but at high temperatures or low concentrations, the stack can melt into a random surface structure that resembles a multiply connected labyrinth or 'sponge' of bilayer in a sea of solvent. Recent theoretical and experimental progress in understanding the properties of the sponge is reviewed. The authors argue that the sponge phase may provide a good system for the study of various liquid-state critical phenomena.
Fermi Surface of the Most Dilute Superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Xiao; Zhu, Zengwei; Fauqué, Benoît; Behnia, Kamran
2013-04-01
The origin of superconductivity in bulk SrTiO3 is a mystery since the nonmonotonous variation of the critical transition with carrier concentration defies the expectations of the crudest version of the BCS theory. Here, employing the Nernst effect, an extremely sensitive probe of tiny bulk Fermi surfaces, we show that, down to concentrations as low as 5.5×1017cm-3, the system has both a sharp Fermi surface and a superconducting ground state. The most dilute superconductor currently known therefore has a metallic normal state with a Fermi energy as little as 1.1 meV on top of a band gap as large as 3 eV. The occurrence of a superconducting instability in an extremely small, single-component, and barely anisotropic Fermi surface implies strong constraints for the identification of the pairing mechanism.
Stable isotope dilution assays in mycotoxin analysis.
Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan
2008-01-01
The principle and applications of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) in mycotoxin analysis are critically reviewed. The general section includes historical aspects of SIDAs, the prerequisites and limitations of the use of stable isotopically labelled internal standards, and possible calibration procedures. In the application section actual SIDAs for the analysis of trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, patulin, and ochratoxin A are presented. The syntheses and availability of labelled mycotoxins for use as internal standards is reviewed and specific advances in food analysis and toxicology are demonstrated. The review indicates that LC-MS applications, in particular, require the use of stable isotopically labelled standards to compensate for losses during clean-up and for discrimination due to ion suppression. As the commercial availability of these compounds continues to increase, SIDAs can be expected to find expanding use in mycotoxin analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Le-Le; Wei, Jiu-Chuan; Niu, Chao; Shi, Long-Qing; Zhai, Pei-He; Yin, Hui-Yong; Xie, Dao-Lei
2015-07-01
The Pole-Pole (PP) array is widely used for measurements that incorporate two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) multi-electrode electrical resistivity surveys, although an effective equilibrium has not yet been achieved between two factors, the location of 'infinite' electrodes and the data utilisation of the effective resistivity, which affects the detection accuracy; thus, the data collected under the conditions of 'infinite' electrodes that are as finite as possible are maximally effective. Studies have shown that the optimum 'infinite' electrode distance must be greater than 20 times the current-potential electrode distance AM; this value is much greater than the currently used value of 5 to 10 times AM. However, limitations imposed by landforms and topographic conditions, such as mountainous areas and coal mine roadways, often prevent the 'infinite' condition from being satisfied. In this study, a field test was designed and performed by adopting a particular PP array to collect sounding data under different 'infinite' electrode distances, and the differences were analysed in the apparent resistivity curves calculated with different geometric coefficients. The results reveal that when the 'infinite' electrode space is finite relative to AM, significant distortion may occur, and a minimum inflection point may appear in the sounding curve of apparent resistivity that is calculated with the geometric coefficient Kpp. Although the data past the minimum inflection point of ρs-mpp curve lose their value for the sounding application, a portion of the first segment of the distorted curve can be used, therefore, a correction formula under the condition of non-infinite electrode (Bing and Greenhalgh, 1998) space in a PP array is derived based on traditional electric field theories and formulas of apparent resistivity under different electrode arrays. The error analysis after correction indicates that the data utilisation ratio in the corrected effective
Stochastic mean-field formulation of the dynamics of diluted neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angulo-Garcia, D.; Torcini, A.
