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Sample records for inflammatory peptide supergene

  1. doublesex is a mimicry supergene.

    PubMed

    Kunte, K; Zhang, W; Tenger-Trolander, A; Palmer, D H; Martin, A; Reed, R D; Mullen, S P; Kronforst, M R

    2014-03-13

    One of the most striking examples of sexual dimorphism is sex-limited mimicry in butterflies, a phenomenon in which one sex--usually the female--mimics a toxic model species, whereas the other sex displays a different wing pattern. Sex-limited mimicry is phylogenetically widespread in the swallowtail butterfly genus Papilio, in which it is often associated with female mimetic polymorphism. In multiple polymorphic species, the entire wing pattern phenotype is controlled by a single Mendelian 'supergene'. Although theoretical work has explored the evolutionary dynamics of supergene mimicry, there are almost no empirical data that address the critical issue of what a mimicry supergene actually is at a functional level. Using an integrative approach combining genetic and association mapping, transcriptome and genome sequencing, and gene expression analyses, we show that a single gene, doublesex, controls supergene mimicry in Papilio polytes. This is in contrast to the long-held view that supergenes are likely to be controlled by a tightly linked cluster of loci. Analysis of gene expression and DNA sequence variation indicates that isoform expression differences contribute to the functional differences between dsx mimicry alleles, and protein sequence evolution may also have a role. Our results combine elements from different hypotheses for the identity of supergenes, showing that a single gene can switch the entire wing pattern among mimicry phenotypes but may require multiple, tightly linked mutations to do so.

  2. The role of antimicrobial peptides in chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Małgorzata; Majewski, Sławomir

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effector molecules of the innate immune system of the skin. They present an activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as some fungi, parasites and enveloped viruses. Several inflammatory skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris and rosacea are characterized by a dysregulated expression of AMPs. Antimicrobial peptides are excessively produced in lesional psoriatic scales or rosacea in contrast to the atopic skin that shows lower AMP levels when compared with psoriasis. The importance of the AMPs contribution to host immunity is indisputable as alterations in the antimicrobial peptide expression have been associated with various pathologic processes. This review discusses the biology and clinical relevance of antimicrobial peptides expressed in the skin and their role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:26985172

  3. The role of antimicrobial peptides in chronic inflammatory skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effector molecules of the innate immune system of the skin. They present an activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as some fungi, parasites and enveloped viruses. Several inflammatory skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris and rosacea are characterized by a dysregulated expression of AMPs. Antimicrobial peptides are excessively produced in lesional psoriatic scales or rosacea in contrast to the atopic skin that shows lower AMP levels when compared with psoriasis. The importance of the AMPs contribution to host immunity is indisputable as alterations in the antimicrobial peptide expression have been associated with various pathologic processes. This review discusses the biology and clinical relevance of antimicrobial peptides expressed in the skin and their role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:26985172

  4. Supergenes and their role in evolution

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, M J; Jiggins, C D

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation is commonly a multidimensional problem, with changes in multiple traits required to match a complex environment. This is epitomized by balanced polymorphisms in which multiple phenotypes co-exist and are maintained in a population by a balance of selective forces. Consideration of such polymorphisms led to the concept of the supergene, where alternative phenotypes in a balanced polymorphism segregate as if controlled by a single genetic locus, resulting from tight genetic linkage between multiple functional loci. Recently, the molecular basis for several supergenes has been resolved. Thus, major chromosomal inversions have been shown to be associated with polymorphisms in butterflies, ants and birds, offering a mechanism for localised reduction in recombination. In several examples of plant self-incompatibility, the functional role of multiple elements within the supergene architecture has been demonstrated, conclusively showing that balanced polymorphism can be maintained at multiple coadapted and tightly linked elements. Despite recent criticism, we argue that the supergene concept remains relevant and is more testable than ever with modern molecular methods. PMID:24642887

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species, Apoptosis, Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Excessive free radical generation, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress in the biological system, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathological conditions associated with diverse human inflammatory diseases (HIDs). Although inflammation which is considered advantageous is a defensive mechanism in response to xenobiotics and foreign pathogen; as a result of cellular damage arising from oxidative stress, if uncontrolled, it may degenerate to chronic inflammation when the ROS levels exceed the antioxidant capacity. Therefore, in the normal resolution of inflammatory reactions, apoptosis is acknowledged to play a crucial role, while on the other hand, dysregulation in the induction of apoptosis by enhanced ROS production could also result in excessive apoptosis identified in the pathogenesis of HIDs. Apparently, a careful balance must be maintained in this complex environment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed in this review as an excellent candidate capable of playing prominent roles in maintaining this balance. Consequently, in novel drug design for the treatment and management of HIDs, AMPs are promising candidates owing to their size and multidimensional properties as well as their wide spectrum of activities and indications of reduced rate of resistance. PMID:25850012

  6. SOCS1 Mimetic Peptide Suppresses Chronic Intraocular Inflammatory Disease (Uveitis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Chang; Yu, Cheng-Rong; Mattapallil, Mary J.; Sun, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening disease characterized by repeated cycles of remission and recurrent inflammation. The JAK/STAT pathway regulates the differentiation of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells that mediate uveitis. A SOCS1 mimetic peptide (SOCS1-KIR) that inhibits JAK2/STAT1 pathways has recently been shown to suppress experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). However, it is not clear whether SOCS1-KIR ameliorated uveitis by targeting JAK/STAT pathways of pathogenic lymphocytes or via inhibition of macrophages and antigen-presenting cells that also enter the retina during EAU. To further investigate mechanisms that mediate SOCS1-KIR effects and evaluate the efficacy of SOCS1-KIR as an investigational drug for chronic uveitis, we induced EAU in rats by adoptive transfer of uveitogenic T-cells and monitored disease progression and severity by slit-lamp microscopy, histology, and optical coherence tomography. Topical administration of SOCS1-KIR ameliorated acute and chronic posterior uveitis by inhibiting Th17 cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into retina while promoting expansion of IL-10-producing Tregs. We further show that SOCS1-KIR conferred protection of resident retinal cells that play critical role in vision from cytotoxic effects of inflammatory cytokines by downregulating proapoptotic genes. Thus, SOCS1-KIR suppresses uveitis and confers neuroprotective effects and might be exploited as a noninvasive treatment for chronic uveitis. PMID:27703302

  7. Reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, antimicrobial peptides and human inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Excessive free radical generation, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress in the biological system, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathological conditions associated with diverse human inflammatory diseases (HIDs). Although inflammation which is considered advantageous is a defensive mechanism in response to xenobiotics and foreign pathogen; as a result of cellular damage arising from oxidative stress, if uncontrolled, it may degenerate to chronic inflammation when the ROS levels exceed the antioxidant capacity. Therefore, in the normal resolution of inflammatory reactions, apoptosis is acknowledged to play a crucial role, while on the other hand, dysregulation in the induction of apoptosis by enhanced ROS production could also result in excessive apoptosis identified in the pathogenesis of HIDs. Apparently, a careful balance must be maintained in this complex environment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed in this review as an excellent candidate capable of playing prominent roles in maintaining this balance. Consequently, in novel drug design for the treatment and management of HIDs, AMPs are promising candidates owing to their size and multidimensional properties as well as their wide spectrum of activities and indications of reduced rate of resistance. PMID:25850012

  8. Release of anti-inflammatory peptides from thermosensitive nanoparticles with degradable cross-links suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Poh, Scott; Lin, Jenny B; Panitch, Alyssa

    2015-04-13

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are mediators in the development of many inflammatory diseases. To demonstrate that macrophages take up and respond to thermosensitive nanoparticle drug carriers, we synthesized PEGylated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate) particles cross-linked with degradable disulfide (N,N'-bis(acryloyl)cystamine) (NGPEGSS). An anti-inflammatory peptide (KAFAK) was loaded and released from the thermosensitive nanoparticles and shown to suppress levels of TNF-α and IL-6 production in macrophages. Cellular uptake of fluorescent, thermosensitive, and degradable nanoparticles and therapeutic efficacy of free KAFAK peptide compared to that of KAFAK loaded in PEGylated degradable thermosensitive nanoparticles were examined. The data suggests that the degradable, thermosensitive nanoparticles loaded with KAFAK may be an effective tool to treat inflammatory diseases.

  9. Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Chicken Cathelicidin-2 Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Albert; van Eldik, Mandy; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Hanne L. M.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Bikker, Floris J.; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2016-01-01

    Host Defence Peptides and derived peptides are promising classes of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory lead compounds. For this purpose we examined whether chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2)-derived peptides modulate the function and inflammatory response of avian immune cells. Using a chicken macrophage cell line (HD11) we found that full-length CATH-2 dose-dependently induced transcription of chemokines CXCLi2/IL-8, MCP-3 and CCLi4/RANTES, but not of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In addition, CATH-2 efficiently inhibited IL-1β and nitric oxide production by HD11 cells induced by different sources of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). N-terminal truncated CATH-2 derived peptides maintained the capacity to selectively induce chemokine transcription, but despite their high LPS affinity several analogs lacked LPS-neutralizing capacity. Substitution of phenylalanine residues by tryptophan introduced endotoxin neutralization capacity in inactive truncated CATH-2 derived peptides. In contrast, amino acid substitution of phenylalanine by tyrosine abrogated endotoxin neutralization activity of CATH-2 analogs. These findings support a pivotal role for aromatic residues in peptide-mediated endotoxin neutralization by CATH-2 analogs and were shown to be independent of LPS affinity. The capacity to modulate chemokine production and dampen endotoxin-induced pro-inflammatory responses in chicken immune cells implicates that small CATH-2 based peptides could serve as leads for the design of CATH-2 based immunomodulatory anti-infectives. PMID:26848845

  10. Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone: An Emerging Anti-Inflammatory Antimicrobial Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhuri; Mukhopadhyay, Kasturi

    2014-01-01

    The alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a neuropeptide belonging to the melanocortin family. It is well known for its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects and shares several characteristics with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). There have been some recent reports about the direct antimicrobial activity of α-MSH against various microbes belonging to both fungal and bacterial pathogens. Similar to α-MSH's anti-inflammatory properties, its C-terminal residues also exhibit antimicrobial activity parallel to that of the entire peptide. This review is focused on the current findings regarding the direct antimicrobial potential and immunomodulatory mechanism of α-MSH and its C-terminal fragments, with particular emphasis on the prospects of α-MSH based peptides as a strong anti-infective agent. PMID:25140322

  11. Poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory cell penetrating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Rush Lloyd, II

    Inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis cause $127.8 billion in US healthcare expenditures each year and are the cause of disability for 27% of disabled persons in the United States. Current treatment options rarely halt disease progression and often result in significant unwanted and debilitating side effects. Our laboratory has previously developed a family of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) which inhibit the activity of mitogen activated protein kinase activate protein kinase 2 (MK2). MK2 mediates the inflammatory response by activating Tristetraprline (TTP). Once activated, TTP rapidly stabilizes AU rich regions of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA which allows translation of pro-inflammatory cytokines to occur. Blocking MK2 with our labs CPPs yields a decrease in inflammatory activity but CPPs by are highly non specific and prone to rapid enzymatic degradation in vivo.. In order to increase the potency of MK2 inhibiting CPPs we have developed a novel nanoparticle drug carrier composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid). This drug carrier has been shown to have preliminary efficacy in vitro and ex vivo for suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production when releasing CPPs. This thesis will present progress made on three aims: Specific Aim 1) Create and validate a NIPAm based drug delivery system that mimics the binding and release previously observed between cell penetrating peptides and glycosaminoglycans. Specific Aim 2) Engineer degradability into poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles to enable more drug to be released and qualify that system in vitro. Specific Aim 3) Validate poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in an ex vivo inflammatory model. Overall we have developed a novel anionic nanoparticle system that is biocompatible and efficient at loading and releasing cell penetrating peptides to inflamed tissue. Once loaded with a CPP the nanoparticle drug complex is

  12. Did the fire ant supergene evolve selfishly or socially?

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Wang, John

    2014-02-01

    The genetic basis for animal social organization is poorly understood. Fire ants provide one of the rare cases where variation in social organization has been demonstrated to be under genetic control, which amazingly, segregates as a single Mendelian locus. A recent genetic, genomic, and cytological analysis revealed that this locus actually consists of over 600 genes locked together in a supergene that possesses many characteristics of sex chromosomes. The fire ant social supergene also behaves selfishly, and an interesting evolutionary question is whether the genes incorporated first into the social supergene were those for social adaptation, selfish genetic drive, or something else. In depth, functional molecular genetic analysis in fire ants and comparative genomics in other closely related socially polymorphic species will be required to resolve this question.

  13. Evolution of dominance mechanisms at a butterfly mimicry supergene

    PubMed Central

    Le Poul, Yann; Whibley, Annabel; Chouteau, Mathieu; Prunier, Florence; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Genetic dominance in polymorphic loci may respond to selection; however, the evolution of dominance in complex traits remains a puzzle. We analyse dominance at a wing-patterning supergene controlling local mimicry polymorphism in the butterfly Heliconius numata. Supergene alleles are associated with chromosomal inversion polymorphism, defining ancestral versus derived alleles. Using controlled crosses and the new procedure, Colour Pattern Modelling, allowing whole-wing pattern comparisons, we estimate dominance coefficients between alleles. Here we show strict dominance in sympatry favouring mimicry and inconsistent dominance throughout the wing between alleles from distant populations. Furthermore, dominance among derived alleles is uncoordinated across wing-pattern elements, producing mosaic heterozygous patterns determined by a hierarchy in colour expression. By contrast, heterozygotes with an ancestral allele show complete, coordinated dominance of the derived allele, independently of colours. Therefore, distinct dominance mechanisms have evolved in association with supergene inversions, in response to strong selection on mimicry polymorphism. PMID:25429605

  14. Inflammatory mediators release calcitonin gene-related peptide from dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, B; Izydorczyk, I; Kress, M

    2000-01-01

    The interactions between the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E(2) and acid pH were studied in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. For this purpose, the cultures were stimulated by inflammatory mediators (bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E(2), 10(-5)M each) or acid solution (pH 6.1) for 5 min and the content of calcitonin gene-related peptide was determined in the supernatant before, during and after stimulation, using an enzyme immunoassay. Acid solution resulted in a threefold increase of the basal calcitonin gene-related peptide release which was entirely dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium. The release could not be blocked by the addition of the capsaicin antagonist capsazepine (10(-5)M). Bradykinin (10(-5)M) caused a 50% increase of the basal calcitonin gene-related peptide release which was again dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium, whereas serotonin and prostaglandin E(2) were each ineffective at 10(-5)M concentration. The combination of bradykinin, serotonin and prostaglandin E(2) led to a fivefold increase of the calcitonin gene-related peptide release which could not be further enhanced by acidification. The competitive capsaicin receptor antagonist capsazepine (10(-5)M) significantly reduced the release induced by the combination of bradykinin, serotonin and prostaglandin E(2). It is suggested that the inflammatory mediators co-operate and together may act as endogenous agonists at the capsaicin receptor to cause calcium influx and consecutive neuropeptide release. PMID:10858619

  15. Kinin Peptides Enhance Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Promoting Apoptosis in a Parkinson's Disease Cellular Model

    PubMed Central

    Kozik, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Kinin peptides ubiquitously occur in nervous tissue and participate in inflammatory processes associated with distinct neurological disorders. These substances have also been demonstrated to promote the oxidative stress. On the other hand, the importance of oxidative stress and inflammation has been emphasized in disorders that involve the neurodegenerative processes such as Parkinson's disease (PD). A growing number of reports have demonstrated the increased expression of kinin receptors in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, the effect of bradykinin and des-Arg10-kallidin, two representative kinin peptides, was analyzed with respect to inflammatory response and induction of oxidative stress in a PD cellular model, obtained after stimulation of differentiated SK-N-SH cells with a neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. Kinin peptides caused an increased cytokine release and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and NO by cells. These changes were accompanied by a loss of cell viability and a greater activation of caspases involved in apoptosis progression. Moreover, the neurotoxin and kinin peptides altered the dopamine receptor 2 expression. Kinin receptor expression was also changed by the neurotoxin. These results suggest a mediatory role of kinin peptides in the development of neurodegeneration and may offer new possibilities for its regulation by using specific antagonists of kinin receptors. PMID:27721576

  16. Isolation and characterization of anti-inflammatory peptides derived from whey protein.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ye; Liu, Jie; Shi, Haiming; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize anti-inflammatory peptides from whey protein hydrolysates using alcalase. Nine subfractions were obtained after sequential purification by ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-25 gel (GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden) filtration chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Among them, subfraction F4e showed the strongest inhibitory activity on interleukin-1β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Eight peptides, including 2 new peptides-Asp-Tyr-Lys-Lys-Tyr (DYKKY) and Asp-Gln-Trp-Leu (DQWL)-were identified from subfractions F4c and F4e, respectively, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Peptide DQWL showed the strongest inhibitory ability on IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and production of IL-1β and TNF-α proteins at concentrations of 10 and 100μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, DQWL treatment significantly inhibited nuclear factor-κB activation by suppressing nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 and blocking inhibitor κB kinase phosphorylation and inhibitor κB degradation together with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Our study suggests that peptide DQWL has anti-inflammatory potential; further confirmation using an in vivo model is needed. PMID:27394940

  17. Annexin A1 mimetic peptide controls the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of silica particles in mice

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, P G; Ferreira, T P T; Arantes, A C S; Ciambarella, B T; Cordeiro, R S B; Flower, R J; Perretti, M; Martins, M A; Silva, P M R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endogenous glucocorticoids are pro-resolving mediators, an example of which is the endogenous glucocorticoid-regulated protein annexin A1 (ANXA1). Because silicosis is an occupational lung disease characterized by unabated inflammation and fibrosis, in this study we tested the therapeutic properties of the N-terminal ANXA1-derived peptide annexin 1-(2-26) (Ac2-26) on experimental silicosis. Experimental Approach Swiss-Webster mice were administered silica particles intranasally and were subsequently treated with intranasal peptide Ac2-26 (200 μg per mouse) or dexamethasone (25 μg per mouse) for 7 days, starting 6 h post-challenge. Ac2-26 abolished the leukocyte infiltration, collagen deposition, granuloma formation and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines evoked by silica; these variables were only partially inhibited by dexamethasone. Key Results A clear exacerbation of the silica-induced pathological changes was observed in ANXA1 knockout mice as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermate controls. Incubation of lung fibroblasts from WT mice with Ac2-26 in vitro reduced IL-13 or TGF-β-induced production of CCL2 (MCP-1) and collagen, but this peptide did not affect the production of CCL2 (MCP-1) by stimulated fibroblasts from formyl peptide receptor type 1 (FPR1) knockout mice. Ac2-26 also inhibited the production of CCL2 (MCP-1) from fibroblasts of FPR2 knockout mice. Conclusions and Implications Collectively, our findings reveal novel protective properties of the ANXA1 derived peptide Ac2-26 on the inflammatory and fibrotic responses induced by silica, and suggest that ANXA1 mimetic agents might be a promising strategy as innovative anti-fibrotic approaches for the treatment of silicosis. PMID:25659822

  18. Supergene processes on ore deposits - a source of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Martycak, K.; Zeman, J.; Vacek-Vesely, M.

    1994-03-01

    The study of supergene processes (i.e., secondary processes running in ore deposits and driven by thermodynamic nonequilibrium between ore- and rock-forming minerals and natural waters, gasses, etc.) is important in order to understand the migration of heavy metals from ore into their adjacent surroundings. The contamination of the local environment can be characterized by the composition of pore waters. The Pb-Zn-Cu ore deposits of Zlate Hory (Czech Republic) have been chosen for a detailed study of pore solutions. A simple model has been created to describe the evolution of supergene processes in the ore deposits. This model is based on the determination of chemical composition of pore solutions. The dilution of pore solutions of such mineral deposits results in acid mine drainage. Pore solutions can have, during specific stages of their evolution, relatively high concentrations of Cu (0.09 mol/kg), Zn (0.1 mol/kg), SO{sub 4} (0.8 mol/kg) and an extremely low pH (1.38). The supergene alteration of pyrite is the most important process determining the character of pore water. This reaction causes significant acidification and is a leading source of acid mine drainage. The leached zone originates from the interaction of pyrite and limonite. Increased concentrations of heavy metals and sulfates occur in pore waters. The dynamic composition of pore waters within ore deposits undergoing the supergene process can be used to distinguish: (1) three main zones - limonite, transition, and primary zone and (2) two areas - an area with the highest intensity of weathering processes and an area of weathering initiation. In these areas the rate of sulfide oxidation is higher as a result of low pH. From the study of these zones and areas we can further our knowledge of ore body, pore solution, acid mine drainage, and contamination of the local environment. 32 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Cathelicidins: peptides with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, anticancer and procancer activities.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jack Ho; Ye, Xiu Juan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-09-01

    The family of peptides designated as cathelicidins was identified over a decade ago. Cathelicidins have since gained increasing recognition, both as endogenous antibiotics and as effector molecules of the innate immune system. The human cathelicidin LL-37 is widely expressed in human tissues and plays diverse biological roles. It contributes substantially to host defense and impacts multiple aspects of immunity. In view of the escalating importance of cathelicidins, the activities of LL-37 with an emphasis on antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, anticancer and procancer effects are discussed in this review article.

  20. Identification of Synthetic Host Defense Peptide Mimics That Exert Dual Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Som, Abhigyan; Navasa, Nicolás; Percher, Avital; Scott, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    A group of synthetic antimicrobial oligomers, inspired by naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides, were analyzed for the ability to modulate innate immune responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. These synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) specifically reduced cytokine production in response to Staphylococcus aureus and the S. aureus component lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a TLR2 agonist. Anti-inflammatory SMAMPs prevented the induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-10 in response to S. aureus or LTA, but no other TLR2 ligands. We show that these SMAMPs bind specifically to LTA in vitro and prevent its interaction with TLR2. Importantly, the SMAMP greatly reduced the induction of TNF and IL-6 in vivo in mice acutely infected with S. aureus while simultaneously reducing bacterial loads dramatically (4 log10). Thus, these SMAMPs can eliminate the damage induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) while simultaneously eliminating infection in vivo. They are the first known SMAMPs to demonstrate anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in vivo. PMID:22956655

  1. Rat MHC-linked peptide transporter alleles strongly influence peptide binding by HLA-B27 but not B27-associated inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Simmons, W A; Leong, L Y; Satumtira, N; Butcher, G W; Howard, J C; Richardson, J A; Slaughter, C A; Hammer, R E; Taurog, J D

    1996-02-15

    Rats transgenic for the human MHC molecule HLA-B27 were used to study the effect of two alleles, cima and cimb, which are associated with peptide transport by the MHC-encoded Tap2 transporter, on the function of HLA-B27 as a restriction element for CTL recognition of the male H-Y minor H Ag and on the multisystem inflammatory disease characteristic of B27 transgenic rats. Anti-H-Y CTL generated in cima B27 transgenic rats lysed male B27 cimb/b targets significantly less well than cima/a or cima/b targets. Addition of exogenous H-Y peptides to male B27 cimb/b targets increased susceptibility to lysis to the level of cima/a targets. Male B27 cimb/b cells were less efficient than cima/a cells in competitively inhibiting CTL lysis of female B27 cima/a targets sensitized with exogenous H-Y peptides. 3H-Labeled peptides eluted from B27 molecules of lymphoblasts from rats of two cimb and three cima RT1 haplotypes showed that the cimb peptide pool favors comparatively longer and/or more hydrophobic peptides. These results indicate that RT1-linked Tap2 polymorphism in the rat strongly influences peptide loading of HLA-B27. Nonetheless, the prevalence and severity of multisystem inflammatory lesions were comparable in backcross rats bearing either cima/b or cimb/b. It thus appears either that binding of specific peptides to B27 is unimportant in the pathogenesis of B27-associated disease or that the critical peptides, unlike H-Y and many others, are not influenced by Tap transporter polymorphism. PMID:8568273

  2. Rat MHC-linked peptide transporter alleles strongly influence peptide binding by HLA-B27 but not B27-associated inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Simmons, W A; Leong, L Y; Satumtira, N; Butcher, G W; Howard, J C; Richardson, J A; Slaughter, C A; Hammer, R E; Taurog, J D

    1996-02-15

    Rats transgenic for the human MHC molecule HLA-B27 were used to study the effect of two alleles, cima and cimb, which are associated with peptide transport by the MHC-encoded Tap2 transporter, on the function of HLA-B27 as a restriction element for CTL recognition of the male H-Y minor H Ag and on the multisystem inflammatory disease characteristic of B27 transgenic rats. Anti-H-Y CTL generated in cima B27 transgenic rats lysed male B27 cimb/b targets significantly less well than cima/a or cima/b targets. Addition of exogenous H-Y peptides to male B27 cimb/b targets increased susceptibility to lysis to the level of cima/a targets. Male B27 cimb/b cells were less efficient than cima/a cells in competitively inhibiting CTL lysis of female B27 cima/a targets sensitized with exogenous H-Y peptides. 3H-Labeled peptides eluted from B27 molecules of lymphoblasts from rats of two cimb and three cima RT1 haplotypes showed that the cimb peptide pool favors comparatively longer and/or more hydrophobic peptides. These results indicate that RT1-linked Tap2 polymorphism in the rat strongly influences peptide loading of HLA-B27. Nonetheless, the prevalence and severity of multisystem inflammatory lesions were comparable in backcross rats bearing either cima/b or cimb/b. It thus appears either that binding of specific peptides to B27 is unimportant in the pathogenesis of B27-associated disease or that the critical peptides, unlike H-Y and many others, are not influenced by Tap transporter polymorphism.

  3. Importance of asparagine on the conformational stability and chemical reactivity of selected anti-inflammatory peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Barrientos-Salcedo, Carolina; Campos-Fernández, Linda; Alvarado-Salazar, Andres; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory response events are initiated by a complex series of molecular reactions that generate chemical intermediaries. The structure and properties of peptides and proteins are determined by the charge distribution of their side chains, which play an essential role in its electronic structure and physicochemical properties, hence on its biological functionality. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of changing one central amino acid, such as substituting asparagine for aspartic acid, from Cys-Asn-Ser in aqueous solution, by assessing the conformational stability, physicochemical properties, chemical reactivity and their relationship with anti-inflammatory activity; employing quantum-chemical descriptors at the M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) level. Our results suggest that asparagine plays a more critical role than aspartic acid in the structural stability, physicochemical features, and chemical reactivity of these tripeptides. Substituent groups in the side chain cause significant changes on the conformational stability and chemical reactivity, and consequently on their anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase cleaves a C-terminal peptide from human thrombin that inhibits host inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Mariena J. A.; Bhongir, Ravi K. V.; Kjellström, Sven; Siller, Helena; Kasetty, Gopinath; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen known for its immune evasive abilities amongst others by degradation of a large variety of host proteins. Here we show that digestion of thrombin by P. aeruginosa elastase leads to the release of the C-terminal thrombin-derived peptide FYT21, which inhibits pro-inflammatory responses to several pathogen-associated molecular patterns in vitro and in vivo by preventing toll-like receptor dimerization and subsequent activation of down-stream signalling pathways. Thus, P. aeruginosa ‘hijacks' an endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide-based mechanism, thereby enabling modulation and circumvention of host responses. PMID:27181065

  5. Geomorphic surfaces and supergene enrichment in Northern Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenstar, Laura; Mather, Anne; Stuart, Finlay; Cooper, Frances; Sparks, Steve

    2014-05-01

    Supergene enrichment of porphyry copper deposits in the central Andes is thought to be closely correlated with periods of relatively humid climate and the formation of regionally extensive paleosurfaces (e.g. Mortimer, C. 1973) . In northern Chile, two such paleosurfaces have been proposed: the ca. 23 Ma Tarapaca paleosurface within the Coastal Cordillera, and the ca. 10 Ma Pacific paleosurface within the Longitudinal Valley. The Pacific paleosurface is regarded as a single stratigraphic horizon that formed due to either a marked increase in the aridity of the area (Galli-Oliver 1967), regional surface uplift that created a change in the locus of deposition (e.g. Mortimer and Rendic 1975), or a combination of the two. The formation of this surface has been associated with the timing of supergene enrichment throughout the northern Chile and southern Peru (Alpers and Brimhall 1988). Multispectral satellite mapping of the Pacific paleosurface in northern Chile using Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) imagery, combined with seismic data (Jordan et al. 2010) indicates that the Pacific paleosurface is not a single chronostratigraphic surface, as previously thought, but an amalgamation of surfaces that have both an erosional and depositional history. New in situ cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial boulders on the paleosurface is combined with previous data (Dunai et al. 2005, Kober et al. 2007 and Evenstar et al., 2009) giving ages ranging from ca. 23 Ma to <1 Ma, supporting a multiphase and much more continuous history. By combining these apparent exposure ages with regional geomorphology, underlying sedimentology, and seismic sections, the geomorphic evolution of the Longitudinal Valley can be constrained. The results show a complex interplay between uplift within the Coastal Cordillera and Precordillera in the south and a distinct change in depositional pattern towards the north. The

  6. Specific targeting of the IL-23 receptor, using a novel small peptide noncompetitive antagonist, decreases the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Quiniou, Christiane; Domínguez-Punaro, Maria; Cloutier, Frank; Erfani, Atefeh; Ennaciri, Jamila; Sivanesan, Durgajini; Sanchez, Mélanie; Chognard, Gaëlle; Hou, Xin; Rivera, José Carlos; Beauchamp, Claudine; Charron, Guy; Vilquin, Marie; Kuchroo, Vijay; Michnick, Stephen; Rioux, John D; Lesage, Sylvie; Chemtob, Sylvain

    2014-11-15

    IL-23 is part of the IL-12 family of cytokines and is composed of the p19 subunit specific to IL-23 and the p40 subunit shared with IL-12. IL-23 specifically contributes to the inflammatory process of multiple chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorders, including psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. So far, one antibody targeting the shared p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, Ustekinumab, is approved clinically to treat psoriasis. However, there are no treatments inhibiting specifically the IL-23 proinflammatory response. We have developed small IL-23R-specific antagonists by designing all D-peptides arising from flexible regions of IL-23R. Of these peptides, we selected 2305 (teeeqqly), since in addition to its soluble properties, it inhibited IL-23-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in spleen cells. Peptide 2305 specifically binds to IL-23R/IL-12Rβ1-expressing HEK-293 cells and not to cells devoid of the receptor. Peptide 2305 showed functional selectivity by modulating IL-23-induced gene expression in IL-23R/IL-12Rβ1-expressing cells and in Jurkat cells; 2305 does not inhibit IL-12-induced cytokine expression in IL-12Rβ-IL-12Rβ2-HEK-293 cells. Finally, compared with anti-p40 treatment, 2305 effectively and selectively inhibits IL-23-induced inflammation in three in vivo mouse models: IL-23-induced ear inflammation, anti-CD40-induced systemic inflammatory response, and collagen-induced arthritis. We, hereby, describe the discovery and characterization of a potent IL-23R small-peptide modulator, 2305 (teeeqqly), that is effective in vivo. 2305 may be more convenient, less cumbersome, less costly, and most importantly, more specific than current biologics for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, and conceivably complement the actual therapies for these chronic and debilitating inflammatory diseases. PMID:25354400

  7. Neuroprotective Peptide humanin inhibits inflammatory response in astrocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shen-Ting; Zhao, Li; Li, Jian-Hua

    2013-03-01

    Humanin (HN) has been proved to be an extensive neuroprotective peptide against AD-related and unrelated insults, but little is know about the effect of HN in inflammation response. Current studies indicated the receptors of HN have a close relationship with immune system, which led us to hypothesize HN might have a role in inflammatory response. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce astrocyte inflammation response. This model in vitro allowed us to study the effect of HN on the pure response of astrocyte without the exogenous influence between cells in vivo. Our results showed that 1.0 μg/ml LPS induced a significant activation of astrocyte, shown as the marked increase in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, the cell viability and the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive living cells. Pretreatment with HN (5, 10, 20 μM) led to a significant inhibition in astrocyte overactivation in a concentration dependent manner. We also found pretreatment with HN decreased the level of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced by LPS. Furthermore, we noticed HN couldn't completely reverse the above inflammatory injury. Our findings imply that HN partly antagonizes inflammation injury induced by LPS and the protective effect of HN on astrocyte is concentration-dependent.

  8. Mucosal Gene Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Before and After First Infliximab Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Katleen; Quintens, Roel; Van Lommel, Leentje; Van Steen, Kristel; Leemans, Peter; Cleynen, Isabelle; Van Assche, Gert; Vermeire, Séverine; Geboes, Karel; Schuit, Frans; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) protect the host intestinal mucosa against microorganisms. Abnormal expression of defensins was shown in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is not clear whether this is a primary defect. We investigated the impact of anti-inflammatory therapy with infliximab on the mucosal gene expression of AMPs in IBD. Methodology/Principal Findings Mucosal gene expression of 81 AMPs was assessed in 61 IBD patients before and 4–6 weeks after their first infliximab infusion and in 12 control patients, using Affymetrix arrays. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm microarray data. The dysregulation of many AMPs in colonic IBD in comparison with control colons was widely restored by infliximab therapy, and only DEFB1 expression remained significantly decreased after therapy in the colonic mucosa of IBD responders to infliximab. In ileal Crohn's disease (CD), expression of two neuropeptides with antimicrobial activity, PYY and CHGB, was significantly decreased before therapy compared to control ileums, and ileal PYY expression remained significantly decreased after therapy in CD responders. Expression of the downregulated AMPs before and after treatment (DEFB1 and PYY) correlated with villin 1 expression, a gut epithelial cell marker, indicating that the decrease is a consequence of epithelial damage. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that the dysregulation of AMPs in IBD mucosa is the consequence of inflammation, but may be responsible for perpetuation of inflammation due to ineffective clearance of microorganisms. PMID:19956723

  9. Pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory regulation by functional peptides loaded in polymeric implants for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zachman, Angela L; Crowder, Spencer W; Ortiz, Ophir; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J; Bronikowski, Christine M; Yu, Shann S; Giorgio, Todd D; Guelcher, Scott A; Kohn, Joachim; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2013-02-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are inevitable in vivo responses to biomaterial implants. Continuous progress has been made in biomaterial design to improve tissue interactions with an implant by either reducing inflammation or promoting angiogenesis. However, it has become increasingly clear that the physiological processes of inflammation and angiogenesis are interconnected through various molecular mechanisms. Hence, there is an unmet need for engineering functional tissues by simultaneous activation of pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory responses to biomaterial implants. In this work, the modulus and fibrinogen adsorption of porous scaffolds were tuned to meet the requirements (i.e., ~100 kPa and ~10 nm, respectively), for soft tissue regeneration by employing tyrosine-derived combinatorial polymers with polyethylene glycol crosslinkers. Two types of functional peptides (i.e., pro-angiogenic laminin-derived C16 and anti-inflammatory thymosin β4-derived Ac-SDKP) were loaded in porous scaffolds through collagen gel embedding so that peptides were released in a controlled fashion, mimicking degradation of the extracellular matrix. The results from (1) in vitro coculture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human blood-derived macrophages and (2) in vivo subcutaneous implantation revealed the directly proportional relationship between angiogenic activities (i.e., tubulogenesis and perfusion capacity) and inflammatory activities (i.e., phagocytosis and F4/80 expression) upon treatment with either type of peptide. Interestingly, cotreatment with both types of peptides upregulated the angiogenic responses, while downregulating the inflammatory responses. Also, anti-inflammatory Ac-SDKP peptides reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) even when treated in combination with pro-angiogenic C16 peptides. In addition to independent regulation of angiogenesis and inflammation, this

  10. Pro-angiogenic and Anti-inflammatory Regulation by Functional Peptides Loaded in Polymeric Implants for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zachman, Angela L.; Crowder, Spencer W.; Ortiz, Ophir; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J.; Bronikowski, Christine M.; Yu, Shann S.; Giorgio, Todd D.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Kohn, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are inevitable in vivo responses to biomaterial implants. Continuous progress has been made in biomaterial design to improve tissue interactions with an implant by either reducing inflammation or promoting angiogenesis. However, it has become increasingly clear that the physiological processes of inflammation and angiogenesis are interconnected through various molecular mechanisms. Hence, there is an unmet need for engineering functional tissues by simultaneous activation of pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory responses to biomaterial implants. In this work, the modulus and fibrinogen adsorption of porous scaffolds were tuned to meet the requirements (i.e., ∼100 kPa and ∼10 nm, respectively), for soft tissue regeneration by employing tyrosine-derived combinatorial polymers with polyethylene glycol crosslinkers. Two types of functional peptides (i.e., pro-angiogenic laminin-derived C16 and anti-inflammatory thymosin β4-derived Ac-SDKP) were loaded in porous scaffolds through collagen gel embedding so that peptides were released in a controlled fashion, mimicking degradation of the extracellular matrix. The results from (1) in vitro coculture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human blood-derived macrophages and (2) in vivo subcutaneous implantation revealed the directly proportional relationship between angiogenic activities (i.e., tubulogenesis and perfusion capacity) and inflammatory activities (i.e., phagocytosis and F4/80 expression) upon treatment with either type of peptide. Interestingly, cotreatment with both types of peptides upregulated the angiogenic responses, while downregulating the inflammatory responses. Also, anti-inflammatory Ac-SDKP peptides reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) even when treated in combination with pro-angiogenic C16 peptides. In addition to independent regulation of angiogenesis and inflammation

  11. Chemical communication of queen supergene status in an ant.

    PubMed

    Trible, W; Ross, K G

    2016-03-01

    Traits of interest to evolutionary biologists often have complex genetic architectures, the nature of which can confound traditional experimental study at single levels of analysis. In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, the presence of a Mendelian 'supergene' is both necessary and sufficient to induce a shift in a fundamental property of social organization, from single-queen (monogyne) to multiple-queen (polygyne) colonies. This selfish genetic element, termed the Social b (Sb) supergene, contains > 600 genes that collectively promote its fitness by inducing the characteristic polygyne syndrome, in part by causing polygyne workers to accept only queens bearing the Sb element (a behaviour termed 'worker Sb discrimination'). Here, we employ a newly developed behavioural assay to reveal that polygyne workers, many of which bear the Sb element, employ chemical cues on the cuticle of queens to achieve worker Sb discrimination, but we found no evidence for such pheromonally mediated worker Sb discrimination in monogyne workers, which universally lack the Sb element. This polygyne worker Sb discrimination was then verified through a 'green beard' effect previously described in this system. We thus have demonstrated that the Sb element is required both for production of relevant chemical cues of queens and for expression of the behaviours of workers that collectively result in worker Sb discrimination. This information fills a critical gap in the map between genotype and complex phenotype in S. invicta by restricting the search for candidate genes and molecules involved in producing this complex social trait to factors associated with the Sb element itself. PMID:26644320

  12. Gastrin-releasing peptide blockade as a broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shutang; Potts, Erin N.; Cuttitta, Frank; Foster, W. Michael; Sunday, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is synthesized by pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in inflammatory lung diseases, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Many BPD infants develop asthma, a serious disorder of intermittent airway obstruction. Despite extensive research, early mechanisms of asthma remain controversial. The incidence of asthma is growing, now affecting >300 million people worldwide. To test the hypothesis that GRP mediates asthma, we used two murine models: ozone exposure for air pollution-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR), and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway disease. BALB/c mice were given small molecule GRP blocking agent 77427, or GRP blocking antibody 2A11, before exposure to ozone or OVA challenge. In both models, GRP blockade abrogated AHR and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) macrophages and granulocytes, and decreased BAL cytokines implicated in asthma, including those typically derived from Th1 (e.g., IL-2, TNFα), Th2 (e.g., IL-5, IL-13), Th17 (IL-17), macrophages (e.g., MCP-1, IL-1), and neutrophils (KC = IL-8). Dexamethasone generally had smaller effects on all parameters. Macrophages, T cells, and neutrophils express GRP receptor (GRPR). GRP blockade diminished serine phosphorylation of GRPR with ozone or OVA. Thus, GRP mediates AHR and airway inflammation in mice, suggesting that GRP blockade is promising as a broad-spectrum therapeutic approach to treat and/or prevent asthma in humans. PMID:21252304

  13. Suppression of Propionibacterium acnes Infection and the Associated Inflammatory Response by the Antimicrobial Peptide P5 in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Han, Hyo Mi; Song, Peter I; Armstrong, Cheryl A; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous inflammation associated with acne vulgaris is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes through activation of the innate immune system in the skin. Current standard treatments for acne have limitations that include adverse effects and poor efficacy in many patients, making development of a more effective therapy highly desirable. In the present study, we demonstrate the protective effects of a novel customized α-helical cationic peptide, P5, against P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Application of P5 significantly reduced expression of two inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α in P. acnes-treated primary human keratinocytes, where P5 appeared to act in part by binding to bacterial lipoteichoic acid, thereby suppressing TLR2-to-NF-κB signaling. In addition, in a mouse model of acne vulgaris, P5 exerted both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects against P. acnes, but exerted no cytotoxic effects against skin cells. These results demonstrate that P5, and perhaps other cationic antimicrobial peptides, offer the unique ability to reduce numbers P. acnes cells in the skin and to inhibit the inflammation they trigger. This suggests these peptides could potentially be used to effectively treat acne without adversely affecting the skin. PMID:26197393

  14. Suppression of Propionibacterium acnes Infection and the Associated Inflammatory Response by the Antimicrobial Peptide P5 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Han, Hyo Mi; Song, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous inflammation associated with acne vulgaris is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes through activation of the innate immune system in the skin. Current standard treatments for acne have limitations that include adverse effects and poor efficacy in many patients, making development of a more effective therapy highly desirable. In the present study, we demonstrate the protective effects of a novel customized α-helical cationic peptide, P5, against P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Application of P5 significantly reduced expression of two inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α in P. acnes-treated primary human keratinocytes, where P5 appeared to act in part by binding to bacterial lipoteichoic acid, thereby suppressing TLR2-to-NF-κB signaling. In addition, in a mouse model of acne vulgaris, P5 exerted both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects against P. acnes, but exerted no cytotoxic effects against skin cells. These results demonstrate that P5, and perhaps other cationic antimicrobial peptides, offer the unique ability to reduce numbers P. acnes cells in the skin and to inhibit the inflammation they trigger. This suggests these peptides could potentially be used to effectively treat acne without adversely affecting the skin. PMID:26197393

  15. Age of Supergene oxidation and enrichment in the chilean porphyry copper province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sillitoe, R.H.; McKee, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of supergene alunite collected from deeply developed supergene profiles in porphyry copper deposits and prospects between latitudes 20?? and 27?? S in northern Chile yield K/Ar ages ranging from about 34 to 14 Ma. Therefore supergene oxidation and enrichment processes were active from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene, a minimum of 20 m.y. Supergene activity at individual deposits lasted for at least 0.4 to 6.2 m.y. The early Oligocene supergene activity affected deposits in the Paleocene porphyry copper belt, whereas early and middle Miocene supergene processes are documented in the Early Cretaceous, Paleocene, and late Eocene to early Oligocene porphyry copper belts. Middle Miocene oxidation also affected the oldest epithermal gold-silver deposits in the Maricunga belt farther east. Supergene activity commenced no less than 11 m.y. after generation of each porphyry copper deposit because of the time required to unroof the copper-bearing parts of the system. Supergene activity throughout northern Chile ceased at -14 Ma. The geologic features of deposits and prospects and their morphotectonic positions, present latitudes, and present elevations display no obvious correlations with the supergene chronology. Exploration for major cumulative enrichment blankets should not be carried out either beneath thick sequences of piedmont gravels (?? ignimbrites) of Oligocene through middle Miocene age unless their accumulation is demonstrably late in the documented history of supergene activity, or in porphyry copper provinces, such as those of central Chile and northwestern Argentina, which formed after ??? 14 Ma. The uplift responsible for efficient cumulative copper enrichment is difficult to correlate convincingly with the brief pulses of compressive tectonism postulated for northern Chile and contiguous areas unless their effects were much more prolonged. Intensifying aridity is confirmed as the likely reason for the cessation of supergene

  16. From topical antidote against skin irritants to a novel counter-irritating and anti-inflammatory peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Berta; Erlanger-Rosengarten, Avigail; Proscura, Elena; Shapira, Elena; Wormser, Uri

    2008-06-15

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the counter-irritating activity of topical iodine against skin lesions induced by chemical and thermal stimuli. The hypothesis that iodine exerts its activity by inducing an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor was confirmed by exposing guinea pig skin to heat stimulus followed by topical iodine treatment and skin extraction. Injection of the extract into naive guinea pigs reduced heat-induced irritation by 69%. The protective factor, identified as a new nonapeptide (histone H2A 36-44, H-Lys-Gly-Asn-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Ileu-Ala-OH), caused reduction of 40% in irritation score in heat-exposed guinea pigs. The murine analog (H-Lys-Gly-His-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Val-Gly-OH, termed IIIM1) reduced sulfur mustard (SM)-induced ear swelling at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner reaching peak activity of 1 mg/kg. Cultured keratinocytes transfected with the peptide were more resistant towards SM than the control cells. The peptide suppressed oxidative burst in activated neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the peptide reduced glucose oxidase-induced skin edema in mice at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner. Apart from thermal and chemical-induced skin irritation this novel peptide might be of potential use in chronic dermal disorders such as psoriasis and pemphigus as well as non-dermal inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and colitis.

  17. Nematode Peptides with Host-Directed Anti-inflammatory Activity Rescue Caenorhabditis elegans from a Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mei-Perng; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is among a growing number of bacterial pathogens that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been investigated as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections, as generally, there is a lower likelihood that a pathogen will develop resistance to AMPs. In this study, 36 candidate Caenorhabditis elegans genes that encode secreted peptides of <150 amino acids and previously shown to be overexpressed during infection by B. pseudomallei were identified from the expression profile of infected nematodes. RNA interference (RNAi)-based knockdown of 12/34 peptide-encoding genes resulted in enhanced nematode susceptibility to B. pseudomallei without affecting worm fitness. A microdilution test demonstrated that two peptides, NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3, exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity in a dose dependent manner on different pathogens. Time kill analysis proposed that these peptides were bacteriostatic against B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 8× MIC90. The SYTOX green assay demonstrated that NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 did not disrupt the B. pseudomallei membrane. Instead, gel retardation assays revealed that both peptides were able to bind to DNA and interfere with bacterial viability. In parallel, microscopic examination showed induction of cellular filamentation, a hallmark of DNA synthesis inhibition, of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 treated cells. In addition, the peptides also regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B. pseudomallei infected macrophage cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 as anti-B. pseudomallei peptides based on their function as immune modulators. PMID:27672387

  18. Nematode Peptides with Host-Directed Anti-inflammatory Activity Rescue Caenorhabditis elegans from a Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mei-Perng; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is among a growing number of bacterial pathogens that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been investigated as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections, as generally, there is a lower likelihood that a pathogen will develop resistance to AMPs. In this study, 36 candidate Caenorhabditis elegans genes that encode secreted peptides of <150 amino acids and previously shown to be overexpressed during infection by B. pseudomallei were identified from the expression profile of infected nematodes. RNA interference (RNAi)-based knockdown of 12/34 peptide-encoding genes resulted in enhanced nematode susceptibility to B. pseudomallei without affecting worm fitness. A microdilution test demonstrated that two peptides, NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3, exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity in a dose dependent manner on different pathogens. Time kill analysis proposed that these peptides were bacteriostatic against B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 8× MIC90. The SYTOX green assay demonstrated that NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 did not disrupt the B. pseudomallei membrane. Instead, gel retardation assays revealed that both peptides were able to bind to DNA and interfere with bacterial viability. In parallel, microscopic examination showed induction of cellular filamentation, a hallmark of DNA synthesis inhibition, of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 treated cells. In addition, the peptides also regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B. pseudomallei infected macrophage cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 as anti-B. pseudomallei peptides based on their function as immune modulators.

  19. Nematode Peptides with Host-Directed Anti-inflammatory Activity Rescue Caenorhabditis elegans from a Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mei-Perng; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is among a growing number of bacterial pathogens that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been investigated as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections, as generally, there is a lower likelihood that a pathogen will develop resistance to AMPs. In this study, 36 candidate Caenorhabditis elegans genes that encode secreted peptides of <150 amino acids and previously shown to be overexpressed during infection by B. pseudomallei were identified from the expression profile of infected nematodes. RNA interference (RNAi)-based knockdown of 12/34 peptide-encoding genes resulted in enhanced nematode susceptibility to B. pseudomallei without affecting worm fitness. A microdilution test demonstrated that two peptides, NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3, exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity in a dose dependent manner on different pathogens. Time kill analysis proposed that these peptides were bacteriostatic against B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 8× MIC90. The SYTOX green assay demonstrated that NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 did not disrupt the B. pseudomallei membrane. Instead, gel retardation assays revealed that both peptides were able to bind to DNA and interfere with bacterial viability. In parallel, microscopic examination showed induction of cellular filamentation, a hallmark of DNA synthesis inhibition, of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 treated cells. In addition, the peptides also regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B. pseudomallei infected macrophage cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 as anti-B. pseudomallei peptides based on their function as immune modulators.

  20. Nematode Peptides with Host-Directed Anti-inflammatory Activity Rescue Caenorhabditis elegans from a Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mei-Perng; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is among a growing number of bacterial pathogens that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been investigated as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections, as generally, there is a lower likelihood that a pathogen will develop resistance to AMPs. In this study, 36 candidate Caenorhabditis elegans genes that encode secreted peptides of <150 amino acids and previously shown to be overexpressed during infection by B. pseudomallei were identified from the expression profile of infected nematodes. RNA interference (RNAi)-based knockdown of 12/34 peptide-encoding genes resulted in enhanced nematode susceptibility to B. pseudomallei without affecting worm fitness. A microdilution test demonstrated that two peptides, NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3, exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity in a dose dependent manner on different pathogens. Time kill analysis proposed that these peptides were bacteriostatic against B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 8× MIC90. The SYTOX green assay demonstrated that NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 did not disrupt the B. pseudomallei membrane. Instead, gel retardation assays revealed that both peptides were able to bind to DNA and interfere with bacterial viability. In parallel, microscopic examination showed induction of cellular filamentation, a hallmark of DNA synthesis inhibition, of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 treated cells. In addition, the peptides also regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B. pseudomallei infected macrophage cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 as anti-B. pseudomallei peptides based on their function as immune modulators. PMID:27672387

  1. Regulatory vs. inflammatory cytokine T-cell responses to mutated insulin peptides in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Maki; McDaniel, Kristen; Fitzgerald-Miller, Lisa; Kiekhaefer, Carol; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Davidson, Howard W.; Rewers, Marian; Yu, Liping; Gottlieb, Peter; Kappler, John W.; Michels, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Certain class II MHC (MHCII) alleles in mice and humans confer risk for or protection from type 1 diabetes (T1D). Insulin is a major autoantigen in T1D, but how its peptides are presented to CD4 T cells by MHCII risk alleles has been controversial. In the mouse model of T1D, CD4 T cells respond to insulin B-chain peptide (B:9–23) mimotopes engineered to bind the mouse MHCII molecule, IAg7, in an unfavorable position or register. Because of the similarities between IAg7 and human HLA-DQ T1D risk alleles, we examined control and T1D subjects with these risk alleles for CD4 T-cell responses to the same natural B:9–23 peptide and mimotopes. A high proportion of new-onset T1D subjects mounted an inflammatory IFN-γ response much more frequently to one of the mimotope peptides than to the natural peptide. Surprisingly, the control subjects bearing an HLA-DQ risk allele also did. However, these control subjects, especially those with only one HLA-DQ risk allele, very frequently made an IL-10 response, a cytokine associated with regulatory T cells. T1D subjects with established disease also responded to the mimotope rather than the natural B:9–23 peptide in proliferation assays and the proliferating cells were highly enriched in certain T-cell receptor sequences. Our results suggest that the risk of T1D may be related to how an HLA-DQ genotype determines the balance of T-cell inflammatory vs. regulatory responses to insulin, having important implications for the use and monitoring of insulin-specific therapies to prevent diabetes onset. PMID:25831495

  2. Regulatory vs. inflammatory cytokine T-cell responses to mutated insulin peptides in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Maki; McDaniel, Kristen; Fitzgerald-Miller, Lisa; Kiekhaefer, Carol; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Davidson, Howard W; Rewers, Marian; Yu, Liping; Gottlieb, Peter; Kappler, John W; Michels, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Certain class II MHC (MHCII) alleles in mice and humans confer risk for or protection from type 1 diabetes (T1D). Insulin is a major autoantigen in T1D, but how its peptides are presented to CD4 T cells by MHCII risk alleles has been controversial. In the mouse model of T1D, CD4 T cells respond to insulin B-chain peptide (B:9-23) mimotopes engineered to bind the mouse MHCII molecule, IA(g7), in an unfavorable position or register. Because of the similarities between IA(g7) and human HLA-DQ T1D risk alleles, we examined control and T1D subjects with these risk alleles for CD4 T-cell responses to the same natural B:9-23 peptide and mimotopes. A high proportion of new-onset T1D subjects mounted an inflammatory IFN-γ response much more frequently to one of the mimotope peptides than to the natural peptide. Surprisingly, the control subjects bearing an HLA-DQ risk allele also did. However, these control subjects, especially those with only one HLA-DQ risk allele, very frequently made an IL-10 response, a cytokine associated with regulatory T cells. T1D subjects with established disease also responded to the mimotope rather than the natural B:9-23 peptide in proliferation assays and the proliferating cells were highly enriched in certain T-cell receptor sequences. Our results suggest that the risk of T1D may be related to how an HLA-DQ genotype determines the balance of T-cell inflammatory vs. regulatory responses to insulin, having important implications for the use and monitoring of insulin-specific therapies to prevent diabetes onset. PMID:25831495

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of a human prothrombin fragment-2-derived peptide, NSA9, in EOC2 microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kim, Soung Soo

    2008-04-11

    Pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), and several cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, and IL-6) are responsible for central nervous system (CNS) injuries that include ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and neural death. Inhibition of these pro-inflammatory mediators would be an effective therapy to reduce the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of a human prothrombin fragment-2-derived peptide, NSA9 (NSAVQLVEN), on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated brain microglia. NSA9 significantly inhibited the release of NO, PGE{sub 2}, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, NSA9 reduced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein, which control the production of NO and PGE{sub 2}, respectively. Moreover, NSA9 suppressed the LPS-induced nuclear translocation and activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). These results suggest that NSA9 strongly inhibits the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia through the modulation of NF-{kappa}B activity.

  4. Robust Therapeutic Efficacy of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2-Cleavable Fas-1-RGD Peptide Complex in Chronic Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Keum Hee; Sung, Shijin; Park, Jae Yong; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, In San; Kang, Young Mo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Therapeutic agents that are transformable via introducing cleavable linkage by locally enriched MMP-2 within inflamed synovium would enhance therapeutic efficacy on chronic inflammatory arthritis. Transforming growth factor-β-inducible gene-h3 (βig-h3), which consists of four fas-1 domains and an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, intensifies inflammatory processes by facilitating adhesion and migration of fibroblast-like synoviocyte in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a MMP-2-cleavable peptide complex consisting of a fas-1 domain and an RGD peptide blocks the interaction between βig-h3 and resident cells and leads to the amelioration of inflammatory arthritis. Methods We designed βig-h3-derivatives, including the fourth fas-1 domain truncated for H1 and H2 sequences of mouse (MFK00) and MMP-2-cleavable peptide complex (MFK902). MMP-2 selectivity was examined by treatment with a series of proteases. MFK902 efficacy was determined by the adhesion and migration assay with NIH3T3 cells in vitro and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model using male DBA/1J mice in vivo. The mice were treated intraperitoneally with MFK902 at different dosages. Results MFK902 was specifically cleaved by active MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner, and βig-h3-mediated adhesion and migration were more effectively inhibited by MFK902, compared with RGD or MFK00 peptides. The arthritis activity of murine CIA, measured by clinical arthritis index and incidence of arthritic paws, was significantly ameliorated after treatment with all dosages of MFK902 (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg). MFK902 ameliorated histopathologic deterioration and reduced the expression of inflammatory mediators simultaneously with improvement of clinical features. In addition, a favorable safety profile of MFK902 was demonstrated in vivo. Conclusion The present study revealed that MMP-2-cleavable peptide complex based on βig-h3 structure is a potent and safe

  5. Interdependencies among Selected Pro-Inflammatory Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, C-Peptide, Anti-Inflammatory Interleukin-10 and Glucose Metabolism Disturbance in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Janowska, Joanna; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Semik-Grabarczyk, Elżbieta; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently increasing importance is attributed to the inflammatory process as a crucial factor responsible for the progressive damage to vascular walls and progression of atherosclerosis in obese people. We have studied the relationship between clinical and biochemical parameters and C-peptide and anti-inflammatory IL-10, as well as selected markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction such as: CCL2, CRP, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin in obese women with various degree of glucose metabolism disturbance. Material and methods: The studied group consisted of 61 obese women, and 20 normal weight, healthy volunteers. Obese patients were spited in subgroups based on the degree of glucose metabolism disorder. Serum samples were analyzed using ELISA kits. Results: Increased concentrations of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, E-selectin, CCL2 and CRP were found in all obese groups compared to the normal weight subjects. In patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) parameters characterizing the degree of obesity significantly positively correlated with levels of CRP and CCL2. Significant relationships were found between levels of glucose and sICAM-1and also E-selectin and HOMA-IR. C-peptide levels are positively associated with CCL2, E-selectin, triglycerides levels, and inversely with IL-10 levels in newly diagnosed T2DM group (p<0.05). Concentrations of IL-10 correlated negatively with E-selectin, CCL2, C-peptide levels, and HOMA-IR in T2DM group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Disturbed lipid and carbohydrate metabolism are manifested by enhanced inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with simply obesity. These disturbances are associates with an increase of adhesion molecules. The results suggest the probable active participation of higher concentrations of C-peptide in the intensification of inflammatory and atherogenic processes in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, altered serum concentrations of Il-10 seems

  6. An apoA-I mimetic peptide containing a proline residue has greater in vivo HDL binding and anti-inflammatory ability than the 4F peptide.

    PubMed

    Wool, Geoffrey D; Vaisar, Tomas; Reardon, Catherine A; Getz, Godfrey S

    2009-09-01

    Modifying apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic peptides to include a proline-punctuated alpha-helical repeat increases their anti-inflammatory properties as well as allows better mimicry of full-length apoA-I function. This study compares the following mimetics, either acetylated or biotinylated (b): 4F (18mer) and 4F-proline-4F (37mer, Pro). b4F interacts with both mouse HDL (moHDL) and LDL in vitro. b4F in vivo plasma clearance kinetics are not affected by mouse HDL level. Administration of biotinylated peptides to mice demonstrates that b4F does not associate with lipoproteins smaller than LDL in vivo, though it does associate with fractions containing free hemoglobin (Hb). In contrast, bPro specifically interacts with HDL. b4F and bPro show opposite binding responses to HDL by surface plasmon resonance. Administration of acetylated Pro to apoE(-/-) mice significantly decreases plasma serum amyloid A levels, while acetylated 4F does not have this ability. In contrast to previous reports that inferred that 4F associates with HDL in vivo, we systematically examined this potential interaction and demonstrated that b4F does not interact with HDL in vivo but rather elutes with Hb-containing plasma fractions. bPro, however, specifically binds to moHDL in vivo. In addition, the number of amphipathic alpha-helices and their linker influences the anti-inflammatory effects of apoA-I mimetic peptides in vivo. PMID:19433476

  7. An apoA-I mimetic peptide containing a proline residue has greater in vivo HDL binding and anti-inflammatory ability than the 4F peptide

    PubMed Central

    Wool, Geoffrey D.; Vaisar, Tomas; Reardon, Catherine A.; Getz, Godfrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Modifying apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic peptides to include a proline-punctuated α-helical repeat increases their anti-inflammatory properties as well as allows better mimicry of full-length apoA-I function. This study compares the following mimetics, either acetylated or biotinylated (b): 4F (18mer) and 4F-proline-4F (37mer, Pro). b4F interacts with both mouse HDL (moHDL) and LDL in vitro. b4F in vivo plasma clearance kinetics are not affected by mouse HDL level. Administration of biotinylated peptides to mice demonstrates that b4F does not associate with lipoproteins smaller than LDL in vivo, though it does associate with fractions containing free hemoglobin (Hb). In contrast, bPro specifically interacts with HDL. b4F and bPro show opposite binding responses to HDL by surface plasmon resonance. Administration of acetylated Pro to apoE−/− mice significantly decreases plasma serum amyloid A levels, while acetylated 4F does not have this ability. In contrast to previous reports that inferred that 4F associates with HDL in vivo, we systematically examined this potential interaction and demonstrated that b4F does not interact with HDL in vivo but rather elutes with Hb-containing plasma fractions. bPro, however, specifically binds to moHDL in vivo. In addition, the number of amphipathic α-helices and their linker influences the anti-inflammatory effects of apoA-I mimetic peptides in vivo. PMID:19433476

  8. Anti-inflammatory Effect of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide Targeting the Nrf2/Keap1 Interaction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is increasingly recognized as a central regulator of multiple signaling pathways in inflammation and cancer, and the ability to use chemical biological tools to investigate its biological effects is very attractive. A peptide comprising a TAT-conjugated Nrf2 sequence is shown to activate Nrf2 and its downstream target gene heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose-dependent manner in intact human THP-1 monocytes. Levels of Nrf2 protein peak after 3 h, whereas HO-1 mRNA and protein peak after 6 and 12 h, respectively. The peptide is also shown to inhibit the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF. The TAT-14mer constitutes a useful chemical biology tool with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:22582137

  9. A cell-permeant peptide corresponding to the cUBP domain of USP5 reverses inflammatory and neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Caballero, Agustin; Gadotti, Vinicius M; Chen, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Background Cav3.2 T-type calcium currents in primary afferents are enhanced in various painful pathological conditions, whereas inhibiting Cav3.2 activity or expression offers a strategy for combating the development of pain hypersensitivity. We have shown that Cav3.2 channel surface density is strongly regulated by the ubiquitination machinery and we identified the deubiquitinase USP5 as a Cav3.2 channel interacting protein and regulator of its cell surface expression. We also reported that USP5 is upregulated in chronic pain conditions. Conversely, preventing its binding to the channel in vivo mediates analgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Results To identify which USP5 domain is responsible for the interaction, we used a series of USP5-derived peptides corresponding to different regions in nUBP, cUBP, UBA1, and UBA2 domains to outcompete full length USP5. We identified a stretch of amino acid residues within the cUBP domain of USP5 as responsible for binding to Cav3.2 calcium channels. Based on this information, we generated a TAT-cUBP1-USP5 peptide that could disrupt the Cav3.2/USP5 interaction in vitro and tested its physiological effect in well-established models of persistent inflammatory pain (CFA test) and chronic mononeuropathy and polyneuropathy in mice (partial sciatic nerve injury and the (ob/ob) diabetic spontaneous neuropathic mice). Our results reveal that the TAT-cUBP1-USP5 peptide attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia induced by both Complete Freund’s Adjuvant and partial sciatic nerve injury, and thermal hyperalgesia in diabetic neuropathic animals. In contrast, Cav3.2 null mice were not affected by the peptide in the partial sciatic nerve injury model. Cav3.2 calcium channel levels in diabetic mice were reduced following the administration of the TAT-cUBP1-USP5 peptide. Conclusions Our findings reveal a crucial region in the cUBP domain of USP5 that is important for substrate recognition and binding to the III-IV linker of Cav3

  10. Neurotensin-based hybrid peptide's anti-inflammatory activity in murine model of a contact sensitivity response.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Kogut, Ewelina; Zając, Dominika; Jampolska, Monika; Andrzejewski, Kryspin; Sulejczak, Dorota; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Kleczkowska, Patrycja

    2016-10-10

    The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of modulation of skin inflammation by topical treatment with a novel compound: an opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide PK20 encompassing endomorphin-2 analog and modified fragment of neurotensin (8-13). Contact sensitivity response was induced in mice by skin sensitization with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) followed by topical hapten application on ears. Mice were treated locally with PK20 or pure cream 2h after the challenge with DNFB. 2 and 24h after hapten exposure, ear thickness was determined. Ears were collected for histology and homogenization. Supernatants were used for measurement of contents of cytokines and lipid peroxidation products. Treatment with PK20 reduced significantly the late phase of contact sensitivity response, which was revealed by ear thickness diminution and reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration. The average concentrations of IL-1α, MCP-1, TNF-α and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were significantly decreased in the ears treated with the chimera in comparison to the control cream treated ears in DNFB sensitized/DNFB challenged group. We found that PK20 topical treatment alleviates hypersensitivity responses triggered by DNFB challenge and usage of the hybrid peptide may be a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism remains unclear and needs further investigation. PMID:27509866

  11. TRAM-Derived Decoy Peptides inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mastitis model in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Qu, Shihui; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2015-10-01

    It has been proved that TRAM-Derived Decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRAM-Derived decoy peptide (TM6), belongs to TRAM TIR domain, of which sequence is "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK, KENFLRDTWCNFQFY-"C" and evaluated the effects of TM6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, LPS-induced mice mastitis model was established by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. TM6 was injected 1h before or after LPS treatment. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate the effects of TM6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TM6 inhibited LPS-induced mammary gland histopathologic changes, MPO activity, and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production in mice. In vitro, TM6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production, as well as NF-κB and MAPKs activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TM6 had protective effects on LPS-mastitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment.

