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Sample records for influence emotion knowledge

  1. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  2. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  3. How neglect and punitiveness influence emotion knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P; Lewis, Michael

    2010-06-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of discipline strategies (nonviolent, physically punitive, and psychological aggression), as well as neglectful parenting. Fifteen of the children were identified as neglected by Child Protective Services (CPS) reports; 27 children had no record of CPS involvement and served as the comparison group. There were no differences between the neglect and comparison groups in the demographic factors of gender, age, home language, minority status, or public assistance, nor on IQ. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling showed that neglect significantly predicted emotion knowledge. The addition of IQ contributed a significant amount of additional variance to the model and maintained the fit. Adding parental punitiveness in the final stage contributed little additional variance and did not significantly improve the fit. Thus, deficits in children's emotion knowledge may be due primarily to lower IQ or neglect. IQ was unrelated to speed of emotion recognition. Punitiveness did not directly contribute to emotion knowledge deficits but appeared in exploratory analysis to be related to speed of emotion recognition.

  4. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children’s emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children’s mothers completed the Parent–Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of discipline strategies (nonviolent, physically punitive, and psychological aggression), as well as neglectful parenting. Fifteen of the children were identified as neglected by Child Protective Services (CPS) reports; 27 children had no record of CPS involvement and served as the comparison group. There were no differences between the neglect and comparison groups in the demographic factors of gender, age, home language, minority status, or public assistance, nor on IQ. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling showed that neglect significantly predicted emotion knowledge. The addition of IQ contributed a significant amount of additional variance to the model and maintained the fit. Adding parental punitiveness in the final stage contributed little additional variance and did not significantly improve the fit. Thus, deficits in children’s emotion knowledge may be due primarily to lower IQ or neglect. IQ was unrelated to speed of emotion recognition. Punitiveness did not directly contribute to emotion knowledge deficits but appeared in exploratory analysis to be related to speed of emotion recognition. PMID:20099078

  5. The Pluto debate: Influence of emotions on belief, attitude, and knowledge change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broughton, Suzanne H.

    In line with the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005), this study examined the influence of emotions during controversial conceptual change. Issues in science may trigger highly emotional responses (e.g., evolutionary theory). However, it is unclear whether these emotions facilitate or inhibit change. I investigated the nature of emotions engendered when learning about a controversial science topic, Pluto's reclassification, including the valence (positive/negative) and activation (activating/deactivating) of emotions (Pekrun et al., 2002). I also investigated whether belief, attitude, and/or conceptual change could be facilitated through rereading a refutation text and/or rereading during small group discussions. Refutation texts directly state a common misconception, refute it, and provide the scientific explanation as a plausible alternative (Hynd, 2001). Participants were randomly assigned to a group (reread text; reread text plus small group discussions). Participants in both groups read the same refutational text regarding the recent change in the definition of planet and Pluto's reclassification. The findings show that students' experienced a range of emotions towards Pluto's reclassification. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions. Both positive and negative emotions were shown to be predictive of student's attitudes and attitude change. Emotions were also predictive of students' knowledge of planets and conceptual change. This suggests that emotions may have promoted deep engagement and critical thinking. Negative emotions may also be linked with resistance to attitude and conceptual change. The refutation text was effective in promoting belief change, attitude change, and conceptual change across both conditions. Students in both conditions reported more constructivist nature of science beliefs after rereading the text. Students also reported a greater level of acceptance about Pluto's reclassification. Conceptual change was

  6. Young Children's Knowledge about the Influence of Thoughts on Emotions in Rule Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Four-year-olds, 5-year-olds, and adults (N = 48) listened to stories featuring characters that experienced one of four types of thoughts after deciding to transgress or comply with a rule: thoughts about desires, rules, future negative outcomes, or future punishment. Participants predicted and explained the characters' emotions. Results showed…

  7. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  8. Emotion Knowledge in Young Neglected Children

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Margaret W.; Bennett, David S.; Carpenter, Kim; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Young neglected children may be at risk for emotion knowledge deficits. Children with histories of neglect or with no maltreatment were initially seen at age 4 and again 1 year later to assess their emotion knowledge. Higher IQ was associated with better emotion knowledge, but neglected children had consistently poorer emotion knowledge over time compared to non-neglected children after controlling for IQ. Because both neglected status and IQ may contribute to deficits in emotional knowledge, both should be assessed when evaluating these children to appropriately design and pace emotion knowledge interventions. PMID:18299632

  9. Comment: Respecifying Emotional Influence

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    To what extent does the level of overlap between social appraisal and social referencing depend upon the particular definitions adopted when following different research agendas? I argue that processes of both kinds fall under the more inclusive heading of relation alignment. Relation alignment also covers emotional influence that is not mediated by the communication of appraisal. Similarities, interdependences, and distinctions between these various relation-alignment processes warrant further investigation. PMID:28804511

  10. Comment: Respecifying Emotional Influence.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Brian

    2017-07-01

    To what extent does the level of overlap between social appraisal and social referencing depend upon the particular definitions adopted when following different research agendas? I argue that processes of both kinds fall under the more inclusive heading of relation alignment. Relation alignment also covers emotional influence that is not mediated by the communication of appraisal. Similarities, interdependences, and distinctions between these various relation-alignment processes warrant further investigation.

  11. Emotional Ecology: The Intersection of Emotional Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer some theoretical as well as empirical examples that describe the interrelations between pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and emotional knowledge in teaching and learning. The argument put forward is that there is a need to expand current conceptions of PCK and acknowledge the role of emotional knowledge. It…

  12. Emotional Ecology: The Intersection of Emotional Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer some theoretical as well as empirical examples that describe the interrelations between pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and emotional knowledge in teaching and learning. The argument put forward is that there is a need to expand current conceptions of PCK and acknowledge the role of emotional knowledge. It…

  13. Clinical holistic medicine: factors influencing the therapeutic decision-making. From academic knowledge to emotional intelligence and spiritual "crazy" wisdom.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2007-12-10

    Scientific holistic medicine is built on holistic medical theory, on therapeutic and ethical principles. The rationale is that the therapist can take the patient into a state of salutogenesis, or existential healing, using his skills and knowledge. But how ever much we want to make therapy a science it remains partly an art, and the more developed the therapist becomes, the more of his/her decisions will be based on intuition, feeling and even inspiration that is more based on love and human concern and other spiritual motivations than on mental reason and rationality in a simple sense of the word. The provocative and paradoxal medieval western concept of the "truth telling clown", or the eastern concepts of "crazy wisdom" and "holy madness" seems highly relevant here. The problem is how we can ethically justify this kind of highly "irrational" therapeutic behavior in the rational setting of a medical institution. We argue here that holistic therapy has a very high success rate and is doing no harm to the patient, and encourage therapists, psychiatrists, psychologist and other academically trained "helpers" to constantly measure their own success-rate. This paper discusses many of the important factors that influence clinical holistic decision-making. Sexuality could, as many psychoanalysts from Freud to Reich and Searles have believed, be the most healing power that exists and also the most difficult for the mind to comprehend, and thus the most "crazy-wise" tool of therapy.

  14. Preschoolers' emotion knowledge and the differential effects of harsh punishment.

    PubMed

    Berzenski, Sara R; Yates, Tuppett M

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children's behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children's emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. We assessed 250 preschool-aged children (50% female; Mage = 49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% multiracial/other) using various instruments through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment, conduct problems, self-concept, and emotion knowledge. Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self-concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis-driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self-concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children's responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs.

  15. Preschoolers’ Emotion Knowledge and the Differential Effects of Harsh Punishment

    PubMed Central

    Berzenski, Sara R.; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children’s behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children’s emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. Two hundred fifty preschool age children (50% female; Mage=49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Multiracial/Other) were assessed through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment (Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scale), conduct problems (Teacher Report Form, California Child Q-Sort), self concept (Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers, California Child Q-Sort), and emotion knowledge (Kuschè Emotion Inventory). Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children’s responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

  16. Incidental emotions in moral dilemmas: the influence of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Raluca D; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories have argued that emotions play a central role in moral decision-making and suggested that emotion regulation may be crucial in reducing emotion-linked biases. The present studies focused on the influence of emotional experience and individual differences in emotion regulation on moral choice in dilemmas that pit harming another person against social welfare. During these "harm to save" moral dilemmas, participants experienced mostly fear and sadness but also other emotions such as compassion, guilt, anger, disgust, regret and contempt (Study 1). Fear and disgust were more frequently reported when participants made deontological choices, whereas regret was more frequently reported when participants made utilitarian choices. In addition, habitual reappraisal negatively predicted deontological choices, and this effect was significantly carried through emotional arousal (Study 2). Individual differences in the habitual use of other emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, rumination and catastrophising) did not influence moral choice. The results of the present studies indicate that negative emotions are commonly experienced during "harm to save" moral dilemmas, and they are associated with a deontological bias. By efficiently reducing emotional arousal, reappraisal can attenuate the emotion-linked deontological bias in moral choice.

  17. The Influences of Emotion on Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Tyng, Chai M.; Amin, Hafeez U.; Saad, Mohamad N. M.; Malik, Aamir S.

    2017-01-01

    Emotion has a substantial influence on the cognitive processes in humans, including perception, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. Emotion has a particularly strong influence on attention, especially modulating the selectivity of attention as well as motivating action and behavior. This attentional and executive control is intimately linked to learning processes, as intrinsically limited attentional capacities are better focused on relevant information. Emotion also facilitates encoding and helps retrieval of information efficiently. However, the effects of emotion on learning and memory are not always univalent, as studies have reported that emotion either enhances or impairs learning and long-term memory (LTM) retention, depending on a range of factors. Recent neuroimaging findings have indicated that the amygdala and prefrontal cortex cooperate with the medial temporal lobe in an integrated manner that affords (i) the amygdala modulating memory consolidation; (ii) the prefrontal cortex mediating memory encoding and formation; and (iii) the hippocampus for successful learning and LTM retention. We also review the nested hierarchies of circular emotional control and cognitive regulation (bottom-up and top-down influences) within the brain to achieve optimal integration of emotional and cognitive processing. This review highlights a basic evolutionary approach to emotion to understand the effects of emotion on learning and memory and the functional roles played by various brain regions and their mutual interactions in relation to emotional processing. We also summarize the current state of knowledge on the impact of emotion on memory and map implications for educational settings. In addition to elucidating the memory-enhancing effects of emotion, neuroimaging findings extend our understanding of emotional influences on learning and memory processes; this knowledge may be useful for the design of effective educational curricula to provide a

  18. The Influences of Emotion on Learning and Memory.

    PubMed

    Tyng, Chai M; Amin, Hafeez U; Saad, Mohamad N M; Malik, Aamir S

    2017-01-01

    Emotion has a substantial influence on the cognitive processes in humans, including perception, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. Emotion has a particularly strong influence on attention, especially modulating the selectivity of attention as well as motivating action and behavior. This attentional and executive control is intimately linked to learning processes, as intrinsically limited attentional capacities are better focused on relevant information. Emotion also facilitates encoding and helps retrieval of information efficiently. However, the effects of emotion on learning and memory are not always univalent, as studies have reported that emotion either enhances or impairs learning and long-term memory (LTM) retention, depending on a range of factors. Recent neuroimaging findings have indicated that the amygdala and prefrontal cortex cooperate with the medial temporal lobe in an integrated manner that affords (i) the amygdala modulating memory consolidation; (ii) the prefrontal cortex mediating memory encoding and formation; and (iii) the hippocampus for successful learning and LTM retention. We also review the nested hierarchies of circular emotional control and cognitive regulation (bottom-up and top-down influences) within the brain to achieve optimal integration of emotional and cognitive processing. This review highlights a basic evolutionary approach to emotion to understand the effects of emotion on learning and memory and the functional roles played by various brain regions and their mutual interactions in relation to emotional processing. We also summarize the current state of knowledge on the impact of emotion on memory and map implications for educational settings. In addition to elucidating the memory-enhancing effects of emotion, neuroimaging findings extend our understanding of emotional influences on learning and memory processes; this knowledge may be useful for the design of effective educational curricula to provide a

  19. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  20. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  1. Follow your heart: Emotion adaptively influences perception

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Gagnon, Kyle T.; Lessard, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The current review introduces a new program of research that suggests the perception of spatial layout is influenced by emotions. Though perceptual systems are often described as closed and insulated, this review presents research suggesting that a variety of induced emotions (e.g., fear, disgust, sadness) can produce changes in vision and audition. Thus, the perceptual system may be highly interconnected, allowing emotional information to influence perceptions that, in turn, influence cognition. The body of work presented here also suggests that emotion-based changes in perception help us solve particular adaptive problems because emotion does not change all perceptions of the world. Taking the adaptive significance of emotion into account allows us to make predictions about when and how emotion influences perception. PMID:21731579

  2. [Knowledge of Emotion Regulation Strategies, Problem Behavior, and Prosocial Behavior in Preschool Age].

    PubMed

    Gust, Nicole; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between knowledge of emotion regulation strategies and social behavior in preschoolers. Knowledge of emotion regulation strategies of 210 children (mean age 55 months) was assessed. Teachers rated children's social behavior with SDQ. Linear regression analysis examined how knowledge of emotion regulation strategies influenced social behavior of children. Significant effects of gender on SDQ scales "prosocial behavior", "hyperactivity", "behavior problems", and SDQ total problem scale were identified. Age was a significant predictor of SDQ scales "prosocial behavior", "hyperactivity", "problems with peers" and SDQ total problem scale. Knowledge of emotion regulation strategies predicted SDQ total problem scores. Results suggest that deficits in knowledge of emotion regulation strategies are linked with increased problem behavior.

  3. Cultural modes of expressing emotions influence how emotions are experienced.

    PubMed

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    The brain's mapping of bodily responses during emotion contributes to emotional experiences, or feelings. Culture influences emotional expressiveness, that is, the magnitude of individuals' bodily responses during emotion. So, are cultural influences on behavioral expressiveness associated with differences in how individuals experience emotion? Chinese and American young adults reported how strongly admiration- and compassion-inducing stories made them feel, first in a private interview and then during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As expected, Americans were more expressive in the interview. Although expressiveness did not predict stronger reported feelings or neural responses during fMRI, in both cultural groups more-expressive people showed tighter trial-by-trial correlations between their experienced strength of emotion and activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex, even after controlling for individuals' overall strength of reactions (neural and felt). Moreover, expressiveness mediated a previously described cultural effect in which activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex correlated with feeling strength among Americans but not among Chinese. Post hoc supplementary analyses revealed that more-expressive individuals reached peak activation of visceral-somatosensory cortex later in the emotion process and took longer to decide how strongly they felt. The results together suggest that differences in expressiveness correspond to differences in how somatosensory mechanisms contribute to constructing conscious feelings. By influencing expressiveness, culture may therefore influence how individuals know how strongly they feel, what conscious feelings are based on, or possibly what strong versus weak emotions "feel like." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Family Emotional Climate, Attachment Security and Young Children's Emotion Knowledge in a High Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikes, H. Abigail; Thompson, Ross A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite its prevalence in low-income populations, there has been little attention paid to how maternal depression influences mother-child conversations about emotions and low-income preschool children's developing emotion understanding. The importance of a secure attachment as a positive influence on emotion understanding has also been…

  5. Associations of Emotion-Related Regulation with Language Skills, Emotion Knowledge, and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children's emerging academic motivation and skills. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. The Influence of Emotions on Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Lars-Olof; Sjoberg, Lennart

    1978-01-01

    This report on the influence of emotional factors on cognitive processes and their importance to the design of man-machine systems intended to function under conditions of threat reviews the literature on stress and human performance, coping strategies, emotion theory, and individual differences in response to stress. A framework for relating…

  7. Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

  8. The Components of Young Children's Emotion Knowledge: Which Are Enhanced by Adult Emotion Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Karen; Evans, Ian M.; Moskowitz, Sophie; Grouden, Melissa; Parkes, Fiona; Miller, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This research adopted observational and experimental paradigms to investigate the relationships between components of emotion knowledge in three- to four-year-old children. In Study 1, 88 children were assessed on the Emotion Matching Task (Morgan, Izard, & King), and two tasks requiring the generation of emotion labels and causes. Most tasks…

  9. Modeling of Internet Influence on Group Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    Long-range interactions are introduced to a two-dimensional model of agents with time-dependent internal variables ei = 0, ±1 corresponding to valencies of agent emotions. Effects of spontaneous emotion emergence and emotional relaxation processes are taken into account. The valence of agent i depends on valencies of its four nearest neighbors but it is also influenced by long-range interactions corresponding to social relations developed for example by Internet contacts to a randomly chosen community. Two types of such interactions are considered. In the first model the community emotional influence depends only on the sign of its temporary emotion. When the coupling parameter approaches a critical value a phase transition takes place and as result for larger coupling constants the mean group emotion of all agents is nonzero over long time periods. In the second model the community influence is proportional to magnitude of community average emotion. The ordered emotional phase was here observed for a narrow set of system parameters.

  10. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games.

  11. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  12. Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Students' Knowledge and Attitudes about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ashvind N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of knowledge and attitudes of 220 adolescents with severe emotional disturbances toward AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection found most students knew the main modes of HIV transmission. Student age, race, and gender were related to level of knowledge and attitudes toward people with…

  13. Linking children's neuropsychological processing of emotion with their knowledge of emotion expression regulation.

    PubMed

    Watling, Dawn; Bourne, Victoria J

    2007-09-01

    Understanding of emotions has been shown to develop between the ages of 4 and 10 years; however, individual differences exist in this development. While previous research has typically examined these differences in terms of developmental and/or social factors, little research has considered the possible impact of neuropsychological development on the behavioural understanding of emotions. Emotion processing tends to be lateralised to the right hemisphere of the brain in adults, yet this pattern is not as evident in children until around the age of 10 years. In this study 136 children between 5 and 10 years were given both behavioural and neuropsychological tests of emotion processing. The behavioural task examined expression regulation knowledge (ERK) for prosocial and self-presentational hypothetical interactions. The chimeric faces test was given as a measure of lateralisation for processing positive facial emotion. An interaction between age and lateralisation for emotion processing was predictive of children's ERK for only the self-presentational interactions. The relationships between children's ERK and lateralisation for emotion processing changes across the three age groups, emerging as a positive relationship in the 10-year-olds. The 10-years-olds who were more lateralised to the right hemisphere for emotion processing tended to show greater understanding of the need for regulating negative emotions during interactions that would have a self-presentational motivation. This finding suggests an association between the behavioural and neuropsychological development of emotion processing.

  14. Case-based knowledge and ethics education: improving learning and transfer through emotionally rich cases.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Chase E; Connelly, Shane; Harkrider, Lauren; Devenport, Lynn D; Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Johnson, James F; Mumford, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    Case-based instruction is a stable feature of ethics education, however, little is known about the attributes of the cases that make them effective. Emotions are an inherent part of ethical decision-making and one source of information actively stored in case-based knowledge, making them an attribute of cases that likely facilitates case-based learning. Emotions also make cases more realistic, an essential component for effective case-based instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of emotional case content, and complementary socio-relational case content, on case-based knowledge acquisition and transfer on future ethical decision-making tasks. Study findings suggest that emotional case content stimulates retention of cases and facilitates transfer of ethical decision-making principles demonstrated in cases.

  15. Perceiving emotions in neutral faces: expression processing is biased by affective person knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Rabovsky, Milena; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-01-01

    According to a widely held view, basic emotions such as happiness or anger are reflected in facial expressions that are invariant and uniquely defined by specific facial muscle movements. Accordingly, expression perception should not be vulnerable to influences outside the face. Here, we test this assumption by manipulating the emotional valence of biographical knowledge associated with individual persons. Faces of well-known and initially unfamiliar persons displaying neutral expressions were associated with socially relevant negative, positive or comparatively neutral biographical information. The expressions of faces associated with negative information were classified as more negative than faces associated with neutral information. Event-related brain potential modulations in the early posterior negativity, a component taken to reflect early sensory processing of affective stimuli such as emotional facial expressions, suggest that negative affective knowledge can bias the perception of faces with neutral expressions toward subjectively displaying negative emotions. PMID:24948155

  16. Forewarning of a Threat and Prior Knowledge of Outcome: Effects on Children's Emotional Responses to a Film Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffner, Cynthia; Cantor, Joanne

    1990-01-01

    Examines the influence of prior information on children's emotional responses to a frightening program. Finds that forewarning of the threat increased anticipatory fear but did not affect emotional responses, and that prior knowledge of the happy outcome reduced anticipatory fear but had an inconsistent effect on fear during the threatening scene.…

  17. Constructing three emotion knowledge tests from the invariant measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Ana R; Prieto, Gerardo; Burin, Debora I

    2017-01-01

    Psychological constructionist models like the Conceptual Act Theory (CAT) postulate that complex states such as emotions are composed of basic psychological ingredients that are more clearly respected by the brain than basic emotions. The objective of this study was the construction and initial validation of Emotion Knowledge measures from the CAT frame by means of an invariant measurement approach, the Rasch Model (RM). Psychological distance theory was used to inform item generation. Three EK tests-emotion vocabulary (EV), close emotional situations (CES) and far emotional situations (FES)-were constructed and tested with the RM in a community sample of 100 females and 100 males (age range: 18-65), both separately and conjointly. It was corroborated that data-RM fit was sufficient. Then, the effect of type of test and emotion on Rasch-modelled item difficulty was tested. Significant effects of emotion on EK item difficulty were found, but the only statistically significant difference was that between "happiness" and the remaining emotions; neither type of test, nor interaction effects on EK item difficulty were statistically significant. The testing of gender differences was carried out after corroborating that differential item functioning (DIF) would not be a plausible alternative hypothesis for the results. No statistically significant sex-related differences were found out in EV, CES, FES, or total EK. However, the sign of d indicate that female participants were consistently better than male ones, a result that will be of interest for future meta-analyses. The three EK tests are ready to be used as components of a higher-level measurement process.

  18. Emotion regulation meets emotional attention: the influence of emotion suppression on emotional attention depends on the nature of the distracters.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Julia; De Houwer, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence has suggested a crucial role of people's current goals in attention to emotional information. This asks for research investigating how and what kinds of goals shape emotional attention. The present study investigated how the goal to suppress a negative emotional state influences attention to emotion-congruent events. After inducing disgust, we instructed participants to suppress all feelings of disgust during a subsequent dot probe task. Attention to disgusting images was modulated by the sort of distracter that was presented in parallel with disgusting imagery. When disgusting images were presented together with neutral images, emotion suppression was accompanied by a tendency to attend to disgusting images. However, when disgusting images were shown with positive images that allow coping with disgust (i.e., images representing cleanliness), attention tended away from disgusting images and toward images representing cleanliness. These findings show that emotion suppression influences the allocation of attention but that the successful avoidance of emotion-congruent events depends on the availability of effective distracters.

  19. Embodied emotion: the influence of manipulated facial and bodily states on emotive responses.

    PubMed

    Price, Tom F; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that certain facial expressions and postures are associated with emotional and motivational responses. This review discusses behavioral, neuroscientific, and cognitive research connecting these bodily movements with emotive responses. General bodily feedback theories of emotion have suggested that manipulated facial expressions and postures influence emotive reactions to stimuli as well as physiological responses such as heart rate, skin conductance, and the temperature of blood entering the brain. More recent evidence suggests that manipulated bodily states influence prefrontal cortical activation and amygdala activation. Even further evidence has suggested that manipulated bodily states influence cognitive processes, such as the speed at which individuals read emotional content, the speed at which they classify information as emotional, and the extent to which they determine emotional information as threatening. Bodily feedback theories may also suggest clinical applications. Bodily feedback theories of emotion therefore have generated research showing that bodily expressions play a pivotal role in our emotive experiences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Jekyll and Hyde of emotional intelligence: emotion-regulation knowledge facilitates both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior.

    PubMed

    Côté, Stéphane; Decelles, Katherine A; McCarthy, Julie M; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Hideg, Ivona

    2011-08-01

    Does emotional intelligence promote behavior that strictly benefits the greater good, or can it also advance interpersonal deviance? In the investigation reported here, we tested the possibility that a core facet of emotional intelligence--emotion-regulation knowledge--can promote both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior. Drawing from research on how the effective regulation of emotion promotes goal achievement, we predicted that emotion-regulation knowledge would strengthen the effects of other-oriented and self-oriented personality traits on prosocial behavior and interpersonal deviance, respectively. Two studies supported our predictions. Among individuals with higher emotion-regulation knowledge, moral identity exhibited a stronger positive association with prosocial behavior in a social dilemma (Study 1), and Machiavellianism exhibited a stronger positive association with interpersonal deviance in the workplace (Study 2). Thus, emotion-regulation knowledge has a positive side and a dark side.

  1. Irony comprehension: social conceptual knowledge and emotional response.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yoritaka; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Miyazawa, Shiho; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-04-01

    Verbal irony conveys various emotional messages, from criticism to humor, that differ from the meaning of the actual words. To understand irony, we need conceptual knowledge of irony in addition to an understanding of context. We investigated the neural mechanism of irony comprehension, focusing on two overlooked issues: conceptual knowledge and emotional response. We studied 35 healthy subjects who underwent functional MRI. During the scan, the subject examined first-person-view stories describing verbal interactions, some of which included irony directed toward the subject. After MRI, the subject viewed the stories again and rated the degree of irony, humor, and negative emotion evoked by the statements. We identified several key findings about irony comprehension: (1) the right anterior superior temporal gyrus may be responsible for representing social conceptual knowledge of irony, (2) activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior inferior temporal gyrus might underlie the understanding of context, (3) modulation of activity in the right amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus is associated with the degree of irony perceived, and (4) modulation of activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex varies with the degree of humor perceived. Our results clarified the differential contributions of the neural loci of irony comprehension, enriching our understanding of pragmatic language communication from a social behavior point of view.