2015-02-01
We consider pulse-coupled leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks with randomly distributed synaptic couplings. This random dilution induces fluctuations in the evolution of the macroscopic variables and deterministic chaos at the microscopic level. Our main aim is to mimic the effect of the dilution as a noise source acting on the dynamics of a globally coupled nonchaotic system. Indeed, the evolution of a diluted neural network can be well approximated as a fully pulse-coupled network, where each neuron is driven by a mean synaptic current plus additive noise. These terms represent the average and the fluctuations of the synaptic currents acting on the single neurons in the diluted system. The main microscopic and macroscopic dynamical features can be retrieved with this stochastic approximation. Furthermore, the microscopic stability of the diluted network can be also reproduced, as demonstrated from the almost coincidence of the measured Lyapunov exponents in the deterministic and stochastic cases for an ample range of system sizes. Our results strongly suggest that the fluctuations in the synaptic currents are responsible for the emergence of chaos in this class of pulse-coupled networks.
Stochastic mean-field formulation of the dynamics of diluted neural networks.
Angulo-Garcia, D; Torcini, A
2015-02-01
We consider pulse-coupled leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks with randomly distributed synaptic couplings. This random dilution induces fluctuations in the evolution of the macroscopic variables and deterministic chaos at the microscopic level. Our main aim is to mimic the effect of the dilution as a noise source acting on the dynamics of a globally coupled nonchaotic system. Indeed, the evolution of a diluted neural network can be well approximated as a fully pulse-coupled network, where each neuron is driven by a mean synaptic current plus additive noise. These terms represent the average and the fluctuations of the synaptic currents acting on the single neurons in the diluted system. The main microscopic and macroscopic dynamical features can be retrieved with this stochastic approximation. Furthermore, the microscopic stability of the diluted network can be also reproduced, as demonstrated from the almost coincidence of the measured Lyapunov exponents in the deterministic and stochastic cases for an ample range of system sizes. Our results strongly suggest that the fluctuations in the synaptic currents are responsible for the emergence of chaos in this class of pulse-coupled networks.
Oxalate Content of Different Drinkable Dilutions of Tea Infusions after Different Brewing Times
Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab
2012-01-01
Background: The aims of this study were to determine the effect of different brewing times and diluting on oxalate content of loose-packed black teas consumed in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: The oxalate content of black teas after brewing for 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 minutes was measured in triplicate by enzymatic assay. In order to attain the most acceptable dilution of tea infusions, tea samples which were brewed for 15, 30 and 60 minutes were diluted two (120 ml), three (80 ml) and four (60 ml) times respectively. Results: There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentrations associated with increased brewing times (P< 0.001) with oxalate contents ranging from 4.4 mg/240 ml for the 5 min to 6.3 mg/240 ml for 60 min brewing times, respectively. There were significant differences between the mean oxalate content of different dilutions after brewing for 15, 30 and 60 minutes (P< 0.001). Conclusion: The oxalate content of Iranian consumed black tea after different brewing times and different dilution was below the recommended levels. Therefore, it seems that consumption of black tea several times per day would not pose significant health risk in kidney stone patients and susceptible individuals. PMID:24688937
Detection of dilute organic acids in water by inelastic tunneling spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skarlatos, Y.; Barker, R. C.; Haller, G. L.; Yelon, A.
1974-01-01
Study of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) spectra obtained from junctions exposed to dilute solutions of organic molecules in both liquid and vapor phases. The results indicate that it is possible in principle to detect the presence and to measure the concentration of at least some organic molecules in dilute aqueous solution by means of the IETS technique. Some fine points pertaining to the application of this technique are discussed, and it is pointed out that through appropriate refinements IETS may become a valuable tool for analytical water chemistry.
Scanning Hall probe microscopy of a diluted magnetic semiconductor
Kweon, Seongsoo; Samarth, Nitin; Lozanne, Alex de
2009-05-01
We have measured the micromagnetic properties of a diluted magnetic semiconductor as a function of temperature and applied field with a scanning Hall probe microscope built in our laboratory. The design philosophy for this microscope and some details are described. The samples analyzed in this work are Ga{sub 0.94}Mn{sub 0.06}As films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetic domains are 2-4 mum wide and fairly stable with temperature. Magnetic clusters are observed above T{sub C}, which we ascribe to MnAs defects too small and sparse to be detected by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.