  12. Neurotensin-based hybrid peptide's anti-inflammatory activity in murine model of a contact sensitivity response.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Kogut, Ewelina; Zając, Dominika; Jampolska, Monika; Andrzejewski, Kryspin; Sulejczak, Dorota; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Kleczkowska, Patrycja

    2016-10-10

    The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of modulation of skin inflammation by topical treatment with a novel compound: an opioid-neurotensin hybrid peptide PK20 encompassing endomorphin-2 analog and modified fragment of neurotensin (8-13). Contact sensitivity response was induced in mice by skin sensitization with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) followed by topical hapten application on ears. Mice were treated locally with PK20 or pure cream 2h after the challenge with DNFB. 2 and 24h after hapten exposure, ear thickness was determined. Ears were collected for histology and homogenization. Supernatants were used for measurement of contents of cytokines and lipid peroxidation products. Treatment with PK20 reduced significantly the late phase of contact sensitivity response, which was revealed by ear thickness diminution and reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration. The average concentrations of IL-1α, MCP-1, TNF-α and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were significantly decreased in the ears treated with the chimera in comparison to the control cream treated ears in DNFB sensitized/DNFB challenged group. We found that PK20 topical treatment alleviates hypersensitivity responses triggered by DNFB challenge and usage of the hybrid peptide may be a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism remains unclear and needs further investigation.

  13. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome following burns is mediated by brain natriuretic peptide/natriuretic peptide A receptor-induced shock factor 1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang-Cheng; Luo, Cheng-Qun; Li, Xiong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in burn patients is mediated by the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)/natriuretic peptide A receptor (NPRA)-induced heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) signalling pathway. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) that were isolated from patients with burn injuries and SIRS mouse models and a RAW264.7 cell line were treated with normal serum or serum obtained from animals with burn injuries. In parallel, small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against BNP or NPRA were transfected in both cell types. Western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect protein expression and inflammatory factor levels, respectively. We found that interleukin (IL)-12, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), and BNP levels were increased and IL-10 levels were decreased in the plasma and MNCs in vivo in the animal model of SIRS. Additionally, NPRA was upregulated, whereas HSF-1 was downregulated in monocytes in vivo. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with burn serum or BNP induced IL-12, TNF-α, and CRP secretion as well as HSF-1 expression. Finally, silencing BNP with shRNA interrupted the effect of burn serum on RAW264.7 cells, and silencing NPRA blocked burn serum- and BNP-mediated changes in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that the interaction of NPRA with BNP secreted from circulatory MNCs as well as mononuclear macrophages leads to inflammation via HSF-1 during SIRS development following serious burn injury.

  14. “Invisible” silver and gold in supergene digenite (Cu1.8S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Martin; Chryssoulis, Stephen L.; Deditius, Artur; Palacios, Carlos; Zúñiga, Alejandro; Weldt, Magdalena; Alvear, Macarena

    2010-11-01

    Despite its potential economic and environmental importance, the study of trace metals in supergene (secondary) Cu-sulfides has been seriously overlooked in the past decades. In this study, the concentration and mineralogical form of "invisible" precious metals (Ag, Au) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se, Te) in supergene digenite (Cu 1.8S) from various Cu deposits in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, the world's premier Cu province, were determined in detail using a combination of microanalytical techniques. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA) measurements reveal that, apart from hosting up to ˜11,000 ppm Ag, supergene digenite can incorporate up to part-per-million contents of Au (˜6 ppm) and associated metalloids such as As (˜300 ppm), Sb (˜60 ppm), Se (˜96 ppm) and Te (˜18 ppm). SIMS analyses of trace metals show that Ag and Au concentrations strongly correlate with As in supergene digenite, defining wedge-shaped zones in Ag-As and Au-As log-log spaces. SIMS depth profiling and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations reveal that samples with anomalously high Ag/As (>˜30) and Au/As (>˜0.03) ratios plot above the wedge zones and contain nanoparticles of metallic Ag and Au, while samples with lower ratios contain Ag and Au that is structurally bound to the Cu-sulfide matrix. The Ag-Au-As relations reported in this study strongly suggest that the incorporation of precious metals in Cu-sulfides formed under supergene, low-temperature conditions respond to the incorporation of a minor component, in this case As. Therefore, As might play a significant role by increasing the solubility of Ag and Au in supergene digenite and controlling the formation and occurrence of Ag and Au nanoparticles. Considering the fact that processes of supergene enrichment in Cu deposits can be active from tens of millions of years (e.g. Atacama Desert), we conclude that supergene digenite may play a previously

  15. The VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 contributes to inflammatory and nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Peterson, Cristina D.; Speltz, Rebecca H.; Riedl, Maureen S.; Kitto, Kelley F.; Dykstra, Jaclyn A.; Braun, Patrick D.; Sadahiro, Masato; Salton, Stephen R.; Vulchanova, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) is a granin-like protein that is packaged and proteolytically processed within the regulated secretory pathway. VGF and peptides derived from its processing have been implicated in neuroplasticity associated with learning, memory, depression, and chronic pain. In sensory neurons, VGF is rapidly increased following peripheral nerve injury and inflammation. Several bioactive peptides generated from the C-terminus of VGF have pro-nociceptive spinal effects. The goal of the present study was to examine the spinal effects of the peptide TLQP-21 and determine whether it participates in spinal mechanisms of persistent pain. Application of exogenous TLQP-21 induced dose-dependent thermal hyperalgesia in the warm water immersion tail withdrawal test. This hyperalgesia was inhibited by a p38 MAPK inhibitor as well as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. We used immunoneutralization of TLQP-21 to determine the function of the endogenous peptide in mechanisms underlying persistent pain. In mice injected intradermally with complete Freund’s adjuvant, intrathecal treatment with anti-TLQP21 IgG immediately prior to or 5 h after induction of inflammation dose-dependently inhibited tactile hypersensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. Intrathecal anti-TL21 administration also attenuated the development and maintenance of tactile hypersensitivity in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. These results provide evidence that endogenous TLQP-21 peptide contributes to the mechanisms of spinal neuroplasticity after inflammation and nerve injury. PMID:24657450

  16. Pharmacological characteristics of endokinin C/D-derived peptides in nociceptive and inflammatory processing in rats.

    PubMed

    Naono-Nakayama, Rumi; Sunakawa, Natsuki; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Matsushima, Osamu; Nishimori, Toshikazu

    2011-12-01

    Endokinins designated from the human TAC4 gene consist of endokinin A, endokinin B, endokinin C (EKC) and endokinin D (EKD). EKC/D is a peptide using the common carboxyl-terminal in EKC and EKD and consists of 12 amino acids, and exerts antagonistic effects on the induction of scratching behavior by substance P (SP). Some of SP-preferring receptor antagonists have several d-tryptophan (d-Trp); however, the pharmacological effect of EKC/D-derived peptides with d-Trp remains to be solved. Therefore, to clarify the pharmacological characteristics of EKC/D-derived peptides, effects of pretreatment with these peptides on SP-induced scratching and thermal hyperalgesia, formalin-induced flinching and carrageenan-induced inflammation were evaluated. Intrathecal administration of [d-Trp(8)]-EKC/D and [d-Trp(10)]-EKC/D showed a markedly long inhibitory effect, at least 14 h, whereas the antagonistic effects of [d-Trp(8,10)]-EKC/D and EKC/D without d-Trp disappeared after 1h. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of [d-Trp(10)]-EKC/D-derived peptides was dependent on the number of amino acids from the amino-terminus, and the more numerous the amino acids, the more marked the antagonistic effect. Thus, these results indicate that the effective duration of EKC/D-derived peptides is dependent on the number of d-Trp in the carboxyl-terminal region and the amino-terminal region regulates the antagonistic effect of EKC/D.

  17. Significance of Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Autoantibodies in Immune-mediated Inflammatory Skin Disorders with and without Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Chander; Kashyap, Bineeta; Daulatabad, Deepashree; Dhawan, Amit; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs) are autoantibodies directed against citrullinated peptides. Rheumatoid factor (RF), an antibody against the Fc portion of IgG, is known to form immune complexes and contribute to the etiopathogenesis of various skin disorders. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, increases following secretion of interleukin-6 from macrophages and T cells. Anti-CCP, RF, and CRP are well-established immune-markers, their diagnostic potential in immune-mediated skin disorders remains less widely studied. Aims and Objectives: To determine the correlation between anti-CCP, RF, and CRP in immune-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. Materials and Methods: About 61 clinically diagnosed cases of various immune-mediated skin diseases (psoriasis [n = 38], connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis [n = 14], and immunobullous disorders including pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus [n = 9]) were included in the study. These patients were subclassified on the basis of presence or absence of arthritis. Arthritis was present in nine cases of psoriasis and seven connective tissue disorder patients. Detection of serum anti-CCP was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas CRP and RF levels were detected using latex agglutination technique. Results: Of the 61 specimens, 14.75% had elevated serum anti-CCP levels. RF and CRP levels were elevated in 18.03% and 39.34% specimens, respectively. RF was elevated in 13.16% of inflammatory and 42.88% of connective tissue disorders, whereas anti-CCP was raised in 10.53% of inflammatory and 35.71% of connective tissue disorders. CRP positivity was highest in connective tissue disorders (50%), followed by 39.47% in inflammatory and 22.22% in immunobullous conditions. In none of the immunobullous patients, anti-CCP or RF levels were found to be elevated. Association of the presence of arthritis with elevated anti-CCP was found to be

  18. Significance of Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Autoantibodies in Immune-mediated Inflammatory Skin Disorders with and without Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Chander; Kashyap, Bineeta; Daulatabad, Deepashree; Dhawan, Amit; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs) are autoantibodies directed against citrullinated peptides. Rheumatoid factor (RF), an antibody against the Fc portion of IgG, is known to form immune complexes and contribute to the etiopathogenesis of various skin disorders. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, increases following secretion of interleukin-6 from macrophages and T cells. Anti-CCP, RF, and CRP are well-established immune-markers, their diagnostic potential in immune-mediated skin disorders remains less widely studied. Aims and Objectives: To determine the correlation between anti-CCP, RF, and CRP in immune-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. Materials and Methods: About 61 clinically diagnosed cases of various immune-mediated skin diseases (psoriasis [n = 38], connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis [n = 14], and immunobullous disorders including pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus [n = 9]) were included in the study. These patients were subclassified on the basis of presence or absence of arthritis. Arthritis was present in nine cases of psoriasis and seven connective tissue disorder patients. Detection of serum anti-CCP was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas CRP and RF levels were detected using latex agglutination technique. Results: Of the 61 specimens, 14.75% had elevated serum anti-CCP levels. RF and CRP levels were elevated in 18.03% and 39.34% specimens, respectively. RF was elevated in 13.16% of inflammatory and 42.88% of connective tissue disorders, whereas anti-CCP was raised in 10.53% of inflammatory and 35.71% of connective tissue disorders. CRP positivity was highest in connective tissue disorders (50%), followed by 39.47% in inflammatory and 22.22% in immunobullous conditions. In none of the immunobullous patients, anti-CCP or RF levels were found to be elevated. Association of the presence of arthritis with elevated anti-CCP was found to be

  19. In vitro stimulation of HDL anti-inflammatory activity and inhibition of LDL pro-inflammatory activity in the plasma of patients with end-stage renal disease by an apoA-1 mimetic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Moradi, Hamid; Pahl, Madeleine V; Fogelman, Alan M; Navab, Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    Features of end-stage renal disease such as oxidative stress, inflammation, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease. By inhibiting the formation and increasing the disposal of oxidized lipids, HDL exerts potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. Given that apolipoproteinA-1 can limit atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that an apolipoproteinA-1 mimetic peptide, 4F, may reduce the proinflammatory properties of LDL and enhance the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL in uremic plasma. To test this, plasma from each of 12 stable hemodialysis patients and age-matched control subjects was incubated with 4F or vehicle. The isolated HDL and LDL fractions were added to cultured human aortic endothelial cells to quantify monocyte chemotactic activity, thus measuring their pro- or anti-inflammatory index. The LDL from the hemodialysis patients was more pro-inflammatory and their HDL was less anti-inflammatory than those of the control subjects. Pre-incubation of the plasma from the hemodialysis patients with 4F decreased LDL pro-inflammatory activity and enhanced HDL anti-inflammatory activity. Whether 4F or other apolipoproteinA-1 mimetic peptides will have any therapeutic benefit in end-stage renal disease will have to be examined directly in clinical studies. PMID:19471321

  20. The non-peptide GLP-1 receptor agonist WB4-24 blocks inflammatory nociception by stimulating β-endorphin release from spinal microglia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hui; Gong, Nian; Li, Teng-Fei; Ma, Ai-Niu; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Two peptide agonists of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, exenatide and GLP-1 itself, exert anti-hypersensitive effects in neuropathic, cancer and diabetic pain. In this study, we have assessed the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of the non-peptide agonist WB4-24 in inflammatory nociception and the possible involvement of microglial β-endorphin and pro-inflammatory cytokines. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used rat models of inflammatory nociception induced by formalin, carrageenan or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), to test mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Expression of β-endorphin and pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured using real-time quantitative PCR and fluorescent immunoassays. KEY RESULTS WB4-24 displaced the specific binding of exendin (9–39) in microglia. Single intrathecal injection of WB4-24 (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 μg) exerted dose-dependent, specific, anti-hypersensitive effects in acute and chronic inflammatory nociception induced by formalin, carrageenan and CFA, with a maximal inhibition of 60–80%. Spinal WB4-24 was not effective in altering nociceptive pain. Subcutaneous injection of WB4-24 was also antinociceptive in CFA-treated rats. WB4-24 evoked β-endorphin release but did not inhibit expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in either the spinal cord of CFA-treated rats or cultured microglia stimulated by LPS. WB4-24 anti-allodynia was prevented by a microglial inhibitor, β-endorphin antiserum and a μ-opioid receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results suggest that WB4-24 inhibits inflammatory nociception by releasing analgesic β-endorphin rather than inhibiting the expression of proalgesic pro-inflammatory cytokines in spinal microglia, and that the spinal GLP-1 receptor is a potential target molecule for the treatment of pain hypersensitivity including inflammatory nociception. PMID:25176008

  1. Divergence and Functional Degradation of a Sex Chromosome-like Supergene.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Elaina M; Bergland, Alan O; Korody, Marisa L; Brewer, Michael S; Newhouse, Daniel J; Minx, Patrick; Stager, Maria; Betuel, Adam; Cheviron, Zachary A; Warren, Wesley C; Gonser, Rusty A; Balakrishnan, Christopher N

    2016-02-01

    A major challenge in biology is to understand the genetic basis of adaptation. One compelling idea is that groups of tightly linked genes (i.e., "supergenes" [1, 2]) facilitate adaptation in suites of traits that determine fitness. Despite their likely importance, little is known about how alternate supergene alleles arise and become differentiated, nor their ultimate fate within species. Herein we address these questions by investigating the evolutionary history of a supergene in white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis. This species comprises two morphs, tan and white, that differ in pigmentation and components of social behavior [3-5]. Morph is determined by alternative alleles at a balanced >100-Mb inversion-based supergene, providing a unique system for studying gene-behavior relationships. Using over two decades of field data, we document near-perfect disassortative mating among morphs, as well as the fitness consequences of rare assortative mating. We use de novo whole-genome sequencing coupled with population- and phylogenomic data to show that alternate supergene alleles are highly divergent at over 1,000 genes and that these alleles originated prior to the split of Z. albicollis from its sister species and may be polymorphic in Z. albicollis due to a past hybridization event. We provide evidence that the "white" allele may be degrading, similar to neo-Y/W sex chromosomes. We further show that the "tan" allele has surprisingly low levels of genetic diversity yet does not show several canonical signatures of recurrent positive selection. We discuss these results in the context of the origin, molecular evolution, and possible fate of this remarkable polymorphism.

  2. Antimicrobial Peptide CMA3 Derived from the CA-MA Hybrid Peptide: Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Activities with Low Cytotoxicity and Mechanism of Action in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-kook; Seo, Chang Ho; Luchian, Tudor

    2015-01-01

    CA-MA is a hybrid antimicrobial peptide (AMP) derived from two naturally occurring AMPs, cecropin A and magainin 2. CA-MA shows strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but also exhibits cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. Our objective was to identify CA-MA analogues with reduced cytotoxicity by systematic replacement of amino acids with positively charged R groups (His and Lys), aliphatic R groups (Leu), or polar R groups (Glu). Among the CA-MA analogues studied (CMA1 to -6), CMA3 showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, including against drug-resistant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from hospital patients. CMA3 appeared to act by inducing pore formation (toroidal model) in the bacterial membrane. In cytotoxicity assays, CMA3 showed little cytotoxicity toward human red blood cells (hRBCs) or HaCaT cells. Additionally, no fluorescence was released from small or giant unilamellar vesicles exposed to 60 μM CMA3 for 80 s, whereas fluorescence was released within 35 s upon exposure to CA-MA. CMA3 also exerted strong lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralizing activity in RAW 264.7 cells, and BALB/c mice exposed to LPS after infection by Escherichia coli showed improved survival after administration of one 0.5-mg/kg of body weight or 1-mg/kg dose of CMA3. Finally, in a mouse model of septic shock, CMA3 reduced the levels of proinflammatory factors, including both nitric oxide and white blood cells, and correspondingly reduced lung tissue damage. This study suggests that CMA3 is an antimicrobial/antiendotoxin peptide that could serve as the basis for the development of anti-inflammatory and/or antimicrobial agents with low cytotoxicity. PMID:26552969

  3. Antimicrobial Peptide CMA3 Derived from the CA-MA Hybrid Peptide: Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Activities with Low Cytotoxicity and Mechanism of Action in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Kook; Seo, Chang Ho; Luchian, Tudor; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-11-09

    CA-MA is a hybrid antimicrobial peptide (AMP) derived from two naturally occurring AMPs, cecropin A and magainin 2. CA-MA shows strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but also exhibits cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. Our objective was to identify CA-MA analogues with reduced cytotoxicity by systematic replacement of amino acids with positively charged R groups (His and Lys), aliphatic R groups (Leu), or polar R groups (Glu). Among the CA-MA analogues studied (CMA1 to -6), CMA3 showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, including against drug-resistant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from hospital patients. CMA3 appeared to act by inducing pore formation (toroidal model) in the bacterial membrane. In cytotoxicity assays, CMA3 showed little cytotoxicity toward human red blood cells (hRBCs) or HaCaT cells. Additionally, no fluorescence was released from small or giant unilamellar vesicles exposed to 60 μM CMA3 for 80 s, whereas fluorescence was released within 35 s upon exposure to CA-MA. CMA3 also exerted strong lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralizing activity in RAW 264.7 cells, and BALB/c mice exposed to LPS after infection by Escherichia coli showed improved survival after administration of one 0.5-mg/kg of body weight or 1-mg/kg dose of CMA3. Finally, in a mouse model of septic shock, CMA3 reduced the levels of proinflammatory factors, including both nitric oxide and white blood cells, and correspondingly reduced lung tissue damage. This study suggests that CMA3 is an antimicrobial/antiendotoxin peptide that could serve as the basis for the development of anti-inflammatory and/or antimicrobial agents with low cytotoxicity.

  4. Role of p75 Neurotrophin Receptor in the Neurotoxicity by β-amyloid Peptides and Synergistic Effect of Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Giovanni; Della-Bianca, Vittorina; Politi, Valeria; Della Valle, Giuliano; Dal-Pra, Ilaria; Rossi, Filippo; Armato, Ubaldo

    2002-01-01

    The neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are elicited by the accumulation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ), which damage neurons either directly by interacting with components of the cell surface to trigger cell death signaling or indirectly by activating astrocytes and microglia to produce inflammatory mediators. It has been recently proposed that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is responsible for neuronal damage by interacting with Aβ. By using neuroblastoma cell clones lacking the expression of all neurotrophin receptors or engineered to express full-length or various truncated forms of p75NTR, we could show that p75NTR is involved in the direct signaling of cell death by Aβ via the function of its death domain. This signaling leads to the activation of caspases-8 and -3, the production of reactive oxygen intermediates and the induction of an oxidative stress. We also found that the direct and indirect (inflammatory) mechanisms of neuronal damage by Aβ could act synergistically. In fact, TNF-α and IL-1β, cytokines produced by Aβ-activated microglia, could potentiate the neurotoxic action of Aβ mediated by p75NTR signaling. Together, our results indicate that neurons expressing p75NTR, mostly if expressing also proinflammatory cytokine receptors, might be preferential targets of the cytotoxic action of Aβ in AD. PMID:11927634

  5. The Anti-inflammatory Effect of the CXCR4 Antagonist-N15P Peptide and Its Modulation on Inflammation-Associated Mediators in LPS-Induced PBMC.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xue-mei; Sun, Han-xiao

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation was the important pathological process of many disease developments, but current therapeutic means for inflammatory diseases are not satisfactory. Chemokines and their receptors represent valuable targets for anti-inflammatory drug discovery. The N15P polypeptide (sequence: LGASWHRPDKCCLGY) is independently developed by our research group, it is a new CXCR4 antagonist drug derived from viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II (vMIP-II). This study aims to clarify the anti-inflammatory potency of N15P polypeptide on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of N15P polypeptide by the LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) model and measured the level of inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MyD88, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of inflammatory factors were analyzed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) microarray analysis, and the production of inflammatory factors was measured further by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. The results showed that the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, NF-κB, COX-2, TLR4, MyD88, PI3K, and Akt) was downregulated by N15P peptide, suggesting that N15P peptide has a strong inhibitory effect on the inflammatory responses induced by LPS.

  6. Peptide p277 of HSP60 signals T cells: inhibition of inflammatory chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, Gabriel; Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra; Quintana, Francisco; Lider, Ofer; Cohen, Irun R

    2006-10-01

    Peptide p277 is a 24-amino acid fragment of the heat shock protein 60 molecule, first discovered to be an antigen for diabetogenic T-cell clones in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Therapeutic vaccination with p277 can arrest the spontaneous diabetogenic process both in NOD mice and in humans associated with a T(h)1 to T(h)2 cytokine shift specific for the autoimmune T cells. We now report that p277 can directly signal human T cells via innate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, leading to up-regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin, and inhibition of chemotaxis to the chemokine SDF-1alpha in vitro. Resting CD45RA(+) T cells responded to lower concentrations of p277 than resting CD45RO(+) T cells, but activation of CD45RO(+) T cells greatly increased their sensitivity to p277. Mouse T cells, but not macrophages, were also sensitive to the innate effects of peptide p277, and adoptive transfer of diabetes by splenic T cells from NOD mice could be inhibited by p277 treatment before transfer. Thus, T cells do respond innately to p277, and signaling by soluble p277 through TLR2 could contribute to the treatment of type 1 diabetes; p277 may stop the destruction of beta cells by signaling in concert both innate and adaptive receptors on T cells. PMID:16893923

  7. Martian supergene enrichment in Shalbatana Valley: Implications for Mars Early atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Ciprian; Carrozzo, Giacomo; DiAchille, Gaetano; Silvestro, Simone; Espostio, Francesca; Mennella, Vito

    2015-04-01

    The present work focuses on the detailed description of the first ever-identified supergene enrichment zone on Mars. The mineral paragenesis present at the site sets constrains on the characteristics of early Martian atmosphere. A chrysocolla/malachite bearing unit in the largest of Shalbatana Valley paleolacustrine sediment accumulation constitutes the proof for this process. The water permanence at the formation time is the main implication of this finding. Furthermore, the potential biogenic involvement at the mineralization stage adds scientific importance to the site. The latter implication could set the site as a high priority choice for future Martian in-situ robotic roving/sample-return missions. The relative age of the area (˜3.7 Ba) adds weight to this finding for purposes of planetary atmosphere evolution comparison. No Earth supergene deposit has survived that long, making this site extremely important to address the problem of the oxidative conditions of the primordial Earth and Mars atmospheres.

  8. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the annexin A1 protein and its mimetic peptide Ac2-26 in models of ocular inflammation in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Girol, Ana P; Mimura, Kallyne K O; Drewes, Carine C; Bolonheis, Simone M; Solito, Egle; Farsky, Sandra H P; Gil, Cristiane D; Oliani, Sonia M

    2013-06-01

    Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a protein that displays potent anti-inflammatory properties, but its expression in eye tissue and its role in ocular inflammatory diseases have not been well studied. We investigated the mechanism of action and potential uses of AnxA1 and its mimetic peptide (Ac2-26) in the endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) rodent model and in human ARPE-19 cells activated by LPS. In rats, analysis of untreated EIU after 24 and 48 h or EIU treated with topical applications or with a single s.c. injection of Ac2-26 revealed the anti-inflammatory actions of Ac2-26 on leukocyte infiltration and on the release of inflammatory mediators; the systemic administration of Boc2, a formylated peptide receptor (fpr) antagonist, abrogated the peptide's protective effects. Moreover, AnxA1(-/-) mice exhibited exacerbated EIU compared with wild-type animals. Immunohistochemical studies of ocular tissue showed a specific AnxA1 posttranslational modification in EIU and indicated that the fpr2 receptor mediated the anti-inflammatory actions of AnxA1. In vitro studies confirmed the roles of AnxA1 and fpr2 and the protective effects of Ac2-26 on the release of chemical mediators in ARPE-19 cells. Molecular analysis of NF-κB translocation and IL-6, IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression indicated that the protective effects of AnxA1 occur independently of the NF-κB signaling pathway and possibly in a posttranscriptional manner. Together, our data highlight the role of AnxA1 in ocular inflammation, especially uveitis, and suggest the use of AnxA1 or its mimetic peptide Ac2-26 as a therapeutic approach.

  9. Sea cucumber peptides exert anti-inflammatory activity through suppressing NF-κB and MAPK and inducing HO-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiajia; Li, Tiange; Cheng, Xue; Ji, Xiaomin; Gao, Dongxiao; Du, Min; Jiang, Naiyi; Liu, Xueling; Mao, Xueying

    2016-06-15

    The anti-inflammatory effect of sea cucumber peptides (SCP) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages was tested. SCP significantly reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide release by inhibiting the inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression without affecting the cell viability. The mRNA expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 was suppressed. SCP inhibited LPS-induced degradation of the inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and nuclear transposition of NF-κB p65, resulting in decreased NF-κB transactivation. Moreover, SCP suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and p38. In addition, the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in macrophages was up-regulated by SCP in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition effect of SCP on the mRNA expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines was partially reversed by co-treatment with a HO-1 inhibitor. The SCP with anti-inflammatory activity was made up of low-molecular-weight peptides rich in glycine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SCP exerts anti-inflammatory function through inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation and inducing HO-1 expression in macrophages.

  10. Sea cucumber peptides exert anti-inflammatory activity through suppressing NF-κB and MAPK and inducing HO-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiajia; Li, Tiange; Cheng, Xue; Ji, Xiaomin; Gao, Dongxiao; Du, Min; Jiang, Naiyi; Liu, Xueling; Mao, Xueying

    2016-06-15

    The anti-inflammatory effect of sea cucumber peptides (SCP) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages was tested. SCP significantly reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide release by inhibiting the inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression without affecting the cell viability. The mRNA expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 was suppressed. SCP inhibited LPS-induced degradation of the inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and nuclear transposition of NF-κB p65, resulting in decreased NF-κB transactivation. Moreover, SCP suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and p38. In addition, the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in macrophages was up-regulated by SCP in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition effect of SCP on the mRNA expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines was partially reversed by co-treatment with a HO-1 inhibitor. The SCP with anti-inflammatory activity was made up of low-molecular-weight peptides rich in glycine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SCP exerts anti-inflammatory function through inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation and inducing HO-1 expression in macrophages. PMID:27220344

  11. Neuropathic and inflammatory pain are modulated by tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Eugene L; Kuo, Jonathan; Kohno, Kenji; Usdin, Ted B

    2013-08-01

    Nociceptive information is modulated by a large number of endogenous signaling agents that change over the course of recovery from injury. This plasticity makes understanding regulatory mechanisms involved in descending inhibition of pain scientifically and clinically important. Neurons that synthesize the neuropeptide TIP39 project to many areas that modulate nociceptive information. These areas are enriched in its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). We previously found that TIP39 affects several acute nociceptive responses, leading us to now investigate its potential role in chronic pain. Following nerve injury, both PTH2R and TIP39 knockout mice developed less tactile and thermal hypersensitivity than controls and returned to baseline sensory thresholds faster. Effects of hindpaw inflammatory injury were similarly decreased in knockout mice. Blockade of α-2 adrenergic receptors increased the tactile and thermal sensitivity of apparently recovered knockout mice, returning it to levels of neuropathic controls. Mice with locus coeruleus (LC) area injection of lentivirus encoding a secreted PTH2R antagonist had a rapid, α-2 reversible, apparent recovery from neuropathic injury similar to the knockout mice. Ablation of LC area glutamatergic neurons led to local PTH2R-ir loss, and barley lectin was transferred from local glutamatergic neurons to GABA interneurons that surround the LC. These results suggest that TIP39 signaling modulates sensory thresholds via effects on glutamatergic transmission to brainstem GABAergic interneurons that innervate noradrenergic neurons. TIP39's normal role may be to inhibit release of hypoalgesic amounts of norepinephrine during chronic pain. The neuropeptide may help maintain central sensitization, which could serve to enhance guarding behavior.

  12. Neuropathic and inflammatory pain are modulated by tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Eugene L.; Kuo, Jonathan; Kohno, Kenji; Usdin, Ted B.

    2013-01-01

    Nociceptive information is modulated by a large number of endogenous signaling agents that change over the course of recovery from injury. This plasticity makes understanding regulatory mechanisms involved in descending inhibition of pain scientifically and clinically important. Neurons that synthesize the neuropeptide TIP39 project to many areas that modulate nociceptive information. These areas are enriched in its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). We previously found that TIP39 affects several acute nociceptive responses, leading us to now investigate its potential role in chronic pain. Following nerve injury, both PTH2R and TIP39 knockout mice developed less tactile and thermal hypersensitivity than controls and returned to baseline sensory thresholds faster. Effects of hindpaw inflammatory injury were similarly decreased in knockout mice. Blockade of α-2 adrenergic receptors increased the tactile and thermal sensitivity of apparently recovered knockout mice, returning it to levels of neuropathic controls. Mice with locus coeruleus (LC) area injection of lentivirus encoding a secreted PTH2R antagonist had a rapid, α-2 reversible, apparent recovery from neuropathic injury similar to the knockout mice. Ablation of LC area glutamatergic neurons led to local PTH2R-ir loss, and barley lectin was transferred from local glutamatergic neurons to GABA interneurons that surround the LC. These results suggest that TIP39 signaling modulates sensory thresholds via effects on glutamatergic transmission to brainstem GABAergic interneurons that innervate noradrenergic neurons. TIP39’s normal role may be to inhibit release of hypoalgesic amounts of norepinephrine during chronic pain. The neuropeptide may help maintain central sensitization, which could serve to enhance guarding behavior. PMID:23878240

  13. Cyclic mechanical stretch down-regulates cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression and activates a pro-inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Karadottir, Harpa; Kulkarni, Nikhil Nitin; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Karason, Sigurbergur; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Hrafn

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37). Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative stress in the VA10 cells. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, TLR5 and TLR8 was reduced, while the gene expression of TLR2 was increased in VA10 cells after cyclic stretch. In conclusion, our in vitro results indicate that cyclic stretch may differentially modulate innate immunity by down-regulation of antimicrobial peptide expression and increase in pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:26664810

  14. Exacerbation of collagen induced arthritis by Fcγ receptor targeted collagen peptide due to enhanced inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Szarka, Eszter; Neer, Zsuzsa; Balogh, Péter; Ádori, Monika; Angyal, Adrienn; Prechl, József; Kiss, Endre; Kövesdi, Dorottya; Sármay, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies specific for bovine type II collagen (CII) and Fcγ receptors play a major role in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to clarify the mechanism of immune complex-mediated inflammation and modulation of the disease. CII pre-immunized DBA/1 mice were intravenously boosted with extravidin coupled biotinylated monomeric CII-peptide epitope (ARGLTGRPGDA) and its complexes with biotinylated FcγRII/III specific single chain Fv (scFv) fragment. Disease scores were monitored, antibody titers and cytokines were determined by ELISA, and binding of complexes was detected by flow cytometry and immune histochemistry. Cytokine and chemokine secretion was monitored by protein profiler microarray. When intravenously administered into collagen-primed DBA/1 mice, both CII-peptide and its complex with 2.4G2 scFv significantly accelerated CIA and increased the severity of the disease, whereas the monomeric peptide and monomeric 2.4G2 scFv had no effect. FcγRII/III targeted CII-peptide complexes bound to marginal zone macrophages and dendritic cells, and significantly elevated the synthesis of peptide-specific IgG2a. Furthermore, CII-peptide containing complexes augmented the in vivo secretion of cytokines, including IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23, and chemokines (CXCL13, MIP-1, MIP-2). These data indicate that complexes formed by the CII-peptide epitope aggravate CIA by inducing the secretion of chemokines and the IL-12/23 family of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results suggest that the in vivo emerging immune complexes formed with autoantigen(s) may trigger the IL-12/23 dependent pathways, escalating the inflammation in RA. Thus blockade of these cytokines may be beneficial to downregulate immune complex-induced inflammation in autoimmune arthritis. PMID:22532778

  15. Exacerbation of collagen induced arthritis by Fcγ receptor targeted collagen peptide due to enhanced inflammatory chemokine and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Szarka, Eszter; Neer, Zsuzsa; Balogh, Péter; Adori, Monika; Angyal, Adrienn; Prechl, József; Kiss, Endre; Kövesdi, Dorottya; Sármay, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies specific for bovine type II collagen (CII) and Fcγ receptors play a major role in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to clarify the mechanism of immune complex-mediated inflammation and modulation of the disease. CII pre-immunized DBA/1 mice were intravenously boosted with extravidin coupled biotinylated monomeric CII-peptide epitope (ARGLTGRPGDA) and its complexes with biotinylated FcγRII/III specific single chain Fv (scFv) fragment. Disease scores were monitored, antibody titers and cytokines were determined by ELISA, and binding of complexes was detected by flow cytometry and immune histochemistry. Cytokine and chemokine secretion was monitored by protein profiler microarray. When intravenously administered into collagen-primed DBA/1 mice, both CII-peptide and its complex with 2.4G2 scFv significantly accelerated CIA and increased the severity of the disease, whereas the monomeric peptide and monomeric 2.4G2 scFv had no effect. FcγRII/III targeted CII-peptide complexes bound to marginal zone macrophages and dendritic cells, and significantly elevated the synthesis of peptide-specific IgG2a. Furthermore, CII-peptide containing complexes augmented the in vivo secretion of cytokines, including IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23, and chemokines (CXCL13, MIP-1, MIP-2). These data indicate that complexes formed by the CII-peptide epitope aggravate CIA by inducing the secretion of chemokines and the IL-12/23 family of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results suggest that the in vivo emerging immune complexes formed with autoantigen(s) may trigger the IL-12/23 dependent pathways, escalating the inflammation in RA. Thus blockade of these cytokines may be beneficial to downregulate immune complex-induced inflammation in autoimmune arthritis. PMID:22532778

  16. Therapeutic Effect of Ergotope Peptides on Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Downregulation of Inflammatory and Th1/Th17 Responses and Induction of Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiaoyin; Deng, Shaohua; Li, Shan; Xi, Yebin; Li, Chengzhen; Wang, Li; He, Dongyi; Wang, Zhaojun; Chen, Guangjie

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that results in a chronic and inflammatory disorder. Dynamic balance of helper T cells (Th) 1 and 17 and regulatory T cells (Treg) is broken in RA. Since there is no cure for RA at present, it is necessary to find a truly effective and convenient treatment. Several studies have intended to induce ergotopic regulation to treat autoimmune diseases. This study was undertaken to find potential ergotope peptides and investigate their effects in treating the animal model of RA and their underlying regulatory mechanisms. First, we selected functional ergotope peptides from 25 overlapping peptides derived from the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) α chain, and then used these peptides to treat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We showed ergotope peptides as immunomodulatory factors with great benefits at the clinical and pathologic levels. This effect was associated with inhibition of type II collagen (CII)-specific proliferation and autoantibody production as well as induction of antiergotypic immune response, downregulation of both Th1 and Th17 cells and their related components, and emergence of Treg cells that had suppressive action on autoreactive T cells. We also proved that cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and IL-10 are two important mediators that are critical to Treg suppressive function. Inhibition of Th1 and Th17 in established CIA could be attributed to ergotope-induced Treg cells. Our findings reveal that ergotope peptides induce regulatory immune responses and restore immune tolerance, suggesting that treatment with ergotope peptides may be a novel approach to therapy for RA patients and has good application prospects, with cheap, effective, convenient, wide-spectrum features. PMID:27579476

  17. The anti-inflammatory peptide stearyl-norleucine-VIP delays disease onset and extends survival in a rat model of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goursaud, Stéphanie; Schäfer, Sabrina; Dumont, Amélie O; Vergouts, Maxime; Gallo, Alessandro; Desmet, Nathalie; Deumens, Ronald; Hermans, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has potent immune modulatory actions that may influence the course of neurodegenerative disorders associated with chronic inflammation. Here, we show the therapeutic benefits of a modified peptide agonist stearyl-norleucine-VIP (SNV) in a transgenic rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (mutated superoxide dismutase 1, hSOD1(G93A)). When administered by systemic every-other-day intraperitoneal injections during a period of 80 days before disease, SNV delayed the onset of motor dysfunction by no less than three weeks, while survival was extended by nearly two months. SNV-treated rats showed reduced astro- and microgliosis in the lumbar ventral spinal cord and a significant degree of motor neuron preservation. Throughout the treatment, SNV promoted the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 as well as neurotrophic factors commonly considered as beneficial in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis management (glial derived neuroptrophic factor, insulin like growth factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor). The peptide nearly totally suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and repressed the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-1β, nitric oxide and of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α likely accounted for the observed down-regulation of nuclear factor kappa B that modulates the transcription of genes specifically involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sod1 and the glutamate transporter slc1a2). In line with this, levels of human superoxide dismutase 1 mRNA and protein were decreased by SNV treatment, while the expression and activity of the glutamate transporter-1 was promoted. Considering the large diversity of influences of this peptide on both clinical features of the disease and associated biochemical markers, we propose that SNV or related peptides may constitute promising candidates for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  18. Paleohydrologic evolution and geochemical dynamics of cumulative supergene metal enrichment at La Escondida, Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, C.N.; Brimhall, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative limonite mapping within the leached capping of the porphyry copper deposit at La Escondida, Chile, permits reconstruction of the paleohydrologic and chemical evolution of a well-developed supergene ore-forming system. The mineralogy, textures, and relative abundance of supergene limonite minerals (hematite, goethite, and jarosite) are used to reconstruct the former ratio of pyrite to chalcocite and the preoxidation copper grade based on empirical limonite sulfide correlations. Evidence for cumulative downward enrichment in vertical profiles through leached capping allows quantitative analysis of chemical mass balance in dynamic supergene systems. Slopes of linear regressions for profiles of reconstructed enriched copper grades vs. depth indicate lateral fluxes into or out of a given vertical profile. -from Authors

  19. Annexin A1 released from apoptotic cells acts through formyl peptide receptors to dampen inflammatory monocyte activation via JAK/STAT/SOCS signalling

    PubMed Central

    Pupjalis, Danute; Goetsch, Julia; Kottas, Diane J; Gerke, Volker; Rescher, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of apoptotic cells involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and establishment of an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, thus limiting the degree of inflammation and promoting resolution. We report here that this is in part mediated by the release of the anti-inflammatory mediator annexin A1 from apoptotic cells and the functional activation of annexin A1 receptors of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family on target cells. Supernatants from apoptotic neutrophils or the annexin A1 peptidomimetic Ac2-26 significantly reduced IL-6 signalling and the release of TNF-α from endotoxin-challenged monocytes. Ac2-26 activated STAT3 in a JAK-dependent manner, resulting in upregulated SOCS3 levels, and depletion of SOCS3 reversed the Ac2-26-mediated inhibition of IL-6 signalling. This identifies annexin A1 as part of the anti-inflammatory pattern of apoptotic cells and links the activation of FPRs to established signalling pathways triggering anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:21254404

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Action of an Antimicrobial Model Peptide That Suppresses the TRIF-Dependent Signaling Pathway via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Endocytosis in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Do-Wan; Heo, Kang-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Kyu; Sim, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Choi, Jae-Wan; Sim, Dae-Won; Cheong, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hong; Bang, Jeong-Kyu; Won, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, particularly those with amphipathic helical structures, are emerging as target molecules for therapeutic development due to their immunomodulatory properties. Although the antimicrobial activity of AMPs is known to be exerted primarily by permeation of the bacterial membrane, the mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity remains to be elucidated. We report potent anti-inflammatory activity of WALK11.3, an antimicrobial model peptide with an amphipathic helical conformation, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This peptide inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, INF-β, and TNF-α. Although WALK11.3 did not exert a major effect on all downstream signaling in the MyD88-dependent pathway, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- mediated pro-inflammatory signals were markedly attenuated in the TRIF-dependent pathway due to inhibition of the phosphorylation of STAT1 by attenuation of IRF3 phosphorylation. WALK11.3 specifically inhibited the endocytosis of TLR4, which is essential for triggering TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophage cells. Hence, we suggest that specific interference with TLR4 endocytosis could be one of the major modes of the anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. Our designed WALK11 peptides, which possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, may be promising molecules for the development of therapies for infectious inflammation. PMID:26017270

  1. Effect of genetic SSTR4 ablation on inflammatory peptide and receptor expression in the non-inflamed and inflamed murine intestine.

    PubMed

    Van Op den Bosch, Joeri; Torfs, Pascal; De Winter, Benedicte Y; De Man, Joris G; Pelckmans, Paul A; Van Marck, Eric; Grundy, David; Van Nassauw, Luc; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre

    2009-09-01

    The recently suggested pivotal role of somatostatin (SOM) receptor 4 (SSTR4) in inflammation and nociception in several non-intestinal organs and in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, necessitates exploration of the role of SSTR4 in GI pathophysiology. Therefore, the role of SSTR4 in GI activity was explored by investigating the effects of SSTR4 deficiency on intestinal motility, smooth muscle contractility and on the expression of SSTRs and neuropeptides in the healthy and Schistosoma mansoni-infected murine small intestine. Functional experiments revealed no differences in intestinal motility or smooth muscle cell contractility between wild-type and SSTR4 knockout (SSTR4(-/-)) mice in physiological conditions. As revealed by multiple immunofluorescent labellings, RT-PCR and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qPCR), genetic deficiency of SSTR4 considerably altered the expression of SOM and SSTRs in non-inflamed and inflamed conditions, affecting both extrinsic and intrinsic components of the intestinal innervation, along with SSTR expression in several non-neuronal cell types. Moreover, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression were significantly elevated in SSTR4(-/-) mice, confirming the modulatory role of SSTR4 on intestinal pro-inflammatory neuropeptide expression. These data suggest that SSTR4 plays a previously unexpected modulatory role in the regulation of intestinal SSTR expression. Moreover, in addition to the recently described inhibitory effects of SSTR4 on the neuronal release of pro-inflammatory peptides, SSTR4 appears also to be involved in the neuronal expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory peptides in the murine small intestine.

  2. Screening of an anti-inflammatory peptide from Hydrophis cyanocinctus and analysis of its activities and mechanism in DSS-induced acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zengjie; Jiang, Hailong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Ma, Xingyuan; Lu, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Snake has been used for centuries as a traditional Chinese medicine, especially for therapeutic treatment for inflammatory diseases; however, its mechanisms of action and active constituents remain controversial. In our study, a tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) selective binding peptide, Hydrostatin-SN1 (H-SN1), which was screened from a Hydrophis cyanocinctus venom gland T7 phage display library, was shown to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. As a TNFR1 antagonist, it reduced cytotoxicity mediated by TNF-α in L929 fibroblasts and effectively inhibited the combination between TNF-α with TNFR1 in surface plasmon resonance analysis. H-SN1 was also shown to suppress TNFR1–associated signaling pathways as it minimized TNF-α-induced NF-кB and MAPK activation in HEK293 embryonic kidney and HT29 adenocarcinoma cell lines. We next determined the effect of H-SN1 in vivo using a murine model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate, demonstrating that H-SN1 lowered the clinical parameters of acute colitis including the disease activity index and histologic scores. H-SN1 also inhibited TNF/TNFR1 downstream targets at both mRNA and protein levels. These results indicate that H-SN1 might represent a suitable candidate for use in the treatment of TNF-α-associated inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27158082

  3. RAD-Seq derived markers flank the shell colour and banding loci of the Cepaea nemoralis supergene.

    PubMed

    Richards, Paul M; Liu, M Maureen; Lowe, Natalie; Davey, John W; Blaxter, Mark L; Davison, Angus

    2013-06-01

    Studies on the classic shell colour and banding polymorphism of the land snail Cepaea played a crucial role in establishing the importance of natural selection in maintaining morphological variation. Cepaea is also a pre-eminent model for ecological genetics because the outward colour and banding phenotype is entirely genetically determined, primarily by a 'supergene' of at least five loci. Unfortunately, progress in understanding the evolution and maintenance of the Cepaea polymorphism stalled, partly because of a lack of genetic markers. With a view to re-establish Cepaea as a prominent model of molecular ecology, we made six laboratory crosses of Cepaea nemoralis, five of which segregated for shell ground colour (C) and the presence or absence of bands (B). First, scoring of colour and banding in 323 individuals found no recombination between the C and B loci of the supergene. Second, using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) of two parents and 22 offspring, we identified 44 anonymous markers putatively linked to the colour (C) and banding (B) loci. The genotype of eleven of the most promising RAD-Seq markers was independently validated in the same 22 offspring, then up to a further 146 offspring were genotyped. The closest RAD-Seq markers scored are within ~0.6 centimorgan (cM) of the C-B supergene linkage group, with the combined loci together forming a 35.8 cM linkage map of markers that flank both sides of the Cepaea C-B supergene.

  4. Naturally occurring mitochondrial-derived peptides are age-dependent regulators of apoptosis, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Laura J.; Lee, Changhan; Xiao, Jialin; Yen, Kelvin; Wong, Richard G.; Nakamura, Hiromi K.; Mehta, Hemal H.; Gao, Qinglei; Ashur, Carmel; Huffman, Derek M.; Wan, Junxiang; Muzumdar, Radhika; Barzilai, Nir; Cohen, Pinchas

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are key players in aging and in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. Recent mitochondrial transcriptome analyses revealed the existence of multiple small mRNAs transcribed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Humanin (HN), a peptide encoded in the mtDNA 16S ribosomal RNA region, is a neuroprotective factor. An in silico search revealed six additional peptides in the same region of mtDNA as humanin; we named these peptides small humanin-like peptides (SHLPs). We identified the functional roles for these peptides and the potential mechanisms of action. The SHLPs differed in their ability to regulate cell viability in vitro. We focused on SHLP2 and SHLP3 because they shared similar protective effects with HN. Specifically, they significantly reduced apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species, and improved mitochondrial metabolism in vitro. SHLP2 and SHLP3 also enhanced 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation. Systemic hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies showed that intracerebrally infused SHLP2 increased glucose uptake and suppressed hepatic glucose production, suggesting that it functions as an insulin sensitizer both peripherally and centrally. Similar to HN, the levels of circulating SHLP2 were found to decrease with age. These results suggest that mitochondria play critical roles in metabolism and survival through the synthesis of mitochondrial peptides, and provide new insights into mitochondrial biology with relevance to aging and human biology. PMID:27070352

  5. Inhibition of lethal inflammatory responses through the targeting of membrane-associated Toll-like receptor 4 signaling complexes with a Smad6-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Sook; Park, Jin Seok; Jung, Su Myung; Kim, Sang-Doo; Kim, Jun Hwan; Lee, Jae Young; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Mamura, Mizuko; Lee, Sangho; Kim, Seong-Jin; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Park, Seok Hee

    2015-05-01

    We have previously reported that Smad6, one of the inhibitory Smads of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling by disrupting the Pellino-1-mediated TLR4 signaling complex. Here, we developed Smaducin-6, a novel membrane-tethered palmitic acid-conjugated Smad6-derived peptide composed of amino acids 422-441 of Smad6. Smaducin-6 interacted with Pellino-1, located in the inner membrane, thereby disrupting the formation of IRAK1-, RIP1-, IKKε-mediated TLR4 signaling complexes. Systemic administration of Smaducin-6 showed a significant therapeutic effect on mouse TLR4-mediated inflammatory disease models, cecal-ligation-puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, and lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis while enhancing neutrophil migration and bacterial clearance. Our findings provide clues to develop new peptide-based drugs to target Pellino-1 protein in TLR4 signaling pathway for the treatment of sepsis.

  6. A conserved supergene locus controls colour pattern diversity in Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Joron, Mathieu; Papa, Riccardo; Beltrán, Margarita; Chamberlain, Nicola; Mavárez, Jesús; Baxter, Simon; Abanto, Moisés; Bermingham, Eldredge; Humphray, Sean J; Rogers, Jane; Beasley, Helen; Barlow, Karen; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallet, James; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2006-10-01

    We studied whether similar developmental genetic mechanisms are involved in both convergent and divergent evolution. Mimetic insects are known for their diversity of patterns as well as their remarkable evolutionary convergence, and they have played an important role in controversies over the respective roles of selection and constraints in adaptive evolution. Here we contrast three butterfly species, all classic examples of Müllerian mimicry. We used a genetic linkage map to show that a locus, Yb, which controls the presence of a yellow band in geographic races of Heliconius melpomene, maps precisely to the same location as the locus Cr, which has very similar phenotypic effects in its co-mimic H. erato. Furthermore, the same genomic location acts as a "supergene", determining multiple sympatric morphs in a third species, H. numata. H. numata is a species with a very different phenotypic appearance, whose many forms mimic different unrelated ithomiine butterflies in the genus Melinaea. Other unlinked colour pattern loci map to a homologous linkage group in the co-mimics H. melpomene and H. erato, but they are not involved in mimetic polymorphism in H. numata. Hence, a single region from the multilocus colour pattern architecture of H. melpomene and H. erato appears to have gained control of the entire wing-pattern variability in H. numata, presumably as a result of selection for mimetic "supergene" polymorphism without intermediates. Although we cannot at this stage confirm the homology of the loci segregating in the three species, our results imply that a conserved yet relatively unconstrained mechanism underlying pattern switching can affect mimicry in radically different ways. We also show that adaptive evolution, both convergent and diversifying, can occur by the repeated involvement of the same genomic regions.

  7. Synthetic antimicrobial and LPS-neutralising peptides suppress inflammatory and immune responses in skin cells and promote keratinocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Pfalzgraff, Anja; Heinbockel, Lena; Su, Qi; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Weindl, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The stagnation in the development of new antibiotics and the concomitant high increase of resistant bacteria emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides are promising agents for the treatment of bacterial infections and recent studies indicate that Pep19-2.5, a synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) peptide (SALP), efficiently neutralises pathogenicity factors of Gram-negative (LPS) and Gram-positive (lipoprotein/-peptide, LP) bacteria and protects against sepsis. Here, we investigated the potential of Pep19-2.5 and the structurally related compound Pep19-4LF for their therapeutic application in bacterial skin infections. SALPs inhibited LP-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK and reduced cytokine release and gene expression in primary human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. In LPS-stimulated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and Langerhans-like cells, the peptides blocked IL-6 secretion, downregulated expression of maturation markers and inhibited dendritic cell migration. Both SALPs showed a low cytotoxicity in all investigated cell types. Furthermore, SALPs markedly promoted cell migration via EGFR transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and accelerated artificial wound closure in keratinocytes. Peptide-induced keratinocyte migration was mediated by purinergic receptors and metalloproteases. In contrast, SALPs did not affect proliferation of keratinocytes. Conclusively, our data suggest a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with acute and chronic skin infections. PMID:27509895

  8. Synthetic antimicrobial and LPS-neutralising peptides suppress inflammatory and immune responses in skin cells and promote keratinocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Pfalzgraff, Anja; Heinbockel, Lena; Su, Qi; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Weindl, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The stagnation in the development of new antibiotics and the concomitant high increase of resistant bacteria emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides are promising agents for the treatment of bacterial infections and recent studies indicate that Pep19-2.5, a synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) peptide (SALP), efficiently neutralises pathogenicity factors of Gram-negative (LPS) and Gram-positive (lipoprotein/-peptide, LP) bacteria and protects against sepsis. Here, we investigated the potential of Pep19-2.5 and the structurally related compound Pep19-4LF for their therapeutic application in bacterial skin infections. SALPs inhibited LP-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK and reduced cytokine release and gene expression in primary human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. In LPS-stimulated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and Langerhans-like cells, the peptides blocked IL-6 secretion, downregulated expression of maturation markers and inhibited dendritic cell migration. Both SALPs showed a low cytotoxicity in all investigated cell types. Furthermore, SALPs markedly promoted cell migration via EGFR transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and accelerated artificial wound closure in keratinocytes. Peptide-induced keratinocyte migration was mediated by purinergic receptors and metalloproteases. In contrast, SALPs did not affect proliferation of keratinocytes. Conclusively, our data suggest a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with acute and chronic skin infections. PMID:27509895

  9. Sustained release of hepatocyte growth factor by cationic self-assembling peptide/heparin hybrid hydrogel improves β-cell survival and function through modulating inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuyun; Zhang, Lanlan; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Yanrong; Liu, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory response is a major cause of grafts dysfunction in islet transplantation. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) had shown anti-inflammatory activity in multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to deliver HGF by self-assembling peptide/heparin (SAP/Hep) hybrid gel to protect β-cell from inflammatory injury. The morphological and slow release properties of SAPs were analyzed. Rat INS-1 β-cell line was treated with tumor necrosis factor α in vitro and transplanted into rat kidney capsule in vivo, and the viability, apoptosis, function, and inflammation of β-cells were evaluated. Cationic KLD1R and KLD2R self-assembled to nanofiber hydrogel, which showed higher binding affinity for Hep and HGF because of electrostatic interaction. Slow release of HGF from cationic SAP/Hep gel is a two-step mechanism involving binding affinity with Hep and molecular diffusion. In vitro and in vivo results showed that HGF-loaded KLD2R/Hep gel promoted β-cell survival and insulin secretion, and inhibited cell apoptosis, cytokine release, T-cell infiltration, and activation of NFκB/p38 MAPK pathways in β-cells. This study suggested that SAP/Hep gel is a promising carrier for local delivery of bioactive proteins in islet transplantation. PMID:27729786

  10. Hemocompatible poly(NIPAm-MBA-AMPS) colloidal nanoparticles as carriers of anti-inflammatory cell penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Rush L; Medow, Matthew R; Panitch, Alyssa; Seal, Brandon

    2012-04-01

    Anionic copolymer systems containing sulfated monomers have great potential for delivery of cationic therapeutics, but N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) copolymer nanoparticles have seen limited characterization to date with regard to physical properties relevant to loading and release of therapeutics. Characterization of polymeric nanoparticles incorporating AMPS showed an increased size and decreased thermodynamic swelling ratios of AMPS containing particles as compared to NIPAm nanoparticles lacking AMPS. Particles with increasing AMPS addition showed an increased propensity for uniformity, intraparticle colloidal stability, and drug loading capacity. Peptide encapsulated in particles was shielded from peptide degradation in serum. Particles were shown not impede blood coagulation or to cause hemolysis. This study has demonstrated that AMPS incorporation into traditional NIPAm nanoparticles presents a tunable parameter for changing particle LCST, size, swelling ratio, ζ potential, and cationic peptide loading potential. This one-pot synthesis results in a thermosensitive anionic nanoparticle system that is a potentially useful platform to deliver cationic cell penetrating peptides.

  11. Hemocompatible poly(NIPAm-MBA-AMPS) colloidal nanoparticles as carriers of anti-inflammatory cell penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Rush L; Medow, Matthew R; Panitch, Alyssa; Seal, Brandon

    2012-04-01

    Anionic copolymer systems containing sulfated monomers have great potential for delivery of cationic therapeutics, but N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) copolymer nanoparticles have seen limited characterization to date with regard to physical properties relevant to loading and release of therapeutics. Characterization of polymeric nanoparticles incorporating AMPS showed an increased size and decreased thermodynamic swelling ratios of AMPS containing particles as compared to NIPAm nanoparticles lacking AMPS. Particles with increasing AMPS addition showed an increased propensity for uniformity, intraparticle colloidal stability, and drug loading capacity. Peptide encapsulated in particles was shielded from peptide degradation in serum. Particles were shown not impede blood coagulation or to cause hemolysis. This study has demonstrated that AMPS incorporation into traditional NIPAm nanoparticles presents a tunable parameter for changing particle LCST, size, swelling ratio, ζ potential, and cationic peptide loading potential. This one-pot synthesis results in a thermosensitive anionic nanoparticle system that is a potentially useful platform to deliver cationic cell penetrating peptides. PMID:22452800

  12. The monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor an anti-inflammatory peptide; therapeutics originating from amebic abscess of the liver.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Juan R

    2011-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica in culture produces a pentapeptide (MQCNS). This oligopeptide inhibits the in vitro and in vivo locomotion of human monocytes, hence its denomination Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor (MLIF). The original isolated peptide and its synthetic construct display similar effects, among others, being inhibition of the respiratory burst in monocytes and neutrophils, decrease of Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin hypersensitivity in guinea pigs and gerbils, and delay of mononuclear leukocytes in human Rebuck skin windows with inhibition of vascular cell Very late antigen (VLA)-4 and Vascular adhesion molecules (VCAM) in endothelia and monocytes. The MLIF molecular mechanism of action is unknown, but data reveal its implication in Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and Mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. This could explain MLIF multiplicity of biological effects. On the other hand, the amebic peptide has been useful in treating experimental amebiasis of the liver. The amebic peptide is effective in reducing inflammation induced by carragenin and arthritis in a Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. Microarray data from experimental arthritis revealed an MLIF gene expression profile that includes genes that are involved in apoptosis, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, and inflammation / chemotaxis. MLIF could be involved in unsuspected biological factions because there is increasing data on the peptide effect on several cell activities. This review also presents uses of MLIF as described in patents.

  13. Andean uplift and climate evolution in the southern Atacama Desert deduced from geomorphology and supergene alunite-group minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissig, Thomas; Riquelme, Rodrigo

    2010-11-01

    Supergene alunite group minerals from the Late Eocene El Salvador porphyry Cu district, the El Hueso epithermal gold deposit and the Coya porphyry Au prospect located in the Precordillera of Northern Chile (~ 26 to 26° 30´ Lat. S) have been dated by the 40Ar/ 39Ar method and analyzed for stable isotopes. These data support published geomorphologic and sedimentologic evidence suggesting that the Precordillera in the Southern Atacama Desert had been uplifted as early as the late Eocene and, thus, significantly prior to the Altiplano which attained its high elevation only in the late Miocene. The oldest supergene alunite from the Damiana exotic deposit at El Salvador was dated at 35.8 ± 1 Ma and yielded a δD (VSMOW) value of -74‰ which indicates elevations of the Precordillera near El Salvador of at least 3000 m in the Late Eocene. In contrast, Miocene supergene alunite from El Salvador, El Hueso, and Coya have less negative δD signatures reaching values as high as -23 to -25‰ at El Hueso and El Salvador between about 8.2 and 14 Ma. Late Miocene to Holocene supergene alunite, jarosite and natroalunite ages are restricted to El Hueso and Coya located near 4000 m above sea level in the Precordillera, roughly 1000 m higher than the present elevation of El Salvador. The δD values of samples younger than ~ 5 Ma vary between -57 and -97‰. The complex evolution of the δD signatures suggests that meteoric waters recorded in supergene alunite group minerals were variably affected by evaporation and provides evidence for climate desiccation and onset of hyper arid conditions in the Central Depression of the southern Atacama Desert after 15 Ma, which agrees well with published constraints from the Atacama Desert at 23-24° Lat. S. Our data also suggest that wetter climatic conditions than at present prevailed in the latest Miocene and early Pliocene in the Precordillera. The new and previously published age constraints for El Salvador indicate that supergene

  14. Peptoid-Substituted Hybrid Antimicrobial Peptide Derived from Papiliocin and Magainin 2 with Enhanced Bacterial Selectivity and Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Areum; Lee, Eunjung; Jeon, Dasom; Park, Young-Guen; Bang, Jeong Kyu; Park, Yong-Sun; Shin, Song Yub; Kim, Yangmee

    2015-06-30

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the host innate immune system. Papiliocin is a 37-residue AMP purified from larvae of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus. Magainin 2 is a 23-residue AMP purified from the skin of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. We designed an 18-residue hybrid peptide (PapMA) incorporating N-terminal residues 1-8 of papiliocin and N-terminal residues 4-12 of magainin 2, joined by a proline (Pro) hinge. PapMA showed high antimicrobial activity but was cytotoxic to mammalian cells. To decrease PapMA cytotoxicity, we designed a lysine (Lys) peptoid analogue, PapMA-k, which retained high antimicrobial activity but displayed cytotoxicity lower than that of PapMA. Fluorescent dye leakage experiments and confocal microscopy showed that PapMA targeted bacterial cell membranes whereas PapMA-k penetrated bacterial cell membranes. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments revealed that PapMA contained an N-terminal α-helix from Lys(3) to Lys(7) and a C-terminal α-helix from Lys(10) to Lys(17), with a Pro(9) hinge between them. PapMA-k also had two α-helical structures in the same region connected with a flexible hinge residue at Nlys(9), which existed in a dynamic equilibrium of cis and trans conformers. Using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, the anti-inflammatory activity of PapMA and PapMA-k was confirmed by inhibition of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokine production. In addition, treatment with PapMA and PapMA-k decreased the level of ultraviolet irradiation-induced expression of genes encoding matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Thus, PapMA and PapMA-k are potent peptide antibiotics with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, with PapMA-k displaying enhanced bacterial selectivity.