  2. "I Know How You Feel": Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge Contributes to Early School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Brown, Chavaughn; Way, Erin; Steed, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Differences in emotion knowledge by children's age, gender, and socioeconomic risk status, as well as associations of emotion knowledge with executive control, social competence, and early classroom adjustment, were investigated. On emotion knowledge, 4- and 5-year-olds scored higher than 3-year-olds, with girls showing this effect more strongly.…

  3. "I Know How You Feel": Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge Contributes to Early School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Brown, Chavaughn; Way, Erin; Steed, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Differences in emotion knowledge by children's age, gender, and socioeconomic risk status, as well as associations of emotion knowledge with executive control, social competence, and early classroom adjustment, were investigated. On emotion knowledge, 4- and 5-year-olds scored higher than 3-year-olds, with girls showing this effect more strongly.…

  4. Questioning as a Component of Scaffolding in Predicting Emotion Knowledge in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Craig S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    The following study expands Denham and Auerbach's (1995, "Mother-child dialogue about emotions and preschoolers' emotional competence." "Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs," 121, 313-337) findings, demonstrating a link between mothers' talk about emotions and preschoolers' knowledge of emotions. We investigate the maternal language…

  5. Questioning as a Component of Scaffolding in Predicting Emotion Knowledge in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Craig S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    The following study expands Denham and Auerbach's (1995, "Mother-child dialogue about emotions and preschoolers' emotional competence." "Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs," 121, 313-337) findings, demonstrating a link between mothers' talk about emotions and preschoolers' knowledge of emotions. We investigate the maternal language…

  6. Facial Mimicry and Emotion Consistency: Influences of Memory and Context

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Alexander J.; Hayes, Amy E.; Pawling, Ralph; Tipper, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether mimicry of facial emotions is a stable response or can instead be modulated and influenced by memory of the context in which the emotion was initially observed, and therefore the meaning of the expression. The study manipulated emotion consistency implicitly, where a face expressing smiles or frowns was irrelevant and to be ignored while participants categorised target scenes. Some face identities always expressed emotions consistent with the scene (e.g., smiling with a positive scene), whilst others were always inconsistent (e.g., frowning with a positive scene). During this implicit learning of face identity and emotion consistency there was evidence for encoding of face-scene emotion consistency, with slower RTs, a reduction in trust, and inhibited facial EMG for faces expressing incompatible emotions. However, in a later task where the faces were subsequently viewed expressing emotions with no additional context, there was no evidence for retrieval of prior emotion consistency, as mimicry of emotion was similar for consistent and inconsistent individuals. We conclude that facial mimicry can be influenced by current emotion context, but there is little evidence of learning, as subsequent mimicry of emotionally consistent and inconsistent faces is similar. PMID:26698864

  7. The influence of in-game emotions on basketball performance.

    PubMed

    Uphill, Mark; Groom, Ryan; Jones, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of emotions on performance in basketball. Six female basketball players were videotaped in six games. Frequency of performance behaviours was recorded minute-by-minute and indices of successful (SGI) and unsuccessful (UGI) game involvement derived for each player. Post-game, players reported the intensity of experienced emotions (anger, anxiety, embarrassment, excitement and happiness), and the time of the eliciting incident. The only emotion revealed as a significant predictor of SGI was happiness; both anger and embarrassment were significant predictors of increased UGI. Consideration of individual player analyses suggests that there is variation in the magnitude of the influence of emotions on performance and the extent to which this influence was helpful or harmful to performance. The study provides evidence that emotions are associated with changes in game behaviours in competition. Implications for further research examining the emotion-performance relationship are discussed.

  8. Perceiving emotions in neutral faces: expression processing is biased by affective person knowledge.

    PubMed

    Suess, Franziska; Rabovsky, Milena; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    According to a widely held view, basic emotions such as happiness or anger are reflected in facial expressions that are invariant and uniquely defined by specific facial muscle movements. Accordingly, expression perception should not be vulnerable to influences outside the face. Here, we test this assumption by manipulating the emotional valence of biographical knowledge associated with individual persons. Faces of well-known and initially unfamiliar persons displaying neutral expressions were associated with socially relevant negative, positive or comparatively neutral biographical information. The expressions of faces associated with negative information were classified as more negative than faces associated with neutral information. Event-related brain potential modulations in the early posterior negativity, a component taken to reflect early sensory processing of affective stimuli such as emotional facial expressions, suggest that negative affective knowledge can bias the perception of faces with neutral expressions toward subjectively displaying negative emotions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Collective Emotions Online and Their Influence on Community Life

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Thelwall, Mike; Paltoglou, Georgios; Buckley, Kevan; Kappas, Arvid; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2011-01-01

    Background E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information – how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions in turn are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web. However, it is not clear if emotions in e-communities primarily derive from individual group members' personalities or if they result from intra-group interactions, and whether they influence group activities. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, for the first time, we show the collective character of affective phenomena on a large scale as observed in four million posts downloaded from Blogs, Digg and BBC forums. To test whether the emotions of a community member may influence the emotions of others, posts were grouped into clusters of messages with similar emotional valences. The frequency of long clusters was much higher than it would be if emotions occurred at random. Distributions for cluster lengths can be explained by preferential processes because conditional probabilities for consecutive messages grow as a power law with cluster length. For BBC forum threads, average discussion lengths were higher for larger values of absolute average emotional valence in the first ten comments and the average amount of emotion in messages fell during discussions. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results prove that collective emotional states can be created and modulated via Internet communication and that emotional expressiveness is the

  10. Collective emotions online and their influence on community life.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Thelwall, Mike; Paltoglou, Georgios; Buckley, Kevan; Kappas, Arvid; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2011-01-01

    E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information--how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions in turn are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web. However, it is not clear if emotions in e-communities primarily derive from individual group members' personalities or if they result from intra-group interactions, and whether they influence group activities. Here, for the first time, we show the collective character of affective phenomena on a large scale as observed in four million posts downloaded from Blogs, Digg and BBC forums. To test whether the emotions of a community member may influence the emotions of others, posts were grouped into clusters of messages with similar emotional valences. The frequency of long clusters was much higher than it would be if emotions occurred at random. Distributions for cluster lengths can be explained by preferential processes because conditional probabilities for consecutive messages grow as a power law with cluster length. For BBC forum threads, average discussion lengths were higher for larger values of absolute average emotional valence in the first ten comments and the average amount of emotion in messages fell during discussions. Overall, our results prove that collective emotional states can be created and modulated via Internet communication and that emotional expressiveness is the fuel that sustains some e-communities.

  11. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  12. The Relationship of Observed Maternal Behavior to Questionnaire Measures of Parenting Knowledge, Attitudes, and Emotional State in Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeResche, Linda; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Adolescent mothers (n=45) completed questionnaires measuring perception of the newborn (Neonatal Perception Inventory), knowledge of influences on child development (Infant Caregiving Inventory), and emotional state (General Health Questionnaire); they were also systematically observed while interacting with their infants in a naturalistic…

  13. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  14. Theory of Mind Predicts Emotion Knowledge Development in Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenfeld, Adina M.; Johnson, Stacy R.; Cavadel, Elizabeth Woodburn; Izard, Carroll E.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Emotion knowledge (EK) enables children to identify emotions in themselves and others, and its development facilitates emotion recognition in complex social situations. Sociocognitive processes, such as theory of mind (ToM), may contribute to developing EK by helping children realize the inherent variability associated with…

  15. Does Emotional Arousal Influence Swearing Fluency?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Richard; Zile, Amy

    2017-01-16

    This study assessed the effect of experimentally manipulated emotional arousal on swearing fluency. We hypothesised that swear word generation would be increased with raised emotional arousal. The emotional arousal of 60 participants was manipulated by having them play a first-person shooter video game or, as a control, a golf video game, in a randomised order. A behavioural measure of swearing fluency based on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was employed. Successful experimental manipulation was indicated by raised State Hostility Questionnaire scores after playing the shooter game. Swearing fluency was significantly greater after playing the shooter game compared with the golf game. Validity of the swearing fluency task was demonstrated via positive correlations with self-reported swearing fluency and daily swearing frequency. In certain instances swearing may represent a form of emotional expression. This finding will inform debates around the acceptability of using taboo language.

  16. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  17. Socialization of emotion: who influences whom and how?

    PubMed

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Emotion socialization begins within the family setting and extends outward as children transition into expanded social worlds. Children contribute to their socialization from the first years of life, so the dynamics between parents and children are reciprocal in nature. Because socialization influences are best inferred from patterns that unfold over time, longitudinal research can help to untangle these processes. Laboratory observations of emotion exchanges and discussions or experimental manipulations of environmental processes also provide valuable information about causal influences and direction of effects. Parents and children must be studied within the same research designs to understand emotion socialization.

  18. Preschool Interpersonal Relationships Predict Kindergarten Achievement: Mediated by Gains in Emotion Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Torres, Marcela M; Domitrovich, Celene E; Bierman, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, this study tested a model in which preschool interpersonal relationships promoted kindergarten achievement in a pathway mediated by growth in emotion knowledge. The sample included 164 children attending Head Start (14% Hispanic-American, 30% African-American, 56% Caucasian; 56% girls). Preschool interpersonal relationships were indexed by student-teacher relationship closeness and positive peer interactions. Two measures of emotion knowledge (identifying emotions in photographs, recognizing emotions in stories) were assessed at the start and end of the preschool year. Structural equation models revealed that positive interpersonal relationships (with teachers and peers) predicted gains in emotion knowledge (identification, recognition) during the preschool year. Positive interpersonal relationships in preschool also predicted kindergarten achievement (controlling for initial preschool achievement); however, this association was mediated by gains in emotion knowledge during the preschool year. Implications are discussed for school readiness programs serving economically-disadvantaged children.

  19. Self-Regulation, Language Skills, and Emotion Knowledge in Young Children from Northern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…

  20. Transforming Environmental Knowledge into Behavior: The Mediating Role of Environmental Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmi, Nurit; Arnon, Sara; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was based on the premise that environmental knowledge can drive environmental behavior only if it arouses environmental emotions. Using a structural equations modeling approach, we tested the direct, as well as the indirect (mediated) effects of knowledge on behavior and assessed the mediating role of environmental emotions. We…

  1. Self-Regulation, Language Skills, and Emotion Knowledge in Young Children from Northern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…

  2. Emotion Knowledge, Social Competence, and Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Fine, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    The present meta-analytic review examined the magnitude of the relation between discrete emotion knowledge and three of its most commonly studied correlates in childhood and adolescence: social competence, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Emotion knowledge demonstrated small to medium-sized relations with each correlate.…

  3. Transforming Environmental Knowledge into Behavior: The Mediating Role of Environmental Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmi, Nurit; Arnon, Sara; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was based on the premise that environmental knowledge can drive environmental behavior only if it arouses environmental emotions. Using a structural equations modeling approach, we tested the direct, as well as the indirect (mediated) effects of knowledge on behavior and assessed the mediating role of environmental emotions. We…

  4. Can emotions influence level-1 visual perspective taking?

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Henryk; Samson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Emotions and perspective-taking are ubiquitous in our daily social interactions, but little is known about the relation between the two. This study examined whether and how emotions can influence even the most basic forms of perspective-taking. Experiment 1 showed that guilt made participants more other-centered in a simple visual perspective-taking task while anger tended to make them more self-centered. These two emotions had, however, no effect on the ability to handle conflicting perspectives. Since the guilt induction method used in Experiment 1 also induced feelings of self-incompetence and shame, Experiment 2 aimed at isolating the effects of these concomitant feelings. Self-incompetence/shame reduced participants' ability to handle conflicting perspectives but did not influence attention allocation. In sum, these results highlight that emotions can affect even the simplest form of perspective-taking and that such influence can be brought about by the modulation of different cognitive mechanisms.

  5. Emotion in Online College Classrooms: Examining the Influence of Perceived Teacher Communication Behaviour on Students' Emotional Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Catherine F.; Young, Stacy L.

    2015-01-01

    This research focused on teacher communication behaviour as an influential factor in students' educational experiences. This study examined students' perceptions of emotion (involving teachers' emotional support, students' emotional work and students' positive emotional valence toward class and teacher) as influenced by a variety of predicting…

  6. Emotion in Online College Classrooms: Examining the Influence of Perceived Teacher Communication Behaviour on Students' Emotional Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Catherine F.; Young, Stacy L.

    2015-01-01

    This research focused on teacher communication behaviour as an influential factor in students' educational experiences. This study examined students' perceptions of emotion (involving teachers' emotional support, students' emotional work and students' positive emotional valence toward class and teacher) as influenced by a variety of predicting…

  7. Influence of emotional processing on working memory in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Karla; Barch, Deanna

    2011-09-01

    Research on emotional processing in schizophrenia suggests relatively intact subjective responses to affective stimuli "in the moment." However, neuroimaging evidence suggests diminished activation in brain regions associated with emotional processing in schizophrenia. We asked whether given a more vulnerable cognitive system in schizophrenia, individuals with this disorder would show increased or decreased modulation of working memory (WM) as a function of the emotional content of stimuli compared with healthy control subjects. In addition, we examined whether higher anhedonia levels were associated with a diminished impact of emotion on behavioral and brain activation responses. In the present study, 38 individuals with schizophrenia and 32 healthy individuals completed blocks of a 2-back WM task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning session. Blocks contained faces displaying either only neutral stimuli or neutral and emotional stimuli (happy or fearful faces), randomly intermixed and occurring both as targets and non-targets. Both groups showed higher accuracy but slower reaction time for negative compared to neutral stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia showed intact amygdala activity in response to emotionally evocative stimuli, but demonstrated altered dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampal activity while performing an emotionally loaded WM-task. Higher levels of social anhedonia were associated with diminished amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and increased DLPFC activity in individuals with schizophrenia. Emotional arousal may challenge dorsal-frontal control systems, which may have both beneficial and detrimental influences. Our findings suggest that disturbances in emotional processing in schizophrenia relate to alterations in emotion-cognition interactions rather than to the perception and subjective experience of emotion per se.

  8. Influence of Emotional Processing on Working Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Karla; Barch, Deanna

    2011-01-01

    Research on emotional processing in schizophrenia suggests relatively intact subjective responses to affective stimuli “in the moment.” However, neuroimaging evidence suggests diminished activation in brain regions associated with emotional processing in schizophrenia. We asked whether given a more vulnerable cognitive system in schizophrenia, individuals with this disorder would show increased or decreased modulation of working memory (WM) as a function of the emotional content of stimuli compared with healthy control subjects. In addition, we examined whether higher anhedonia levels were associated with a diminished impact of emotion on behavioral and brain activation responses. In the present study, 38 individuals with schizophrenia and 32 healthy individuals completed blocks of a 2-back WM task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning session. Blocks contained faces displaying either only neutral stimuli or neutral and emotional stimuli (happy or fearful faces), randomly intermixed and occurring both as targets and non-targets. Both groups showed higher accuracy but slower reaction time for negative compared to neutral stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia showed intact amygdala activity in response to emotionally evocative stimuli, but demonstrated altered dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampal activity while performing an emotionally loaded WM-task. Higher levels of social anhedonia were associated with diminished amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and increased DLPFC activity in individuals with schizophrenia. Emotional arousal may challenge dorsal-frontal control systems, which may have both beneficial and detrimental influences. Our findings suggest that disturbances in emotional processing in schizophrenia relate to alterations in emotion-cognition interactions rather than to the perception and subjective experience of emotion per se. PMID:20176860

  9. Emotions in context: pictorial influences on affective attributions.

    PubMed

    Marian, Diane E; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2012-04-01

    The visual illusion Terror Subterra, by Roger Shepard (1990), depicts a seemingly large creature chasing another in a tunnel, yet both creatures are physically identical. In addition to this visual illusion, the two creatures also appear to exhibit different emotions, as the background creature (the pursuer) appears angry whereas the foreground creature (the pursued) appears fearful. We explored this context effect by first establishing the magnitude of the emotional bias effect. We then modified the original drawing in various ways, such as equating for perceived size, removing one creature from the scene, and removing the pictorial context altogether. Findings suggest that the emotional bias is due to the pictorial setting and to the perceived social-emotional relationship between the two creatures. These results highlight the importance of both perceptual and social-emotional influences in driving affective attributions.

  10. Instrumental music influences recognition of emotional body language.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; Peretz, Isabelle; Grèzes, Julie; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2009-05-01

    In everyday life, emotional events are perceived by multiple sensory systems. Research has shown that recognition of emotions in one modality is biased towards the emotion expressed in a simultaneously presented but task irrelevant modality. In the present study, we combine visual and auditory stimuli that convey similar affective meaning but have a low probability of co-occurrence in everyday life. Dynamic face-blurred whole body expressions of a person grasping an object while expressing happiness or sadness are presented in combination with fragments of happy or sad instrumental classical music. Participants were instructed to categorize the emotion expressed by the visual stimulus. The results show that recognition of body language is influenced by the auditory stimuli. These findings indicate that crossmodal influences as previously observed for audiovisual speech can also be obtained from the ignored auditory to the attended visual modality in audiovisual stimuli that consist of whole bodies and music.

  11. The Seeds of Mobilization: Emotional Frames and Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    influencing foreign populations. Arguably, this necessity is even more pressing when applied to unconventional warfare campaigns where the goal is both...MOBILIZATION: EMOTIONAL FRAMES AND INFLUENCE by Benjamin L. Tipton March 2013 Thesis Advisor: Hy Rothstein Second Reader: Doowan Lee THIS...

  12. When action meets emotions: how facial displays of emotion influence goal-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Francesca; Stoianov, Ivilin Peev; Gianelli, Claudia; D'Amico, Luigi; Borghi, Anna M; Gallese, Vittorio

    2010-10-01

    Many authors have proposed that facial expressions, by conveying emotional states of the person we are interacting with, influence the interaction behavior. We aimed at verifying how specific the effect is of the facial expressions of emotions of an individual (both their valence and relevance/specificity for the purpose of the action) with respect to how the action aimed at the same individual is executed. In addition, we investigated whether and how the effects of emotions on action execution are modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. We used a kinematic approach to analyze the simulation of feeding others, which consisted of recording the "feeding trajectory" by using a computer mouse. Actors could express different highly arousing emotions, namely happiness, disgust, anger, or a neutral expression. Response time was sensitive to the interaction between valence and relevance/specificity of emotion: disgust caused faster response. In addition, happiness induced slower feeding time and longer time to peak velocity, but only in blocks where it alternated with expressions of disgust. The kinematic profiles described how the effect of the specificity of the emotional context for feeding, namely a modulation of accuracy requirements, occurs. An early acceleration in kinematic relative-to-neutral feeding profiles occurred when actors expressed positive emotions (happiness) in blocks with specific-to-feeding negative emotions (disgust). On the other hand, the end-part of the action was slower when feeding happy with respect to neutral faces, confirming the increase of accuracy requirements and motor control. These kinematic effects were modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. In conclusion, the social dimension of emotions, that is, their ability to modulate others' action planning/execution, strictly depends on their relevance and specificity to the purpose of the action. This finding argues against a strict distinction between social and nonsocial

  13. Construct Validity of the Emotion Matching Task: Preliminary Evidence for Convergent and Criterion Validity of a New Emotion Knowledge Measure for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Judith K.; Izard, Carroll E.; King, Kristen A.

    2010-01-01

    Current emotion knowledge (EK) measures examine only one component of the multifaceted construct. We examined the reliability and the construct validity of a new measure of EK, the emotion matching task (EMT). The EMT consists of four parts which measure the components of receptive EK, expressive EK, emotion situation knowledge, and emotion…

  14. Emotional voice and emotional body postures influence each other independently of visual awareness.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Bernard M C; Tanaka, Akihiro; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Multisensory integration may occur independently of visual attention as previously shown with compound face-voice stimuli. We investigated in two experiments whether the perception of whole body expressions and the perception of voices influence each other when observers are not aware of seeing the bodily expression. In the first experiment participants categorized masked happy and angry bodily expressions while ignoring congruent or incongruent emotional voices. The onset between target and mask varied from -50 to +133 ms. Results show that the congruency between the emotion in the voice and the bodily expressions influences audiovisual perception independently of the visibility of the stimuli. In the second experiment participants categorized the emotional voices combined with masked bodily expressions as fearful or happy. This experiment showed that bodily expressions presented outside visual awareness still influence prosody perception. Our experiments show that audiovisual integration between bodily expressions and affective prosody can take place outside and independent of visual awareness.

  15. Emotional Voice and Emotional Body Postures Influence Each Other Independently of Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Stienen, Bernard M. C.; Tanaka, Akihiro; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Multisensory integration may occur independently of visual attention as previously shown with compound face-voice stimuli. We investigated in two experiments whether the perception of whole body expressions and the perception of voices influence each other when observers are not aware of seeing the bodily expression. In the first experiment participants categorized masked happy and angry bodily expressions while ignoring congruent or incongruent emotional voices. The onset between target and mask varied from −50 to +133 ms. Results show that the congruency between the emotion in the voice and the bodily expressions influences audiovisual perception independently of the visibility of the stimuli. In the second experiment participants categorized the emotional voices combined with masked bodily expressions as fearful or happy. This experiment showed that bodily expressions presented outside visual awareness still influence prosody perception. Our experiments show that audiovisual integration between bodily expressions and affective prosody can take place outside and independent of visual awareness. PMID:22003396

  16. Emotion Framing: Does It Relate to Children's Emotion Knowledge and Social Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Hart, Sybil

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between maternal emotion framing and mother--child relationship quality and children's emotional and social competence. Sixty-one mothers and their preschool children (33 boys) completed dyadic and individual measures. Observations were made of mother--child synchrony and maternal emotion framing. Children's…

  17. Decentralised water systems: emotional influences on resource decision making.

    PubMed

    Mankad, Aditi

    2012-09-01

    The study of emotion has gathered momentum in the field of environmental science, specifically in the context of community resource decision-making. Of particular interest in this review is the potential influence of emotion, risk and threat perception on individuals' decisions to acceptance and adopt decentralised water systems, such as rainwater tanks and greywater systems. The role of message framing is also considered in detail, as well as the influences that different types of framing can have on decision making. These factors are considered as possible predictors for analysing community acceptance of decentralised water in urban environments. Concepts believed to be influenced by emotion, such as trust and framing, are also discussed as potentially meaningful contributors to an overall model of community acceptance of decentralised water. Recommendations are made for how emotion-based concepts, such as risk and threat, can be targeted to facilitate widespread adoption of decentralised systems and how researchers can explore different types of emotions that influence decision making in distinct ways. This review is an important theoretical step in advancing the psycho-social understanding of acceptance and adoption of on-site water sources. Avenues for future research are recommended, including the need for greater theoretical development to encourage future social science research on decentralised systems.

  18. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely "Tension" (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), "Expressiveness" (Expressionless to Expressive), "Amusement" (Boring to Amusing) and "Attractiveness" (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are "Happiness," "Surprise," and "Sadness." This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions.

  19. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Children with ADHD and Depression and Its Relations to Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…

  20. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Children with ADHD and Depression and Its Relations to Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…

  1. Emotional Intelligence, Pain Knowledge, and Attitudes of Nursing Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Research on nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes is limited. Although emotions play a role in pain assessment, no study has examined the associations between emotional intelligence and pain knowledge and the attitudes of nursing students. This cross-sectional quantitative study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Hong Kong and examining associations between emotional intelligence and the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students. A total of 104 postgraduate nursing students (45 Year 1 students and 59 Year 3 students) completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, chi-square test and t-tests. The pain knowledge and attitudes of both Year 1 students (M = 20.40, SD = 3.78) and Year 3 students (M = 21.36, SD = 3.15) were suboptimal, t(102) = -1.41, p = .16. Year 1 students had higher emotional intelligence (M = 122.44, SD = 8.90) than Year 3 students (M = 117.71, SD = 14.34), t(98.35) = 2.07, p = .04. For Year 1 students, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with pain knowledge and attitudes, but the correlation was not significant (r = -.15, p = .33). For Year 3 students, emotional intelligence, pain knowledge and attitudes were negatively correlated, but the correlation was significant (r = -.31, p = .02). These results suggest that nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes could be improved. Implications for nurse educators to enhance emotional intelligence and pain education for nursing students are discussed.

  2. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Empathy: Their Relation to Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Gainor, Kathy A.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the relationship among school counselors' emotional intelligence, empathy, and self-reported multicultural counseling knowledge and awareness. Findings revealed that school counselors' previous multicultural education, emotional intelligence scores, and personal distress empathy scores accounted for significant variance in their…

  4. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  5. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  6. The Case for Emotional Literacy: The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Problem Behaviours in Malaysian Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liau, Albert K.; Liau, Agnes W.; Teoh, George B. S.; Liau, Michael T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Identifies a renaissance in civics and moral education in the Asia-Pacific region. Discusses the need to incorporate emotional literacy in these programs and analyze the influence of emotional literacy on problem behaviors in Malaysian secondary school students. Links results of emotional literacy to internalizing and externalizing problem…

  7. MET and AKT Genetic Influence on Facial Emotion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chieh-Liang; Huang, Yu-Jhen; Tsai, Guochuan E.; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background Facial emotion perception is a major social skill, but its molecular signal pathway remains unclear. The MET/AKT cascade affects neurodevelopment in general populations and face recognition in patients with autism. This study explores the possible role of MET/AKT cascade in facial emotion perception. Methods One hundred and eighty two unrelated healthy volunteers (82 men and 100 women) were recruited. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of MET (rs2237717, rs41735, rs42336, and rs1858830) and AKT rs1130233 were genotyped and tested for their effects on facial emotion perception. Facial emotion perception was assessed by the face task of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Thorough neurocognitive functions were also assessed. Results Regarding MET rs2237717, individuals with the CT genotype performed better in facial emotion perception than those with TT (p = 0.016 by ANOVA, 0.018 by general linear regression model [GLM] to control for age, gender, and education duration), and showed no difference with those with CC. Carriers with the most common MET CGA haplotype (frequency = 50.5%) performed better than non-carriers of CGA in facial emotion perception (p = 0.018, df = 1, F = 5.69, p = 0.009 by GLM). In MET rs2237717/AKT rs1130233 interaction, the C carrier/G carrier group showed better facial emotion perception than those with the TT/AA genotype (p = 0.035 by ANOVA, 0.015 by GLM), even when neurocognitive functions were controlled (p = 0.046 by GLM). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that genetic factors can affect performance of facial emotion perception. The findings indicate that MET variances and MET/AKT interaction may affect facial emotion perception, implicating that the MET/AKT cascade plays a significant role in facial emotion perception. Further replication studies are needed. PMID:22558359

  8. The Influence of Emotion on Students' Performance in Dissection Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstermann, Nina; Grube, Dietmar; Bogeholz, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of how emotions such as disgust influence students' self-efficacy belief in terms of mastering a dissection task and also how these affect their interest in the biology of the heart. Following models of intrinsic motivation and the development of motivation, we expected disgust to negatively impact on students'…

  9. Socialization of Emotion: Who Influences Whom and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Emotion socialization begins within the family setting and extends outward as children transition into expanded social worlds. Children contribute to their socialization from the first years of life, so the dynamics between parents and children are reciprocal in nature. Because socialization influences are best inferred from patterns that unfold…

  10. Socialization of Emotion: Who Influences Whom and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Emotion socialization begins within the family setting and extends outward as children transition into expanded social worlds. Children contribute to their socialization from the first years of life, so the dynamics between parents and children are reciprocal in nature. Because socialization influences are best inferred from patterns that unfold…

  11. The Influence of Emotion on Students' Performance in Dissection Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstermann, Nina; Grube, Dietmar; Bogeholz, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of how emotions such as disgust influence students' self-efficacy belief in terms of mastering a dissection task and also how these affect their interest in the biology of the heart. Following models of intrinsic motivation and the development of motivation, we expected disgust to negatively impact on students'…

  12. Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stewart C; Garner, David Kirkland; Somoroff, Matthew; Gramling, David J; Norton, Sally A; Gramling, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Being able to identify expressions of emotion is crucial to effective clinical communication research. However, traditional linguistic coding systems often cannot represent emotions that are expressed nonlexically or phonologically (i.e., not through words themselves but through vocal pitch, speed/rhythm/tempo, and volume). Using audio recording of a palliative care consultation in the natural hospital setting, two experienced music scholars employed Western musical notation, as well as the graphic realization of a digital audio program (Piano roll visualization), to visually represent the sonic features of conversation where a patient has an emotional "choke" moment. Western musical notation showed the ways that changes in pitch and rate correspond to the patient's emotion: rising sharply in intensity before slowly fading away. Piano roll visualization is a helpful supplement. Using musical notation to illustrate palliative care conversations in the hospital setting can render visible for analysis several aspects of emotional expression that researchers otherwise experience as intuitive or subjective. Various forms and formats of musical notation techniques and sonic visualization technologies should be considered as fruitful and complementary alternatives to traditional coding tools in clinical communications research. Musical notation offers opportunity for both researchers and learners to "see" how communication evolves in clinical encounters, particularly where the lexical and phonological features of interpersonal communication are concordant and discordant with one another. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Eduard T; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12-17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a "proself" orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than "prosocial" participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction.