EPR and Ferromagnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Quantum Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
König, Jürgen; MacDonald, Allan H.
2003-08-01
Motivated by recent measurements of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in modulation-doped CdMnTe quantum wells [
Improvement of acoustic theory of ultrasonic waves in dilute bubbly liquids
Ando, Keita; Colonius, Tim; Brennen, Christopher E.
2009-01-01
The theory of the acoustics of dilute bubbly liquids is reviewed, and the dispersion relation is modified by including the effect of liquid compressibility on the natural frequency of the bubbles. The modified theory is shown to more accurately predict the trend in measured attenuation of ultrasonic waves. The model limitations associated with such high-frequency waves are discussed. PMID:19739700
Depth Matters: Soil pH and dilution effects in the northern Great Plains
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
In the northern Great Plans (NGP), surface sampling depths of 0-15.2 cm or 0-20.3 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near-surface (e.g., <10 cm). Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements and the...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pety, Stephen J.; Lu, Hang; Thio, Yonathan S.
2011-01-01
This paper describes a student laboratory experiment to determine the molecular weight of a polymer sample by measuring the viscosity of dilute polymer solutions in a PDMS microfluidic viscometer. Sample data are given for aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). A demonstration of shear thinning behavior using the microviscometer is…
40 CFR 1065.546 - Validation of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.546 Validation of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling. Use continuous flows and/or tracer gas concentrations for transient and ramped modal cycles to validate the minimum... mode-average values instead of continuous measurements for discrete mode steady-state duty...
40 CFR 1065.546 - Validation of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.546 Validation of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling. Use continuous flows and/or tracer gas concentrations for transient and ramped modal cycles to validate the minimum... mode-average values instead of continuous measurements for discrete mode steady-state duty...
40 CFR 1065.546 - Verification of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.546 Verification of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling. Use continuous flows and/or tracer gas concentrations for transient and ramped-modal cycles to verify the minimum... mode-average values instead of continuous measurements for discrete mode steady-state duty...
40 CFR 1065.546 - Validation of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.546 Validation of minimum dilution ratio for PM batch sampling. Use continuous flows and/or tracer gas concentrations for transient and ramped modal cycles to validate the minimum... mode-average values instead of continuous measurements for discrete mode steady-state duty...
A serial dilution microfluidic device for cytotoxicity assays.
O'Neill, Adrian T; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy; Walker, Glenn M
2006-01-01
A novel microfluidic device is presented which creates a linear serial dilution of two input fluid streams. This platform facilitates higher productivity as a component of a high throughput cytotoxicity testing strategy. A modeling solution is presented to create custom linear dilution schemes. The featured device creates a serial dilution of two solutions in the range of 1:9 through 9:1 across nine discrete dilutions. It has been validated to create a highly linear progression of dilutions with an R2 value of 0.9993. The device functions equivalently over a wide range of flow rates. The standard deviation of dilution values averages 0.76% over six flow rates spanning 0.5 to 16 microl min(-1).
Ikomi, A; Matthews, M; Kuan, A M; Henson, G
1998-04-01
This study addresses the likelihood of false negative urine pregnancy test results, due to physiological urine dilution as described in some anecdotal reports. In this prospective study 320 pregnancy tests were performed on urine samples of varying concentrations obtained from 40 women, with suspected complications of early pregnancy, who had presented for ultrasound scans. Four different pregnancy tests were used and serum betahCG levels were measured quantitatively. Despite a mean fivefold increase in urine dilution, the pregnancy tests with low betahCG detection limits maintained maximal sensitivity. The detection of betahCG in dilute urine was adversely affected by using pregnancy tests with higher betahCG detection limits and these tests should be used with caution when assessing gynaecological emergencies.