  15. Low energy laser light (632.8 nm) suppresses amyloid-β peptide-induced oxidative and inflammatory responses in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Askarova, S; Sheng, W; Chen, J K; Sun, A Y; Sun, G Y; Yao, G; Lee, J C-M

    2010-12-15

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are important processes in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have implicated the role of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) in mediating these processes. In astrocytes, oligomeric Aβ induces the assembly of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complexes resulting in its activation to produce anionic superoxide. Aβ also promotes production of pro-inflammatory factors in astrocytes. Since low energy laser has previously been reported to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation in biological systems, the objective of this study was to examine whether this type of laser light was able to abrogate the oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by Aβ. Primary rat astrocytes were exposed to Helium-Neon laser (λ=632.8 nm), followed by the treatment with oligomeric Aβ. Primary rat astrocytes were used to measure Aβ-induced production of superoxide anions using fluorescence microscopy of dihydroethidium (DHE), assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits by the colocalization between the cytosolic p47(phox) subunit and the membrane gp91(phox) subunit using fluorescent confocal microscopy, phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) cPLA(2) and expressions of pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) using Western blot Analysis. Our data showed that laser light at 632.8 nm suppressed Aβ-induced superoxide production, colocalization between NADPH oxidase gp91(phox) and p47(phox) subunits, phosphorylation of cPLA(2,) and the expressions of IL-1β and iNOS in primary astrocytes. We demonstrated for the first time that 632.8 nm laser was capable of suppressing cellular pathways of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses critical in the pathogenesis in AD. This study should prove to provide the groundwork for further investigations for the potential use of laser therapy as a treatment for AD. PMID:20884337

  16. Identification of a cell-penetrating peptide domain from human beta-defensin 3 and characterization of its anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jue Yeon; Suh, Jin Sook; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chong Pyoung

    2015-01-01

    Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are crucial factors of intrinsic immunity that function in the immunologic response to a variety of invading enveloped viruses, bacteria, and fungi. hBDs can cause membrane depolarization and cell lysis due to their highly cationic nature. These molecules participate in antimicrobial defenses and the control of adaptive and innate immunity in every mammalian species and are produced by various cell types. The C-terminal 15-mer peptide within hBD3, designated as hBD3-3, was selected for study due to its cell- and skin-penetrating activity, which can induce anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. hBD3-3 penetrated both the outer membrane of the cells and mouse skin within a short treatment period. Two other peptide fragments showed poorer penetration activity compared to hBD3-3. hBD3-3 inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, and secretory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, hBD3-3 reduced the interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a lung inflammation model. Further investigation also revealed that hBD3-3 downregulated nuclear factor kappa B-dependent inflammation by directly suppressing the degradation of phosphorylated-IκBα and by downregulating active nuclear factor kappa B p65. Our findings indicate that hBD3-3 may be conjugated with drugs of interest to ensure their proper translocation to sites, such as the cytoplasm or nucleus, as hBD3-3 has the ability to be used as a carrier, and suggest a potential approach to effectively treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:26347021

  17. The anti-inflammatory peptide Ac-SDKP is released from thymosin-β4 by renal meprin-α and prolyl oligopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin; Nakagawa, Pablo; Janic, Branislava; Romero, Cesar A; Worou, Morel E; Monu, Sumit R; Peterson, Edward L; Shaw, Jiajiu; Valeriote, Frederick; Ongeri, Elimelda M; Niyitegeka, Jean-Marie V; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; Carretero, Oscar A

    2016-05-15

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a natural tetrapeptide with anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties. Previously, we have shown that prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is involved in the Ac-SDKP release from thymosin-β4 (Tβ4). However, POP can only hydrolyze peptides shorter than 30 amino acids, and Tβ4 is 43 amino acids long. This indicates that before POP hydrolysis takes place, Tβ4 is hydrolyzed by another peptidase that releases NH2-terminal intermediate peptide(s) with fewer than 30 amino acids. Our peptidase database search pointed out meprin-α metalloprotease as a potential candidate. Therefore, we hypothesized that, prior to POP hydrolysis, Tβ4 is hydrolyzed by meprin-α. In vitro, we found that the incubation of Tβ4 with both meprin-α and POP released Ac-SDKP, whereas no Ac-SDKP was released when Tβ4 was incubated with either meprin-α or POP alone. Incubation of Tβ4 with rat kidney homogenates significantly released Ac-SDKP, which was blocked by the meprin-α inhibitor actinonin. In addition, kidneys from meprin-α knockout (KO) mice showed significantly lower basal Ac-SDKP amount, compared with wild-type mice. Kidney homogenates from meprin-α KO mice failed to release Ac-SDKP from Tβ4. In vivo, we observed that rats treated with the ACE inhibitor captopril increased plasma concentrations of Ac-SDKP, which was inhibited by the coadministration of actinonin (vehicle, 3.1 ± 0.2 nmol/l; captopril, 15.1 ± 0.7 nmol/l; captopril + actinonin, 6.1 ± 0.3 nmol/l; P < 0.005). Similar results were obtained with urinary Ac-SDKP after actinonin treatment. We conclude that release of Ac-SDKP from Tβ4 is mediated by successive hydrolysis involving meprin-α and POP.

  18. Generation of the First TCR Transgenic Mouse with CD4(+) T Cells Recognizing an Anti-inflammatory Regulatory T Cell-Inducing Hsp70 Peptide.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Manon A A; van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; van Kooten, Peter J S; Hoek, Aad; van der Zee, Ruurd; van Eden, Willem; Broere, Femke

    2016-01-01

    Antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) directed at self-antigens are difficult to study since suitable specific tools to isolate and characterize these cells are lacking. A T cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic mouse would generate possibilities to study such -antigen-specific T cells. As was shown previously, immunization with the mycobacterial heat shock protein (Hsp) 70-derived peptide B29 and its mouse homologs mB29a and mB29b induced anti-inflammatory responses. Furthermore, B29 induced antigen--specific Tregs in vivo. To study mB29b-specific Tregs, we isolated the TCR from T cell hybridomas generated against mB29b and produced a TCR transgenic mouse that expresses a MHC-class II restricted mB29b-specific TCR. These TCR transgenic CD4(+) T cells were found to cross-react with the B29 epitope as identified with peptide-induced proliferation and IL-2 production. Thus, we have successfully generated a novel mouse model with antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that recognize self and bacterial Hsp 70-derived peptides. With this novel mouse model, it will be possible to study primary antigen-specific T cells with specificity for a regulatory Hsp70 T cell epitope. This will enable the isolation and characterization CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs with a proven specificity. This will provide useful knowledge of the induction, activation, and mode of action of Hsp70-specific Tregs, for instance, during experimental arthritis. PMID:27014269

  19. Monocytes and neutrophils from tuberculosis patients are insensitive to anti-inflammatory effects triggered by the prototypic formyl peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)

    PubMed Central

    BEIGIER-BOMPADRE, M; ALEMÁN, M; BARRIONUEVO, P; FRANCO, M C; RUBEL, C J; SASIAIN, M Del C; PALERMO, M S; ABBATE, E; ISTURIZ, M A

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis where formyl peptides, which are cleavage products of bacterial and mitochondrial proteins, are present. In this study, we demonstrated that interferon gamma (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 induced the overexpression of the receptor for the Fc portion of IgG I (FcγRI) in monocytes from tuberculosis (TB) patients, showing that these cells respond to IFN-γ and IL-10 signals. We also demonstrated that lower doses of IL-10 render monocytes from TB patients less responsive to higher doses of the cytokine. Although the prototypic formyl peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) is a well-known proinflammatory agonist, we have demonstrated previously that preincubation of monocytes with FMLP inhibited the up-regulation of FcγRI induced by IFN-γ or IL-10. This effect was not observed in monocytes from TB patientes. FMLP also induced the down-regulation of the expression of FcγRI in monocytes that had been activated already with IFN-γ. However, this effect of FMLP was not observed in monocytes from TB patients and supernatants from monocytes obtained from these patients were incapable of inducing the down-regulation of FcγRI. In contrast to normal donors, supernatants from FMLP-treated neutrophils from TB patients did not modify the basal level of expression of FcγRI in monocytes from normal donors. In conclusion, in this study we demonstrated the existence of two novel mechanisms that may contribute to the pathological effects generated by M. tuberculosis: the enhancement of FcγRI in response to IFN-γ and IL-10, and the unresponsiveness to the anti-inflammatory effects induced by formyl peptides. PMID:12869034

  20. Generation of the First TCR Transgenic Mouse with CD4+ T Cells Recognizing an Anti-inflammatory Regulatory T Cell-Inducing Hsp70 Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Manon A. A.; van Herwijnen, Martijn J. C.; van Kooten, Peter J. S.; Hoek, Aad; van der Zee, Ruurd; van Eden, Willem; Broere, Femke

    2016-01-01

    Antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) directed at self-antigens are difficult to study since suitable specific tools to isolate and characterize these cells are lacking. A T cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic mouse would generate possibilities to study such ­antigen-specific T cells. As was shown previously, immunization with the mycobacterial heat shock protein (Hsp) 70-derived peptide B29 and its mouse homologs mB29a and mB29b induced anti-inflammatory responses. Furthermore, B29 induced antigen-­specific Tregs in vivo. To study mB29b-specific Tregs, we isolated the TCR from T cell hybridomas generated against mB29b and produced a TCR transgenic mouse that expresses a MHC-class II restricted mB29b-specific TCR. These TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells were found to cross-react with the B29 epitope as identified with peptide-induced proliferation and IL-2 production. Thus, we have successfully generated a novel mouse model with antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that recognize self and bacterial Hsp 70-derived peptides. With this novel mouse model, it will be possible to study primary antigen-specific T cells with specificity for a regulatory Hsp70 T cell epitope. This will enable the isolation and characterization CD4+CD25+ Tregs with a proven specificity. This will provide useful knowledge of the induction, activation, and mode of action of Hsp70-specific Tregs, for instance, during experimental arthritis. PMID:27014269

  1. Genomic Analysis of Detoxification Supergene Families in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. The recently published An. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Analysis of the An. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 31 glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and 50 choline/carboxylesterases (CCEs). The gene number was similar to that in An. gambiae, but represented a decrease of 29% and 42% compared with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The considerable contraction in gene number in Anopheles mosquitoes mainly occurred in two detoxification supergene families, P450s and CCEs. The available An. sinensis transcriptome was also re-analyzed to further identify key resistance-associated detoxification genes. Among 174 detoxification genes, 124 (71%) were detected. Several candidate genes overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) were identified as belonging to the CYP4 or CYP6 family of P450s and the Delta GST class. These generated data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated genes of An. sinensis at the molecular level. PMID:26588704

  2. The Overlapping Roles of Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement in Recruitment and Activation of Tumor-Associated Inflammatory Cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rayahi, Izzat A. M.; Sanyi, Raghad H. H.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a group of small (6–100 amino acids), biologically active molecules, which are produced by plants, mammals, and microorganisms (1). An important element of the innate immune response, AMP, possesses potent antibiotic, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Furthermore, AMP may be involved in a number of other processes such as angiogenesis and modulation of the immune response such as stimulation of chemokines and chemotaxis of leukocytes. AMPs have been proposed as alternative therapies for infectious diseases. AMP may also exert cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. Further understanding of the biological function of these peptides during tumor development and progression may aid in the development of novel anti-tumor therapies with refined application of innate molecules. AMP and complement have distinct roles to play in shaping the microenvironment (Table 1). Components of the complement system are integral contributors in responding to infection and sterile inflammation. Moreover, complement plays a role in the trafficking of cells in the tumor microenvironment, and thereby possibly in the immune response to cancer. This article will try to outline characteristics of AMP and complement in mobilization and recruitment of cells in tumor microenvironment. PMID:25657649

  3. Amelioration of Cardiac Function and Activation of Anti-Inflammatory Vasoactive Peptides Expression in the Rat Myocardium by Low Level Laser Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manchini, Martha Trindade; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Feliciano, Regiane dos Santos; Santana, Eduardo Tadeu; Antônio, Ednei Luis; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo; Montemor, Jairo; Crajoinas, Renato Oliveira; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Silva, José Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used as an anti-inflammatory treatment in several disease conditions, even when inflammation is a secondary consequence, such as in myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanism by which LLLT is able to protect the remaining myocardium remains unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that LLLT reduces inflammation after acute MI in female rats and ameliorates cardiac function. The potential participation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) and Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS) vasoactive peptides was also evaluated. LLLT treatment effectively reduced MI size, attenuated the systolic dysfunction after MI, and decreased the myocardial mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in comparison to the non-irradiated rat tissue. In addition, LLLT treatment increased protein and mRNA levels of the Mas receptor, the mRNA expression of kinin B2 receptors and the circulating levels of plasma kallikrein compared to non-treated post-MI rats. On the other hand, the kinin B1 receptor mRNA expression decreased after LLLT. No significant changes were found in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the myocardial remote area between laser-irradiated and non-irradiated post-MI rats. Capillaries density also remained similar between these two experimental groups. The mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was increased three days after MI, however, this effect was blunted by LLLT. Moreover, endothelial NOS mRNA content increased after LLLT. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) concentration was increased three days after MI in non-treated rats and increased even further by LLLT treatment. Our data suggest that LLLT diminishes the acute inflammation in the myocardium, reduces infarct size and attenuates left ventricle dysfunction post-MI and increases vasoactive peptides expression and nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:24991808

  4. Amelioration of cardiac function and activation of anti-inflammatory vasoactive peptides expression in the rat myocardium by low level laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Manchini, Martha Trindade; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Feliciano, Regiane dos Santos; Santana, Eduardo Tadeu; Antônio, Ednei Luis; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo; Montemor, Jairo; Crajoinas, Renato Oliveira; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Silva, José Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used as an anti-inflammatory treatment in several disease conditions, even when inflammation is a secondary consequence, such as in myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanism by which LLLT is able to protect the remaining myocardium remains unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that LLLT reduces inflammation after acute MI in female rats and ameliorates cardiac function. The potential participation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) and Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS) vasoactive peptides was also evaluated. LLLT treatment effectively reduced MI size, attenuated the systolic dysfunction after MI, and decreased the myocardial mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in comparison to the non-irradiated rat tissue. In addition, LLLT treatment increased protein and mRNA levels of the Mas receptor, the mRNA expression of kinin B2 receptors and the circulating levels of plasma kallikrein compared to non-treated post-MI rats. On the other hand, the kinin B1 receptor mRNA expression decreased after LLLT. No significant changes were found in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the myocardial remote area between laser-irradiated and non-irradiated post-MI rats. Capillaries density also remained similar between these two experimental groups. The mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was increased three days after MI, however, this effect was blunted by LLLT. Moreover, endothelial NOS mRNA content increased after LLLT. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) concentration was increased three days after MI in non-treated rats and increased even further by LLLT treatment. Our data suggest that LLLT diminishes the acute inflammation in the myocardium, reduces infarct size and attenuates left ventricle dysfunction post-MI and increases vasoactive peptides expression and nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:24991808

  5. Mapping the Interaction of B Cell Leukemia 3 (BCL-3) and Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) p50 Identifies a BCL-3-mimetic Anti-inflammatory Peptide.

    PubMed

    Collins, Patricia E; Grassia, Gianluca; Colleran, Amy; Kiely, Patrick A; Ialenti, Armando; Maffia, Pasquale; Carmody, Ruaidhrí J

    2015-06-19

    The NF-κB transcriptional response is tightly regulated by a number of processes including the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and subsequent proteasomal degradation of NF-κB subunits. The IκB family protein BCL-3 stabilizes a NF-κB p50 homodimer·DNA complex through inhibition of p50 ubiquitination. This complex inhibits the binding of the transcriptionally active NF-κB subunits p65 and c-Rel on the promoters of NF-κB target genes and functions to suppress inflammatory gene expression. We have previously shown that the direct interaction between p50 and BCL-3 is required for BCL-3-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory gene expression. In this study we have used immobilized peptide array technology to define regions of BCl-3 that mediate interaction with p50 homodimers. Our data show that BCL-3 makes extensive contacts with p50 homodimers and in particular with ankyrin repeats (ANK) 1, 6, and 7, and the N-terminal region of Bcl-3. Using these data we have designed a BCL-3 mimetic peptide based on a region of the ANK1 of BCL-3 that interacts with p50 and shares low sequence similarity with other IκB proteins. When fused to a cargo carrying peptide sequence this BCL-3-derived peptide, but not a mutated peptide, inhibited Toll-like receptor-induced cytokine expression in vitro. The BCL-3 mimetic peptide was also effective in preventing inflammation in vivo in the carrageenan-induced paw edema mouse model. This study demonstrates that therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the functional activity of BCL-3 may be effective in the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  6. Sulphide and supergene nonsulphide Zn-Pb deposits of the southern Kootenay Arc, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, S.; Simandl, G. J.

    2009-05-01

    The Kootenay Arc (KA) hosts a large number of carbonate-hosted base metal (Zn-Pb) deposits. These deposits occur mainly within the dolomitized limestone of the Lower Cambrian Badshot Formation (or its equivalent the Reeves Member of the Laib Formation), and the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Nelway Formation. They range in size from 6-10 million tonnes with average grades of 3-4% Zn, 1-2% Pb, 0.4% Cd and traces of Ag. The deposits, their dolomitic envelopes, and the limestone hostrock lie within secondary isoclinal folds along the limbs of regional anticlinal structures. Most of the deposits are stratabound lenticular concentrations of sphalerite, galena, pyrite, local pyrrhotite and rare arsenopyrite in isoclinally folded dolomitized or silicified carbonate layers. Brecciated zones are common within the more massive sulphide mineralization. Several deposits are past producers (e.g., Reeves MacDonald, Jersey, and HB) and others are advanced prospects. They are interpreted as metamorphosed MVT- or Irish-type Pb-Zn deposits. The main concentrations of these deposits define the Salmo and Duncan camps. The near-surface portions of these carbonate-hosted sulphide deposits are weathered and strongly oxidized (supergene environment). They consist of extensive Zn- and Pb-bearing iron oxide gossans and base metal-bearing nonsulphide mineralization. The most common nonsulphide minerals are goethite, hematite, hemimorphite, smithsonite, cerussite, anglesite, and hydrozincite. The Reeves MacDonald, Jersey-Emerald, Lomond, and Oxide group of deposits are the best examples of carbonate-hosted nonsulphide base metal (CHNSBM) deposits in the KA. The shape, mineralogy and paragenesis of the known CHNSBM deposits are indicative of direct-replacement of sulphides by nonsulphide base metal-bearing minerals. Zn-rich (low Pb) CHNSBM deposits commonly form by interaction of Zn-rich fluids with carbonate wallrock (replacement process). Such deposits (consisting of "white ore") may

  7. Novel Nuclear Factor-KappaB Targeting Peptide Suppresses β-Amyloid Induced Inflammatory and Apoptotic Responses in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Bayon, Baindu; Chopra, Nipun; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2016-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κβ) is associated with both neuronal survival and increased vulnerability to apoptosis. The mechanisms underlying these dichotomous effects are attributed to the composition of NF-κΒ dimers. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), β-amyloid (Aβ) and other aggregates upregulate activation of p65:p50 dimers in CNS cells and enhance transactivation of pathological mediators that cause neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Hence selective targeting of activated p65 is an attractive therapeutic strategy for AD. Here we report the design, structural and functional characterization of peptide analogs of a p65 interacting protein, the glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper (GILZ). By virtue of binding the transactivation domain of p65 exposed after release from the inhibitory IκΒ proteins in activated cells, the GILZ analogs can act as highly selective inhibitors of activated p65 with minimal potential for off-target effects. PMID:27764084

  8. Differential induction of innate defense antimicrobial peptides in primary nasal epithelial cells upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines, Th17 cytokines or bacterial conditioned medium from Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Burgey, Christine; Kern, Winfried V; Römer, Winfried; Rieg, Siegbert

    2016-01-01

    To date it is incompletely understood why half of the human population is intrinsically resistant to Staphylococcus aureus colonization whereas the other half is intermittently or permanently colonized. Nasal colonization represents the primary niche for S. aureus. We therefore investigated whether primary nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) express antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) upon stimulation by inflammatory cytokines or bacterial conditioned medium (BCM) of different colonizing and invasive staphylococci. Stimulation with classical cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ) potently induced hBD-3 and RNase7 in HNEC. Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22) yielded comparably weak hBD-3 and RNase7 induction and no synergistic effects with classical cytokines. BCM of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates moderately induced hBD3 and RNase7 mRNA expression without significant differences when comparing colonizing vs. invasive isolates. Our results indicate that HNEC contribute to the innate defense by secretion of an AMP-containing chemical defense shield along the nasal mucosa i.e. within the primary colonization niche of S. aureus. Further studies are needed to investigate whether a deficient AMP expression in the nasal mucosa may be related to different S. aureus carrier states. AMPs or AMP-inducing agents may be promising candidates for future topical decolonization regimens that aim to prevent invasive S. aureus infections.

  9. Homeostatic regulation of T cell trafficking by a B cell-derived peptide is impaired in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Chimen, Myriam; McGettrick, Helen M; Apta, Bonita; Kuravi, Sahithi J; Yates, Clara M; Kennedy, Amy; Odedra, Arjun; Alassiri, Mohammed; Harrison, Matthew; Martin, Ashley; Barone, Francesca; Nayar, Saba; Hitchcock, Jessica R; Cunningham, Adam F; Raza, Karim; Filer, Andrew; Copland, David A; Dick, Andrew D; Robinson, Joseph; Kalia, Neena; Walker, Lucy S K; Buckley, Christopher D; Nash, Gerard B; Narendran, Parth; Rainger, G Ed

    2015-05-01

    During an inflammatory response, lymphocyte recruitment into tissue must be tightly controlled because dysregulated trafficking contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic disease. Here we show that during inflammation and in response to adiponectin, B cells tonically inhibit T cell trafficking by secreting a peptide (PEPITEM) proteolytically derived from 14.3.3 zeta delta (14.3.3.ζδ) protein. PEPITEM binds cadherin-15 on endothelial cells, promoting synthesis and release of sphingosine-1 phosphate, which inhibits trafficking of T cells without affecting recruitment of other leukocytes. Expression of adiponectin receptors on B cells and adiponectin-induced PEPITEM secretion wanes with age, implying immune senescence of the pathway. Additionally, these changes are evident in individuals with type 1 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, and circulating PEPITEM in patient serum is reduced compared to that of healthy age-matched donors. In both diseases, tonic inhibition of T cell trafficking across inflamed endothelium is lost. Control of patient T cell trafficking is re-established by treatment with exogenous PEPITEM. Moreover, in animal models of peritonitis, hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, Salmonella infection, uveitis and Sjögren's syndrome, PEPITEM reduced T cell recruitment into inflamed tissues. PMID:25894827

  10. Increased mRNA expression of selected antimicrobial peptides around ovulation and during inflammatory processes in the bovine endometrium postpartum.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M; Peter, S; Gärtner, M A; Michel, G; Jung, M; Einspanier, R; Gabler, C

    2016-11-01

    In the uterus, the first pathogen confrontations take place at the luminal endometrial epithelium. Therefore, it is required that these cells have the potential to recognize and respond to a bacterial infection. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP), part of the innate immune system in addition to cytokines, are principal effector molecules of mucosal immunity against pathogens. One important family of AMP that can permeabilize bacterial membranes is the beta-defensin (DEFB) family, which includes the following members: DEFB1, DEFB4A, and DEFB5, lingual AMP, and tracheal AMP. The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein is also a cationic AMP that results in the death of bacteria. Another AMP family is the S100 calcium-binding protein (S100A) family including the following members: S100A8, S100A9, S100A11, and S100A12. These AMP exert their antimicrobial action through chelation of several ions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mRNA expression patterns of selected AMP in bovine endometrial cells collected (1) at different stages of the estrous cycle (postovulatory, early-to-mid luteal, late luteal, and pre-ovulatory phase); (2) during the puerperium depending on uterine health status (healthy, subclinical, or clinical endometritis) starting on Day 24 to 30 postpartum for 3 weeks on a weekly basis; and (3) in vitro after co-culturing with Bacillus pumilus at three different multiplicities of infection (MOI 1, 5, and 10) up to 6 hours. The results reported that the mRNA expression of all candidate AMP, except DEFB1, S100A8, and S100A9, was estrous cycle dependent. In particular, around the time of ovulation, the transcription level of most AMP was higher (P < 0.05) compared with the luteal phase. Almost all candidate AMP mRNA expression was dependent on uterine health status, with a higher transcription level (P < 0.05) in inflamed endometrial tissues, especially during the late stage of the puerperium (Day 45-51 postpartum). Members of the DEFB family

  11. Oxidative weathering chemical migration under variably saturated conditions and supergene copper enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1999-04-01

    Transport of oxygen gas from the land surface through an unsaturated zone has a strong influence on oxidative weathering processes. Oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), one of the most common naturally occurring minerals, is the primary source of acid drainage from mines and waste rock piles. Here we present a detailed numerical model of supergene copper enrichment that involves the oxidative weathering of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}), and acidification that causes mobilization of metals in the unsaturated zone, with subsequent formation of enriched ore deposits of chalcocite (CuS) and covellite (Cu{sub 2}S) in the reducing conditions below the water table. We examine and identify some significant conceptual and computational issues regarding the oxidative weathering processes through the modeling tool. The dissolution of gaseous oxygen induced by the oxidation reduces oxygen partial pressure, as well as the total pressure of the gas phase. As a result, the gas flow is modified, then the liquid phase flow. Results indicate that this reaction effect on the fluid flow may not be important under ambient conditions, and gas diffusion can be a more important mechanism for oxygen supply than gas or liquid advection. Acidification, mobilization of metals, and alteration of primary minerals mostly take place in unsaturated zone (oxidizing), while precipitation of secondary minerals mainly occurs in saturated zone (reducing). The water table may be considered as an interface between oxidizing and reducing zones. Moving water table due to change of infiltration results in moving oxidizing zone and redistributing aqueous chemical constitutes and secondary mineral deposits. The oxidative weathering processes are difficult to model numerically, because concentrations of redox sensitive chemical species such as O{sub 2}(aq), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HS{sup -} may change over tens of orders of magnitude between oxidizing and reducing

  12. Mineralogy and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of supergene Mn-oxides in the Dongxiangqiao deposit, Hunan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jian-Wei

    2016-09-01

    The Dongxiangqiao Mn deposit in Hunan Province is one of numerous supergene Mn-oxide deposits in central South China. This deposit is derived from chemical weathering of Permian Mn-rich shales and limestones. Mn-oxide samples from the Dongxiangqiao deposit consist mainly of pyrolusite, lithiophorite, and cryptomelane, with minor amounts of hollandite and nsutite. Cobalt and Ni are enriched in lithiophorite and cryptomelane-hollandite. Our studies suggest that Co occurs mainly in the structural and adsorption sites of lithiophorite. Cobalt in lithiophorite accounts for ~80 % of the bulk Mn-oxide ores, thus it can be comprehensively utilized when lithiophorite has been separated by a suitable physical beneficiation process. Four cryptomelane-dominated grains from the saprolite zone yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages ranging from 10.3 ± 0.3 to 4.19 ± 0.08 Ma (2σ). This indicates that intense enrichment of supergene Mn-oxides has prevailed at least in the late Miocene and persisted into the Pliocene at Dongxiangqiao. When combined sedimentalogical and thermochronoloical data, our dating results suggest that central South China has a relatively rapid surface uplift rate.

  13. Genesis of superimposed hypogene and supergene Fe orebodies in BIF at the Madoonga deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duuring, Paul; Hagemann, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    The Madoonga iron ore body hosted by banded iron formation (BIF) in the Weld Range greenstone belt of Western Australia is a blend of four genetically and compositionally distinct types of high-grade (>55 wt% Fe) iron ore that includes: (1) hypogene magnetite-talc veins, (2) hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins, (3) supergene goethite-hematite, and (4) supergene-modified, goethite-hematite-rich detrital ores. The spatial coincidence of these different ore types is a major factor controlling the overall size of the Madoonga ore body, but results in a compositionally heterogeneous ore deposit. Hypogene magnetite-talc veins that are up to 3 m thick and 50 m long formed within mylonite and shear zones located along the limbs of isoclinal, recumbent F1 folds. Relative to least-altered BIF, the magnetite-talc veins are enriched in Fe2O3(total), P2O5, MgO, Sc, Ga, Al2O3, Cl, and Zr; and depleted in SiO2 and MnO2. Mafic igneous countryrocks located within 10 m of the northern contact of the mineralised BIF display the replacement of primary igneous amphibole and plagioclase, and metamorphic chlorite by hypogene ferroan chlorite, talc, and magnetite. Later-forming, hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins and their associated alteration halos partly replace magnetite-talc veins in BIF and formed during, to shortly after, the F2-folding and tilting of the Weld Range tectono-stratigraphy. Supergene goethite-hematite ore zones that are up to 150 m wide, 400 m long, and extend to depths of 300 m replace least-altered BIF and existing hypogene alteration zones. The supergene ore zones formed as a result of the circulation of surface oxidised fluids through late NNW- to NNE-trending, subvertical brittle faults. Flat-lying, supergene goethite-hematite-altered, detrital sediments are concentrated in a paleo-topographic depression along the southern side of the main ENE-trending ridge at Madoonga. Iron ore deposits of the Weld Range greenstone belt record remarkably similar

  14. Effects of Spinally Administered Bifunctional Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Peptide Receptor/μ-Opioid Receptor Ligands in Mouse Models of Neuropathic and Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sukhtankar, Devki D.; Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Husbands, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (NOP) agonists produce antinociceptive effects in animal models after spinal administration and potentiate μ-opioid receptor (MOP)-mediated antinociception. This study determined the antinociceptive effects of spinally administered bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands and the antinociceptive functions of spinal NOP and MOP receptors in mice. Antinociceptive effects of bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands BU08028 [(2S)-2-[(5R,6R,7R,14S)-N-cyclopropylmethyl-4,5-epoxy-6,14-ethano-3-hydroxy-6-methoxymorphinan-7-yl]-3,3-dimethylpentan-2-ol] and SR16435 [1-(1-(2,3,3α,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl)piperidin-4-yl)-indolin-2-one] were pharmacologically compared with the putative bifunctional ligand buprenorphine, selective NOP agonist SCH221510 [3-endo-8-[bis(2-methylphenyl)methyl]-3-phenyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol] and selective MOP agonist morphine in neuropathic and inflammatory pain models. Additionally, the degree of tolerance development to the antiallodynic effects of SR16435 and buprenorphine were determined after repeated intrathecal administration. Our data indicated that BU08028 and SR16435 were more potent than morphine and SCH221510 in attenuating nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia and inflammation-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Coadministration of receptor-selective antagonists further revealed that both NOP and MOP in the spinal cord mediated the antiallodynic effects of BU08028 and SR16435, but intrathecal buprenorphine-induced antiallodynic effects were primarily mediated by MOP. Repeated intrathecal administration of SR16435 resulted in reduced and slower development of tolerance to its antiallodynic effects compared with buprenorphine. In conclusion, both NOP and MOP receptors in the spinal cord independently drive antinociception in mice. Spinally administered bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands not only can effectively attenuate neuropathic and inflammatory pain, but also have higher antinociceptive potency with reduced

  15. Persistency-field Eh-pH diagrams for sulfides and their application to supergene oxidation and enrichment of sulfide ore bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, M.

    1992-01-01

    At temperatures prevailing near the Earth's surface, metastable co-existence of chemical substances is common because chemical reactions that would directly lead to the attainment of thermody-namically most stable equilibria are often blocked by high activation energy barriers. The persistency of a metastable assemblage is then governed by alternative reaction paths that provide lower activation energy barriers. Comparison of observed mineral assemblages in the supergene oxidized and enriched sulfide ores with corresponding stability Eh-pH diagrams reveals that the supergene assemblages are mostly metastable due primarily to the persistency of sulfide minerals beyond stability boundaries. A new set of diagrams called persistency-field Eh-pH diagrams has been constructed for binary metal sulfides on the basis of electrochemical and other experimental data. Each diagram delineates the persistency field, which is a combined field of thermodynamic stability and reaction path-controlled metastability, for a specific sulfide mineral. When applied to the supergene assemblages, these new diagrams show much better correspondence to the field observations. Although there may still be room for further refinement, the new diagrams appear to provide a strong visual aid to the understanding of the behavior of sulfide minerals in the supergene conditions. ?? 1992.

  16. Acid activation of Trpv1 leads to an up-regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons via the CaMK-CREB cascade: a potential mechanism of inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Masako; Hata, Kenji; Nagayama, Tomotaka; Sakurai, Teruhisa; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroki; Hiraga, Toru; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2010-08-01

    Increased production of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory neurons is implicated in inflammatory pain. The inflammatory site is acidic due to proton release from infiltrating inflammatory cells. Acid activation of peripheral nociceptors relays pain signals to the CNS. Here, we examined whether acid activated the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (Trpv1), a widely recognized acid-sensing nociceptor and subsequently increased CGRP expression. Chemically induced inflammation was associated with thermal hyperalgesia and increased CGRP expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. In organ cultures of DRG, acid (pH 5.5) elevated CGRP expression and the selective Trpv1 antagonist 5'-Iodoresiniferatoxin decreased it. Trpv1-deficient DRG showed reduced CGRP increase by acid. Of note, many of CGRP/Trpv1-positive DRG neurons exhibited the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a nociceptive transcription factor. Knockdown of CREB by small interfering RNA or a dominant-negative form of CREB diminished acid-elevated CGRP expression. Acid elevated the transcriptional activity of CREB, which in turn stimulated CGRP gene promoter activity. These effects were inhibited by a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) inhibitor KN-93. In conclusion, our results suggest that inflammatory acidic environments activate Trpv1, leading to an up-regulation of CGRP expression via CaMK-CREB cascade, a series of events that may be associated with inflammatory pain.

  17. Hemoglobin and B-type natriuretic peptide preoperative values but not inflammatory markers, are associated with postoperative morbidity in cardiac surgery: a prospective cohort analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Risk stratification in cardiac surgery significantly impacts outcome. This study seeks to define whether there is an independent association between the preoperative serum level of hemoglobin (Hb), leukocyte count (LEUCO), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. Methods Prospective, analytic cohort study, with 554 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a tertiary cardiovascular hospital and followed up for 12 months. The cohort was distributed according to preoperative values of Hb, LEUCO, hsCRP, and BNP in independent quintiles for each of these variables. Results After adjustment for all covariates, a significant association was found between elevated preoperative BNP and the occurrence of low postoperative cardiac output (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.53–7.80, p = 0.003) or postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.45–10.38). For the combined outcome (death/acute coronary syndrome/rehospitalization within 12 months), we observed an OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.00–3.74). An interaction was found between BNP level and the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. The OR for non-diabetics was 1.26 (95% CI 0.61–2.60) and for diabetics was 18.82 (95% CI 16.2–20.5). Preoperative Hb was also significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of postoperative low cardiac output (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13–0.81, p = 0.016). Both Hb and BNP were significantly associated with the lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays and the number of transfused red blood cells (p < 0.002). Inflammatory markers, although associated with adverse outcomes, lost statistical significance when adjusted for covariates. Conclusions High preoperative BNP or low Hb shows an association of independent risk with postoperative outcomes, and their measurement could help to stratify surgical risk. The ability to predict the onset of atrial fibrillation or

  18. Extreme 34S depletions in ZnS at the Mike gold deposit, Carlin Trend, Nevada: Evidence for bacteriogenic supergene sphalerite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawden, T.M.; Einaudi, M.T.; Bostick, B.C.; Meibom, A.; Wooden, J.; Norby, J.W.; Orobona, M.J.T.; Chamberlain, C.P.

    2003-01-01

    We identified submicrometer-sized framboidal sphalerite (ZnS) below the base of supergene oxidation in a Carlin-type gold deposit of Eocene age in Nevada, United States, where the framboidal sphalerite forms a blanket-like body containing >400,000 metric tons of zinc. Framboidal sphalerite <0.1 ??m in diameter, formed in the early Miocene, ranges from <0.1 to 0.35 mol% FeS; the ??34S values range from -25??? to -70???, the lowest values measured in a marine or terrestrial environment. These S isotope data demonstrate the involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria and provide the first documentation that sphalerite can form significant supergene sulfide-enrichment blankets.

  19. The innate defense antimicrobial peptides hBD3 and RNase7 are induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by classical inflammatory cytokines but not Th17 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Burgey, Christine; Kern, Winfried V; Römer, Winfried; Sakinc, Türkan; Rieg, Siegbert

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional effector molecules of innate immunity. In this study we investigated whether endothelial cells actively contribute to innate defense mechanisms by expression of antimicrobial peptides. We therefore stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with inflammatory cytokines, Th17 cytokines, heat-inactivated bacteria, bacterial conditioned medium (BCM) of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sanguinis, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Stimulation with single cytokines induced discrete expression of human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) by IFN-γ or IL-1β and of ribonuclease 7 (RNase7) by TNF-α without any effects on LL-37 gene expression. Stronger hBD3 and RNase7 induction was observed after combined stimulation with IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ and was confirmed by high hBD3 and RNase7 peptide levels in cell culture supernatants. In contrast, Th17 cytokines or stimulation with LTA did not result in AMP production. Moreover, only BCM of an invasive S. aureus bacteremia isolate induced hBD3 in HUVEC. We conclude that endothelial cells actively contribute to prevent dissemination of pathogens at the blood-tissue-barrier by production of AMPs that exhibit microbicidal and immunomodulatory functions. Further investigations should focus on tissue-specific AMP induction in different endothelial cell types, on pathogen-specific induction patterns and potentially involved pattern-recognition receptors of endothelial cells.

  20. Liquid Crystalline Nanodispersions Functionalized with Cell-Penetrating Peptides for Topical Delivery of Short-Interfering RNAs: A Proposal for Silencing a Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine in Cutaneous Diseases.

    PubMed

    Petrilli, R; Eloy, J O; Praça, F S G; Del Ciampo, J O; Fantini, M A C; Fonseca, M J V; Bentley, M V L B

    2016-05-01

    Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a potential strategy for the treatment of cutaneous diseases. In this context, liquid crystalline nanoparticles functionalized with specific proteins and peptide-transduction domains (PTDs), which act as penetration enhancers, are a promising carrier for siRNA delivery through the skin. Herein, hexagonal phase liquid crystal nanoparticles based on monoolein (MO) and/or oleic acid (OA) containing (or lacking) the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) and the cationic lipid oleylamine (OAM) were functionalized with the membrane transduction peptides transcriptional activator (TAT) or penetratin (PNT). These nanoparticles were complexed with siRNA and characterized by particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, complexation efficiency and siRNA release. The formulations containing cationic agents presented positive zeta potentials, sizes on the nanometer scale, and complexed siRNAs at concentrations of 10 μM; these agents were successfully released in a heparin competition assay. Cell culture studies demonstrated that nanoparticles composed of MO:OA:PEI functionalized with TAT were the most efficient at transfecting L929 cells, and the uptake efficiency was enhanced by TAT peptide functionalization. Thereafter, the selected formulations were evaluated for in vivo skin irritation, penetration and in vivo efficacy using a chemically induced inflammatory animal model. These nanoparticles did not irritate the skin and provided higher siRNA penetration and delivery into the skin than control formulations. Additionally, efficacy studies in the animal model showed that the association of TAT with the nanodispersion provided higher suppression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Thus, the development of liquid crystalline nanodispersions containing TAT may lead to improved topical siRNA delivery for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27305826

  1. Antinociceptive effects of analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP), a neurotoxin from the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch, on formalin-induced inflammatory pain through a mitogen-activated protein kinases-dependent mechanism in mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qinghong; Ruan, Jiaping; Cai, Xueting; Lu, Wuguang; Ye, Juan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Cao, Junli; Cao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-nociceptive effect and the underlying mechanism of the analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP), a neurotoxin from the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. AGAP in doses of 0.2, 1 and 5 µg was injected intraplantarly (i.pl.) before formalin injection 10 min at the same site. The suppression by intraplantar injection of AGAP on formalin-induced spontaneous nociceptive behaviors was investigated. The results show that AGAP could dose-dependently inhibit formalin-induced two-phase spontaneous flinching response. To investigate the mechanism of action of treatment with AGAP in inflammatory pain, the expressions of peripheral and spinal phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (phospho-MAPKs) including p-p38, p-ERK and p-JNK were examined. We found that formalin increased the expressions of peripheral and spinal MAPKs, which were prevented by pre-intraplantar injection of AGAP in inflammation pain model in mice. AGAP could also decrease the expression of spinal Fos induced by formalin. Furthermore, combinations the lower doses of the inhibitors of MAPKs (U0126, SP600125, or SB203580 0.1 µg) with the lower dose of AGAP (0.2 µg), the results suggested that AGAP could potentiate the effects of the inhibitors of MAPKs on the inflammatory pain. The present results indicate that pre-intraplantar injection of AGAP prevents the inflammatory pain induced by formalin through a MAPKs-mediated mechanism in mice. PMID:24244296

  2. Distribution and assessment of Pb in the supergene environment of the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Yuan, Zijiao; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2014-08-01

    Coal mining area is highly subject to lead (Pb) pollution from coal mining activities. Several decades of coal mining and processing practices in dozens of coal mines in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA) have led to the accumulation of massive amounts of coal gangue, which piled in dumps. In order to investigate the impacts of coal gangue dumps on Pb level in the supergene media of the HCMA, a systematic sampling campaign comprising coal gangue, soil, wheat, and earthworm samples was conducted. The average Pb content in the coal mining area soil is 24 mg/kg, which is slightly higher than the associated coal gangues (23 mg/kg) and markedly higher than reference region soil (12.6 mg/kg). Soil in the HCMA present a slight to moderate Pb contamination, which might be related to the weathering and leaching of coal gangue dumps. Lateral distribution of Pb in HCMA soil differed among individual coal mines. The soil profile distribution of Pb depends on both natural and anthropogenic contributions. Average Pb content is higher in roots than in stems, leaves, and wheat husks, while the Pb level in seeds exceeded the maximum Pb allowance for foods (Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods of China, GB 2762-2012). Earthworms in the selected area are significantly enriched in Pb, suggesting higher bio-available Pb level in soil in the HCMA.

  3. The cell-penetrating peptide domain from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) has anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jue-Yeon; Seo, Yoo-Na; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Chung, Chong-Pyoung

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP sequence identified from HB-EGF has cell penetration activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP inhibits the NF-{kappa}B dependent inflammatory responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP directly blocks phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit. -- Abstract: A heparin-binding peptide (HBP) sequence from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was identified and was shown to exhibit cell penetration activity. This cell penetration induced an anti-inflammatory reaction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. HBP penetrated the cell membrane during the 10 min treatment and reduced the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines (TNF-{alpha} and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, HBP inhibited the LPS-induced upregulation of cytokines, including TNF-{alpha} and IL-6, and decreased the interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a lung inflammation model. HBP inhibited NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory responses by directly blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and by subsequently inhibiting the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, this novel HBP may be potentially useful candidate for anti-inflammatory treatments and can be combined with other drugs of interest to transport attached molecules into cells.

  4. Ac2-26 Mimetic Peptide of Annexin A1 Inhibits Local and Systemic Inflammatory Processes Induced by Bothrops moojeni Venom and the Lys-49 Phospholipase A2 in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, Carla Patrícia; Ullah, Anwar; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy; Gil, Cristiane Damas; Oliani, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is an endogenous glucocorticoid regulated protein that modulates anti-inflammatory process and its therapeutic potential has recently been recognized in a range of systemic inflammatory disorders. The effect of the N-terminal peptide Ac2-26 of AnxA1 on the toxic activities of Bothrops moojeni crude venom (CV) and its myotoxin II (MjTX-II) were evaluated using a peritonitis rat model. Peritonitis was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of either CV or MjTX-II, a Lys-49 phospholipase A2. Fifteen minutes after the injection, the rats were treated with either Ac2-26 or PBS. Four hours later, the CV and MjTX-II-induced peritonitis were characterized by neutrophilia (in the peritoneal exudate, blood and mesentery) and increased number of mesenteric degranulated mast cells and macrophages. At 24 hours post-injection, the local inflammatory response was attenuated in the CV-induced peritonitis while the MjTX-II group exhibited neutrophilia (peritoneal exudates and blood). Ac2-26 treatment prevented the influx of neutrophils in MjTX-II–induced peritonitis and diminished the proportion of mesenteric degranulated mast cells and macrophages in CV-induced peritonitis. Additionally, CV and MjTX-II promoted increased levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the peritoneal exudates which were significantly reduced after Ac2-26 treatment. At 4 and 24 hours, the endogenous expression of AnxA1 was upregulated in the mesenteric neutrophils (CV and MjTX-II groups) and mast cells (CV group). In the kidneys, CV and MjTX-II administrations were associated with an increased number of macrophages and morphological alterations in the juxtamedullary nephrons in proximal and distal tubules. Ac2-26 promoted significant recovery of the juxtamedullary structures, decreased the number of macrophages and diminished the AnxA1 in epithelial cells from distal tubules and renal capsules. Our results show that Ac2-26 treatment significantly attenuates local and systemic inflammatory

  5. Supergene destruction of a hydrothermal replacement alunite deposit at Big Rock Candy Mountain, Utah: Mineralogy, spectroscopic remote sensing, stable-isotope, and argon-age evidences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rye, R.O.; Rockwell, B.W.; Kunk, M.J.; Councell, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Big Rock Candy Mountain is a prominent center of variegated altered volcanic rocks in west-central Utah. It consists of the eroded remnants of a hypogene alunite deposit that, at ???21 Ma, replaced intermediate-composition lava flows. The alunite formed in steam-heated conditions above the upwelling limb of a convection cell that was one of at least six spaced at 3- to 4-km intervals around the margin of a monzonite stock. Big Rock Candy Mountain is horizontally zoned outward from an alunite core to respective kaolinite, dickite, and propylite envelopes. The altered rocks are also vertically zoned from a lower pyrite-propylite assemblage upward through assemblages successively dominated by hypogene alunite, jarosite, and hematite, to a flooded silica cap. This hydrothermal assemblage is undergoing natural destruction in a steep canyon downcut by the Sevier River in Marysvale Canyon. Integrated geological, mineralogical, spectroscopic remote sensing using AVIRIS data, Ar radiometric, and stable isotopic studies trace the hypogene origin and supergene destruction of the deposit and permit distinction of primary (hydrothermal) and secondary (weathering) processes. This destruction has led to the formation of widespread supergene gypsum in cross-cutting fractures and as surficial crusts, and to natrojarosite, that gives the mountain its buff coloration along ridges facing the canyon. A small spring, Lemonade Spring, with a pH of 2.6 and containing Ca, Mg, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Cl, and SO4, also occurs near the bottom of the canyon. The 40Ar/39 Ar age (21.32??0.07 Ma) of the alunite is similar to that for other replacement alunites at Marysvale. However, the age spectrum contains evidence of a 6.6-Ma thermal event that can be related to the tectonic activity responsible for the uplift that led to the downcutting of Big Rock Candy Mountain by the Sevier River. This ???6.6 Ma event also is present in the age spectrum of supergene natrojarosite forming today, and probably dates

  6. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar analysis of supergene jarosite and alunite: Implications to the paleoweathering history of the western USA and West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Vasconcelos, P.M.; Brimhall, G.H. ); Becker, T.A.; Renne, P.R. )

    1994-01-01

    Supergene alunite (KAl[sub 3](SO[sub 4])[sub 2](OH)[sub 6]) and jarosite (KFe[sub 3](SO[sub 4])[sub 2](OH)[sub 6]) are often precipitated during the oxidation of sulfide-bearing rocks by meteoric solutions. Dating of these phases by the [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar method allows timing of the progression of the oxidation front during chemical weathering. Fine-scale laser-heating [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar dating of hypogene alunite and supergene jarosites allows to precisely and accurately time hydrothermal alteration and subsequent supergene oxidation in Goldfield, Nevada. The results indicate that pervasive weathering occurred in the western USA during the Late Miocene ([approximately] 10 Ma ago). Similar application of this technique to the study of weathering and laterite formation in West Africa indicates that the last pervasive oxidation event recorded in the weathering profile in this area also occurred in the Miocene ([approximately] 13 Ma ago). The occurrence of a pervasive Mid to Late Miocene oxidation event recorded in these weathering profiles in the western USA and Africa, and also previously measured in Brazil and Chile, indicates that climatic conditions at that time were conducive to worldwide development of deep weathering sequences. Subsequent weathering processes have not been as pervasive as the late Miocene event, indicating a general climatic transition to cooler, drier climates in most of the areas studied. The results indicate that deep weathering profiles reflect past climatic conditions and may not be directly linked to the present climates.

  7. The status of supergenes in the 21st century: recombination suppression in Batesian mimicry and sex chromosomes and other complex adaptations.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    I review theoretical models for the evolution of supergenes in the cases of Batesian mimicry in butterflies, distylous plants and sex chromosomes. For each of these systems, I outline the genetic evidence that led to the proposal that they involve multiple genes that interact during 'complex adaptations', and at which the mutations involved are not unconditionally advantageous, but show advantages that trade-off against some disadvantages. I describe recent molecular genetic studies of these systems and questions they raise about the evolution of suppressed recombination. Nonrecombining regions of sex chromosomes have long been known, but it is not yet fully understood why recombination suppression repeatedly evolved in systems in distantly related taxa, but does not always evolve. Recent studies of distylous plants are tending to support the existence of recombination-suppressed genome regions, which may include modest numbers of genes and resemble recently evolved sex-linked regions. For Batesian mimicry, however, molecular genetic work in two butterfly species suggests a new supergene scenario, with a single gene mutating to produce initial adaptive phenotypes, perhaps followed by modifiers specifically refining and perfecting the new phenotype. PMID:27087840

  8. Comparison of two assays to determine anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis in relation to other chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases: assaying anti-modified citrullinated vimentin antibodies adds value to second-generation anti-citrullinated cyclic peptides testing.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Toscano, Miriam Lizette; Olivas-Flores, Eva Maria; Zavaleta-Muñiz, Soraya Amali; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Ponce-Guarneros, Manuel; Castro-Contreras, Uriel; Nava, Arnulfo; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Celis, Alfredo; Fajardo-Robledo, Nicte Selene; Corona-Sanchez, Esther Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Determination of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) plays a relevant role in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To date, it is still unclear if the use of several tests for these autoantibodies in the same patient offers additional value as compared to performing only one test. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of using two assays for ACPA: second-generation anti-citrullinated cyclic peptides antibodies (anti-CCP2) and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibodies for the diagnosis of RA. We compared three groups: RA (n = 142), chronic inflammatory disease (CIRD, n = 86), and clinically healthy subjects (CHS, n = 56) to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios (LR) of these two assays for the presence of RA. A lower frequency of positivity for anti-CCP2 was found in RA (66.2%) as compared with anti-MCV (81.0%). When comparing RA versus other CIRD, sensitivity increased when both assays were performed. This strategy of testing both assays had high specificity and LR+. We conclude that adding the assay of anti-MCV antibodies to the determination of anti-CCP2 increases the sensitivity for detecting seropositive RA. Therefore, we propose the use of both assays in the initial screening of RA in longitudinal studies, including early onset of undifferentiated arthritis.

  9. Comparison of Two Assays to Determine Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis in relation to Other Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases: Assaying Anti-Modified Citrullinated Vimentin Antibodies Adds Value to Second-Generation Anti-Citrullinated Cyclic Peptides Testing

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Toscano, Miriam Lizette; Olivas-Flores, Eva Maria; Zavaleta-Muñiz, Soraya Amali; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Ponce-Guarneros, Manuel; Castro-Contreras, Uriel; Nava, Arnulfo; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Celis, Alfredo; Fajardo-Robledo, Nicte Selene; Corona-Sanchez, Esther Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Determination of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) plays a relevant role in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To date, it is still unclear if the use of several tests for these autoantibodies in the same patient offers additional value as compared to performing only one test. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of using two assays for ACPA: second-generation anti-citrullinated cyclic peptides antibodies (anti-CCP2) and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibodies for the diagnosis of RA. We compared three groups: RA (n = 142), chronic inflammatory disease (CIRD, n = 86), and clinically healthy subjects (CHS, n = 56) to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios (LR) of these two assays for the presence of RA. A lower frequency of positivity for anti-CCP2 was found in RA (66.2%) as compared with anti-MCV (81.0%). When comparing RA versus other CIRD, sensitivity increased when both assays were performed. This strategy of testing both assays had high specificity and LR+. We conclude that adding the assay of anti-MCV antibodies to the determination of anti-CCP2 increases the sensitivity for detecting seropositive RA. Therefore, we propose the use of both assays in the initial screening of RA in longitudinal studies, including early onset of undifferentiated arthritis. PMID:25025037

  10. Adiponectin-derived active peptide ADP355 exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities in thioacetamide-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Zimu; Huang, Biao; Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Dan; la Gahu, Zha; Xue, Zhenyi; Da, Yurong; Li, Daiqing; Yao, Zhi; Gao, Fei; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived circulating protein with beneficial effects on injured livers. Adiponectin-deficient (adipo(−/−)) mice develop enhanced liver fibrosis, suggesting that adiponectin could be a therapeutic target for liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of ADP355, an adiponectin-based active short peptide, in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute injury and chronic liver fibrosis in mice. ADP355 remarkably reduced TAA-induced necroinflammation and liver fibrosis. ADP355 treatment increased liver glycogen, decreased serum alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and promoted body weight gain, hyper-proliferation and hypo-apoptosis. In addition, ADP355 administration suppressed the TAA-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells and macrophages in the liver. These were associated with the inactivation of TGF-β1/SMAD2 signaling and the promotion of AMPK and STAT3 signaling. Sensitivity of adipo(−/−) mice to chronic liver injury was decreased with ADP355. In conclusion, ADP355 could mimic adiponectin’s action and may be suitable for the preclinical or clinical therapy of chronic liver injury. PMID:26777428

  11. Vitamin D3 Suppresses Class II Invariant Chain Peptide Expression on Activated B-Lymphocytes: A Plausible Mechanism for Downregulation of Acute Inflammatory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Danner, Omar K; Matthews, Leslie R; Francis, Sharon; Rao, Veena N; Harvey, Cassie P; Tobin, Richard P; Wilson, Ken L; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Newell Rogers, M Karen; Childs, Ed W

    2016-01-01

    Class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of B cell function after nonspecific polyclonal expansion. Several studies have shown vitamin D3 helps regulate the immune response. We hypothesized that activated vitamin D3 suppresses CLIP expression on activated B-cells after nonspecific activation or priming of C57BL/6 mice with CpG. This study showed activated vitamin D3 actively reduced CLIP expression and decreased the number of CLIP(+) B-lymphocytes in a dose and formulation dependent fashion. Flow cytometry was used to analyze changes in mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) based on changes in concentration of CLIP on activated B-lymphocytes after treatment with the various formulations of vitamin D3. The human formulation of activated vitamin D (calcitriol) had the most dramatic reduction in CLIP density at an MFI of 257.3 [baseline of 701.1 (P value = 0.01)]. Cholecalciferol and alfacalcidiol had no significant reduction in MFI at 667.7 and 743.0, respectively. Calcitriol seemed to best reduce CLIP overexpression in this ex vivo model. Bioactive vitamin D3 may be an effective compliment to other B cell suppression therapeutics to augment downregulation of nonspecific inflammation associated with many autoimmune disorders. Further study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  12. Activation of IKK/NF-κB provokes renal inflammatory responses in guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A gene-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subhankar; Periyasamy, Ramu

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the consequences of the disruption of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene (Npr1) on proinflammatory responses of nuclear factor kappa B, inhibitory kappa B kinase, and inhibitory kappa B alpha (NF-κB, IKK, IκBα) in the kidneys of mutant mice. The results showed that the disruption of Npr1 enhanced the renal NF-κB binding activity by 3.8-fold in 0-copy (−/−) mice compared with 2-copy (+/+) mice. In parallel, IKK activity and IκBα protein phosphorylation were increased by 8- and 11-fold, respectively, in the kidneys of 0-copy mice compared with wild-type mice. Interestingly, IκBα was reduced by 80% and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and renal fibrosis were significantly enhanced in 0-copy mice than 2-copy mice. Treatment of 0-copy mice with NF-κB inhibitors andrographolide, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and etanercept showed a substantial reduction in renal fibrosis, attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines gene expression, and significantly reduced IKK activity and IkBα phosphorylation. These findings indicate that the systemic disruption of Npr1 activates the renal NF-κB pathways in 0-copy mice, which transactivates the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines to initiate renal remodeling; however, inhibition of NF-κB pathway repairs the abnormal renal pathology in mutant mice. PMID:22318993

  13. Vitamin D3 Suppresses Class II Invariant Chain Peptide Expression on Activated B-Lymphocytes: A Plausible Mechanism for Downregulation of Acute Inflammatory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Danner, Omar K; Matthews, Leslie R; Francis, Sharon; Rao, Veena N; Harvey, Cassie P; Tobin, Richard P; Wilson, Ken L; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Newell Rogers, M Karen; Childs, Ed W

    2016-01-01

    Class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of B cell function after nonspecific polyclonal expansion. Several studies have shown vitamin D3 helps regulate the immune response. We hypothesized that activated vitamin D3 suppresses CLIP expression on activated B-cells after nonspecific activation or priming of C57BL/6 mice with CpG. This study showed activated vitamin D3 actively reduced CLIP expression and decreased the number of CLIP(+) B-lymphocytes in a dose and formulation dependent fashion. Flow cytometry was used to analyze changes in mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) based on changes in concentration of CLIP on activated B-lymphocytes after treatment with the various formulations of vitamin D3. The human formulation of activated vitamin D (calcitriol) had the most dramatic reduction in CLIP density at an MFI of 257.3 [baseline of 701.1 (P value = 0.01)]. Cholecalciferol and alfacalcidiol had no significant reduction in MFI at 667.7 and 743.0, respectively. Calcitriol seemed to best reduce CLIP overexpression in this ex vivo model. Bioactive vitamin D3 may be an effective compliment to other B cell suppression therapeutics to augment downregulation of nonspecific inflammation associated with many autoimmune disorders. Further study is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:27313879

  14. Vitamin D3 Suppresses Class II Invariant Chain Peptide Expression on Activated B-Lymphocytes: A Plausible Mechanism for Downregulation of Acute Inflammatory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Danner, Omar K.; Matthews, Leslie R.; Francis, Sharon; Rao, Veena N.; Harvey, Cassie P.; Tobin, Richard P.; Wilson, Ken L.; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Newell Rogers, M. Karen; Childs, Ed W.

    2016-01-01

    Class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of B cell function after nonspecific polyclonal expansion. Several studies have shown vitamin D3 helps regulate the immune response. We hypothesized that activated vitamin D3 suppresses CLIP expression on activated B-cells after nonspecific activation or priming of C57BL/6 mice with CpG. This study showed activated vitamin D3 actively reduced CLIP expression and decreased the number of CLIP+ B-lymphocytes in a dose and formulation dependent fashion. Flow cytometry was used to analyze changes in mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) based on changes in concentration of CLIP on activated B-lymphocytes after treatment with the various formulations of vitamin D3. The human formulation of activated vitamin D (calcitriol) had the most dramatic reduction in CLIP density at an MFI of 257.3 [baseline of 701.1 (P value = 0.01)]. Cholecalciferol and alfacalcidiol had no significant reduction in MFI at 667.7 and 743.0, respectively. Calcitriol seemed to best reduce CLIP overexpression in this ex vivo model. Bioactive vitamin D3 may be an effective compliment to other B cell suppression therapeutics to augment downregulation of nonspecific inflammation associated with many autoimmune disorders. Further study is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:27313879

  15. Peptide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hamley, Ian W

    2014-07-01

    The self-assembly of different classes of peptide, including cyclic peptides, amyloid peptides and surfactant-like peptides into nanotube structures is reviewed. The modes of self-assembly are discussed. Additionally, applications in bionanotechnology and synthetic materials science are summarized.

  16. Antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With increasing antibiotics resistance, there is an urgent need for novel infection therapeutics. Since antimicrobial peptides provide opportunities for this, identification and optimization of such peptides have attracted much interest during recent years. Here, a brief overview of antimicrobial peptides is provided, with focus placed on how selected hydrophobic modifications of antimicrobial peptides can be employed to combat also more demanding pathogens, including multi-resistant strains, without conferring unacceptable toxicity. PMID:24758244

  17. Direct dating of weathering phenomena by [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar and K-Ar analysis of supergene K-Mn oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Vasconcelos, P.M.; Brimhall, G.H. ); Renne, P.R.; Becker, T.A. )

    1994-03-01

    Potassium-bearing manganese oxides, cryptomelane, K[sub 1-2](Mn[sup 3+]Mn[sup 4+])[sub 8] O[sub 16] [center dot] xH[sub 2]O, and hollandite, (K,Ba)[sub 1-2](Mn[sup 3+],Mn[sup 4+])[sub 8] O[sub 16] [center dot] xH[sub 2]O, are often authigenically precipitated in weathering profiles. Dating of these phases allows timing of the progression of oxidation fronts during weathering and pedogenic processes. Potential problems in manganese oxide dating, such as Ar and/or K losses, excess argon, [sup 39]Ar loss by recoil during neutron irradiation, etc. are addressed. The K-Ar and [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar analytical results indicate that Ar and/or K losses, excess [sup 40]Ar, and [sup 39]Ar recoil seem not to pose problems in manganese oxide dating. This investigation suggests that the fine scale, laser-probe [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar technique is most appropriate for dating of weathering phenomena because this technique permits identification of contaminating phases and the presence of multiple generations of weathering minerals in the inherently complex mineral assemblage characteristic of weathering profiles. K-Ar and [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar dating of supergene K-bearing manganese oxides formed during lateritization of Archean and Proterozoic bedrocks in the Carajas Region, Amazonia, Brazil, indicates that weathering started before 72 [+-] 6 Ma. Petrographic, electron microscope, and electron microprobe investigation reveal multiple generations of manganese oxide precipitation. Age clusters at 65-69, 51-56, 40-43, 33-35, 20, 24, 12-17 Ma, and zero-age (0.2 [+-] 0.2 Ma) suggest episodic precipitation of K-Mn oxides resulting form changing weathering conditions in the Amazon throughout the Cenozoic. K-Ar and [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar dating of supergene cryptomelane from weathering profiles in eastern Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, suggests continuous weathering from 10 to 5.6 Ma ago, possibly reflecting local climatic conditions due to the proximity with the Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Fast formation of supergene Mn oxides/hydroxides under acidic conditions in the oxic/anoxic transition zone of a shallow aquifer.

    PubMed

    Schäffner, F; Merten, D; Pollok, K; Wagner, S; Knoblauch, S; Langenhorst, F; Büchel, G

    2015-12-01

    Extensive uranium mining in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) in eastern Thuringia and Saxony took place during the period of 1946-1990. During mining activities, pelitic sediments rich in organic carbon and uranium were processed and exposed to oxygen. Subsequent pyrite oxidation and acidic leaching lead to partial contamination of the area with heavy metals and acid mine drainage (AMD) even few years after completion of remediation. One of those areas is the former heap Gessen (Ronneburg, Germany) were the residual contamination can be found 10 m under the base of the former heap containing partly permeable drainage channels. Actually, in such a system, a rapid but locally restricted mineralization of Mn oxides takes place under acidic conditions. This formation can be classified as a natural attenuation process as certain heavy metals, e.g., Cd (up to 6 μg/g), Ni (up to 311 μg/g), Co (up to 133 μg/g), and Zn (up to 104 μg/g) are bound to this phases. The secondary minerals occur as colored layers close to the shallow aquifer in glacial sediments and could be identified as birnessite and todorokite as Mn phase. The thermodynamic model shows that even small changes in the system are sufficient to shift either the pH or the Eh in the direction of stable Mn oxide phases in this acidic system. As a consequence of 9-15-year-long formation process (or even less), the supergene mineralization provides a cost-efficient contribution for remediation (natural attenuation) strategies of residual with heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Co, Ni, Zn) contaminated substrates.

  19. Fast formation of supergene Mn oxides/hydroxides under acidic conditions in the oxic/anoxic transition zone of a shallow aquifer.

    PubMed

    Schäffner, F; Merten, D; Pollok, K; Wagner, S; Knoblauch, S; Langenhorst, F; Büchel, G

    2015-12-01

    Extensive uranium mining in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) in eastern Thuringia and Saxony took place during the period of 1946-1990. During mining activities, pelitic sediments rich in organic carbon and uranium were processed and exposed to oxygen. Subsequent pyrite oxidation and acidic leaching lead to partial contamination of the area with heavy metals and acid mine drainage (AMD) even few years after completion of remediation. One of those areas is the former heap Gessen (Ronneburg, Germany) were the residual contamination can be found 10 m under the base of the former heap containing partly permeable drainage channels. Actually, in such a system, a rapid but locally restricted mineralization of Mn oxides takes place under acidic conditions. This formation can be classified as a natural attenuation process as certain heavy metals, e.g., Cd (up to 6 μg/g), Ni (up to 311 μg/g), Co (up to 133 μg/g), and Zn (up to 104 μg/g) are bound to this phases. The secondary minerals occur as colored layers close to the shallow aquifer in glacial sediments and could be identified as birnessite and todorokite as Mn phase. The thermodynamic model shows that even small changes in the system are sufficient to shift either the pH or the Eh in the direction of stable Mn oxide phases in this acidic system. As a consequence of 9-15-year-long formation process (or even less), the supergene mineralization provides a cost-efficient contribution for remediation (natural attenuation) strategies of residual with heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Co, Ni, Zn) contaminated substrates. PMID:25822842

  20. Inflammatory Myopathies.

    PubMed

    Atluri, Rama Bandlamudi

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are relatively rare diseases. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis are more common in women than men (2:1 ratio), while inclusion body myositis is twice as common in men. Inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group of chronic systemic autoimmune diseases with an annual incidence of two to five cases per million, characterized by muscle inflammation and progressive muscle weakness. There are three major diseases which includes Dermatomyositis (DM) including a distinct juvenile subtype (JDM), Polymyositis (PM), and Inclusion Body Myositis. DM is a compliment mediated microangiopathy affecting skin and muscle. PM and IBM are T-cell mediated disorders, where CD8 positive cytotoxic T cells invade muscle fibers expressing MHC class I antigens, this leading to fiber necrosis. In IBM, vacuolar formation with amyloid deposits are also present. This article summarizes the clinical, histochemical and immunological features as well as the treatment options of the inflammatory myopathies. PMID:27311223

  1. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  2. Synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Francis, M J

    1996-01-01

    Efforts to produce more stable and defined vaccines have concentrated on studying, in detail, the immune response to many infectious diseases in order to identify the antigenic sites on the pathogens that are involved in stimulating protective immumty. Armed with this knowledge, it is possible to mimic such sites by producing short chains of amino acids (peptides) and to use these as the basis for novel vaccines. The earliest documented work on peptide immunization is actually for a plant virus, tobacco mosaic virus. In 1963, Anderer (1) demonstrated that rabbit antibodies to an isolated hexapeptide fragment from the virus-coat protein coupled to bovine serum albumm would neutralize the infectious vn-us in culture. Two years later, he used a synthetically produced copy of the same peptide to confirm this observation. This was pioneering work, and it was over 10 years before the next example of a peptide that elicited antivirus antibody appeared following work by Sela and his colleagues (2) on a virus, MS2 bacteriophage, which infects bacteria. The emergence of more accessible techniques for sequencing proteins in 1977, coupled with the ability to synthesize readily peptides already developed in 1963, heralded a decade of intensive research into experimental peptide vaccines. The first demonstration that peptides could elicit protective immunity in vivo, in addition to neutralizing activity in vitro, was obtained using a peptide from the VP1 coat protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in 1982, with the guinea pig as a laboratory animal model (3, 4). PMID:21359696

  3. High-grade iron ore at Windarling, Yilgarn Craton: a product of syn-orogenic deformation, hypogene hydrothermal alteration and supergene modification in an Archean BIF-basalt lithostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angerer, Thomas; Hagemann, Steffen G.; Danyushevsky, Leonid

    2013-08-01

    , carbonate and quartz to form veins and breccia but did not generate significant volumes of iron ore. Ore stage 4 involved Mesozoic(?) to recent supergene oxidation and hydration in a weathering environment reaching down to depths of ˜100 to maximum 200 m below surface. Supergene ore formation involved goethite replacement of dolomite and quartz as well as martitisation. Important `ground preparation' for supergene modification and upgrade were mainly the formation of steep D1 to D4 structures, steep BIF/basalt margins and particularly the syn-D1 to syn-D2 carbonate alteration of BIF that is most susceptible to supergene dissolution. The Windarling deposits are structurally controlled, supergene-modified hydrothermal iron ore systems that share comparable physical, chemical and ore-forming characteristics to other iron ore deposits in the Yilgarn Craton (e.g. Koolyanobbing, Beebyn in the Weld Range, Mt. Gibson). However, the remarkable variety in pre-, syn- and post-deformational ore textures (relative to D1 and D2) has not been described elsewhere in the Yilgarn and are similar to the ore deposits in high-strain zones, such as of Brazil (Quadrilátero Ferrífero or Iron Quadrangle) and Nigeria. The overall similarity of alteration stages, i.e. the sequence of hydrothermal carbonate introduction and hypogene leaching, with other greenstone belt-hosted iron ore deposits supports the interpretation that syn-orogenic BIF alteration and upgrade was crucial in the formation of hypogene-supergene iron ore deposits in the Yilgarn Craton and possibly in other Archean/Paleoproterozoic greenstone belt settings worldwide.