  14. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12–17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a “proself” orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than “prosocial” participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction. PMID:24282399

  15. Emotion-based preventive intervention: Effectively promoting emotion knowledge and adaptive behavior among at-risk preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    FINLON, KRISTY J.; IZARD, CARROLL E.; SEIDENFELD, ADINA; JOHNSON, STACY R.; CAVADEL, ELIZABETH WOODBURN; KRAUTHAMER EWING, E. STEPHANIE; MORGAN, JUDITH K.

    2015-01-01

    Effectiveness studies of preschool social–emotional programs are needed in low-income, diverse populations to help promote the well-being of at-risk children. Following an initial program efficacy study 2 years prior, 248 culturally diverse Head Start preschool children participated in the current effectiveness trial and received either the Emotion-Based Prevention Program (EBP) or the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) intervention. Pre- and postdata collection included direct child assessment, teacher report, parent interview, and independent observations. Teachers implementing the EBP intervention demonstrated good and consistent fidelity to the program. Overall, children in EBP classrooms gained more emotion knowledge and displayed greater decreases in negative emotion expressions and internalizing behaviors across the implementation period as compared to children in ICPS classrooms. In addition, cumulative risk, parental depressive symptoms, and classroom climate significantly moderated treatment effects. For children experiencing more stress or less support, EBP produced more successful outcomes than did ICPS. These results provide evidence of EBP sustainability and program effectiveness, as did previous findings that demonstrated EBP improvements in emotion knowledge, regulation skills, and behavior problems replicated under unsupervised program conditions. PMID:26439080

  16. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Matthias J; Gerdes, Antje B M; Reicherts, Philipp; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not - or only partly - affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e., facial expressions of pain). Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing.

  17. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Matthias J.; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not – or only partly – affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e., facial expressions of pain). Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing. PMID:25352817

  18. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Military Leader Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    emotional control and impression management), and a variety of other skills (e.g., cultural intelligence, conflict management, listening skills). We also...Hanson et al. also described four potential goals of leader influence: (1) to change a target’s behavior, (2) to impact a target’s emotional state... emotions to get others to comply with a request, and (3) supplication, which involves the demonstration of vulnerability and sadness to elicit

  19. An attentional theory of emotional influences on risky decisions.

    PubMed

    Levine, Daniel S; Ramirez, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that choices between gambles can depend not only on the probabilities of gains or losses but also on the emotional richness of the items to be gained or lost. Rottenstreich and Hsee (2001) demonstrated that overweighting of low probabilities is magnified if the possible events are emotionally rich, such as a kiss versus an amount of money. Ramirez (2010) showed that persistence in the face of comparable numerically presented losses is greater when the scenario involves taking care of a pet (emotionally richer) versus a business (emotionally poorer). Much of this phenomenon is captured in a neural network model of the Rottenstreich-Hsee data (Levine, 2012). The model is based on interactions among the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, cingulate, striatum, thalamus, and premotor cortex that implement categorization of multiattribute vectors representing choice options, in a manner consistent with the gists of fuzzy trace theory. Before categorization, the vectors are weighted by selective attention to attributes that are either emotionally salient or task relevant, with increasing emotional arousal shifting the attentional weights away from numerical attributes such as precise probabilities. This interpretation is supported by the data of Hsee and Rottenstreich (2004) showing that how much participants would pay to save endangered animals is not influenced by the number to be saved if they see pictures but is influenced by the number if they are given verbal descriptions. The theory suggests a few open questions. How are the selective attentional signals represented in the interactions between prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas? Would the salience of numerical attributes still be reduced with high arousal in highly numerate participants? Would the differences between the pet and business scenarios be altered if the positive or negative feedback participants received were shown via pictures rather than numbers?

  20. Emotional influences on food choice: sensory, physiological and psychological pathways.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Edward Leigh

    2006-08-30

    Sensory, physiological and psychological mechanisms are reviewed that underlie emotional influences on food choice. Both moods and emotions are considered. Eating a meal will reliably alter mood and emotional predisposition, typically reducing arousal and irritability, and increasing calmness and positive affect. However, this depends on the meal size and composition being close to the eater's habit, expectations and needs. Unusual meals--e.g. too small, unhealthy--may negatively affect mood. Sweetness, and sensory cues to high energy density, such as fatty texture, can improve mood and mitigate effects of stress via brain opioidergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, adaptation in these pathways, perhaps enhanced by inherited sensitivity, with chronic exposure to such sensory qualities, could lead to overeating of energy-dense foods and consequent obesity. Sweet, fatty foods low in protein may also provide alleviation from stress in vulnerable people via enhanced function of the serotonergic system. Moreover, in rats, such foods seem to act as part of a feedback loop, via release of glucocorticoid hormones and insulin, to restrain activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis during stress. However, this effect is also associated with abdominal obesity. In humans, a number of psychological characteristics predict the tendency to choose such foods when stressed, such as restrained or emotional eating, neuroticism, depression and premenstrual dysphoria, all of which could indicate neurophysiological sensitivity to reinforcing effects of such foods. Greater understanding of such predictive traits and the underlying mechanisms could lead to tailoring of diet to meet personal emotional needs.

  1. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    PubMed Central

    Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring

  2. Aesthetic meanings and aesthetic emotions: how historical and intentional knowledge expand aesthetic experience.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    This comment proposes that Bullot & Reber's (B&R's) emphasis on historical and intentional knowledge expands the range of emotions that can be properly viewed as aesthetic states. Many feelings, such as anger, contempt, shame, confusion, and pride, come about through complex aesthetic meanings, which integrate conceptual knowledge, beliefs about the work and the artist's intentions, and the perceiver's goals and values.

  3. Emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and psychosocial adjustment in children with nonverbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Metsala, Jamie L; Galway, Tanya M; Ishaik, Galit; Barton, Veronica E

    2017-07-01

    Nonverbal learning disability is a childhood disorder with basic neuropsychological deficits in visuospatial processing and psychomotor coordination, and secondary impairments in academic and social-emotional functioning. This study examines emotion recognition, understanding, and regulation in a clinic-referred group of young children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). These processes have been shown to be related to social competence and psychological adjustment in typically developing (TD) children. Psychosocial adjustment and social skills are also examined for this young group, and for a clinic-referred group of older children with NLD. The young children with NLD scored lower than the TD comparison group on tasks assessing recognition of happy and sad facial expressions and tasks assessing understanding of how emotions work. Children with NLD were also rated as having less adaptive regulation of their emotions. For both young and older children with NLD, internalizing and externalizing problem scales were rated higher than for the TD comparison groups, and the means of the internalizing, attention, and social problem scales were found to fall within clinically concerning ranges. Measures of attention and nonverbal intelligence did not account for the relationship between NLD and Social Problems. Social skills and NLD membership share mostly overlapping variance in accounting for internalizing problems across the sample. The results are discussed within a framework wherein social cognitive deficits, including emotion processes, have a negative impact on social competence, leading to clinically concerning levels of depression and withdrawal in this population.

  4. Bringing color to emotion: The influence of color on attentional bias to briefly presented emotional images.

    PubMed

    Bekhtereva, Valeria; Müller, Matthias M

    2017-07-11

    Is color a critical feature in emotional content extraction and involuntary attentional orienting toward affective stimuli? Here we used briefly presented emotional distractors to investigate the extent to which color information can influence the time course of attentional bias in early visual cortex. While participants performed a demanding visual foreground task, complex unpleasant and neutral background images were displayed in color or grayscale format for a short period of 133 ms and were immediately masked. Such a short presentation poses a challenge for visual processing. In the visual detection task, participants attended to flickering squares that elicited the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), allowing us to analyze the temporal dynamics of the competition for processing resources in early visual cortex. Concurrently we measured the visual event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by the unpleasant and neutral background scenes. The results showed (a) that the distraction effect was greater with color than with grayscale images and (b) that it lasted longer with colored unpleasant distractor images. Furthermore, classical and mass-univariate ERP analyses indicated that, when presented in color, emotional scenes elicited more pronounced early negativities (N1-EPN) relative to neutral scenes, than when the scenes were presented in grayscale. Consistent with neural data, unpleasant scenes were rated as being more emotionally negative and received slightly higher arousal values when they were shown in color than when they were presented in grayscale. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the modulatory role of picture color on a cascade of coordinated perceptual processes: by facilitating the higher-level extraction of emotional content, color influences the duration of the attentional bias to briefly presented affective scenes in lower-tier visual areas.

  5. Eye movement monitoring reveals differential influences of emotion on memory.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; Anderson, Adam K; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that memory for emotional aspects of an event may be enhanced at the cost of impaired memory for surrounding peripheral details. However, this has only been assessed directly via verbal reports which reveal the outcome of a long stream of processing but cannot shed light on how/when emotion may affect the retrieval process. In the present experiment, eye movement monitoring (EMM) was used as an indirect measure of memory as it can reveal aspects of online memory processing. For example, do emotions modulate the nature of memory representations or the speed with which such memories can be accessed? Participants viewed central negative and neutral scenes surrounded by three neutral objects and after a brief delay, memory was assessed indirectly via EMM and then directly via verbal reports. Consistent with the previous literature, emotion enhanced central and impaired peripheral memory as indexed by eye movement scanning and verbal reports. This suggests that eye movement scanning may contribute and/or is related to conscious access of memory. However, the central/peripheral tradeoff effect was not observed in an early measure of eye movement behavior, i.e., participants were faster to orient to a critical region of change in the periphery irrespective of whether it was previously studied in a negative or neutral context. These findings demonstrate emotion's differential influences on different aspects of retrieval. In particular, emotion appears to affect the detail within, and/or the evaluation of, stored memory representations, but it may not affect the initial access to those representations.

  6. Emotion Knowledge and Attentional Differences in Preschoolers Showing Context-Inappropriate Anger.

    PubMed

    Locke, Robin L; Lang, Nichole J

    2016-08-01

    Some children show anger inappropriate for the situation based on the predominant incentives, which is called context-inappropriate anger. Children need to attend to and interpret situational incentives for appropriate emotional responses. We examined associations of context-inappropriate anger with emotion recognition and attention problems in 43 preschoolers (42% male; M age = 55.1 months, SD = 4.1). Parents rated context-inappropriate anger across situations. Teachers rated attention problems using the Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher Report Form. Emotion recognition was ability to recognize emotional faces using the Emotion Matching Test. Anger perception bias was indicated by anger to non-anger situations using an adapted Affect Knowledge Test. 28% of children showed context-inappropriate anger, which correlated with lower emotion recognition (β = -.28) and higher attention problems (β = .36). Higher attention problems correlated with more anger perception bias (β = .32). This cross-sectional, correlational study provides preliminary findings that children with context-inappropriate anger showed more attention problems, which suggests that both "problems" tend to covary and associate with deficits or biases in emotion knowledge.

  7. Effects of Emotional and Sensorimotor Knowledge in Semantic Processing of Concrete and Abstract Nouns

    PubMed Central

    Newcombe, P. Ian; Campbell, Cale; Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2012-01-01

    There is much empirical evidence that words’ relative imageability and body-object interaction (BOI) facilitate lexical processing for concrete nouns (e.g., Bennett et al., 2011). These findings are consistent with a grounded cognition framework (e.g., Barsalou, 2008), in which sensorimotor knowledge is integral to lexical processing. In the present study, we examined whether lexical processing is also sensitive to the dimension of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotional experience), which is also derived from a grounded cognition framework. We examined the effects of emotional experience, imageability, and BOI in semantic categorization for concrete and abstract nouns. Our results indicate that for concrete nouns, emotional experience was associated with less accurate categorization, whereas imageability and BOI were associated with faster and more accurate categorization. For abstract nouns, emotional experience was associated with faster and more accurate categorization, whereas BOI was associated with slower and less accurate categorization. This pattern of results was observed even with many other lexical and semantic dimensions statistically controlled. These findings are consistent with Vigliocco et al.’s (2009) theory of semantic representation, which states that emotional knowledge underlies meanings for abstract concepts, whereas sensorimotor knowledge underlies meanings for concrete concepts. PMID:23060778

  8. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely “Tension” (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), “Expressiveness” (Expressionless to Expressive), “Amusement” (Boring to Amusing) and “Attractiveness” (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are “Happiness,” “Surprise,” and “Sadness.” This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions. PMID:27536232

  9. Islamic Headdress Influences How Emotion is Recognized from the Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska Esther; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a negative bias in the perception of whole facial expressions from out-group members. Whether or not emotion recognition from the eyes is already sensitive to contextual information is presently a matter of debate. In three experiments we tested whether emotions can be recognized when just the eyes are visible and whether this recognition is affected by context cues, such as various Islamic headdresses vs. a cap or a scarf. Our results indicate that fear is still well recognized from a briefly flashed (100 ms) image of a women wearing a burqa with less than 20% transparency of the eye region. Moreover, the type of headdress influences how emotions are recognized. In a group of participants from non-Islamic background, fear was recognized better from women wearing a niqāb than from women wearing a cap and a shawl, whereas the opposite was observed for happy and sad expressions. The response patterns showed that fearful and anger labels were more often attributed to women with a niqāb vs. a cap and a shawl and again, an opposite pattern was observed for the happy response. However, there was no general response bias: both correct and incorrect responses were influenced by the facial expression as well. Anxiety levels and/or explicit negative associations with the Islam as measured via questionnaires did not mediate the effects. Consistent with the face literature, we conclude that the recognition of emotions from the eyes is also influenced by context. PMID:22557983

  10. Influence of cosmetics on emotional, autonomous, endocrinological, and immune reactions.

    PubMed

    Pössel, P; Ahrens, S; Hautzinger, M

    2005-12-01

    Recent findings indicate that cosmetics increase positive valence of emotions and thereby influence the autonomous nerve system. Other studies showed the effects of emotions on the endocrinological and the immune system. Based on this preliminary conclusion, the aim of the present study was to prove whether cosmetics are able to decrease the level of the stress hormone cortisol and strengthen the immune system. Four slides of made up or unvarnished women each, integrated in another 16 slides each of equivalent valence and arousal, were presented to 60 women. During stimulus presentation, subjective (valence), autonomous (heart rate), endocrinological (salivary cortisol) as well as immunological reactions [secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA)] were recorded. As expected subjective ratings concerning the slides of made up women reported more positive valence than those concerning unvarnished women. Furthermore, heart rate decreased under presentation of made up women, which indicates the positive influence of these slides on the autonomous nerve system. Furthermore, in half of the volunteers a decrease of cortisol and an increase of sIgA level while presenting the made up women was measurable in contrast to the presentation of unvarnished women. Maybe this is due to a short presentation time and the endocrinological as well as the immune system can be hardly influenced that quick. Another explanation could be that the volunteers were in part so called psychophysiological non-responders who show no reaction to emotional stimuli in the endocrinological and the immune system. It has to be considered that only the influence of visual stimuli and not the influence of social care (e.g. positive statements of other, etc.), which is normally connected with the use of cosmetics, was assessed, so that these delineated positive results show the lower limit of cosmetic effects.

  11. Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing among Undergraduate Students: A Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Hway-Boon; Yeap, Peik-Foong; Tan, Siow-Hooi; Chong, Lee-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing can enhance learning and help to build the knowledge workforce. This paper reports on a study of knowledge sharing behaviour among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Knowledge sharing was found to be influenced by the mechanisms used, various barriers to communication and the motivations behind knowledge sharing. The mechanisms…

  12. Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing among Undergraduate Students: A Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Hway-Boon; Yeap, Peik-Foong; Tan, Siow-Hooi; Chong, Lee-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing can enhance learning and help to build the knowledge workforce. This paper reports on a study of knowledge sharing behaviour among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Knowledge sharing was found to be influenced by the mechanisms used, various barriers to communication and the motivations behind knowledge sharing. The mechanisms…

  13. Exploring the influence of vocal emotion expression on communicative effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Biersack, Sonja; Kempe, Vera

    2005-01-01

    This study explores whether speaker emotion influences communicative effectiveness. Two hundred participants rated their current emotional state and gave a description of a route on a simple map. The quality of the linguistic content of the descriptions was assessed using Latent Semantic Analysis. Six hundred participants provided route drawings based on the map descriptions. Median route deviation served as a measure of communicative effectiveness. Eighty additional participants rated invariant parts of the descriptions for perceived speaker happiness. Path analysis revealed that while speaker emotion did not affect the linguistic content of the descriptions, it had an effect on communicative effectiveness both through the effects of vocal cues directly as well as mediated by perceived happiness of speech. Specifically, higher first formants were associated with higher reported and perceived happiness as well as higher communicative effectiveness. Jitter, on the other hand, was negatively related to the perception of happiness and positively related to communicative effectiveness. These findings suggest that mood-related modulation of phonation and articulation can influence the effectiveness of communication in addition to message content.

  14. COMT genotype influences prefrontal response to emotional distraction.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Sonia J; Cohen, Jonathan D; Fossella, John; Casey, B J; Farah, Martha J

    2006-03-01

    Early studies of genetic effects on brain activity have been conducted to investigate primarily either the influence of polymorphisms in dopaminergic genes, especially the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, on prefrontal cognitive processes such as working memory, or that of polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene on the amygdala response to threatening stimuli. Here, we address genetic influences on the neural systems underlying cognitive-affective interactions. Specifically, we assess the effect of the CO MT val158met polymorphism onfrontal regulation of attentionunder emotional distraction. Healthy volunteers were scanned while performing a house-matching task with affectively negative versus neutral distractors. Effects of val allele load were examined on frontal regions associated with attentional control and emotion regulation, and on parahippocampal regions associated with perception of houses. As we predicted, val load correlated positively with activity in control- and task-related regions during performance under emotional distraction. These findings provide an initial step toward identifying genetic contributions to interindividual variability in recruitment of mechanisms that regulate affective processing.

  15. The influence of color on emotional perception of natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Codispoti, Maurizio; De Cesarei, Andrea; Ferrari, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Is color a critical factor when processing the emotional content of natural scenes? Under challenging perceptual conditions, such as when pictures are briefly presented, color might facilitate scene segmentation and/or function as a semantic cue via association with scene-relevant concepts (e.g., red and blood/injury). To clarify the influence of color on affective picture perception, we compared the late positive potentials (LPP) to color versus grayscale pictures, presented for very brief (24 ms) and longer (6 s) exposure durations. Results indicated that removing color information had no effect on the affective modulation of the LPP, regardless of exposure duration. These findings imply that the recognition of the emotional content of scenes, even when presented very briefly, does not critically rely on color information.

  16. Interrelationships Among Measures of Environmental Activity, Emotionality, and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispoto, Raymond G.

    1977-01-01

    Three of four scales from Maloney, Ward, and Braucht's revised or short-form ecology inventory were administered to college students, and were further validated. Unlike earlier findings, knowledge about ecology, the environment, and pollution was found to be predictive of actual behavior related to improving the environment. (Author/JKS)

  17. It depends: Approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions are influenced by the contrast emotions presented in the task.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Andrea; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Studies examining approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions have yielded conflicting results. For example, expressions of anger have been reported to elicit approach reactions in some studies but avoidance reactions in others. Nonetheless, the results were often explained by the same general underlying process, namely the influence that the social message signaled by the expression has on motivational responses. It is therefore unclear which reaction is triggered by which emotional expression, and which underlying process is responsible for these reactions. In order to address this issue, we examined the role of a potential moderator on approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions, namely the contrast emotion used in the task. We believe that different approach and avoidance reactions occur depending on the congruency or incongruency of the evaluation of the 2 emotions presented in the task. The results from a series of experiments supported these assumptions: Negative emotional expressions (anger, fear, sadness) elicited avoidance reactions if contrasted with expressions of happiness. However, if contrasted with a different negative emotional expression, anger and sadness triggered approach reactions and fear activated avoidance reactions. Importantly, these results also emerged if the emotional expression was not task-relevant. We propose that approach and avoidance reactions to emotional expressions are triggered by their evaluation if the 2 emotions presented in a task differ in evaluative connotation. If they have the same evaluative connotation, however, reactions are determined by their social message. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Emotion Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory across the Preschool Years: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children,…

  19. Exploring the Emotions in Pedagogical Content Knowledge about the Electric Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Lina; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the changes in the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) about electric fields of two Colombian physics teachers (Isabel and Alejandro) at the high school level (pupils of ages 17-19), the emotions and their relationship with PCK. The research was conducted during two consecutive years, before and…

  20. Critical Pedagogy and Emotion: Working through "Troubled Knowledge" in Posttraumatic Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2013-01-01

    This article critiques some of the existing literature in critical pedagogy and the way it tends to overlook or downplay the strong emotional investments of troubled knowledge in posttraumatic situations. Examining existing literature in critical pedagogy reiterates the argument that the discourse of critical pedagogy constructs and sustains its…

  1. Adults' Autonomic and Subjective Emotional Responses to Infant Vocalizations: The Role of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Ashley M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge--as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress…

  2. Preservice Teachers' Self Efficacy and Knowledge of Emotional and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford, Shani; Karlin, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This research examined preservice teachers' knowledge of emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their sense of efficacy. The participants included a convenience sample of 230 undergraduate general education and special education preservice teachers enrolled in teacher education classes. The age of the participants ranged from 19 to 51 with…

  3. School Psychologists' Knowledge and Use of Evidence-Based, Social-Emotional Learning Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKevitt, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of a national survey pertaining to school psychologists' knowledge and use of evidence-based, social-emotional learning (SEL) interventions. For the study, 331 school psychologists responded to a survey that listed (a) techniques for identifying SEL interventions, (b) 16 SEL programs that have been identified by…

  4. Parenting Predictors of Cognitive Skills and Emotion Knowledge in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A.; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age = 3.21 years; N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. One year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge one year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967

  5. Emotion Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory across the Preschool Years: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children,…

  6. Context-Inappropriate Anger, Emotion Knowledge Deficits, and Negative Social Experiences in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Robin L.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Heinze, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contextually inappropriate (CI) anger in relation to emotion recognition and situation knowledge, negative social experiences, and externalizing behavior among low-income 4-year-olds attending Head Start (n = 134). Approximately 23% showed anger when presented with positive/neutral slides and videos (valence-incongruent CI…

  7. Adults' Autonomic and Subjective Emotional Responses to Infant Vocalizations: The Role of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Ashley M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge--as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress…

  8. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  9. The Relations of Preschool Children's Emotion Knowledge and Socially Appropriate Behaviors to Peer Likability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Baumgartner, Emma

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations of children's emotion knowledge (and its components) and socially appropriate behavior to peer likability in a sample of Italian preschool children at two time-points. At both Time 1 (T1; n = 46 boys, 42 girls) and a year later at Time 2 (T2; n = 26 boys, 22 girls), children's emotion…

  10. Context-Inappropriate Anger, Emotion Knowledge Deficits, and Negative Social Experiences in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Robin L.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Heinze, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contextually inappropriate (CI) anger in relation to emotion recognition and situation knowledge, negative social experiences, and externalizing behavior among low-income 4-year-olds attending Head Start (n = 134). Approximately 23% showed anger when presented with positive/neutral slides and videos (valence-incongruent CI…

  11. General Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Academic Knowledge as Predictors of Creativity Domains: A Study of Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Feyzullah

    2016-01-01

    Creativity of the individual is dependent on numerous factors, such as knowledge, general intelligence and emotional intelligence. The general purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of general intelligence, emotional intelligence and academic knowledge on the emerging of domain-specific creativity. The study was conducted on 178…

  12. Influences of Parent and Child Negative Emotionality on Young Children’s Everyday Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Negative emotionality is linked to unfavorable life outcomes, but studies have yet to examine negative emotionality of parents and children as predictors of children’s problem behaviors and negative emotion word use in everyday life. This study used a novel naturalistic recording device called the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) to investigate the separate and interactive influences of parent and child negative emotionality on daily child behaviors in a sample of 35 preschool-aged children over two time points separated by one year. Fathers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s whining at Time 1; mothers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s negative emotion word use at Time 1 and increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2. Parents’ ratings of child negative emotionality also were associated with increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2, and child negative emotionality moderated the association between mothers’ negative emotionality and children’s arguing/fighting. Further, children with mothers high in negative emotionality displayed higher levels of problem behaviors when their mothers self-reported low levels of positive emotional expressiveness and/or high levels of negative emotional expressiveness. These findings offer preliminary evidence linking parent and child negative emotionality to everyday child behaviors, and suggest that emotional expressiveness may play a key role in moderating the links between maternal negative emotionality and child behavioral problems. PMID:22390707

  13. Anticipation of a psychosocial stressor differentially influences ghrelin, cortisol and food intake among emotional and non-emotional eaters.