Radiotracer Dilution Method for Mercury Inventory Study in Electrolytic Cells
Sugiharto; Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Santoso, Sigit Budi; Abidin, Zainal; Santoso, Gatot Budi
2010-06-22
Purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate feasibility the use of radiotracer to measure weight of mercury in electrolytic cells of soda industry. The weight of mercury in each cell of the plant is designed approximately 1700 kg. Radiotracer is prepared by mixing {sup 203}Hg radioactive mercury with 2400 g of inactive mercury in a bath. The respective precisely weighted mercury aliquots to be injected into the cells are prepared by pouring approximately 130 g of radioactive mercury taken from the bath into 13 standard vials, in accordance with the number of the cells tested. Four standard references prepared by further dilution of {+-}2 g active mercury taken from the bath to obtain the dilution factors range of 12,000 to 20,000 from which the calibration graph is constructed. The injection process is conducting by pouring the radioactive mercury from aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell and allows them to mix thoroughly. It is assumed that the mass of the radiotracer injected into a closed system remains constant, at least during the period of the test. From this experiment it was observed that the mixing time is two days after injection of radioactive mercury. The inactive mercury in each electrolytic cell calculated by the radiotracer method is of the range 1351.529 kg to 1966.354 kg with maximum error (95% confidence) is 1.52 %. The accuracy of measurement of the present method is better than gravimetric one which accounts 4 % of error on average.
User's manual for GILDA: An infinite lattice diffusion theory calculation
Le, T.T.
1991-11-01
GILDA is a static two-dimensional diffusion theory code that performs either buckling (B[sup 2]) or k-effective (k[sub eff]) calculations for an infinite hexagonal lattice which is constructed by repeating identical seven-cell zones (one cell is one or seven identical homogenized hexes). GILDA was written by J. W. Stewart in 1973. This user's manual is intended to provide all of the information necessary to set up and execute a GILDA calculation and to interpret the output results. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the computer (VAX/VMS or IBM/MVS) and the JOSHUA system database on which the code is implemented. Users who are not familiar with the JOSHUA database are advised to consult additional references to understand the structure of JOSHUA records and data sets before turning to section 4 of this manual. Sections 2 and 3 of this manual serve as a theory document in which the basic diffusion theory and the numerical approximations behind the code are described. Section 4 describes the functions of the program's subroutines. Section 5 describes the input data and tutors the user how to set up a problem. Section 6 describes the output results and the error messages which may be encountered during execution. Users who only wish to learn how to run the code without understanding the theory can start from section 4 and use sections 2 and 3 as references. Finally, the VAX/VMS and the IBM execution command files together with sample input records are provided in the appendices at the end of this manual.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, M. C.
1979-01-01
The calculation of currents induced by a plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer the resonant width (or frequency) of rectangular microstrip antennas. By placing the strip inside the dielectric, the effect of a dielectric cover of the same material as the substrate can be included in the calculation of resonant frequency. A comparison with measured results indicated agreement of 1 percent or better for rectangular microstrip antennas constructed on Teflon-fiberglass substrate.
Plettner, T.; Byer, R.L.; Colby, E.; Cowan, B.; Sears, C.M.S.; Spencer, J.E.; Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC
2006-03-01
We recently achieved the first experimental observation of laser-driven particle acceleration of relativistic electrons from a single Gaussian near-infrared laser beam in a semi-infinite vacuum. This article presents an in-depth account of key aspects of the experiment. An analysis of the transverse and longitudinal forces acting on the electron beam is included. A comparison of the observed data to the acceleration viewed as an inverse transition radiation process is presented. This is followed by a detailed description of the components of the experiment and a discussion of future measurements.
Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics
Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.
2002-01-01
A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.
Toxicity of contaminated sediments in dilution series with control sediments
Nelson, M.K.; Landrum, P.F.; Burton, G.A.; Klaine, S.J.; Crecelius, E.A.; Byl, T.D.; Gossiaux, Duane C.; Tsymbal, V.N.; Cleveland, L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Sasson-Brickson, G.