  4. Criteria for the recognition of pedogenic/supergene and nonpedogenic/hypogene deposits and their relationship to the origin of calcite/opal deposits at Yucca Mountain. Special report No. 14

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.A.; Schluter, C.M.; Monger, H.C.

    1993-10-01

    This study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed assessment of the geology and geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. The purpose of this report is to try and establish criteria for the recognition of pedogenic/supergene deposits of calcite/opal versus non-pedogenic/hypogene deposits of calcite/opal. Far from being of esoteric concern, this subject is of paramount importance to the pedogenic-hypogene debate which rages around the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a high-level radioactive waste repository site.

  5. Mineralogical, chemical, and crystallographic properties of supergene jarosite-group minerals from the Xitieshan Pb-Zn sulfide deposit, northern Tibetan Plateau, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Lei; Li, Jian-Wei; Rye, Robert O.; Benzel, William H.; Lowers, H.A.; He, Ming-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Supergene jarosite-group minerals are widespread in weathering profiles overlying Pb-Zn sulfide ores at Xitieshan, northern Tibetan Plateau, China. They consist predominantly of K-deficient natrojarosite, with lesser amounts of K-rich natrojarosite and plumbojarosite. Electron microprobe (EMP) analyses, scanning electron microcopy (SEM) investigation, and X-ray mapping reveal that the jarosite-group minerals are characterized by spectacular oscillatory zoning composed of alternating growth bands of K-deficient and K-bearing natrojarosite (K2O >1 wt.%). Plumbojarosite, whenever present, occurs as an overgrowth in the outermost bands, and its composition can be best represented by K0.29Na0.19Pb0.31Fe2.66Al0.22(SO4)1.65(PO4)0.31(AsO4)0.04(OH)7.37. The substitution of monovalent for divalent cations at the A site of plumbojarosite is charge balanced by the substitution of five-valent for six-valent anions in XO,4/sub> at the X site. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of representative samples reveal mass losses of 11.46 wt.% at 446.6 °C and 21.42 wt.% at 683.4 °C due to dehydroxylation and desulfidation, respectively. TGA data also indicate that the natrojarosite structure collapses at 446.6 °C, resulting in the formation of NaFe(SO4)2 and minor hematite. The decomposition products of NaFe(SO4) are hematite and Na,2SO4. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that the jarosite-group minerals have mean unit-cell parameters of a=7.315 ä and c=016.598 ä. XRD and EMP data support the view that substitutions of Na for K in the A site and full Fe occupancy in the B site can considerably decrease the unit-cell parameter c, but only slightly increase a. The results from this study suggest that the observed oscillatory zoning of jarosite-group minerals at Xitieshan resulted mainly from substitutions of K for Na at the A site and P for S at the X site.

  6. Mineralogical, chemical, and crystallographic properties of supergene jarosite-group minerals from the Xitieshan Pb-Zn sulfide deposit, northern Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Li, Jian-Wei; Rye, R. O.; Benzel, W. M.; Lowers, H. A.; He, Ming-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    Supergene jarosite-group minerals are widespread in weathering profiles overlying Pb-Zn sulfide ores at Xitieshan, northern Tibetan Plateau, China. They consist predominantly of K-deficient natrojarosite, with lesser amounts of K-rich natrojarosite and plumbojarosite. Electron microprobe (EMP) analyses, scanning electron microcopy (SEM) investigation, and X-ray mapping reveal that the jarosite-group minerals are characterized by spectacular oscillatory zoning composed of alternating growth bands of K-deficient and K-bearing natrojarosite (K2O >1 wt.%). Plumbojarosite, whenever present, occurs as an overgrowth in the outermost bands, and its composition can be best represented by K0.29Na0.19Pb0.31Fe2.66Al0.22(SO4)1.65(PO4)0.31(AsO4)0.04(OH)7.37. The substitution of monovalent for divalent cations at the A site of plumbojarosite is charge balanced by the substitution of five-valent for six-valent anions in XO4 at the X site. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of representative samples reveal mass losses of 11.46 wt.% at 446.6 °C and 21.42 wt.% at 683.4 °C due to dehydroxylation and desulfidation, respectively. TGA data also indicate that the natrojarosite structure collapses at 446.6 °C, resulting in the formation of NaFe(SO4)2 and minor hematite. The decomposition products of NaFe(SO4)2 are hematite and Na2SO4. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that the jarosite-group minerals have mean unit-cell parameters of a = 7.315 Å and c = 016.598 Å. XRD and EMP data support the view that substitutions of Na for K in the A site and full Fe occupancy in the B site can considerably decrease the unit-cell parameter c, but only slightly increase a. The results from this study suggest that the observed oscillatory zoning of jarosite-group minerals at Xitieshan resulted mainly from substitutions of K for Na at the A site and P for S at the X site.

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of a serpentinite-derived laterite profile from East Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implications for the lateritization process and Ni supergene enrichment in the tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Yang, Jianwen; Yang, Mengli; Pang, Baocheng; Liu, Xijun; Niu, Hujie; Huang, Xiaorong

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the lateritization process and supergene Ni enrichment in the tropical rainforest, a well developed laterite profile over the serpentinite in the Kolonodale area of East Sulawesi, Indonesia, has been investigated using field geology methods, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. Three lithostratigraphic horizons over the bedrock are distinguished from bottom to top: the saprolite horizon, the limonite horizon, and the ferruginous cap. In general, the profile is characterized by (1) a depth-related pH ranging from 5.56 to 8.56, with a higher value in the saprolite horizon and a lower value in the ferruginous cap, (2) a highly variable organic matter concentration from 1.11% to 4.82%, showing a increasing trend from bottom to top, (3) a progressive mineral assemblage transition from the silicate mineral dominant (mainly serpentine) to the Fe-oxyhydroxide dominant (mainly goethite), and (4) a typical laterite geochemical pattern with an increase of Fe, Al, Mn, Cr and Ti but a decrease of Mg, Ca, Na and K upward from the bedrock. The highest concentration of Ni (up to 11.53%NiO) occurs in the saprolite horizon, showing nearly 40 times richer compared to the bedrock. The mineral evolution during the lateritization process shows various paths from the primary minerals to altered minerals, which is integrally affected by the nature of the primary minerals and environmental conditions. Garnierite, as a significant ore mineral formed by the secondary precipitation processes in the study profile, is identified as a mixture of talc- and serpentine-like phases. The mass-balance calculation reveals that there are diversified elemental behaviors during the serpentinite lateritization under the rainforest conditions. In particular, Ni, as the ore-forming element in the laterite profile, is associated closely with the pH environment, organic matter concentration and mineral evolution during the lateritization process. The findings of the present study support a

  8. Anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture.

    PubMed Central

    Zijlstra, Freek J; van den Berg-de Lange, Ineke; Huygen, Frank J P M; Klein, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Acupuncture has a beneficial effect when treating many diseases and painful conditions, and therefore is thought to be useful as a complementary therapy or to replace generally accepted pharmacological intervention. The attributive effect of acupuncture has been investigated in inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, epicondylitis, complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and vasculitis. Large randomised trials demonstrating the immediate and sustained effect of acupuncture are missing. Mechanisms underlying the ascribed immunosuppressive actions of acupuncture are reviewed in this communication. The acupuncture-controlled release of neuropeptides from nerve endings and subsequent vasodilative and anti-inflammatory effects through calcitonine gene-related peptide is hypothesised. The complex interactions with substance P, the analgesic contribution of beta-endorphin and the balance between cell-specific pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 are discussed. PMID:12775355

  9. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  10. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2009-10-13

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  11. Antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling-Juan; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-01-11

    Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) are a diverse class of naturally occurring molecules that are produced as a first line of defense by all multicellular organisms. These proteins can have broad activity to directly kill bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses and even cancer cells. Insects and plants primarily deploy AMPs as an antibiotic to protect against potential pathogenic microbes, but microbes also produce AMPs to defend their environmental niche. In higher eukaryotic organisms, AMPs can also be referred to as 'host defense peptides', emphasizing their additional immunomodulatory activities. These activities are diverse, specific to the type of AMP, and include a variety of cytokine and growth factor-like effects that are relevant to normal immune homeostasis. In some instances, the inappropriate expression of AMPs can also induce autoimmune diseases, thus further highlighting the importance of understanding these molecules and their complex activities. This Primer will provide an update of our current understanding of AMPs. PMID:26766224

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Ali Adem; Ren, Dacheng

    2013-01-01

    The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics). PMID:24287494

  13. Antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Ali Adem; Ren, Dacheng

    2013-11-28

    The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill "superbugs" emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics).

  14. Sulforaphane exerts its anti-inflammatory effect against amyloid-β peptide via STAT-1 dephosphorylation and activation of Nrf2/HO-1 cascade in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    An, Ye Won; Jhang, Kyoung A; Woo, So-Youn; Kang, Jihee Lee; Chong, Young Hae

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, accounting for most cases of dementia in elderly individuals, and effective therapies are still lacking. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of sulforaphane against Aβ1-42 monomers in human THP-1 microglia-like cells. The results showed that sulforaphane preferentially inhibited cathepsin B- and caspase-1-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by mostly Aβ1-42 monomers, an effect that potently reduced excessive secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that sulforaphane mitigated the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 induced by Aβ1-42 monomers. Sulforaphane also increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation, which was followed by upregulation of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1). The anti-inflammatory effect of sulforaphane on Aβ1-42-induced IL-1β production was diminished by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1. Moreover, sulforaphane significantly attenuated the levels of microRNA-146a, which is selectively upregulated in the temporal cortex and hippocampus of AD brains. The aforementioned effects of sulforaphane were replicated by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, and Nrf2 activator. These results indicate that signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 dephosphorylation, HO-1 and its upstream effector, Nrf2, play a pivotal role in triggering an anti-inflammatory signaling cascade of sulforaphane that results in decreases of IL-1β release and microRNA-146a production in Aβ1-42-stimulated human microglia-like cells. These findings suggest that the phytochemical sulforaphane has a potential application in AD therapeutics.

  15. Inflammatory process in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meraz-Ríos, Marco A.; Toral-Rios, Danira; Franco-Bocanegra, Diana; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Campos-Peña, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Histopathologically is characterized by the presence of two major hallmarks, the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and extracellular neuritic plaques (NPs) surrounded by activated astrocytes and microglia. NFTs consist of paired helical filaments of truncated tau protein that is abnormally hyperphosphorylated. The main component in the NP is the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a small fragment of 40–42 amino acids with a molecular weight of 4 kD. It has been proposed that the amyloid aggregates and microglia activation are able to favor the neurodegenerative process observed in AD patients. However, the role of inflammation in AD is controversial, because in early stages the inflammation could have a beneficial role in the pathology, since it has been thought that the microglia and astrocytes activated could be involved in Aβ clearance. Nevertheless the chronic activation of the microglia has been related with an increase of Aβ and possibly with tau phosphorylation. Studies in AD brains have shown an upregulation of complement molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute phase reactants and other inflammatory mediators that could contribute with the neurodegenerative process. Clinical trials and animal models with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indicate that these drugs may decrease the risk of developing AD and apparently reduce Aβ deposition. Finally, further studies are needed to determine whether treatment with anti-inflammatory strategies, may decrease the neurodegenerative process that affects these patients. PMID:23964211

  16. Multifunctional host defense peptides: antimicrobial peptides, the small yet big players in innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Auvynet, Constance; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2009-11-01

    The term 'antimicrobial peptides' refers to a large number of peptides first characterized on the basis of their antibiotic and antifungal activities. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, also called host defense peptides, participate in multiple aspects of immunity (inflammation, wound repair, and regulation of the adaptive immune system) as well as in maintaining homeostasis. The possibility of utilizing these multifunctional molecules to effectively combat the ever-growing group of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has intensified research aimed at improving their antibiotic activity and therapeutic potential, without the burden of an exacerbated inflammatory response, but conserving their immunomodulatory potential. In this minireview, we focus on the contribution of small cationic antimicrobial peptides - particularly human cathelicidins and defensins - to the immune response and disease, highlighting recent advances in our understanding of the roles of these multifunctional molecules.

  17. Neogene geomorphic and climatic evolution of the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado: K/Ar age and stable isotope data on supergene alunite and jarosite from the Creede mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert O.; Bethke, Philip M.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Steven, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    K/Ar age determinations or supergene alunite and jarosite, formed during Neogene weathering of the epithermal silver and base-metal ores of the Creede mining district, have been combined with geologic evidence to estimate the timing of regional uplift of the southern Rocky Mountains and related canyon cutting. In addition, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic studies suggest climate changes in the central San Juan Mountains during the past 5 m.y. Alunite [ideally (K,Na)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6] and jarosite [ideally KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6] can be dated by K/Ar or 40Ar/39Ar techniques and both contain OH and SO4 sites that enable four stable isotope analyses (δD, δ18OOH, and δ34S) to be made. This supergene alunite and jarosite formed by weathering of sulfide-rich ore bodies may record the evolution of the chemical and hydrologic processes affecting ancient oxidized acid ground water, as well as details of climate history and geomorphic evolution. Fine-grained (1-10 μm) supergene alunite and jarosite occur in minor fractures in the upper, oxidized parts of the 25 Ma sulfide-bearing veins of the Creede mining district, and jarosite also occurs in adjacent oxidized Ag-bearing clastic sediments. K/Ar ages for alunite range from 4.8 to 3.1 Ma, and for jarosite range from 2.6 to 0.9 Ma. The δD values for alunite and jarosite show opposite correlations with elevation, and values for jarosite correlate with age. Calculated δDH2O values of alunite fluids approach but are larger than those of present-day meteoric water. Calculated δDH2O values for jarosite fluids are more variable; the values of the youngest jarosites are lowest and are similar to those of present-day meteoric water in the district. The narrow δD-δ18OSO4 values of alunites reflects oxidation of sulfide below the water table. The greater range in these values for jarosites reflects oxidation of sulfide under vadose conditions. The ages of alunite mark the position of the paleo-water table at the end of a period of moderate

  18. Functions of Cationic Host Defense Peptides in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Anaparti, Vidyanand; Mookherjee, Neeloffer

    2016-01-01

    Cationic host defense peptides are a widely distributed family of immunomodulatory molecules with antimicrobial properties. The biological functions of these peptides include the ability to influence innate and adaptive immunity for efficient resolution of infections and simultaneous modulation of inflammatory responses. This unique dual bioactivity of controlling infections and inflammation has gained substantial attention in the last three decades and consequent interest in the development of these peptide mimics as immunomodulatory therapeutic candidates. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the wide range of functions of cationic host defense peptides in the context of the mammalian immune system. PMID:27384571

  19. C-Peptide Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... C-peptide is a useful marker of insulin production. The following are some purposes of C-peptide ... it nearly impossible to directly evaluate endogenous insulin production. In these cases, C-peptide measurement is a ...

  20. Antimicrobial Peptides in Human Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; van Meegern, Anne; Doemming, Sabine; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 100 years ago, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified as an important part of innate immunity. They exist in species from bacteria to mammals and can be isolated in body fluids and on surfaces constitutively or induced by inflammation. Defensins have anti-bacterial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as anti-viral and anti-yeast effects. Human neutrophil peptides (HNP) 1–3 and human beta-defensins (HBDs) 1–3 are some of the most important defensins in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated higher levels of HNP 1–3 and HBD-2 in sepsis. The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) attenuates local inflammatory response and decreases systemic toxicity of endotoxins. Moreover, BPI might reflect the severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Elevated plasma lactoferrin is detected in patients with organ failure. HNP 1–3, lactoferrin, BPI, and heparin-binding protein are increased in sepsis. Human lactoferrin peptide 1–11 (hLF 1–11) possesses antimicrobial activity and modulates inflammation. The recombinant form of lactoferrin [talactoferrin alpha (TLF)] has been shown to decrease mortality in critically ill patients. A phase II/III study with TLF in sepsis did not confirm this result. The growing number of multiresistant bacteria is an ongoing problem in sepsis therapy. Furthermore, antibiotics are known to promote the liberation of pro-inflammatory cell components and thus augment the severity of sepsis. Compared to antibiotics, AMPs kill bacteria but also neutralize pathogenic factors such as lipopolysaccharide. The obstacle to applying naturally occurring AMPs is their high nephro- and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the challenge is to develop peptides to treat septic patients effectively without causing harm. This overview focuses on natural and synthetic AMPs in human and experimental sepsis and their potential to provide significant improvements in the treatment of critically ill with severe infections

  1. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested.

  2. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy; Guillain-Barré - CIDP ... CIDP is one cause of damage to nerves outside the brain or spinal cord ( peripheral neuropathy ). Polyneuropathy ...

  3. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic characterizations on new Fe sulphoarsenate hilarionite (Fe2((III))(SO4)(AsO4)(OH)·6H2O): Implications for arsenic mineralogy in supergene environment of mine area.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, LiLe; Dong, Faqin; Frost, Ray L

    2017-01-01

    Hilarionite (Fe2 (SO4)(AsO4)(OH)·6H2O) is a new Fe sulphoarsenates mineral, which recently is found in the famous Lavrion ore district, Atliki Prefecture, Greece. The spectroscopic study of hilarionite enriches the data of arsenic mineralogy in supergene environment of a mine area. The infrared and Raman means are used to characterize the molecular structure of this mineral. The IR bands at 875 and 905cm(-1) are assigned to the antisymmetric stretching vibrations of AsO4(3-). The IR bands at 1021, 1086 and 1136cm(-1) correspond to the possible antisymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of SO4(2-). The Raman bands at 807, 843 and 875cm(-1) clearly show that arsenate components in the mineral structure, which are assigned to the symmetric stretching vibrations (ν1) of AsO4(3-) (807 and 843cm(-1)) and the antisymmetric vibration (ν3) (875cm(-1)). IR bands provide more sulfate information than Raman, which can be used as the basis to distinguish hilarionite from kaňkite. The powder XRD data shows that hilarionite has obvious differences with the mineral structure of kaňkite. The thermoanalysis and SEM-EDX results show that hilarionite has more sulfate than arsenate. PMID:27391313

  4. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic characterizations on new Fe sulphoarsenate hilarionite (Fe2((III))(SO4)(AsO4)(OH)·6H2O): Implications for arsenic mineralogy in supergene environment of mine area.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, LiLe; Dong, Faqin; Frost, Ray L

    2017-01-01

    Hilarionite (Fe2 (SO4)(AsO4)(OH)·6H2O) is a new Fe sulphoarsenates mineral, which recently is found in the famous Lavrion ore district, Atliki Prefecture, Greece. The spectroscopic study of hilarionite enriches the data of arsenic mineralogy in supergene environment of a mine area. The infrared and Raman means are used to characterize the molecular structure of this mineral. The IR bands at 875 and 905cm(-1) are assigned to the antisymmetric stretching vibrations of AsO4(3-). The IR bands at 1021, 1086 and 1136cm(-1) correspond to the possible antisymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of SO4(2-). The Raman bands at 807, 843 and 875cm(-1) clearly show that arsenate components in the mineral structure, which are assigned to the symmetric stretching vibrations (ν1) of AsO4(3-) (807 and 843cm(-1)) and the antisymmetric vibration (ν3) (875cm(-1)). IR bands provide more sulfate information than Raman, which can be used as the basis to distinguish hilarionite from kaňkite. The powder XRD data shows that hilarionite has obvious differences with the mineral structure of kaňkite. The thermoanalysis and SEM-EDX results show that hilarionite has more sulfate than arsenate.

  5. Brain natriutetic peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007509.htm Brain natriuretic peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) test is a blood test that measures ...

  6. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003508.htm Vasoactive intestinal peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount ...

  7. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested. PMID:27145593

  8. The role of antimicrobial peptides in cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifeng

    2009-12-18

    Antimicrobial peptides are natural peptide antibiotics, existing ubiquitously in both plant and animal kingdoms. They exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and play an important role in host defense against invading microbes. Recently, these peptides have been shown to possess activities unrelated to direct microbial killing and be involved in the complex network of immune responses and inflammation. Thus, their role has now broadened beyond that of endogenous antibiotics. Because of their wide involvement in inflammatory response and the emerging role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, antimicrobial peptides have been proposed to represent an important link between inflammation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. This review highlights recent findings that support a role of these peptides in cardiovascular physiology and disease.

  9. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Palaskar, Sangeeta; Koshti, Supriya; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Bartake, Anirudha

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon lesion of unknown cause. It encompasses a spectrum of myofibroblastic proliferation along with varying amount of inflammatory infiltrate. A number of terms have been applied to the lesion, namely, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibrous xanthoma, plasma cell granuloma, pseudosarcoma, lymphoid hamartoma, myxoid hamartoma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, benign myofibroblatoma, and most recently, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The diverse nomenclature is mostly descriptive and reflects the uncertainty regarding true biologic nature of these lesions. Recently, the concept of this lesion being reactive has been challenged based on the clinical demonstration of recurrences and metastasis and cytogenetic evidence of acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We hereby report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor and review its inflammatory versus neoplastic behavior. PMID:22346151

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun; Mishra, Biswajit; Lau, Kyle; Lushnikova, Tamara; Golla, Radha; Wang, Xiuqing

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms. PMID:25806720

  11. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides in Innate Immunity against Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Min; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2011-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides/proteins are ancient and naturallyoccurring antibiotics in innate immune responses in a variety of organisms. Additionally, these peptides have been recognized as important signaling molecules in regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. During mycobacterial infection, antimicrobial peptides including cathelicidin, defensin, and hepcidin have antimicrobial activities against mycobacteria, making them promising candidates for future drug development. Additionally, antimicrobial peptides act as immunomodulators in infectious and inflammatory conditions. Multiple crucial functions of cathelicidins in antimycobacterial immune defense have been characterized not only in terms of direct killing of mycobacteria but also as innate immune regulators, i.e., in secretion of cytokines and chemokines, and mediating autophagy activation. Defensin families are also important during mycobacterial infection and contribute to antimycobacterial defense and inhibition of mycobacterial growth both in vitro and in vivo. Hepcidin, although its role in mycobacterial infection has not yet been characterized, exerts antimycobacterial effects in activated macrophages. The present review focuses on recent efforts to elucidate the roles of host defense peptides in innate immunity to mycobacteria.

  13. Computational peptide vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Immunoinformatics focuses on modeling immune responses for better understanding of the immune system and in many cases for proposing agents able to modify the immune system. The most classical of these agents are vaccines derived from living organisms such as smallpox or polio. More modern vaccines comprise recombinant proteins, protein domains, and in some cases peptides. Generating a vaccine from peptides however requires technologies and concepts very different from classical vaccinology. Immunoinformatics therefore provides the computational tools to propose peptides suitable for formulation into vaccines. This chapter introduces the essential biological concepts affecting design and efficacy of peptide vaccines and discusses current methods and workflows applied to design successful peptide vaccines using computers.

  14. Neuropeptide receptors as potential drug targets in the treatment of inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Erika; Pozsgai, Gábor; Hajna, Zsófia; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Szolcsányi, János

    2014-01-01

    Cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems exists via regulator molecules, such as neuropeptides, hormones and cytokines. A number of neuropeptides have been implicated in the genesis of inflammation, such as tachykinins and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Development of their receptor antagonists could be a promising approach to anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. Anti-inflammatory neuropeptides, such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, urocortin, adrenomedullin, somatostatin, cortistatin, ghrelin, galanin and opioid peptides, are also released and act on their own receptors on the neurons as well as on different inflammatory and immune cells. The aim of the present review is to summarize the most prominent data of preclinical animal studies concerning the main pharmacological effects of ligands acting on the neuropeptide receptors. Promising therapeutic impacts of these compounds as potential candidates for the development of novel types of anti-inflammatory drugs are also discussed. PMID:23432438

  15. Inflammatory myopathies and lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Stübgen, Joerg-Patrick

    2016-10-15

    The inflammatory myopathies comprise a group of immune-mediated muscle diseases. Lymphoma is a term for a variety of lymphatic system malignancies. Autoimmune diseases and lymphoproliferative malignancies share a complex bidirectional relationship. A causal relationship between inflammatory mypathies and lymphoma has not been established. The diagnosis/treatment of inflammatory myopathy usually precedes the detection/diagnosis of lymphoma. Immune system dysregulation presumably underlies the evolution of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory myopathies. Inflammatory activity with chronic B-cell activation and/or antigen stimulation is deemed the major risk factor for lymphoma in patients with autoimmunity. A "paraneoplastic" phenomenon or the effects of immunosuppressive therapy may be alternative immune-based mechanisms. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia immune system disturbance rarely results in non-hematological autoimmune disease, including inflammatory myopathies. PMID:27653927

  16. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions.

  17. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  18. Hypogene and supergene alteration of the zeolite-bearing pyroclastic deposits at Tell Rimah, Jordan, and rift-related processes along the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

    2012-09-01

    The boundary between the Arabian and African plates, is marked in the Middle East by one of the most prominent deep-seated lineamentary structures, called the Dead-Sea-Transform Fault System (DSTFS). Structural and mineralogical processes related to the DSTFS were correlated with equivalent processes leading to the alteration of pyroclastic deposits of alkali-olivine basaltic to nepheline basaltic composition which formed during a time span of less than 0.5 Ma. The large deposit of Tell Rimah, Jordan, is operated for the exploitation of zeolites, tuffs, and as pozzolana raw material. Four discrete stages of mineralizations have been distinguished from each other within these volcanic-hosted mineral deposits. (1) Hypogene syneruptive alteration of pyroclastic rocks produced siliceous gels ("allophane"), smectite, analcime, and phillipsite in vesicles when the groundwater level was low in the rift basin of the DSTFS. The lake-level lowstand caused the fluid system in the pyroclastic cone to become self-sufficient and it has been considered as a closed hydrothermal system. (2) Periods of tectonic and magmatic quiescence grinded the detrital sedimentation in the rift basin to a halt, while triggering a supergene alteration in the eruptive cones on the adjacent Arabian Plate. (3) Epigenetic alteration affected the pyroclastic rocks in the distal part of the DSTFS as a result of a rising water level. The water gradually filled the pore space of the permeable pyroclastic deposits almost to completeness and caused meniscus and blocky cements of calcite, phillipsite and chabazite to develop. In the rift basin, contemporaneously with the alteration of the pyroclastic rocks, freshwater limestones formed on calcareous bedrocks. Ba and Mn minerals in these freshwater limestones were supplied by subaquatic brines. Subsequently, a drastic lowering of the lake water level in the DSTFS converted the system of subaquatic freshwater limestones into subaerial tufa and travertine. As

  19. Trefoil factors in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Aamann, Luise; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Grønbæk, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which comprises ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, is characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3 (TFF1-3) are a family of peptides that play important roles in the protection and repair of epithelial surfaces, including the gastrointestinal tract. TFFs may be involved in IBD pathogenesis and are a potential treatment option. In the present review, we describe the TFF family and their potential role in IBD by summarizing the current knowledge of their expression, possible function and pharmacological role in IBD. PMID:24696606

  20. Identification of a NFκB inhibitory peptide from tryptic β-casein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, J; Klempt, M; Clawin-Rädecker, I; Lorenzen, P Chr; Meisel, H

    2014-12-15

    Several bioactive peptides are encrypted within the sequence of major milk proteins, requiring enzymatic proteolysis for release and activation. The present study aimed at the identification of potential anti-inflammatory activities in tryptic hydrolysates of bovine β-casein. Inflammatory processes involve in most cases an activation of Nuclear factor Kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), which is a pro-inflammatory transcription factor of several genes. Hence, a NFκB reporter cell line was established, and TNF-α mediated activation of NFκB was used as a measurement. Bovine β-casein (β-CN) was hydrolysed by trypsin and fractionated by ultrafiltration. Total proteolysate as well as the fraction containing peptides between 1 and 5 kDa showed an inhibitory effect in the cell-based assay, while the fraction containing molecules smaller than 1 kDa did not. This anti-inflammatory effect was ascribed to a group of large, hydrophobic peptides, which were identified using LC-MS. The main peptide was synthesised and showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in HEK(nfkb-RE)-cells. Thus, for the first time, a casein-derived peptide having an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro has been identified.

  1. Curcumin in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Rehman, Gauhar; Lee, Young Sup

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric is also used as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. Acute and chronic inflammation is a major factor in the progression of obesity, type II diabetes, arthritis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies on the efficacy and therapeutic applicability of turmeric have suggested that the active ingredient of tumeric is curcumin. Further, compelling evidence has shown that curcumin has the ability to inhibit inflammatory cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. Curcumin is safe, non-toxic, and mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, cytokines, redox status, protein kinases, and enzymes that all promote inflammation. In addition, curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were evaluated relative to various chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the available pharmacological data obtained from in vitro and in vivo research, as well as clinical trials, an opportunity exists to translate curcumin into clinics for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the near future. PMID:23281076

  2. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  3. Role of Host-Defence Peptides in Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Satya S.; McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    The eye and its associated tissues including the lacrimal system and lids have evolved several defence mechanisms to prevent microbial invasion. Included among this armory are several host-defence peptides. These multifunctional molecules are being studied not only for their endogenous antimicrobial properties but also for their potential therapeutic effects. Here the current knowledge of host-defence peptide expression in the eye will be summarized. The role of these peptides in eye disease will be discussed with the primary focus being on infectious keratitis, inflammatory conditions including dry eye and wound healing. Finally the potential of using host-defence peptides and their mimetics/derivatives for the treatment and prevention of eye diseases is addressed. PMID:21584809

  4. Antimicrobial Peptides, Skin Infections and Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Tissa R.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system evolved over 2 billion years ago to first recognize pathogens then eradicate them. Several distinct defects in this ancient but rapidly responsive element of human immune defense account for the increased incidence of skin infections in atopics. These defects include abnormalities in the physical barrier of the epidermis, alterations in microbial pattern recognition receptors such as toll receptors and NOD, and a diminished capacity to increase the expression of antimicrobial peptides during inflammation. Several antimicrobial peptides are affected including; cathelicidin, HBD-2, and HBD-3, which are lower in lesional skin of atopics compared to other inflammatory skin diseases, and dermcidin, which is decreased in sweat. Other defects in the immune defense barrier of atopics include a relative deficiency in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In the future, understanding the cause of these defects may allow therapeutic intervention to reduce the incidence of infection in atopic individuals and potentially decrease the severity of this disorder. PMID:18620136

  5. Insulin C-peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    C-peptide ... the test depends on the reason for the C-peptide measurement. Ask your health care provider if ... C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin the body produces and insulin someone injects ...

  6. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  7. Introduction to peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Stawikowski, Maciej; Fields, Gregg B

    2012-08-01

    A number of synthetic peptides are significant commercial or pharmaceutical products, ranging from the dipeptide sugar substitute aspartame to clinically used hormones such as oxytocin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and calcitonin. This unit provides an overview of the field of synthetic peptides and proteins. It discusses selecting the solid support and common coupling reagents. Additional information is provided regarding common side reactions and synthesizing modified residues.

  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation response plays an important role in host survival, and it also leads to acute and chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bowel diseases, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and various neurodegenerative diseases. During the course of inflammation, the ROS level increases. In addition to ROS, several inflammatory mediators produced at the site lead to numerous cell-mediated damages. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic intestinal disorder resulting from a dysfunctional epithelial, innate and adaptive immune response to intestinal microorganisms. The methods involving indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats with macroscopic changes of IBD, myeloperoxidase assay, microscopic (histologic) characters and biochemical parameters are discussed.

  9. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  10. Immune sensing of nucleic acids in inflammatory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Demaria, Olivier; Di Domizio, Jeremy; Gilliet, Michel

    2014-09-01

    Endosomal and cytosolic nucleic acid receptors are important immune sensors required for the detection of infecting or replicating viruses. The intracellular location of these receptors allows viral recognition and, at the same time, avoids unnecessary immune activation to self-nucleic acids that are continuously released by dying host cells. Recent evidence, however, indicates that endogenous factors such as anti-microbial peptides have the ability to break this protective mechanism. Here, we discuss these factors and illustrate how they drive inflammatory responses by promoting immune recognition of self-nucleic acids in skin wounds and inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and lupus.

  11. An Immunosuppressant Peptide from the Hard Tick Amblyomma variegatum.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yufeng; Chen, Wenlin; Mo, Guoxiang; Chen, Ran; Fang, Mingqian; Yedid, Gabriel; Yan, Xiuwen

    2016-01-01

    Ixodid ticks are well known for spreading transmitted tick-borne pathogens while being attached to their hosts for almost 1-2 weeks to obtain blood meals. Thus, they must secrete many immunosuppressant factors to combat the hosts' immune system. In the present work, we investigated an immunosuppressant peptide of the hard tick Amblyomma variegatum. This peptide, named amregulin, is composed of 40 residues with an amino acid sequence of HLHMHGNGATQVFKPRLVLKCPNAAQLIQPGKLQRQLLLQ. A cDNA of the precursor peptide was obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Bethesda, MD, USA). In rat splenocytes, amregulin exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory factors in vitro, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). In rat splenocytes, treated with amregulin, compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone, the inhibition of the above inflammatory factors was significant at all tested concentrations (2, 4 and 8 µg/mL). Amregulin shows strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities (5, 10 and 20 µg/mL) in vitro. Amregulin also significantly inhibits adjuvant-induced paw inflammation in mouse models in vivo. This peptide may facilitate the ticks' successful blood feeding and may lead to host immunotolerance of the tick. These findings have important implications for the understanding of tick-host interactions and the co-evolution between ticks and the viruses that they bear. PMID:27153086

  12. An Immunosuppressant Peptide from the Hard Tick Amblyomma variegatum

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yufeng; Chen, Wenlin; Mo, Guoxiang; Chen, Ran; Fang, Mingqian; Yedid, Gabriel; Yan, Xiuwen

    2016-01-01

    Ixodid ticks are well known for spreading transmitted tick-borne pathogens while being attached to their hosts for almost 1–2 weeks to obtain blood meals. Thus, they must secrete many immunosuppressant factors to combat the hosts’ immune system. In the present work, we investigated an immunosuppressant peptide of the hard tick Amblyomma variegatum. This peptide, named amregulin, is composed of 40 residues with an amino acid sequence of HLHMHGNGATQVFKPRLVLKCPNAAQLIQPGKLQRQLLLQ. A cDNA of the precursor peptide was obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Bethesda, MD, USA). In rat splenocytes, amregulin exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory factors in vitro, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). In rat splenocytes, treated with amregulin, compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone, the inhibition of the above inflammatory factors was significant at all tested concentrations (2, 4 and 8 µg/mL). Amregulin shows strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities (5, 10 and 20 µg/mL) in vitro. Amregulin also significantly inhibits adjuvant-induced paw inflammation in mouse models in vivo. This peptide may facilitate the ticks’ successful blood feeding and may lead to host immunotolerance of the tick. These findings have important implications for the understanding of tick-host interactions and the co-evolution between ticks and the viruses that they bear. PMID:27153086

  13. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  14. Anti-inflammatory Diets.

    PubMed

    Sears, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition. To overcome silent inflammation requires an anti-inflammatory diet (with omega-3s and polyphenols, in particular those of Maqui). The most important aspect of such an anti-inflammatory diet is the stabilization of insulin and reduced intake of omega-6 fatty acids. The ultimate treatment lies in reestablishing hormonal and genetic balance to generate satiety instead of constant hunger. Anti-inflammatory nutrition, balanced 40:30:30 with caloric restriction, should be considered as a form of gene silencing technology, in particular the silencing of the genes involved in the generation of silent inflammation. To this anti-inflammatory diet foundation supplemental omega-3 fatty acids at the level of 2-3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day should be added. Finally, a diet rich in colorful, nonstarchy vegetables would contribute adequate amounts of polyphenols to help not only to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-κB (primary molecular target of inflammation) but also activate AMP kinase. Understanding the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on silent inflammation can elevate the diet from simply a source of calories to being on the cutting edge of gene-silencing technology. PMID:26400429

  15. Engineering cyclic peptide toxins.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard J; Craik, David J

    2012-01-01

    Peptide-based toxins have attracted much attention in recent years for their exciting potential applications in drug design and development. This interest has arisen because toxins are highly potent and selectively target a range of physiologically important receptors. However, peptides suffer from a number of disadvantages, including poor in vivo stability and poor bioavailability. A number of naturally occurring cyclic peptides have been discovered in plants, animals, and bacteria that have exceptional stability and potentially ameliorate these disadvantages. The lessons learned from studies of the structures, stabilities, and biological activities of these cyclic peptides can be applied to the reengineering of toxins that are not naturally cyclic but are amenable to cyclization. In this chapter, we describe solid-phase chemical synthetic methods for the reengineering of peptide toxins to improve their suitability as therapeutic, diagnostic, or imaging agents. The focus is on small disulfide-rich peptides from the venoms of cone snails and scorpions, but the technology is potentially widely applicable to a number of other peptide-based toxins. PMID:22230565

  16. Functions of antimicrobial peptides in host defense and immunity.

    PubMed

    Beisswenger, Christoph; Bals, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effector molecules of the innate immune system. AMPs have a broad antimicrobial spectrum and lyse microbial cells by interaction with biomembranes. Besides their direct antimicrobial function, they have multiple roles as mediators of inflammation with impact on epithelial and inflammatory cells influencing diverse processes such as cytokine release, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, wound healing, chemotaxis, immune induction, and protease-antiprotease balance. Furthermore, AMPs qualify as prototypes of innovative drugs that may be used as antibiotics, anti-lipopolysaccharide drugs, or modifiers of inflammation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the basic and applied biology of antimicrobial peptides and discusses features of AMPs in host defense and inflammation.

  17. Interactions between APP secretases and inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Magdalena; Walter, Jochen; Gentleman, Steve M

    2008-01-01

    There is now a large body of evidence linking inflammation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This association manifests itself neuropathologically in the presence of activated microglia and astrocytes around neuritic plaques and increased levels of inflammatory mediators in the brains of AD patients. It is considered that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which is derived from the processing of the longer amyloid precursor protein (APP), could be the most important stimulator of this response, and therefore determining the role of the different secretases involved in its generation is essential for a better understanding of the regulation of inflammation in AD. The finding that certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can affect the processing of APP by inhibiting β- and γ-secretases, together with recent revelations that these enzymes may be regulated by inflammation, suggest that they could be an interesting target for anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review we will discuss some of these issues and the role of the secretases in inflammation, independent of their effect on Aβ formation. PMID:18564425

  18. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders including polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathies (NMs). The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies share many similarities. They present acutely, subacutely, or chronically with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for associated distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis. The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies also share a variable degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and a nonspecifically abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy. The muscle pathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates of variable distribution within the muscle fascicle. Despite these similarities, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group. The overlap syndrome (OS) refers to the association of PM, DM, or NM with connective tissue disease, such as scleroderma or systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition to elevated antinuclear antibodies (ANA), patients with OS may be weaker in the proximal arms than the legs mimicking the pattern seen in some muscular dystrophies. In this review, we focus on DM, PM, and NM and examine current and promising therapies. PMID:23117947

  19. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2012-07-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders including polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathies (NMs). The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies share many similarities. They present acutely, subacutely, or chronically with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for associated distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis. The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies also share a variable degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and a nonspecifically abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy. The muscle pathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates of variable distribution within the muscle fascicle. Despite these similarities, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group. The overlap syndrome (OS) refers to the association of PM, DM, or NM with connective tissue disease, such as scleroderma or systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition to elevated antinuclear antibodies (ANA), patients with OS may be weaker in the proximal arms than the legs mimicking the pattern seen in some muscular dystrophies. In this review, we focus on DM, PM, and NM and examine current and promising therapies.

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Antimicrobial Peptides on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Shang, Dejing

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are usually small molecule peptides, which display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, high efficiency, and stability. For the multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains, AMPs play a significant role in the development of novel antibiotics because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and specific antimicrobial mechanism. Besides broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, AMPs also have anti-inflammatory activity. The neutralization of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) plays a key role in anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. On the one hand, AMPs can readily penetrate the cell wall barrier by neutralizing LPS to remove Gram-negative bacteria that can lead to infection. On the contrary, AMPs can also inhibit the production of biological inflammatory cytokines to reduce the inflammatory response through neutralizing circulating LPS. In addition, AMPs also modulate the host immune system by chemotaxis of leukocytes, to promote immune cell proliferation, epithelialization, and angiogenesis and thus play a protective role. This review summarizes some recent researches about anti-inflammatory AMPs, with a focus on the interaction of AMPs and LPS on the past decade. PMID:26612970

  1. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  2. Introduction to peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fields, Gregg B

    2002-05-01

    A number of synthetic peptides are significant commercial or pharmaceutical products, ranging from the dipeptide sugar-substitute aspartame to clinically used hormones, such as oxytocin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and calcitonin. This unit provides an overview of the field of synthetic peptides and proteins, including their purification. It discusses selecting the solid support and common coupling reagents. Additional information is provided regarding common side reactions and synthesizing modified residues.

  3. Introduction to peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fields, Gregg B

    2002-02-01

    A number of synthetic peptides are significant commercial or pharmaceutical products, ranging from the dipeptide sugar-substitute aspartame to clinically used hormones, such as oxytocin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and calcitonin. This unit provides an overview of the field of synthetic peptides and proteins, including their purification. It discusses selecting the solid support and common coupling reagents. Additional information is provided regarding common side reactions and synthesizing modified residues.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, R M; Croft, N M; Fell, J M; Afzal, N A; Heuschkel, R B

    2006-01-01

    Twenty five per cent of inflammatory bowel disease presents in childhood. Growth and nutrition are key issues in the management with the aim of treatment being to induce and then maintain disease remission with minimal side effects. Only 25% of Crohn's disease presents with the classic triad of abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhoea. Most children with ulcerative colitis have blood in the stool at presentation. Inflammatory markers are usually although not invariably raised at presentation (particularly in Crohn's disease). Full investigation includes upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. Treatment requires multidisciplinary input as part of a clinical network led by a paediatrician with special expertise in the management of the condition. PMID:16632672

  5. Inflammatory and toxic myopathy.

    PubMed

    Teener, James W

    2012-11-01

    Although muscle diseases are relatively rare, several treatable myopathies must be recognized by the clinician to maximize the possibility of restoring strength in affected patients. The inflammatory myopathies, including polymyositis, dermatomyositis, inflammatory necrotizing myopathy, and myositis in association with mixed connective tissue disease, typically respond well to immunosuppressive treatment. Inclusion body myositis, a myopathy that has features of both inflammation and primary degeneration, may not be treatable at this time, but treatments are actively being sought. Muscle dysfunction caused by toxins must also be recognized because removal of the offending toxin usually results in restoration of normal muscle function. Important muscle toxins include cholesterol-lowering medications, colchicine, zidovudine, corticosteroids, emetine, and ethanol.

  6. Hypoglycemic agents and potential anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Vishal; Galdo, John A; Mathews, Suresh T

    2016-01-01

    Current literature shows an association of diabetes and secondary complications with chronic inflammation. Evidence of these immunological changes include altered levels of cytokines and chemokines, changes in the numbers and activation states of various leukocyte populations, apoptosis, and fibrosis during diabetes. Therefore, treatment of diabetes and its complications may include pharmacological strategies to reduce inflammation. Apart from anti-inflammatory drugs, various hypoglycemic agents have also been found to reduce inflammation that could contribute to improved outcomes. Extensive studies have been carried out with thiazolidinediones (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and metformin (AMP-activated protein kinase activator) with each of these classes of compounds showing moderate-to-strong anti-inflammatory action. Sulfonylureas and alpha glucosidase inhibitors appeared to exert modest effects, while the injectable agents, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, may improve secondary complications due to their anti-inflammatory potential. Currently, there is a lack of clinical data on anti-inflammatory effects of sodium–glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors. Nevertheless, for all these glucose-lowering agents, it is essential to distinguish between anti-inflammatory effects resulting from better glucose control and effects related to intrinsic anti-inflammatory actions of the pharmacological class of compounds. PMID:27114714

  7. Serum peptide reactivities may distinguish neuromyelitis optica subgroups and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Imke; Beißbarth, Tim; Ellenberger, David; Pache, Florence; Stork, Lidia; Ringelstein, Marius; Aktas, Orhan; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Dihazi, Hassan; Friede, Tim; Ruprecht, Klemens; Paul, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess in an observational study whether serum peptide antibody reactivities may distinguish aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody (Ab)–positive and -negative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: We screened 8,700 peptides that included human and viral antigens of potential relevance for inflammatory demyelinating diseases and random peptides with pooled sera from different patient groups and healthy controls to set up a customized microarray with 700 peptides. With this microarray, we tested sera from 66 patients with AQP4-Ab-positive (n = 16) and AQP4-Ab-negative (n = 19) NMOSD, RRMS (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 20). Results: Differential peptide reactivities distinguished NMOSD subgroups from RRMS in 80% of patients. However, the 2 NMOSD subgroups were not well-discriminated, although those patients are clearly separated by their antibody reactivities against AQP4 in cell-based assays. Elevated reactivities to myelin and Epstein-Barr virus peptides were present in RRMS and to AQP4 and AQP1 peptides in AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD. Conclusions: While AQP4-Ab-positive and -negative NMOSD subgroups are not well-discriminated by peptide antibody reactivities, our findings suggest that peptide antibody reactivities may have the potential to distinguish between both NMOSD subgroups and MS. Future studies should thus concentrate on evaluating peptide antibody reactivities for the differentiation of AQP4-Ab-negative NMOSD and MS. PMID:26894206

  8. Oesophageal inflammatory paediatric chylothorax

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, Thomas; Cullen, Paul; Mortell, Alan; McGuinness, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric chylothoraces are rare, particularly outside the operative setting. Cases of spontaneous chylothorax are often demanding diagnostically and frequently associated with patient morbidity. We present a challenging case of paediatric chylothorax associated with inflammatory oesophageal perforation likely related to foreign body ingestion. PMID:24920516

  9. Echinometrin: a novel mast cell degranulating peptide from the coelomic liquid of Echinometra lucunter sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Sampaio, Marlos Cortez; Zychar, Bianca Cestari; Gonçalves, Luis Roberto de Camargo; Giorgi, Renata; Nogueira, Thiago de Oliveira; de Melo, Robson Lopes; Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima Pereira; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Echinometra lucunter is an abundant sea urchin found in Brazilian waters. Accidents caused by this animal are common and are characterized by the penetration of the spines in the skin, which raises an inflammatory reaction through mechanical trauma as well as by the presumable action of toxins. Additionally, there have been reports of inflammatory reaction after the consumption of raw sea urchin eggs. In this work, we have isolated a peptide from E. lucunter coelomic fluid that could elicit inflammatory reactions, such as paw edema, leukocyte recruitment and diminishment of the pain threshold. This peptide was termed Echinometrin. Moreover, the peptide administration was able to produce in vivo degranulation of mouse mast cells, in a dose-response manner. The peptide was 'de novo' sequenced by mass spectrometry and its synthetic analog could reproduce all the observed effects. Sequence alignment indicates that this peptide is comprised in vitellogenin, an abundant nutrient protein present in the gametogenic cells of sea urchins, making it possible that echinometrin would be a cryptide with pro-inflammatory effects.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants.

    PubMed

    Tam, James P; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  11. Electron transfer in peptides.

    PubMed

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  13. Curbing Inflammation through Endogenous Pathways: Focus on Melanocortin Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tazeen J.; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Perretti, Mauro; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    The resolution of inflammation is now known to be an active process, armed with a multitude of mediators both lipid and protein in nature. Melanocortins are peptides endowed with considerable promise with their proresolution and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical models of inflammatory disease, with tissue protective effects. These peptides and their targets are appealing because they can be seen as a natural way of inducing these effects as they harness endogenous pathways of control. Whereas most of the information generated about these mediators derives from several acute models of inflammation (such as zymosan induced peritonitis), there is some indication that these mediators may inhibit chronic inflammation by modulating cytokines, chemokines, and leukocyte apoptosis. In addition, proresolving mediators and their mimics have often been tested alongside therapeutic protocols, hence have been tested in settings more relevant to real life clinical scenarios. We provide here an overview on some of these mediators with a focus on melanocortin peptides and receptors, proposing that they may unveil new opportunities for innovative treatments of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:23738228

  14. Inflammatory prostaglandin E2 signaling in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ju; Wang, Qian; Johansson, Jenny U.; Liang, Xibin; Woodling, Nathaniel S.; Priyam, Prachi; Loui, Taylor M.; Merchant, Milton; Breyer, Richard M.; Montine, Thomas J.; Andreasson, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Objective There is significant evidence for a central role of inflammation in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Epidemiological studies indicate that chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduces the risk of developing AD in healthy aging populations. As NSAIDs inhibit the enzymatic activity of the inflammatory cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2, these findings suggest that downstream prostaglandin signaling pathways function in the pre-clinical development of AD. Here, we investigate the function of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling through its EP3 receptor in the neuroinflammatory response to Aβ peptide. Methods The function of PGE2 signaling through its EP3 receptor was examined in vivo a model of subacute neuroinflammation induced by administration of Aβ42 peptides. Our findings were then confirmed in young adult APPSwe-PS1 ΔE9 transgenic mice. Results Deletion of the PGE2 EP3 receptor in a model of Aβ42 peptide-induced neuroinflammation reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression, cytokine production, and oxidative stress. In the APPSwe-PS1 ΔE9 model of Familial AD, deletion of the EP3 receptor blocked induction of pro-inflammatory gene and protein expression and lipid peroxidation. In addition, levels of Aβ peptides were significantly decreased, as were BACE-1 and β-CTF levels, suggesting that generation of Aβ peptides may be increased as a result of pro-inflammatory EP3 signaling. Finally, deletion of EP3 receptor significantly reversed the decline in pre-synaptic proteins seen in APPSwe-PS1 ΔE9 mice. Interpretation Our findings identify the PGE2 EP3 receptor as a novel pro-inflammatory, pro-amyloidogenic, and synaptotoxic signaling pathway, and suggest a role for COX-PGE2-EP3 signaling in the development of AD. PMID:22915243

  15. Signal peptide of cellulase.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2014-06-01

    Cellulase is an enzyme playing a crucial role in biotechnology industries ranging from textile to biofuel because of tremendous amount of cellulose produced in plant. In order to improve cellulase productivity, huge resource has been spent in search for good cellulases from microorganism in remote areas and in creation of ideal cellulase by engineering. However, not much attention is given to the secretion of cellulases from cell into extracellular space, where a cellulase plays its enzymatic role. In this minireview, the signal peptides, which lead secreted proteins to specific secretion systems and scatter in literature, are reviewed. The patterns of signal peptides are checked against 4,101 cellulases documented in UniProtKB, the largest protein database in the world, to determine how these cellulases are secreted. Simultaneous review on both literature and cellulases from the database not only provides updated knowledge on signal peptides but also indicates the gap in our research.

  16. Synthetic antibiofilm peptides.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; de Souza Cândido, Elizabete; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Hancock, Robert E W

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria predominantly exist as multicellular aggregates known as biofilms that are associated with at least two thirds of all infections and exhibit increased adaptive resistance to conventional antibiotic therapies. Therefore, biofilms are major contributors to the global health problem of antibiotic resistance, and novel approaches to counter them are urgently needed. Small molecules of the innate immune system called host defense peptides (HDPs) have emerged as promising templates for the design of potent, broad-spectrum antibiofilm agents. Here, we review recent developments in the new field of synthetic antibiofilm peptides, including mechanistic insights, synergistic interactions with available antibiotics, and their potential as novel antimicrobials against persistent infections caused by biofilms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26724202

  17. Biomimetic peptide nanosensors.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue; Kim, Sang N; Naik, Rajesh R; McAlpine, Michael C

    2012-05-15

    The development of a miniaturized sensing platform tailored for sensitive and selective detection of a variety of biochemical analytes could offer transformative fundamental and technological opportunities. Due to their high surface-to-volume ratios, nanoscale materials are extremely sensitive sensors. Likewise, peptides represent robust substrates for selective recognition due to the potential for broad chemical diversity within their relatively compact size. Here we explore the possibilities of linking peptides to nanosensors for the selective detection of biochemical targets. Such systems raise a number of interesting fundamental challenges: What are the peptide sequences, and how can rational design be used to derive selective binders? What nanomaterials should be used, and what are some strategies for assembling hybrid nanosensors? What role does molecular modeling play in elucidating response mechanisms? What is the resulting performance of these sensors, in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, and response time? What are some potential applications? This Account will highlight our early attempts to address these research challenges. Specifically, we use natural peptide sequences or sequences identified from phage display as capture elements. The sensors are based on a variety of nanomaterials including nanowires, graphene, and carbon nanotubes. We couple peptides to the nanomaterial surfaces via traditional surface functionalization methods or self-assembly. Molecular modeling provides detailed insights into the hybrid nanostructure, as well as the sensor detection mechanisms. The peptide nanosensors can distinguish chemically camouflaged mixtures of vapors and detect chemical warfare agents with sensitivities as low as parts-per-billion levels. Finally, we anticipate future uses of this technology in biomedicine: for example, devices based on these sensors could detect disease from the molecular components in human breath. Overall, these results provide a

  18. Invertebrate FMRFamide related peptides.

    PubMed

    Krajniak, Kevin G

    2013-06-01

    In 1977 the neuropeptide FMRFamide was isolated from the clam, Macrocallista nimbosa. Since then several hundred FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) have been isolated from invertebrate animals. Precursors to the FaRPs likely arose in the cnidarians. With the transition to a bilateral body plan FaRPs became a fixture in the invertebrate phyla. They have come to play a critical role as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neurohormones. FaRPs regulate a variety of body functions including, feeding, digestion, circulation, reproduction, movement. The evolution of the molecular form and function of these omnipresent peptides will be considered.

  19. Dicyclopropylmethyl peptide backbone protectant.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Louis A; Nasr, Khaled; Abdel-Maksoud, Adel Ali; El-Faham, Ayman; Ionescu, Dumitru; Henklein, Peter; Wenschuh, Holger; Beyermann, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Bienert, Michael

    2009-08-20

    The N-dicyclopropylmethyl (Dcpm) residue, introduced into amino acids via reaction of dicyclopropylmethanimine hydrochloride with an amino acid ester followed by sodium cyanoborohydride or triacetoxyborohydride reduction, can be used as an amide bond protectant for peptide synthesis. Examples which demonstrate the amelioration of aggregation effects include syntheses of the alanine decapeptide and the prion peptide (106-126). Avoidance of cyclization to the aminosuccinimide followed substitution of Fmoc-(Dcpm)Gly-OH for Fmoc-Gly-OH in the assembly of sequences containing the sensitive Asp-Gly unit.

  20. Progressive inflammatory pathology in the retina of aluminum-fed 5xFAD transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Pogue, A I; Dua, P; Hill, J M; Lukiw, W J

    2015-11-01

    At least 57 murine transgenic models for Alzheimer's disease (Tg-AD) have been developed to overexpress the 42 amino acid amyloid-beta (Aβ42) peptide in the central nervous system (CNS). These 'humanized murine Tg-AD models' have greatly expanded our understanding of the contribution of Aβ42 peptide-mediated pro-inflammatory neuropathology to the AD process. A number of independent laboratories using different amyloid-overexpressing Tg-AD models have shown that supplementation of murine Tg-AD diets and/or drinking water with aluminum significantly enhances Aβ42 peptide-mediated inflammatory pathology and AD-type cognitive change compared to animals receiving control diets. In humans AD-type pathology appears to originate in the limbic system and progressively spreads into primary processing and sensory regions such as the retina. In these studies, for the first time, we assess the propagation of Aβ42 and inflammatory signals into the retina of 5xFAD Tg-AD amyloid-overexpressing mice whose diets were supplemented with aluminum. The two most interesting findings were (1) that similar to other Tg-AD models, there was a significantly accelerated development of Aβ42 and inflammatory pathology in 5xFAD Tg-AD mice fed aluminum; and (2) in aluminum-supplemented animals, markers for inflammatory pathology appeared in both the brain and the retina as evidenced by an evolving presence of Aβ42 peptides, and accompanied by inflammatory markers - cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The results indicate that in the 5xFAD Tg-AD model aluminum not only enhances an Aβ42-mediated inflammatory degeneration of the brain but also appears to induce AD-type pathology in an anatomically-linked primary sensory area that involves vision.

  1. Antihypertensive peptides from food proteins.

    PubMed

    Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are encrypted within the primary structure of food proteins where they remain inactive until released by enzymatic hydrolysis. Once released from the parent protein, certain peptides have the ability to modulate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) because they decrease activities of renin or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the two main enzymes that regulate mammalian blood pressure. These antihypertensive peptides can also enhance the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway to increase nitric oxide (NO) levels within vascular walls and promote vasodilation. The peptides can block the interactions between angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor) and angiotensin receptors, which can contribute to reduced blood pressure. This review focuses on the methods that are involved in antihypertensive peptide production from food sources, including fractionation protocols that are used to enrich bioactive peptide content and enhance peptide activity. It also discusses mechanisms that are believed to be involved in the antihypertensive activity of these peptides.

  2. Inflammatory mechanisms of endometritis.

    PubMed

    Woodward, E M; Troedsson, M H T

    2015-07-01

    Transient post breeding endometritis is a normal physiological reaction in the mare, as it is believed that an inflammatory response is necessary for the effective removal of contaminating bacteria and excess spermatozoa introduced into the uterus. While most mares can clear endometritis within a reasonable amount of time, persistent endometritis caused by either bacteria or spermatozoa can threaten the success of a pregnancy. A subpopulation of mares is susceptible to persistent endometritis, and these mares are a concern in equine reproductive medicine. Research has identified several factors that contribute to susceptibility; however, the exact mechanisms of the progression of the disease are still being elucidated. Current research focuses on endometrial gene expression during endometritis in an attempt to understand the timing of specific inflammatory processes involved with the development of susceptibility to persistent endometritis. With an increased understanding of the mechanisms involved with the disease, current treatments can be improved upon, and new treatments can be developed to target affected pathways. PMID:25537084

  3. Host defense peptides as effector molecules of the innate immune response: a sledgehammer for drug resistance?

    PubMed

    Steinstraesser, Lars; Kraneburg, Ursula M; Hirsch, Tobias; Kesting, Marco; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Jacobsen, Frank; Al-Benna, Sammy

    2009-09-09

    Host defense peptides can modulate the innate immune response and boost infection-resolving immunity, while dampening potentially harmful pro-inflammatory (septic) responses. Both antimicrobial and/or immunomodulatory activities are an integral part of the process of innate immunity, which itself has many of the hallmarks of successful anti-infective therapies, namely rapid action and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. This gives these peptides the potential to become an entirely new therapeutic approach against bacterial infections. This review details the role and activities of these peptides, and examines their applicability as development candidates for use against bacterial infections.

  4. Keratoconus: an inflammatory disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Galvis, V; Sherwin, T; Tello, A; Merayo, J; Barrera, R; Acera, A

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus has been classically defined as a progressive, non-inflammatory condition, which produces a thinning and steepening of the cornea. Its pathophysiological mechanisms have been investigated for a long time. Both genetic and environmental factors have been associated with the disease. Recent studies have shown a significant role of proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, and free radicals; therefore, although keratoconus does not meet all the classic criteria for an inflammatory disease, the lack of inflammation has been questioned. The majority of studies in the tears of patients with keratoconus have found increased levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Eye rubbing, a proven risk factor for keratoconus, has been also shown recently to increase the tear levels of MMP-13, IL-6, and TNF-α. In the tear fluid of patients with ocular rosacea, IL-1α and MMP-9 have been reported to be significantly elevated, and cases of inferior corneal thinning, resembling keratoconus, have been reported. We performed a literature review of published biochemical changes in keratoconus that would support that this could be, at least in part, an inflammatory condition. PMID:25931166

  5. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  6. Analgesic effects of Huwentoxin-IV on animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Wu, Zhe; Tang, Dongfang; Xun, Xiaohong; Liu, Lichao; Li, Xianlei; Nie, Dongsong; Xiang, Yang; Yi, Jianming; Yi, Jizu

    2014-01-01

    Huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), a peptide with 35 amino acid residues, was discovered in the venom of spider Ornithoctonus huwena. The peptide had an inhibitory effect on a tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium channel with highly sensitive to Nav1.7, an attractive target for pain release therapy. In this study we further demonstrated the analgesic effects of HWTX-IV using mouse and rat as an inflammatory pain model and/or a neuropathic pain models. In the both cases, the analgesic effects of the peptide were dose-dependent, and statistically significant. In the inflammatory model, 100 µg/kg of HWTX-IV produced an efficient reversal of hyperalgesia up to 63.6% after injection of formalin in rats with the efficiency equivalent to that of morphine at 50 µg/kg, and 200 µg/kg of HWTX-IV produced protective effect up to 55.6% after injection of acetic acid with the efficiency equivalent to that of morphine at 100 µg/kg. In the spinal nerve model, the peptide produced the longer and higher reversal effect on allodynia than Mexiletine. These results demonstrated that HWTX-IV released efficiently the acute inflammatory pain and chronic neuropathic pain in these animals, suggesting that HWTX-IV was a potential and efficient candidate for further clinical drug development against inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:24188048

  7. Brain Peptides and Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehart-Treichel, Joan

    1976-01-01

    Proteins isolated from the brain and used as drugs can improve and apparently even transfer mental states and behavior. Much of the pioneering work and recent research with humans and animals is reviewed and crucial questions that are being posed about the psychologically active peptides are related. (BT)

  8. Peptide and peptide library cyclization via bromomethylbenzene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hacker, David E; Almohaini, Mohammed; Anbazhagan, Aruna; Ma, Zhong; Hartman, Matthew C T

    2015-01-01

    Cyclization confers several advantages to peptides, cumulatively serving to make them more drug-like. In this protocol, cyclic peptides are generated via bis-alkylation of cysteine-containing peptides using α,α'-dibromo-m-xylene. The reactions are robust and high yielding. Multiple reaction platforms for the application of this versatile strategy are described herein: the cyclization of solid-phase-synthesized peptides, both in solution and on resin, as well as the cyclization of in vitro translated mRNA-peptide fusion libraries on oligo(dT) resin.