    PubMed

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2014-03-01

    Negative emotions trigger eating in some individuals (emotional eaters) possibly by influencing stress hormones that contribute to eating regulation (e.g., cortisol), or eating-related peptides (e.g., ghrelin) signaling food initiation. The present study assessed whether stressor-elicited cortisol and ghrelin changes would differ between emotional and non-emotional eaters, and whether eating would influence these neuroendocrine responses. Undergraduate women (N=103) who completed measures of emotional eating, were assigned to anticipate either a stressful (public speaking) or non-stressful event. During this period, participants were or were not offered food. Blood samples were taken continuously over a 40-min period to assess changes of cortisol and ghrelin levels, and mood was assessed after the anticipation period. Baseline ghrelin levels were lower in emotional than non-emotional eaters, and this relation was mediated by percent body fat. Ghrelin levels were elevated among women anticipating a stressor, compared to those in the control condition. Additionally, the normal decline of ghrelin following food consumption was not apparent among emotional eaters. Although food intake was not tied to hormone responses, reported hunger was associated with greater food intake for women in the stressor condition. It was suggested that emotional eating coupled with subjective feelings of hunger, might contribute to eating in response to an acute stressor. Additionally, feedback mechanisms controlling the normalization of ghrelin levels might be disturbed in emotional eaters. The similarity of the ghrelin profile of emotional eaters to that of binge eaters and obese individuals, raises the possibility that disturbed ghrelin response might be a risk factor for such conditions.

  14. Emotion Knowledge and Attention Problems in Young Children: a Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Direction of Effects.

    PubMed

    von Salisch, Maria; Denham, Susanne A; Koch, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Attention problems are likely to hinder children in acquiring knowledge of their own and others' emotions. Children with little knowledge of emotions tend to have difficulties with representing emotions, interpreting them, and sharing them, so that they are likely to spend more time in making sense of them and may thus appear to be inattentive. In order to disentangle the direction of effects between emotion knowledge and attention problems, 576 four- to- six-year-olds were interviewed at T1 and about 12 months later (T2) about their emotion knowledge. Their kindergarten teachers rated their attention problems, and their conduct problems at T1 and T2. A cross-lagged panel model indicates that children's emotion knowledge at T1 contributed to the explanation of their attention problems at T2, after language ability and attention problems at T1 were controlled. The other cross-path from attention problems (T1) to emotion knowledge (T2) was not significant. Adding gender, behavioral self-regulation, working memory, conduct problems, or SES as alternative explanations by third variables did not alter this direction of effects. How emotion knowledge impinges on attention problems is discussed.

  15. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  16. Influence of Conflict between Adults on the Emotions and Aggression of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Influence of others' emotions on the emotions and aggression of 2-year-olds was examined. Dyads of familiar peers were exposed during play to a sequence of experimental manipulations of background emotions of warmth and anger. Theoretical and practical implications of sensitivity to others' conflicts and interpersonal problems in toddlers are also…

  17. The Influence of Emotional Stimuli on Attention Orienting and Inhibitory Control in Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Hardin, Michael G.; Mogg, Karin; Benson, Valerie; Bradley, Brendan P.; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise; Liversedge, Simon P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and are associated with aberrant emotion-related attention orienting and inhibitory control. While recent studies conducted with high-trait anxious adults have employed novel emotion-modified antisaccade tasks to examine the influence of emotional information on…

  18. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  19. How School Climate Influences Teachers’ Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiuping; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Li, Xiying; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guanyu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers’ emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p–12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers’ use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China. PMID:26457713

  20. Individual differences in emotion-cognition interactions: emotional valence interacts with serotonin transporter genotype to influence brain systems involved in emotional reactivity and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Stollstorff, Melanie; Munakata, Yuko; Jensen, Arielle P. C.; Guild, Ryan M.; Smolker, Harry R.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Banich, Marie T.

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) influences emotional reactivity and attentional bias toward or away from emotional stimuli, and has been implicated in psychopathological states, such as depression and anxiety disorder. The short allele is associated with increased reactivity and attention toward negatively-valenced emotional information, whereas the long allele is associated with increased reactivity and attention toward positively-valenced emotional information. The neural basis for individual differences in the ability to exert cognitive control over these bottom-up biases in emotional reactivity and attention is unknown, an issue investigated in the present study. Healthy adult participants were divided into two groups, either homozygous carriers of the 5-HTTLPR long allele or homozygous carriers of the short allele, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while completing an Emotional Stroop-like task that varied in the congruency of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information and the emotional valence of the task-irrelevant information. Behaviorally, participants demonstrated the classic “Stroop effect” (responses were slower for incongruent than congruent trials), which did not differ by 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, fMRI results revealed that genotype influenced the degree to which neural systems were engaged depending on the valence of the conflicting task-irrelevant information. While the “Long” group recruited prefrontal control regions and superior temporal sulcus during conflict when the task-irrelevant information was positively-valenced, the “Short” group recruited these regions during conflict when the task-irrelevant information was negatively-valenced. Thus, participants successfully engaged cognitive control to overcome conflict in an emotional context using similar neural circuitry, but the engagement of this circuitry depended on emotional valence and 5-HTTLPR status. These results suggest that the

  1. Theory of Mind Predicts Emotion Knowledge Development in Head Start Children

    PubMed Central

    Seidenfeld, Adina M.; Johnson, Stacy R.; Cavadel, Elizabeth Woodburn; Izard, Carroll E.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings Emotion knowledge (EK) enables children to identify emotions in themselves and others and its development facilitates emotion recognition in complex social situations. Social-cognitive processes, such as theory of mind (ToM), may contribute to developing EK by helping children realize the inherent variability associated with emotion expression across individuals and situations. The present study explored how ToM, particularly false belief understanding, in preschool predicts children’s developing EK in kindergarten. Participants were 60 3- to 5-year-old Head Start children. ToM and EK measures were obtained from standardized child tasks. ToM scores were positively related to performance on an EK task in kindergarten after controlling for preschool levels of EK and verbal ability. Exploratory analyses provided preliminary evidence that ToM serves as an indirect effect between verbal ability and EK. Practice or Policy Early intervention programs may benefit from including lessons on ToM to help promote socio-emotional learning, specifically EK. This consideration may be the most fruitful when the targeted population is at-risk. PMID:25364212

  2. Context-Inappropriate Anger, Emotion Knowledge Deficits, and Negative Social Experiences in Preschool

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Robin L.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Heinze, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contextually-inappropriate (CI) anger in relation to emotion recognition and situation knowledge, negative social experiences, and externalizing behavior among low-income 4-year-olds attending Head Start (n=134). Approximately one-quarter of children (23%) showed anger when presented with positive/neutral slides and videos (valence-incongruent CI anger), whereas 2/5 of children (40%) showed anger when presented with negative slides and videos (valence-congruent CI anger). Valence-incongruent CI anger was associated with lower emotion situation knowledge (for boys only), more self-reported peer rejection and loneliness, and greater negative nominations by teachers and peers. Both valence-incongruent and (for boys only) valence-congruent CI anger were positively associated with externalizing behavior. Overall, valence-incongruent CI anger was more strongly associated with negative child outcomes than valence-congruent CI anger. PMID:26376288

  3. Context-inappropriate anger, emotion knowledge deficits, and negative social experiences in preschool.

    PubMed

    Locke, Robin L; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Heinze, Justin E

    2015-10-01

    This study examined contextually inappropriate (CI) anger in relation to emotion recognition and situation knowledge, negative social experiences, and externalizing behavior among low-income 4-year-olds attending Head Start (n = 134). Approximately 23% showed anger when presented with positive/neutral slides and videos (valence-incongruent CI anger), whereas 40% of children showed anger when presented with negative slides and videos (valence-congruent CI anger). Valence-incongruent CI anger was associated with lower emotion situation knowledge (for boys only), more self-reported peer rejection and loneliness, and greater negative nominations by teachers and peers. Both valence-incongruent and (for boys only) valence-congruent CI anger were positively associated with externalizing behavior. Overall, valence-incongruent CI anger was more strongly associated with negative child outcomes than valence-congruent CI anger. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Emotion Recognition in Children With Down Syndrome: Influence of Emotion Label and Expression Intensity.

    PubMed

    Cebula, Katie R; Wishart, Jennifer G; Willis, Diane S; Pitcairn, Tom K

    2017-03-01

    Some children with Down syndrome may experience difficulties in recognizing facial emotions, particularly fear, but it is not clear why, nor how such skills can best be facilitated. Using a photo-matching task, emotion recognition was tested in children with Down syndrome, children with nonspecific intellectual disability and cognitively matched, typically developing children (all groups N = 21) under four conditions: veridical vs. exaggerated emotions and emotion-labelling vs. generic task instructions. In all groups, exaggerating emotions facilitated recognition accuracy and speed, with emotion labelling facilitating recognition accuracy. Overall accuracy and speed did not differ in the children with Down syndrome, although recognition of fear was poorer than in the typically developing children and unrelated to emotion label use. Implications for interventions are considered.

  5. Are leftists more emotion-driven than rightists? The interactive influence of ideology and emotions on support for policies.

    PubMed

    Pliskin, Ruthie; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Sheppes, Gal; Halperin, Eran

    2014-12-01

    Although emotions and ideology are important factors guiding policy support in conflict, their interactive influence remains unclear. Based on prior findings that ideological leftists' beliefs are more susceptible to change than rightists' beliefs, we tested a somewhat counterintuitive extension that leftists would be more susceptible to influence by their emotional reactions than rightists. In three laboratory studies, inducing positive and negative emotions affected Jewish-Israeli leftists', but not rightists', support for conciliatory policies toward an adversarial (Studies 1 and 3) and a non-adversarial (Study 2) outgroup. Three additional field studies showed that positive and negative emotions were related to leftists', but not rightists', policy support in positive as well as highly negative conflict-related contexts, among both Jewish (Studies 4 and 5) and Palestinian (Study 6) citizens of Israel. Across different conflicts, emotions, conflict-related contexts, and even populations, leftists' policy support changed in accordance with emotional reactions more than rightists' policy support. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  6. Local context influences memory for emotional stimuli but not electrophysiological markers of emotion-dependent attention.

    PubMed

    Barnacle, Gemma E; Tsivilis, Dimitris; Schaefer, Alexandre; Talmi, Deborah

    2017-10-12

    Emotional enhancement of free recall can be context dependent. It is readily observed when emotional and neutral scenes are encoded and recalled together in a "mixed" list, but diminishes when these scenes are encoded separately in "pure" lists. We examined the hypothesis that this effect is due to differences in allocation of attention to neutral stimuli according to whether they are presented in mixed or pure lists, especially when encoding is intentional. Using picture stimuli that were controlled for semantic relatedness, our results contradicted this hypothesis. The amplitude of well-known electrophysiological markers of emotion-related attention-the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive potential (LPP), and the slow wave (SW)-was higher for emotional stimuli. Crucially, the emotional modulation of these ERPs was insensitive to list context, observed equally in pure and mixed lists. Although list context did not modulate neural markers of emotion-related attention, list context did modulate the effect of emotion on free recall. The apparent decoupling of the emotional effects on attention and memory, challenges existing hypotheses accounting for the emotional enhancement of memory. We close by discussing whether findings are more compatible with an alternative hypothesis, where the magnitude of emotional memory enhancement is, at least in part, a consequence of retrieval dynamics. © 2017 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Influence of Parental Expressed Emotions on Children's Emotional Eating via Children's Negative Urgency.

    PubMed

    Munsch, Simone; Dremmel, Daniela; Kurz, Susanne; De Albuquerque, Jiske; Meyer, Andrea H; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether parental expressed emotion (criticism and emotional overinvolvement) is related to children's emotional eating and whether this relationship is mediated by children's negative urgency. One hundred children, aged 8 to 13 years, either healthy or have binge-eating disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, completed the questionnaires, along with their parents. Parental criticism and, to a lesser extent, parental emotional overinvolvement were both positively related to children's emotional eating, and this relationship was mediated by children's negative urgency. Further exploratory analyses revealed that the mediating role of children's negative urgency in the relationship between parental criticism and children's emotional eating was pronounced in the clinical group of children with binge-eating disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder but almost absent in the healthy control group. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Job satisfaction amongst Dutch nurse anaesthetists: the influence of emotions on events.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, V; van Dam, K; van Zundert, A; Knape, J

    2010-03-01

    An ageing population, combined with a shortage of health-care professionals, can result in a decrease in the capacity of health-care systems. Therefore, it is important to explore possible solutions for this problem. By finding methods to increase job satisfaction, it may be possible to retain employees within their profession. In this study, we examined events, their influence on emotions and, consequently, the effect of these emotions on job satisfaction. We attempted to answer the question: Which events and emotions influence job satisfaction? We collected data on events and emotions, and their effects on job satisfaction, amongst Dutch nurse anaesthetists. Participants (n = 314) were asked to complete two questionnaires about events, emotions and job satisfaction at two different times during an average working day. One hundred thirty-two nurse anaesthetists from 24 Dutch hospitals participated. Both positive and negative events were significant in the development of positive and negative emotions at the end of the working day. Positive emotions at the end of the working day contributed significantly to job satisfaction. Negative emotions did not have a significant effect on job satisfaction. The mediating role of positive emotions in relation to positive and negative events should be taken into account in managing job satisfaction amongst Dutch nurse anaesthetists. Further research is necessary to determine whether the relationship between events and emotions provides a foundation for developing a more positive working atmosphere, and also to explore how hospitals can trigger positive emotions to increase job satisfaction.

  9. Neuroticism influences pupillary responses during an emotional interference task.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Kristin; Heekeren, Hauke R; Blasek, Katharina; Lapschies, Katharina; Mews, Isabella; van der Meer, Elke

    2008-10-01

    We used behavioral and pupillary measures during an analogical reasoning task to investigate the processing of conceptual and emotional relations as well as their interaction. In particular, we examined how mental resource consumption is modulated by individual differences in neuroticism in healthy participants during conditions with emotional interference. Two word pairs were presented simultaneously, each with a conceptual and an emotional relation. In one experimental block, participants had to decide whether conceptual relations between the two word pairs were corresponding (conceptual task). In the other block, participants had to decide whether emotional relations were corresponding (emotional task). When participants had to focus on the correspondence of emotional relations, they were faster, more accurate, and showed greater pupillary responses than during the conceptual task. Moreover, participants with comparably higher neuroticism scores showed increased pupillary responses during conditions with emotional interference (i.e., during the conceptual task when they had to ignore incongruent information on the correspondence provided by the task-irrelevant emotional relations). These results demonstrate that affective aspects of stimuli (here: emotional relations) are preferentially selected for information processing. Moreover, increased mental resource consumption due to emotional interference in participants with comparably higher neuroticism scores might reflect a possible mechanism making these individuals more vulnerable to mood or anxiety disorders.

  10. Early visual ERPs are influenced by individual emotional skills

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Sylvie; Batty, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Processing information from faces is crucial to understanding others and to adapting to social life. Many studies have investigated responses to facial emotions to provide a better understanding of the processes and the neural networks involved. Moreover, several studies have revealed abnormalities of emotional face processing and their neural correlates in affective disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether early visual event-related potentials (ERPs) are affected by the emotional skills of healthy adults. Unfamiliar faces expressing the six basic emotions were presented to 28 young adults while recording visual ERPs. No specific task was required during the recording. Participants also completed the Social Skills Inventory (SSI) which measures social and emotional skills. The results confirmed that early visual ERPs (P1, N170) are affected by the emotions expressed by a face and also demonstrated that N170 and P2 are correlated to the emotional skills of healthy subjects. While N170 is sensitive to the subject’s emotional sensitivity and expressivity, P2 is modulated by the ability of the subjects to control their emotions. We therefore suggest that N170 and P2 could be used as individual markers to assess strengths and weaknesses in emotional areas and could provide information for further investigations of affective disorders. PMID:23720573

  11. Agent based simulation on the process of human flesh search-From perspective of knowledge and emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hou; Hu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Human flesh search as a new net crowed behavior, on the one hand can help us to find some special information, on the other hand may lead to privacy leaking and offending human right. In order to study the mechanism of human flesh search, this paper proposes a simulation model based on agent-based model and complex networks. The computational experiments show some useful results. Discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio are highly correlated, and most of net citizens will take part in the human flesh search or will not take part in the human flesh search. Knowledge quantity does not influence involved personal ratio, but influences whether HFS can find out the target human. When the knowledge concentrates on hub nodes, the discovered information quantity is either perfect or almost zero. Emotion of net citizens influences both discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio. Concretely, when net citizens are calm to face the search topic, it will be hardly to find out the target; But when net citizens are agitated, the target will be found out easily.

  12. Informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues: The influence of morality and content knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Troy Dow

    This study focused on informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues. It explored how morality and content knowledge influenced the negotiation and resolution of contentious and complex scenarios based on genetic engineering. Two hundred and sixty-nine undergraduate students completed a quantitative test of genetics concepts. A sub-set of the students (n = 30) who completed this instrument and represented divergent levels of content knowledge participated in two individual interviews, during which they discussed their ideas, reactions, and solutions to three gene therapy scenarios and three cloning scenarios. A mixed-methods approach was used to examine patterns of informal reasoning and the influence of morality, the effects of content knowledge on the use of informal reasoning patterns, and the effects of content knowledge on the quality of informal reasoning. Students demonstrated evidence of rationalistic, emotive, and intuitive forms of informal reasoning. Rationalistic informal reasoning described reason-based considerations; emotive informal reasoning described care-based considerations; and intuitive reasoning described considerations based on immediate reactions to the context of a scenario. Participants frequently relied on combinations of these reasoning patterns as they worked to resolve individual socioscientific scenarios. Most of the participants appreciated at least some of the moral implications of their decisions, and these considerations were typically interwoven within an overall pattern of informal reasoning. Although differences in content knowledge were not found to be related to modes of informal reasoning (rationalistic, emotive, and informal), data did indicate that differences in content knowledge were related to variations in informal reasoning quality. Participants, with more advanced understandings of genetics, demonstrated fewer instances of reasoning flaws, as defined by a priori criteria (intra-scenario coherence, inter

  13. Rationality and emotionality: serotonin transporter genotype influences reasoning bias.

    PubMed

    Stollstorff, Melanie; Bean, Stephanie E; Anderson, Lindsay M; Devaney, Joseph M; Vaidya, Chandan J

    2013-04-01

    Reasoning often occurs under emotionally charged, opinion-laden circumstances. The belief-bias effect indexes the extent to which reasoning is based upon beliefs rather than logical structure. We examined whether emotional content increases this effect, particularly for adults genetically predisposed to be more emotionally reactive. SS/SL(G) carriers of the serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) were less accurate selectively for evaluating emotional relational reasoning problems with belief-logic conflict relative to L(A)L(A) carriers. Trait anxiety was positively associated with emotional belief-bias, and the 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly accounted for the variance in this association. Thus, deductive reasoning, a higher cognitive ability, is sensitive to differences in emotionality rooted in serotonin neurotransmitter function.

  14. Rationality and emotionality: serotonin transporter genotype influences reasoning bias

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Stephanie E.; Anderson, Lindsay M.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning often occurs under emotionally charged, opinion-laden circumstances. The belief-bias effect indexes the extent to which reasoning is based upon beliefs rather than logical structure. We examined whether emotional content increases this effect, particularly for adults genetically predisposed to be more emotionally reactive. SS/SLG carriers of the serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) were less accurate selectively for evaluating emotional relational reasoning problems with belief-logic conflict relative to LALA carriers. Trait anxiety was positively associated with emotional belief-bias, and the 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly accounted for the variance in this association. Thus, deductive reasoning, a higher cognitive ability, is sensitive to differences in emotionality rooted in serotonin neurotransmitter function. PMID:22275169

  15. Aesthetic Chills: Knowledge-Acquisition, Meaning-Making, and Aesthetic Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Schoeller, Felix; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research. PMID:27540366

  16. Aesthetic Chills: Knowledge-Acquisition, Meaning-Making, and Aesthetic Emotions.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Felix; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research.

  17. Laterality of facial expressions of emotion: Universal and culture-specific influences.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Manas K; Ambady, Nalini

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that (a) the perception and expression of facial emotion are lateralized to a great extent in the right hemisphere, and, (b) whereas facial expressions of emotion embody universal signals, culture-specific learning moderates the expression and interpretation of these emotions. In the present article, we review the literature on laterality and universality, and propose that, although some components of facial expressions of emotion are governed biologically, others are culturally influenced. We suggest that the left side of the face is more expressive of emotions, is more uninhibited, and displays culture-specific emotional norms. The right side of face, on the other hand, is less susceptible to cultural display norms and exhibits more universal emotional signals. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  18. Emotion Recognition in Children with Down Syndrome: Influence of Emotion Label and Expression Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cebula, Katie R.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Willis, Diane S.; Pitcairn, Tom K.

    2017-01-01

    Some children with Down syndrome may experience difficulties in recognizing facial emotions, particularly fear, but it is not clear why, nor how such skills can best be facilitated. Using a photo-matching task, emotion recognition was tested in children with Down syndrome, children with nonspecific intellectual disability and cognitively matched,…

  19. The participation of fathers in the breastfeeding process: experiences, knowledge, behaviors and emotions.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Cleide M; Alexandrino, Aline C; Osório, Mônica M

    2008-01-01

    To identify the experiences, knowledge, behaviors and emotions of fathers with relation to the process of breastfeeding. This is a descriptive, explorative and qualitative study involving 17 couples resident in a favela in the city of Recife, PE, in the Northeast of Brazil, whose most recent child was aged between 6 and 8 months. A semi-structured interview employing leading questions was used for data collection. These data were analyzed in the light of theoretical references, the historical, social and cultural construction of fatherhood, by means of thematic content analysis. Four themes emerged from this analysis: faint/ambiguous memories of breastfeeding during childhood; knowledge about breastfeeding is focused on the child's health, mother's responsibility and savings for father; breastfeeding-related behavior of father during his participation in the pregnancy-child care cycle; and interconnected feelings of fragility when breastfeeding. The knowledge and emotions involved in fathers' participation in breastfeeding are the products of socialization of both men and women, centered on the biological body and reinforcing the belief that breastfeeding is the preserve of women.

  20. Fulfilment of knowledge expectations and emotional state among people undergoing hip replacement: a multi-national survey.

    PubMed

    Johansson Stark, Asa; Ingadottir, Brynja; Salanterä, Sanna; Sigurdardottir, Arun; Valkeapää, Kirsi; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Unosson, Mitra

    2014-11-01

    Patient education in connection with hip replacement is intended to prepare patients for surgery, discharge and postoperative recovery. Patients experience symptoms and emotions due to disease or upcoming surgery which can affect how their knowledge expectations are fulfilled. To describe the differences between received and expected knowledge in patients undergoing elective hip replacement in three Nordic countries, and to analyse how these differences are related to patients' characteristics, preoperative symptoms and emotions. A descriptive, prospective survey with two data collection points; before admission and at hospital discharge after surgery. Two Finnish, three Icelandic and two Swedish hospitals. The population consisted of patients on a waiting list for hip replacement. Of the consecutively included patients, 320 answered questionnaires both before admission and at discharge and were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 64 years, and 55% were women. Structured questionnaires were used; the knowledge expectations of hospital patients scale and self-reported scales for symptoms and emotions before admission and received knowledge of hospital patients scale at discharge. Fulfilment of knowledge expectation was assessed by calculating the difference between received and expected knowledge with a paired sample t-test. A multiple stepwise regression model was used to explain the variance of fulfilled knowledge expectations. Patients expected more knowledge than they received (p<0.001) and 77% of them had unfulfilled knowledge expectations. Patients with a higher level of education were more likely to have unfulfilled knowledge expectations. A higher level of education was also related to a greater difference between received and expected knowledge. The difference was more correlated with patients' emotions than their symptoms. A depressive state was the major predictor of the variance in the difference between received and expected

  1. Follow the heart or the head? The interactive influence model of emotion and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiayi; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    The experience of emotion has a powerful influence on daily-life decision making. Following Plato’s description of emotion and reason as two horses pulling us in opposite directions, modern dual-system models of decision making endorse the antagonism between reason and emotion. Decision making is perceived as the competition between an emotion system that is automatic but prone to error and a reason system that is slow but rational. The reason system (in “the head”) reins in our impulses (from “the heart”) and overrides our snap judgments. However, from Darwin’s evolutionary perspective, emotion is adaptive, guiding us to make sound decisions in uncertainty. Here, drawing findings from behavioral economics and neuroeconomics, we provide a new model, labeled “The interactive influence model of emotion and cognition,” to elaborate the relationship of emotion and reason in decision making. Specifically, in our model, we identify factors that determine when emotions override reason and delineate the type of contexts in which emotions help or hurt decision making. We then illustrate how cognition modulates emotion and how they cooperate to affect decision making. PMID:25999889

  2. Influences on Facial Emotion Recognition in Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidera, Francesc; Amadó, Anna; Martínez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory research is aimed at studying facial emotion recognition abilities in deaf children and how they relate to linguistic skills and the characteristics of deafness. A total of 166 participants (75 deaf) aged 3-8 years were administered the following tasks: facial emotion recognition, naming vocabulary and cognitive ability. The…

  3. Emotions Influence Cognition: The Missing Ingredient in School Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Leon; Catapano, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe an intake evaluation process of elementary schoolchildren who have exhibited difficulties in a more traditional school environment. We show how a dynamic understanding of the child's emotional life and the child's emotions affects his or her behavior, cognitive development, and academic performance. We illustrate how to utilize this understanding in planning an approach in the classroom.

  4. Influencing and adjusting in daily emotional situations: a comparison of European and Asian American action styles.

    PubMed

    Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja; Tsai, Annie Y; Markus, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    Emotions are for action, but action styles in emotional episodes may vary across cultural contexts. Based on culturally different models of agency, we expected that those who engage in European-American contexts will use more influence in emotional situations, while those who engage in East-Asian contexts will use more adjustment. European-American (N=60) and Asian-American (N=44) college students reported their action style during emotional episodes four times a day during a week. Asian Americans adjusted more than European Americans, whereas both used influence to a similar extent. These cultural differences in action style varied across types of emotion experienced. Moreover, influencing was associated with life satisfaction for European Americans, but not for Asian Americans.