1993-01-01
The use of dilutions has been the foundation of our approach for assessing contaminated water, and accordingly, it may be important to establish similar or parallel approaches for sediment dilutions. Test organism responses to dilution gradients can identify the degree of necessary sediment alteration to reduce the toxicity. Using whole sediment dilutions to represent the complex interactions of in situ sediments can identify the toxicity, but the selection of the appropriate diluent for the contaminated sediment may affect the results and conclusions drawn. Contaminated whole sediments were examined to evaluate the toxicity of dilutions of sediments with a diversity of test organisms. Dilutions of the contaminated sediments were prepared with differing diluents that varied in organic carbon content, particle size distribution, and volatile solids. Studies were conducted using four macroinvertebrates and a vascular, rooted plant. Responses by some test organisms followed a sigmoidal dose-response curve, but others followed a U-shaped curve. Initial dilutions reduced toxicity as expected, but further dilution resulted in an increase in toxicity. The type of diluent used was an important factor in assessing the sediment toxicity, because the control soil reduced toxicity more effectively than sand as a diluent of the same sediment. Using sediment chemical and physical characteristics as an indicator of sediment dilution may not be as useful as chemical analysis of contaminants, but warrants further investigation.
Functors of White Noise Associated to Characters of the Infinite Symmetric Group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bożejko, Marek; Guţă, Mădălin
The characters of the infinite symmetric group are extended to multiplicative positive definite functions on pair partitions by using an explicit representation due to Veršik and Kerov. The von Neumann algebra generated by the fields with f in an infinite dimensional real Hilbert space is infinite and the vacuum vector is not separating. For a family depending on an integer N< - 1 an ``exclusion principle'' is found allowing at most ``identical particles'' on the same state:
Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations
Kishore K. Mohanty
2006-02-01
There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces
Instability of flow around a rotating, semi-infinite cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derebail Muralidhar, Srikanth; Pier, Benoît; Scott, Julian F.
2016-09-01
Stability of flow around a rotating, semi-infinite cylinder placed in an axial stream is investigated. Assuming large Reynolds number, the basic flow is computed numerically as described by Derebail Muralidhar et al. [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 472, 20150850 (2016), 10.1098/rspa.2015.0850], while numerical solution of the local stability equations allows calculation of the modal growth rates and hence determination of flow stability or instability. The problem has three nondimensional parameters: the Reynolds number Re , the rotation rate S , and the axial location Z . Small amounts of rotation are found to strongly affect flow stability. This is the result of a nearly neutral mode of the nonrotating cylinder which controls stability at small S . Even small rotation can produce a sufficient perturbation that the mode goes from decaying to growing, with obvious consequences for stability. Without rotation, the flow is stable below a Reynolds number of about 1060 and also beyond a threshold Z . With rotation, no matter how small, instability is no longer constrained by a minimum Re nor a maximum Z . In particular, the critical Reynolds number goes to zero as Z →∞ , so the flow is always unstable at large enough axial distances from the nose. As Z is increased, the flow goes from stability at small Z to instability at large Z . If the critical Reynolds number is a monotonic decreasing function of Z , as it is for S between about 0.0045 and 5, there is a single boundary in Z , which separates the stable from the unstable part of the flow. On the other hand, when the critical Reynolds number is nonmonotonic, there can, depending on the choice of Re , be several such boundaries and flow stability switches more than once as Z is increased. Detailed results showing the critical Reynolds number as a function of Z for different rotation rates are given. We also obtain an asymptotic expansion of the critical Reynolds number at large Z and use perturbation theory to
Decomposition of dilute trichloroethylene by nonthermal plasma
Oda, Tetsuji; Takahashi, Tadashi; Tada, Keiko
1999-03-01
Decomposition performance of a dilute toxic organic compound, trichloroethylene (TCE), in air by using nonthermal plasma processing was studied extensively. The nonthermal plasma was generated by the high-frequency (2 kHz) or commercial-frequency (50 Hz) barrier discharge in a fused silica tube. Three types of reactors, bolt type, rod type (both are barrier-discharge type), and coil type (surface-discharge type), were tested. Analysis of byproducts, residual materials, and end products generated by the plasma process was performed by a gas chromatography mass spectrometer of gas chromatography. Most organic byproducts decrease with an increase of the electric discharge power, but only toxic phosgene increases with the increase of the discharge power. As a post process, NaOH solution was used to test effluent from the plasma reactor. The solution was found effective in phosgene absorption. Comparison between nonthermal plasma and UV irradiation for TCE decomposition was also made. In regard to the energy efficiency of the TCE decomposition, UV irradiation is found much better than discharge plasma.