  9. Intestinal barrier homeostasis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Goll, Rasmus; van Beelen Granlund, Atle

    2015-01-01

    The single-cell thick intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lining with its protective layer of mucus is the primary barrier protecting the organism from the harsh environment of the intestinal lumen. Today it is clear that the balancing act necessary to maintain intestinal homeostasis is dependent on the coordinated action of all cell types of the IEC, and that there are no passive bystanders to gut immunity solely acting as absorptive or regenerative cells: Mucin and antimicrobial peptides on the epithelial surface are continually being replenished by goblet and Paneth's cells. Luminal antigens are being sensed by pattern recognition receptors on the enterocytes. The enteroendocrine cells sense the environment and coordinate the intestinal function by releasing neuropeptides acting both on IEC and inflammatory cells. All this while cells are continuously and rapidly being regenerated from a limited number of stem cells close to the intestinal crypt base. This review seeks to describe the cell types and structures of the intestinal epithelial barrier supporting intestinal homeostasis, and how disturbance in these systems might relate to inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Peptides and Ageing.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, Vladimir Kh

    2002-01-01

    A technology has been developed for manufacturing of biologically active complex peptide preparations from extracts of different tissues. In particular, the pineal preparation (Epithalamin) augments the in vitro outgrowth of explants from the pineal gland but not from other tissues, the latter being stimulated by peptide preparations from respective tissues. Epithalamin increases melatonin production by the pineal gland of rats, improves immunological parameters in rats and mice, produces anticarcinogenic effects in different experimental models, stimulates antioxidant defenses, and restores the reproductive function in old rats. These effects are combined in the ability of Epithalamin to increase the lifespan in rats, mice, and fruit flies. Many of these effects are reproduced in clinical trials, which have demonstrated the geroprotector activity of Epithalamin in humans. Among the effects of the thymic preparation Thymalin, those related to its ability to stimulate immunity are the most prominent. This ability is associated with anticarcinogenic and geroprotector activities. Clinical trials of the peptide preparations obtained from other organs including the prostate, the cerebral cortex, and the eye retina, have demonstrated beneficial effects reflected by the improvement of the conditions of respective organs. Based on the data about the amino acid compositions of the peptide preparations, novel principles of the design of biologically active short peptides possessing tissue-specific activities has been developed. Dipeptides specific for the thymus and tetrapeptides specific for the heart, liver, brain cortex, and pineal glands stimulate the in vitro outgrowth of explants of respective organs. Interestingly, for eye retina and the pineal gland, a common tetrapeptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly (Epitalon) has been designed, probably reflecting the common embryonal origin of these two organs. Epitalon reproduces the effects of Epithalamin including those related to its

  11. Peptide vectors for gene delivery: from single peptides to multifunctional peptide nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Raad, Markus de; Teunissen, Erik A; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    The therapeutic use of nucleic acids relies on the availability of sophisticated delivery systems for targeted and intracellular delivery of these molecules. Such a gene delivery should possess essential characteristics to overcome several extracellular and intracellular barriers. Peptides offer an attractive platform for nonviral gene delivery, as several functional peptide classes exist capable of overcoming these barriers. However, none of these functional peptide classes contain all the essential characteristics required to overcome all of the barriers associated with successful gene delivery. Combining functional peptides into multifunctional peptide vectors will be pivotal for improving peptide-based gene delivery systems. By using combinatorial strategies and high-throughput screening, the identification of multifunctional peptide vectors will accelerate the optimization of peptide-based gene delivery systems.

  12. LC-MS/MS Identification of a Bromelain Peptide Biomarker from Ananas comosus Merr.

    PubMed

    Secor, Eric R; Szczepanek, Steven M; Singh, Anurag; Guernsey, Linda; Natarajan, Prabitha; Rezaul, Karim; Han, David K; Thrall, Roger S; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2012-01-01

    Bromelain (Br) is a cysteine peptidase (GenBank AEH26024.1) from pineapple, with over 40 years of clinical use. The constituents mediating its anti-inflammatory activity are not thoroughly characterized and no peptide biomarker exists. Our objective is to characterize Br raw material and identify peptides in the plasma of Br treated mice. After SDS-PAGE in-gel digestion, Br (VN#3507; Middletown, CT, USA) peptides were analyzed via LC/MS/MS using 95% protein probability, 95% peptide probability, and a minimum peptide number = 5. Br spiked mouse plasma (1 ug/ul) and plasma from i.p. treated mice (12 mg/kg) were assessed using SRM. In Br raw material, we identified seven proteins: four proteases, one jacalin-like lectin, and two protease inhibitors. In Br spiked mouse plasma, six proteins (ananain, bromelain inhibitor, cysteine proteinase AN11, FB1035 precursor, FBSB precursor, and jacalin-like lectin) were identified. Using LC/MS/MS, we identified the unique peptide, DYGAVNEVK, derived from FB1035, in the plasma of i.p. Br treated mice. The spectral count of this peptide peaked at 6 hrs and was undetectable by 24 hrs. In this study, a novel Br peptide was identified in the plasma of treated mice for the first time. This Br peptide could serve as a biomarker to standardize the therapeutic dose and maximize clinical utility.

  13. Antagonistic peptide technology for functional dissection of CLE peptides revisited.

    PubMed

    Czyzewicz, Nathan; Wildhagen, Mari; Cattaneo, Pietro; Stahl, Yvonne; Pinto, Karine Gustavo; Aalen, Reidunn B; Butenko, Melinka A; Simon, Rüdiger; Hardtke, Christian S; De Smet, Ive

    2015-08-01

    In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, over 1000 putative genes encoding small, presumably secreted, signalling peptides can be recognized. However, a major obstacle in identifying the function of genes encoding small signalling peptides is the limited number of available loss-of-function mutants. To overcome this, a promising new tool, antagonistic peptide technology, was recently developed. Here, this antagonistic peptide technology was tested on selected CLE peptides and the related IDA peptide and its usefulness in the context of studies of peptide function discussed. Based on the analyses, it was concluded that the antagonistic peptide approach is not the ultimate means to overcome redundancy or lack of loss-of-function lines. However, information collected using antagonistic peptide approaches (in the broad sense) can be very useful, but these approaches do not work in all cases and require a deep insight on the interaction between the ligand and its receptor to be successful. This, as well as peptide ligand structure considerations, should be taken into account before ordering a wide range of synthetic peptide variants and/or generating transgenic plants.

  14. The emerging role of peptides and lipids as antimicrobial epidermal barriers and modulators of local inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Brogden, N.K.; Mehalick, L.; Fischer, C.L.; Wertz, P.W.; Brogden, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Skin is complex and comprised of distinct layers, each layer with unique architecture and immunologic functions. Cells within these layers produce differing amounts of antimicrobial peptides and lipids (sphingoid bases and sebaceous fatty acids) that limit colonization of commensal and opportunistic microorganisms. Furthermore, antimicrobial peptides and lipids have distinct, concentration-dependent ancillary innate and adaptive immune functions. At 0.1-2.0 μM, antimicrobial peptides induce cell migration and adaptive immune responses to co-administered antigens. At 2.0-6.0 μM, they induce cell proliferation and enhance wound healing. At 6.0-12.0 μM, antimicrobial peptides can regulate chemokine and cytokine production and at their highest concentrations of 15.0-30.0 μM, antimicrobial peptides can be cytotoxic. At 1-100 nM, lipids enhance cell migration induced by chemokines, suppress apoptosis, and optimize T cell cytotoxicity and at 0.3-1.0 μM, they inhibit cell migration and attenuate chemokine and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. Recently many antimicrobial peptides and lipids at 0.1-2.0 μM have been found to attenuate the production of chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines to microbial antigens. Together, both the antimicrobial and the anti-inflammatory activities of these peptides and lipids may serve to create a strong, overlapping immunologic barrier that not only controls the concentrations of cutaneous commensal flora but also the extent to which they induce a localized inflammatory response. PMID:22538862

  15. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  16. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. PMID:27479451

  17. Antimicrobial peptides: premises and promises.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K V R; Yedery, R D; Aranha, C

    2004-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important component of the natural defences of most living organisms against invading pathogens. These are relatively small (< 10kDa), cationic and amphipathic peptides of variable length, sequence and structure. During the past two decades several AMPs have been isolated from a wide variety of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates, and plants as well as from bacteria and fungi. Most of these peptides are obtained from different sources like macrophages, neutrophils, epithelial cells, haemocytes, fat body, reproductive tract, etc. These peptides exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, protozoa, yeast, fungi and viruses. A few peptides have also been found to be cytotoxic to sperm and tumour cells. AMPs are classified based on the three dimensional structural studies carried out with the help of NMR. The peptides are broadly classified into five major groups namely (a) peptides that form alpha-helical structures, (b) peptides rich in cysteine residues, (c) peptides that form beta-sheet, (d) peptides rich in regular amino acids namely histatin, arginine and proline and (e) peptides composed of rare and modified amino acids. Most of these peptides are believed to act by disrupting the plasma membrane leading to the lysis of the cell. AMPs have been found to be excellent candidates for developing novel antimicrobial agents and a few of these peptides show antimicrobial activity against pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV/HSV. Peptides, namely magainin and nisin have been shown to demonstrate contraceptive properties in vitro and in vivo. A few peptides have already entered clinical trials for the treatment of impetigo, diabetic foot ulcers and gastric helicobacter infections. In this review, we discuss the source, structures and mode of action with special reference to therapeutic considerations of various AMPs

  18. A Peptide Filtering Relation Quantifies MHC Class I Peptide Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Leonard D.; Howarth, Mark; Cardelli, Luca; Emmott, Stephen; Elliott, Tim; Werner, Joern M.

    2011-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules enable cytotoxic T lymphocytes to destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells, thereby preventing disease progression. MHC class I molecules provide a snapshot of the contents of a cell by binding to protein fragments arising from intracellular protein turnover and presenting these fragments at the cell surface. Competing fragments (peptides) are selected for cell-surface presentation on the basis of their ability to form a stable complex with MHC class I, by a process known as peptide optimization. A better understanding of the optimization process is important for our understanding of immunodominance, the predominance of some T lymphocyte specificities over others, which can determine the efficacy of an immune response, the danger of immune evasion, and the success of vaccination strategies. In this paper we present a dynamical systems model of peptide optimization by MHC class I. We incorporate the chaperone molecule tapasin, which has been shown to enhance peptide optimization to different extents for different MHC class I alleles. Using a combination of published and novel experimental data to parameterize the model, we arrive at a relation of peptide filtering, which quantifies peptide optimization as a function of peptide supply and peptide unbinding rates. From this relation, we find that tapasin enhances peptide unbinding to improve peptide optimization without significantly delaying the transit of MHC to the cell surface, and differences in peptide optimization across MHC class I alleles can be explained by allele-specific differences in peptide binding. Importantly, our filtering relation may be used to dynamically predict the cell surface abundance of any number of competing peptides by MHC class I alleles, providing a quantitative basis to investigate viral infection or disease at the cellular level. We exemplify this by simulating optimization of the distribution of peptides derived from Human

  19. Antibody Production with Synthetic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao-Shiang; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Jayathilaka, Lasanthi P; Lee, Jenny; Gupta, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Peptides (usually 10-20 amino acid residues in length) can be used as effectively as proteins in raising antibodies producing both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies routinely with titers higher than 20,000. Peptide antigens do not function as immunogens unless they are conjugated to proteins. Production of high quality antipeptide antibodies is dependent upon peptide sequence selection, the success of peptide synthesis, peptide-carrier protein conjugation, the humoral immune response in the host animal, the adjuvant used, the peptide dose administered, the injection method, and the purification of the antibody. Peptide sequence selection is probably the most critical step in the production of antipeptide antibodies. Although the process for designing peptide antigens is not exact, several guidelines and computational B-cell epitope prediction methods can help maximize the likelihood of producing antipeptide antibodies that recognize the protein. Antibodies raised by peptides have become essential tools in life science research. Virtually all phospho-specific antibodies are now produced using phosphopeptides as antigens. Typically, 5-20 mg of peptide is enough for antipeptide antibody production. It takes 3 months to produce a polyclonal antipeptide antibody in rabbits that yields ~100 mL of serum which corresponds to ~8-10 mg of the specific antibody after affinity purification using a peptide column. PMID:27515072

  20. HSP70 Family in the Renal Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Manucha, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a shock induced family of proteins, whose most prominent members are a group of molecules dedicated to maintaining the function of other proteins. Interestingly, after being exposed to heat shock typical proinflammatory agonists modify the heat shock-induced transcriptional program and expression of HSP genes, suggesting a complex reciprocal regulation between the inflammatory pathway and that of the heat shock response. The specific task of Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70), the most widespread and highly conserved HSP, is to protect against inflammation through multiple mechanisms. So, the expression of immune reactivity to Hsp70 in the kidney could be a cause of hypertension. Hsp70 modulates inflammatory response, as well as down-regulates the nuclear factor kappa-lightchain- enhancer of activated B cells. Also, a decreased expression of renal Hsp70 may contribute to activate the toll-like receptor 4-initiating inflammatory signal pathway. In addition, several studies have revealed that Hsp70 is involved in the regulation of Angiotensin II, a peptide with proinflammatory activity. Increased inflammatory response is generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, following activation by Angiotensin II. Interestingly, Hsp70 protects the renal epithelium by modulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, a fundamental step in the pro-inflammatory mechanism. This article aims to summarize our understanding about possible mechanisms improving the renal inflammatory process linked to Hsp70 expression. Finally, from a therapeutic point of view, the notion of antiinflammatory tools regulating Hsp70 could directly affect the inflammatory renal disease.

  1. Chronic inflammatory systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Rainer H.; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history stages, environmental factors of CIDs, energy trade-offs during inflammatory episodes and the non-specificity of CIDs. Incorporating bodily energy regulation into evolutionary medicine builds a framework to better understand pathophysiology of CIDs by considering that genes and networks used are positively selected if they serve acute, highly energy-consuming inflammation. It is predicted that genes that protect energy stores are positively selected (as immune memory). This could explain why energy-demanding inflammatory episodes like infectious diseases must be terminated within 3–8 weeks to be adaptive, and otherwise become maladaptive. Considering energy regulation as an evolved adaptive trait explains why many known sequelae of different CIDs must be uniform. These are, e.g. sickness behavior/fatigue/depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, anorexia, malnutrition, muscle wasting—cachexia, cachectic obesity, insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, alterations of steroid hormone axes, disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, hypertension, bone loss and hypercoagulability. Considering evolved energy trade-offs helps us to understand how an energy imbalance can lead to the disease sequelae of CIDs. In the future, clinicians must translate this knowledge into early diagnosis and symptomatic treatment in CIDs. PMID:26817483

  2. C-peptide promotes lesion development in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vasic, Dusica; Marx, Nikolaus; Sukhova, Galina; Bach, Helga; Durst, Renate; Grüb, Miriam; Hausauer, Angelina; Hombach, Vinzenz; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Walcher, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Patients with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes exhibit an increased propensity to develop a diffuse and extensive pattern of arteriosclerosis. Typically, these patients show elevated serum levels of the proinsulin cleavage product C-peptide and immunohistochemical data from our group revealed C-peptide deposition in early lesions of these individuals. Moreover, in vitro studies suggest that C-peptide could promote atherogenesis. This study examined whether C-peptide promotes vascular inflammation and lesion development in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis. ApoE-deficient mice on a high fat diet were treated with C-peptide or control injections for 12 weeks and the effect on lesion size and plaque composition was analysed. C-peptide treatment significantly increased C-peptide blood levels by 4.8-fold without having an effect on glucose or insulin levels, nor on the lipid profile. In these mice, C-peptide deposition in atherosclerotic plaques was significantly increased compared with controls. Moreover, lesions of C-peptide-treated mice contained significantly more macrophages (1.6 ± 0.3% versus 0.7 ± 0.2% positive area; P < 0.01) and more vascular smooth muscle cells (4.8 ± 0.6% versus 2.4 ± 0.3% positive area; P < 0.01). Finally, lipid deposition measured by Oil-red-O staining in the aortic arch was significantly higher in the C-peptide group compared with controls. Our results demonstrate that elevated C-peptide levels promote inflammatory cell infiltration and lesion development in ApoE-deficient mice without having metabolic effects. These data obtained in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis support the hypothesis that C-peptide may have an active role in atherogenesis in patients with diabetes and insulin resistance.

  3. Peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Bernd; Höhenwarter, Wolfgang; Krah, Alexander; Mattow, Jens; Schmid, Monika; Schmidt, Frank; Jungblut, Peter R

    2005-03-01

    Peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-MS and sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry have evolved into the major methods for identification of proteins following separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE or liquid chromatography. One main technological goal of proteome analyses beside high sensitivity and automation was the comprehensive analysis of proteins. Therefore, the protein species level with the essential information on co- and post-translational modifications must be achieved. The power of peptide mass fingerprinting for protein identification was described here, as exemplified by the identification of protein species with high molecular masses (spectrin alpha and beta), low molecular masses (elongation factor EF-TU fragments), splice variants (alpha A crystallin), aggregates with disulfide bridges (alkylhydroperoxide reductase), and phosphorylated proteins (heat shock protein 27). Helpful tools for these analyses were the use of the minimal protein identifier concept and the software program MS-Screener to remove mass peaks assignable to contaminants and neighbor spots.

  4. Regulation of Airway Inflammation by G-protein Regulatory Motif Peptides of AGS3 protein.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il-Whan; Ahn, Do Whan; Choi, Jang-Kyu; Cha, Hee-Jae; Ock, Mee Sun; You, EunAe; Rhee, SangMyung; Kim, Kwang Chul; Choi, Yung Hyun; Song, Kyoung Seob

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung infections have critical consequences on mortality and morbidity in humans. The aims of the present study were to examine the mechanisms by which CXCL12 affects MUC1 transcription and airway inflammation, which depend on activator of G-protein signaling (AGS) 3 and to identify specific molecules that suppress CXCL12-induced airway inflammation by acting on G-protein-coupled receptors. Herein, AGS3 suppresses CXCL12-mediated upregulation of MUC1 and TNFα by regulating Gαi. We found that the G-protein regulatory (GPR) motif peptide in AGS3 binds to Gαi and downregulates MUC1 expression; in contrast, this motif upregulates TNFα expression. Mutated GPR Q34A peptide increased the expression of MUC1 and TGFβ but decreased the expression of TNFα and IL-6. Moreover, CXCR4-induced dendritic extensions in 2D and 3D matrix cultures were inhibited by the GPR Q34A peptide compared with a wild-type GPR peptide. The GPR Q34A peptide also inhibited CXCL12-induced morphological changes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the mouse lung, and production of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and the lungs. Our data indicate that the GPR motif of AGS3 is critical for regulating MUC1/Muc1 expression and cytokine production in the inflammatory microenvironment. PMID:27270970

  5. Regulation of Airway Inflammation by G-protein Regulatory Motif Peptides of AGS3 protein

    PubMed Central

    Choi, IL-Whan; Ahn, Do Whan; Choi, Jang-Kyu; Cha, Hee-Jae; Ock, Mee Sun; You, EunAe; Rhee, SangMyung; Kim, Kwang Chul; Choi, Yung Hyun; Song, Kyoung Seob

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung infections have critical consequences on mortality and morbidity in humans. The aims of the present study were to examine the mechanisms by which CXCL12 affects MUC1 transcription and airway inflammation, which depend on activator of G-protein signaling (AGS) 3 and to identify specific molecules that suppress CXCL12-induced airway inflammation by acting on G-protein-coupled receptors. Herein, AGS3 suppresses CXCL12-mediated upregulation of MUC1 and TNFα by regulating Gαi. We found that the G-protein regulatory (GPR) motif peptide in AGS3 binds to Gαi and downregulates MUC1 expression; in contrast, this motif upregulates TNFα expression. Mutated GPR Q34A peptide increased the expression of MUC1 and TGFβ but decreased the expression of TNFα and IL-6. Moreover, CXCR4-induced dendritic extensions in 2D and 3D matrix cultures were inhibited by the GPR Q34A peptide compared with a wild-type GPR peptide. The GPR Q34A peptide also inhibited CXCL12-induced morphological changes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the mouse lung, and production of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and the lungs. Our data indicate that the GPR motif of AGS3 is critical for regulating MUC1/Muc1 expression and cytokine production in the inflammatory microenvironment. PMID:27270970

  6. Uncoupling Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Peripheral Artery Disease with Therapeutic Peptide-loaded Microgels

    PubMed Central

    Zachman, Angela L.; Wang, Xintong; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M.; Fitzpatrick, Sean T.; Lee, Sue H.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Skala, Melissa C.; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by vessel occlusion and ischemia in the limbs. Treatment for PAD with surgical interventions has been showing limited success. Moreover, recent clinical trials with treatment of angiogenic growth factors proved ineffective as increased angiogenesis triggered severe inflammation in a proportionally coupled fashion. Hence, the overarching goal of this research was to address this issue by developing a biomaterial system that enables controlled, dual delivery of pro-angiogenic C16 and anti-inflammatory Ac-SDKP peptides in a minimally-invasive way. To achieve the goal, a peptide-loaded injectable microgel system was developed and tested in a mouse model of PAD. When delivered through multiple, low volume injections, the combination of C16 and Ac-SDKP peptides promoted angiogenesis, muscle regeneration, and perfusion recovery, while minimizing detrimental inflammation. Additionally, this peptide combination regulated inflammatory TNF-α pathways independently of MMP-9 mediated pathways of angiogenesis in vitro, suggesting a potential mechanism by which angiogenic and inflammatory responses can be uncoupled in the context of PAD. This study demonstrates a translatable potential of the dual peptide-loaded injectable microgel system for PAD treatment. PMID:25154665

  7. Uncoupling angiogenesis and inflammation in peripheral artery disease with therapeutic peptide-loaded microgels.

    PubMed

    Zachman, Angela L; Wang, Xintong; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M; Fitzpatrick, Sean T; Lee, Sue H; Guelcher, Scott A; Skala, Melissa C; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by vessel occlusion and ischemia in the limbs. Treatment for PAD with surgical interventions has been showing limited success. Moreover, recent clinical trials with treatment of angiogenic growth factors proved ineffective as increased angiogenesis triggered severe inflammation in a proportionally coupled fashion. Hence, the overarching goal of this research was to address this issue by developing a biomaterial system that enables controlled, dual delivery of pro-angiogenic C16 and anti-inflammatory Ac-SDKP peptides in a minimally-invasive way. To achieve the goal, a peptide-loaded injectable microgel system was developed and tested in a mouse model of PAD. When delivered through multiple, low volume injections, the combination of C16 and Ac-SDKP peptides promoted angiogenesis, muscle regeneration, and perfusion recovery, while minimizing detrimental inflammation. Additionally, this peptide combination regulated inflammatory TNF-α pathways independently of MMP-9 mediated pathways of angiogenesis in vitro, suggesting a potential mechanism by which angiogenic and inflammatory responses can be uncoupled in the context of PAD. This study demonstrates a translatable potential of the dual peptide-loaded injectable microgel system for PAD treatment. PMID:25154665

  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Corridoni, Daniele; Arseneau, Kristen O.; Cominelli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic, relapsing inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. CD and UC have distinct pathologic and clinical characteristics and despite the extensive amount of research conducted over the past decades, their pathogenesis remains still poorly understood. So far, the accepted dogma is that IBD results from dysregulated mucosal immune response to environmental factors in genetical susceptible hosts. Various components are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, including genetic susceptibility, environmental and microbial factors, intestinal epithelial cells and components of innate and adaptive immune system. Given the complexity of IBD, several different animal models of IBD have been developed during the last years. Animal models are very important tools to study the involvement of various factors in the pathogenesis of IBD and, importantly, to test new therapeutic options. This review examines some of the key components that have been found to be closely associated to IBD and describe the distinct features of some of the most important IBD models. PMID:24938525

  9. Other noninfectious inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Álex; Auger, Cristina; Rovira, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) represent a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including monophasic, multiphasic, and progressive disorders that range from highly localized forms to multifocal or diffuse variants. In addition to the classic multiple sclerosis (MS) phenotypes, several MS variants have been described, which can be differentiated on the basis of severity, clinical course, and lesion distribution. Other forms of IIDD are now recognized as distinct entities and not MS variants, such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. The CNS can also be affected by a variety of inflammatory diseases. These include primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and various systemic conditions which, among other organs and systems, can also affect the CNS, such as systemic vasculitis and sarcoidosis. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult, as this condition may be confused with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), a term comprising a group of conditions characterized by prolonged but reversible vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine is the radiologic technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and, together with the clinical and laboratory findings, enables a prompt and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27432677

  10. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Barohn, Richard J.; Amato, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) consist of rare heterogenous autoimmune disorders that present with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis (IBM). Besides frequent creatine kinase (CK) elevation, the electromyogram confirms the presence of an irritative myopathy. Extramuscular involvement affects a significant number of cases with interstitial lung disease (ILD), cutaneous in dermatomyositis (DM), systemic or joint manifestations and increased risk of malignancy especially in DM. Myositis specific autoantibodies influence phenotype of the IIM. Jo-1 antibodies are frequently associated with ILD and the newly described HMG-CoA reductase antibodies are characteristic of autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). Muscle pathology ranges from inflammatory exudates of variable distribution, to intact muscle fiber invasion, necrosis, phagocytosis and in the case of IBM rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. Despite many similarities, the IIM are a quite heterogeneous from the histopathological and pathogenetic standpoints in addition to some clinical and treatment-response difference. The field has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of these rare disorders. In this review, we focus on DM, polymyositis (PM) and NM and examine current and promising therapies. The reader interested in more details on IBM is referred to the corresponding chapter in this issue. PMID:25037081

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide helix number and helix linker influence potentially anti-atherogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Wool, Geoffrey D.; Reardon, Catherine A.; Getz, Godfrey S.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesize that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides better mimicking the punctuated α-helical repeats of full-length apoA-I are more anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic. This study compares a monomeric apoA-I mimetic helix to three different tandem helix peptides in vitro: 4F (18 mer), 4F-proline-4F (37 mer, Pro), 4F-alanine-4F (37 mer, Ala), and 4F-KVEPLRA-4F [the human apoA-I 4/5 interhelical sequence (IHS), 43 mer]. All peptides cleared turbid lipid suspensions, with 4F being most effective. In contrast to lipid clearance, tandem peptides were more effective at remodeling mouse HDL. All four peptides displaced apoA-I and apoE from the HDL, leaving a larger particle containing apoA-II and peptide. Peptide-remodeled HDL particles show no deficit in ABCG1 cholesterol efflux despite the loss of the majority of apoA-I. Tandem peptides show greater ability to efflux cholesterol from lipid-loaded murine macrophages, compared with 4F. Although 4F inhibited oxidation of purified mouse LDL, the Ala tandem peptide increased oxidation. We compared several tandem 4F-based peptides with monomeric 4F in assays that correlated with suggested anti-inflammatory/anti-atherogenic pathways. Tandem 4F-based peptides, which better mimic full-length apoA-I, exceed monomeric 4F in HDL remodeling and cholesterol efflux but not LDL oxidation protection. In addition, apoA-I mimetic peptides may increase reverse cholesterol transport through both ABCA1 as well as ABCG1 pathways. PMID:18323574

  12. The Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptide 19-2.5 Interacts with Heparanase and Heparan Sulfate in Murine and Human Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; De Santis, Rebecca; Koczera, Patrick; Simons, Nadine; Haase, Hajo; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains from their proteoglycans. Thereby, heparanase liberates highly potent circulating heparan sulfate-fragments (HS-fragments) and triggers the fatal and excessive inflammatory response in sepsis. As a potential anti-inflammatory agent for sepsis therapy, peptide 19–2.5 belongs to the class of synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides; however, its activity is not restricted to Gram-negative bacterial infection. We hypothesized that peptide 19–2.5 interacts with heparanase and/or HS, thereby reducing the levels of circulating HS-fragments in murine and human sepsis. Our data indicate that the treatment of septic mice with peptide 19–2.5 compared to untreated control animals lowers levels of plasma heparanase and circulating HS-fragments and reduces heparanase activity. Additionally, mRNA levels of heparanase in heart, liver, lung, kidney and spleen are downregulated in septic mice treated with peptide 19–2.5 compared to untreated control animals. In humans, plasma heparanase level and activity are elevated in septic shock. The ex vivo addition of peptide 19–2.5 to plasma of septic shock patients decreases heparanase activity but not heparanase level. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed a strong exothermic reaction between peptide 19–2.5 and heparanase and HS-fragments. However, a saturation character has been identified only in the peptide 19–2.5 and HS interaction. In conclusion, the findings of our current study indicate that peptide 19–2.5 interacts with heparanase, which is elevated in murine and human sepsis and consecutively attenuates the generation of circulating HS-fragments in systemic inflammation. Thus, peptide 19–2.5 seems to be a potential anti-inflammatory agent in sepsis. PMID:26600070

  13. Effective adjunctive therapy by an innate defense regulatory peptide in a preclinical model of severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Achtman, Ariel H; Pilat, Sandra; Law, Charity W; Lynn, David J; Janot, Laure; Mayer, Matt L; Ma, Shuhua; Kindrachuk, Jason; Finlay, B Brett; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Smyth, Gordon K; Hancock, Robert E W; Schofield, Louis

    2012-05-23

    Case fatality rates for severe malaria remain high even in the best clinical settings because antimalarial drugs act against the parasite without alleviating life-threatening inflammation. We assessed the potential for host-directed therapy of severe malaria of a new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, the innate defense regulator (IDR) peptides, based on host defense peptides. The Plasmodium berghei ANKA model of experimental cerebral malaria was adapted to use as a preclinical screen by combining late-stage intervention in established infections with advanced bioinformatic analysis of early transcriptional changes in co-regulated gene sets. Coadministration of IDR-1018 with standard first-line antimalarials increased survival of infected mice while down-regulating key inflammatory networks associated with fatality. Thus, IDR peptides provided host-directed adjunctive therapy for severe disease in combination with antimalarial treatment.

  14. The detection of a synthetic Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist peptide in a seized product from a racing stable.

    PubMed

    Levina, Vita; Timms, Mark; Vine, John; Steel, Rohan

    2016-09-01

    A synthetic Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist peptide with the sequence Acetyl-Phe-Glu-Trp-Thr-Pro-Gly-Tyr-Trp-Gln-Pro-Tyr-Ala-Leu-Pro-Leu-OH has been identified in a vial seized during a stable inspection. The use of peptide-based Interleukin-1 receptor antagonists as anti-inflammatory agents has not been previously reported, making this peptide the first in a new class of sports doping peptides. The peptide has been characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry and a detection method developed based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Using in vitro and in vivo models to study the properties of the peptide after administration, the peptide was shown to be highly unstable in plasma and was not detected in urine after administration in a rat. The poor stability of the peptide makes detection challenging but also suggests that it has limited effectiveness as an anti-inflammatory drug. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26360925

  15. The promotion of functional urinary bladder regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Meisner, Jay W; Hofer, Matthias D; Webber, Matthew J; Chow, Lesley W; Prasad, Sheba; Thaker, Hatim; Yue, Xuan; Menon, Vani S; Diaz, Edward C; Stupp, Samuel I; Cheng, Earl Y; Sharma, Arun K

    2014-11-01

    Current attempts at tissue regeneration utilizing synthetic and decellularized biologic-based materials have typically been met in part by innate immune responses in the form of a robust inflammatory reaction at the site of implantation or grafting. This can ultimately lead to tissue fibrosis with direct negative impact on tissue growth, development, and function. In order to temper the innate inflammatory response, anti-inflammatory signals were incorporated through display on self-assembling peptide nanofibers to promote tissue healing and subsequent graft compliance throughout the regenerative process. Utilizing an established urinary bladder augmentation model, the highly pro-inflammatory biologic scaffold (decellularized small intestinal submucosa) was treated with anti-inflammatory peptide amphiphiles (AIF-PAs) or control peptide amphiphiles and used for augmentation. Significant regenerative advantages of the AIF-PAs were observed including potent angiogenic responses, limited tissue collagen accumulation, and the modulation of macrophage and neutrophil responses in regenerated bladder tissue. Upon further characterization, a reduction in the levels of M2 macrophages was observed, but not in M1 macrophages in control groups, while treatment groups exhibited decreased levels of M1 macrophages and stabilized levels of M2 macrophages. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was decreased while anti-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated in treatment groups. This resulted in far fewer incidences of tissue granuloma and bladder stone formation. Finally, functional urinary bladder testing revealed greater bladder compliance and similar capacities in groups treated with AIF-PAs. Data demonstrate that AIF-PAs can alleviate galvanic innate immune responses and provide a highly conducive regenerative milieu that may be applicable in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:25145852

  16. The promotion of functional urinary bladder regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Matthew I.; Fuller, Natalie J.; Meisner, Jay W.; Hofer, Matthias D.; Webber, Matthew J.; Chow, Lesley W.; Prasad, Sheba; Thaker, Hatim; Yue, Xuan; Menon, Vani S.; Diaz, Edward C.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Cheng, Earl Y.; Sharma, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Current attempts at tissue regeneration utilizing synthetic and decellularized biologic-based materials have typically been met in part by innate immune responses in the form of a robust inflammatory reaction at the site of implantation or grafting. This can ultimately lead to tissue fibrosis with direct negative impact on tissue growth, development, and function. In order to temper the innate inflammatory response, anti-inflammatory signals were incorporated through display on self-assembling peptide nanofibers to promote tissue healing and subsequent graft compliance throughout the regenerative process. Utilizing an established urinary bladder augmentation model, the highly pro-inflammatory biologic scaffold (decellularized small intestinal submucosa) was treated with anti-inflammatory peptide amphiphiles (AIF-PAs) or control peptide amphiphiles and used for augmentation. Significant regenerative advantages of the AIF-PAs were observed including potent angiogenic responses, limited tissue collagen accumulation, and the modulation of macrophage and neutrophil responses in regenerated bladder tissue. Upon further characterization, a reduction in the levels of M2 macrophages was observed, but not in M1 macrophages in control groups, while treatment groups exhibited decreased levels of M1 macrophages and stabilized levels of M2 macrophages. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was decreased while anti-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated in treatment groups. This resulted in far fewer incidences of tissue granuloma and bladder stone formation. Finally, functional urinary bladder testing revealed greater bladder compliance and similar capacities in groups treated with AIF-PAs. Data demonstrate that AIF-PAs can alleviate galvanic innate immune responses and provide a highly conducive regenerative milieu that may be applicable in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:25145852

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Van Rosendaal, G M

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of options are available for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease; the selection depends on the extent and severity of the disease. Experience with sulfasalazine and corticosteroids has led to a proliferation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds and experimentation with alternative corticosteroid preparations. Given rectally 5-ASA is particularly effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis, and experience is accumulating with several oral formulations. Metronidazole is useful in some cases, and immunosuppressive agents have a role in some patients with chronic refractory disease. A variety of measures, such as nutritional therapy, surgery and psychosocial support, are important elements of therapy. Further therapeutic innovations are expected as the etiology and pathogenesis are clarified. PMID:2568163

  18. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaser, Arthur; Zeissig, Sebastian; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Insights into inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are advancing rapidly owing to immunologic investigations of a plethora of animal models of intestinal inflammation, ground-breaking advances in the interrogation of diseases that are inherited as complex genetic traits, and the development of culture-independent methods to define the composition of the intestinal microbiota. These advances are bringing a deeper understanding to the genetically determined interplay between the commensal microbiota, intestinal epithelial cells, and the immune system and the manner in which this interplay might be modified by relevant environmental factors in the pathogenesis of IBD. This review examines these interactions and, where possible, potential lessons from IBD-directed, biologic therapies that may allow for elucidation of pathways that are central to disease pathogenesis in humans. PMID:20192811

  19. Treatment of inflammatory myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, A C; Isenberg, D A

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, notably polymyositis and dermatomyositis are comparatively uncommon diseases and few randomised, double blind placebo controlled trials have been done. Final validation of measures to assess outcome and response to treatment is awaited. Corticosteroids are an effective initial treatment, although rarely tested in randomised controlled trials. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to them and many develop undesirable side effects. There is thus a need for second line agents notably immunosuppressives or intravenous immunoglobulin. There are no defined guidelines or best treatment protocols agreed internationally and so the medical approach must be individualised, based on the severity of clinical presentation, disease duration, presence of extramuscular features, and prior therapy and contraindications to particular agents. There is still a significant percentage of non‐responders (around 25%) and clinical relapses. Novel therapeutic approaches are now directed towards cytokine modulation and the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting B and T cells. PMID:16822917

  20. Treatment of inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, A C; Isenberg, D A

    2006-07-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, notably polymyositis and dermatomyositis are comparatively uncommon diseases and few randomised, double blind placebo controlled trials have been done. Final validation of measures to assess outcome and response to treatment is awaited. Corticosteroids are an effective initial treatment, although rarely tested in randomised controlled trials. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to them and many develop undesirable side effects. There is thus a need for second line agents notably immunosuppressives or intravenous immunoglobulin. There are no defined guidelines or best treatment protocols agreed internationally and so the medical approach must be individualised, based on the severity of clinical presentation, disease duration, presence of extramuscular features, and prior therapy and contraindications to particular agents. There is still a significant percentage of non-responders (around 25%) and clinical relapses. Novel therapeutic approaches are now directed towards cytokine modulation and the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting B and T cells.

  1. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Franques, J; Azulay, J-P; Pouget, J; Attarian, S

    2010-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a demyelinating chronic neuropathy of immune origin whose diagnosis is based upon clinical, biological and electrophysiological data; previously critical to the diagnosis the nerve biopsy is now restricted to the rare situations where accurate diagnosis cannot be reached using these data alone. CIDP are mainly idiopathic, but a few associated diseases must be sought for as they require specific attention. Such associated diseases must particularly be discussed when the manifestations are severe or resistant to immunomodulating or immunosuppressive agents. Indeed, idiopathic CIDP are usually responsive to these treatments. The effectiveness of these treatments is limited by the importance of the secondary axonal loss. The dependence or the resistance may sometimes justify the association of several immunomodulating treatments. A single randomized controlled trial support the use of cytotoxic drugs and none with rituximab.

  2. Inflammatory and toxic myopathies.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, M C

    1992-10-01

    The major advances in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory myopathies, and the main criteria that distinguish polymyositis (PM) from dermatomyositis (DM) or inclusion-body myositis (IBM) are presented. The origin and implications of the amyloid and ubiquitin deposits found within the vacuolated fibers of patients with IBM are considered. The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I-associated PM is presented, and the role of retroviruses in triggering PM, even in the absence of detectable viral genome within the muscle fibers, is discussed. In addition, three toxic myopathies with distinct morphologic, biochemical, or molecular characteristics, caused by zidovudine [azidothymidine (AZT) myopathy], the cholesterol-lowering-agent myopathy (CLAM), and the combination of blocking agents with corticosteroids are presented.

  3. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, Peter Y K; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2013-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common autoimmune neuropathy. The diagnosis depends on the clinical presentation with a progressive or relapsing course over at least 2 months and electrophysiological evidence of primary demyelination. Whereas typical CIDP is quite easily recognizable because virtually no other neuropathies present with both distal and proximal motor and sensory deficit, atypical CIDP, focal and multifocal variants in particular, may represent a difficult diagnostic challenge. CIDP very likely is an underdiagnosed condition as suggested also by a positive correlation between prevalence rates and sensitivity of electrophysiological criteria. Since no 'gold standard' diagnostic marker exists, electrophysiological criteria have been optimized to be at the same time as sensitive and as specific as possible. Additional supportive laboratory features, such as increased spinal fluid protein, MRI abnormalities of nerve segments, and in selected cases nerve biopsy lead to the correct diagnosis in the large majority of the cases. Objective clinical improvement following immune therapy is also a useful parameter to confirm the diagnosis. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CIDP remain poorly understood, but the available evidence for an inflammatory origin is quite convincing. Steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange (PE) have been proven to be effective treatments. IVIG usually leads to rapid improvement, which is useful in severely disabled patients. Repeat treatment over regular time intervals for many years is often necessary. The effect of steroids is slower and the side-effect profile may be problematic, but they may induce disease remission more frequently than IVIG. An important and as of yet uncompletely resolved issue is the evaluation of long-term outcome to determine whether the disease is still active and responsive to treatment.

  4. Autoantibodies in inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Conigliaro, P; Chimenti, M S; Triggianese, P; Sunzini, F; Novelli, L; Perricone, C; Perricone, R

    2016-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease characterized by extensive synovitis resulting in erosions of articular cartilage and marginal bone with joint destruction. The lack of immunological tolerance in RA represents the first step toward the development of autoimmunity. Susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, and silica exposure, develop autoimmune phenomena that result in the presence of autoantibodies. HLA and non-HLA haplotypes play a major role in determining the development of specific autoantibodies differentiating anti-citrullinated antibodies (ACPA)-positive and negative RA patients. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and ACPA are the serological markers for RA, and during the preclinical immunological phase, autoantibody titers increase with a progressive spread of ACPA antigens repertoire. The presence of ACPA represents an independent risk factor for developing RA in patients with undifferentiated arthritis or arthralgia. Moreover, anti-CarP antibodies have been identified in patients with RA as well as in individuals before the onset of clinical symptoms of RA. Several autoantibodies mainly targeting post-translational modified proteins have been investigated as possible biomarkers to improve the early diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in RA patients. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is distinguished from RA by infrequent positivity for RF and ACPA, together with other distinctive clinical features. Actually, specific autoantibodies have not been described. Recently, anti-CarP antibodies have been reported in sera from PsA patients with active disease. Further investigations on autoantibodies showing high specificity and sensibility as well as relevant correlation with disease severity, progression, and response to therapy are awaited in inflammatory arthritides.

  5. Macrocyclization of Unprotected Peptide Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Choo, Zi-Ning; Totaro, Kyle A; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2016-03-18

    A chemistry for the facile two-component macrocyclization of unprotected peptide isocyanates is described. Starting from peptides containing two glutamic acid γ-hydrazide residues, isocyanates can be readily accessed and cyclized with hydrazides of dicarboxylic acids. The choice of a nucleophilic linker allows for the facile modulation of biochemical properties of a macrocyclic peptide. Four cyclic NYAD-1 analogues were synthesized using the described method and displayed a range of biological activities. PMID:26948900

  6. Macrocyclization of Unprotected Peptide Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Choo, Zi-Ning; Totaro, Kyle A; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2016-03-18

    A chemistry for the facile two-component macrocyclization of unprotected peptide isocyanates is described. Starting from peptides containing two glutamic acid γ-hydrazide residues, isocyanates can be readily accessed and cyclized with hydrazides of dicarboxylic acids. The choice of a nucleophilic linker allows for the facile modulation of biochemical properties of a macrocyclic peptide. Four cyclic NYAD-1 analogues were synthesized using the described method and displayed a range of biological activities.

  7. Peptide Aptamers: Development and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S.; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Peptide aptamers are small combinatorial proteins that are selected to bind to specific sites on their target molecules. Peptide aptamers consist of short, 5-20 amino acid residues long sequences, typically embedded as a loop within a stable protein scaffold. Various peptide aptamer scaffolds and in vitro and in vivo selection techniques are reviewed with emphasis on specific biomedical, bioimaging, and bioanalytical applications. PMID:25866267

  8. C-peptide promotes lesion development in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vasic, Dusica; Marx, Nikolaus; Sukhova, Galina; Bach, Helga; Durst, Renate; Grüb, Miriam; Hausauer, Angelina; Hombach, Vinzenz; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Walcher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Patients with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes exhibit an increased propensity to develop a diffuse and extensive pattern of arteriosclerosis. Typically, these patients show elevated serum levels of the proinsulin cleavage product C-peptide and immunohistochemical data from our group revealed C-peptide deposition in early lesions of these individuals. Moreover, in vitro studies suggest that C-peptide could promote atherogenesis. This study examined whether C-peptide promotes vascular inflammation and lesion development in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis. ApoE-deficient mice on a high fat diet were treated with C-peptide or control injections for 12 weeks and the effect on lesion size and plaque composition was analysed. C-peptide treatment significantly increased C-peptide blood levels by 4.8-fold without having an effect on glucose or insulin levels, nor on the lipid profile. In these mice, C-peptide deposition in atherosclerotic plaques was significantly increased compared with controls. Moreover, lesions of C-peptide–treated mice contained significantly more macrophages (1.6 ± 0.3% versus 0.7 ± 0.2% positive area; P < 0.01) and more vascular smooth muscle cells (4.8 ± 0.6% versus 2.4 ± 0.3% positive area; P < 0.01). Finally, lipid deposition measured by Oil-red-O staining in the aortic arch was significantly higher in the C-peptide group compared with controls. Our results demonstrate that elevated C-peptide levels promote inflammatory cell infiltration and lesion development in ApoE-deficient mice without having metabolic effects. These data obtained in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis support the hypothesis that C-peptide may have an active role in atherogenesis in patients with diabetes and insulin resistance. PMID:21707916

  9. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  10. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology. PMID:26279082

  11. Peptides that influence membrane topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2014-03-01

    We examine the mechanism of a range of polypeptides that influence membrane topology, including antimicrobial peptides, cell penetrating peptides, viral fusion peptides, and apoptosis proteins, and show how a combination of geometry, coordination chemistry, and soft matter physics can be used to approach a unified understanding. We will also show how such peptides can impact biomedical problems such as auto-immune diseases (psoriasis, lupus), infectious diseases (viral and bacterial infections), and mitochondrial pathologies (under-regulated apoptosis leads to neurodegenerative diseases whereas over-regulated apoptosis leads to cancer.)

  12. Fragmentation pathways of protonated peptides.

    PubMed

    Paizs, Béla; Suhai, Sándor

    2005-01-01

    The fragmentation pathways of protonated peptides are reviewed in the present paper paying special attention to classification of the known fragmentation channels into a simple hierarchy defined according to the chemistry involved. It is shown that the 'mobile proton' model of peptide fragmentation can be used to understand the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides only in a qualitative manner rationalizing differences observed for low-energy collision induced dissociation of peptide ions having or lacking a mobile proton. To overcome this limitation, a deeper understanding of the dissociation chemistry of protonated peptides is needed. To this end use of the 'pathways in competition' (PIC) model that involves a detailed energetic and kinetic characterization of the major peptide fragmentation pathways (PFPs) is proposed. The known PFPs are described in detail including all the pre-dissociation, dissociation, and post-dissociation events. It is our hope that studies to further extend PIC will lead to semi-quantative understanding of the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides which could be used to develop refined bioinformatics algorithms for MS/MS based proteomics. Experimental and computational data on the fragmentation of protonated peptides are reevaluated from the point of view of the PIC model considering the mechanism, energetics, and kinetics of the major PFPs. Evidence proving semi-quantitative predictability of some of the ion intensity relationships (IIRs) of the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides is presented. PMID:15389847

  13. Biodiscovery of aluminum binding peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Hurley, Margaret M.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra

    2013-05-01

    Cell surface peptide display systems are large and diverse libraries of peptides (7-15 amino acids) which are presented by a display scaffold hosted by a phage (virus), bacteria, or yeast cell. This allows the selfsustaining peptide libraries to be rapidly screened for high affinity binders to a given target of interest, and those binders quickly identified. Peptide display systems have traditionally been utilized in conjunction with organic-based targets, such as protein toxins or carbon nanotubes. However, this technology has been expanded for use with inorganic targets, such as metals, for biofabrication, hybrid material assembly and corrosion prevention. While most current peptide display systems employ viruses to host the display scaffold, we have recently shown that a bacterial host, Escherichia coli, displaying peptides in the ubiquitous, membrane protein scaffold eCPX can also provide specific peptide binders to an organic target. We have, for the first time, extended the use of this bacterial peptide display system for the biodiscovery of aluminum binding 15mer peptides. We will present the process of biopanning with macroscopic inorganic targets, binder enrichment, and binder isolation and discovery.

  14. Vitamin D in inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wöbke, Thea K.; Sorg, Bernd L.; Steinhilber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D serum levels have been associated with inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis (MS), atherosclerosis, or asthma. Genome- and transcriptome-wide studies indicate that vitamin D signaling modulates many inflammatory responses on several levels. This includes (i) the regulation of the expression of genes which generate pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenases or 5-lipoxygenase, (ii) the interference with transcription factors, such as NF-κB, which regulate the expression of inflammatory genes and (iii) the activation of signaling cascades, such as MAP kinases which mediate inflammatory responses. Vitamin D targets various tissues and cell types, a number of which belong to the immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) as well as B- and T cells, leading to individual responses of each cell type. One hallmark of these specific vitamin D effects is the cell-type specific regulation of genes involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and the interplay between vitamin D signaling and other signaling cascades involved in inflammation. An important task in the near future will be the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses by vitamin D on the molecular level by the use of techniques such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), ChIP-seq, and FAIRE-seq. PMID:25071589

  15. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  16. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  17. Accelerated chemical synthesis of peptides and small proteins

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Les P.; Alewood, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical synthesis of peptides and small proteins is a powerful complementary strategy to recombinant protein overexpression and is widely used in structural biology, immunology, protein engineering, and biomedical research. Despite considerable improvements in the fidelity of peptide chain assembly, side-chain protection, and postsynthesis analysis, a limiting factor in accessing polypeptides containing greater than 50 residues remains the time taken for chain assembly. The ultimate goal of this work is to establish highly efficient chemical procedures that achieve chain-assembly rates of approximately 10–15 residues per hour, thus underpinning the rapid chemical synthesis of long polypeptides and proteins, including cytokines, growth factors, protein domains, and small enzymes. Here we report Boc chemistry that employs O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU)/dimethyl sulfoxide in situ neutralization as the coupling agent and incorporates a protected amino acid residue every 5 min to produce peptides of good quality. This rapid coupling chemistry was successfully demonstrated by synthesizing several small to medium peptides, including the “difficult” C-terminal sequence of HIV-1 proteinase (residues 81–99); fragment 65–74 of the acyl carrier protein; conotoxin PnIA(A10L), a potent neuronal nicotinic receptor antagonist; and the pro-inflammatory chemotactic protein CP10, an 88-residue protein, by means of native chemical ligation. The benefits of this approach include enhanced ability to identify and characterize “difficult couplings,” rapid access to peptides for biological and structure–activity studies, and accelerated synthesis of tailored large peptide segments (<50 residues) for use in chemoselective ligation methods. PMID:9989998

  18. Potential therapeutic applications of multifunctional host-defense peptides from frog skin as anti-cancer, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, and anti-diabetic agents.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Flatt, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Frog skin constitutes a rich source of peptides with a wide range of biological properties. These include host-defense peptides with cytotoxic activities against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and mammalian cells. Several hundred such peptides from diverse species have been described. Although attention has been focused mainly on antimicrobial activity, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents remains to be realized and no compound based upon their structures has yet been adopted in clinical practice. Consequently, alternative applications are being explored. Certain naturally occurring frog skin peptides, and analogs with improved therapeutic properties, show selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and viruses and so have potential for development into anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. Some peptides display complex cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties. Effects on the production of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been observed so that clinical applications as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory agents are possible. Several frog skin peptides, first identified on the basis of antimicrobial activity, have been shown to stimulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo and so show potential as incretin-based therapies for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review assesses the therapeutic possibilities of peptides from frogs belonging to the Ascaphidae, Alytidae, Pipidae, Dicroglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae families that complement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. PMID:24793775

  19. Potential therapeutic applications of multifunctional host-defense peptides from frog skin as anti-cancer, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, and anti-diabetic agents.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Flatt, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Frog skin constitutes a rich source of peptides with a wide range of biological properties. These include host-defense peptides with cytotoxic activities against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and mammalian cells. Several hundred such peptides from diverse species have been described. Although attention has been focused mainly on antimicrobial activity, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents remains to be realized and no compound based upon their structures has yet been adopted in clinical practice. Consequently, alternative applications are being explored. Certain naturally occurring frog skin peptides, and analogs with improved therapeutic properties, show selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and viruses and so have potential for development into anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. Some peptides display complex cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties. Effects on the production of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been observed so that clinical applications as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory agents are possible. Several frog skin peptides, first identified on the basis of antimicrobial activity, have been shown to stimulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo and so show potential as incretin-based therapies for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review assesses the therapeutic possibilities of peptides from frogs belonging to the Ascaphidae, Alytidae, Pipidae, Dicroglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae families that complement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  20. Proinsulin C-peptide stimulates a PKC/IkappaB/NF-kappaB signaling pathway to activate COX-2 gene transcription in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Masashi; Shibata, Yasutaka; Hashimoto, Seiichi; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2006-06-01

    Proinsulin C-peptide causes multiple molecular and physiological effects, and improves renal and neuronal dysfunction in patients with diabetes. However, whether C-peptide controls the inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB)/NF-kappaB-dependent transcription of genes, including inflammatory genes is unknown. Here we showed that 1 nM C-peptide increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and its protein in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Consistently, C-peptide enhanced COX-2 gene promoter-activity, which was inhibited by GF109203X and Go6976, specific PKC inhibitors, and BAY11-7082, a specific nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibitor, accompanied by increased phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB. These results suggest that C-peptide stimulates the transcription of inflammatory genes via activation of a PKC/IkappaB/NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

  1. Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Rivero-Gutiérrez, Belén; Mascaraque, Cristina; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF) whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action. PMID:25501338

  2. Receptors for sensory neuropeptides in human inflammatory diseases: Implications for the effector role of sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Catton, M.D.; Boehmer, C.G.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Maggio, J.E.; Vigna, S.R. )

    1989-05-01

    Glutamate and several neuropeptides are synthesized and released by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. These sensory neurons play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography we have explored what changes occur in the location and concentration of receptor binding sites for sensory neurotransmitters in the colon in two human inflammatory diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The sensory neurotransmitter receptors examined included bombesin, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, neurokinin A (substance K), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Of the nine receptor binding sites examined only substance P binding sites associated with arterioles, venules and lymph nodules were dramatically up-regulated in the inflamed tissue. These data suggest that substance P is involved in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in human inflammatory diseases and indicate a specificity of efferent action for each sensory neurotransmitter in peripheral tissues.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of GLP-1-Based Therapies beyond Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sun; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone mainly secreted from intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. GLP-1 has beneficial effects for glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, delaying gastric emptying, decreasing plasma glucagon, reducing food intake, and stimulating glucose disposal. Therefore, GLP-1-based therapies such as GLP-1 receptor agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4, which is a GLP-1 inactivating enzyme, have been developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to glucose-lowering effects, emerging data suggests that GLP-1-based therapies also show anti-inflammatory effects in chronic inflammatory diseases including type 1 and 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetic nephropathy, asthma, and psoriasis. This review outlines the anti-inflammatory actions of GLP-1-based therapies on diseases associated with chronic inflammation in vivo and in vitro, and their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27110066

  4. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 as a new therapeutic target during inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Derive, Marc; Massin, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    The Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells (TREM)-1 is a recently identified molecule involved in monocytic activation and inflammatory response. It belongs to a family related to Natural Killer cell-receptors and is expressed on neutrophils, mature monocytes and macrophages. The engagement of TREM-1 synergizes with several Toll Like Receptors (TLR) and/or NOD Like Receptors (NLR) activation in amplifying the inflammatory response mediated by microbial components or danger signals. The implication of TREM-1 during experimental models of acute or chronic inflammatory conditions, as well as during cancer, begins to understand. Furthermore, the modulation of the TREM-1 signaling pathway by the use of small synthetic peptides derived from its extracellular moiety confers interesting survival advantages during experimental murine septic shock and protects from organ damage during other inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances on TREM-1 biology and highlights the promises of its therapeutic modulation. PMID:21487478

  5. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Güncü, Güliz N.; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.

    2015-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis. PMID:26734583

  6. Phytosulfokine peptide signalling.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Margret

    2015-08-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) belongs to the group of plant peptide growth factors. It is a disulfated pentapeptide encoded by precursor genes that are ubiquitously present in higher plants, suggestive of universal functions. Processing of the preproprotein involves sulfonylation by a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase in the trans-golgi and proteolytic cleavage in the apoplast. The secreted peptide is perceived at the cell surface by a membrane-bound receptor kinase of the leucine-rich repeat family. The PSK receptor PSKR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana is an active kinase and has guanylate cyclase activity resulting in dual-signal outputs. Receptor activity is regulated by calmodulin. While PSK may be an autocrine growth factor, it also acts non-cell autonomously by promoting growth of cells that are receptor-deficient. In planta, PSK has multiple functions. It promotes cell growth, acts in the quiescent centre cells of the root apical meristem, contributes to funicular pollen tube guidance, and differentially alters immune responses depending on the pathogen. It has been suggested that PSK integrates growth and defence signals to balance the competing metabolic costs of these responses. This review summarizes our current understanding of PSK synthesis, signalling, and activity.

  7. Recognition of Bacterial Signal Peptides by Mammalian Formyl Peptide Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bufe, Bernd; Schumann, Timo; Kappl, Reinhard; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Podgórska, Marta; Smola, Sigrun; Hoth, Markus; Zufall, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that function as chemoattractant receptors in innate immune responses. Here we perform systematic structure-function analyses of FPRs from six mammalian species using structurally diverse FPR peptide agonists and identify a common set of conserved agonist properties with typical features of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Guided by these results, we discover that bacterial signal peptides, normally used to translocate proteins across cytoplasmic membranes, are a vast family of natural FPR agonists. N-terminally formylated signal peptide fragments with variable sequence and length activate human and mouse FPR1 and FPR2 at low nanomolar concentrations, thus establishing FPR1 and FPR2 as sensitive and broad signal peptide receptors. The vomeronasal receptor mFpr-rs1 and its sequence orthologue hFPR3 also react to signal peptides but are much more narrowly tuned in signal peptide recognition. Furthermore, all signal peptides examined here function as potent activators of the innate immune system. They elicit robust, FPR-dependent calcium mobilization in human and mouse leukocytes and trigger a range of classical innate defense mechanisms, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, metalloprotease release, and chemotaxis. Thus, bacterial signal peptides constitute a novel class of immune activators that are likely to contribute to mammalian immune defense against bacteria. This evolutionarily conserved detection mechanism combines structural promiscuity with high specificity and enables discrimination between bacterial and eukaryotic signal sequences. With at least 175,542 predicted sequences, bacterial signal peptides represent the largest and structurally most heterogeneous class of G-protein-coupled receptor agonists currently known for the innate immune system. PMID:25605714

  8. Idiopathic inflammatory myositis.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Joanna; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Limaye, Vidya

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge on idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) has evolved with the identification of myositis-associated and myositis-specific antibodies, development of histopathological classification and the recognition of how these correlate with clinical phenotype and response to therapy. In this paper, we outline key advances in diagnosis and histopathology, including the more recent identification of antibodies associated with immune-mediated necrotising myopathy (IMNM) and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Ongoing longitudinal observational cohorts allow further classification of these patients with IIM, their predicted clinical course and response to specific therapies. Registries have been developed worldwide for this purpose. A challenging aspect in IIM, a multisystem disease with multiple clinical subtypes, has been defining disease status and clinically relevant improvement. Tools for assessing activity and damage are now recognised to be important in determining disease activity and guiding therapeutic decision-making. The International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies (IMACS) group has developed such tools for use in research and clinical settings. There is limited evidence for specific treatment strategies in IIM. With significant development in the understanding of IIM and improved classification, longitudinal observational cohorts and trials using validated outcome measures are necessary, to provide important information for evidence-based care in the clinical setting. PMID:27421222

  9. Clinical uses of gut peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Geoghegan, J; Pappas, T N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors review clinical applications of gut-derived peptides as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: An increasing number of gut peptides have been evaluated for clinical use. Earlier uses as diagnostic agents have been complemented more recently by increasing application of gut peptides as therapeutic agents. METHOD: The authors conducted a literature review. RESULTS: Current experience with clinical use of gut peptides is described. Initial clinical applications focused on using secretomotor effects of gut peptides in diagnostic tests, many of which have now fallen into disuse. More recently, attention has been directed toward harnessing these secretomotor effects for therapeutic use in a variety of disorders, and also using the trophic effects of gut peptides to modulate gut mucosal growth in benign and malignant disease. Gut peptides have been evaluated in a variety of other clinical situations including use as adjuncts to imaging techniques, and modification of behaviors such as feeding and panic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Gut peptides have been used successfully in an increasing variety of clinical conditions. Further refinements in analogue and antagonist design are likely to lead to even more selective agents that may have important clinical applications. Further studies are needed to identity and evaluate these new agents. PMID:9065291

  10. Thermolysin: a peptide forming enzyme.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A V

    1991-02-01

    Thermolysin, a thermostable endopeptidase, is recognised as a potential peptide bond forming enzyme. The importance of structural properties and its stereospecific nature towards peptide bond formation is described. Thermolysin's use in the keystep of the preparation of an artificial sweetener 'aspartame' is highlighted.

  11. Urinary Peptides in Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solaas, K. M.; Skjeldal, O.; Gardner, M. L. G.; Kase, B. F.; Reichelt, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A study found a significantly higher level of peptides in the urine of 53 girls with Rett syndrome compared with controls. The elevation was similar to that in 35 girls with infantile autism. Levels of peptides were lower in girls with classic Rett syndrome than those with congenital Rett syndrome. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Peptide and non-peptide HIV fusion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shibo; Zhao, Qian; Debnath, Asim K

    2002-01-01

    Fusion of the HIV envelope with the target cell membrane is a critical step of HIV entry into the target cell. The HIV envelope glycoprotein gp41 plays an important role in the fusion of viral and target cell membranes and serves as an attractive target for development of HIV fusion inhibitors. The extracellular domain of gp41 contains three important functional regions, i.e. fusion peptide (FP), N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR, respectively). The FP region is composed of hydrophobic, glycine-rich residues that are essential for the initial penetration of the target cell membrane. NHR and CHR regions consist of hydrophobic residues, which have the tendency to form alpha-helical coiled coils. During the process of fusion of HIV or HIV-infected cells with uninfected cells, FP inserts into the target cell membrane and subsequently the NHR and CHR regions change conformations and associate with each other to form a fusion-active gp41 core. Peptides derived from NHR and CHR regions, designated N- and C-peptides, respectively, have potent inhibitory activity against HIV fusion by binding to the CHR and NHR regions, respectively, to prevent the formation of the fusion-active gp41 core. C-peptide may also bind to FP, thereby blocking its insertion into the target cell membrane. One of the C-peptides, T-20, which is in the phase III clinical trials, has potent in vivo activity against HIV infection and is expected to become the first peptide HIV fusion inhibitory drug in the near future. However, this peptide HIV fusion inhibitor lacks oral availability and is sensitive to the proteolytic digestion. Therefore, it is essential to develop small molecular non-peptide HIV fusion inhibitors having a mechanism of action similar to the C-peptides. One of the approaches in identifying the inhibitors is to use an immunological assay to screen chemical libraries for the compounds that potentially block the interaction between the NHR and CHR regions to form a fusion

  13. Peptides and peptidomimetics as immunomodulators

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Ameya S; Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama

    2014-01-01

    Peptides and peptidomimetics can function as immunomodulating agents by either blocking the immune response or stimulating the immune response to generate tolerance. Knowledge of B- or T-cell epitopes along with conformational constraints is important in the design of peptide-based immunomodulating agents. Work on the conformational aspects of peptides, synthesis and modified amino acid side chains have contributed to the development of a new generation of therapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancer. The design of peptides/peptidomimetics for immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus and HIV infection is reviewed. In cancer therapy, peptide epitopes are used in such a way that the body is trained to recognize and fight the cancer cells locally as well as systemically. PMID:25186605

  14. Antibacterial peptides isolated from insects.

    PubMed

    Otvos, L

    2000-10-01

    Insects are amazingly resistant to bacterial infections. To combat pathogens, insects rely on cellular and humoral mechanisms, innate immunity being dominant in the latter category. Upon detection of bacteria, a complex genetic cascade is activated, which ultimately results in the synthesis of a battery of antibacterial peptides and their release into the haemolymph. The peptides are usually basic in character and are composed of 20-40 amino acid residues, although some smaller proteins are also included in the antimicrobial repertoire. While the proline-rich peptides and the glycine-rich peptides are predominantly active against Gram-negative strains, the defensins selectively kill Gram-positive bacteria and the cecropins are active against both types. The insect antibacterial peptides are very potent: their IC50 (50% of the bacterial growth inhibition) hovers in the submicromolar or low micromolar range. The majority of the peptides act through disintegrating the bacterial membrane or interfering with membrane assembly, with the exception of drosocin, apidaecin and pyrrhocoricin which appear to deactivate a bacterial protein in a stereospecific manner. In accordance with their biological function, the membrane-active peptides form ordered structures, e.g. alpha-helices or beta-pleated sheets and often cast permeable ion-pores. Their cytotoxic properties were exploited in in vivo studies targeting tumour progression. Although the native peptides degrade quickly in biological fluids other than insect haemolymph, structural modifications render the peptides resistant against proteases without sacrificing biological activity. Indeed, a pyrrhocoricin analogue shows lack of toxicity in vitro and in vivo and protects mice against experimental Escherichia coli infection. Careful selection of lead molecules based on the insect antibacterial peptides may extend their utility and produce viable alternatives to the conventional antimicrobial compounds for mammalian therapy.