  5. Colour influences perception of facial emotions but this effect is impaired in healthy ageing and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is commonly assessed by identification of emotions in facial expressions. Presence of colour, a salient feature of stimuli, might influence emotional face perception. We administered 2 tests of facial emotion recognition, the Emotion Recognition Test (ER40) using colour pictures and the Penn Emotional Acuity Test using monochromatic pictures, to 37 young healthy, 39 old healthy and 37 schizophrenic men. Among young healthy individuals recognition of emotions was more accurate and faster in colour than in monochromatic pictures. Compared to the younger group, older healthy individuals revealed impairment in identification of sad expressions in colour but not monochromatic pictures. Schizophrenia patients showed greater impairment in colour than monochromatic pictures of neutral and sad expressions and overall total score compared to both healthy groups. Patients showed significant correlations between cognitive impairment and perception of emotion in colour but not monochromatic pictures. Colour enhances perception of general emotional clues and this contextual effect is impaired in healthy ageing and schizophrenia. The effects of colour need to be considered in interpreting and comparing studies of emotion perception. Coloured face stimuli may be more sensitive to emotion processing impairments but less selective for emotion-specific information than monochromatic stimuli. This may impact on their utility in early detection of impairments and investigations of underlying mechanisms.

  6. The Influence of School Socioeconomic Status on First-Year Teachers' Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Alexa; Mihans, Richard; Gonzalez, Kirsten; Lyons, Mary; Goldstein, Julie; Anderson, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    This study examined first-year teachers' (FYTs) experiences at high poverty and non-high poverty schools, exploring their emotional responses to critical incidents. Twenty-eight FYTs were interviewed. The results highlighted the influence of FYT's interactions with students, coworkers, administrators, and parents on their emotions. FYTs at high…

  7. The Influence of Emotional Words on Sentence Processing: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Fernandez, Anabel; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Casado, Pilar; Jimenez-Ortega, Laura; Fondevila, Sabela

    2012-01-01

    Whereas most previous studies on emotion in language have focussed on single words, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of a word on the syntactic and semantic processes unfolding during sentence comprehension, by means of event-related brain potentials (ERP). Experiment 1 assessed how positive, negative, and neutral adjectives…

  8. Hierarchy and Happiness: The Influence of Emotion on Administrative Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Administrative job satisfaction in higher education is influenced by intrinsic and interpersonal factors (Volkwein & Zhou, 2002, 2003). Pioneers of the "affect as information" hypothesis of emotion postulate that emotions provide value-laden information regarding whether goals, standards, and attitudes are impacted positively or negatively by…

  9. The influence of stimulus sex and emotional expression on the attentional blink.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, Hilary E; Vanous, Jesse B

    2015-08-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that angry faces used as the first target (T1) in an attentional blink paradigm interfere with processing of a second, neutral target (T2). However, despite research that suggests that the sex and emotional expression of a face are confounded, no study has investigated whether the sex of a stimulus might interact with emotional expression to influence the attentional blink. In the current study, both the sex and emotional expression of a T1 stimulus were manipulated to assess participants' ability to report the presences of a subsequent neutral target. Although the findings revealed limited evidence to support an interaction between sex and emotion, both the sex and emotional expression of the T1 stimulus were found to independently affect reporting of T2. These findings suggest that both emotional expression and stimulus sex are important in the temporal allocation of attentional resources to faces.

  10. Acquisition of abstract concepts is influenced by emotional valence.

    PubMed

    Ponari, Marta; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2017-02-21

    There is considerable lack of evidence concerning the linguistic and cognitive skills underpinning abstract vocabulary acquisition. The present study considers the role of emotional valence in providing an embodied learning experience in which to anchor abstract meanings. First, analyses of adult ratings of age-of-acquisition, concreteness and valence demonstrate that abstract words acquired early tend to be emotionally valenced. Second, auditory Lexical Decision accuracies of children aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years (n = 20 per group) complement these analyses, demonstrating that emotional valence facilitates processing of abstract words, but not concrete. These findings provide the first evidence that young, school-aged children are sensitive to emotional valence and that this facilitates acquisition of abstract words. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The influence of negative urgency, attentional bias, and emotional dimensions on palatable food consumption.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kendra Davis; Fischer, Sarah; Smith, Gregory T; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-05-01

    We tested a theoretical model concerning the role of attentional bias and negative affect in food consumption that offers important advances. We hypothesized that the effects of negative affect manipulations on food consumption vary as a function of trait levels of negative urgency (NU; tendency to act impulsively when distressed), and attentional bias and that the roles of emotional arousal and negative emotional valence differ and should be studied separately. 190 undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an anger or neutral mood condition. Women in both conditions completed the Food Stroop, in which the presentation of food and neutral words were counterbalanced. After the task, participants were given the opportunity to eat mandarin oranges and/or chocolate candy while the experimenter was out of the room. The type and quantity of food consumed was counted after the participant departed. As hypothesized, the roles of emotional arousal and valence differed and the effect of the induced emotion was moderated by NU. Women high in NU who experienced emotional arousal were more likely to eat candy and consumed more candy than other women. Emotional valence had no effect on candy consumption. Neither increases in emotional arousal or emotional valence influenced attentional bias to food cues. Attentional bias was also unrelated to food consumption. The impact of negative mood inductions on palatable food consumption appears to operate through emotional arousal and not negative emotional valence, and it may operate primarily for women high in NU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intensive meditation training influences emotional responses to suffering.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Erika L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Shaver, Phillip R; Ferrer, Emilio; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2015-12-01

    Meditation practices purportedly help people develop focused and sustained attention, cultivate feelings of compassionate concern for self and others, and strengthen motivation to help others who are in need. We examined the impact of 3 months of intensive meditative training on emotional responses to scenes of human suffering. Sixty participants were assigned randomly to either a 3-month intensive meditation retreat or a wait-list control group. Training consisted of daily practice in techniques designed to improve attention and enhance compassionate regard for others. Participants viewed film scenes depicting human suffering at pre- and posttraining laboratory assessments, during which both facial and subjective measures of emotion were collected. At post-assessment, training group participants were more likely than controls to show facial displays of sadness. Trainees also showed fewer facial displays of rejection emotions (anger, contempt, disgust). The groups did not differ on the likelihood or frequency of showing these emotions prior to training. Self-reported sympathy--but not sadness or distress--predicted sad behavior and inversely predicted displays of rejection emotions in trainees only. These results suggest that intensive meditation training encourages emotional responses to suffering characterized by enhanced sympathetic concern for, and reduced aversion to, the suffering of others.

  13. The influence of service quality and patients' emotions on satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Maria Helena; Neves, José

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and empirically test a model to examine the major factors affecting patients' satisfaction that depict and estimate the relationships between service quality, patient's emotions, expectations and involvement. The approach was tested using structural equation modeling, with a sample of 317 patients from six Portuguese public healthcare centres, using a revised SERVQUAL scale for service quality evaluation and an adapted DESII scale for assessing patient emotions. The scales used to evaluate service quality and emotional experience appears valid. The results support process complexity that leads to health service satisfaction, which involves diverse phenomena within the cognitive and emotional domain, revealing that all the predictors have a significant effect on satisfaction. The emotions inventory, although showing good internal consistency, might be enlarged to other typologies in further research--needed to confirm these findings. Patient's satisfaction mechanisms are important for improving service quality. The research shows empirical evidence about the effect of both patient's emotions and service quality on satisfaction with healthcare services. Findings also provide a model that includes valid and reliable measures.

  14. The differential influences of parenting and child narrative coherence on the development of emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Berzenski, Sara R; Yates, Tuppett M

    2017-10-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotions serves as a building block by which children make sense of the world and learn how to interact with social partners. However, the timing and salience of influences on emotion recognition development are not fully understood. Path analyses evaluated the contributions of parenting and child narrative coherence to the development of emotion recognition across ages 4 through 8 in a diverse (50% female; 46% Hispanic, 18.4% Black, 11.2% White, .4% Asian, 24.0% multiracial) longitudinally followed sample of 250 caregiver-child dyads. Parenting behaviors during interactions (i.e., support, instructional quality, intrusiveness, and hostility) and children's narrative coherence during the MacArthur Story Stem Battery were observed at ages 4 and 6. Emotion recognition increased from age 4 to 8. Parents' supportive presence at age 4 and instructional quality at age 6 predicted increased emotion recognition at 8, beyond initial levels of emotion recognition and child cognitive ability. There were no significant effects of negative parenting (i.e., intrusiveness or hostility) at 4 or 6 on emotion recognition. Child narrative coherence at ages 4 and 6 predicted increased emotion recognition at 8. Emotion recognition at age 4 predicted increased parent instructional quality and decreased intrusiveness at 6. These findings clarify whether and when familial and child factors influence emotion recognition development. Influences on emotion recognition development emerged as differentially salient across time periods, such that there is a need to develop and implement targeted interventions to promote positive parenting skills and children's narrative coherence at specific ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Dynamic brain activation during processing of emotional intonation: influence of acoustic parameters, emotional valence, and sex.

    PubMed

    Wildgruber, D; Pihan, H; Ackermann, H; Erb, M; Grodd, W

    2002-04-01

    Appreciation of the emotional tone of verbal utterances represents an important aspect of social life. It is still unsettled, however, which brain areas mediate processing of intonational information and whether the presumed right-sided superiority depends upon acoustic properties of the speech signal. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to disentangle brain activation associated with (i) extraction of specific acoustic cues and (ii) detection of specific emotional states. Stimulus material comprised pairs of emotionally intonated utterances, exclusively differing either in pitch range or in the length of stressed vowels. Hemodynamic responses showed a dynamic pattern of cerebral activation including sequenced bilateral responses of various cortical and subcortical structures. Activation associated with discrimination of emotional expressiveness predominantly emerged within the right inferior parietal lobule, within the bilateral mesiofrontal cortex and--with an asymmetry toward the right hemisphere--at the level of bilateral dorsolateral frontal cortex. Lateralization did not depend upon acoustic structure or emotional valence of stimuli. These findings might prove helpful in reconciling the controversial previous clinical and experimental data. (C)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  16. Sex and menstrual cycle phase at encoding influence emotional memory for gist and detail.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2013-11-01

    Sex influences on emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, only a subset of this previous work explored the influence of sex on memory for central information (gist) and peripheral detail in emotional versus neutral contexts. Here we examined the influence of sex and menstrual cycle phase at encoding on memory for either an emotional or neutral story, specifically with respect to the retention of gist and peripheral detail. Healthy naturally cycling women and men viewed a brief, narrated, three-phase story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. The results indicate that naturally cycling women in the luteal (high hormone) phase of the menstrual cycle at encoding show enhanced memory for peripheral details, but not gist, when in the emotional compared with neutral stories (p<.05). In contrast, naturally cycling women in the follicular (low hormone) phase of the menstrual cycle at encoding did not show enhanced memory for gist or peripheral details in the emotional compared with neutral stories. Men show enhanced memory for gist, but not peripheral details, in the emotional versus neutral stories (p<.05). In addition, these sex influences on memory cannot be attributed to differences in attention or arousal; luteal women, follicular women, and men performed similarly on measures of attention (fixation time percentage) and arousal (pupil diameter changes) during the most arousing phase of the emotional story. These findings suggest that sex and menstrual cycle phase at encoding influence long term memory for different types of emotional information.

  17. Body expressions influence recognition of emotions in the face and voice.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; Righart, Ruthger; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2007-08-01

    The most familiar emotional signals consist of faces, voices, and whole-body expressions, but so far research on emotions expressed by the whole body is sparse. The authors investigated recognition of whole-body expressions of emotion in three experiments. In the first experiment, participants performed a body expression-matching task. Results indicate good recognition of all emotions, with fear being the hardest to recognize. In the second experiment, two alternative forced choice categorizations of the facial expression of a compound face-body stimulus were strongly influenced by the bodily expression. This effect was a function of the ambiguity of the facial expression. In the third experiment, recognition of emotional tone of voice was similarly influenced by task irrelevant emotional body expressions. Taken together, the findings illustrate the importance of emotional whole-body expressions in communication either when viewed on their own or, as is often the case in realistic circumstances, in combination with facial expressions and emotional voices. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)

  18. Presence and emotions in virtual environments: the influence of stereoscopy.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Rubió, Isabel; Quero, Soledad; García-Palacios, Azucena; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2008-02-01

    This study investigates how stereoscopy (the illusion of depth and 3D imaging) affects the sense of presence and the intensity of the positive mood that users feel in virtual environments (VEs). A between-group design was used, and 40 volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions (stereoscopy vs. no stereoscopy) and to one of two emotional VEs (relaxation or joy). The participants' emotions were assessed before and after the VR experience. Presence was measured with two postexperiment questionnaires (ITC-SOPI and SUS). Results show that there were no differences between stereoscopic and monoscopic presentations in VEs (neither subjective sense of presence nor emotional reactions). Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed herein.

  19. [Study of the influence of emotion stress on mechanical hyperalgesia of masseter muscles in rats].

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Miao, Li; Chen, Yong-Jin; Chen, Jun

    2008-06-01

    To study the influence of emotion stress on mechanical hyperalgesia of masseter muscles in rats through the equipment of communication box. 50 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: Control group, emotion stress (ES) group, drug control group, saline treated control group and footshock (FS) group, 10 rats each group. Footshock group only induced emotion stress and was not concerned with the result of the experiment. The last four groups of the rats were placed in communication box and bred under the same conditions during the experiment time. According to Rens' method, von Frey filaments were used to assess the muscle mechanical threshold, head withdrawal, leg raising and crying were observed as pain action. 1) During the adaptive period of 7 days before the emotion stress experiment, mechanical pain values of bilateral masseter muscles were descent and were stabilized in the 5 th to 7 th day. In emotion stress period, hyperalgesia of emotion stress group was induced in bilateral masseter muscles, and the peak time was the 7 th day, then it alleviated in the following days and was stabilized in the 12 th to 14 th day, but its pain threshold was lower than blank control group. 2)During the emotion stress period, the change of drug control group was similar to stress group but its pain threshold was higher. It is suggested that emotion stress can lead to the hyperalgesia of masseter muscles and antidepressant drug can lower the hyperalgsia resulted of emotion stress.

  20. Probing emotional influences on cognitive control: an ALE meta-analysis of cognition emotion interactions.

    PubMed

    Cromheeke, Sofie; Mueller, Sven C

    2014-05-01

    Increasing research documents an integration of cognitive control and affective processes. Despite a surge of interest in investigating the exact nature of this integration, no consensus has been reached on the precise neuroanatomical network involved. Using the activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis method, we examined 43 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies (total number of foci = 332; total number of participants, N = 820) from the literature that have reported significant interactions between emotion and cognitive control. Meta-analytic results revealed that concurrent emotion (relative to emotionally neutral trials) consistently increased neural activation during high relative to low cognitive control conditions across studies and paradigms. Specifically, these activations emerged in regions commonly implicated in cognitive control, such as the lateral prefrontal cortex (inferior frontal junction, inferior frontal gyrus), the medial prefrontal cortex, and the basal ganglia. In addition, some areas emerged during the interaction contrast that were not present during one of the main effects and included the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus. These data provide new evidence for a network of cognition emotion interaction within a cognitive control setting. The findings are discussed within current theories of cognitive and attentional control.

  1. Emotional complexity and the neural representation of emotion in motion.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Paula; Barnard, Philip J; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant's emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition.

  2. Emotional Complexity and the Neural Representation of Emotion in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Philip J.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant’s emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition. PMID:20207691

  3. Parental knowledge is an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence both that parental monitoring is an environmental influence serving to diminish adolescent externalizing problems and that this association may be driven by adolescents' characteristics via genetic and/or environmental mechanisms, such that adolescents with fewer problems tell their parents more, and therefore appear to be better monitored. Without information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors, it is impossible to clarify the mechanisms underlying this association. The present study used the Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of gene-environment correlation and direct environmental effects underlying associations between parental knowledge and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing behavior with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a US-based sample of 405 White adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that more parental knowledge is associated with less adolescent externalizing via a direct environmental influence independent of any genetic influences. There was no evidence of a child-driven explanation of the association between parental knowledge and adolescent externalizing problems. In this sample of adolescents, parental knowledge exerted an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing after accounting for genetic influences of parents and adolescents. Because the association between parenting and child development originates in the parent, treatment for adolescent externalizing must not only include parents but should also focus on altering their parental style. Thus, findings suggest that teaching parents better knowledge-related monitoring strategies is likely to help reduce externalizing problems in adolescents. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  5. Emotional Competence and Its Influences on Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an interdisciplinary review of theory and research linking aspects of emotional competence to learning and school-related outcomes across childhood. Drawing upon work in developmental psychology, educational psychology, and teacher education, this review also discusses the role of teachers in socializing students' emotions…

  6. Emotional Competence and Its Influences on Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an interdisciplinary review of theory and research linking aspects of emotional competence to learning and school-related outcomes across childhood. Drawing upon work in developmental psychology, educational psychology, and teacher education, this review also discusses the role of teachers in socializing students' emotions…

  7. The Influence of Secure Emotional Expression on Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Emily; Dewitt, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between group effectiveness and secure emotional expression over the course of a 10 week period. The participants consisted of 12 college students who were enrolled in a senior seminar on teamwork. Participants worked in two groups of six and participated in a group meeting each week that consisted of a…

  8. The influence of facial sex cues on emotional expression categorization is not fixed.

    PubMed

    Craig, Belinda M; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2017-02-01

    The speed of recognizing facial expressions of emotion is influenced by a range of factors including other concurrently present facial attributes, like a person's sex. Typically, when participants categorize happy and angry expressions on male and female faces, they are faster to categorize happy than angry expressions displayed by females, but not displayed by males. Using the same emotional faces across tasks, we demonstrate that this influence of sex cues on emotion categorization is dependent on the other faces recently encountered in an experiment. Altering the salience of gender by presenting male and female faces in separate emotion categorization tasks rather than together in a single task changed the influence of sex cues on emotion categorization, whereas changing the evaluative dimension by presenting happy and angry expressions in separate tasks alongside neutral faces rather than together within 1 task did not. These results suggest that the way facial attributes influence emotion categorization depends on the situation in which the faces are encountered and specifically on what information is made salient within or across tasks by other recently encountered faces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Factors Influencing Knowledge Creation and Innovation in an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…

  10. The Influence of Emotional State on Learning From Reward and Punishment in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Tull, Matthew T; Hackel, Leor M; Gratz, Kim L

    2017-06-08

    Despite preliminary evidence that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) demonstrate deficits in learning from corrective feedback, no studies have examined the influence of emotional state on these learning deficits in BPD. This laboratory study examined the influence of negative emotions on learning among participants with BPD (n = 17), compared with clinical (past-year mood/anxiety disorder; n = 20) and healthy (n = 23) controls. Participants completed a reinforcement learning task before and after a negative emotion induction. The learning task involved presenting pairs of stimuli with probabilistic feedback in the training phase, and subsequently assessing accuracy for choosing previously rewarded stimuli or avoiding previously punished stimuli. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs revealed no significant between-group differences in overall learning accuracy. However, there was an effect of group in the ANCOVA for postemotion induction high-conflict punishment learning accuracy, with the BPD group showing greater decrements in learning accuracy than controls following the negative emotion induction.

  11. [The Influence of Emotional Coloring of Images on Visual Working Memory in Adults and Adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rozovskaya, R I; Machinskaya, R I; Pechenkova, E V

    2016-01-01

    The influence of emotional valence (positive, negative and neutral) of realistic images on the visual working memory (WM) capacity was studied in adults (N = 40) and adolescents (N = 17). In adults, emotional coloring of stimuli increased the reaction time and decreased the accuracy of WM task performance. This effect was more pronounced for negative than for positive valence: the reaction time has its maximum value for negative emotional stimuli and minimum value for neutral ones with significant differences between all three valences; the accuracy was lower for negative stimuli than for both positive and neutral stimuli. Comparing with adults, adolescents aged 14-16 years showed the lower indices of the performance accuracy and rate during the retention of neutral and positive stimuli in WM. In this group, no significant influence of emotional valence of visual stimuli on the accuracy of WM task performance was found.

  12. Emotional arousal state influences the ability of amygdalar endocannabinoid signaling to modulate anxiety.

    PubMed

    Morena, Maria; Leitl, Kira D; Vecchiarelli, Haley A; Gray, J Megan; Campolongo, Patrizia; Hill, Matthew N

    2016-12-01

    Systemic activation of cannabinoid receptors often induces biphasic effects on emotional memory and anxiety depending on the levels of emotional arousal associated to the experimental context. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) represents a crucial structure for the ability of endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling to modulate emotional behaviour, and receives dense projections from brainstem arousal system nuclei. We examined whether changes in emotional arousal state would influence the ability of acute eCB manipulations within the BLA to modulate anxiety. Rats were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) under low or high arousal conditions. The low emotional arousal group was extensively handled and habituated to the experimental room and tested under red light condition, the high emotional arousal group was not handled or habituated and tested under high light condition. We examined amygdalar eCB anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels immediately after the EPM and the effects of intra-BLA administration of the AEA hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 or the 2-AG hydrolysis inhibitor KML29 on anxiety behaviour. The modulation of anxiety-like behaviour by eCBs in the BLA was strictly dependent on the environmental-associated emotional arousal. Pharmacologically-induced elevations of AEA or 2-AG in the BLA decreased anxiety under conditions of low emotional arousal. Conversely, when the level of emotional arousal increased, local eCB manipulation was ineffective in the modulation of the emotional arousal-induced anxiety response. These findings suggest that, depending on the emotional arousal state, eCB system is differentially activated to regulate the anxiety response in the amygdala and help to understand the state-dependency of many interventions on anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Influence of Package Visual Cues of Sweeteners on the Sensory-Emotional Profiles of Their Products.

    PubMed

    Wardy, Wisdom; Chonpracha, Pitchayapat; Chokumnoyporn, Napapan; Sriwattana, Sujinda; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Jirangrat, Wannita

    2017-02-01

    Substantial evidence suggests influence of color, physical state, and other extrinsic features on consumer perception and acceptability of food products. In this study, 560 subjects evaluated liking and emotional responses associated with 5 sweeteners (sucralose, stevia, saccharin, aspartame, and sucrose) under 2 eliciting conditions: control (brand name only) and informed (brand name/packet image), to assess impact of the packet color. For a given condition, 5 identical tea samples each labeled with a sweetener type were rated for sweetness and overall liking (9-point) and emotions (5-point). Nonsignificant interactions between eliciting condition and sweetener type were found for liking attributes and emotions (except peaceful), indicating their independent effects. However, overall differences existed among sweetener types and eliciting conditions based on both hedonic and emotional responses (MANOVA, P < 0.05), suggesting modulating effects of packet color on sweetener type in the sensory-emotion space. The sensory-emotion profile for sucrose was separate from that of nonnutritive sweeteners, with statistically significant Mahalanobis distances among sample centroids. Increases in positive emotion intensities contrasted with a decrease in negative emotion intensities were observed for some sweeteners moving from the control to informed condition. Sweetness liking was strongly correlated with the emotion satisfied (sucralose, saccharin) only in the control condition, whereas it was strongly correlated with the emotions pleased and satisfied (stevia), disgusted (aspartame), and satisfied (sucrose) only in the informed condition. Overall, results suggested that sensory liking and emotions during the consumption experience are related not entirely to the type of sweetener, but also the color of the packet. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. What’s in a Face? How Face Gender and Current Affect Influence Perceived Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Daniel A.; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Ciaramitaro, Vivian M.

    2016-01-01

    Faces drive our social interactions. A vast literature suggests an interaction between gender and emotional face perception, with studies using different methodologies demonstrating that the gender of a face can affect how emotions are processed. However, how different is our perception of affective male and female faces? Furthermore, how does our current affective state when viewing faces influence our perceptual biases? We presented participants with a series of faces morphed along an emotional continuum from happy to angry. Participants judged each face morph as either happy or angry. We determined each participant’s unique emotional ‘neutral’ point, defined as the face morph judged to be perceived equally happy and angry, separately for male and female faces. We also assessed how current state affect influenced these perceptual neutral points. Our results indicate that, for both male and female participants, the emotional neutral point for male faces is perceptually biased to be happier than for female faces. This bias suggests that more happiness is required to perceive a male face as emotionally neutral, i.e., we are biased to perceive a male face as more negative. Interestingly, we also find that perceptual biases in perceiving female faces are correlated with current mood, such that positive state affect correlates with perceiving female faces as happier, while we find no significant correlation between negative state affect and the perception of facial emotion. Furthermore, we find reaction time biases, with slower responses for angry male faces compared to angry female faces. PMID:27733839

  15. Genetic influences in emotional dysfunction and alcoholism-related brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Bowirrat, Abdalla

    2005-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex, multifactorial disorder involving problematic ethanol ingestion; it results from the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Personality, likewise, is formed from a combination of inherited and acquired influences. Because selected dimensions of emotional temperament are associated with distinct neurochemical substrates contributing to specific personality phenotypes, certain aspects of abnormal emotional traits in alcoholics may be inherited. Emotions involve complex subjective experiences engaging multiple brain regions, most notably the cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum. Results of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and post-mortem neuropathological studies of alcoholics indicate that the greatest cortical loss occurs in the frontal lobes, with concurrent thinning of the corpus callosum. Additional damage has been documented for the amygdala and hippocampus, as well as in the white matter of the cerebellum. All of the critical areas of alcoholism-related brain damage are important for normal emotional functioning. When changes occur in these brain regions, either as a consequence of chronic ethanol abuse or from a genetic anomaly affecting temperament and/or a vulnerability to alcoholism, corresponding changes in emotional functions are to be expected. In alcoholics, such changes have been observed in their perception and evaluation of emotional facial expressions, interpretation of emotional intonations in vocal utterances, and appreciation of the meaning of emotional materials. PMID:18568071

  16. The influence of discrete emotions on judgement and decision-making: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Angie, Amanda D; Connelly, Shane; Waples, Ethan P; Kligyte, Vykinta

    2011-12-01

    During the past three decades, researchers interested in emotions and cognition have attempted to understand the relationship that affect and emotions have with cognitive outcomes such as judgement and decision-making. Recent research has revealed the importance of examining more discrete emotions, showing that same-valence emotions (e.g., anger and fear) differentially impact judgement and decision-making outcomes. Narrative reviews of the literature (Lerner & Tiedens, 2006 ; Pham, 2007 ) have identified some under-researched topics, but provide a limited synthesis of findings. The purpose of this study was to review the research examining the influence of discrete emotions on judgement and decision-making outcomes and provide an assessment of the observed effects using a meta-analytic approach. Results, overall, show that discrete emotions have moderate to large effects on judgement and decision-making outcomes. However, moderator analyses revealed differential effects for study-design characteristics and emotion-manipulation characteristics by emotion type. Implications are discussed.

  17. Kurt Lewin's Influence on Social Emotional Climate Research in Germany and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldern, Matthias V.