Chain Dynamics in a Dilute Magnetorheological Fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Jing; Hagenbuchle, Martin
1996-01-01
The structure, formation, and dynamics of dilute, mono-dispersive ferrofluid emulsions in an external magnetic field have been investigated using dynamic light scattering techniques. In the absence of the magnetic field, the emulsion particles are randomly distributed and behave like hard spheres in Brownian motion. An applied magnetic field induces a magnetic dipole moment in each particle. Dipolar interactions between particles align them into chains where correlation functions show two decay processes. The short-time decay shows the motion of straight chains as a whole where the apparent chain length increases with the applied magnetic field and the particle volume fraction. Good scaling results are obtained showing that the apparent chain length grows with time following a power law with exponent of 0.6 and depends on the applied field, particle volume fraction, and diffusion constant of the particles. The long-time decay in the correlation function shows oscillation when the chains reach a certain length with time and stiffness with threshold field This result shows that chains not only fluctuate, but move in a periodic motion with a frequency of 364 Hz at lambda = 15. It may suggest the existence of phonons. This work is the first step in the understanding of the structure formation, especially chain coarsening mechanism, of magnetorheological (MR) fluids at higher volume fractions.
DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS
Kishore K. Mohanty
2004-10-01
There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Simulation studies indicate that both wettability alteration and gravity-driven flow play significant role in oil recovery from fractured carbonates. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover about 55% of the oil in about 150 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration and low tension in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 40% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Cationic surfactant, DTAB recovers about 35% of the oil. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.
DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS
Kishore K. Mohanty
2003-07-01
There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil-wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate-wet for many surfactants and water-wet for one surfactant. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting core adsorption, phase behavior, wettability and mobilization studies.
Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations
Kishore K. Mohanty
2005-10-01
There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.
DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS
Kishore K. Mohanty
2003-10-01
There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Alfoterra-38 (0.05 wt%), Alfoterra-35 (0.05 wt%), SS-6656 (0.05 wt%), and DTAB (1 wt%) altered the wettability of the initially oil-wet calcite plate to an intermediate/water-wet state. Low IFT ({approx}10{sup -3} dynes/cm) is obtained with surfactants 5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability and mobilization studies.
DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS
Kishore K. Mohanty
2005-04-01
There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show about 61% oil recovery in the case of Alf-38 and 37% in the case of DTAB. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition of the laboratory experiment. Field-scale fracture block simulation shows that as the fracture spacing increases, so does the time of recovery. Plans for the next quarter include simulation studies.
Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations
Kishore K. Mohanty
2004-03-31
There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover more than 40% of the oil in about 50 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 28% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Residual oil saturation showed little capillary number dependence between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -2}. Wettability alteration increases as the number of ethoxy groups increases in ethoxy sulfate surfactants. Plans for the next quarter include conducting mobilization, and imbibition studies.
DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS
Kishore K. Mohanty
2003-07-01
There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate wettability. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.
DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS
Kishore K. Mohanty
2003-01-01
There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have acquired field oil and core samples and field brine compositions from Marathon. We have conducted preliminary adsorption and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Receding contact angles increase with surfactant adsorption. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.