  15. Inflammatory networks underlying colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lasry, Audrey; Zinger, Adar; Ben-Neriah, Yinon

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation is emerging as one of the hallmarks of cancer, yet its role in most tumors remains unclear. Whereas a minority of solid tumors are associated with overt inflammation, long-term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is remarkably effective in reducing cancer rate and death. This indicates that inflammation might have many as-yet-unrecognized facets, among which an indolent course might be far more prevalent than previously appreciated. In this Review, we explore the various inflammatory processes underlying the development and progression of colorectal cancer and discuss anti-inflammatory means for its prevention and treatment.

  16. Acne Inversa: Evaluating Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Skrygan, Marina; Kreuter, Alexander; Altmeyer, Peter; Gambichler, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Background Acne inversa is a chronic, suppurative relapsing inflammatory skin disease that primarily affects the axillae, perineum and inframammary regions. Evidence suggests that the innate immune system is involved in the pathogenesis of acne inversa. Objective To investigate the role of the innate immune system in acne inversa. Methods Skin biopsies were obtained from inflammatory skin lesions (n=17) and from non-lesional skin (intraindividual control, n=17) of patients with acne inversa. Additional skin lesions were taken from patients with chronic venous leg ulcers (interindividual control, n=5). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs), including human β-defensin (hBD)-1, hBD-2 and hBD-3, LL-37 (cathelicidin) and Ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7). mRNA levels were also determined for inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Results The mRNA levels of hBD-2, LL-37, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and MMP1 were significantly higher in acne inversa lesions compared to non-lesional skin (p<0.05). A significant positive correlation expression was observed between hBD-2 mRNA expression and LL-37 (ρ=0.53, p=0.03), and between hBD-2 and RNAse 7 (ρ=0.68, p=0.006). When compared to the chronic venous leg ulcer lesions, acne inversa lesions showed a significantly higher expression of RNase 7 mRNA, while IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and MMP1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in the chronic venous leg ulcer lesions (p<0.05). Conclusion The AMP, cytokine milieu and tissue proteases in acne inversa lesions differ significantly from non-lesional skin and chronic venous leg ulcers. The positively correlating up-regulation of AMPs in acne inversa indicates an important role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of this disorder

  17. Chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, J; Lehtinen, M

    1996-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the most important complication present in the female lower genital tract, causing major medical, social and economic problems. Although PID can be caused by multiple microorganisms, it results most frequently from the ascent of sexually transmitted Chlamydia.trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections from the cervix to the upper genital tract. The importance of cervical chlamydial infection in the pathogenesis of PID is well recognized. Recent data from many developed countries have shown a striking decrease in the incidence of gonococcal infections, while the rates of chlamydial infections remain high in most countries. Complications of PID are common and usually irreversible. Emerging evidence suggests that universal or selected screening of defined populations for cervical chlamydial infection leads to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of PID. Recent technological advances should further enhance efforts to prevent chlamydial infection and PID. Gene amplification-based diagnostic tests, screening by testing first-void urine, and single dose antimicrobial therapy greatly facilitate chlamydia control programmes. Thus, screening for chlamydia is the key approach in the secondary prevention of PID. The obvious challenge is to make screening for chlamydia the standard for health care for young, sexually active individuals. Since PID is the most important consequence of sexually transmitted bacterial infections, it is also imperative to develop better treatments to prevent the long-term sequelae of this disease. The development and implementation of new and effective intervention programmes for prevention and control of PID is one of the major challenges for the year 2000 and beyond. PMID:9111185

  18. Recent trends in the analysis of bioactive peptides in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    Food-derived constituents represent important sources of several classes of bioactive compounds. Among them peptides have gained great attention in the last two decades thanks to the scientific evidence of their beneficial effects on health in addition to their established nutritional value. Several functionalities for bioactive peptides have been described, including antioxidative, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activity. They are now considered as novel and potential dietary ingredients to promote human health, though in some cases they may also have detrimental effects on health. Bioactive peptides can be naturally occurring, produced in vitro by enzymatic hydrolysis, and formed in vivo during gastrointestinal digestion of proteins. Thus, the need to gain a better understanding of the positive health effects of food peptides has prompted the development of analytical strategies for their isolation, separation, and identification in complex food matrices. Dairy products and milk are potential sources of bioactive peptides: several of them possess extra-nutritional physiological functions that qualify them to be classified under the functional food label. In this trends article we briefly describe the state-of-the-art of peptidomics methods for the identification and discovery of bioactive peptides, also considering recent progress in their analysis and highlighting the difficulty in the analysis of short amino acid sequences and endogenous peptides.

  19. Inhibition of inflammation by a p38 MAP kinase targeted cell permeable peptide.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Meng, Xianmei; He, Junyun; Gu, Jun

    2008-11-01

    p38 MAPK has been the key therapeutic target for multiple inflammation diseases. However, the clinical applications of p38 inhibitors, most of which target on the ATP binding groove in the kinase, have been held back, largely because of their limited specificity and severe side-effects. An alternative strategy to generate highly selective p38 inhibitor is to block the specific interaction in the p38 signal pathway. Based on the hypothesis that specific binding peptides targeting on the docking groove would interfere the intrinsic interaction between p38 and its partners, we have designed a fusion peptide containing 12aa p38 docking sequence derived from MKK3b and 11aa HIV-TAT transmembrane sequence to form a cell permeable peptide. The peptide specifically binds to p38, and aborts its interaction with upstream kinase as well as downstream substrates, and thus to inhibit p38 phosphorylation and its signaling. Furthermore, the induction and secretion of TNFalpha and other inflammatory factors by LPS are blocked in peptide treated cells and mice. Finally the peptide has been shown to significantly inhibit ear oedema in mice. Therefore, the peptide holds great potential as an anti-inflammation agent for the treatment of inflammation and its related diseases. PMID:18991745

  20. Protective Effect of Wheat Peptides against Indomethacin-Induced Oxidative Stress in IEC-6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hong; Pan, Xingchang; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Shaokang; Yang, Ligang; Sun, Guiju

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L) for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24481130

  1. Constrained Cyclic Peptides as Immunomodulatory Inhibitors of the CD2:CD58 Protein-Protein Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sable, Rushikesh; Durek, Thomas; Taneja, Veena; Craik, David J; Pallerla, Sandeep; Gauthier, Ted; Jois, Seetharama

    2016-08-19

    The interaction between the cell-cell adhesion proteins CD2 and CD58 plays a crucial role in lymphocyte recruitment to inflammatory sites, and inhibitors of this interaction have potential as immunomodulatory drugs in autoimmune diseases. Peptides from the CD2 adhesion domain were designed to inhibit CD2:CD58 interactions. To improve the stability of the peptides, β-sheet epitopes from the CD2 region implicated in CD58 recognition were grafted into the cyclic peptide frameworks of sunflower trypsin inhibitor and rhesus theta defensin. The designed multicyclic peptides were evaluated for their ability to modulate cell-cell interactions in three different cell adhesion assays, with one candidate, SFTI-a, showing potent activity in the nanomolar range (IC50: 51 nM). This peptide also suppresses the immune responses in T cells obtained from mice that exhibit the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. SFTI-a was resistant to thermal denaturation, as judged by circular dichroism spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and had a half-life of ∼24 h in human serum. Binding of this peptide to CD58 was predicted by molecular docking studies and experimentally confirmed by surface plasmon resonance experiments. Our results suggest that cyclic peptides from natural sources are promising scaffolds for modulating protein-protein interactions that are typically difficult to target with small-molecule compounds. PMID:27337048

  2. Apolipoprotein Mimetic Peptides: Mechanisms of Action as Anti-atherogenic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Hwedieh, David O.; Amar, Marcelo; Sviridov, Dmitri; Remaley, Alan T.

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein mimetic peptides are short synthetic peptides that share structural, as well as biological features of native apolipoproteins. The early positive clinical trials of intravaenous preparations of apoA-I, the main protein component of high density lipoproteins (HDL), have stimulated great interest in the use of apolipoprotein mimetic peptides as possible therapeutic agents. Currently, there are a wide variety of apolipoprotein mimetic peptides at various stages of drug development. These peptides typically have been designed to either promote cholesterol efflux or act as anti-oxidants, but they usually exert other biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects. Uncertainty about which of these biological properties is the most important for explaining their anti-atherogenic effect is a major unresolved question in the field. Structure-function studies relating the in vitro properties of these peptides to their ability to reduce atherosclerosis in animal models may uncover the best rationale for the design of these peptides and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the atheroprotective effect of HDL. PMID:21172387

  3. Highly Angiogenic Peptide Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek A.; Taylor, Nichole L.; Shi, Siyu; Wang, Benjamin K.; Jalan, Abhishek A.; Kang, Marci K.; Wickremasinghe, Navindee C.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Major limitations of current tissue regeneration approaches using artificial scaffolds are fibrous encapsulation, lack of host cellular infiltration, unwanted immune responses, surface degradation preceding biointegration, and artificial degradation byproducts. Specifically, for scaffolds larger than 200 500 μm, implants must be accompanied by host angiogenesis in order to provide adequate nutrient/waste exchange in the newly forming tissue. In the current work, we design a peptide-based self-assembling nanofibrous hydrogel containing cell-mediated degradation and proangiogenic moieties that specifically address these challenges. This hydrogel can be easily delivered by syringe, is rapidly infiltrated by cells of hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin, and rapidly forms an extremely robust mature vascular network. scaffolds show no signs of fibrous encapsulation and after 3 weeks are resorbed into the native tissue. These supramolecular assemblies may prove a vital paradigm for tissue regeneration and specifically for ischemic tissue disease. PMID:25584521

  4. Amyloid peptide channels.

    PubMed

    Kagan, B L; Azimov, R; Azimova, R

    2004-11-01

    At least 16 distinct clinical syndromes including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), rheumatoid arthritis, type II diabetes mellitus (DM), and spongiform encephelopathies (prion diseases), are characterized by the deposition of amorphous, Congo red-staining deposits known as amyloid. These "misfolded" proteins adopt beta-sheet structures and aggregate spontaneously into similar extended fibrils despite their widely divergent primary sequences. Many, if not all, of these peptides are capable of forming ion-permeable channels in vitro and possibly in vivo. Common channel properties include irreversible, spontaneous insertion into membranes, relatively large, heterogeneous single-channel conductances, inhibition of channel formation by Congo red, and blockade of inserted channels by Zn2+. Physiologic effects of amyloid, including Ca2+ dysregulation, membrane depolarization, mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP), and cytotoxicity, suggest that channel formation in plasma and intracellular membranes may play a key role in the pathophysiology of the amyloidoses. PMID:15702375

  5. Peptide-formation on cysteine-containing peptide scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, B. C.; Orgel, L. E.

    1999-01-01

    Monomeric cysteine residues attached to cysteine-containing peptides by disulfide bonds can be activated by carbonyldiimidazole. If two monomeric cysteine residues, attached to a 'scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Glyn-Cys-Glu10, (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) are activated, they react to form the dipeptide Cys-Cys. in 25-65% yield. Similarly, the activation of a cysteine residue attached to the 'scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Gly-Glu10 in the presence of Arg5 leads to the formation of Cys-Arg5 in 50% yield. The significance of these results for prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  6. Peptides derived from CXCL8 based on in silico analysis inhibit CXCL8 interactions with its receptor CXCR1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Liou, Je-Wen; Chang, Chun-Chun; Chung, Yi; Lin, Lee-Fong; Hsu, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Chemokine CXCL8 is crucial for regulation of inflammatory and immune responses via activating its cognate receptor CXCR1. In this study, molecular docking and binding free energy calculations were combined to predict the initial binding event of CXCL8 to CXCR1 for peptide drug design. The simulations reveal that in the initial binding, the N-loop of CXCL8 interacts with the N-terminus of CXCR1, which is dominated by electrostatic interactions. The derived peptides from the binding region of CXCL8 are synthesized for further confirmation. Surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that the CXCL8 derived peptide with 14 residues is able to bind to the receptor CXCR1 derived peptide with equilibrium KD of 252 μM while the peptide encompassing a CXCL8 K15A mutation hardly binds to CXCR1 derived peptide (KD = 1553 μM). The cell experiments show that the designed peptide inhibits CXCL8-induced and LPS-activated monocytes adhesion and transmigration. However, when the peptides were mutated on two lysine residues (K15 and K20), the inhibition effects were greatly reduced indicating these two amino acids are key residues for the initial binding of CXCL8 to CXCR1. This study demonstrates that in silico prediction based functional peptide design can be effective for developing anti-inflammation drugs.

  7. Aluminum and copper in drinking water enhance inflammatory or oxidative events specifically in the brain.

    PubMed

    Becaria, Angelica; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Bondy, Stephen C; Chen, DeMao; Hamadeh, Ali; Li, Huihui; Taylor, Russell; Campbell, Arezoo

    2006-07-01

    Inflammatory and oxidative events are up-regulated in the brain of AD patients. It has been reported that in animal models of AD, exposure to aluminum (Al) or copper (Cu) enhanced oxidative events and accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 3-month exposure of mice to copper sulfate (8 microM), aluminum lactate (10 or 100 microM), or a combination of the salts. Results suggest that although Al or Cu may independently initiate inflammatory or oxidative events, they may function cooperatively to increase APP levels. PMID:16697052

  8. Complications of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Gasche, C

    2000-01-01

    Complications in inflammatory bowel disease determine the severity of disease as well as the complexities of medical or surgical treatment opportunities. Therefore, in known inflammatory bowel disease, the prevention, the early detection and the adequate therapeutic response to certain complications are important goals in the follow-up of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Disease complications are separated into intestinal and extraintestinal complications. Intestinal complications are somewhat disease specific, which means that they occur exclusively in either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis (e.g., enteric fistulas are particularly found in Crohn's disease and toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis). Most extraintestinal complications occur in both forms of inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., anemia, thromboembolic events or osteoporosis). The current knowledge on pathogenesis, diagnostic tools, prevention and treatment of certain intestinal and extraintestinal complications is reviewed. PMID:10690585

  9. Macrophage polarization in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Zou, Xian-Biao; Chai, Yan-Fen; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Diversity and plasticity are two hallmarks of macrophages. M1 macrophages (classically activated macrophages) are pro-inflammatory and have a central role in host defense against infection, while M2 macrophages (alternatively activated macrophages) are associated with responses to anti-inflammatory reactions and tissue remodeling, and they represent two terminals of the full spectrum of macrophage activation. Transformation of different phenotypes of macrophages regulates the initiation, development, and cessation of inflammatory diseases. Here we reviewed the characters and functions of macrophage polarization in infection, atherosclerosis, obesity, tumor, asthma, and sepsis, and proposed that targeting macrophage polarization and skewing their phenotype to adapt to the microenvironment might hold great promise for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  10. Update on idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Briani, C; Doria, A; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Dalakas, M C

    2006-05-01

    The inflammatory myopathies are a group of acquired diseases, characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate of the skeletal muscle. On the basis of clinical, immuno-pathological and demographic features, three major diseases can be identified: dermatomyositis (DM); polymyositis (PM); and inclusion body myositis (IBM). New diagnostic criteria have recently been introduced, which are crucial for discriminating between the three different subsets of inflammatory myopathies and for excluding other disorders. DM is a complement-mediated microangiopathy affecting skin and muscle. PM and IBM are T cell-mediated disorders, where CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells invade muscle fibres expressing MHC class I antigens, thus leading to fibre necrosis. In IBM, vacuolar formation with amyloid deposits are also present. This article summarizes the main clinical, laboratory, electrophysiological, immunological and histologic features as well as the therapeutic options of the inflammatory myopathies.

  11. Inflammatory mediators in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, M; Brady, M; Shokuhi, S; Christmas, S; Neoptolemos, J P; Slavin, J

    2000-02-01

    Inflammatory mediators play a key role in acute pancreatitis and the resultant multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, which is the primary cause of death in this condition. Recent studies have confirmed the critical role played by inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, PAF, IL-10, C5a, ICAM-1, and substance P. The systemic effects of acute pancreatitis have many similarities to those of other conditions such as septicaemia, severe burns, and trauma. The delay between the onset of inflammation in the pancreas and the development of the systemic response makes acute pancreatitis an ideal experimental and clinical model with which to study the role of inflammatory mediators and to test novel therapies. Elucidation of the key mediators involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis will facilitate the development of clinically effective anti-inflammatory therapy.

  12. Potential of phage-displayed peptide library technology to identify functional targeting peptides

    PubMed Central

    Krumpe, Lauren RH; Mori, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial peptide library technology is a valuable resource for drug discovery and development. Several peptide drugs developed through phage-displayed peptide library technology are presently in clinical trials and the authors envision that phage-displayed peptide library technology will assist in the discovery and development of many more. This review attempts to compile and summarize recent literature on targeting peptides developed through peptide library technology, with special emphasis on novel peptides with targeting capacity evaluated in vivo. PMID:20150977

  13. The Inflammatory Response in Psoriasis: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yaxiong; Chang, Christopher; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by an excessively aberrant hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. The pathogenesis of psoriasis is complex and the exact mechanism remains elusive. However, psoriasis is thought to result from a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. Recent studies have identified that epigenetic factors including dysregulated DNA methylation levels, abnormal histone modification and microRNAs expressions are involved in the development of psoriasis. The interplay of immune cells and cytokines is another critical factor in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. These factors or pathways include Th1/Th2 homeostasis, the Th17/Treg balance and the IL-23/Th17 axis. Th17 is believed particularly important in psoriasis due to its pro-inflammatory effects and its involvement in an integrated inflammatory loop with dendritic cells and keratinocytes, contributing to an overproduction of antimicrobial peptides, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines that leads to amplification of the immune response. In addition, other pathways and signaling molecules have been found to be involved, including Th9, Th22, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and their related cytokines. Understanding the pathogenesis of psoriasis will allow us to develop increasingly efficient targeted treatment by blocking relevant inflammatory signaling pathways and molecules. There is no cure for psoriasis at the present time, and much of the treatment involves managing the symptoms. The biologics, while lacking the adverse effects associated with some of the traditional medications such as corticosteroids and methotrexate, have their own set of side effects, which may include reactivation of latent infections. Significant challenges remain in developing safe and efficacious novel targeted therapies that depend on a better understanding of the immunological dysfunction in psoriasis. PMID:27025861

  14. Marine Bioactives: Pharmacological Properties and Potential Applications against Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, Nicolantonio; Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; De Girolamo, Massimo; Cusenza, Salvatore; Riccioni, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over the past few decades, it was realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different disorders, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases. Inflammation is the activation of the immune system in response to infection, irritation, or injury, with an influx of white blood cells, redness, heat, swelling, pain, and dysfunction of the organs involved. Although the pathophysiological basis of these conditions is not yet fully understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have often been implicated in their pathogenesis. In fact, in inflammatory diseases the antioxidant defense system is compromised, as evidenced by increased markers of oxidative stress, and decreased levels of protective antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An enriched diet containing antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic substances, has been suggested to improve symptoms by reducing disease-related oxidative stress. In this respect, the marine world represents a largely untapped reserve of bioactive ingredients, and considerable potential exists for exploitation of these bioactives as functional food ingredients. Substances such as n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and peptides provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. New marine bioactives are recently gaining attention, since they could be helpful in combating chronic inflammatory degenerative conditions. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies concerning the potential pharmacological properties and

  15. N-truncation and pyroglutaminylation enhances the opsonizing capacity of Aβ-peptides and facilitates phagocytosis by macrophages and microglia.

    PubMed

    Condic, Mateja; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Herrmann, Martin; Reimann, Mareike Carola; Kornhuber, Johannes; Maler, Juan Manuel; Spitzer, Philipp

    2014-10-01

    Abnormal accumulations of amyloid-β (Aβ)-peptides are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The precursor of the Aβ-peptides, the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is also found in peripheral blood cells, but its function in these cells remains elusive. We previously observed that mononuclear phagocytes release Aβ-peptides during activation and phagocytosis, suggesting a physiologic role in inflammatory processes. Here, we show that supplementing the media with soluble N-terminally truncated Aβ(2-40) and Aβ(2-42) as well as Aβ(1-42) induced the phagocytosis of polystyrene particles (PSPs) by primary human monocytes. If the PSPs were pre-incubated with Aβ-peptides, phagocytosis was induced by all tested Aβ-peptide species. N-terminally truncated Aβ(x-42) induced the phagocytosis of PSPs significantly more effectively than did Aβ(x-40). Similarly, the phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by GM-CSF- and M-CSF-elicited macrophages as well as microglia was particularly facilitated by pre-incubation with N-terminally truncated Aβ(x-42). The proinflammatory polarization of monocytes was indicated by the reduced MSRI expression and IL-10 secretion after phagocytosis of PSPs coated with Aβ(1-42), Aβ(2-42) and Aβ(3p-42). Polarization of the macrophages by GM-CSF reduced the phagocytic activity, but it did not affect the capabilities of Aβ-peptides to opsonize prey. Taken together, Aβ-peptides support phagocytosis as soluble factors and act as opsonins. Differential effects among the Aβ-peptide variants point to distinct mechanisms of interaction among monocytes/macrophages, prey and Aβ-peptides. A proinflammatory polarization induced by the phagocytosis of Aβ-peptide coated particles may provide a model for the chronic inflammatory reaction and sustained plaque deposition in AD.

  16. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by plasmid expressed alphaMSH peptide.

    PubMed

    Etemad-Moghadam, Bijan; Chen, Hongmin; Yin, Peng; Aziz, Nazneen; Hedley, Mary Lynne

    2002-04-01

    Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (alphaMSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory peptide with remarkable anti-inflammatory properties. Daily or twice daily administration of the peptide reduces the symptoms of several inflammatory animal disease models and the peptide has demonstrated safety in human trials. Unfortunately, the pharmacokinetics of peptide delivery are not favorable from the pharmaceutical perspective. For this reason, plasmid-based vectors were created that constitutively express the immunomodulatory peptide. The fusion constructs encode the 13 amino acids of alphaMSH in frame with the first domain of serum albumin, separated by a linker and furin cleavage sites. The fusion proteins were expressed and processed in human fetal kidney (293) cells. Supernatant from B16/F10 cells transfected with the constructs stimulated secretion of melanin from melanocytes. Furthermore, transfected cytoskeletal muscle (Sol8) cells secreted bioactive alphaMSH that reduced NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional activation of a luciferase reporter gene. The activity of these vectors provides tools and the impetus for testing the constructs in several animal models of chronic inflammation. PMID:11960637

  17. Femtosecond laser-patterned nanopore arrays for surface-mediated peptide treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zachman, Angela L.; Hofmeister, Lucas H.; Costa, Lino; Boire, Timothy C.; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Hofmeister, William H.

    2013-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to create easy-to-use, reusable substrates capable of storing any peptides or bioactive molecules for a desired period of time until cells uptake them without the need for bioactive molecule or peptide-specific techniques. Nanopore arrays of uniform size and distribution were machined into fused silica substrates using femtosecond laser ablation and loaded with peptides by simple adsorption. The nanopore substrates were validated by examining the effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) loaded nanopores on macrophage phagocytosis and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with and without the pro-inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our results demonstrated that nanopores were generated in a uniform array fashion. Ac-SDKP peptides were stably stored in nanopores and internalized by macrophages. Significant reductions in ROS production and phagocytosis in macrophages were observed over control substrates, even in combination with LPS stimulation, indicating that loading Ac-SDKP peptides in pores significantly improved the anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24090768

  18. Epimerization in peptide thioester condensation.

    PubMed

    Teruya, Kenta; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Kawakami, Toru; Akaji, Kenichi; Aimoto, Saburo

    2012-11-01

    Peptide segment couplings are now widely utilized in protein chemical synthesis. One of the key structures for the strategy is the peptide thioester. Peptide thioester condensation, in which a C-terminal peptide thioester is selectively activated by silver ions then condensed with an amino component, is a powerful tool. But the amino acid adjacent to the thioester is at risk of epimerization. During the preparation of peptide thioesters by the Boc solid-phase method, no substantial epimerization of the C-terminal amino acid was detected. Epimerization was, however, observed during a thioester-thiol exchange reaction and segment condensation in DMSO in the presence of a base. In contrast, thioester-thiol exchange reactions in aqueous solutions gave no epimerization. The epimerization during segment condensation was significantly suppressed with a less polar solvent that is applicable to segments in thioester peptide condensation. These results were applied to a longer peptide thioester condensation. The epimer content of the coupling product of 89 residues was reduced from 27% to 6% in a condensation between segments of 45 and 44 residues for the thioester and the amino component, respectively.

  19. The good taste of peptides.

    PubMed

    Temussi, Piero A

    2012-02-01

    The taste of peptides is seldom one of the most relevant issues when one considers the many important biological functions of this class of molecules. However, peptides generally do have a taste, covering essentially the entire range of established taste modalities: sweet, bitter, umami, sour and salty. The last two modalities cannot be attributed to peptides as such because they are due to the presence of charged terminals and/or charged side chains, thus reflecting only the zwitterionic nature of these compounds and/or the nature of some side chains but not the electronic and/or conformational features of a specific peptide. The other three tastes, that is, sweet, umami and bitter, are represented by different families of peptides. This review describes the main peptides with a sweet, umami or bitter taste and their relationship with food acceptance or rejection. Particular emphasis will be given to the sweet taste modality, owing to the practical and scientific relevance of aspartame, the well-known sweetener, and to the theoretical importance of sweet proteins, the most potent peptide sweet molecules.

  20. Molecular cues guiding inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Olga; Martín, Pilar; González-Amaro, Roberto; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Alarm signals generated at inflammatory foci reach the vascular lumen to attract immune cells towards the affected tissue. Different leucocyte subsets decipher and integrate these complex signals in order to make adequate decisions for their migration towards the inflamed tissue. Soluble cues (cytokines and chemokines) and membrane receptors in both endothelium and leucocytes orchestrate the coordinated recruitment of specific inflammatory cell subsets. All these molecules are spatio-temporally organized in specialized structures at the luminal side of endothelium and the leucocyte membrane or are generated as chemical gradients in the damaged tissue. Thus, the repertoire of chemokines and their receptors as well as adhesion molecules expressed by each leucocyte subset determine their recruitment for participation in specific inflammatory pathologies. Whenever inflammatory signals are altered or misprocessed, inflammation can become chronic, causing extensive tissue damage. To combat chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases, novel therapeutic strategies attempt to silence the predominant signals in each inflammatory scenario. In this review, we provide a general overview of all these aspects related to the molecular regulation of leucocyte guidance in inflammatory responses.

  1. Experimental pulmonary inflammatory injury in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Revak, S D; Rice, C L; Schraufstätter, I U; Halsey, W A; Bohl, B P; Clancy, R M; Cochrane, C G

    1985-09-01

    Inflammatory pulmonary injury was induced in Macaca mulatta rhesus monkeys by the intrabronchial instillation of the formylated peptide norleu-leu-phe (FNLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Indicators of pulmonary injury included an increase in mean protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 0.51 mg/ml in untreated animals to 3.74 mg/ml and 6.64 mg/ml in FNLP- and PMA-treated animals, respectively, the appearance of a diffuse pulmonary infiltrate in chest roentgenograms, and histologic evidence of a predominantly neutrophilic leukocytic infiltration. Concomitant with the appearance of pulmonary injury was the generation of proteases and oxidants in the BAL fluids. Neutrophil elastase, bound to alpha 1-protease inhibitor (alpha 1-PI), was found to increase from 0.47 micrograms/ml in untreated monkeys to 0.99 micrograms/ml in FNLP-treated animals and 1.23 micrograms/ml in monkeys receiving PMA. Radioiodinated human prekallikrein, instilled for 2 min into the inflammatory site and retrieved by lavaging, was found to have undergone proteolytic cleavage; this cleavage was not consistently inhibitable with the inclusion of antibody to elastase. BAL fluids were shown to contain an amidolytic activity when tested on the synthetic substrate H-D-pro-phe-arg-pNA. This activity was partially inhibitable with known inhibitors of active Hageman factor and kallikrein. beta-Glucuronidase levels in the BAL fluids increased from 0.85 U/ml to 4.36 U/ml and 8.25 U/ml in FNLP- and PMA-treated animals, respectively. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels also increased from 1.37 OD U/ml X min to 16.59 and 30.47 OD U/ml X min in the same groups of animals. Oxidant generation was also assessed in several different ways. The specific activity of the oxidant-sensitive inhibitor alpha 1-PI recovered in the BAL fluid decreased from 0.80 in control samples to 0.57 and 0.65 in FNLP- and PMA-treated animals. That this inactivation was due to oxidant injury of the molecule was confirmed

  2. Immunopathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, M C

    1995-05-01

    Immune-mediated mechanisms appear to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). The serum of patients with active DM has high levels of circulating complement fragments C3b, C4b, and C5b-9 membranolytic attack complex (MAC) and demonstrates a very high C3 uptake in an vitro assay system. The MAC and the immune complex-specific C3bNEO fragment are deposited on the endomysial capillaries early in the disease and lead sequentially to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. In contrast, in PM the muscle fiber injury is initiated by sensitized CD8+ cytotoxic T cells that recognize heretofore unknown and probably endogenous muscle antigens in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression. A restricted (oligoclonal) pattern of T-cell receptor with prominence of Va1, Vb6, and Vb15 genes is noted within the endomysial infiltrates suggesting that the T-cell response is antigen driven. In both PM and DM, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 are upregulated in the endomysial endothelial cells and function as ligands for the leukocyte integrins leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 and very late activating antigen (VLA)-4, allowing activated lymphocytes to adhere to the endothelial cells and migrate to the muscle fibers. Among viruses, only the retroviruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 have been convincingly shown to trigger PM, which is mediated by nonviral-specific, cytotoxic CD8+ cells. The treatment of inflammatory myopathies remains empirical. Many patients respond to steroids to some degree and for some period of time. Azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis can be of mild to moderate benefit. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a promising therapeutic modality for some patients resistant to

  3. Molecular and pathogenic effects of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases ERAP1 and ERAP2 in MHC-I-associated inflammatory disorders: Towards a unifying view.

    PubMed

    López de Castro, José A; Alvarez-Navarro, Carlos; Brito, Ariadna; Guasp, Pablo; Martín-Esteban, Adrian; Sanz-Bravo, Alejandro

    2016-09-01

    The inflammatory diseases that are most strongly associated with major histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I) alleles are also influenced by endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP) 1 and/or 2, often in epistasis with the susceptibility MHC-I allele. This review will focus on the four major MHC-I-associated inflammatory disorders: ankylosing spondylitis, birdshot chorioretinopathy, Behçet's disease and psoriasis. The genetics of ERAP1/ERAP2 association and the alterations induced by polymorphism of these enzymes on the risk MHC-I allotypes will be examined. A pattern emerges of analogous effects on peptide length, sequence and affinity of disparate peptidomes, suggesting that similar peptide-mediated mechanisms underlie the pathogenesis and the joint contribution of ERAP1/ERAP2 and MHC-I to distinct inflammatory diseases. Processing of specific antigens, peptide-dependent changes in global properties of the MHC-I molecules, such as folding and stability, or both may be pathogenic.

  4. The Use of an IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Peptide to Control Inflammation in the Treatment of Corneal Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fok, E.; Guildford, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) may be treated using ex vivo limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) derived from cadaveric donor tissue. However, continuing challenges exist around tissue availability, inflammation, and transplant rejection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or recombinant human IL-1β stimulated primary human keratocyte and LESC models were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of a short chain, IL-1 receptor antagonist peptide for use in LESC sheet growth to control inflammation. The peptide was characterized using mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. Peptide cytotoxicity, patterns of cell cytokine expression in response to LPS or IL-1β stimulation, and peptide suppression of this response were investigated by MTS/LDH assays, ELISA, and q-PCR. Cell differences in LPS stimulated toll-like receptor 4 expression were investigated using immunocytochemistry. A significant reduction in rIL-1β stimulated inflammatory cytokine production occurred following LESC and keratocyte incubation with anti-inflammatory peptide and in LPS stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production following keratocyte incubation with peptide (1 mg/mL) (P < 0.05). LESCs produced no cytokine response to LPS stimulation and showed no TLR4 expression. The peptide supported LESC growth when adhered to a silicone hydrogel contact lens indicating potential use in improved LESC grafting through suppression of inflammation. PMID:25705668

  5. Targeting the Eph System with Peptides and Peptide Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Stefan J; Pasquale, Elena B

    2015-01-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and ephrin ligands constitute an important cell communication system that controls development, tissue homeostasis and many pathological processes. Various Eph receptors/ephrins are present in essentially all cell types and their expression is often dysregulated by injury and disease. Thus, the 14 Eph receptors are attracting increasing attention as a major class of potential drug targets. In particular, agents that bind to the extracellular ephrin-binding pocket of these receptors show promise for medical applications. This pocket comprises a broad and shallow groove surrounded by several flexible loops, which makes peptides particularly suitable to target it with high affinity and selectivity. Accordingly, a number of peptides that bind to Eph receptors with micromolar affinity have been identified using phage display and other approaches. These peptides are generally antagonists that inhibit ephrin binding and Eph receptor/ ephrin signaling, but some are agonists mimicking ephrin-induced Eph receptor activation. Importantly, some of the peptides are exquisitely selective for single Eph receptors. Most identified peptides are linear, but recently the considerable advantages of cyclic scaffolds have been recognized, particularly in light of potential optimization towards drug leads. To date, peptide improvements have yielded derivatives with low nanomolar Eph receptor binding affinity, high resistance to plasma proteases and/or long in vivo half-life, exemplifying the merits of peptides for Eph receptor targeting. Besides their modulation of Eph receptor/ephrin function, peptides can also serve to deliver conjugated imaging and therapeutic agents or various types of nanoparticles to tumors and other diseased tissues presenting target Eph receptors.

  6. Biophysical Mechanisms of Endotoxin Neutralization by Cationic Amphiphilic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kaconis, Yani; Kowalski, Ina; Howe, Jörg; Brauser, Annemarie; Richter, Walter; Razquin-Olazarán, Iosu; Iñigo-Pestaña, Melania; Garidel, Patrick; Rössle, Manfred; Martinez de Tejada, Guillermo; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides (LPS)) are strong elicitors of the human immune system by interacting with serum and membrane proteins such as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 with high specificity. At LPS concentrations as low as 0.3 ng/ml, such interactions may lead to severe pathophysiological effects, including sepsis and septic shock. One approach to inhibit an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction is the use of appropriate polycationic and amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides, here called synthetic anti-LPS peptides (SALPs). We designed various SALP structures and investigated their ability to inhibit LPS-induced cytokine secretion in vitro, their protective effect in a mouse model of sepsis, and their cytotoxicity in physiological human cells. Using a variety of biophysical techniques, we investigated selected SALPs with considerable differences in their biological responses to characterize and understand the mechanism of LPS inactivation by SALPs. Our investigations show that neutralization of LPS by peptides is associated with a fluidization of the LPS acyl chains, a strong exothermic Coulomb interaction between the two compounds, and a drastic change of the LPS aggregate type from cubic into multilamellar, with an increase in the aggregate sizes, inhibiting the binding of LBP and other mammalian proteins to the endotoxin. At the same time, peptide binding to phospholipids of human origin (e.g., phosphatidylcholine) does not cause essential structural changes, such as changes in membrane fluidity and bilayer structure. The absence of cytotoxicity is explained by the high specificity of the interaction of the peptides with LPS. PMID:21641310

  7. FITC Conjugation Markedly Enhances Hepatic Clearance of N-Formyl Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Elvevold, Kjetil; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur; Smedsrød, Bård

    2016-01-01

    In both septic and aseptic inflammation, N-formyl peptides may enter the circulation and induce a systemic inflammatory response syndrome similar to that observed during septic shock. The inflammatory response is brought about by the binding of N-formyl peptide to formyl peptide receptors (FPRs), specific signaling receptors expressed on myeloid as well as non-myeloid cells involved in the inflammatory process. N-formyl peptides conjugated with fluorochromes, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are increasingly experimentally used to identify tissues involved in inflammation. Hypothesizing that the process of FITC-conjugation may transfer formyl peptide to a ligand that is efficiently cleared from the circulation by the natural powerful hepatic scavenging regime we studied the biodistribution of intravenously administered FITC-fNLPNTL (Fluorescein-isothiocyanate- N-Formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys) in mice. Our findings can be summarized as follows: i) In contrast to unconjugated fNLPNTL, FITC-fNLPNTL was rapidly taken up in the liver; ii) Mouse and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatocytes express formyl peptide receptor 1 (FRP1) on both mRNA (PCR) and protein (Western blot) levels; iii) Immunohistochemistry showed that mouse and human liver sections expressed FRP1 in LSECs and hepatocytes; and iv) Uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL could be largely blocked in mouse and human hepatocytes by surplus-unconjugated fNLPNTL, thereby suggesting that the hepatocytes in both species recognized FITC-fNLPNTL and fNLPNTL as indistinguishable ligands. This was in contrast to the mouse and human LSECs, in which the uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL was mediated by both FRP1 and a scavenger receptor, specifically expressed on LSECs. Based on these results we conclude that a significant proportion of FITC-fNLPNTL is taken up in LSECs via a scavenger receptor naturally expressed in these cells. This calls for great caution when using FITC-fNLPNTL and other chromogen

  8. FITC Conjugation Markedly Enhances Hepatic Clearance of N-Formyl Peptides.

    PubMed

    Øie, Cristina Ionica; Snapkov, Igor; Elvevold, Kjetil; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur; Smedsrød, Bård

    2016-01-01

    In both septic and aseptic inflammation, N-formyl peptides may enter the circulation and induce a systemic inflammatory response syndrome similar to that observed during septic shock. The inflammatory response is brought about by the binding of N-formyl peptide to formyl peptide receptors (FPRs), specific signaling receptors expressed on myeloid as well as non-myeloid cells involved in the inflammatory process. N-formyl peptides conjugated with fluorochromes, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are increasingly experimentally used to identify tissues involved in inflammation. Hypothesizing that the process of FITC-conjugation may transfer formyl peptide to a ligand that is efficiently cleared from the circulation by the natural powerful hepatic scavenging regime we studied the biodistribution of intravenously administered FITC-fNLPNTL (Fluorescein-isothiocyanate- N-Formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys) in mice. Our findings can be summarized as follows: i) In contrast to unconjugated fNLPNTL, FITC-fNLPNTL was rapidly taken up in the liver; ii) Mouse and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatocytes express formyl peptide receptor 1 (FRP1) on both mRNA (PCR) and protein (Western blot) levels; iii) Immunohistochemistry showed that mouse and human liver sections expressed FRP1 in LSECs and hepatocytes; and iv) Uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL could be largely blocked in mouse and human hepatocytes by surplus-unconjugated fNLPNTL, thereby suggesting that the hepatocytes in both species recognized FITC-fNLPNTL and fNLPNTL as indistinguishable ligands. This was in contrast to the mouse and human LSECs, in which the uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL was mediated by both FRP1 and a scavenger receptor, specifically expressed on LSECs. Based on these results we conclude that a significant proportion of FITC-fNLPNTL is taken up in LSECs via a scavenger receptor naturally expressed in these cells. This calls for great caution when using FITC-fNLPNTL and other chromogen

  9. Accurate Peptide Fragment Mass Analysis: Multiplexed Peptide Identification and Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Weisbrod, Chad R.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Baker, Tahmina; Bruce, James E.

    2012-01-01

    FT All Reaction Monitoring (FT-ARM) is a novel approach for the identification and quantification of peptides that relies upon the selectivity of high mass accuracy data and the specificity of peptide fragmentation patterns. An FT-ARM experiment involves continuous, data-independent, high mass accuracy MS/MS acquisition spanning a defined m/z range. Custom software was developed to search peptides against the multiplexed fragmentation spectra by comparing theoretical or empirical fragment ions against every fragmentation spectrum across the entire acquisition. A dot product score is calculated against each spectrum in order to generate a score chromatogram used for both identification and quantification. Chromatographic elution profile characteristics are not used to cluster precursor peptide signals to their respective fragment ions. FT-ARM identifications are demonstrated to be complementary to conventional data-dependent shotgun analysis, especially in cases where the data-dependent method fails due to fragmenting multiple overlapping precursors. The sensitivity, robustness and specificity of FT-ARM quantification are shown to be analogous to selected reaction monitoring-based peptide quantification with the added benefit of minimal assay development. Thus, FT-ARM is demonstrated to be a novel and complementary data acquisition, identification, and quantification method for the large scale analysis of peptides. PMID:22288382

  10. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Balding, Joanna; Livingstone, Wendy J; Conroy, Judith; Mynett-Johnson, Lesley; Weir, Donald G; Mahmud, Nasir; Smith, Owen P

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have not been fully elucidated, although the main cause of disease pathology is attributed to up-regulated inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of polymorphisms in genes encoding pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in IBD patients and controls. We determined genotypes of patients with IBD (n= 172) and healthy controls (n= 389) for polymorphisms in genes encoding various cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist). Association of these genotypes to disease incidence and pathophysiology was investigated. No strong association was found with occurrence of IBD. Variation was observed between the ulcerative colitis study group and the control population for the TNF-alpha-308 polymorphism (p= 0.0135). There was also variation in the frequency of IL-6-174 and TNF-alpha-308 genotypes in the ulcerative colitis group compared with the Crohn's disease group (p= 0.01). We concluded that polymorphisms in inflammatory genes are associated with variations in IBD phenotype and disease susceptibility. Whether the polymorphisms are directly involved in regulating cytokine production, and consequently pathophysiology of IBD, or serve merely as markers in linkage disequilibrium with susceptibility genes remains unclear. PMID:15223609

  11. Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: role of inflammatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Rong; Yang, Guojun; Li, Guohong

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and other forms of ischemic brain injury. Experimentally and clinically, the brain responds to ischemic injury with an acute and prolonged inflammatory process, characterized by rapid activation of resident cells (mainly microglia), production of proinflammatory mediators, and infiltration of various types of inflammatory cells (including neutrophils, different subtypes of T cells, monocyte/macrophages, and other cells) into the ischemic brain tissue. These cellular events collaboratively contribute to ischemic brain injury. Despite intense investigation, there are still numerous controversies concerning the time course of the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the brain and their pathogenic roles in ischemic brain injury. In this review, we provide an overview of the time-dependent recruitment of different inflammatory cells following focal cerebral I/R. We discuss how these cells contribute to ischemic brain injury and highlight certain recent findings and currently unanswered questions about inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. PMID:20130219

  12. Regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin.

    PubMed

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu

    2015-12-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin and is well-known as a co-factor for 5 indispensable carboxylases. Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the biotinylation of carboxylases and other proteins, whereas biotinidase catalyzes the release of biotin from biotinylated peptides. Previous studies have reported that nutritional biotin deficiency and genetic defects in either HLCS or biotinidase induces cutaneous inflammation and immunological disorders. Since biotin-dependent carboxylases involve various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids, metabolic abnormalities may play important roles in immunological and inflammatory disorders caused by biotin deficiency. Transcriptional factors, including NF-κB and Sp1/3, are also affected by the status of biotin, indicating that biotin regulates immunological and inflammatory functions independently of biotin-dependent carboxylases. An in-vivo analysis with a murine model revealed the therapeutic effects of biotin supplementation on metal allergies. The novel roles of biotinylated proteins and their related enzymes have recently been reported. Non-carboxylase biotinylated proteins induce chemokine production. HLCS is a nuclear protein involved in epigenetic and chromatin regulation. In this review, comprehensive knowledge on the regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin and its potential as a therapeutic agent is discussed. PMID:26168302

  13. Immunological investigation for the presence of lunasin, a chemopreventive soybean peptide, in the seeds of diverse plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lunasin, a 43-amino acid soybean bioactive peptide, exhibits anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. All soybean varieties that have been examined contain lunasin. It has also been reported in a few other plant species including Amaranth, black nightshade, wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Int...

  14. Synthetic Peptides as Protein Mimics

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Sticht, Heinrich; Eichler, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The design and generation of molecules capable of mimicking the binding and/or functional sites of proteins represents a promising strategy for the exploration and modulation of protein function through controlled interference with the underlying molecular interactions. Synthetic peptides have proven an excellent type of molecule for the mimicry of protein sites because such peptides can be generated as exact copies of protein fragments, as well as in diverse chemical modifications, which includes the incorporation of a large range of non-proteinogenic amino acids as well as the modification of the peptide backbone. Apart from extending the chemical and structural diversity presented by peptides, such modifications also increase the proteolytic stability of the molecules, enhancing their utility for biological applications. This article reviews recent advances by this and other laboratories in the use of synthetic protein mimics to modulate protein function, as well as to provide building blocks for synthetic biology. PMID:26835447

  15. Moonlighting Peptides with Emerging Function

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Plaza, Jonathan G.; Villalón Rojas, Amanda; Herrera, Sur; Garza-Ramos, Georgina; Torres Larios, Alfredo; Amero, Carlos; Zarraga Granados, Gabriela; Gutiérrez Aguilar, Manuel; Lara Ortiz, María Teresa; Polanco Gonzalez, Carlos; Uribe Carvajal, Salvador; Coria, Roberto; Peña Díaz, Antonio; Bredesen, Dale E.; Castro-Obregon, Susana; del Rio, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Hunter-killer peptides combine two activities in a single polypeptide that work in an independent fashion like many other multi-functional, multi-domain proteins. We hypothesize that emergent functions may result from the combination of two or more activities in a single protein domain and that could be a mechanism selected in nature to form moonlighting proteins. We designed moonlighting peptides using the two mechanisms proposed to be involved in the evolution of such molecules (i.e., to mutate non-functional residues and the use of natively unfolded peptides). We observed that our moonlighting peptides exhibited two activities that together rendered a new function that induces cell death in yeast. Thus, we propose that moonlighting in proteins promotes emergent properties providing a further level of complexity in living organisms so far unappreciated. PMID:22808104

  16. Apidaecins: antibacterial peptides from honeybees.

    PubMed Central

    Casteels, P; Ampe, C; Jacobs, F; Vaeck, M; Tempst, P

    1989-01-01

    Although insects lack the basic entities of the vertebrate immune system, such as lymphocytes and immunoglobulins, they have developed alternative defence mechanisms against infections. Different types of peptide factors, exhibiting bactericidal activity, have been detected in some insect species. These humoral factors are induced upon infection. The present report describes the discovery of the apidaecins, isolated from lymph fluid of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). The apidaecins represent a new family of inducible peptide antibiotics with the following basic structure: GNNRP(V/I)YIPQPRPPHPR(L/I). These heat-stable, non-helical peptides are active against a wide range of plant-associated bacteria and some human pathogens, through a bacteriostatic rather than a lytic process. Chemically synthesized apidaecins display the same bactericidal activity as their natural counterparts. While only active antibacterial peptides are detectable in adult honeybee lymph, bee larvae contain considerable amounts of inactive precursor molecules. PMID:2676519

  17. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products. PMID:26132844

  18. Food-derived immunomodulatory peptides.

    PubMed

    Santiago-López, Lourdes; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; Mata-Haro, Verónica; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2016-08-01

    Food proteins contain specific amino acid sequences within their structures that may positively impact bodily functions and have multiple immunomodulatory effects. The functional properties of these specific sequences, also referred to as bioactive peptides, are revealed only after the degradation of native proteins during digestion processes. Currently, milk proteins have been the most explored source of bioactive peptides, which presents an interesting opportunity for the dairy industry. However, plant- and animal-derived proteins have also been shown to be important sources of bioactive peptides. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the role of various food proteins as sources of immunomodulatory peptides and discusses the possible pathways involving these properties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Peptide models for membrane channels.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D

    1996-01-01

    Peptides may be synthesized with sequences corresponding to putative transmembrane domains and/or pore-lining regions that are deduced from the primary structures of ion channel proteins. These can then be incorporated into lipid bilayer membranes for structural and functional studies. In addition to the ability to invoke ion channel activity, critical issues are the secondary structures adopted and the mode of assembly of these short transmembrane peptides in the reconstituted systems. The present review concentrates on results obtained with peptides from ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels, as well as proton-conducting channels. These are considered within the context of current molecular models and the limited data available on the structure of native ion channels and natural channel-forming peptides. PMID:8615800

  20. Biomedical Applications of Organometal-Peptide Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    Peptides are well suited as targeting vectors for the directed delivery of metal-based drugs or probes for biomedical investigations. This chapter describes synthetic strategies for the preparation of conjugates of medically interesting peptides with covalently bound metal complexes. Peptides that were used include neuropeptides (enkephalin, neuropeptide Y, neurotensin), uptake peptides (TAT and poly-Arg), and intracellular localization sequences. To these peptides, a whole variety of transition metal complexes has been attached in recent years by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) techniques. The metal complex can be attached to the peptide on the resin as part of the SPPS scheme. Alternatively, the metal complex may be attached to the peptide as a postsynthetic modification. Advantages as well as disadvantages for either strategy are discussed. Biomedical applications include radiopharmaceutical applications, anticancer and antibacterial activity, metal-peptide conjugates as targeted CO-releasing molecules, and metal-peptide conjugates in biosensor applications.

  1. Inhibition of interleukin-1 beta-induced pyresis in the rabbit by peptide 204-212 of lipocortin 5.

    PubMed

    Palmi, M; Frosini, M; Sgaragli, G P; Becherucci, C; Perretti, M; Parente, L

    1995-07-25

    The intracerebroventricular administration of interleukin-1 beta (12.5 ng/kg) in rabbits caused a prompt rise of prostaglandin E2 concentration (+ 632.6 +/- 243.9%) in the cerebrospinal fluid followed by hyperthermia (+ 1.61 +/- 0.14 delta degrees C). The intracerebroventricular administration of an anti-inflammatory nonapeptide (amino acids 204-212, SHLRKVFDK) derived from lipocortin 5, thereafter referred to as lipocortin 5-(204-212)-peptide, inhibited in a significant manner both the increase in cerebrospinal fluid [prostaglandin E2] and the febrile response induced by the cytokine. This inhibitory effect is probably due to interference by the peptide with phospholipase A2 activity. A control peptide (FKRVHDLKS) formed by the same amino acids in a randomly shuffled sequence had no effect. These results show that, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effect previously reported, the peptide 204-212 of lipocortin 5 possesses, like glucocorticoids, anti-pyretic activity. The research on lipocortin-derived peptides may lead to the development of novel anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic compounds. PMID:8566125

  2. Low-molecular-weight fractions of Alcalase hydrolyzed egg ovomucin extract exert anti-inflammatory activity in human dermal fibroblasts through the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-mediated nuclear factor κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Chakrabarti, Subhadeep; Fang, Jun; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    Ovomucin is a mucin-like protein from egg white with a variety of biological functions. We hypothesized that ovomucin-derived peptides might exert anti-inflammatory activity. The specific objectives were to test the anti-inflammatory activities of different ovomucin hydrolysates and its various fractions in human dermal fibroblasts, and to understand the possible molecular mechanisms. Three ovomucin hydrolysates were prepared and desalted; only the desalted Alcalase hydrolysate showed anti-inflammatory activity. Desalting of ovomucin hydrolysate enriched the proportion of low-molecular-weight (MW) peptides. Indeed, ultrafiltration of this hydrolysate displayed comparable anti-inflammatory activity in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the responsible role of low-MW bioactive peptides in exerting the beneficial biological function. The anti-inflammatory activity of low-MW peptides was regulated through the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-mediated nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells activity. Our study demonstrated that both peptide composition and MW distribution play important roles in anti-inflammatory activity. The low-MW fractions prepared from ovomucin Alcalase hydrolysate may have potential applications for maintenance of dermal health and treatment of skin diseases. PMID:27333955

  3. Biodegradable Peptide-Silica Nanodonuts.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Laura; Travaglini, Leana; Cabrera, Ingrid; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; De Cola, Luisa

    2016-03-01

    We report hybrid organosilica toroidal particles containing a short peptide sequence as the organic component of the hybrid systems. Once internalised in cancer cells, the presence of the peptide allows for interaction with peptidase enzymes, which attack the nanocarrier effectively triggering its structural breakdown. Moreover, these biodegradable nanovectors are characterised by high cellular uptake and exocytosis, showing great potential as biodegradable drug carriers. To demonstrate this feature, doxorubicin was employed and its delivery in HeLa cells investigated.

  4. Biodegradable Peptide-Silica Nanodonuts.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Laura; Travaglini, Leana; Cabrera, Ingrid; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; De Cola, Luisa

    2016-03-01

    We report hybrid organosilica toroidal particles containing a short peptide sequence as the organic component of the hybrid systems. Once internalised in cancer cells, the presence of the peptide allows for interaction with peptidase enzymes, which attack the nanocarrier effectively triggering its structural breakdown. Moreover, these biodegradable nanovectors are characterised by high cellular uptake and exocytosis, showing great potential as biodegradable drug carriers. To demonstrate this feature, doxorubicin was employed and its delivery in HeLa cells investigated. PMID:26880470

  5. A short peptide from frog skin accelerates diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Duan, Zilei; Tang, Jing; Lv, Qiumin; Rong, Mingqiang; Lai, Ren

    2014-10-01

    Delayed wound healing will result in the development of chronic wounds in some diseases, such as diabetes. Amphibian skins possess excellent wound-healing ability and represent a resource for prospective wound-healing promoting compounds. A potential wound-healing promoting peptide (CW49; amino acid sequence APFRMGICTTN) was identified from the frog skin of Odorrana grahami. It promotes wound healing in a murine model with a full-thickness dermal wound in both normal and diabetic animals. In addition to its strong angiogenic ability with respect to the upregulation of some angiogenic proteins, CW49 also showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in diabetic wounds, which was very important for healing chronic wounds. CW49 had little effect on re-epithelialization, resulting in no significant effect on wound closure rate compared to a vehicle control. Altogether, this indicated that CW49 might accelerate diabetic wound healing by promoting angiogenesis and preventing any excessive inflammatory response. Considering its favorable traits as a small peptide that significantly promotes angiogenesis, CW49 might be an excellent candidate or template for the development of a drug for use in the treatment of diabetic wounds.

  6. Kinins and peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Regoli, Domenico; Gobeil, Fernand

    2016-04-01

    This paper is divided into two sections: the first contains the essential elements of the opening lecture presented by Pr. Regoli to the 2015 International Kinin Symposium in S. Paulo, Brazil on June 28th and the second is the celebration of Dr. Regoli's 60 years of research on vasoactive peptides. The cardiovascular homeostasis derives from a balance of two systems, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). The biologically active effector entity of RAS is angiotensin receptor-1 (AT-1R), and that of KKS is bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). The first mediates vasoconstriction, the second is the most potent and efficient vasodilator. Thanks to its complex and multi-functional mechanism of action, involving nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelial hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). B2R is instrumental for the supply of blood, oxygen and nutrition to tissues. KKS is present on the vascular endothelium and functions as an autacoid playing major roles in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. KKS exerts a paramount role in the prevention of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Such knowledge emphasizes the already prominent value of the ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) for the treatment of CVDs and diabetes. Indeed, the ACEIs, thanks to their double action (block of the RAS and potentiation of the KKS) are the ideal agents for a rational treatment of these diseases. PMID:26408609

  7. Peptides and proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, W.W.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopy make it possible to derive detailed structural information about biomolecular structures in solution. These techniques are critically dependent on the availability of labeled compounds. For example, NMR techniques used today to derive peptide and protein structures require uniformity {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled samples that are derived biosynthetically from (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. These experiments are possible now because, during the 1970s, the National Stable Isotope Resource developed algal methods for producing (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. If NMR techniques are to be used to study larger proteins, we will need sophisticated labelling patterns in amino acids that employ a combination of {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N labeling. The availability of these specifically labeled amino acids requires a renewed investment in new methods for chemical synthesis of labeled amino acids. The development of new magnetic resonance or vibrational techniques to elucidate biomolecular structure will be seriously impeded if we do not see rapid progress in labeling technology. Investment in labeling chemistry is as important as investment in the development of advanced spectroscopic tools.

  8. Selective inhibition of NF-kappa B blocks osteoclastogenesis and prevents inflammatory bone destruction in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jimi, Eijiro; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hiroaki; D'Acquisto, Fulvio; May, Michael J; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sudo, Testuo; Kojima, Takefumi; Okamoto, Fujio; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Okabe, Koji; Ohya, Keiichi; Ghosh, Sankar

    2004-06-01

    Bone destruction is a pathological hallmark of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Inflammation-induced bone loss of this sort results from elevated numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Gene targeting studies have shown that the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) has a crucial role in osteoclast differentiation, and blocking NF-kappa B is a potential strategy for preventing inflammatory bone resorption. We tested this approach using a cell-permeable peptide inhibitor of the I kappa B-kinase complex, a crucial component of signal transduction pathways to NF-kappa B. The peptide inhibited RANKL-stimulated NF-kappa B activation and osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, this peptide significantly reduced the severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by reducing levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta, abrogating joint swelling and reducing destruction of bone and cartilage. Therefore, selective inhibition of NF-kappa B activation offers an effective therapeutic approach for inhibiting chronic inflammatory diseases involving bone resorption.

  9. Collagen-like antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Ryo; Kudo, Masakazu; Dazai, Yui; Mima, Takehiko; Koide, Takaki

    2016-11-01

    Combinatorial library composed of rigid rod-like peptides with a triple-helical scaffold was constructed. The component peptides were designed to have various combinations of basic and neutral (or hydrophobic) amino acid residues based on collagen-like (Gly-Pro-Yaa)-repeating sequences, inspired from the basic and amphiphilic nature of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Screening of the peptide pools resulted in identification of antimicrobial peptides. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the position of Arg-cluster at N-terminus and cystine knots at C-terminus in the triple helix significantly contributed to the antimicrobial activity. The most potent peptide RO-A showed activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. In addition, Escherichia coli exposed to RO-A resulted in abnormal elongation of the cells. RO-A was also shown to have remarkable stability in human serum and low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 453-459, 2016. PMID:27271210

  10. Latarcins: versatile spider venom peptides.

    PubMed

    Dubovskii, Peter V; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Kozlov, Sergey A; Feofanov, Alexey V; Grishin, Eugene V; Efremov, Roman G

    2015-12-01

    Arthropod venoms feature the presence of cytolytic peptides believed to act synergetically with neurotoxins to paralyze prey or deter aggressors. Many of them are linear, i.e., lack disulfide bonds. When isolated from the venom, or obtained by other means, these peptides exhibit common properties. They are cationic; being mostly disordered in aqueous solution, assume amphiphilic α-helical structure in contact with lipid membranes; and exhibit general cytotoxicity, including antifungal, antimicrobial, hemolytic, and anticancer activities. To suit the pharmacological needs, the activity spectrum of these peptides should be modified by rational engineering. As an example, we provide a detailed review on latarcins (Ltc), linear cytolytic peptides from Lachesana tarabaevi spider venom. Diverse experimental and computational techniques were used to investigate the spatial structure of Ltc in membrane-mimicking environments and their effects on model lipid bilayers. The antibacterial activity of Ltc was studied against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, the action of Ltc on erythrocytes and cancer cells was investigated in detail with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In the present review, we give a critical account of the progress in the research of Ltc. We explore the relationship between Ltc structure and their biological activity and derive molecular characteristics, which can be used for optimization of other linear peptides. Current applications of Ltc and prospective use of similar membrane-active peptides are outlined.

  11. Pregnancy and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zeldis, J B

    1989-08-01

    Conclusions about the relationship between the pathophysiology and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and the physiology and management of pregnancy are based on the results of several large physician surveys and retrospective chart reviews. Patients with active disease fare worse than those with inactive disease. There is little evidence that pregnancy affects the course of inflammatory bowel disease or that inactive inflammatory bowel disease affects the course of pregnancy. Judicious medical therapy is effective in controlling inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy. Sulfasalazine or steroid therapy should not be withdrawn in a patient who needs it to achieve or maintain a quiescent state of inflammatory bowel disease during the course of pregnancy. Immunosuppressive therapy should be avoided. Aggressive medical therapy with total parenteral nutrition in a team approach with a gastroenterologist, surgeon, and perinatologist usually avoids the need for surgical intervention during pregnancy with a good fetal outcome in a patient whose disease is active. Contraception against pregnancy need only be considered in those patients whose disease is so severe that operative therapy is imminent.

  12. An anti-inflammatory oligopeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica down-regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines.

    PubMed

    Utrera-Barillas, Dolores; Velazquez, Juan R; Enciso, Antonio; Cruz, Samira Muñoz; Rico, Guadalupe; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo; Teran, Luis M; Kretschmer, Roberto R

    2003-10-01

    Axenically grown Entamoeba histolytica produces a pentapeptide (Met-Gln-Cys-Asn-Ser) with anti-inflammatory properties that, among others, inhibits the in vitro and in vivo locomotion of human monocytes, sparing polymorphonuclear leucocytes from this effect [hence the name originally given. Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor (MLIF)]. A synthetic construct of this peptide displays the same effects as the native material. We now added MLIF to resting and PMA-stimulated cells of a human monocyte cell line and measured the effect upon mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines (RANTES, IP-10, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MCP-1, IL-8, I-309 and lymphotactin) and the shared CC receptor repertoire. The constitutive expression of these chemokines and the CC receptors was unaffected, whereas induced expression of MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and I-309, and that of the CCR1 receptor--all involved in monocyte chemotaxis--was significantly inhibited by MLIF. This suggests that the inhibition of monocyte functions by MLIF may not only be exerted directly on these cells, but also--and perhaps foremost--through a conglomerate down-regulation of endogenous pro-inflammatory chemokines.

  13. Transcriptional Control of Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Smale, Stephen T.; Natoli, Gioacchino

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response requires the activation of a complex transcriptional program that is both cell-type- and stimulus-specific and involves the dynamic regulation of hundreds of genes. In the context of an inflamed tissue, extensive changes in gene expression occur in both parenchymal cells and infiltrating cells of the immune system. Recently, basic transcriptional mechanisms that control inflammation have been clarified at a genome scale, particularly in macrophages and conventional dendritic cells. The regulatory logic of distinct groups of inflammatory genes can be explained to some extent by identifiable sequence-encoded features of their chromatin organization, which impact on transcription factor (TF) accessibility and impose different requirements for gene activation. Moreover, it has become apparent that the interplay between TFs activated by inflammatory stimuli and master regulators exerts a crucial role in controlling cell-type-specific transcriptional outputs. PMID:25213094

  14. Peptides and Anti-peptide Antibodies for Small and Medium Scale Peptide and Anti-peptide Affinity Microarrays: Antigenic Peptide Selection, Immobilization, and Processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Briones, Andrea; Soloviev, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of selection of antigenic peptides for the development of anti-peptide antibodies for use in microarray-based multiplex affinity assays and also with mass-spectrometry detection. The methods described here are mostly applicable to small to medium scale arrays. Although the same principles of peptide selection would be suitable for larger scale arrays (with 100+ features) the actual informatics software and printing methods may well be different. Because of the sheer number of proteins/peptides to be processed and analyzed dedicated software capable of processing all the proteins and an enterprise level array robotics may be necessary for larger scale efforts. This report aims to provide practical advice to those who develop or use arrays with up to ~100 different peptide or protein features.

  15. Enhanced immunostimulatory effects of DNA-encapsulated peptide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Medina, Scott H; Li, Sandra; Howard, O M Zack; Dunlap, Micah; Trivett, Anna; Schneider, Joel P; Oppenheim, Joost J

    2015-01-01

    DNA that encodes tumor-specific antigens represents potential immunostimulatory agents. However, rapid enzymatic degradation and fragmentation of DNA during administration can result in limited vector expression and, consequently, poor efficacy. These challenges have necessitated the use of novel strategies for DNA delivery. Herein, we study the ability of cationic self-assembling peptide hydrogels to encapsulate plasmid DNA, and enhance its immunostimulatory potential in vivo. The effect of network charge on the gel's ability to retain the DNA was assessed employing three gel-forming peptides that vary systematically in formal charge. The peptide HLT2, having a formal charge of +5 at neutral pH, was optimal in encapsulating microgram quantities of DNA with little effect on its rheological properties, allowing its effective syringe delivery in vivo. The plasmid, DNA(TA), encapsulated within these gels encodes for a melanoma-specific gp100 antigen fused to the alarmin protein adjuvant HMGN1. Implantation of DNA(TA)-loaded HLT2 gels into mice resulted in an acute inflammatory response with the presence of polymorphonuclear cells, which was followed by infiltrating macrophages. These cellular infiltrates aid in the processing of encapsulated DNA, promoting increased lymphoproliferation and producing an enhanced immune response mediated by CD4+/IFNγ+ expressing Th1 cells, and complemented by the formation of gp100-specific antibodies.