    Believing that an individual's development is strongly influenced by the way the person perceives his or her environment, Kurt Lewin had a strong influence on the theoretical foundations of social-emotional climate research. Lewin's theories may be compared with the following basic theoretical foundations of social climate research: symbolic…

  18. How emotional arousal and valence influence access to awareness.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Bhavin R; Pham, Thuan

    2008-10-01

    The effect of emotion on visual awareness is largely unknown. Pairs of natural images were presented side by side on a screen in a binocular rivalry setup. The amount of time that each image of a pair dominated perception was computed. Our results showed: (A) A main effect of arousal: Dominance durations of the more arousing picture of iso-valence pairs were longer. (B) No effect of valence: Dominance durations of pleasant and unpleasant pictures of iso-arousal pairs were similar. (C) An interaction between arousal and valence: The more pleasant picture of iso-arousal pairs of low arousal level dominated conscious perception. The less pleasant picture of iso-arousal pairs of high arousal level dominated conscious perception. Our findings suggest that the emotional content of a stimulus affects the extent to which it dominates awareness. While arousal and valence interactively affect access to awareness, only arousal exerts an independent control of such access.

  19. Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren.

  20. The influence of oxytocin on volitional and emotional ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Preckel, Katrin; Eckstein, Monika; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Moral decisions and social relationships are often characterized by strong feelings of ambivalence which can be a catalyst for emotional distress and several health-related problems. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been identified as a key brain region in monitoring conflicting information, but the neurobiological substrates of ambivalence processing are still widely unknown. We have conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments involving 70 healthy male volunteers to investigate the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on neural and behavioral correlates of ambivalence. We chose moral decision-making and the imagery of partner infidelity as examples to probe volitional and emotional ambivalence. In both experiments, intranasal OXT diminished neural responses in the ACC to ambivalence. Under OXT, moral dilemma vignettes also elicited a reduced activation in the orbitofrontal cortex, and the imagery of partner infidelity was rated as less arousing. Interestingly, the OXT-induced differential activation in the ACC predicted the magnitude of arousal reduction. Taken together, our findings reveal an unprecedented role of OXT in causing a domain-general decrease of neural responses to ambivalence. By alleviating emotional distress, OXT may qualify as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders with heightened ambivalence sensitivity such as schizophrenia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:25398434

  1. Sexual and emotional variables influencing sexual response to erotica.

    PubMed

    Koukounas, E; McCabe, M

    1997-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the relative contribution of attention and emotional responses to the sexual response to erotica. Self reported levels of sexual arousal, attention, and emotional responses were measured after 20 men and 20 women viewed a series of erotic film segments. Men and women reported greater sexual arousal to erotica when they became absorbed in the activities portrayed in the film and when they experienced the erotic encounters as appetitive, than when they were distracted and perceived the encounters as aversive. Subjective sexual arousal also correlated positively with the degree to which subjects experienced entertainment and curiousity to the erotic film segments, but negatively with boredom. The level of sexual arousal reported by subjects did not correlate significantly with trait measures of absorption (as indexed by the Tellegen Absorption Scale) and vividness of imagery (as assessed by the Betts Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery). The multidimensional nature of the sexual response was demonstrated by the fact that the magnitude of subjective sexual arousal was predicted by the separate groupings of state assessed attentional and emotional variables, trait indexed absorption and appetitive feelings, and demographic information. These findings applied to both men and women, with the exception that men experienced greater sexual arousal than women, and women reported more disgust to the stimulus materials. Future directions for studying the basis for differences in sexual arousal between men and women are outlined, with an emphasis on a psychophysiological exploration of these phenomena.

  2. Emotion Knowledge and Self-Regulation as Predictors of Preschoolers' Cognitive Ability, Classroom Behavior, and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah

    2012-01-01

    The development of children's cognitive and social skills is a topic of considerable importance and interest in education and educational psychology. The current study examines whether emotion knowledge and self-regulation predict cognitive competence, social competence, and classroom behavior problems among a sample of 74 preschoolers (40 boys).…

  3. Emotion Knowledge and Self-Regulation as Predictors of Preschoolers' Cognitive Ability, Classroom Behavior, and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah

    2012-01-01

    The development of children's cognitive and social skills is a topic of considerable importance and interest in education and educational psychology. The current study examines whether emotion knowledge and self-regulation predict cognitive competence, social competence, and classroom behavior problems among a sample of 74 preschoolers (40 boys).…

  4. Family Day Care Educators' Knowledge, Confidence and Skills in Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing: Baseline Data from Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elise; Corr, Lara; Ummer-Christian, Rahila; Gilson, Kim-Michelle; Waters, Elizabeth; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Marshall, Bernie; Cook, Kay; Herman, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew; Harrsion, Linda; Sims, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents baseline data from Thrive, a capacity-building program for family day care educators. Educators completed a self-report survey assessing knowledge and confidence in promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. An in-home observation was used to assess care quality. Twenty-four educators responded to the survey (40 per…

  5. Perceptions of variability in facial emotion influence beliefs about the stability of psychological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Weisbuch, Max; Grunberg, Rebecca L; Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2016-10-01

    Beliefs about the malleability versus stability of traits (incremental vs. entity lay theories) have a profound impact on social cognition and self-regulation, shaping phenomena that range from the fundamental attribution error and group-based stereotyping to academic motivation and achievement. Less is known about the causes than the effects of these lay theories, and in the current work the authors examine the perception of facial emotion as a causal influence on lay theories. Specifically, they hypothesized that (a) within-person variability in facial emotion signals within-person variability in traits and (b) social environments replete with within-person variability in facial emotion encourage perceivers to endorse incremental lay theories. Consistent with Hypothesis 1, Study 1 participants were more likely to attribute dynamic (vs. stable) traits to a person who exhibited several different facial emotions than to a person who exhibited a single facial emotion across multiple images. Hypothesis 2 suggests that social environments support incremental lay theories to the extent that they include many people who exhibit within-person variability in facial emotion. Consistent with Hypothesis 2, participants in Studies 2-4 were more likely to endorse incremental theories of personality, intelligence, and morality after exposure to multiple individuals exhibiting within-person variability in facial emotion than after exposure to multiple individuals exhibiting a single emotion several times. Perceptions of within-person variability in facial emotion-rather than perceptions of simple diversity in facial emotion-were responsible for these effects. Discussion focuses on how social ecologies shape lay theories. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Determinants of the accuracy of nursing diagnoses: influence of ready knowledge, knowledge sources, disposition toward critical thinking, and reasoning skills.

    PubMed

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used the following questionnaires: (a) knowledge inventory, (b) California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (c) Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT). The use of knowledge sources had very little influence on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Accuracy was significantly related to the analysis domain of the HSRT. Students were unable to operationalize knowledge sources to derive accurate diagnoses and did not effectively use reasoning skills.

  7. How does epistemological knowledge on modelling influence students' engagement in the issue of climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasquier, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    Involvement in climate change has been proven to be hindered by emotional and social barriers, as well as by conceptual difficulties that students may encounter in dealing with scientific content related to particular issues such as the greenhouse effect. In this study, we start from the conjecture that behind many conceptual difficulties and emotional barriers lie particular epistemological obstacles related to a naive and stereotypical view of science. These include, in particular, the belief that science still has the role and power to provide a unique, unquestionable, and certain explanation of events and processes. Such a naive idea clashes strongly with the intrinsic complexity of climate science. This paper sets out to investigate if and how the improvement of epistemological knowledge can influence behavioural habits and foster students' engagement in climate change. In order to explore such an issue, we focus on five interviews collected at the end of a teaching experience on climate change, carried out with secondary school students (grade 11; 16-year olds). This study is a follow-up of other two analytical studies aimed at investigating, respectively, the impact of the experience on students' epistemological knowledge and on their behavioural habits.

  8. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (<2 s) and long (>2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  9. Do sex hormones influence emotional modulation of pain and nociception in healthy women?

    PubMed

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Bartley, Emily J; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; Martin, Satin L; Delventura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L

    2013-12-01

    Sex hormones may contribute to inter- and intra-individual differences in pain by influencing emotional modulation of pain and nociception. To study this, a well-validated picture-viewing paradigm was used to assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR; physiologic measure of nociception) during mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in healthy normally cycling women (n=40). Salivary estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were assessed at each testing session. Emotional modulation of pain/NFR did not differ across menstrual phases, but low estradiol was associated with weaker emotional modulation of NFR (during all phases) and emotional modulation of pain (ovulatory and late-luteal phases). Given evidence that a failure to emotionally modulate pain might be a risk factor for chronic pain, low estradiol may promote chronic pain via this mechanism. However, future research is needed to extend these findings to women with disturbances of pain, emotion, and/or sex hormones.

  10. Friend influence on early adolescent disruptive behavior in the classroom: Teacher emotional support matters.

    PubMed

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated how the level of disruptive behavior and friend influence on disruptive behavior varies across classrooms in relation to teacher emotional support. Data were collected from 48 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (N = 879 students) and included classroom observations at Wave 1 and student reports of their disruptive behavior and peer nominations of their friends at Waves 1 and 2 (fall and spring of the school year, about 6 months apart). In the fall, there were no differences in the level of disruptive behavior between classes that were low versus high in teacher emotional support. However, by spring, disruptive behavior was higher in classes with low teacher emotional support compared to classes high in teacher emotional support. Social network analyses, conducted with stochastic actor-based models, indicated that students were more likely to become similar to their friends in regards to disruptive behavior in classes low in teacher emotional support compared to classes high in teacher emotional support. Thus, the level of disruptive behavior and students' susceptibility to friend influence on disruptive behavior depend on the nature of the classroom context. This study contributes to a growing body of research showing that teachers play an important role in shaping the nature of peer relationships in the classroom. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. How emotional abilities modulate the influence of early life stress on hippocampal functioning

    PubMed Central

    Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Koelsch, Stefan; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Heuser, Isabella; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known to have considerable influence on brain development, mental health and affective functioning. Previous investigations have shown that alexithymia, a prevalent personality trait associated with difficulties experiencing and verbalizing emotions, is particularly related to ELS. The aim of the present study was to investigate how neural correlates of emotional experiences in alexithymia are altered in the presence and absence of ELS. Therefore, 50 healthy individuals with different levels of alexithymia were matched regarding ELS and investigated with respect to neural correlates of audio-visually induced emotional experiences via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The main finding was that ELS modulated hippocampal responses to pleasant (>neutral) stimuli in high-alexithymic individuals, whereas there was no such modulation in low-alexithymic individuals matched for ELS. Behavioral and psychophysiological results followed a similar pattern. When considered independent of ELS, alexithymia was associated with decreased responses in insula (pleasant > neutral) and temporal pole (unpleasant > neutral). Our results show that the influence of ELS on emotional brain responses seems to be modulated by an individual’s degree of alexithymia. Potentially, protective and adverse effects of emotional abilities on brain responses to emotional experiences are discussed. PMID:23685776

  12. How emotional abilities modulate the influence of early life stress on hippocampal functioning.

    PubMed

    Aust, Sabine; Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Koelsch, Stefan; Heekeren, Hauke R; Heuser, Isabella; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-07-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known to have considerable influence on brain development, mental health and affective functioning. Previous investigations have shown that alexithymia, a prevalent personality trait associated with difficulties experiencing and verbalizing emotions, is particularly related to ELS. The aim of the present study was to investigate how neural correlates of emotional experiences in alexithymia are altered in the presence and absence of ELS. Therefore, 50 healthy individuals with different levels of alexithymia were matched regarding ELS and investigated with respect to neural correlates of audio-visually induced emotional experiences via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The main finding was that ELS modulated hippocampal responses to pleasant (>neutral) stimuli in high-alexithymic individuals, whereas there was no such modulation in low-alexithymic individuals matched for ELS. Behavioral and psychophysiological results followed a similar pattern. When considered independent of ELS, alexithymia was associated with decreased responses in insula (pleasant > neutral) and temporal pole (unpleasant > neutral). Our results show that the influence of ELS on emotional brain responses seems to be modulated by an individual's degree of alexithymia. Potentially, protective and adverse effects of emotional abilities on brain responses to emotional experiences are discussed.

  13. Dissociable influences of reward motivation and positive emotion on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Chiew, Kimberly S; Braver, Todd S

    2014-06-01

    It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective and/or motivational influences contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behavior. An unresolved question is whether emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively valenced subjective experience) and motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments) have similar or distinct effects on cognitive control. Prior work has suggested that reward motivation can reliably enhance a proactive mode of cognitive control, whereas other evidence is suggestive that positive emotion improves cognitive flexibility, but reduces proactive control. However, a limitation of the prior research is that reward motivation and positive emotion have largely been studied independently. Here, we directly compared the effects of positive emotion and reward motivation on cognitive control with a tightly matched, within-subjects design, using the AX-continuous performance task paradigm, which allows for relative measurement of proactive versus reactive cognitive control. High-resolution pupillometry was employed as a secondary measure of cognitive dynamics during task performance. Robust increases in behavioral and pupillometric indices of proactive control were observed with reward motivation. The effects of positive emotion were much weaker, but if anything, also reflected enhancement of proactive control, a pattern that diverges from some prior findings. These results indicate that reward motivation has robust influences on cognitive control, while also highlighting the complexity and heterogeneity of positive-emotion effects. The findings are discussed in terms of potential neurobiological mechanisms.

  14. Speaker knowledge influences the comprehension of pragmatic inferences.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Leon; Grodner, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    Inferring what speakers mean from what they say requires consideration of what they know. For instance, depending on the speaker's level of expertise, uttering Some squirrels hibernate can imply that not all squirrels hibernate, or it might imply the weaker proposition that the speaker does not know whether all squirrels hibernate. The present study examines the extent to which speaker knowledge influences implied meanings as well as the timing of any such influence. Using a self-paced presentation, participants read sentences containing some in contexts where a speaker should know whether all was true, or where the speaker merely might know whether all was true. This knowledge manipulation was found to have immediate and reliable effects on the type of inference that was drawn. In contrast, knowledge played no role when the same meanings were conveyed literally. This work thus demonstrates that perceivers consider the speaker's knowledge state incrementally to establish the speaker's communicative goals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D

    2010-12-23

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses.

  16. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses. PMID:20504815

  17. The influence of anxiety on the initial selection of emotional faces presented in binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Gray, Katie L H; Adams, Wendy J; Garner, Matthew

    2009-10-01

    Neurocognitive theories of anxiety predict that threat-related information can be evaluated before attentional selection, and can influence behaviour differentially in high anxious compared to low anxious individuals. We investigate this further by presenting emotional and neutral faces in an adapted binocular rivalry paradigm. We show that the initial selection of emotional faces presented in binocular rivalry is highly influenced by self-reported state and trait anxiety-level. Heightened anxiety was correlated with increased perception of angry and fearful faces, and decreased perception of happy expressions. These results are consistent with recent evidence of involuntary selection of threat in anxiety.

  18. Age, sex, and pubertal phase influence mentalizing about emotions and actions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group.

  19. Attention and emotion influence the relationship between extraversion and neural response

    PubMed Central

    Hutcherson, C. A.; Goldin, P. R.; Ramel, W.; McRae, K.

    2008-01-01

    Extraversion has been shown to positively correlate with activation within the ventral striatum, amygdala and other dopaminergically innervated, reward-sensitive regions. These regions are implicated in emotional responding, in a manner sensitive to attentional focus. However, no study has investigated the interaction among extraversion, emotion and attention. We used fMRI and dynamic, evocative film clips to elicit amusement and sadness in a sample of 28 women. Participants were instructed either to respond naturally (n = 14) or to attend to and continuously rate their emotions (n = 14) while watching the films. Contrary to expectations, striatal response was negatively associated with extraversion during amusement, regardless of attention. A negative association was also observed during sad films, but only when attending to emotion. These findings suggest that attentional focus does not influence the relationship between extraversion and neural response to positive (amusing) stimuli but does impact the response to negative (sad) stimuli. PMID:19015097

  20. Aetiological influences on stability and change in emotional and behavioural problems across development: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, L.J.; Walaker, N.; Waszczuk, M.A.; McAdams, T.A.; Eley, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence can be chronic and are predictive of future psychiatric problems. Understanding what factors drive the development and maintenance of these problems is therefore crucial. Longitudinal behavioural genetic studies using twin, sibling or adoption data can be used to explore the developmental aetiology of stability and change in childhood and adolescent psychopathology. We present a systematic review of longitudinal, behavioural genetic analyses of emotional and behavioural problems between ages 0 to 18 years. We identified 58 studies, of which 19 examined emotional problems, 30 examined behavioural problems, and 9 examined both. In the majority of studies, stability in emotional and behavioural problems was primarily genetically influenced. Stable environmental factors were also widely found, although these typically played a smaller role. Both genetic and environmental factors were involved in change across development. We discuss the findings in the context of the wider developmental literature and make recommendations for future research. PMID:28337341

  1. The influence of emotion on keyboard typing: an experimental study using visual stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Emotion recognition technology plays the essential role of enhancement in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In recent years, a novel approach for emotion recognition has been reported, which is by keystroke dynamics. This approach can be considered to be rather desirable in HCI because the data used is rather non-intrusive and easy to obtain. However, there were only limited investigations about the phenomenon itself in previous studies. This study aims to examine the source of variance in keystroke typing patterns caused by emotions. Methods A controlled experiment to collect subjects’ keystroke data in different emotional states induced by International Affective Picture System (IAPS) was conducted. Two-way Valence (3) × Arousal (3) ANOVAs were used to examine the collected dataset. Results The results of the experiment indicate that the effect of emotion is significant (p < .001) in the keystroke duration, keystroke latency, and accuracy rate of the keyboard typing. However, the size of the emotional effect is small, compare to the individual variability. Conclusions Our findings support the conclusion that the keystroke duration, keystroke latency, and also the accuracy rate of typing, are influenced by emotional states. Notably, the finding about the size of effect suggests that the accuracy rate of the emotion recognition could be further improved if personalized models are utilized. On the other hand, the finding also provides an explanation of why real-world applications which authenticate the identity of users by monitoring keystrokes may not be interfered by the emotional states of users. The experiment was conducted using standard instruments and hence is expected to be highly reproducible. PMID:24950715

  2. Abstract conceptual feature ratings: the role of emotion, magnitude, and other cognitive domains in the organization of abstract conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Troche, Joshua; Reilly, Jamie; Ridgway, Gerard R

    2013-01-01

    This study harnessed control ratings of the contribution of different types of information (sensation, action, emotion, thought, social interaction, morality, time, space, quantity, and polarity) to 400 individual abstract and concrete verbal concepts. These abstract conceptual feature (ACF) ratings were used to generate a high dimensional semantic space, from which Euclidean distance measurements between individual concepts were extracted as a metric of the semantic relatedness of those words. The validity of these distances as a marker of semantic relatedness was then tested by evaluating whether they could predict the comprehension performance of a patient with global aphasia on two verbal comprehension tasks. It was hypothesized that if the high-dimensional space generated from ACF control ratings approximates the organization of abstract conceptual space, then words separated by small distances should be more semantically related than words separated by greater distances, and should therefore be more difficult to distinguish for the comprehension-impaired patient, SKO. SKO was significantly worse at identifying targets presented within word pairs with low ACF distances. Response accuracy was not predicted by Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) cosines, any of the individual feature ratings, or any of the background variables. It is argued that this novel rating procedure provides a window on the semantic attributes of individual abstract concepts, and that multiple cognitive systems may influence the acquisition and organization of abstract conceptual knowledge. More broadly, it is suggested that cognitive models of abstract conceptual knowledge must account for the representation not only of the relationships between abstract concepts but also of the attributes which constitute those individual concepts.

  3. Emotional Scaffolding: An Exploration of the Teacher Knowledge at the Intersection of Student Emotion and the Subject Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosiek, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    The practical knowledge that enables good teaching has emerged over the past decade as an area of critical interest to educational researchers. This article reports on insights gathered during a series of teacher practical knowledge research projects that took place over a 10-year period with more than 40 teacher interns and experienced teachers.…

  4. Empathy, but not mimicry restriction, influences the recognition of change in emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Kosonogov, Vladimir; Titova, Alisa; Vorobyeva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The current study addressed the hypothesis that empathy and the restriction of facial muscles of observers can influence recognition of emotional facial expressions. A sample of 74 participants recognized the subjective onset of emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, and neutral) in a series of morphed face photographs showing a gradual change (frame by frame) from one expression to another. The high-empathy (as measured by the Empathy Quotient) participants recognized emotional facial expressions at earlier photographs from the series than did low-empathy ones, but there was no difference in the exploration time. Restriction of facial muscles of observers (with plasters and a stick in mouth) did not influence the responses. We discuss these findings in the context of the embodied simulation theory and previous data on empathy.

  5. How Does Fiction Reading Influence Empathy? An Experimental Investigation on the Role of Emotional Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Veltkamp, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated whether fiction experiences change empathy of the reader. Based on transportation theory, it was predicted that when people read fiction, and they are emotionally transported into the story, they become more empathic. Two experiments showed that empathy was influenced over a period of one week for people who read a fictional story, but only when they were emotionally transported into the story. No transportation led to lower empathy in both studies, while study 1 showed that high transportation led to higher empathy among fiction readers. These effects were not found for people in the control condition where people read non-fiction. The study showed that fiction influences empathy of the reader, but only under the condition of low or high emotional transportation into the story. PMID:23383160

  6. How does fiction reading influence empathy? An experimental investigation on the role of emotional transportation.

    PubMed

    Bal, P Matthijs; Veltkamp, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated whether fiction experiences change empathy of the reader. Based on transportation theory, it was predicted that when people read fiction, and they are emotionally transported into the story, they become more empathic. Two experiments showed that empathy was influenced over a period of one week for people who read a fictional story, but only when they were emotionally transported into the story. No transportation led to lower empathy in both studies, while study 1 showed that high transportation led to higher empathy among fiction readers. These effects were not found for people in the control condition where people read non-fiction. The study showed that fiction influences empathy of the reader, but only under the condition of low or high emotional transportation into the story.

  7. Entering Adolescence: Resistance to Peer Influence, Risky Behavior, and Neural Changes in Emotion Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Masten, Carrie L.; Moore, William E.; Oswald, Tasha M.; Mazziotta, John C.; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Adolescence is often described as a period of heightened reactivity to emotions paired with reduced regulatory capacities, a combination suggested to contribute to risk-taking and susceptibility to peer influence during puberty. However, no longitudinal research has definitively linked these behavioral changes to underlying neural development. Here, 38 neurotypical participants underwent two fMRI sessions across the transition from late childhood (10 years) to early adolescence (13 years). Responses to affective facial displays exhibited a combination of general and emotion-specific changes in ventral striatum (VS), ventromedial PFC, amygdala, and temporal pole. Furthermore, VS activity increases correlated with decreases in susceptibility to peer influence and risky behavior. VS and amygdala responses were also significantly more negatively coupled in early adolescence than in late childhood while processing sad and happy versus neutral faces. Together, these results suggest that VS responses to viewing emotions may play a regulatory role that is critical to adolescent interpersonal functioning. PMID:21382560

  8. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  9. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  10. Friend Influence on Early Adolescent Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom: Teacher Emotional Support Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated how the level of disruptive behavior and friend influence on disruptive behavior varies across classrooms in relation to teacher emotional support. Data were collected from 48 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (N = 879 students) and included classroom observations at Wave 1 and student reports of their disruptive…

  11. Shared Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and Major Depression/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether genetic contributions to major depressive disorder and conduct disorder comorbidity are shared with genetic influences on negative emotionality. Method: Primary caregivers of 2,022 same- and opposite-sex twin pairs 6 to 18 years of age comprised a population-based sample. Participants were randomly selected across…

  12. Relationship between Young Children's Habitual Computer Use and Influencing Variables on Socio-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Hyun Ah; Chun, Hui Young; Jwa, Seung Hwa; Choi, Mi Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between young children's habitual computer use and influencing variables on socio-emotional development. The participants were 179 five-year-old children. The Internet Addiction Scale for Young Children (IASYC) was used to identify children with high and low levels of habituation to computer use. The data…

  13. Fathers' Influence on Their Children's Cognitive and Emotional Development: From Toddlers to Pre-K

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Shannon, Jacqueline D.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    We present findings based on several of our recent studies that have shown that father engagement has significant effects on children's cognition and language at 24 and 36 months and their social and emotional development at 24, 36 months, and pre-Kindergarten. These studies are guided by the Dynamics of Paternal Influences on Children over the…

  14. Friend Influence on Early Adolescent Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom: Teacher Emotional Support Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated how the level of disruptive behavior and friend influence on disruptive behavior varies across classrooms in relation to teacher emotional support. Data were collected from 48 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (N = 879 students) and included classroom observations at Wave 1 and student reports of their disruptive…

  15. Affective Evaluations of Objects Are Influenced by Observed Gaze Direction and Emotional Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Frischen, Alexandra; Fenske, Mark J.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Gaze direction signals another person's focus of interest. Facial expressions convey information about their mental state. Appropriate responses to these signals should reflect their combined influence, yet current evidence suggests that gaze-cueing effects for objects near an observed face are not modulated by its emotional expression. Here, we…

  16. Fathers' Influence on Their Children's Cognitive and Emotional Development: From Toddlers to Pre-K

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Shannon, Jacqueline D.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    We present findings based on several of our recent studies that have shown that father engagement has significant effects on children's cognition and language at 24 and 36 months and their social and emotional development at 24, 36 months, and pre-Kindergarten. These studies are guided by the Dynamics of Paternal Influences on Children over the…

  17. The Influence of Anxiety on the Initial Selection of Emotional Faces Presented in Binocular Rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katie L. H.; Adams, Wendy J.; Garner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive theories of anxiety predict that threat-related information can be evaluated before attentional selection, and can influence behaviour differentially in high anxious compared to low anxious individuals. We investigate this further by presenting emotional and neutral faces in an adapted binocular rivalry paradigm. We show that the…

  18. Shared Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and Major Depression/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether genetic contributions to major depressive disorder and conduct disorder comorbidity are shared with genetic influences on negative emotionality. Method: Primary caregivers of 2,022 same- and opposite-sex twin pairs 6 to 18 years of age comprised a population-based sample. Participants were randomly selected across…

  19. Relationship between Young Children's Habitual Computer Use and Influencing Variables on Socio-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Hyun Ah; Chun, Hui Young; Jwa, Seung Hwa; Choi, Mi Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between young children's habitual computer use and influencing variables on socio-emotional development. The participants were 179 five-year-old children. The Internet Addiction Scale for Young Children (IASYC) was used to identify children with high and low levels of habituation to computer use. The data…

  20. Influence of negative emotion on the framing effect: evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Pei, Guanxiong; Wang, Kai

    2015-04-15

    The framing effect is the phenomenon in which different descriptions of an identical problem can result in different choices. The influence of negative emotions on the framing effect and its neurocognitive basis are important issues, especially in the domain of saving lives, which is essential and highly risky. In each trial of our experiment, the emotion stimulus is presented to the participants, followed by the decision-making stimulus, which comprises certain and risky options with the same expected value. Each pair of options is positively or negatively framed. The behavioral results indicate a significant interactive effect between negative emotion and frame; thus, the risk preference under the positive frame can be enhanced by negative emotions, whereas this finding is not true under the negative frame. The event-related potential analysis indicates that choosing certain options under the positive frame with negative emotion priming generates smaller P2 and P3 amplitudes and a larger N2 amplitude than with neutral emotion priming. The event-related potential findings indicate that individuals can detect risk faster and experience more conflict and increased decision difficulty if they choose certain options under the positive frame with negative priming compared with neutral priming.