  16. Facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling and upregulated inflammatory mediator expression contribute to postfracture nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyou; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-10-01

    Tibia fracture induces exaggerated substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hind limbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome. Inflammatory changes in the spinal cord contribute to nociceptive sensitization in a variety of animal pain models. This study tested the hypothesis that fracture-induced exaggerated neuropeptide signaling upregulates spinal inflammatory mediator expression, leading to postfracture hind limb nociceptive sensitization. At 4 weeks after performing tibia fracture and casting in rats, we measured hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and spinal cord neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator content. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator receptor antagonists were evaluated in fracture rats. Transgenic fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP RAMP1 receptor were used to determine the effects of neuropeptide signaling on postfracture pain behavior and spinal inflammatory mediator expression. Hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased spinal SP and CGRP, and increased spinal inflammatory mediator expression (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, and nerve growth factor) were observed at 4 weeks after fracture in rats. Fracture-induced increases in spinal inflammatory mediators were not observed in fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP receptor, and these mice had attenuated postfracture nociceptive sensitization. Intrathecal injection of selective receptor antagonists for SP, CGRP, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, or nerve growth factor each reduced pain behaviors in the fracture rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling upregulates the expression of spinal inflammatory mediators contributing to nociceptive sensitization in a rodent fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:25932690

  17. Facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling and upregulated inflammatory mediator expression contribute to postfracture nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyou; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-10-01

    Tibia fracture induces exaggerated substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hind limbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome. Inflammatory changes in the spinal cord contribute to nociceptive sensitization in a variety of animal pain models. This study tested the hypothesis that fracture-induced exaggerated neuropeptide signaling upregulates spinal inflammatory mediator expression, leading to postfracture hind limb nociceptive sensitization. At 4 weeks after performing tibia fracture and casting in rats, we measured hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and spinal cord neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator content. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator receptor antagonists were evaluated in fracture rats. Transgenic fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP RAMP1 receptor were used to determine the effects of neuropeptide signaling on postfracture pain behavior and spinal inflammatory mediator expression. Hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased spinal SP and CGRP, and increased spinal inflammatory mediator expression (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, and nerve growth factor) were observed at 4 weeks after fracture in rats. Fracture-induced increases in spinal inflammatory mediators were not observed in fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP receptor, and these mice had attenuated postfracture nociceptive sensitization. Intrathecal injection of selective receptor antagonists for SP, CGRP, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, or nerve growth factor each reduced pain behaviors in the fracture rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling upregulates the expression of spinal inflammatory mediators contributing to nociceptive sensitization in a rodent fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome.

  18. Little peptide, big effects: the role of LL-37 in inflammation and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Kahlenberg, J Michelle; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2013-11-15

    The innate immune system utilizes many approaches for defense against invading microorganisms, including complement-mediated lysis, engulfment, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, and release of antimicrobial peptides. Although classically thought to be driven by adaptive immunity, the development of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus is increasingly associated with dysregulated innate immune pathways. An emerging theme within this literature is the contribution of antimicrobial peptides to the development of autoimmune disorders. This is best exemplified in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis where the defensins and the single human cathelicidin, LL-37, may contribute to disease. Furthermore, in the past few years, a role for LL-37 has emerged in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and possibly other diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of LL-37 and its murine ortholog, mCRAMP, in the modulation of immune and inflammatory pathways and their effects on autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  19. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis to obtain therapeutic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Mäde, Veronika; Els-Heindl, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Summary The great versatility and the inherent high affinities of peptides for their respective targets have led to tremendous progress for therapeutic applications in the last years. In order to increase the drugability of these frequently unstable and rapidly cleared molecules, chemical modifications are of great interest. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) offers a suitable technology to produce chemically engineered peptides. This review concentrates on the application of SPPS by Fmoc/t-Bu protecting-group strategy, which is most commonly used. Critical issues and suggestions for the synthesis are covered. The development of automated methods from conventional to essentially improved microwave-assisted instruments is discussed. In order to improve pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, lipidation and PEGylation are described as covalent conjugation methods, which can be applied by a combination of automated and manual synthesis approaches. The synthesis and application of SPPS is described for neuropeptide Y receptor analogs as an example for bioactive hormones. The applied strategies represent innovative and potent methods for the development of novel peptide drug candidates that can be manufactured with optimized automated synthesis technologies. PMID:24991269

  20. Evaluation of short synthetic antimicrobial peptides for treatment of drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed F.; Abdelkhalek, Ahmed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections present a serious challenge because of the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, antimicrobial peptides are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics for tackling the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. Herein, we investigated the antibacterial activity of two short novel peptides (WR12, a 12 residue peptide composed exclusively of arginine and tryptophan, and D-IK8, an eight residue β-sheet peptide) against multidrug resistant staphylococci. In vitro, both peptides exhibited good antibacterial activity against MRSA, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis. WR12 and D-IK8 were able to eradicate persisters, MRSA in stationary growth phase, and showed significant clearance of intracellular MRSA in comparison to both vancomycin and linezolid. In vivo, topical WR12 and D-IK8 significantly reduced both the bacterial load and the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in MRSA-infected skin lesions. Moreover, both peptides disrupted established in vitro biofilms of S. aureus and S. epidermidis significantly more so than traditional antimicrobials tested. Taken together, these results support the potential of WR12 and D-IK8 to be used as a topical antimicrobial agent for the treatment of staphylococcal skin infections. PMID:27405275

  1. Evaluation of short synthetic antimicrobial peptides for treatment of drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed F; Abdelkhalek, Ahmed; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections present a serious challenge because of the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, antimicrobial peptides are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics for tackling the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. Herein, we investigated the antibacterial activity of two short novel peptides (WR12, a 12 residue peptide composed exclusively of arginine and tryptophan, and D-IK8, an eight residue β-sheet peptide) against multidrug resistant staphylococci. In vitro, both peptides exhibited good antibacterial activity against MRSA, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis. WR12 and D-IK8 were able to eradicate persisters, MRSA in stationary growth phase, and showed significant clearance of intracellular MRSA in comparison to both vancomycin and linezolid. In vivo, topical WR12 and D-IK8 significantly reduced both the bacterial load and the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in MRSA-infected skin lesions. Moreover, both peptides disrupted established in vitro biofilms of S. aureus and S. epidermidis significantly more so than traditional antimicrobials tested. Taken together, these results support the potential of WR12 and D-IK8 to be used as a topical antimicrobial agent for the treatment of staphylococcal skin infections. PMID:27405275

  2. Trefoil peptide gene expression in small intestinal Crohn's disease and dietary adaptation.

    PubMed

    Poulsom, R; Chinery, R; Sarraf, C; Van Noorden, S; Stamp, G W; Lalani, E N; Elia, G; Wright, N A

    1993-01-01

    We examined the patterns of trefoil peptide gene expression in the ulcer-associated cell lineage (UACL) and mucosa adjacent to Crohn's disease in humans and during gastrointestinal adaptation to enteral feeding in rats. In the UACL, human spasmolytic polypeptide (hSP) mRNA and peptide are present in the acinar and proximal duct cells, whereas pS2 mRNA and peptide are found in the distal duct cells and in the surface cells. In mucosa adjacent to UACL, pS2 mRNA and peptide are expressed ectopically by goblet cells and neuroendocrine cells. Intestinal crypts associated with the UACL showed marked neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. Ultrastructural immunolocalization showed pS2 to be copackaged in the mucous cell and neuroendocrine granules. The copackaging of a secretory protein in both mucous and neuroendocrine granules, which have different functions, is unusual and indicates an important role for pS2 in the secretory process itself or as a ligand delivered to its receptor via multiple routes. We also cloned the newest trefoil peptide, intestinal trefoil factor (ITF), from human and rat intestinal mucosa. Using in situ hybridization we demonstrated its synthesis by normal rat intestinal goblet cells. RNAse protection analysis revealed that the level of mRNA for rat ITF in small and large intestine was affected by the process of enteral feeding. We conclude that trefoil peptides are widely distributed in the intestine in human inflammatory bowel disease and are of considerable potential functional importance.

  3. Exploration of the Medicinal Peptide Space.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Bert; Stalmans, Sofie; Wynendaele, Evelien; Taevernier, Lien; Bracke, Nathalie; D'Hondt, Matthias; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    The chemical properties of peptide medicines, known as the 'medicinal peptide space' is considered a multi-dimensional subset of the global peptide space, where each dimension represents a chemical descriptor. These descriptors can be linked to biofunctional, medicinal properties to varying degrees. Knowledge of this space can increase the efficiency of the peptide-drug discovery and development process, as well as advance our understanding and classification of peptide medicines. For 245 peptide drugs, already available on the market or in clinical development, multivariate dataexploration was performed using peptide relevant physicochemical descriptors, their specific peptidedrug target and their clinical use. Our retrospective analysis indicates that clusters in the medicinal peptide space are located in a relatively narrow range of the physicochemical space: dense and empty regions were found, which can be explored for the discovery of novel peptide drugs.

  4. Sequencing Cyclic Peptides by Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mohimani, Hosein; Yang, Yu-Liang; Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most effective antibiotics (e.g., Vancomycin and Daptomycin) are cyclic peptides produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. While hundreds of biomedically important cyclic peptides have been sequenced, the computational techniques for sequencing cyclic peptides are still in their infancy. Previous methods for sequencing peptide antibiotics and other cyclic peptides are based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and require large amount (miligrams) of purified materials that, for most compounds, are not possible to obtain. Recently, development of mass spectrometry based methods has provided some hope for accurate sequencing of cyclic peptides using picograms of materials. In this paper we develop a method for sequencing of cyclic peptides by multistage mass spectrometry, and show its advantages over single stage mass spectrometry. The method is tested on known and new cyclic peptides from Bacillus brevis, Dianthus superbus and Streptomyces griseus, as well as a new family of cyclic peptides produced by marine bacteria. PMID:21751357

  5. Perspectives and Peptides of the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogden, Kim A.

    Shortly after their discovery, antimicrobial peptides from prokaryotes and eukaryotes were recognized as the next potential generation of pharmaceuticals to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and septic shock, to preserve food, or to sanitize surfaces. Initial research focused on identifying the spectrum of antimicrobial agents, determining the range of antimicrobial activities against bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens, and assessing the antimicrobial activity of synthetic peptides versus their natural counterparts. Subsequent research then focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in model membrane systems not only to identify the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in microorganisms but also to discern differences in cytotoxicity for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Recent, contemporary work now focuses on current and future efforts to construct hybrid peptides, peptide congeners, stabilized peptides, peptide conjugates, and immobilized peptides for unique and specific applications to control the growth of microorganisms in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Inflammatory Biomarkers in Refractory Congestive Heart Failure Patients Treated with Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kunin, Margarita; Carmon, Vered; Arad, Michael; Levin-Iaina, Nomy; Freimark, Dov; Holtzman, Eli J.; Dinour, Dganit

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines play a pathogenic role in congestive heart failure. In this study, the effect of peritoneal dialysis treatment on inflammatory cytokines levels in refractory congestive heart failure patients was investigated. During the treatment, the patients reached a well-tolerated edema-free state and demonstrated significant improvement in NYHA functional class. Brain natriuretic peptide decreased significantly after 3 months of treatment and remained stable at 6 months. C-reactive protein, a plasma marker of inflammation, decreased significantly following the treatment. Circulating inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 decreased significantly after 3 months of peritoneal dialysis treatment and remained low at 6 months. The reduction in circulating inflammatory cytokines levels may be partly responsible for the efficacy of peritoneal dialysis for refractory congestive heart failure. PMID:26539513

  7. Atomic Coordination Reflects Peptide Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Antipas, Georgios S. E.; Germenis, Anastasios E.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated that the immunological identity of variant peptides may be accurately predicted on the basis of atomic coordination of both unprotonated and protonated tertiary structures, provided that the structure of the native peptide (index) is known. The metric which was discovered to account for this discrimination is the coordination difference between the variant and the index; we also showed that increasing coordination difference in respect to the index was correlated to a correspondingly weakening immunological outcome of the variant. Additionally, we established that this metric quickly seizes to operate beyond the peptide scale, e.g., within a coordination shell inclusive of atoms up to a distance of 7 Å away from the peptide or over the entire pMHC-TCR complex. Analysis of molecular orbital interactions for a range of formal charges further revealed that the N-terminus of the agonists was always able to sustain a stable ammonium (NH3+) group which was consistently absent in antagonists. We deem that the presence of NH3+ constitutes a secondary observable with a biological consequence, signifying a change in T cell activation. While our analysis of protonated structures relied on the quantum chemical relaxation of the H species, the results were consistent across a wide range of peptide charge and spin polarization conditions. PMID:26793714

  8. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weidang; Joshi, Medha D.; Singhania, Smita; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines. PMID:26344743

  9. Peptide targeted copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ma, Michelle T; Donnelly, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    Peptide targeted ⁶⁴Cu-labelled diagnostic agents for positron emission tomography are viable candidates for molecular imaging of cancer. In a clinical setting, optimal image quality relies on selective tumor uptake of the ⁶⁴Cu-labelled radiotracer. The three components of the radiotracer construct--the chelate group, linker and targeting peptide--all influence the biodistribution of the ⁶⁴Cu-labelled radiotracer in vivo. Low or moderate Cu complex stability in vivo results in transmetallation of ⁶⁴Cu to endogenous proteins, giving rise to high background activity. The length and the nature of the linker group affect the affinity of the ⁶⁴Cu-labelled radiotracer for the target receptor. Variations in the peptide sequence can impact on the metabolic stability and therefore the bioavailability and tumor retention of the ⁶⁴Cu-labelled radiotracer in vivo. Lastly, the hydrophilicity of the construct can influence radiotracer metabolism and clearance pathways. Recent advances in the field of peptide targeted ⁶⁴Cu-labelled radiopharmaceuticals involve GRPR-targeted and αvβ3 integrin receptor-targeted constructs. These constructs are based on the bombesin peptide sequence and the RGD recognition motif respectively. These examples are reviewed as case studies in the optimisation of ⁶⁴Cu radiotracer design.

  10. Preclinical Assessment of Inflammatory Pain.

    PubMed

    Muley, Milind M; Krustev, Eugene; McDougall, Jason J

    2016-02-01

    While acute inflammation is a natural physiological response to tissue injury or infection, chronic inflammation is maladaptive and engenders a considerable amount of adverse pain. The chemical mediators responsible for tissue inflammation act on nociceptive nerve endings to lower neuronal excitation threshold and sensitize afferent firing rate leading to the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia, respectively. Animal models have aided in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the generation of chronic inflammatory pain and allowed us to identify and validate numerous analgesic drug candidates. Here we review some of the commonly used models of skin, joint, and gut inflammatory pain along with their relative benefits and limitations. In addition, we describe and discuss several behavioral and electrophysiological approaches used to assess the inflammatory pain in these preclinical models. Despite significant advances having been made in this area, a gap still exists between fundamental research and the implementation of these findings into a clinical setting. As such we need to characterize inherent pathophysiological pathways and develop new endpoints in these animal models to improve their predictive value of human inflammatory diseases in order to design safer and more effective analgesics.

  11. Circulating Inflammatory Cells Are Associated with Vein Graft Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Katherine; Murray-Wijelath, Jacqui; Yagi, Mayumi; Kohler, Ted; Hatsukami, Thomas; Clowes, Alexander; Sobel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective Infrainguinal autogenous vein grafts are especially prone to narrowing and failure, and both inflammatory and thrombotic pathways are implicated. Platelets and monocytes are the key thrombo-inflammatory cells that arrive first at sites of vascular injury. These cells have potent interactions that recruit and activate one another, propagating thrombotic and inflammatory responses within the vessel wall. We therefore hypothesized that elevated levels of platelet-monocyte aggregates might be associated with stenosis, and could possibly discriminate between patients with or without vein graft stenosis. Design of Study Thirty-six vascular surgery patients were studied, in a stable quiescent period after infrainguinal autogenous vein graft bypasses for occlusive disease. Eighteen patients had hemodynamically significant graft stenoses confirmed by imaging, and 18 were free from stenosis. The level of platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMA) in whole blood was quantified after blood draw using 2-color flow cytometry. Three measurements were made per sample: the basal, in-vivo level of aggregates (Baseline PMA); the predisposition to spontaneously generate PMA (Spontaneous PMA); and PMA generation by the addition of exogenous thrombin receptor activating peptide (Stimulated PMA). The baseline, in-vivo level of PMA was estimated by immediate flow analysis. The predisposition to spontaneously generate PMA was measured after in-vitro incubation. Responsiveness to thrombin stimulation of the blood was quantified by the in vitro dose response to an exogenous thrombin receptor activating peptide (sfllrn). Results Baseline PMA levels were similar in patients with vein graft stenosis vs. non-stenosis (14.8% ±3.2 versus 10.1% ±1.5 respectively, mean ±sem). However, patients with stenosis showed higher Spontaneous PMA levels (58.5% ±4.5 vs. 28.3 % ±4.3, P< .01), and higher Stimulated PMA levels (P< .001, ANOVA). Covariables of smoking, diabetes, statin or antithrombotic

  12. Resistin in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the serum levels and local expression of resistin in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies to controls, and to determine the relationship between resistin levels, inflammation and disease activity. Methods Serum resistin levels were determined in 42 patients with inflammatory myopathies and 27 healthy controls. The association among resistin levels, inflammation, global disease activity and muscle strength was examined. The expression of resistin in muscle tissues from patients with inflammatory myopathies and healthy controls was evaluated. Gene expression and protein release from resistin-stimulated muscle and mononuclear cells were assessed. Results In patients with inflammatory myopathies, the serum levels of resistin were significantly higher than those observed in controls (8.53 ± 6.84 vs. 4.54 ± 1.08 ng/ml, P < 0.0001) and correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (r = 0.328, P = 0.044) and myositis disease activity assessment visual analogue scales (MYOACT) (r = 0.382, P = 0.026). Stronger association was observed between the levels of serum resistin and CRP levels (r = 0.717, P = 0.037) as well as MYOACT (r = 0.798, P = 0.007), and there was a trend towards correlation between serum resistin and myoglobin levels (r = 0.650, P = 0.067) in anti-Jo-1 positive patients. Furthermore, in patients with dermatomyositis, serum resistin levels significantly correlated with MYOACT (r = 0.667, P = 0.001), creatine kinase (r = 0.739, P = 0.001) and myoglobin levels (r = 0.791, P = 0.0003) and showed a trend towards correlation with CRP levels (r = 0.447, P = 0.067). Resistin expression in muscle tissue was significantly higher in patients with inflammatory myopathies compared to controls, and resistin induced the expression of interleukins (IL)-1β and IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in mononuclear cells but not in myocytes. Conclusions The results of this study

  13. Could the homologous sequence of anti-inflammatory pentapeptide (MLIF) produced by Entamoeba histolytica in the N protein of rabies virus affect the inflammatory process?

    PubMed

    Morales, M E; Rico, G; Gómez, J L; Alonso, R; Cortés, R; Silva, R; Giménez, J A; Kretschmer, R; Aguilar-Setién, A

    2006-02-01

    Amebiasis and rabies are public health problems, and they have in common a poor inflammatory effect in the target organs that they affect. In the GenBank, it was found that the anti-inflammatory peptide monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) produced by Entamoeba histolytica homologates 80%, with a fragment of the N protein of the rabies virus. We speculated if the N protein could contribute to the scant inflammatory reaction produced by rabies virus in central nervous system. The N protein was obtained and studied in vitro and in vivo. The N protein, as MLIF, inhibited the respiratory burst in human mononuclear phagocytes (43%, p<0.05), but in contrast to MLIF, it increased chemotaxis and it did not significantly inhibit delayed hypersensitivity skin reaction to 1-chloro-2-4-dinitrobenzene in guinea pigs. Therefore, the full peptide sequence has to be present or it has to be cleaved-free from the large recombinant N protein molecule (55 kDa) to become active.

  14. Cationic host defense peptides; novel antimicrobial therapeutics against Category A pathogens and emerging infections.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Fern; Proudfoot, Lorna; Stevens, Craig; Barlow, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Cationic Host Defense Peptides (HDP, also known as antimicrobial peptides) are crucial components of the innate immune system and possess broad-spectrum antibacterial, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities. They can contribute to the rapid clearance of biological agents through direct killing of the organisms, inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators such as lipopolysaccharide, and by modulating the inflammatory response to infection. Category A biological agents and materials, as classified by the United States National Institutes for Health, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the US Department of Homeland Security, carry the most severe threat in terms of human health, transmissibility, and preparedness. As such, there is a pressing need for novel frontline approaches for prevention and treatment of diseases caused by these organisms, and exploiting the broad antimicrobial activity exhibited by cationic host defense peptides represents an exciting priority area for clinical research. This review will summarize what is known about the antimicrobial and antiviral effects of the two main families of cationic host defense peptides, cathelicidins, and defensins in the context of Category A biological agents which include, but are not limited to; anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), plague (Yersinia pestis), smallpox (Variola major), tularemia (Francisella tularensis). In addition, we highlight priority areas, particularly emerging viral infections, where more extensive research is urgently required. PMID:27315342

  15. Cationic host defense peptides; novel antimicrobial therapeutics against Category A pathogens and emerging infections.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Fern; Proudfoot, Lorna; Stevens, Craig; Barlow, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Cationic Host Defense Peptides (HDP, also known as antimicrobial peptides) are crucial components of the innate immune system and possess broad-spectrum antibacterial, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities. They can contribute to the rapid clearance of biological agents through direct killing of the organisms, inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators such as lipopolysaccharide, and by modulating the inflammatory response to infection. Category A biological agents and materials, as classified by the United States National Institutes for Health, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the US Department of Homeland Security, carry the most severe threat in terms of human health, transmissibility, and preparedness. As such, there is a pressing need for novel frontline approaches for prevention and treatment of diseases caused by these organisms, and exploiting the broad antimicrobial activity exhibited by cationic host defense peptides represents an exciting priority area for clinical research. This review will summarize what is known about the antimicrobial and antiviral effects of the two main families of cationic host defense peptides, cathelicidins, and defensins in the context of Category A biological agents which include, but are not limited to; anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), plague (Yersinia pestis), smallpox (Variola major), tularemia (Francisella tularensis). In addition, we highlight priority areas, particularly emerging viral infections, where more extensive research is urgently required.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of polycationic peptides.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, A; Cirioni, O; Barchiesi, F; Del Prete, M S; Scalise, G

    1999-11-01

    The in vitro activity of six polycationic peptides, buforin II, cecropin P1, indolicidin, magainin II, nisin, and ranalexin, were evaluated against several clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptosporidium parvum, by using microbroth dilution methods. The peptides exhibited different antibacterial activities and rapid time-dependent killing. The gram-negative organisms were more susceptible to buforin II and cecropin P1, whereas buforin II and ranalexin were the most active compounds against the gram-positive strains. Similarly, ranalexin showed the highest activity against Candida spp., whereas magainin II exerted the highest anticryptococcal activity. Finally, the peptides showed high anti-Pneumocystis activity, whereas no compound had strong inhibitory effect on C. parvum. PMID:10612440

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Desriac, Florie; Jégou, Camille; Balnois, Eric; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), obtained through the linkage of (unusual) amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs. PMID:24084784

  18. Antiviral active peptide from oyster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Cui, Wenxuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Guo, Yao

    2008-08-01

    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10 5 kDa, 5 1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10 5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  19. The circadian clock regulates inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Laura E.; Hopwood, Thomas W.; Dickson, Suzanna H.; Walker, Amy L.; Loudon, Andrew S. I.; Ray, David W.; Bechtold, David A.; Gibbs, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    There is strong diurnal variation in the symptoms and severity of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, disruption of the circadian clock is an aggravating factor associated with a range of human inflammatory diseases. To investigate mechanistic links between the biological clock and pathways underlying inflammatory arthritis, mice were administered collagen (or saline as a control) to induce arthritis. The treatment provoked an inflammatory response within the limbs, which showed robust daily variation in paw swelling and inflammatory cytokine expression. Inflammatory markers were significantly repressed during the dark phase. Further work demonstrated an active molecular clock within the inflamed limbs and highlighted the resident inflammatory cells, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs), as a potential source of the rhythmic inflammatory signal. Exposure of mice to constant light disrupted the clock in peripheral tissues, causing loss of the nighttime repression of local inflammation. Finally, the results show that the core clock proteins cryptochrome (CRY) 1 and 2 repressed inflammation within the FLSs, and provide novel evidence that a CRY activator has anti-inflammatory properties in human cells. We conclude that under chronic inflammatory conditions, the clock actively represses inflammatory pathways during the dark phase. This interaction has exciting potential as a therapeutic avenue for treatment of inflammatory disease.—Hand, L. E., Hopwood, T. W., Dickson, S. H., Walker, A. L., Loudon, A. S. I., Ray, D. W., Bechtold, D. A., Gibbs, J. E. The circadian clock regulates inflammatory arthritis. PMID:27488122

  20. Simultaneous imaging and restoration of cell function using cell permeable peptide probe.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jin Sook; Lee, Jue Yeon; Lee, Gene; Chung, Chong Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

    2014-08-01

    Targeting tissues/cells using probing materials to detect diseases such as cancer and inflammatory disease has been attempted with some success. Most of the molecular targets used in diagnosis and therapy were identified through the discovery of intracellular signaling pathways. Among intracellular signaling processes, the ubiquitination of proteins, and thereby their proteasomal degradation, is important because it plays a role in most diseases involving alterations to a component of the ubiquitination system, particularly E3 ligases, which have selective target-binding affinity and are key to the success of regulating the disorder. The regulation and monitoring of E3 ligases can be achieved using peptides containing protein-protein binding motifs. We generated a human protein-derived peptide that could target Smurf1, a member of the E3 ligase family, by competitively binding to osteo-Smads. To effectively deliver it into cells, the peptide was further modified with a cell-penetrating peptide. The peptide contains two fluorescent dyes: fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC; absorbance/emission wavelengths: 495/519 nm) as a fluorophore and black hole quencher-1 (BHQ-1) as a fluorescence quencher. When the target Smurf1 combined with complementary sequences in the peptide probe, the distance between the fluorophore and BHQ-1 increased via a conformational change, resulting in the recovery of the fluorescence signal. Simultaneously, the degradation of Smad1/5/8 was blocked by the binding of the peptide probe to Smurf1, leading to the potentiation of the osteogenic pathway, which was reflected by an increase in the expression of osteoinductive genes, such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Possible future applications of the peptide probe include its integration into imaging tools for the diagnosis of Smurf1-overexpressing diseases. PMID:24831974

  1. Protective Role of PEDF-Derived Synthetic Peptide Against Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Taira, J; Higashimoto, Y; Yamagishi, S

    2016-09-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein with complex neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, all of which could potentially be exploited as a therapeutic option for vascular complications in diabetes. We have previously shown that PEDF-derived synthetic peptide, P5-3 (FIFVLRD) has a comparable ability with full PEDF protein to inhibit rat corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization. However, the effects of PEDF peptide on experimental diabetic nephropathy remain unknown. To address the issue, we modified P5-3 to stabilize and administered the modified peptide (d-Lys-d-Lys-d-Lys-Gln-d-Pro-P5-3-Cys-amide, 0.2 nmol/day) or vehicle to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-rats) intraperitoneally by an osmotic mini pump for 2 weeks. We further examined the effects of modified peptide on human proximal tubular cells. Renal PEDF expression was decreased in STZ-rats. Although the peptide administration did not affect blood glucose or blood pressure, it decreased urinary excretion levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression, and suppressed glomerular expansion in the diabetic kidneys. High glucose or advanced glycation end products stimulated oxidative stress generation and PAI-1 gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were significantly suppressed by 10 nM modified P5-3 peptide. Our present study suggests that PEDF-derived synthetic modified peptide could protect against experimental diabetic nephropathy and inhibit tubular cell damage under diabetes-like conditions through its anti-oxidative properties. Supplementation of modified P5-3 peptide may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27214310

  2. Parallel activities and interactions between antimicrobial peptides and complement in host defense at the airway epithelial surface.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides and complement components contribute to host defense as well as inflammation and tissue injury in the respiratory tract. The airway epithelial surface is the main site of action of these immune effectors, and airway epithelial cells contribute markedly to their local production. Whereas both antimicrobial peptides and complement display overlapping functions, it is increasingly clear that both effector mechanisms also interact. Furthermore, excessive or uncontrolled release of antimicrobial peptides as well as complement activation may contribute to inflammatory lung diseases. Therefore, further knowledge of interactions between these systems may provide more insight into the pathogenesis of a range of lung diseases. In this review, recent findings on the functions, collaborations and other interactions between antimicrobial peptides and complement are discussed with a specific focus on the airway epithelium.

  3. Antibody markers in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Niwa, Mikio; Takedatsu, Hidetoshi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Kuwaki, Kotaro; Yoshioka, Shinichiro; Yamauchi, Ryosuke; Fukunaga, Shuhei; Torimura, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic intestinal inflammation of unknown etiology. The diagnosis of IBD is based on endoscopic, radiologic and histopathologic criteria. Recently, the search for a noninvasive marker that could augment or replace part of this diagnostic process has become a focus of IBD research. In this review, antibody markers, including microbial antibodies, autoantibodies and peptide antibodies, will be described, focusing on their common features. At present, no single marker with qualities that are satisfactory for the diagnosis and treatment of IBD has been identified, although panels of some antibodies are being evaluated with keen interest. The discovery of novel IBD-specific and sensitive markers is anticipated. Such markers could minimize the use of endoscopic and radiologic examinations and could enable clinicians to implement individualized treatment plans designed to improve the long-term prognosis of patients with IBD. PMID:26811667

  4. Evidence for a novel natriuretic peptide receptor that prefers brain natriuretic peptide over atrial natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Goy, M F; Oliver, P M; Purdy, K E; Knowles, J W; Fox, J E; Mohler, P J; Qian, X; Smithies, O; Maeda, N

    2001-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) exert their physiological actions by binding to natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), a receptor guanylate cyclase (rGC) that synthesizes cGMP in response to both ligands. The family of rGCs is rapidly expanding, and it is plausible that there might be additional, as yet undiscovered, rGCs whose function is to provide alternative signalling pathways for one or both of these peptides, particularly given the low affinity of NPRA for BNP. We have investigated this hypothesis, using a genetically modified (knockout) mouse in which the gene encoding NPRA has been disrupted. Enzyme assays and NPRA-specific Western blots performed on tissues from wild-type mice demonstrate that ANP-activated cGMP synthesis provides a good index of NPRA protein expression, which ranges from maximal in adrenal gland, lung, kidney, and testis to minimal in heart and colon. In contrast, immunoreactive NPRA is not detectable in tissues isolated from NPRA knockout animals and ANP- and BNP-stimulatable GC activities are markedly reduced in all mutant tissues. However, testis and adrenal gland retain statistically significant, high-affinity responses to BNP. This residual response to BNP cannot be accounted for by natriuretic peptide receptor B, or any other known mammalian rGC, suggesting the presence of a novel receptor in these tissues that prefers BNP over ANP. PMID:11513736

  5. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  6. Peptides and the new endocrinology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwyzer, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of regulatory peptides common to the nervous and the endocrine systems (brain, gut, and skin) has brought about a revolution in our concepts of endocrinology and neurology. We are beginning to understand some of the complex interrelationships between soma and psyche that might, someday, be important for an integrated treatment of diseases. Examples of the actions of certain peptides in the periphery and in the central nervous system are given, and their biosynthesis and molecular anatomy as carriers for information are discussed.

  7. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide binds to the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Douglas G. . E-mail: Douglas.G.Johns@gsk.com; Ao, Zhaohui; Heidrich, Bradley J.; Hunsberger, Gerald E.; Graham, Taylor; Payne, Lisa; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Lu, Quinn; Aiyar, Nambi; Douglas, Stephen A.

    2007-06-22

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) is a newly-described natriuretic peptide which lowers blood pressure via vasodilation. The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) removes natriuretic peptides from the circulation, but whether DNP interacts with human NPR-C directly is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that DNP binds to NPR-C. ANP, BNP, CNP, and the NPR-C ligands AP-811 and cANP(4-23) displaced [{sup 125}I]-ANP from NPR-C with pM-to-nM K {sub i} values. DNP displaced [{sup 125}I]-ANP from NPR-C with nM potency, which represents the first direct demonstration of binding of DNP to human NPR-C. DNP showed high pM affinity for the GC-A receptor and no affinity for GC-B (K {sub i} > 1000 nM). DNP was nearly 10-fold more potent than ANP at stimulating cGMP production in GC-A expressing cells. Blockade of NPR-C might represent a novel therapeutic approach in augmenting the known beneficial actions of DNP in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart failure.

  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inflammatory Bowel Disease? Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Symptoms include abdominal ... become pregnant? Women with ulcerative colitis and inactive Crohn’s disease are as likely to become pregnant as women ...

  9. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Treatment and Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Herpes Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ... is pelvic inflammatory disease treated? Several types of antibiotics can cure PID. Antibiotic treatment does not, however, reverse any ...

  10. Membrane disruption mechanism of antimicrobial peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ka Yee

    2012-04-01

    Largely distributed among living organisms, antimicrobial peptides are a class of small (<100 residues) host defense peptides that induce selective membrane lytic activity against microbial pathogens. The permeabilizing behavior of these diverse peptides has been commonly attributed to the formation of pores, and such pore formation has been categorized as barrel-stave, toroidal, or carpet-like. With the continuing discovery of new peptide species, many are uncharacterized and the exact mechanism is unknown. Through the use of atomic force microscopy, the disruption of supported lipid bilayer patches by protegrin-1 is concentration-dependent. The intercalation of antimicrobial peptide into the bilayer results in structures beyond that of pore formation, but with the formation of worm-like micelles at high peptide concentration. Our results suggest that antimicrobial peptide acts to lower the interfacial energy of the bilayer in a way similar to detergents. Antimicrobial peptides with structural differences, magainin-1 and aurein 1.1, exhibit a mechanistic commonality.

  11. Streptavidin-binding peptides and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szostak, Jack W. (Inventor); Wilson, David S. (Inventor); Keefe, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention provides peptides with high affinity for streptavidin. These peptides may be expressed as part of fusion proteins to facilitate the detection, quantitation, and purification of proteins of interest.

  12. Streptavidin-binding peptides and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szostak, Jack W. (Inventor); Wilson, David S. (Inventor); Keefe, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The invention provides peptides with high affinity for streptavidin. These peptides may be expressed as part of fusion proteins to facilitate the detection, quantitation, and purification of proteins of interest.

  13. Synthesis of cyclic disulfide-rich peptides.

    PubMed

    Akcan, Muharrem; Craik, David J

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we describe two SPPS approaches for producing cyclic disulfide-rich peptides in our laboratory, including cyclotides from plants, cyclic conotoxins from cone snail venoms, chlorotoxin from scorpion venom, and the sunflower trypsin inhibitor peptide, SFTI-1.

  14. Peptide Antibodies: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Houen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Peptide antibodies recognize epitopes with amino acid residues adjacent in sequence ("linear" epitopes). Such antibodies can be made to virtually any sequence and have been immensely important in all areas of molecular biology and diagnostics due to their versatility and to the rapid growth in protein sequence information. Today, peptide antibodies can be routinely and rapidly made to large numbers of peptides, including peptides with posttranslationally modified residues, and are used for immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunoassays. In the future, peptide antibodies will continue to be immensely important for molecular biology, TCR- and MHC-like peptide antibodies may be produced routinely, peptide antibodies with predetermined conformational specificities may be designed, and peptide-based vaccines may become part of vaccination programs.

  15. 9 CFR 381.86 - Inflammatory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflammatory processes. 381.86 Section... Carcasses and Parts § 381.86 Inflammatory processes. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by an inflammatory process shall be condemned and, if there is evidence of general...

  16. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  17. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets—such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet—have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  18. Costs in inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Witczak, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Variables influencing total direct medical costs in inflammatory bowel diseases include country, diagnosis (generally, patients with Crohn's disease generated higher costs compared with patients with ulcerative colitis), and year since diagnosis. In all studies the mean costs were higher than the median costs, which indicates that a relatively small group of the most severely ill patients significantly affect the total cost of treatment of these diseases. A major component of direct medical costs was attributed to hospitalisation, ranging from 49% to 80% of the total. The costs of surgery constituted 40–61% of inpatient costs. Indirect costs in inflammatory bowel diseases, unappreciated and often underestimated (considered by few authors and as a loss of work), are in fact important and may even exceed direct medical costs. PMID:27110304

  19. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  20. Defensins as anti-inflammatory compounds and mucosal adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Kohlgraf, Karl G; Pingel, Lindsey C; Dietrich, Deborah E; Brogden, Kim A

    2010-01-01

    Human neutrophil peptide α-defensins and human β-defensins are small, well-characterized peptides with broad antimicrobial activities. In mixtures with microbial antigens, defensins attenuate proinflammatory cytokine responses by dendritic cells in culture, attenuate proinflammatory cytokine responses in the nasal fluids of exposed mice and enhance antibody responses in the serum of vaccinated mice. Although the exact mechanisms are unknown, defensins first start by binding to microbial antigens and adhesins, often attenuating toxic or inflammatory-inducing capacities. Binding is not generic; it appears to be both defensin-specific and antigen-specific with high affinities. Binding of defensins to antigens may, in turn, alter the interaction of antigens with epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells attenuating the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The binding of defensins to antigens may also facilitate the delivery of bound antigen to antigen-presenting cells in some cases via specific receptors. These interactions enhance the immunogenicity of the bound antigen in an adjuvant-like fashion. Future research will determine the extent to which defensins can suppress early events in inflammation and enhance systemic antibody responses, a very recent and exciting concept that could be exploited to develop therapeutics to prevent or treat a variety of oral mucosal infections, particularly where inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of disease and its long-term sequelae. PMID:20020832

  1. Toxins and antimicrobial peptides: interactions with membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2009-08-01

    The innate immunity to pathogenic invasion of organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms relies upon cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the first line of defense. In addition to these natural peptide antibiotics, similar cationic peptides, such as the bee venom toxin melittin, act as nonspecific toxins. Molecular details of AMP and peptide toxin action are not known, but the universal function of these peptides to disrupt cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria (AMPs) or a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes (melittin) is widely accepted. Here, we have utilized spectroscopic techniques to elucidate peptide-membrane interactions of alpha-helical human and mouse AMPs of the cathelicidin family as well as the peptide toxin melittin. The activity of these natural peptides and their engineered analogs was studied on eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane mimics consisting of <200-nm bilayer vesicles composed of anionic and neutral lipids as well as cholesterol. Vesicle disruption, or peptide potency, was monitored with a sensitive fluorescence leakage assay. Detailed molecular information on peptidemembrane interactions and peptide structure was further gained through vibrational spectroscopy combined with circular dichroism. Finally, steady-state fluorescence experiments yielded insight into the local environment of native or engineered tryptophan residues in melittin and human cathelicidin embedded in bilayer vesicles. Collectively, our results provide clues to the functional structures of the engineered and toxic peptides and may impact the design of synthetic antibiotic peptides that can be used against the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  2. Identification of multifunctional peptides from human milk.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Bharti, Rashmi; Porto, William F; Gauri, Samiran S; Mandal, Mahitosh; Franco, Octavio L; Ghosh, Ananta K

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceutical industries have renewed interest in screening multifunctional bioactive peptides as a marketable product in health care applications. In this context, several animal and plant peptides with potential bioactivity have been reported. Milk proteins and peptides have received much attention as a source of health-enhancing components to be incorporated into nutraceuticals and functional foods. By using this source, 24 peptides have been fractionated and purified from human milk using RP-HPLC. Multifunctional roles including antimicrobial, antioxidant and growth stimulating activity have been evaluated in all 24 fractions. Nevertheless, only four fractions show multiple combined activities among them. Using a proteomic approach, two of these four peptides have been identified as lactoferrin derived peptide and kappa casein short chain peptide. Lactoferrin derived peptide (f8) is arginine-rich and kappa casein derived (f12) peptide is proline-rich. Both peptides (f8 and f12) showed antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fraction 8 (f8) exhibits growth stimulating activity in 3T3 cell line and f12 shows higher free radical scavenging activity in comparison to other fractions. Finally, both peptides were in silico evaluated and some insights into their mechanism of action were provided. Thus, results indicate that these identified peptides have multiple biological activities which are valuable for the quick development of the neonate and may be considered as potential biotechnological products for nutraceutical industry.

  3. Targeting RNA with cysteine-constrained peptides

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Virginia A.; Bobay, Benjamin G.; Basso, Anne; Cavanagh, John; Melander, Christian

    2008-01-01

    A combined approach for targeting RNA with novel, biologically active ligands has been developed using a cyclic peptide library and in silico modeling. This approach has successfully identified novel cyclic peptide constructs that can target bTAR RNA. Subsequently, RNA/peptide interactions were effectively modeled using the HADDOCK docking program. PMID:18065222

  4. Acyclic peptide inhibitors of amylases.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Nicola

    2005-12-01

    In this issue of Chemistry and Biology, a library screening approach reveals a linear octapeptide inhibitor of alpha-amylases reached by de novo design . The selected molecule shares characteristics with naturally occurring protein inhibitors -- a result that suggests general rules for the design of peptide-based amylase inhibitors may be achievable.

  5. Single-molecule studies on individual peptides and peptide assemblies on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen

    2013-10-13

    This review is intended to reflect the recent progress in single-molecule studies of individual peptides and peptide assemblies on surfaces. The structures and the mechanism of peptide assembly are discussed in detail. The contents include the following topics: structural analysis of single peptide molecules, adsorption and assembly of peptides on surfaces, folding structures of the amyloid peptides, interaction between amyloid peptides and dye or drug molecules, and modulation of peptide assemblies by small molecules. The explorations of peptide adsorption and assembly will benefit the understanding of the mechanisms for protein-protein interactions, protein-drug interactions and the pathogenesis of amyloidoses. The investigations on peptide assembly and its modulations could also provide a potential approach towards the treatment of the amyloidoses.

  6. Circulating T cells of patients with active psoriasis respond to streptococcal M-peptides sharing sequences with human epidermal keratins.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsdottir, H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Troye-Blomberg, M; Good, M F; Valdimarsson, H; Jonsdottir, I

    1997-06-01

    Psoriasis is a T-cell mediated inflammatory skin disease which has been associated with group A, beta-haemolytic streptococcal infections. Four 20 a.a. long M6-peptides sharing 5-6 a.a. sequences with human epidermal keratins were identified. To investigate the role of potentially cross-reactive T cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) responses of circulating T cells to these peptides were analysed by ELISPOT and RT-PCR in 14 psoriatic patients, 12 healthy individuals and six patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Untreated psoriatic patients' responses were significantly higher to these peptides than healthy and AD controls, while responses to a control M6-peptide, not sharing sequences with keratin, were negligible in all groups. No difference was found in response to streptokinase/streptodornase (SK/SD). M6-protein and peptides exclusively elicited IFN-gamma production, with little IL-4 production, even in AD patients. Interferon-gamma responses to all the M6-peptides were abolished after successful treatment of psoriatic patients, but responses to SK/SD were unaffected. The results indicate that active psoriasis is associated with Th1-like cells responding to streptococcal M6-peptides sharing sequences with human epidermal keratin. This is consistent with the hypothesis that psoriasis may be induced and exacerbated in susceptible individuals by M-protein specific Th1-like cells that cross-react with human epidermal keratin.

  7. Inflammatory diseases modelling in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Morales Fénero, Camila Idelí; Colombo Flores, Alicia Angelina; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    The ingest of diets with high content of fats and carbohydrates, low or no physical exercise and a stressful routine are part of the everyday lifestyle of most people in the western world. These conditions are triggers for different diseases with complex interactions between the host genetics, the metabolism, the immune system and the microbiota, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. The incidence of these disorders is growing worldwide; therefore, new strategies for its study are needed. Nowadays, the majority of researches are in use of murine models for understand the genetics, physiopathology and interaction between cells and signaling pathways to find therapeutic solutions to these diseases. The zebrafish, a little tropical water fish, shares 70% of our genes and conserves anatomic and physiological characteristics, as well as metabolical pathways, with mammals, and is rising as a new complementary model for the study of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Its high fecundity, fast development, transparency, versatility and low cost of maintenance makes the zebrafish an interesting option for new researches. In this review, we offer a discussion of the existing genetic and induced zebrafish models of two important Western diseases that have a strong inflammatory component, the IBD and the obesity. PMID:26929916

  8. [Inflammatory Bowel Disease Competence Network].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Stefan; Hartmann, Heinz; Kruis, Wolfgang; Kucharzik, Torsten; Mudter, Jonas; Siegmund, Britta; Stallmach, Andreas; Witte, Christine; Fitzke, Klaus; Bokemeyer, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Competence Network is a network of more than 500 physicians and scientists from university clinics, hospitals and gastroenterology practices. The focus extends from the two major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, into other chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the intestine, including coeliac disease and microscopic colitis. The network translates basic science discoveries (in particular in the molecular epidemiology research) into innovative diagnostics and therapy. Through its strong networking structures it supports a continuous process to improve quality and standardisation in patient care that is implemented in close interaction with European networks addressing this disease group.Optimisation of patient care based on scientifically proven evidence is a main focus of the network. Therefore, it supports and coordinates translational research and infrastructure projects that investigate aetiology, improvement of diagnostic methods, and development of new or improved use of established therapies. Members participate in various training projects, thus ensuring the rapid transfer of research results into clinical practice.The competence network cooperates with the main patient organisations to engage patients in all levels of activities. The network and the patient organisations have interest in promoting public awareness about the disease entities, because their importance and burden is underestimated in non-specialised medical fields and among the general public.

  9. Approach for Identifying Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DR Bound Peptides from Scarce Clinical Samples.

    PubMed

    Heyder, Tina; Kohler, Maxie; Tarasova, Nataliya K; Haag, Sabrina; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Rivera, Natalia V; Sandin, Charlotta; Mia, Sohel; Malmström, Vivianne; Wheelock, Åsa M; Wahlström, Jan; Holmdahl, Rikard; Eklund, Anders; Zubarev, Roman A; Grunewald, Johan; Ytterberg, A Jimmy

    2016-09-01

    Immune-mediated diseases strongly associating with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are likely linked to specific antigens. These antigens are presented to T cells in the form of peptides bound to HLA molecules on antigen presenting cells, e.g. dendritic cells, macrophages or B cells. The identification of HLA-DR-bound peptides presents a valuable tool to investigate the human immunopeptidome. The lung is likely a key player in the activation of potentially auto-aggressive T cells prior to entering target tissues and inducing autoimmune disease. This makes the lung of exceptional interest and presents an ideal paradigm to study the human immunopeptidome and to identify antigenic peptides.Our previous investigation of HLA-DR peptide presentation in the lung required high numbers of cells (800 × 10(6) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells). Because BAL from healthy nonsmokers typically contains 10-15 × 10(6) cells, there is a need for a highly sensitive approach to study immunopeptides in the lungs of individual patients and controls.In this work, we analyzed the HLA-DR immunopeptidome in the lung by an optimized methodology to identify HLA-DR-bound peptides from low cell numbers. We used an Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) immortalized B cell line and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells obtained from patients with sarcoidosis, an inflammatory T cell driven disease mainly occurring in the lung. Specifically, membrane complexes were isolated prior to immunoprecipitation, eluted peptides were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS and processed using the in-house developed ClusterMHCII software. With the optimized procedure we were able to identify peptides from 10 × 10(6) cells, which on average correspond to 10.9 peptides/million cells in EBV-B cells and 9.4 peptides/million cells in BAL cells. This work presents an optimized approach designed to identify HLA-DR-bound peptides from low numbers of cells, enabling the investigation of the BAL immunopeptidome from individual patients

  10. A novel anti-inflammatory oligopeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, R R; Rico, G; Giménez, J A

    2001-02-01

    The monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF), a heat-stable oligopeptide found in the supernatant fluid of Entamoeba histolytica axenic cultures was isolated by ultra-filtration, gel-sieve chromatography and high powered liquid chromatography (HPLC), and its primary structure (Met-Gln-Cys-Asn-Ser) established by Edman sequencing and mass-spectrometry (MS). A synthetic peptide had the same selective anti-inflammatory features as the native material in comparable concentrations: in vitro inhibition of the locomotion in human peripheral blood monocytes, and of the respiratory burst in the same cells and in human neutrophil polymorphonuclear leucocytes; and in vivo depression of delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to dinitrochlorobenzene in guinea pigs. This oligopeptide is apparently synthesized by the ameba as suggested by [(35)S]-Cys and Met incorporation, probably as part of a larger molecule, from which it is cleaved by proteolysis. The full sequence was not found in the 431 available E. histolytica protein sequences. The factor may contribute to the unexpected paucity of the late inflammatory reaction found in advanced invasive amebiasis and, perhaps in consequence, to the regeneration without scarring (restitutio ad integrum) of the affected organs that is observed following successful treatment of this disease

  11. Beneficial Effect of Covalently Grafted α-MSH on Endothelial Release of Inflammatory Mediators for Applications in Implantable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Le Saux, Guillaume; Plawinski, Laurent; Nlate, Sylvain; Ripoche, Jean; Buffeteau, Thierry; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular devices for continuous glucose monitoring are promising tools for the follow up and treatment of diabetic patients. Limiting the inflammatory response to the implanted devices in order to achieve better biocompatibility is a critical challenge. Herein we report on the production and the characterization of gold surfaces covalently derivatized with the peptide α-alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), with a quantifiable surface density. In vitro study demonstrated that the tethered α-MSH is able to decrease the expression of an inflammatory cytokine produced by endothelial cells. PMID:26939131

  12. Beneficial Effect of Covalently Grafted α-MSH on Endothelial Release of Inflammatory Mediators for Applications in Implantable Devices.

    PubMed

    Le Saux, Guillaume; Plawinski, Laurent; Nlate, Sylvain; Ripoche, Jean; Buffeteau, Thierry; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular devices for continuous glucose monitoring are promising tools for the follow up and treatment of diabetic patients. Limiting the inflammatory response to the implanted devices in order to achieve better biocompatibility is a critical challenge. Herein we report on the production and the characterization of gold surfaces covalently derivatized with the peptide α-alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), with a quantifiable surface density. In vitro study demonstrated that the tethered α-MSH is able to decrease the expression of an inflammatory cytokine produced by endothelial cells. PMID:26939131

  13. Comparative proteomics analysis of the antitumor effect of CIGB-552 peptide in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Núñez de Villavicencio-Díaz, Teresa; Ramos Gómez, Yassel; Oliva Argüelles, Brizaida; Fernández Masso, Julio R; Rodríguez-Ulloa, Arielis; Cruz García, Yiliam; Guirola-Cruz, Osmany; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Javier González, Luis; Tiscornia, Inés; Victoria, Sabina; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Besada Pérez, Vladimir; Guerra Vallespi, Maribel

    2015-08-01

    The second generation peptide CIGB-552 has a pro-apoptotic effect on H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells and displays a potent cytotoxic effect in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells though its action mechanism is ill defined. Here, we present the first proteomic study of peptide effect in HT-29 cells using subcellular fractionation, protein and peptide fractionation by DF-PAGE and LC-MS/MS peptide identification. In particular, we explored the nuclear proteome of HT-29 cells at a 5h treatment identifying a total of 68 differentially modulated proteins, 49 of which localize to the nucleus. The differentially modulated proteins were analyzed following a system biology approach. Results pointed to a modulation of apoptosis, oxidative damage removal, NF-κB activation, inflammatory signaling and of cell adhesion and motility. Further Western blot and flow-cytometry experiments confirmed both pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of CIGB-552 peptide in HT-29 cells. PMID:26013411

  14. Conversed mutagenesis of an inactive peptide to ASIC3 inhibitor for active sites determination.

    PubMed

    Osmakov, Dmitry I; Koshelev, Sergey G; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Dyachenko, Igor A; Bondarenko, Dmitry A; Murashev, Arkadii N; Grishin, Eugene V; Kozlov, Sergey A

    2016-06-15

    Peptide Ugr9-1 from the venom of sea anemone Urticina grebelnyi selectively inhibits the ASIC3 channel and significantly reverses inflammatory and acid-induced pain in vivo. A close homolog peptide Ugr 9-2 does not have these features. To find the pharmacophore residues and explore structure-activity relationships of Ugr 9-1, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of Ugr 9-2 and replaced several positions by the corresponding residues from Ugr 9-1. Mutant peptides Ugr 9-2 T9F and Ugr 9-2 Y12H were able to inhibit currents of the ASIC3 channels 2.2 times and 1.3 times weaker than Ugr 9-1, respectively. Detailed analysis of the spatial models of Ugr 9-1, Ugr 9-2 and both mutant peptides revealed the presence of the basic-aromatic clusters on opposite sides of the molecule, each of which is responsible for the activity. Additionally, Ugr9-1 mutant with truncated N- and C-termini retained similar with the Ugr9-1 action in vitro and was equally potent in vivo model of thermal hypersensitivity. All together, these results are important for studying the structure-activity relationships of ligand-receptor interaction and for the future development of peptide drugs from animal toxins. PMID:26686983

  15. Antimicrobial and host-defense peptides as new anti-infective therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert E W; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2006-12-01

    Short cationic amphiphilic peptides with antimicrobial and/or immunomodulatory activities are present in virtually every life form, as an important component of (innate) immune defenses. These host-defense peptides provide a template for two separate classes of antimicrobial drugs. Direct-acting antimicrobial host-defense peptides can be rapid-acting and potent, and possess an unusually broad spectrum of activity; consequently, they have prospects as new antibiotics, although clinical trials to date have shown efficacy only as topical agents. But for these compounds to fulfill their therapeutic promise and overcome clinical setbacks, further work is needed to understand their mechanisms of action and reduce the potential for unwanted toxicity, to make them more resistant to protease degradation and improve serum half-life, as well as to devise means of manufacturing them on a large scale in a consistent and cost-effective manner. In contrast, the role of cationic host-defense peptides in modulating the innate immune response and boosting infection-resolving immunity while dampening potentially harmful pro-inflammatory (septic) responses gives these peptides the potential to become an entirely new therapeutic approach against bacterial infections.

  16. How antimicrobial peptides disrupt lipid bilayers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Durba

    2011-03-01

    The molecular basis for the activity of cyclic and linear antimicrobial peptides is analysed. We performed multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical measurements to probe the interaction of antimicrobial peptides with model membranes. Two linear antimicrobial peptides, magainin and melittin and a cyclic one, BPC194 have been studied. We test different models to determine the generic and specific forces that lead to bilayer disruption. We probe whether interfacial stress or local membrane perturbation is more likely to lead to the porated state. We further analyse the reasons that determine specificity and increase of activity in antimicrobial peptides. The results provide detailed insight in the mode of action of antimicrobial peptides.

  17. Peptides and Peptidomimetics for Antimicrobial Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Jenssen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and highlight a few classes of traditional antimicrobial peptides with a focus on structure-activity relationship studies. After first dissecting the important physiochemical properties that influence the antimicrobial and toxic properties of antimicrobial peptides, the contributions of individual amino acids with respect to the peptides antibacterial properties are presented. A brief discussion of the mechanisms of action of different antimicrobials as well as the development of bacterial resistance towards antimicrobial peptides follows. Finally, current efforts on novel design strategies and peptidomimetics are introduced to illustrate the importance of antimicrobial peptide research in the development of future antibiotics. PMID:26184232

  18. Fabrication of Odor Sensor Using Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokebuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kenshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ronggang; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    We report fabrication of an odor sensor using peptides. Peptides were designed to acquire the specific reception for a target odor molecule. Au surface of the sensor electrode was coated by the designed peptide using the method of self assembled monolayers (SAMs). Functionalized Au surfaces by the peptides were confirmed by ellipsometry and cyclic voltammetry. The odorants of vanillin, phenethyl alcohol and hexanol were discriminated by QCM sensor with the peptide surface. Moreover, we verified specific interaction between amino acid (Trp) and vanillin by fluorescence assay.

  19. Comparative conformational analysis of peptide T analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akverdieva, Gulnare; Godjayev, Niftali; Akyuz, Sevim

    2009-01-01

    A series of peptide T analogs were investigated within the molecular mechanics framework. In order to determine the role of the aminoacid residues in spatial formation of peptide T the conformational peculiarities of the glycine-substituted analogs were investigated. The conformational profiles of some biologically tested analogs of this peptide were determined independently. The received data permit to assess the active form of this peptide. It is characterized by β-turn at the C-terminal physiologically active pentapeptide fragment of peptide molecule. The received results are important for the investigation of the structure-activity relationship and may be used at design of a rigid-molecule drug against HIV.

  20. Isoelectric focusing of proteins and peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egen, N.

    1979-01-01

    Egg-white solution was chosen as the reference solution in order to assess the effects of operational parameters (voltage, flow rate, ampholine pH range and concentration, and protein concentration) of the RIEF apparatus on protein resolution. Topics of discussion include: (1) comparison of RIEF apparatus to conventional IEF techniques (column and PAG) with respect to resolution and throughput; (2) peptide and protein separation (AHF, Thymosin - Fraction 5, vasoactive peptide, L-asparaginase and ACP); and (3) detection of peptides - dansyl derivatives of amino acids and peptides, post-focusing fluorescent labeling of amino acids, peptides and proteins, and ampholine extraction from focused gels.

  1. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and physical activity: possible inflammatory and immune modulation and tracks for interventions in young populations.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Emmanuelle; Duché, Pascale; Merlin, Etienne

    2015-08-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by persistent joint inflammation that manifests as joint pain and swelling and limited range of joint motion. In healthy subjects, the literature reports that physical activity has an anti-inflammatory effect. In JIA patients, exercise could be used as a therapeutic tool to counteract disease-related inflammation and thereby improve clinical symptoms, although transient flare of pain could be the price to pay. Indeed, in patients with a chronic inflammatory disease, physical activity is prone to exacerbate underlying inflammatory stress. Physical activity improves quality of life and symptoms in JIA patients, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying exercise-induced immune and hormonal changes. Data on the impact of acute and chronic physical activities on the secretion of hormones and other molecules such as miRNA or peptides involved in the inflammatory process in JIA was compiled and summarized, and the key role of the biological effect of muscle-derived interleukin 6 in the exercise-induced modulation of pro/anti-inflammatory balance is addressed. We also go on to review the effect of training and type of exercise on cytokine response. This review highlights the beneficial effect of physical exercise in children with JIA and potential effect of exercise on the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory response.

  2. Bacteroides fragilis Lipopolysaccharide and Inflammatory Signaling in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lukiw, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    The human microbiome consists of ~3.8 × 1013 symbiotic microorganisms that form a highly complex and dynamic ecosystem: the gastrointestinal (GI) tract constitutes the largest repository of the human microbiome by far, and its impact on human neurological health and disease is becoming increasingly appreciated. Bacteroidetes, the largest phylum of Gram-negative bacteria in the GI tract microbiome, while generally beneficial to the host when confined to the GI tract, have potential to secrete a remarkably complex array of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins that include surface lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and toxic proteolytic peptides. The deleterious effects of these bacterial exudates appear to become more important as GI tract and blood-brain barriers alter or increase their permeability with aging and disease. For example, presence of the unique LPSs of the abundant Bacteroidetes species Bacteroides fragilis (BF-LPS) in the serum represents a major contributing factor to systemic inflammation. BF-LPS is further recognized by TLR2, TLR4, and/or CD14 microglial cell receptors as are the pro-inflammatory 42 amino acid amyloid-beta (Aβ42) peptides that characterize Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain. Here we provide the first evidence that BF-LPS exposure to human primary brain cells is an exceptionally potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-kB (p50/p65) complex, a known trigger in the expression of pathogenic pathways involved in inflammatory neurodegeneration. This ‘Perspectives communication’ will in addition highlight work from recent studies that advance novel and emerging concepts on the potential contribution of microbiome-generated factors, such as BF-LPS, in driving pro-inflammatory degenerative neuropathology in the AD brain. PMID:27725817

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Novel Cationic Peptides against Clinical Isolates of Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed F.; Hammac, G. Kenitra; Guptill, Lynn; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals and has zoonotic potential. Additionally, methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged with resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobials. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of six synthetic short peptides against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and MRSP isolated from infected dogs. All six peptides demonstrated potent anti-staphylococcal activity regardless of existing resistance phenotype. The most effective peptides were RRIKA (with modified C terminus to increase amphipathicity and hydrophobicity) and WR-12 (α-helical peptide consisting exclusively of arginine and tryptophan) with minimum inhibitory concentration50 (MIC50) of 1 µM and MIC90 of 2 µM. RR (short anti-inflammatory peptide) and IK8 “D isoform” demonstrated good antimicrobial activity with MIC50 of 4 µM and MIC90 of 8 µM. Penetratin and (KFF)3K (two cell penetrating peptides) were the least effective with MIC50 of 8 µM and MIC90 of 16 µM. Killing kinetics revealed a major advantage of peptides over conventional antibiotics, demonstrating potent bactericidal activity within minutes. Studies with propidium iodide and transmission electron microscopy revealed that peptides damaged the bacterial membrane leading to leakage of cytoplasmic contents and consequently, cell death. A potent synergistic increase in the antibacterial effect of the cell penetrating peptide (KFF)3K was noticed when combined with other peptides and with antibiotics. In addition, all peptides displayed synergistic interactions when combined together. Furthermore, peptides demonstrated good therapeutic indices with minimal toxicity toward mammalian cells. Resistance to peptides did not evolve after 10 passages of S. pseudintermedius at sub-inhibitory concentration. However, the MICs of amikacin and

  4. Towards the MHC-peptide combinatorics.

    PubMed

    Kangueane, P; Sakharkar, M K; Kolatkar, P R; Ren, E C

    2001-05-01

    The exponentially increased sequence information on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles points to the existence of a high degree of polymorphism within them. To understand the functional consequences of MHC alleles, 36 nonredundant MHC-peptide complexes in the protein data bank (PDB) were examined. Induced fit molecular recognition patterns such as those in MHC-peptide complexes are governed by numerous rules. The 36 complexes were clustered into 19 subgroups based on allele specificity and peptide length. The subgroups were further analyzed for identifying common features in MHC-peptide binding pattern. The four major observations made during the investigation were: (1) the positional preference of peptide residues defined by percentage burial upon complex formation is shown for all the 19 subgroups and the burial profiles within entries in a given subgroup are found to be similar; (2) in class I specific 8- and 9-mer peptides, the fourth residue is consistently solvent exposed, however this observation is not consistent in class I specific 10-mer peptides; (3) an anchor-shift in positional preference is observed towards the C terminal as the peptide length increases in class II specific peptides; and (4) peptide backbone atoms are proportionately dominant at the MHC-peptide interface.

  5. Natural and synthetic peptides with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Santinoli, Claudia; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the increase of invasive fungal infections and the emergence of antifungal resistance stressed the need for new antifungal drugs. Peptides have shown to be good candidates for the development of alternative antimicrobial agents through high-throughput screening, and subsequent optimization according to a rational approach. This review presents a brief overview on antifungal natural peptides of different sources (animals, plants, micro-organisms), peptide fragments derived by proteolytic cleavage of precursor physiological proteins (cryptides), synthetic unnatural peptides and peptide derivatives. Antifungal peptides are schematically reported based on their structure, antifungal spectrum and reported effects. Natural or synthetic peptides and their modified derivatives may represent the basis for new compounds active against fungal infections. PMID:27502155

  6. Peptide length and folding state govern the capacity of staphylococcal β-type phenol-soluble modulins to activate human formyl-peptide receptors 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Dorothee; Rautenberg, Maren; Linke, Dirk; Peschel, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Most staphylococci produce short α-type PSMs and about twice as long β-type PSMs that are potent leukocyte attractants and toxins. PSMs are usually secreted with the N-terminal formyl group but are only weak agonists for the leukocyte FPR1. Instead, the FPR1-related FPR2 senses PSMs efficiently and is crucial for leukocyte recruitment in infection. Which structural features distinguish FPR1 from FPR2 ligands has remained elusive. To analyze which peptide properties may govern the capacities of β-type PSMs to activate FPRs, full-length and truncated variants of such peptides from Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were synthesized. FPR2 activation was observed even for short N- or C-terminal β-type PSM variants once they were longer than 18 aa, and this activity increased with length. In contrast, the shortest tested peptides were potent FPR1 agonists, and this property declined with increasing peptide length. Whereas full-length β-type PSMs formed α-helices and exhibited no FPR1-specific activity, the truncated peptides had less-stable secondary structures, were weak agonists for FPR1, and required N-terminal formyl-methionine residues to be FPR2 agonists. Together, these data suggest that FPR1 and FPR2 have opposed ligand preferences. Short, flexible PSM structures may favor FPR1 but not FPR2 activation, whereas longer peptides with α-helical, amphipathic properties are strong FPR2 but only weak FPR1 agonists. These findings should help to unravel the ligand specificities of 2 critical human PRRs, and they may be important for new, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory strategies.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Adrenomedullin on Acute Lung Injury Induced by Carrageenan in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Elena, Talero; Rosanna, Di Paola; Emanuela, Mazzon; Esposito, Emanuela; Virginia, Motilva; Salvatore, Cuzzocrea

    2012-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52 amino acid peptide that has shown predominant anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we evaluated the possible therapeutic effect of this peptide in an experimental model of acute inflammation, the carrageenan- (CAR-) induced pleurisy. Pleurisy was induced by injection of CAR into the pleural cavity of mice. AM (200 ng/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal route 1 h after CAR, and the animals were sacrificed 4 h after that. AM treatment attenuated the recruitment of leucocytes in the lung tissue and the generation and/or the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the intercellular cell adhesion molecules. Moreover, AM inhibited the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thereby abating the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and prevented the oxidative and nitroxidative lung tissue injury, as shown by the reduction of nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) levels. Finally, we demonstrated that these anti-inflammatory effects of AM were associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. All these parameters were markedly increased by intrapleural CAR in the absence of any treatment. We report that treatment with AM significantly reduces the development of acute lung injury by downregulating a broad spectrum of inflammatory factors. PMID:22685374

  8. The anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Xuejiao; Lu, Xiaojie; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-01-01

    [TRIAP]-derived decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRIAP-derived decoy peptide (TR6) containing, the N-terminal portion of the third helical region of the [TIRAP] TIR domain (sequence "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK and -KPGFLRDPWCKYQML-"C"). We evaluated the effects of TR6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, the mastitis model was induced by LPS administration for 24h, and TR6 treatment was initiated 1h before or after induction of LPS. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and neutrophils were used to investigate the effects of TR6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TR6 significantly inhibited mammary gland hisopathologic changes, MPO activity, and LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In vitro, TR6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production and phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. TR6 may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment.

  9. The anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Xuejiao; Lu, Xiaojie; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-01-01

    [TRIAP]-derived decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRIAP-derived decoy peptide (TR6) containing, the N-terminal portion of the third helical region of the [TIRAP] TIR domain (sequence "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK and -KPGFLRDPWCKYQML-"C"). We evaluated the effects of TR6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, the mastitis model was induced by LPS administration for 24h, and TR6 treatment was initiated 1h before or after induction of LPS. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and neutrophils were used to investigate the effects of TR6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TR6 significantly inhibited mammary gland hisopathologic changes, MPO activity, and LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In vitro, TR6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production and phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. TR6 may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment. PMID:26679677

  10. RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Satake, Honoo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Since a peptide with a C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptide) was first identified in the ganglia of the venus clam in 1977, RFamide peptides have been found in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, the RFamide peptide family includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa), and kisspeptins (kiss1 and kiss2). They are involved in important functions such as the release of hormones, regulation of sexual or social behavior, pain transmission, reproduction, and feeding. In contrast to tetrapods and jawed fish, the information available on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates is limited, thus preventing further insights into the evolution of RFamide peptides in vertebrates. In this review, we focus on the previous research and recent advances in the studies on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates. In agnathans, the genes encoding GnIH, NPFF, and PrRP precursors and the mature peptides have been identified in lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and hagfish (Paramyxine atami). Putative kiss1 and kiss2 genes have also been found in the genome database of lamprey. In basal chordates, namely, in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum), a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes and their mature peptides, as well as the ortholog of the QRFP gene have been identified. The studies revealed that the number of orthologs of vertebrate RFamide peptides present in agnathans and basal chordates is greater than expected, suggesting that the vertebrate RFamide peptides might have emerged and expanded at an early stage of chordate evolution.

  11. Physiology and therapeutic potential of the thymic peptide thymulin.

    PubMed

    Reggiani, Paula C; Schwerdt, Jose I; Console, Gloria M; Roggero, Eduardo A; Dardenne, Mireille; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2014-01-01

    Thymulin is a thymic hormone exclusively produced by the epithelial cells of the thymus. After its discovery and initial characterization in the '70s, it was demonstrated that the production and secretion of thymulin are strongly influenced by the neuro-endocrine system. Conversely, a growing body of evidence, to be reviewed here, suggests that thymulin is a hypophysiotropic peptide. Additionally, a substantial body of information pointing to thymulin and a synthetic analog as anti-inflammatory and analgesic peptides in the central nervous system brain and other organs will be also reviewed. In recent years, a synthetic DNA sequence encoding a biologically active analog of thymulin, metFTS, was constructed and cloned in a number of adenovectors. These include bidirectional regulatable Tet-Off vector systems that simultaneously express metFTS and green fluorescent protein and that can be down-regulated reversibly by the addition of the antibiotic doxycycline. A number of recent studies indicate that gene therapy for thymulin may be an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent some of the hormonal and reproductive abnormalities that typically appear in congenitally athymic (nude) mice, used as a suitable model of neuroendocrine and reproductive aging. Summing up, this article briefly reviews the publications on the physiology of the thymulin-neuroendocrine axis and the anti-inflammatory properties of the molecule and its analog. The availability of novel biotechnological tools should boost basic studies on the molecular biology of thymulin and should also allow an assessment of the potential of gene therapy to restore circulating thymulin levels in thymodeficient animal models and eventually, in humans. PMID:24588820

  12. Degradation and antioxidant activities of peptides and zinc-peptide complexes during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chan; Li, Bo; Wang, Bo; Xie, Ningning

    2015-04-15

    The degradation characteristics of three peptides (Ser-Met, Asn-Cys-Ser, and glutathione) and their zinc-peptide complexes were studied using a two-stage in vitro digestion model. Enzyme-resistant peptides and zinc-peptide complexes, antioxidant activities, and free amino acids released by digestive enzymes, were measured in this study. The results revealed that the three peptides and their zinc-peptide complexes were resistant to pepsin but not to pancreatin. Pancreatin can partly hydrolyse both peptides and zinc-peptide complexes, but more than half of them remaining in their original form after gastrointestinal digestion. The coordination of zinc improved the enzymatic resistance of the peptide due to lower solubility of complexes and affected the hydrolytic site of pepsin and pancreatin. Zinc-Asn-Cys-Ser, which is highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis and maintains Zn in a soluble form, may have potential to improve Zn bioavailability.

  13. Encapsulation of bioactive whey peptides in soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes: Influence of peptide molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Aishwarya; McClements, David Julian; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-12-15

    Encapsulation of peptides can be used to enhance their stability, delivery and bioavailability. This study focused on the effect of the molecular weight range of whey peptides on their encapsulation within soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes. Peptide molecular weight did not have a major impact on encapsulation efficiency or liposome size. However, it influenced peptide distribution amongst the surface, core, and bilayer regions of the liposomes, as determined by electrical charge (ζ-potential) and FTIR analysis. The liposome ζ-potential depended on peptide molecular weight, suggesting that the peptide charged groups were in different locations relative to the liposome surfaces. FTIR analysis indicated that the least hydrophobic peptide fractions interacted more strongly with choline on the liposome surfaces. The results suggested that the peptides were unequally distributed within the liposomes, even at the same encapsulation efficiency. These findings are important for designing delivery systems for commercial production of encapsulated peptides with improved functional attributes. PMID:27451165

  14. Structure-Based Design of Peptidic Inhibitors of the Interaction between CC Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5) and Human Neutrophil Peptides 1 (HNP1).

    PubMed

    Wichapong, Kanin; Alard, Jean-Eric; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Weber, Christian; Hackeng, Tilman M; Soehnlein, Oliver; Nicolaes, Gerry A F

    2016-05-12

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are receiving increasing interest, much sparked by the realization that they represent druggable targets. Recently, we successfully developed a peptidic inhibitor, RRYGTSKYQ ("SKY" peptide), that shows high potential in vitro and in vivo to interrupt a PPI between the platelet-borne chemokine CCL5 and the neutrophil-derived granule protein HNP1. This PPI plays a vital role in monocyte adhesion, representing a key mechanism in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, we present extensive and detailed computational methods applied to develop the SKY peptide. We combined experimentally determined binding affinities (KD) of several orthologs of CCL5 with HNP1 with in silico studies to identify the most likely heterodimeric CCL5-HNP1 complex which was subsequently used as a starting structure to rationally design peptidic inhibitors. Our method represents a fast and simple approach that can be widely applied to determine other protein-protein complexes and moreover to design inhibitors or stabilizers of protein-protein interaction.

  15. Taylor Dispersion Analysis as a promising tool for assessment of peptide-peptide interactions.

    PubMed

    Høgstedt, Ulrich B; Schwach, Grégoire; van de Weert, Marco; Østergaard, Jesper

    2016-10-10

    Protein-protein and peptide-peptide (self-)interactions are of key importance in understanding the physiochemical behavior of proteins and peptides in solution. However, due to the small size of peptide molecules, characterization of these interactions is more challenging than for proteins. In this work, we show that protein-protein and peptide-peptide interactions can advantageously be investigated by measurement of the diffusion coefficient using Taylor Dispersion Analysis. Through comparison to Dynamic Light Scattering it was shown that Taylor Dispersion Analysis is well suited for the characterization of protein-protein interactions of solutions of α-lactalbumin and human serum albumin. The peptide-peptide interactions of three selected peptides were then investigated in a concentration range spanning from 0.5mg/ml up to 80mg/ml using Taylor Dispersion Analysis. The peptide-peptide interactions determination indicated that multibody interactions significantly affect the PPIs at concentration levels above 25mg/ml for the two charged peptides. Relative viscosity measurements, performed using the capillary based setup applied for Taylor Dispersion Analysis, showed that the viscosity of the peptide solutions increased with concentration. Our results indicate that a viscosity difference between run buffer and sample in Taylor Dispersion Analysis may result in overestimation of the measured diffusion coefficient. Thus, Taylor Dispersion Analysis provides a practical, but as yet primarily qualitative, approach to assessment of the colloidal stability of both peptide and protein formulations.

  16. Characterization of Peptide Antibodies by Epitope Mapping Using Resin-Bound and Soluble Peptides.

    PubMed

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of peptide antibodies through identification of their target epitopes is of utmost importance. Understanding antibody specificity at the amino acid level provides the key to understand the specific interaction between antibodies and their epitopes and their use as research and diagnostic tools as well as therapeutic agents. This chapter describes a straightforward strategy for mapping of continuous peptide antibody epitopes using resin-bound and soluble peptides. The approach combines three different types of peptide sets for full characterization of peptide antibodies: (1) overlapping peptides, used to locate antigenic regions; (2) truncated peptides, used to identify the minimal peptide length required for antibody binding; and (3) substituted peptides, used to identify the key residues important for antibody binding and to determine the specific contribution of key residues. For initial screening resin-bound peptides are used for epitope estimation, while soluble peptides subsequently are used for fine mapping. The combination of resin-bound peptides and soluble peptides for epitope mapping provides a time-sparing and straightforward approach for characterization of peptide antibodies.

  17. Overview of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Myer, S A

    1984-03-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have been on the increase in terms of incidence, prevalence, and virulence. The young adult population is affected most frequently and most severely. The cause of inflammatory bowel disease is unknown, but many misconceptions exist about its etiology. Nurses need to be familiar with the similarities and differences between the two illnesses, the treatment, and the prognosis in order to be effective care givers. Good health care can make a significant contribution to the quality of life the patient subsequently has. PMID:6560534

  18. [Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, A I

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pregnant women in their characteristics do not differ from general population, unless they had operations on the pelvic organs. Women with a first pregnancy, regardless of the activity of IBD have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy and high risk births. Most treatment methods are compatible with pregnancy and breastfeeding. Women affected by IBD should discuss their plans for pregnancy with the doctor first in order to know the possible dangers. Every patient in the IBD during pregnancy must be observed by a gastroenterologist, accoucheur and pediatrician to ensure peace of mother and child.

  19. The evolution of inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Andrew F.

    1996-01-01

    Invertebrates do not display the level of sophistication in immune reactivity characteristic of mammals and other ‘higher’ vertebrates. Their great number and diversity of forms, however, reflect their evolutionary success and hence they must have effective mechanisms of defence to deal with parasites and pathogens and altered self tissues. Inflammation appears to be an important first line defence in all invertebrates and vertebrates. This brief review deals with the inflammatory responses of invertebrates and fish concentrating on the cell types involved and the mediators of inflammation, in particular, eicosanoids, cytokines and adhesion molecules. PMID:18475690

  20. PPARγ in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Annese, Vito; Rogai, Francesca; Settesoldi, Alessia; Bagnoli, Siro

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is member of a family of nuclear receptors that interacts with nuclear proteins acting as coactivators and corepressors. The colon is a major tissue which expresses PPARγ in epithelial cells and, to a lesser degree, in macrophages and lymphocytes and plays a role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation. Indeed, both natural and synthetic PPARγ ligands have beneficial effects in different models of experimental colitis, with possible implication in the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This paper will specifically focus on potential role of PPARγ in the predisposition and physiopathology of IBD and will analyze its possible role in medical therapy. PMID:22997506

  1. Inflammatory Mechanisms in Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G; Prens, Errol P

    2016-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic relapsing disease of follicular occlusion that causes immense clinical and psychosocial morbidity when refractory to treatment. HS is no longer considered a disease of primary infectious etiology, although bacteria play a role. There is increasing evidence that HS is associated with immune dysregulation, based on its clinical association with other immune-mediated disorders, by its response to biologic therapy in the clinical arena, and from molecular research. This article summarizes what is known in relation to the inflammatory pathways in HS.

  2. [Approach to juxtarenal inflammatory aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Scuro, A; Barzaghi, M E; Griso, A; Ferrari Ruffino, S; Kontothanassis, D; Mirandola, M; Leonardi, G; D'Agata, M

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) in a late review of the literature is estimated about 2-15% overall aortic aneurysms. In our data this type of aneurysm is 3.6 overall aortic aneurysms treated. In the majority of the cases, IAAA is juxtarenal or infrarenal. Ethiopathogenesis of IAAA till today is not certain. Recent hypothesis on IAAA attribute the same ethiopathogenesis in both atherosclerotic and inflammatory aneurysm. The interaction of genetic, environmental and infective factors should be able to determine an autoimmune inflammatory reaction of variable severity. 80% of the patients suffering from IAAA present abdominal or lumbar pain, loss of weight and increase of the RC sedimentation velocity. The IAAA's natural history goes to rupture. Entrapment of nearstanding organs totally involved in the fibrotic process is the most frequent complication. Usually there is a compression of the ureter and the duodenum with consequenced hydroureteronephrosis and bowel obstruction. Preoperative diagnosis is possible; CT scan and MRI guarantee and accuracy about 90%. Intraoperatively the external wall of IAAA appears whitish and translucent and always there are tenacious adhesion given by the avventital wounds inflammation. Confirm is given by the histological examination of the aneurysmatic wall and peravventitial tissues. Our experience and a late review of the literature concorde that surgical indication for the treatment of IAAA is the same for the atherosclerotic one. This conviction is supported by the fact that the diagnostic methodical evolution and the improvement in mininvasive surgical technique lowered perioperating morbility and mortaliy. We prefer, according with many authors, retroperitoneal approach to juxtarenal IAAA, instead of standardized transperitoneal access with xifo-pubical or transversal under costal incision. This approach offers some advantages as easier exposition of aorta, whose postero-lateral wall is hardly ever

  3. Discovery and Characterization of a Potent Interleukin-6 Binding Peptide with Neutralizing Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Sheila; Bhandari, Ashok; Avitahl-Curtis, Nicole; McMahon, Jaimee; Wachtel, Derek; Zhang, Jenny; Leitheiser, Christopher; Bernier, Sylvie G.; Liu, Guang; Tran, Tran T.; Celino, Herodion; Tobin, Jenny; Jung, Joon; Zhao, Hong; Glen, Katie E.; Graul, Chris; Griffin, Aliesha; Schairer, Wayne C.; Higgins, Carolyn; Reza, Tammi L.; Mowe, Eva; Rivers, Sam; Scott, Sonya; Monreal, Alex; Shea, Courtney; Bourne, Greg; Coons, Casey; Smith, Adaline; Tang, Kim; Mandyam, Ramya A.; Masferrer, Jaime; Liu, David; Patel, Dinesh V.; Fretzen, Angelika; Murphy, Craig A.; Milne, G. Todd; Smythe, Mark L.; Carlson, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important member of the cytokine superfamily, exerting pleiotropic actions on many physiological processes. Over-production of IL-6 is a hallmark of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as Castleman’s Disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Antagonism of the interleukin IL-6/IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)/gp130 signaling complex continues to show promise as a therapeutic target. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against components of this complex have been approved as therapeutics for both CD and RA. To potentially provide an additional modality to antagonize IL-6 induced pathophysiology, a peptide-based antagonist approach was undertaken. Using a combination of molecular design, phage-display, and medicinal chemistry, disulfide-rich peptides (DRPs) directed against IL-6 were developed with low nanomolar potency in inhibiting IL-6-induced pSTAT3 in U937 monocytic cells. Targeted PEGylation of IL-6 binding peptides resulted in molecules that retained their potency against IL-6 and had a prolongation of their pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in rodents and monkeys. One such peptide, PN-2921, contained a 40 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety and inhibited IL-6-induced pSTAT3 in U937 cells with sub-nM potency and possessed 23, 36, and 59 h PK half-life values in mice, rats, and cynomolgus monkeys, respectively. Parenteral administration of PN-2921 to mice and cynomolgus monkeys potently inhibited IL-6-induced biomarker responses, with significant reductions in the acute inflammatory phase proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). This potent, PEGylated IL-6 binding peptide offers a new approach to antagonize IL-6-induced signaling and associated pathophysiology. PMID:26555695

  4. Discovery and Characterization of a Potent Interleukin-6 Binding Peptide with Neutralizing Activity In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Sheila; Bhandari, Ashok; Avitahl-Curtis, Nicole; McMahon, Jaimee; Wachtel, Derek; Zhang, Jenny; Leitheiser, Christopher; Bernier, Sylvie G; Liu, Guang; Tran, Tran T; Celino, Herodion; Tobin, Jenny; Jung, Joon; Zhao, Hong; Glen, Katie E; Graul, Chris; Griffin, Aliesha; Schairer, Wayne C; Higgins, Carolyn; Reza, Tammi L; Mowe, Eva; Rivers, Sam; Scott, Sonya; Monreal, Alex; Shea, Courtney; Bourne, Greg; Coons, Casey; Smith, Adaline; Tang, Kim; Mandyam, Ramya A; Masferrer, Jaime; Liu, David; Patel, Dinesh V; Fretzen, Angelika; Murphy, Craig A; Milne, G Todd; Smythe, Mark L; Carlson, Kenneth E

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important member of the cytokine superfamily, exerting pleiotropic actions on many physiological processes. Over-production of IL-6 is a hallmark of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as Castleman's Disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Antagonism of the interleukin IL-6/IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)/gp130 signaling complex continues to show promise as a therapeutic target. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against components of this complex have been approved as therapeutics for both CD and RA. To potentially provide an additional modality to antagonize IL-6 induced pathophysiology, a peptide-based antagonist approach was undertaken. Using a combination of molecular design, phage-display, and medicinal chemistry, disulfide-rich peptides (DRPs) directed against IL-6 were developed with low nanomolar potency in inhibiting IL-6-induced pSTAT3 in U937 monocytic cells. Targeted PEGylation of IL-6 binding peptides resulted in molecules that retained their potency against IL-6 and had a prolongation of their pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in rodents and monkeys. One such peptide, PN-2921, contained a 40 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety and inhibited IL-6-induced pSTAT3 in U937 cells with sub-nM potency and possessed 23, 36, and 59 h PK half-life values in mice, rats, and cynomolgus monkeys, respectively. Parenteral administration of PN-2921 to mice and cynomolgus monkeys potently inhibited IL-6-induced biomarker responses, with significant reductions in the acute inflammatory phase proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). This potent, PEGylated IL-6 binding peptide offers a new approach to antagonize IL-6-induced signaling and associated pathophysiology. PMID:26555695

  5. Peptides and methods against diabetes

    DOEpatents

    Albertini, Richard J.; Falta, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

  6. Inflammatory Mediators and Glucose in Pregnancy: Results from a Subset of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Lynn P.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Lowe, William L.; Dyer, Alan R.; McDade, Thomas W.; McIntyre, H. David

    2010-01-01

    Context: Inflammatory mediators are associated with type 2 and gestational diabetes. It is unknown whether there are associations with glucose in pregnant women with lesser degrees of hyperglycemia. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine associations of inflammatory mediators with maternal glucose levels and neonatal size in a subset of participants in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study. Design: Eligible pregnant women underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 32 wk gestation, and levels of C-peptide, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and resistin were measured in fasting serum samples. Associations of inflammatory mediators with maternal glucose and with birth size were assessed using multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI), fasting C-peptide, and other potential confounders. Results: Mean levels of adiponectin declined, and PAI-1 and CRP increased across increasing levels of maternal glucose, BMI, and C-peptide. For example, for fasting plasma glucose less than 75 mg/dl and fasting plasma glucose of 90 mg/dl or greater, adiponectin was 22.5 and 17.4 μg/ml and PAI-1 was 30.9 and 34.2 ng/ml, respectively. Associations with 1- and 2-h plasma glucose remained significant for adiponectin (P < 0.001), PAI-1 (P < 0.05), and CRP (P < 0.01) after adjustment for BMI and C-peptide. Adiponectin and CRP were inversely associated with birth weight, sum of skinfolds and percent body fat, and PAI-1 with sum of skinfolds (all P < 0.05) after adjustment for confounders. Resistin was not associated with 1- or 2-h glucose or birth size. Conclusion: Levels of inflammatory mediators are associated with levels of maternal glucose in pregnant women without overt diabetes. PMID:20843942

  7. Peptide stabilized amphotericin B nanodisks.

    PubMed

    Tufteland, Megan; Pesavento, Joseph B; Bermingham, Rachelle L; Hoeprich, Paul D; Ryan, Robert O

    2007-04-01

    Nanometer scale apolipoprotein A-I stabilized phospholipid disk complexes (nanodisks; ND) have been formulated with the polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AMB). The present studies were designed to evaluate if a peptide can substitute for the function of the apolipoprotein component of ND with respect to particle formation and stability. An 18-residue synthetic amphipathic alpha-helical peptide, termed 4F (Ac-D-W-F-K-A-F-Y-D-K-V-A-E-K-F-K-E-A-F-NH(2)), solubilized vesicles comprised of egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC), dipentadecanoyl PC or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) at rates greater than or equal to solubilization rates observed with human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I; 243 amino acids). Characterization studies revealed that interaction with DMPC induced a near doubling of 4F tryptophan fluorescence emission quantum yield (excitation 280 nm) and a approximately 7 nm blue shift in emission wavelength maximum. Inclusion of AMB in the vesicle substrate resulted in formation of 4F AMB-ND. Spectra of AMB containing particles revealed the antibiotic is a highly effective quencher of 4F tryptophan fluorescence emission, giving rise to a Ksv=7.7 x 10(4). Negative stain electron microscopy revealed that AMB-ND prepared with 4F possessed a disk shaped morphology similar to ND prepared without AMB or prepared with apoA-I. In yeast and pathogenic fungi growth inhibition assays, 4F AMB-ND was as effective as apoA-I AMB-ND. The data indicate that AMB-ND generated using an amphipathic peptide in lieu of apoA-I form a discrete population of particles that possess potent biological activity. Given their intrinsic versatility, peptides may be preferred for scale up and clinical application of AMB-ND.

  8. Modulation of chicken intestinal immune gene expression by small cationic peptides as feed additives during the first week posthatch.

    PubMed

    Kogut, Michael H; Genovese, Kenneth J; He, Haiqi; Swaggerty, Christina L; Jiang, Yiwei

    2013-09-01

    We have been investigating modulation strategies tailored around the selective stimulation of the host's immune system as an alternative to direct targeting of microbial pathogens by antibiotics. One such approach is the use of a group of small cationic peptides (BT) produced by a Gram-positive soil bacterium, Brevibacillus texasporus. These peptides have immune modulatory properties that enhance both leukocyte functional efficiency and leukocyte proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA transcription activities in vitro. In addition, when provided as a feed additive for just 4 days posthatch, BT peptides significantly induce a concentration-dependent protection against cecal and extraintestinal colonization by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In the present studies, we assessed the effects of feeding BT peptides on transcriptional changes on proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory chemokines, and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the ceca of broiler chickens with and without S. Enteritidis infection. After feeding a BT peptide-supplemented diet for the first 4 days posthatch, chickens were then challenged with S. Enteritidis, and intestinal gene expression was measured at 1 or 7 days postinfection (p.i.) (5 or 11 days of age). Intestinal expression of innate immune mRNA transcripts was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Analysis of relative mRNA expression showed that a BT peptide-supplemented diet did not directly induce the transcription of proinflammatory cytokine, inflammatory chemokine, type I/II interferon (IFN), or TLR mRNA in chicken cecum. However, feeding the BT peptide-supplemented diet primed cecal tissue for increased (P ≤ 0.05) transcription of TLR4, TLR15, and TLR21 upon infection with S. Enteritidis on days 1 and 7 p.i. Likewise, feeding the BT peptides primed the cecal tissue for increased transcription of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-6, IL-18, type I and II IFNs) and inflammatory chemokine (CxCLi2

  9. Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23935642

  10. Recent Advances in Peptide Immunomodulators.

    PubMed

    Zerfas, Breanna L; Gao, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    With the continued rise in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is an immense need for the development of new therapeutic agents. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) offer a unique alternative to many of the current approved antibiotics. By targeting the host rather than the pathogen, HDPs offer several benefits over traditional small molecule drug treatments, such as a slower propensity towards resistance, broad-spectrum activity and lower risk of patients developing sepsis. However, natural peptide structures have many disadvantages as well, including susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, significant costs of synthesis and host toxicity. For this reason, much work has been done to examine peptidomimetic structures, in the hopes of finding a structure with all of the desired qualities of an antibiotic drug. Recently, this research has included synthetic constructs that mimic the behavior of HDPs but have no structural similarity to peptides. This review article focuses on the progression of this field of research, beginning with an analysis of a few prominent examples of natural HDPs and moving on to describe how the information learned by studying them have led to the current design platforms.

  11. Platyhelminth FMRFamide-related peptides.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C; Maule, A G; Halton, D W

    1996-04-01

    Platyhelminths are the most primitive metazoan phylum to possess a true central nervous system, comprising a brain and longitudinal nerve cords connected by commissures. Additional to the presence of classical neurotransmitters, the nervous systems of all major groups of flatworms examined have widespread and abundant peptidergic components. Decades of research on the major invertebrate phyla, Mollusca and Arthropoda, have revealed the primary structures and putative functions of several families of structurally related peptides, the best studied being the FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). Recently, the first platyhelminth FaRP was isolated from the tapeworm, Moniezia expansa, and was found to be a hexapeptide amide, GNFFRFamide. Two additional FaRPs were isolated from species of turbellarians; these were pentapeptides, RYIRFamide (Artioposthia triangulata) and GYIRFamide (Dugesia tigrina). The primary structure of a monogenean or digenean FaRP has yet to be deduced. Preliminary physiological studies have shown that both of the turbellarian FaRPs elicit dose-dependent contractions of isolated digenean and turbellarian somatic muscle fibres. Unlike the high structural diversity of FaRPs found in molluscs, arthropods and nematodes, the complement of FaRPs in individual species of platyhelminths appears to be restricted to 1 or 2 related molecules. Much remains to be learnt about platyhelminth FaRPs, particularly from peptide isolation, molecular cloning of precursor proteins, receptor localization, and physiological studies.

  12. Sphingolipids and Antimicrobial Peptides: Function and Roles in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungho; Lee, Sinhee; Lee, Yong-Moon

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and rosacea were complicated by barrier abrogation and deficiency in innate immunity. The first defender of epidermal innate immune response is the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that exhibit a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against multiple pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The deficiency of these AMPs in the skin of AD fails to protect our body against virulent pathogen infections. In contrast to AD where there is a suppression of AMPs, rosacea is characterized by overexpression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP), the products of which result in chronic epidermal inflammation. In this regard, AMP generation that is controlled by a key ceramide metabolite S1P-dependent mechanism could be considered as alternate therapeutic approaches to treat these skin disorders, i.e., Increased S1P levels strongly stimulated the CAMP expression which elevated the antimicrobial activity against multiple pathogens resulting the improved AD patient skin. PMID:24244808

  13. Predicting protein-peptide interactions from scratch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chengfei; Xu, Xianjin; Zou, Xiaoqin; Zou lab Team

    Protein-peptide interactions play an important role in many cellular processes. The ability to predict protein-peptide complex structures is valuable for mechanistic investigation and therapeutic development. Due to the high flexibility of peptides and lack of templates for homologous modeling, predicting protein-peptide complex structures is extremely challenging. Recently, we have developed a novel docking framework for protein-peptide structure prediction. Specifically, given the sequence of a peptide and a 3D structure of the protein, initial conformations of the peptide are built through protein threading. Then, the peptide is globally and flexibly docked onto the protein using a novel iterative approach. Finally, the sampled modes are scored and ranked by a statistical potential-based energy scoring function that was derived for protein-peptide interactions from statistical mechanics principles. Our docking methodology has been tested on the Peptidb database and compared with other protein-peptide docking methods. Systematic analysis shows significantly improved results compared to the performances of the existing methods. Our method is computationally efficient and suitable for large-scale applications. Nsf CAREER Award 0953839 (XZ) NIH R01GM109980 (XZ).

  14. Sensing immune responses with customized peptide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Schirwitz, Christopher; Loeffler, Felix F; Felgenhauer, Thomas; Stadler, Volker; Breitling, Frank; Bischoff, F Ralf

    2012-12-01

    The intent to solve biological and biomedical questions in high-throughput led to an immense interest in microarray technologies. Nowadays, DNA microarrays are routinely used to screen for oligonucleotide interactions within a large variety of potential interaction partners. To study interactions on the protein level with the same efficiency, protein and peptide microarrays offer similar advantages, but their production is more demanding. A new technology to produce peptide microarrays with a laser printer provides access to affordable and highly complex peptide microarrays. Such a peptide microarray can contain up to 775 peptide spots per cm², whereby the position of each peptide spot and, thus, the amino acid sequence of the corresponding peptide, is exactly known. Compared to other techniques, such as the SPOT synthesis, more features per cm² at lower costs can be synthesized which paves the way for laser printed peptide microarrays to take on roles as efficient and affordable biomedical sensors. Here, we describe the laser printer-based synthesis of peptide microarrays and focus on an application involving the blood sera of tetanus immunized individuals, indicating the potential of peptide arrays to sense immune responses.

  15. Human neutrophil formyl peptide receptor phosphorylation and the mucosal inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Giovanna; Gripentrog, Jeannie; Lord, Connie; Riesselman, Marcia; Sumagin, Ronen; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma; Jesaitis, Algirdas J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial/mitochondrial fMLF analogs bind FPR1, driving accumulation/activation of PMN at sites of infection/injury, while promoting wound healing in epithelia. We quantified levels of UFPR1 and TFPR1 in isolated PMN by use of phosphosensitive NFPRb and phosphorylation-independent NFPRa antibodies. UFPR1 and total TFPR were assessed inflamed mucosa, observed in human IBD. In isolated PMN after fMLF stimulation, UFPR1 declined 70% (fMLFEC50 = 11 ± 1 nM; t1/2 = 15 s) and was stable for up to 4 h, whereas TFPR1 changed only slightly. Antagonists (tBoc-FLFLF, CsH) and metabolic inhibitor NaF prevented the fMLF-dependent UFPR1 decrease. Annexin A1 fragment Ac2-26 also induced decreases in UFPR1 (Ac2-26EC50 ∼ 3 µM). Proinflammatory agents (TNF-α, LPS), phosphatase inhibitor (okadaic acid), and G-protein activator (MST) modestly increased fMLFEC50, 2- to 4-fold, whereas PTX, Ca2+ chelators (EGTA/BAPTA), H2O2, GM-CSF, ENA-78, IL-1RA, and LXA4 had no effect. Aggregation-inducing PAF, however, strongly inhibited fMLF-stimulated UFPR1 decreases. fMLF-driven PMN also demonstrated decreased UFPR1 after traversing monolayers of cultured intestinal epithelial cells, as did PMN in intestinal mucosal samples, demonstrating active inflammation from UC patients. Total TFPR remained high in PMN within inflamed crypts, migrating through crypt epithelium, and in the lamina propria-adjoining crypts, but UFPR1 was only observed at some peripheral sites on crypt aggregates. Loss of UFPR1 in PMN results from C-terminal S/T phosphorylation. Our results suggest G protein–insensitive, fMLF-dependent FPR1 phosphorylation in isolated suspension PMN, which may manifest in fMLF-driven transmigration and potentially, in actively inflamed tissues, except at minor discrete surface locations of PMN-containing crypt aggregates. PMID:25395303

  16. Selenium and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Avinash K; Shay, Ashley E; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2015-07-15

    Dietary intake of the micronutrient selenium is essential for normal immune functions. Selenium is cotranslationally incorporated as the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, into selenoproteins that function to modulate pathways involved in inflammation. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between selenium levels and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that can potentially progress to colon cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we summarize the current literature on the pathophysiology of IBD, which is multifactorial in origin with unknown etiology. We have focused on a few selenoproteins that mediate gastrointestinal inflammation and activate the host immune response, wherein macrophages play a pivotal role. Changes in cellular oxidative state coupled with altered expression of selenoproteins in macrophages drive the switch from a proinflammatory phenotype to an anti-inflammatory phenotype to efficiently resolve inflammation in the gut and restore epithelial barrier integrity. Such a phenotypic plasticity is accompanied by changes in cytokines, chemokines, and bioactive metabolites, including eicosanoids that not only mitigate inflammation but also partake in restoring gut homeostasis through diverse pathways involving differential regulation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. The role of the intestinal microbiome in modulating inflammation and aiding in selenium-dependent resolution of gut injury is highlighted to provide novel insights into the beneficial effects of selenium in IBD.

  17. Human antimicrobial peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangshun

    2014-05-13

    As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between -3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to block cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. Lysozyme is well-characterized to cleave bacterial cell wall polysaccharides but can also kill bacteria by a non-catalytic mechanism. The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. Furthermore, dermcidin may serve as ion channel by forming a long helix-bundle structure. In addition, the C-type lectin RegIIIα can initially recognize bacterial peptidoglycans followed by pore formation in the membrane. Finally, histatin 5 and GAPDH(2-32) can enter microbial cells to exert their effects. It appears that granulysin enters cells and kills intracellular pathogens with the aid of pore-forming perforin. This arsenal of human defense proteins not only keeps us healthy but also inspires the development of a new generation of personalized medicine to combat

  18. Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun

    2014-01-01

    As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to block cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. Lysozyme is well-characterized to cleave bacterial cell wall polysaccharides but can also kill bacteria by a non-catalytic mechanism. The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. Furthermore, dermcidin may serve as ion channel by forming a long helix-bundle structure. In addition, the C-type lectin RegIIIα can initially recognize bacterial peptidoglycans followed by pore formation in the membrane. Finally, histatin 5 and GAPDH(2-32) can enter microbial cells to exert their effects. It appears that granulysin enters cells and kills intracellular pathogens with the aid of pore-forming perforin. This arsenal of human defense proteins not only keeps us healthy but also inspires the development of a new generation of personalized medicine to

  19. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Maione, Francesco; Russo, Rosa; Khan, Haroon; Mascolo, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been the main remedy to treat various ailments for a long time and nowadays, many drugs have been developed from traditional medicine. This paper reviews some medicinal plants and their main constituents which possess anti-inflammatory activities useful for curing joint inflammation, inflammatory skin disorders, cardiovascular inflammation and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief overview of quick and easy reading on the role of medicinal plants and their main constituents in these inflammatory diseases. We hope that this overview will shed some light on the function of these natural anti-inflammatory compounds and attract the interest of investigators aiming at the design of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions.

  20. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Maione, Francesco; Russo, Rosa; Khan, Haroon; Mascolo, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been the main remedy to treat various ailments for a long time and nowadays, many drugs have been developed from traditional medicine. This paper reviews some medicinal plants and their main constituents which possess anti-inflammatory activities useful for curing joint inflammation, inflammatory skin disorders, cardiovascular inflammation and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief overview of quick and easy reading on the role of medicinal plants and their main constituents in these inflammatory diseases. We hope that this overview will shed some light on the function of these natural anti-inflammatory compounds and attract the interest of investigators aiming at the design of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. PMID:26221780

  1. Synthesis and analgesic effects of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Tang, Jianguang; Zhang, Yunxiao; Xun, Xiaohong; Tang, Dongfang; Peng, Dezheng; Yi, Jianming; Liu, Zhonghua; Shi, Xiaoliu

    2014-08-01

    μ-TRTX-Hhn1b (HNTX-IV) is a 35-amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of the spider, Ornithoctonus hainana. It inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, which has been considered as a therapeutic target for pain. The goal of the present study is to elucidate the analgesic effects of synthetic μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on animal models of pain. The peptide was first synthesized and then successfully refolded/oxidized. The synthetic peptide had the same inhibitory effect on human Nav1.7 current transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells as the native toxin. Furthermore, the analgesic potentials of the synthetic peptide were examined on models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. μ-TRTX-Hhn1b produced an efficient reversal of acute nociceptive pain in the abdominal constriction model, and significantly reduced the pain scores over the 40-min period in the formalin model. The efficiency of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on both models was equivalent to that of morphine. In the spinal nerve model, the reversal effect of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on allodynia was longer and higher than mexiletine. These results demonstrated that μ-TRTX-Hhn1b efficiently alleviated acute inflammatory pain and chronic neuropathic pain in animals and provided an attractive template for further clinical analgesic drug design. PMID:25123556

  2. Synthesis and Analgesic Effects of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on Models of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Tang, Jianguang; Zhang, Yunxiao; Xun, Xiaohong; Tang, Dongfang; Peng, Dezheng; Yi, Jianming; Liu, Zhonghua; Shi, Xiaoliu

    2014-01-01

    μ-TRTX-Hhn1b (HNTX-IV) is a 35-amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of the spider, Ornithoctonus hainana. It inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, which has been considered as a therapeutic target for pain. The goal of the present study is to elucidate the analgesic effects of synthetic μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on animal models of pain. The peptide was first synthesized and then successfully refolded/oxidized. The synthetic peptide had the same inhibitory effect on human Nav1.7 current transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells as the native toxin. Furthermore, the analgesic potentials of the synthetic peptide were examined on models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain. μ-TRTX-Hhn1b produced an efficient reversal of acute nociceptive pain in the abdominal constriction model, and significantly reduced the pain scores over the 40-min period in the formalin model. The efficiency of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on both models was equivalent to that of morphine. In the spinal nerve model, the reversal effect of μ-TRTX-Hhn1b on allodynia was longer and higher than mexiletine. These results demonstrated that μ-TRTX-Hhn1b efficiently alleviated acute inflammatory pain and chronic neuropathic pain in animals and provided an attractive template for further clinical analgesic drug design. PMID:25123556

  3. Interferon-gamma released by gluten-stimulated celiac disease-specific intestinal T cells enhances the transepithelial flux of gluten peptides.

    PubMed

    Bethune, Michael T; Siegel, Matthew; Howles-Banerji, Samuel; Khosla, Chaitan

    2009-05-01

    Celiac sprue is a T-cell-mediated enteropathy elicited in genetically susceptible individuals by dietary gluten proteins. To initiate and propagate inflammation, proteolytically resistant gluten peptides must be translocated across the small intestinal epithelium and presented to DQ2-restricted T cells, but the effectors enabling this translocation under normal and inflammatory conditions are not well understood. We demonstrate that a fluorescently labeled antigenic 33-mer gluten peptide is translocated intact across a T84 cultured epithelial cell monolayer and that preincubation of the monolayer with media from gluten-stimulated, celiac patient-derived intestinal T cells enhances the apical-to-basolateral flux of this peptide in a dose-dependent, saturable manner. The permeability-enhancing activity of activated T-cell media is inhibited by blocking antibodies against either interferon-gamma or its receptor and is recapitulated using recombinant interferon-gamma. At saturating levels of interferon-gamma, activated T-cell media does not further increase transepithelial peptide flux, indicating the primacy of interferon-gamma as an effector of increased epithelial permeability during inflammation. Reducing the assay temperature to 4 degrees C reverses the effect of interferon-gamma but does not reduce basal peptide flux occurring in the absence of interferon-gamma, suggesting active transcellular transport of intact peptides is increased during inflammation. A panel of disease-relevant gluten peptides exhibited an inverse correlation between size and transepithelial flux but no apparent sequence constraints. Anti-interferon-gamma therapy may mitigate the vicious cycle of gluten-induced interferon-gamma secretion and interferon-gamma-mediated enhancement of gluten peptide flux but is unlikely to prevent translocation of gluten peptides in the absence of inflammatory conditions.

  4. Unifying protein inference and peptide identification with feedback to update consistency between peptides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinhong; Chen, Bolin; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We first propose a new method to process peptide identification reports from databases search engines. Then via it we develop a method for unifying protein inference and peptide identification by adding a feedback from protein inference to peptide identification. The feedback information is a list of high-confidence proteins, which is used to update an adjacency matrix between peptides. The adjacency matrix is used in the regularization of peptide scores. Logistic regression (LR) is used to compute the probability of peptide identification with the regularized scores. Protein scores are then calculated with the LR probability of peptides. Instead of selecting the best peptide match for each MS/MS, we select multiple peptides. By testing on two datasets, the results have shown that the proposed method can robustly assign accurate probabilities to peptides, and have a higher discrimination power than PeptideProphet to distinguish correct and incorrect identified peptides. Additionally, not only can our method infer more true positive proteins but also infer less false positive proteins than ProteinProphet at the same false positive rate. The coverage of inferred proteins is also significantly increased due to the selection of multiple peptides for each MS/MS and the improvement of their scores by the feedback from the inferred proteins.

  5. Human neutrophils are activated by a peptide fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin B presumably via formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Goy, Sebastian D; Olling, Alexandra; Neumann, Detlef; Pich, Andreas; Gerhard, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium difficile may induce antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and, in severe cases, pseudomembranous colitis characterized by tremendous neutrophil infiltration. All symptoms are caused by two exotoxins: TcdA and TcdB. We describe here the activation of isolated human blood neutrophils by TcdB and, moreover, by toxin fragments generated by limited proteolytical digestion. Kinetics and profiles of TcdB-induced rise in intracellular-free Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species production were similar to that induced by fMLF, which activates the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) recognizing formylated bacterial peptide sequences. Transfection assays with the FPR-1 isoform hFPR26 in HEK293 cells, heterologous desensitization experiments and FPR inhibition via cyclosporine H strongly suggest activation of cells via FPR-1. Domain analyses revealed that the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of TcdB is a potent activator of FPR pointing towards an additional mechanism that might contribute to pathogenesis. This pro-inflammatory ligand effect can be triggered even by cleaved and, thus, non-cytotoxic toxin. In summary, we report (i) a ligand effect on neutrophils as completely new molecular mode of action, (ii) pathogenic potential of truncated or proteolytically cleaved 'non-cytotoxic' fragments and (iii) an interaction of the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain instead of the C-terminal receptor binding domain of TcdB with target cells. PMID:25529763

  6. Multiple Functions of the New Cytokine-Based Antimicrobial Peptide Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP).

    PubMed

    Bjerkan, Louise; Sonesson, Andreas; Schenck, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a pleiotropic cytokine, hitherto mostly known to be involved in inflammatory responses and immunoregulation. The human tslp gene gives rise to two transcription and translation variants: a long form (lfTSLP) that is induced by inflammation, and a short, constitutively-expressed form (sfTSLP), that appears to be downregulated by inflammation. The TSLP forms can be produced by a number of cell types, including epithelial and dendritic cells (DCs). lfTSLP can activate mast cells, DCs, and T cells through binding to the lfTSLP receptor (TSLPR) and has a pro-inflammatory function. In contrast, sfTSLP inhibits cytokine secretion of DCs, but the receptor mediating this effect is unknown. Our recent studies have demonstrated that both forms of TSLP display potent antimicrobial activity, exceeding that of many other known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), with sfTSLP having the strongest effect. The AMP activity is primarily mediated by the C-terminal region of the protein and is localized within a 34-mer peptide (MKK34) that spans the C-terminal α-helical region in TSLP. Fluorescent studies of peptide-treated bacteria, electron microscopy, and liposome leakage models showed that MKK34 exerted membrane-disrupting effects comparable to those of LL-37. Expression of TSLP in skin, oral mucosa, salivary glands, and intestine is part of the defense barrier that aids in the control of both commensal and pathogenic microbes. PMID:27399723

  7. Formyl Peptide Receptor Activation Elicits Endothelial Cell Contraction and Vascular Leakage.

    PubMed

    Wenceslau, Camilla F; McCarthy, Cameron G; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-01-01

    The major pathophysiological characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis is the loss of control of vascular tone and endothelial barrier dysfunction. These changes are attributed to pro-inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed that in patients and rats without infection, cell components from damaged tissue are the primary instigators of vascular damage. Mitochondria share several characteristics with bacteria, and when fragments of mitochondria are released into the circulation after injury, they are recognized by the innate immune system. N-Formyl peptides are common molecular signatures of bacteria and mitochondria and are known to play a role in the initiation of inflammation by activating the formyl peptide receptor (FPR). We have demonstrated that infusion of mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) leads to sepsis-like symptoms, including vascular leakage. We have also observed that F-MIT, via FPR activation, elicits changes in cytoskeleton-regulating proteins in endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that these FPR-mediated changes in cytoskeleton can cause endothelial cell contraction and, consequently vascular leakage. Here, we propose that endothelial FPR is a key contributor to impaired barrier function in SIRS and sepsis patients following trauma. PMID:27532003

  8. Multiple Functions of the New Cytokine-Based Antimicrobial Peptide Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP)

    PubMed Central

    Bjerkan, Louise; Sonesson, Andreas; Schenck, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a pleiotropic cytokine, hitherto mostly known to be involved in inflammatory responses and immunoregulation. The human tslp gene gives rise to two transcription and translation variants: a long form (lfTSLP) that is induced by inflammation, and a short, constitutively-expressed form (sfTSLP), that appears to be downregulated by inflammation. The TSLP forms can be produced by a number of cell types, including epithelial and dendritic cells (DCs). lfTSLP can activate mast cells, DCs, and T cells through binding to the lfTSLP receptor (TSLPR) and has a pro-inflammatory function. In contrast, sfTSLP inhibits cytokine secretion of DCs, but the receptor mediating this effect is unknown. Our recent studies have demonstrated that both forms of TSLP display potent antimicrobial activity, exceeding that of many other known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), with sfTSLP having the strongest effect. The AMP activity is primarily mediated by the C-terminal region of the protein and is localized within a 34-mer peptide (MKK34) that spans the C-terminal α-helical region in TSLP. Fluorescent studies of peptide-treated bacteria, electron microscopy, and liposome leakage models showed that MKK34 exerted membrane-disrupting effects comparable to those of LL-37. Expression of TSLP in skin, oral mucosa, salivary glands, and intestine is part of the defense barrier that aids in the control of both commensal and pathogenic microbes. PMID:27399723

  9. Formyl Peptide Receptor Activation Elicits Endothelial Cell Contraction and Vascular Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Wenceslau, Camilla F.; McCarthy, Cameron G.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2016-01-01

    The major pathophysiological characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis is the loss of control of vascular tone and endothelial barrier dysfunction. These changes are attributed to pro-inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed that in patients and rats without infection, cell components from damaged tissue are the primary instigators of vascular damage. Mitochondria share several characteristics with bacteria, and when fragments of mitochondria are released into the circulation after injury, they are recognized by the innate immune system. N-Formyl peptides are common molecular signatures of bacteria and mitochondria and are known to play a role in the initiation of inflammation by activating the formyl peptide receptor (FPR). We have demonstrated that infusion of mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) leads to sepsis-like symptoms, including vascular leakage. We have also observed that F-MIT, via FPR activation, elicits changes in cytoskeleton-regulating proteins in endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that these FPR-mediated changes in cytoskeleton can cause endothelial cell contraction and, consequently vascular leakage. Here, we propose that endothelial FPR is a key contributor to impaired barrier function in SIRS and sepsis patients following trauma. PMID:27532003

  10. A structure-activity relationship for induction of meningeal inflammation by muramyl peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, M; Rozdzinski, E; Geelen, S; Tuomanen, E

    1993-01-01

    Components of bacterial peptidoglycans have potent biological activities, including adjuvant effects, cytotoxicity, and induction of sleep. Mixtures of peptidoglycan components also induce inflammation in the lung, subarachnoid space, and joint, but the structural requirements for activity are unknown. Using a rabbit model for meningitis, we determined the biological activities of 14 individual muramyl peptides constituting > 90% of the peptidoglycan of the gram-negative pediatric pathogen Haemophilus influenzae. Upon intracisternal inoculation, most of the muropeptides induced leukocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), influx of protein into CSF, or brain edema, alone or in combination. The disaccharide-tetrapeptide, the major component of all gram-negative peptidoglycans, induced CSF leukocytosis and protein influx at doses as low as 0.4 microgram (0.42 nM). Modification of the N-acetyl muramic acid or substitution of the alanine at position four in the peptide side chain decreased leukocytosis but enhanced brain edema. As the size of the muropeptide increased, the inflammatory activity decreased. Muropeptide carrying the diaminopimelyl-diaminopimelic acid cross-link specifically induced cytotoxic brain edema. These findings significantly expand the spectrum of biological activities of natural muramyl peptides and provide the basis for a structure-activity relationship for the inflammatory properties of bacterial muropeptides. PMID:8325996

  11. Antimicrobial peptides and gut microbiota in homeostasis and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ostaff, Maureen J; Stange, Eduard Friedrich; Wehkamp, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We survive because we adapted to a world of microorganisms. All our epithelial surfaces participate in keeping up an effective barrier against microbes while not initiating ongoing inflammatory processes and risking collateral damage to the host. Major players in this scenario are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Such broad-spectrum innate antibiotics are in part produced by specialized cells but also widely sourced from all epithelia as well as circulating inflammatory cells. AMPs belong to an ancient defense system found in all organisms and participated in a preservative co-evolution with a complex microbiome. Particularly interesting interactions between host barrier and microbiota can be found in the gut. The intestinal cell lining not only has to maintain a tightly regulated homeostasis during its high-throughput regeneration, but also a balanced relationship towards an extreme number of mutualistic or commensal inhabitants. Recent research suggests that advancing our understanding of the circumstances of such balanced and sometimes imbalanced interactions between gut microbiota and host AMPs should have therapeutic implications for different intestinal disorders. PMID:24039130

  12. The human tri-peptide GHK and tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Pickart, Loren

    2008-01-01

    Tissue remodeling follows the initial phase of wound healing and stops inflammatory and scar-forming processes, then restores the normal tissue morphology. The human peptide Gly-(L-His)-(L-Lys) or GHK, has a copper 2+ (Cu(2+)) affinity similar to the copper transport site on albumin and forms GHK-Cu, a complex with Cu(2+). These two molecules activate a plethora of remodeling related processes: (1) chemoattraction of repair cells such as macrophages, mast cells, capillary cells; (2) anti-inflammatory actions (suppression of free radicals, thromboxane formation, release of oxidizing iron, transforming growth factor beta-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha and protein glycation while increasing superoxide dismutase, vessel vasodilation, blocking ultraviolet damage to skin keratinocytes and improving fibroblast recovery after X-ray treatments); (3) increases protein synthesis of collagen, elastin, metalloproteinases, anti-proteases, vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2, nerve growth factor, neutrotropins 3 and 4, and erythropoietin; (4) increases the proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes; nerve outgrowth, angiogenesis, and hair follicle size. GHK-Cu stimulates wound healing in numerous models and in humans. Controlled studies on aged skin demonstrated that it tightens skin, improves elasticity and firmness, reduces fine lines, wrinkles, photodamage and hyperpigmentation. GHK-Cu also improves hair transplant success, protects hepatic tissue from tetrachloromethane poisoning, blocks stomach ulcer development, and heals intestinal ulcers and bone tissue. These results are beginning to define the complex biochemical processes that regulate tissue remodeling. PMID:18644225

  13. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    DOEpatents

    Camarero, Julio A.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  14. Peptide YY receptors in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, A.; Oya, M.; Okita, M.; Inoue, T.; Sakatani, N.; Morioka, H.; Shii, K.; Yokono, K.; Mizuno, N.; Baba, S.

    1988-01-15

    Radiolabelled ligand binding studies demonstrated that specific receptors for peptide YY are present in the porcine as well as the canine brains. Peptide YY was bound to brain tissue membranes via high-affinity (dissociation constant, 1.39 X 10(-10)M) and low-affinity (dissociation constant, 3.72 X 10(-8)M) components. The binding sites showed a high specificity for peptide YY and neuropeptide Y, but not for pancreatic polypeptide or structurally unrelated peptides. The specific activity of peptide YY binding was highest in the hippocampus, followed by the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and the amygdala of the porcine brain, this pattern being similarly observed in the canine brain. The results suggest that peptide YY and neuropeptide Y may regulate the function of these regions of the brain through interaction with a common receptor site.

  15. Cryptic Peptides from Collagen: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Pradipta; Shanthi, C

    2016-01-01

    Collagen, a predominant structural protein in extracellular matrix (ECM), is now considered to have probable roles in many biological activities and hence, in different forms have found application as nutraceutical or pharmaceutical therapy option. Many of the biological properties are believed to be due to small hidden peptide residues in the collagen molecules, which come into play after the biodegradation or biosorption of the parent molecule. These peptide regions are called cryptic peptides or by some, as cryptides. The proteolytic hydrolysis of the ECM protein releases the cryptic peptides with many novel biological activities not exhibited directly by the parental protein which include angiogenic, antimicrobial, mitogenic and chemotactic properties. The research for understanding the role of these cryptic peptide regions and making use of them in medical field is very active. Such an understanding could lead to the development of peptide supplements for many biomedical applications. The prolific research in this area is reviewed in this paper. PMID:27173646

  16. A novel bioactive peptide from wasp venom

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Wenlin; Yang, Hailong; Lai, Ren

    2010-01-01

    Wasp venoms contain a number of pharmacologically active biomolecules, undertaking a wide range of functions necessary for the wasp's survival. We purified and characterized a novel bioactive peptide (vespin) from the venoms of Vespa magnifica (Smith) wasps with unique primary structure. Its amino acid sequence was determined to be CYQRRVAITAGGLKHRLMSSLIIIIIIRINYLRDNSVIILESSY. It has 44 residues including 15 leucines or isoleucines (32%) in the sequence. Vespin showed contractile activity on isolated ileum smooth muscle. The cDNA encoding vespin precursor was cloned from the cDNA library of the venomous glands. The precursor consists of 67 amino acid residues including the predicted signal peptide and mature vespin. A di-basic enzymatic processing site (-KR-) is located between the signal peptide and the mature peptide. Vespin did not show similarity with any known proteins or peptides by BLAST search, suggesting it is a novel bioactive peptide from wasp venoms. PMID:21544181

  17. Anti-angiogenic peptides for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rosca, Elena V; Koskimaki, Jacob E; Rivera, Corban G; Pandey, Niranjan B; Tamiz, Amir P; Popel, Aleksander S

    2011-08-01

    Peptides have emerged as important therapeutics that are being rigorously tested in angiogenesis-dependent diseases due to their low toxicity and high specificity. Since the discovery of endogenous proteins and protein fragments that inhibit microvessel formation (thrombospondin, endostatin) several peptides have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical studies for cancer. Peptides have been derived from thrombospondin, collagens, chemokines, coagulation cascade proteins, growth factors, and other classes of proteins and target different receptors. Here we survey recent developments for anti-angiogenic peptides with length not exceeding 50 amino acid residues that have shown activity in pre-clinical models of cancer or have been tested in clinical trials; some of the peptides have been modified and optimized, e.g., through L-to-D and non-natural amino acid substitutions. We highlight technological advances in peptide discovery and optimization including computational and bioinformatics tools and novel experimental techniques.

  18. Immunological Investigation for the Presence of Lunasin, a Chemopreventive Soybean Peptide, in the Seeds of Diverse Plants.

    PubMed

    Alaswad, Alaa A; Krishnan, Hari B

    2016-04-13

    Lunasin, a 44 amino acid soybean bioactive peptide, exhibits anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. All soybean varieties that have been examined contain lunasin. It has also been reported in a few other plant species including amaranth, black nightshade, wheat, barley, rye, and triticale. Interestingly, detailed searches of transcriptome and DNA sequence databases of cereals failed to identify lunasin-coding sequences, raising questions about the authenticity of lunasin in cereals. To clarify the presence or absence of lunasin in cereals and other plant species, an immunological investigation was conducted utilizing polyclonal antibodies raised against the first 20 amino acid N-terminal peptide (SKWQHQQDSCRKQLQGVNLT) and a 15 amino acid C-terminal peptide (CEKHIMEKIQGRGDD) of lunasin. Protein blot analyses revealed the presence of proteins from several plants that reacted against the lunasin N-terminal peptide antibodies. However, the same proteins failed to react against the lunasin C-terminal peptide antibodies. These results demonstrate that peptides identical to soybean lunasin are absent in seeds of diverse plants examined in this study. PMID:27015324

  19. Use of Galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    DOEpatents

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  20. Inhibiting complex IL-17A and IL-17RA interactions with a linear peptide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shenping; Desharnais, Joel; Sahasrabudhe, Parag V.; Jin, Ping; Li, Wei; Oates, Bryan D.; Shanker, Suman; Banker, Mary Ellen; Chrunyk, Boris A.; Song, Xi; Feng, Xidong; Griffor, Matt; Jimenez, Judith; Chen, Gang; Tumelty, David; Bhat, Abhijit; Bradshaw, Curt W.; Woodnutt, Gary; Lappe, Rodney W.; Thorarensen, Atli; Qiu, Xiayang; Withka, Jane M.; Wood, Lauren D.

    2016-01-01

    IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting IL-17A signaling have demonstrated remarkable efficacy, but an oral therapy is still lacking. A high affinity IL-17A peptide antagonist (HAP) of 15 residues was identified through phage-display screening followed by saturation mutagenesis optimization and amino acid substitutions. HAP binds specifically to IL-17A and inhibits the interaction of the cytokine with its receptor, IL-17RA. Tested in primary human cells, HAP blocked the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines. Crystal structure studies revealed that two HAP molecules bind to one IL-17A dimer symmetrically. The N-terminal portions of HAP form a β-strand that inserts between two IL-17A monomers while the C-terminal section forms an α helix that directly blocks IL-17RA from binding to the same region of IL-17A. This mode of inhibition suggests opportunities for developing peptide antagonists against this challenging target. PMID:27184415

  1. Analysis of peptide uptake and location of root hair-promoting peptide accumulation in plant roots.

    PubMed

    Matsumiya, Yoshiki; Taniguchi, Rikiya; Kubo, Motoki

    2012-03-01

    Peptide uptake by plant roots from degraded soybean-meal products was analyzed in Brassica rapa and Solanum lycopersicum. B. rapa absorbed about 40% of the initial water volume, whereas peptide concentration was decreased by 75% after 24 h. Analysis by reversed-phase HPLC showed that number of peptides was absorbed by the roots during soaking in degraded soybean-meal products for 24 h. Carboxyfluorescein-labeled root hair-promoting peptide was synthesized, and its localization, movement, and accumulation in roots were investigated. The peptide appeared to be absorbed by root hairs and then moved to trichoblasts. Furthermore, the peptide was moved from trichoblasts to atrichoblasts after 24 h. The peptide was accumulated in epidermal cells, suggesting that the peptide may have a function in both trichoblasts and atrichoblasts.

  2. Effective delivery of a rationally designed intracellular peptide drug with gold nanoparticle-peptide hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daiyoon; Zhao, Jinbo; Yang, Hong; Xu, Shuyun; Kim, Hyunhee; Pacheco, Shaun; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-07-01

    A novel gold nanoparticle-peptide hybrid strategy was developed to intracellularly deliver a potent PKCδ inhibitor peptide for the treatment of acute lung injury. The gold nanoparticle-peptide hybrids showed good stability with high uptake, and demonstrated in vitro and in vivo efficacy. Our formulation strategy shows great promise in intracellular delivery of peptides.A novel gold nanoparticle-peptide hybrid strategy was developed to intracellularly deliver a potent PKCδ inhibitor peptide for the treatment of acute lung injury. The gold nanoparticle-peptide hybrids showed good stability with high uptake, and demonstrated in vitro and in vivo efficacy. Our formulation strategy shows great promise in intracellular delivery of peptides. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods section and additional experiments to support the results in the main text. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02377g

  3. Current scenario of peptide-based drugs: the key roles of cationic antitumor and antiviral peptides

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Kelly C. L.; Lima, Loiane A.; Miranda, Vivian J.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2013-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and host defense peptides (HDPs) show vast potential as peptide-based drugs. Great effort has been made in order to exploit their mechanisms of action, aiming to identify their targets as well as to enhance their activity and bioavailability. In this review, we will focus on both naturally occurring and designed antiviral and antitumor cationic peptides, including those here called promiscuous, in which multiple targets are associated with a single peptide structure. Emphasis will be given to their biochemical features, selectivity against extra targets, and molecular mechanisms. Peptides which possess antitumor activity against different cancer cell lines will be discussed, as well as peptides which inhibit virus replication, focusing on their applications for human health, animal health and agriculture, and their potential as new therapeutic drugs. Moreover, the current scenario for production and the use of nanotechnology as delivery tool for both classes of cationic peptides, as well as the perspectives on improving them is considered. PMID:24198814

  4. Insect inducible antimicrobial peptides and their applications.

    PubMed

    Ezzati-Tabrizi, Reyhaneh; Farrokhi, Naser; Talaei-Hassanloui, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Mehdi; Hosseininaveh, Vahid

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found as important components of the innate immune system (host defense) of all invertebrates. These peptides can be constitutively expressed or induced in response to microbial infections. Indeed, they vary in their amino acid sequences, potency and antimicrobial activity spectra. The smaller AMPs act greatly by disrupting the structure or function of microbial cell membranes. Here, the insect innate immune system with emphasis on inducible antimicrobial peptide properties against microbial invaders has been discussed.

  5. Salt-resistant short antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Mohanram, Harini; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising leads for the development of antibiotics against drug resistant bacterial pathogens. However, in vivo applications of AMPs remain obscure due to salt and serum mediated inactivation. The high cost of chemical synthesis of AMPs also impedes potential clinical application. Consequently, short AMPs resistant toward salt and serum inactivation are desirable for the development of peptide antibiotics. In this work, we designed a 12-residue amphipathic helical peptide RR12 (R-R-L-I-R-L-I-L-R-L-L-R-amide) and two Trp containing analogs of RR12 namely RR12Wpolar (R-R-L-I-W-L-I-L-R-L-L-R-amide), and RR12Whydro (R-R-L-I-R-L-W-L-R-L-L-R-amide). Designed peptides demonstrated potent antibacterial activity; MIC ranging from 2 to 8 μM, in the presence of sodium chloride (150 mM and 300 mM). Antibacterial activity of these peptides was also detected in the presence of human serum. Designed peptides, in particular RR12 and RR12Whydro, were only poorly hemolytic. As a mode of action; these peptides demonstrated efficient permeabilization of bacterial cell membrane and lysis of cell structure. We further investigated interactions of the designed peptides with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane permeability barrier of Gram-negative bacteria. Designed peptides adopted helical conformations in complex with LPS. Binding of peptides with LPS has yielded dissociation the aggregated structures of LPS. Collectively, these designed peptides hold ability to be developed for salt-resistant antimicrobial compounds. Most importantly, current work provides insights for designing salt-resistant antimicrobial peptides. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 345-356, 2016. PMID:26849911

  6. Thymosin Beta-4 Suppresses Osteoclastic Differentiation and Inflammatory Responses in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Im; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Won-Jung; Lee, Soojung; Cha, Hee-Jae; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports suggest that thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a key regulator for wound healing and anti-inflammation. However, the role of Tβ4 in osteoclast differentiation remains unclear. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate Tβ4 expression in H2O2-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), the effects of Tβ4 activation on inflammatory response in PDLCs and osteoclastic differentiation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), and identify the underlying mechanism. Methods Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and Western blot analyses were used to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Osteoclastic differentiation was assessed in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) using conditioned medium (CM) from H2O2-treated PDLCs. Results Tβ4 was down-regulated in H2O2-exposed PDLCs in dose- and time-dependent manners. Tβ4 activation with a Tβ4 peptide attenuated the H2O2-induced production of NO and PGE2 and up-regulated iNOS, COX-2, and osteoclastogenic cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17) as well as reversed the effect on RANKL and OPG in PDLCs. Tβ4 peptide inhibited the effects of H2O2 on the activation of ERK and JNK MAPK, and NF-κB in PDLCs. Furthermore, Tβ4 peptide inhibited osteoclast differentiation, osteoclast-specific gene expression, and p38, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation in RANKL-stimulated BMMs. In addition, H2O2 up-regulated Wnt5a and its cell