  1. The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-08-01

    Putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., acceptance, problem solving, reappraisal) show weaker associations with psychopathology than putatively maladaptive strategies (e.g., avoidance, self-criticism, hiding expression, suppression of experience, worry, rumination). This is puzzling, given the central role that adaptive strategies play in a wide range of psychotherapeutic approaches. We explored this asymmetry by examining the effects of context (i.e., emotion intensity, type of emotion, social vs. academic circumstances) on the implementation of adaptive and maladaptive strategies. We asked 111 participants to describe 8 emotion-eliciting situations and identify which strategies they used in order to regulate their affect. We found support for a contextual model of emotion regulation, in which adaptive strategies were implemented with more cross-situational variability than maladaptive strategies. In addition, the variability in implementation of two adaptive strategies (acceptance, problem solving) predicted lower levels of psychopathology, suggesting that flexible implementation of such strategies in line with contextual demands is associated with better mental health. We discuss these findings by underscoring the importance of adopting a functional approach to the delineation of contextual factors that influence the implementation of emotion regulation strategies.

  2. Psychosocial stressor effects on cortisol and ghrelin in emotional and non-emotional eaters: influence of anger and shame.

    PubMed

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-09-01

    Food consumption in stressful situations vary as a function of individual difference factors (e.g., emotional vs. non-emotional eating), and may be related to hormonal responses elicited by the stressful event. These hormonal responses may be tied to specific emotions elicited by the stressful event. The present investigation examined the emotional and hormonal (cortisol, ghrelin) responses of high and low emotional eaters following a laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Women (n=48) either high or low in emotional eating status were tested in a TSST or served as controls during which blood samples were taken for analysis of cortisol and ghrelin, both of which have been implicated in eating and in response to stressors. The TSST promoted elevated cortisol levels, being somewhat more pronounced in emotional than in non-emotional eaters. Both shame and anger were provoked by the TSST, and although both these emotions were correlated with cortisol levels, only anger significantly mediated the relationship between the stressor and cortisol levels. As well, baseline ghrelin levels in low emotional eaters exceeded that of high emotional eaters, and increased moderately in response to the stressor situation, irrespective of emotional eating status. Interestingly, when provided with food, ghrelin levels declined in the non-emotional eaters, but not in emotional eaters. The possibility is offered that the lack of a decline of ghrelin in emotional eaters may sustain eating in these individuals.

  3. The influence of negative emotion on the Simon effect as reflected by p300.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Shang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Simon effect refers to the phenomenon that reaction time (RT) is faster when stimulus and response location are congruent than when they are not. This study used the priming-target paradigm to explore the influence of induced negative emotion on the Simon effect with event-related potential techniques (ERPs). The priming stimuli were composed of two kinds of pictures, the negative and neutral pictures, selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). The target stimuli included chessboards of two color types. One was red and black the other one was green and black. Each chessboard was presented on the left or the right of the screen. The participants were asked to press the response keys according to the colors of the chessboards. It was called the congruent condition if the chessboard and the response key were on the same side, otherwise incongruent condition. In this study, the emotion-priming Simon effect was found in terms of RT and P300. Negative emotion compared with neutral emotion significantly enhanced the Simon effect in the cognitive process, reflected by a larger difference of P300 latency between the incongruent and congruent trials. The results suggest that the induced negative emotion influenced the Simon effect at the late stage of the cognitive process, and the P300 latency could be considered as the reference measure. These findings may be beneficial to researches in psychology and industrial engineering in the future.

  4. Modifying action sounds influences people's emotional responses and bodily sensations

    PubMed Central

    Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Klanovicz, Cristiano Porto; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a “virtual runway” while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet). Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance), as well as their bodily sensations. PMID:25469221

  5. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and coping strategies influence successful emotion regulation in an acute stress situation: Physiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Plieger, Thomas; Melchers, Martin; Vetterlein, Annabel; Görtz, Janina; Kuhn, Sarah; Ruppel, Melissa; Reuter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Emotion regulation is an important everyday-life skill to reduce harm and stress. Consequently, research shows associations between psychopathologies and emotional dysregulation. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) has repeatedly been associated to phenotypes and syndromes related to emotional dysregulation. However, there is no study showing any direct effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype and emotion regulation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to draw a link between 5-HTTLPR to emotion regulation. N=91 healthy participants filled in a coping questionnaire, provided gene samples and participated in an emotion regulation experiment. In a within-subject design they viewed emotional pictures and were either instructed to suppress their emotions or not. During the emotion regulation task, skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded. Emotion regulation abilities measured by SCR were influenced by 5-HTTLPR and coping strategies, together explaining 30% of variance. S-allele carriers showed increased SCRs when watching aversive stimuli in the uninstructed condition. However, when receiving an emotion regulation instruction, they were able to downregulate their arousal resulting in comparable SCRs as observed in LL-carriers. This is the first study showing an impact of 5-HTTLPR on physiological emotion regulation. Results show that S-allele carriers have the same emotional arousal as L-allele carriers, when they get a supportive instruction to suppress unwanted feelings. These findings have implications for psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children's ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children's ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  7. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6–16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6–16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  8. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Social Emotional Assessment and Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribble, Lois Marie

    2013-01-01

    Social emotional competence is an essential developmental skill recognized as the most critical for school and later success. Rising rates in behavioral referrals and preschool expulsion have brought increased attention to the importance of helping children develop social-emotional skills in the early years. In early childhood education a central…

  9. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Social Emotional Assessment and Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribble, Lois Marie

    2013-01-01

    Social emotional competence is an essential developmental skill recognized as the most critical for school and later success. Rising rates in behavioral referrals and preschool expulsion have brought increased attention to the importance of helping children develop social-emotional skills in the early years. In early childhood education a central…

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Emotions and the Acquisition of Computer Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.

    2008-01-01

    Most computer users have to deal with major software upgrades every 6-18 months. Given the pressure of having to adjust so quickly and so often, it is reasonable to assume that users will express emotional reactions such as anger, desperation, anxiety, or relief during the learning process. To date, the primary emotion studied with respect to…

  11. Factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being among Medicare-Medicaid enrollees.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kathy D; Pepper, Ginette A; Caserta, Michael; Wong, Bob; Brunker, Cherie P; Morris, Diana L; Burant, Christopher J; Hazelett, Susan; Kropp, Denise; Allen, Kyle R

    2015-01-01

    Dually enrolled Medicare-Medicaid older adults are a vulnerable population. We tested House's Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees by examining the extent to which disparities indicators, which included race, age, gender, neighborhood poverty, education, income, exercise (e.g., walking), and physical activity (e.g., housework) influence physical function and emotional well-being. This secondary analysis included 337 Black (31%) and White (69%) older Medicare-Medicaid enrollees. Using path analysis, we determined that race, neighborhood poverty, education, and income did not influence physical function or emotional well-being. However, physical activity (e.g., housework) was associated with an increased self-report of physical function and emotional well-being of β = .23, p < .001; β = .17, p < .01, respectively. Future studies of factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being in this population should take into account health status indicators such as allostatic load, comorbidity, and perceived racism/discrimination.

  12. The Influence of Self-Regulated Learning and Prior Knowledge on Knowledge Acquisition in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacki, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how learners construct textbase and situation model knowledge in hypertext computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) and documented the influence of specific self-regulated learning (SRL) tactics, prior knowledge, and characteristics of the learner on posttest knowledge scores from exposure to a hypertext. A sample of 160…

  13. The influence of graphotactic knowledge on adults' learning of spelling.

    PubMed

    Sobaco, Amélie; Treiman, Rebecca; Peereman, Ronald; Borchardt, Gaëlle; Pacton, Sébastien

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments investigated whether and how the learning of spelling by French university students is influenced by the graphotactic legitimacy of the spellings. Participants were exposed to three types of novel spellings: AB, which do not contain doublets (e.g., guprane); AAB, with a doublet before a single consonant, which is legitimate in French (e.g., gupprane); and ABB, with a doublet after a single consonant, which is illegitimate (e.g., guprrane). In Experiment 1, the nonwords were embedded within texts that participants read for meaning. In Experiment 2, participants read the nonwords in isolation, with or without instruction to memorize their spellings; they copied the nonwords in Experiment 3. In all of these conditions, AB and AAB spellings were learned more readily than ABB spellings. Although participants were highly knowledgeable about the illegitimacy of ABB spellings, the orthographic distinctiveness of these spellings did not make them easier to recall than legitimate spellings. When recalling ABB spellings, participants sometimes made transposition errors, doubling the wrong consonant of a cluster (e.g., spelling gupprane instead of guprrane). Participants almost never transposed the doubling for AAB items. Transposition errors, biased in the direction of replacing illegitimate with legitimate orthographic patterns, show that graphotactic knowledge influences memory for specific items. An analysis of the spellings produced in the copy phase and final recall test of Experiment 3 further suggests that transposition errors resulted not so much from reconstructive processes at the time of recall but from reconstructive processes or inefficient encoding at earlier points.

  14. Negative Emotionality and Disconstraint Influence PTSD Symptom Course via Exposure to New Major Adverse Life Events

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23 – 68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  15. High and low emotion events influence emotional stress perceptions and are associated with salivary cortisol response changes in a consecutive stress paradigm.

    PubMed

    Nejtek, Vicki A

    2002-04-01

    Numerous studies over the last few decades have successfully utilized "psychological" stressors to examine stress-induced cortisol release as a function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cascade. In contrast, research examining the effect emotionally-laden stressors may have on cortisol release is scarce. Moreover, the results from the few studies that have examined subjective perceptions of emotional stress and their relationship to cortisol release are mixed. Thus, little is known about the impact an emotionally-charged stressor may have on cortisol responsivity and even less is understood about the relationship between cortisol release and perceived emotional stress. The primary goal of the present research was to investigate the effect of consecutive, emotionally stressful events on cortisol release. The secondary goal was to examine the influence perceptions about emotionally stressful events might have on cortisol responsivity. This is the first study to identify two distinct patterns of cortisol release that were significantly reversed (P=0.006) in response to high and low emotion events presented in a consecutive stress paradigm that were associated with perceptions of emotional stress.

  16. Influence of emotional valence and arousal on the spread of activation in memory.

    PubMed

    Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Leveau, Nicolas; Denhière, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Controversy still persists on whether emotional valence and arousal influence cognitive activities. Our study sought to compare how these two factors foster the spread of activation within the semantic network. In a lexical decision task, prime words were varied depending on the valence (pleasant or unpleasant) or on the level of emotional arousal (high or low). Target words were carefully selected to avoid semantic priming effects, as well as to avoid arousing specific emotions (neutral). Three SOA durations (220, 420 and 720 ms) were applied across three independent groups. Results indicate that at 220 ms, the effect of arousal is significantly higher than the effect of valence in facilitating spreading activation while at 420 ms, the effect of valence is significantly higher than the effect of arousal in facilitating spreading activation. These findings suggest that affect is a sequential process involving the successive intervention of arousal and valence.

  17. The influence of emotional facial expressions on gaze-following in grouped and solitary pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Chong, Andrew; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R; Couzin, Iain D

    2014-07-23

    The mechanisms contributing to collective attention in humans remain unclear. Research indicates that pedestrians utilise the gaze direction of others nearby to acquire environmentally relevant information, but it is not known which, if any, additional social cues influence this transmission. Extending upon previous field studies, we investigated whether gaze cues paired with emotional facial expressions (neutral, happy, suspicious and fearsome) of an oncoming walking confederate modulate gaze-following by pedestrians moving in a natural corridor. We found that pedestrians walking alone were not sensitive to this manipulation, while individuals traveling together in groups did reliably alter their response in relation to emotional cues. In particular, members of a collective were more likely to follow gaze cues indicative of a potential threat (i.e., suspicious or fearful facial expression). This modulation of visual attention dependent on whether pedestrians are in social aggregates may be important to drive adaptive exploitation of social information, and particularly emotional stimuli within natural contexts.

  18. Implicit racial attitudes influence perceived emotional intensity on other-race faces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiandong; Chen, Guowei; Wang, Zhaoquan; Hu, Chao S; Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue

    2014-01-01

    An ability to accurately perceive and evaluate out-group members' emotions plays a critical role in intergroup interactions. Here we showed that Chinese participants' implicit attitudes toward White people bias their perception and judgment of emotional intensity of White people's facial expressions such as anger, fear and sadness. We found that Chinese participants held pro-Chinese/anti-White implicit biases that were assessed in an evaluative implicit association test (IAT). Moreover, their implicit biases positively predicted the perceived intensity of White people's angry, fearful and sad facial expressions but not for happy expressions. This study demonstrates that implicit racial attitudes can influence perception and judgment of a range of emotional expressions. Implications for intergroup interactions were discussed.

  19. Analogy use in naturalistic settings: the influence of audience, emotion, and goals.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, I; Dunbar, K

    2001-07-01

    The ways in which analogy was used in a nonexperimental environment-politics-was investigated. We used the framework developed in analogy research to analyze the selection of analogical sources in political discourse. We took all the analogies reported in newspapers during the final week of a referendum campaign in Canada and analyzed the features of the different analogies used. We identified 234 analogies and analyzed the range over which analogies were used, semantic categories of analogies, goals of the analogizer, and emotional connotation of the analogies. Our results reveal that analogy was frequently used, that over two-thirds of the analogical sources were nonpolitical, and that many of the sources had strong emotional connotations. Furthermore, the goal of the analogizer influenced the selection of sources. We conclude that characteristics of the audience and emotionality of the source analog are important features in the selection of source analogs.

  20. Influences of menstrual cycle position and sex hormone levels on spontaneous intrusive recollections following emotional stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Ferree, Nikole K.; Kamat, Rujvi; Cahill, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous intrusive recollections (SIRs) are known to follow emotional events in clinical and nonclinical populations. Previous work in our lab has found that women report more SIRs than men after exposure to emotional films, and that this effect is driven entirely by women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. To replicate and extend this finding, participants viewed emotional films, provided saliva samples for sex hormone concentration analysis, and estimated SIR frequency following film viewing. Women in the luteal phase reported significantly more SIRs than did women in the follicular phase, and SIR frequency significantly correlated with salivary progesterone levels. The results are consistent with an emerging pattern in the literature suggesting that menstrual cycle position of female participants can potently influence findings in numerous cognitive domains. The potential implications of these results for disorders characterized by intrusions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, are also discussed. PMID:21353599

  1. Emotional and instrumental support influencing male caregivers for people with dementia living at home.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Midori; Kimura, Hiromi; Ogomori, Koji; Ogata, Kumiko

    2017-05-01

    Object: To clarify the emotional and instrumental support influencing male caregivers for people with dementia living at home. Patients/Materials and Methods: The subjects were 298 male caregivers. Nursing care burden was assessed using the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale. Ability to cope with care problems was assessed using the Nursing Care Problems Coping Scale for Male Caregivers for People with Dementia Living at Home (NCSM). Emotional support was assessed using the Emotional Support Network Scale. Instrumental support was assessed using the question "Do you have someone to help when you have a problem with nursing care?". Results: There was a significant correlation (P < 0.04) between the point (index) of NCSM and Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale. A positive significant correlation was found in three coping styles. A negative significant correlation was found in one coping style, and no significant correlation in one coping style. The 'Solve the problem' coping style was linked to support from both within and beyond the family. Both 'Emotional avoidance' and 'Cognitive transformation' coping styles were linked to support from within the family, and "Request assistance" style only to external support. There were no correlations between the source of support and the "Careful supervision and waiting" coping style. Conclusion: Emotional and instrumental support for male caregivers was more than three times more likely to be obtained from within the family than outside it. With families becoming smaller, it is becoming more important for communities and society in general to provide emotional and instrumental support for male caregivers. Male caregivers need support from someone with whom they feel comfortable. It is particularly necessary to consider how to support male caregivers who use the "Emotional avoidance" coping style.

  2. Affective engagement for facial expressions and emotional scenes: The influence of social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wangelin, Bethany C.; Bradley, Margaret M.; Kastner, Anna; Lang, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Pictures of emotional facial expressions or natural scenes are often used as cues in emotion research. We examined the extent to which these different stimuli engage emotion and attention, and whether the presence of social anxiety symptoms influences responding to facial cues. Sixty participants reporting high or low social anxiety viewed pictures of angry, neutral, and happy faces, as well as violent, neutral, and erotic scenes, while skin conductance and event-related potentials were recorded. Acoustic startle probes were presented throughout picture viewing, and blink magnitude, probe P3 and reaction time to the startle probe also were measured. Results indicated that viewing emotional scenes prompted strong reactions in autonomic, central, and reflex measures, whereas pictures of faces were generally weak elicitors of measurable emotional response. However, higher social anxiety was associated with modest electrodermal changes when viewing angry faces and mild startle potentiation when viewing either angry or smiling faces, compared to neutral. Taken together, pictures of facial expressions do not strongly engage fundamental affective reactions, but these cues appeared to be effective in distinguishing between high and low social anxiety participants, supporting their use in anxiety research. PMID:22643041

  3. Affective engagement for facial expressions and emotional scenes: the influence of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Wangelin, Bethany C; Bradley, Margaret M; Kastner, Anna; Lang, Peter J

    2012-09-01

    Pictures of emotional facial expressions or natural scenes are often used as cues in emotion research. We examined the extent to which these different stimuli engage emotion and attention, and whether the presence of social anxiety symptoms influences responding to facial cues. Sixty participants reporting high or low social anxiety viewed pictures of angry, neutral, and happy faces, as well as violent, neutral, and erotic scenes, while skin conductance and event-related potentials were recorded. Acoustic startle probes were presented throughout picture viewing, and blink magnitude, probe P3 and reaction time to the startle probe also were measured. Results indicated that viewing emotional scenes prompted strong reactions in autonomic, central, and reflex measures, whereas pictures of faces were generally weak elicitors of measurable emotional response. However, higher social anxiety was associated with modest electrodermal changes when viewing angry faces and mild startle potentiation when viewing either angry or smiling faces, compared to neutral. Taken together, pictures of facial expressions do not strongly engage fundamental affective reactions, but these cues appeared to be effective in distinguishing between high and low social anxiety participants, supporting their use in anxiety research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. How does emotion influence different creative performances? The mediating role of cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Ping-Hsun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility is proposed to be one of the factors underlying how positive emotions can improve creativity. However, previous works have seldom set up or empirically measured an independent index to demonstrate its mediating effect, nor have they investigated its mediating role on different types of creative performances, which involve distinct processes. In this study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral or negative affect conditions. Their levels of cognitive flexibility were then measured by a switch task. Finally, their creative performances were calibrated by either an open-ended divergent thinking test or a closed-ended insight problem-solving task. The results showed that positive emotional states could reduce switch costs and enhance both types of creative performances. However, cognitive flexibility exhibited a full mediating effect only on the relationship between positive emotion and insight problem solving, but not between positive emotion and divergent thinking. Divergent thinking was instead more associated with arousal level. These results suggest that emotions might influence different creative performances through distinct mechanisms.

  5. Influence of emotional states on inhibitory gating: Animals models to clinical neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, Howard C.; Atchley, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating research efforts using a cross-domain approach could redefine traditional constructs used in behavioral and clinical neuroscience by demonstrating that behavior and mental processes arise not from functional isolation but from integration. Our research group has been examining the interface between cognitive and emotional processes by studying inhibitory gating. Inhibitory gating can be measured via changes in behavior or neural signal processing. Sensorimotor gating of the startle response is a well-used measure. To study how emotion and cognition interact during startle modulation in the animal model, we examined ultrasonic vocalization (USV) emissions during acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition. We found high rates of USV emission during the sensorimotor gating paradigm and revealed links between prepulse inhibition (PPI) and USV emission that could reflect emotional and cognitive influences. Measuring inhibitory gating as P50 event-related potential suppression has also revealed possible connections between emotional states and cognitive processes. We have examined the single unit responses during the traditional gating paradigm and found that acute and chronic stress can alter gating of neural signals in regions such as amygdala, striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings point to the need for more cross-domain research on how shifting states of emotion can impact basic mechanisms of information processing. Results could inform clinical work with the development of tools that depend upon cross-domain communication, and enable a better understanding and evaluation of psychological impairment. PMID:24861710

  6. Influence of emotional states on inhibitory gating: animals models to clinical neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Howard C; Atchley, Rachel M

    2015-01-01

    Integrating research efforts using a cross-domain approach could redefine traditional constructs used in behavioral and clinical neuroscience by demonstrating that behavior and mental processes arise not from functional isolation but from integration. Our research group has been examining the interface between cognitive and emotional processes by studying inhibitory gating. Inhibitory gating can be measured via changes in behavior or neural signal processing. Sensorimotor gating of the startle response is a well-used measure. To study how emotion and cognition interact during startle modulation in the animal model, we examined ultrasonic vocalization (USV) emissions during acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition. We found high rates of USV emission during the sensorimotor gating paradigm and revealed links between prepulse inhibition (PPI) and USV emission that could reflect emotional and cognitive influences. Measuring inhibitory gating as P50 event-related potential suppression has also revealed possible connections between emotional states and cognitive processes. We have examined the single unit responses during the traditional gating paradigm and found that acute and chronic stress can alter gating of neural signals in regions such as amygdala, striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings point to the need for more cross-domain research on how shifting states of emotion can impact basic mechanisms of information processing. Results could inform clinical work with the development of tools that depend upon cross-domain communication, and enable a better understanding and evaluation of psychological impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Emotion on Keyboard Typing: An Experimental Study Using Auditory Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Po-Ming; Tsui, Wei-Hsuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a novel approach for emotion recognition has been reported, which is by keystroke dynamics. The advantages of using this approach are that the data used is rather non-intrusive and easy to obtain. However, there were only limited investigations about the phenomenon itself in previous studies. Hence, this study aimed to examine the source of variance in keyboard typing patterns caused by emotions. A controlled experiment to collect subjects' keystroke data in different emotional states induced by International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) was conducted. Two-way Valence (3) x Arousal (3) ANOVAs was used to examine the collected dataset. The results of the experiment indicate that the effect of arousal is significant in keystroke duration (p < .05), keystroke latency (p < .01), but not in the accuracy rate of keyboard typing. The size of the emotional effect is small, compared to the individual variability. Our findings support the conclusion that the keystroke duration and latency are influenced by arousal. The finding about the size of the effect suggests that the accuracy rate of emotion recognition technology could be further improved if personalized models are utilized. Notably, the experiment was conducted using standard instruments and hence is expected to be highly reproducible.

  8. Prestimulus default mode activity influences depth of processing and recognition in an emotional memory task.

    PubMed

    Soravia, Leila M; Witmer, Joëlle S; Schwab, Simon; Nakataki, Masahito; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Henke, Katharina; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2016-03-01

    Low self-referential thoughts are associated with better concentration, which leads to deeper encoding and increases learning and subsequent retrieval. There is evidence that being engaged in externally rather than internally focused tasks is related to low neural activity in the default mode network (DMN) promoting open mind and the deep elaboration of new information. Thus, reduced DMN activity should lead to enhanced concentration, comprehensive stimulus evaluation including emotional categorization, deeper stimulus processing, and better long-term retention over one whole week. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain activation preceding and during incidental encoding of emotional pictures and on subsequent recognition performance. During fMRI, 24 subjects were exposed to 80 pictures of different emotional valence and subsequently asked to complete an online recognition task one week later. Results indicate that neural activity within the medial temporal lobes during encoding predicts subsequent memory performance. Moreover, a low activity of the default mode network preceding incidental encoding leads to slightly better recognition performance independent of the emotional perception of a picture. The findings indicate that the suppression of internally-oriented thoughts leads to a more comprehensive and thorough evaluation of a stimulus and its emotional valence. Reduced activation of the DMN prior to stimulus onset is associated with deeper encoding and enhanced consolidation and retrieval performance even one week later. Even small prestimulus lapses of attention influence consolidation and subsequent recognition performance.

  9. Influence of emotional balance during a learning and recall test in horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Mengoli, Manuel; Pageat, Patrick; Lafont-Lecuelle, Céline; Monneret, Philippe; Giacalone, Aline; Sighieri, Claudio; Cozzi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    Modern day horse-human relationships entail different types of sport and riding activities, which all require learning. In evaluating the interaction between learning and emotions, studying normal coping strategies or adaptive responses to the surroundings is critical. 34 horses were involved in a cognitive test, in the absence of physical effort, to analyze performance, as well as physiological and behavioral responses related to learning, memorization and recall, associated to the capacity to reverse a learned model. Synthetic Equine Appeasing Pheromone (EAP) was used in 17 horses in order to modulate their emotional state and evaluate differences in cognitive-emotional response during cognitive effort in comparison to the control group (placebo group). Both groups showed statistically significant changes in heart rate during the test, indicating emotional and physio-cognitive activation. The EAP group produced fewer errors and made more correct choices, showing behaviors related to increased attention, with less influence from environmental stimuli. The capacity to learn to learn, as shown in the bibliography, allows animals to establish conceptual learning, when a normal or positive emotional state (in this case modulated by semiochemicals) is used to control limbic system activation and, consequently, decrease stressful/fearful reactions, resulting in better learning capacities during the cognitive test.

  10. The Influence of Emotion on Keyboard Typing: An Experimental Study Using Auditory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Po-Ming; Tsui, Wei-Hsuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a novel approach for emotion recognition has been reported, which is by keystroke dynamics. The advantages of using this approach are that the data used is rather non-intrusive and easy to obtain. However, there were only limited investigations about the phenomenon itself in previous studies. Hence, this study aimed to examine the source of variance in keyboard typing patterns caused by emotions. A controlled experiment to collect subjects’ keystroke data in different emotional states induced by International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) was conducted. Two-way Valence (3) x Arousal (3) ANOVAs was used to examine the collected dataset. The results of the experiment indicate that the effect of arousal is significant in keystroke duration (p < .05), keystroke latency (p < .01), but not in the accuracy rate of keyboard typing. The size of the emotional effect is small, compared to the individual variability. Our findings support the conclusion that the keystroke duration and latency are influenced by arousal. The finding about the size of the effect suggests that the accuracy rate of emotion recognition technology could be further improved if personalized models are utilized. Notably, the experiment was conducted using standard instruments and hence is expected to be highly reproducible. PMID:26065902

  11. Emotional intensity influences pre-implementation and implementation of distraction and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Roni; Schwartz, Naama; Blechert, Jens; Sheppes, Gal

    2015-10-01

    Although emotional intensity powerfully challenges regulatory strategies, its influence remains largely unexplored in affective-neuroscience. Accordingly, the present study addressed the moderating role of emotional intensity in two regulatory stages--implementation (during regulation) and pre-implementation (prior to regulation), of two major cognitive regulatory strategies--distraction and reappraisal. According to our framework, because distraction implementation involves early attentional disengagement from emotional information before it gathers force, in high-intensity it should be more effective in the short-term, relative to reappraisal, which modulates emotional processing only at a late semantic meaning phase. Supporting findings showed that in high (but not low) intensity, distraction implementation resulted in stronger modulation of negative experience, reduced neural emotional processing (centro-parietal late positive potential, LPP), with suggestive evidence for less cognitive effort (frontal-LPP), relative to reappraisal. Related pre-implementation findings confirmed that anticipating regulation of high-intensity stimuli resulted in distraction (over reappraisal) preference. In contrast, anticipating regulation of low-intensity stimuli resulted in reappraisal (over distraction) preference, which is most beneficial for long-term adaptation. Furthermore, anticipating cognitively demanding regulation, either in cases of regulating counter to these preferences or via the more effortful strategy of reappraisal, enhanced neural attentional resource allocation (Stimulus Preceding Negativity). Broad implications are discussed. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Arousal Rather than Basic Emotions Influence Long-Term Recognition Memory in Humans.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Artur; Wypych, Marek; Moslehi, Abnoos; Riegel, Monika; Michałowski, Jarosław M; Jednoróg, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Emotion can influence various cognitive processes, however its impact on memory has been traditionally studied over relatively short retention periods and in line with dimensional models of affect. The present study aimed to investigate emotional effects on long-term recognition memory according to a combined framework of affective dimensions and basic emotions. Images selected from the Nencki Affective Picture System were rated on the scale of affective dimensions and basic emotions. After 6 months, subjects took part in a surprise recognition test during an fMRI session. The more negative the pictures the better they were remembered, but also the more false recognitions they provoked. Similar effects were found for the arousal dimension. Recognition success was greater for pictures with lower intensity of happiness and with higher intensity of surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust. Consecutive fMRI analyses showed a significant activation for remembered (recognized) vs. forgotten (not recognized) images in anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula as well as in bilateral caudate nuclei and right thalamus. Further, arousal was found to be the only subjective rating significantly modulating brain activation. Higher subjective arousal evoked higher activation associated with memory recognition in the right caudate and the left cingulate gyrus. Notably, no significant modulation was observed for other subjective ratings, including basic emotion intensities. These results emphasize the crucial role of arousal for long-term recognition memory and support the hypothesis that the memorized material, over time, becomes stored in a distributed cortical network including the core salience network and basal ganglia.

  13. [Influence of Teamwork on Wellbeing And Emotional Exhaustion of Staff in German Rehabilitation Clinics].

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Konrad, A; Zimmermann, L; Müller, C; Tomczyk, S; Reichler, L; Körner, M

    2016-06-09

    Aim: In the context of high prevalence rates of mental and psychosomatic disorders in the medical staff, emotional exhaustion and wellbeing are often considered as important indicators. Teamwork can have a positive influence on wellbeing of staff members. In the sector of rehabilitation, however, this is not sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of teamwork as predictors of wellbeing and emotional exhaustion in staff at rehabilitation clinics in Germany. Methods: Data was collected in 10 rehabilitation clinics, 9 of them could be included in the data analysis (n=306, 70% female, 68% age 40-59). Data was analyzed with multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Staff reported moderate rates of emotional exhaustion and good rates of overall wellbeing. Results of the regression analysis show that cohesion (β=0.27, p<0,001), team organization (β=0.19, p<0,01) and age (β=0.13, p<0,05) could predict wellbeing (F[3, 244]=19.38, p<0,05). Emotional exhaustion was predicted by cohesion (β=- 0.37, p<0,001, F[1, 244]=39.19). Conclusion: Consequences of interpersonal andstructural aspects of teamwork are discussed as well as the potential relevance of interventions to improve teamwork, in order to enhance wellbeing and counteract emotional exhaustion of staff members.

  14. The Influence of Emotion on Cognitive Control: Relevance for Development and Adolescent Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sven C.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the neural mechanisms underlying emotion processing on the one hand, and cognitive control and executive function on the other hand. More recently, studies have begun to directly examine how concurrent emotion processing influences cognitive control performance but many questions remain currently unresolved. Interestingly, parallel to investigations in healthy adults, research in developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental affective disorders has provided some intriguing findings that complement the adult literature. This review provides an overview of current research on cognitive control and emotion interactions. It integrates parallel lines of research in adulthood and development and will draw on several lines of evidence ranging from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging work in healthy adults and extend these to work in pediatric development and patients with affective disorders. Particular emphasis is given to studies that provide information on the neurobiological underpinnings of emotional and cognitive control processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The findings are then summarized and discussed in relation to neurochemical processes and the dopamine hypothesis of prefrontal cortical function. Finally, open areas of research for future study are identified and discussed within the context of cognitive control emotion interactions. PMID:22275904

  15. Associations between endogenous cortisol levels and emotional memory in young women: influence of encoding instructions.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Diana; Schoofs, Daniela; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-09-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is known to influence memory. Elevated cortisol levels as a consequence of stress or as a consequence of cortisol administration have been repeatedly shown to enhance encoding and consolidation of (emotional) memory. Whether similar associations exist between basal cortisol levels and emotional memory remains to be established. The present study therefore evaluated if resting cortisol levels are correlated with memory for emotionally arousing and neutral pictures in a sample of young healthy females (n = 56). A second aim of the study was to explore if the relationship between basal cortisol levels and memory might be modulated by encoding instructions (intentional vs. incidental encoding). A significant positive correlation between basal salivary cortisol levels and memory for emotionally arousing pictures in a 24 h delayed free recall test was found. Further analyses revealed that this association only occurred in the group receiving intentional encoding instructions. Results indicate that basal cortisol levels, similarly to stress induced cortisol levels, are associated with emotional memory formation. Moreover this effect seems to be modulated by encoding instructions, suggesting a role of focussed attention or arousal induced by testing in this relationship.

  16. Emotional facial expressions differentially influence predictions and performance for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Nomi, Jason S; Rhodes, Matthew G; Cleary, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how participants' predictions of future memory performance are influenced by emotional facial expressions. Participants made judgements of learning (JOLs) predicting the likelihood that they would correctly identify a face displaying a happy, angry, or neutral emotional expression in a future two-alternative forced-choice recognition test of identity (i.e., recognition that a person's face was seen before). JOLs were higher for studied faces with happy and angry emotional expressions than for neutral faces. However, neutral test faces with studied neutral expressions had significantly higher identity recognition rates than neutral test faces studied with happy or angry expressions. Thus, these data are the first to demonstrate that people believe happy and angry emotional expressions will lead to better identity recognition in the future relative to neutral expressions. This occurred despite the fact that neutral expressions elicited better identity recognition than happy and angry expressions. These findings contribute to the growing literature examining the interaction of cognition and emotion.

  17. The Influence of Personality Traits on Emotion Expression in Bulimic Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Steward, Trevor; Wolz, Ines; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Tárrega, Salomé; Fernández-Formoso, José Antonio; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Facial expressions are critical in forming social bonds and in signalling one's emotional state to others. In eating disorder patients, impairments in facial emotion recognition have been associated with eating psychopathology severity. Little research however has been carried out on how bulimic spectrum disorder (BSD) patients spontaneously express emotions. Our aim was to investigate emotion expression in BSD patients and to explore the influence of personality traits. Our study comprised 28 BSD women and 15 healthy controls. Facial expressions were recorded while participants played a serious video game. Expressions of anger and joy were used as outcome measures. Overall, BSD participants displayed less facial expressiveness than controls. Among BSD women, expressions of joy were positively associated with reward dependence, novelty seeking and self-directedness, whereas expressions of anger were associated with lower self-directedness. Our findings suggest that specific personality traits are associated with altered emotion facial expression in patients with BSD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. A New Program in pain medicine for medical students: Integrating core curriculum knowledge with emotional and reflective development

    PubMed Central

    Murinson, Beth B.; Nenortas, Elizabeth; Mayer, R. Sam; Mezei, Lina; Kozachik, Sharon; Nesbit, Suzanne; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Campbell, James N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Improvements in clinical pain care have not matched advances in scientific knowledge, and innovations in medical education are needed. Several streams of evidence indicate that pain education needs to address both the affective and cognitive dimensions of pain. Our aim was to design and deliver a new course in pain establishing foundation-level knowledge while comprehensively addressing the emotional development needs in this area. Setting 118 first year medical students at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Outcome measures Performance was measured by multiple choice tests of pain knowledge, attendance, reflective pain portfolios and satisfaction measures. Results Domains of competence in pain knowledge included central and peripheral pain signaling, pharmacological management of pain with standard analgesic medications, neuromodulating agents and opioids; cancer pain, musculoskeletal pain, nociceptive, inflammatory, neuropathic, geriatric, and pediatric pain. Socio-emotional development (portfolio) work focused on increasing awareness of pain affect in self and others and enhancing the commitment to excellence in pain care. Reflections included observations on a brief pain experience (cold pressor test), the multi-dimensionality of pain, the role of empathy and compassion in medical care, the positive characteristics of pain-care role models, the complex feelings engendered by pain and addiction including frustration and disappointment, and aspirations and commitments in clinical medicine. The students completing feedback expressed high levels of interest in pain medicine as a result of the course. Discussion We conclude that a four-day pain course incorporating sessions with pain- specialists, pain medicine knowledge, and design-built elements to strengthen emotional skills is an effective educational approach. PMID:21276187

  19. The Influence of Emotional Labour and Emotional Work on the Occupational Health and Wellbeing of South Australian Hospital Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisaniello, Sandra L.; Winefield, Helen R.; Delfabbro, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing is an emotionally complex occupation, requiring performance of both emotional labour (for the benefit of the organisation and professional role) and emotional work (for the benefit of the nurse-patient relationship). According to the Conservation of Resources Theory, such processes can have a significant effect on psychological wellbeing…

  20. The Influence of Emotional Labour and Emotional Work on the Occupational Health and Wellbeing of South Australian Hospital Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisaniello, Sandra L.; Winefield, Helen R.; Delfabbro, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing is an emotionally complex occupation, requiring performance of both emotional labour (for the benefit of the organisation and professional role) and emotional work (for the benefit of the nurse-patient relationship). According to the Conservation of Resources Theory, such processes can have a significant effect on psychological wellbeing…

  1. Physical Education Student Teachers' Perceptions of Applying Knowledge and Skills about Emotional Understanding Studied in PETE in a One-Year Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemola, Ulla; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, there has been growing interest in the emotional aspects of teaching and learning in general education and in physical education (PE). Scholars have argued that high-quality teaching and learning depend on a teacher's knowledge of students' emotions (Hargreaves 1998, 2000, 2002; McCaughtry 2004; McCaughtry and Rovegno 2003;…

  2. Physical Education Student Teachers' Perceptions of Applying Knowledge and Skills about Emotional Understanding Studied in PETE in a One-Year Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemola, Ulla; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, there has been growing interest in the emotional aspects of teaching and learning in general education and in physical education (PE). Scholars have argued that high-quality teaching and learning depend on a teacher's knowledge of students' emotions (Hargreaves 1998, 2000, 2002; McCaughtry 2004; McCaughtry and Rovegno 2003;…

  3. The influence of social comparison on cognitive bias modification and emotional vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Standage, Helen; Harris, Jemma; Fox, Elaine

    2014-02-01

    The Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) paradigm was devised to test predictions that cognitive biases have a causal influence on emotional status. Increasingly, however, researchers are testing the potential clinical applications of CBM. Although generally successful in reducing emotional vulnerability in clinical populations, the impact of CBM interventions has been somewhat variable. The aim of the current experiment was to investigate whether social comparison processing might be an important moderator of CBM. Healthy participants were presented with 80 valenced scenarios devised to induce a positive or negative interpretative bias. Critically, participants answered a series of questions designed to establish whether they assimilated or contrasted themselves with the valenced descriptions. The induction of an interpretation bias that was congruent with the valence of the training scenarios was successful only for participants who tended to assimilate the valenced scenarios, and not for those participants who tended to evaluate themselves against the scenarios. Furthermore, the predicted influence of CBM on emotional outcomes occurred only for those who had an assimilative rather than evaluative orientation toward CBM training material. Of key importance, results indicated that "evaluators" showed increased emotional vulnerability following positive CBM training. This result has both theoretical and clinical implications in suggesting that the success of CBM is dependent upon the way in which participants socially compare themselves with CBM training material. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation.

    PubMed

    Wetzels, Sandra A J; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Broers, Nick J

    2011-06-01

    Prior knowledge activation facilitates learning. Note taking during prior knowledge activation (i.e., note taking directed at retrieving information from memory) might facilitate the activation process by enabling learners to build an external representation of their prior knowledge. However, taking notes might be less effective in supporting prior knowledge activation if available prior knowledge is limited. This study investigates the effects of the retrieval-directed function of note taking depending on learners' level of prior knowledge. It is hypothesized that the effectiveness of note taking is influenced by the amount of prior knowledge learners already possess. Sixty-one high school students participated in this study. A prior knowledge test was used to ascertain differences in level of prior knowledge and assign participants to a low or a high prior knowledge group. A 2×2 factorial design was used to investigate the effects of note taking during prior knowledge activation (yes, no) depending on learners' level of prior knowledge (low, high) on mental effort, performance, and mental efficiency. Note taking during prior knowledge activation lowered mental effort and increased mental efficiency for high prior knowledge learners. For low prior knowledge learners, note taking had the opposite effect on mental effort and mental efficiency. The effects of the retrieval-directed function of note taking are influenced by learners' level of prior knowledge. Learners with high prior knowledge benefit from taking notes while activating prior knowledge, whereas note taking has no beneficial effects for learners with limited prior knowledge. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  6. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  7. Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.

    PubMed

    Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories.

  8. The Influence of Emotions and Learning Preferences on Learning Strategy Use before Transition into High-Achiever Track Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obergriesser, Stefanie; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationships between students' achievement emotions and their (self-regulated) learning behavior is growing. However, little is known about the relationships between students' learning preferences and achievement emotions and the extent to which these influence learning strategies. In this study we, first, looked at the…

  9. The Influence of Emotions and Learning Preferences on Learning Strategy Use before Transition into High-Achiever Track Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obergriesser, Stefanie; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationships between students' achievement emotions and their (self-regulated) learning behavior is growing. However, little is known about the relationships between students' learning preferences and achievement emotions and the extent to which these influence learning strategies. In this study we, first, looked at the…

  10. Influence of emotional expression on memory recognition bias in schizophrenia as revealed by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sergerie, Karine; Armony, Jorge L; Menear, Matthew; Sutton, Hazel; Lepage, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We recently showed that, in healthy individuals, emotional expression influences memory for faces both in terms of accuracy and, critically, in memory response bias (tendency to classify stimuli as previously seen or not, regardless of whether this was the case). Although schizophrenia has been shown to be associated with deficit in episodic memory and emotional processing, the relation between these processes in this population remains unclear. Here, we used our previously validated paradigm to directly investigate the modulation of emotion on memory recognition. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of recognition memory of happy, sad, and neutral faces. Brain activity associated with the response bias was obtained by correlating this measure with the contrast subjective old (ie, hits and false alarms) minus subjective new (misses and correct rejections) for sad and happy expressions. Although patients exhibited an overall lower memory performance than controls, they showed the same effects of emotion on memory, both in terms of accuracy and bias. For sad faces, the similar behavioral pattern between groups was mirrored by a largely overlapping neural network, mostly involved in familiarity-based judgments (eg, parahippocampal gyrus). In contrast, controls activated a much larger set of regions for happy faces, including areas thought to underlie recollection-based memory retrieval (eg, superior frontal gyrus and hippocampus) and in novelty detection (eg, amygdala). This study demonstrates that, despite an overall lower memory accuracy, emotional memory is intact in schizophrenia, although emotion-specific differences in brain activation exist, possibly reflecting different strategies.

  11. The influence of emotions on cognitive control: feelings and beliefs—where do they meet?

    PubMed Central

    Harlé, Katia M.; Shenoy, Pradeep; Paulus, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of emotion on higher-order cognitive functions, such as attention allocation, planning, and decision-making, is a growing area of research with important clinical applications. In this review, we provide a computational framework to conceptualize emotional influences on inhibitory control, an important building block of executive functioning. We first summarize current neuro-cognitive models of inhibitory control and show how Bayesian ideal observer models can help reframe inhibitory control as a dynamic decision-making process. Finally, we propose a Bayesian framework to study emotional influences on inhibitory control, providing several hypotheses that may be useful to conceptualize inhibitory control biases in mental illness such as depression and anxiety. To do so, we consider the neurocognitive literature pertaining to how affective states can bias inhibitory control, with particular attention to how valence and arousal may independently impact inhibitory control by biasing probabilistic representations of information (i.e., beliefs) and valuation processes (e.g., speed-error tradeoffs). PMID:24065901

  12. The Influence of Environmental Hazard Maps on Risk Beliefs, Emotion, and Health-related Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N=446) answered questions for a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem’s seriousness mediated attributes’ influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  13. The Influence of Emotion on Fairness-Related Decision Making: A Critical Review of Theories and Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ya; Yang, Zhong; Jin, Chunlan; Qi, Yue; Liu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Fairness-related decision making is an important issue in the field of decision making. Traditional theories emphasize the roles of inequity aversion and reciprocity, whereas recent research increasingly shows that emotion plays a critical role in this type of decision making. In this review, we summarize the influences of three types of emotions (i.e., the integral emotion experienced at the time of decision making, the incidental emotion aroused by a task-unrelated dispositional or situational source, and the interaction of emotion and cognition) on fairness-related decision making. Specifically, we first introduce three dominant theories that describe how emotion may influence fairness-related decision making (i.e., the wounded pride/spite model, affect infusion model, and dual-process model). Next, we collect behavioral and neural evidence for and against these theories. Finally, we propose that future research on fairness-related decision making should focus on inducing incidental social emotion, avoiding irrelevant emotion when regulating, exploring the individual differences in emotional dispositions, and strengthening the ecological validity of the paradigm. PMID:28974937

  14. The Influence of Emotion on Fairness-Related Decision Making: A Critical Review of Theories and Evidence.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya; Yang, Zhong; Jin, Chunlan; Qi, Yue; Liu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Fairness-related decision making is an important issue in the field of decision making. Traditional theories emphasize the roles of inequity aversion and reciprocity, whereas recent research increasingly shows that emotion plays a critical role in this type of decision making. In this review, we summarize the influences of three types of emotions (i.e., the integral emotion experienced at the time of decision making, the incidental emotion aroused by a task-unrelated dispositional or situational source, and the interaction of emotion and cognition) on fairness-related decision making. Specifically, we first introduce three dominant theories that describe how emotion may influence fairness-related decision making (i.e., the wounded pride/spite model, affect infusion model, and dual-process model). Next, we collect behavioral and neural evidence for and against these theories. Finally, we propose that future research on fairness-related decision making should focus on inducing incidental social emotion, avoiding irrelevant emotion when regulating, exploring the individual differences in emotional dispositions, and strengthening the ecological validity of the paradigm.

  15. Emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers' face expressions, fixations and pupil-size

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska E.; Roelofs, Karin; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body, and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to face-body-scene combinations. Participants freely viewed emotionally congruent and incongruent face-body and body-scene pairs whilst eye fixations, pupil-size, and electromyography (EMG) responses were recorded. Participants attended more to angry and fearful vs. happy or neutral cues, independent of the source and relatively independent from whether the face body and body scene combinations were emotionally congruent or not. Moreover, angry faces combined with angry bodies and angry bodies viewed in aggressive social scenes elicited greatest pupil dilation. Participants' face expressions matched the valence of the stimuli but when face-body compounds were shown, the observed facial expression influenced EMG responses more than the posture. Together, our results show that the perception of emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes depends on the natural context, but when threatening cues are presented, these threats attract attention, induce arousal, and evoke congruent facial reactions. PMID:24391567

  16. Influence of emotion and focus location on prosody in matched statements and questions.

    PubMed

    Pell, M D

    2001-04-01

    Preliminary data were collected on how emotional qualities of the voice (sad, happy, angry) influence the acoustic underpinnings of neutral sentences varying in location of intra-sentential focus (initial, final, no) and utterance "modality" (statement, question). Short (six syllable) and long (ten syllable) utterances exhibiting varying combinations of emotion, focus, and modality characteristics were analyzed for eight elderly speakers following administration of a controlled elicitation paradigm (story completion) and a speaker evaluation procedure. Duration and fundamental frequency (f0) parameters of recordings were scrutinized for "keyword" vowels within each token and for whole utterances. Results generally re-affirmed past accounts of how duration and f0 are encoded on key content words to mark linguistic focus in affectively neutral statements and questions for English. Acoustic data on three "global" parameters of the stimuli (speech rate, mean f0, f0 range) were also largely supportive of previous descriptions of how happy, sad, angry, and neutral utterances are differentiated in the speech signal. Important interactions between emotional and linguistic properties of the utterances emerged which were predominantly (although not exclusively) tied to the modulation of f0; speakers were notably constrained in conditions which required them to manipulate f0 parameters to express emotional and nonemotional intentions conjointly. Sentence length also had a meaningful impact on some of the measures gathered.

  17. Emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers' face expressions, fixations and pupil-size.

    PubMed

    Kret, Mariska E; Roelofs, Karin; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body, and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to face-body-scene combinations. Participants freely viewed emotionally congruent and incongruent face-body and body-scene pairs whilst eye fixations, pupil-size, and electromyography (EMG) responses were recorded. Participants attended more to angry and fearful vs. happy or neutral cues, independent of the source and relatively independent from whether the face body and body scene combinations were emotionally congruent or not. Moreover, angry faces combined with angry bodies and angry bodies viewed in aggressive social scenes elicited greatest pupil dilation. Participants' face expressions matched the valence of the stimuli but when face-body compounds were shown, the observed facial expression influenced EMG responses more than the posture. Together, our results show that the perception of emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes depends on the natural context, but when threatening cues are presented, these threats attract attention, induce arousal, and evoke congruent facial reactions.

  18. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the New…

  19. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the New…

  20. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation and Its Relation to Working Memory in Toddlerhood

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to explore genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in emotion regulation in toddlers, and the first to examine the genetic and environmental etiology underlying the association between emotion regulation and working memory. In a sample of 304 same-sex twin pairs (140 MZ, 164 DZ) at age 3, emotion regulation was assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BRS; Bayley, 1993), and working memory was measured by the visually cued recall (VCR) task (Zelazo et al., 2002) and several memory tasks from the Mental Scale of BSID. Based on model-fitting analyses, both emotion regulation and working memory were significantly influenced by genetic and nonshared environmental factors. Shared environmental effects were significant for working memory, but not for emotion regulation. Only genetic factors significantly contributed to the covariation between emotion regulation and working memory. PMID:24098922

  1. Readiness of adolescents to use genetically modified organisms according to their knowledge and emotional attitude towards GMOs.

    PubMed

    Lachowski, Stanisław; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Choina, Piotr; Florek-Łuszczki, Magdalena; Buczaj, Agnieszka; Goździewska, Małgorzata

    2017-06-07

    Agriculture based on genetically modified organisms plays an increasingly important role in feeding the world population, which is evidenced by a considerable growth in the size of land under genetically modified crops (GM). Uncertainty and controversy around GM products are mainly due to the lack of accurate and reliable information, and lack of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications, and the effect of GM food on the human organism, and consequently, a negative emotional attitude towards what is unknown. The objective of the presented study was to discover to what extent knowledge and the emotional attitude of adolescents towards genetically modified organisms is related with acceptance of growing genetically modified plants or breeding GM animals on own farm or allotment garden, and the purchase and consumption of GM food, as well as the use of GMOs in medicine. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire designed by the author, which covered a group of 500 adolescents completing secondary school on the level of maturity examination. The collected material was subjected to statistical analysis. Research hypotheses were verified using chi-square test (χ 2 ), t-Student test, and stepwise regression analysis. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the readiness of adolescents to use genetically modified organisms as food or for the production of pharmaceuticals, the production of GM plants or animals on own farm, depends on an emotional-evaluative attitude towards GMOs, and the level of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications.

  2. Elements of Emotional Intelligence that Facilitate Exper-to-Peer Tacit Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare the emotional intelligence competencies of a group of technical experts with high skills in problem-solving, leadership and mentoring (Group A) with a group of technical experts with lower skills in problem solving, leadership, and mentoring (Group B) at a semiconductor manufacturing factory in…

  3. Special Educators' Knowledge regarding Psychotropic Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Reid, Robert; Ellis, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The use of psychotropic interventions to manage the inappropriate behaviors displayed by students with emotional and behavior disorders has become more common over the past several decades. The efficacious use of these medications requires monitoring students for desired behavioral outcomes as well as potential side effects. Educators are in an…

  4. Special Educators' Knowledge regarding Psychotropic Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Reid, Robert; Ellis, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The use of psychotropic interventions to manage the inappropriate behaviors displayed by students with emotional and behavior disorders has become more common over the past several decades. The efficacious use of these medications requires monitoring students for desired behavioral outcomes as well as potential side effects. Educators are in an…

  5. Elements of Emotional Intelligence that Facilitate Exper-to-Peer Tacit Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare the emotional intelligence competencies of a group of technical experts with high skills in problem-solving, leadership and mentoring (Group A) with a group of technical experts with lower skills in problem solving, leadership, and mentoring (Group B) at a semiconductor manufacturing factory in…

  6. Transition Goals for Youth with Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems: Parent and Student Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Wills, Howard P.; Custer, Beth A.; Miller, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    Transition planning is a mandated component of individualized education plans (IEPs) designed to ensure successful transition to adult life for students with disabilities. Students with social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) needs experience poor post-school outcomes, suggesting a need for more effective transition planning. This study evaluated…

  7. Translating Knowledge of Social-Emotional Learning and Evidence-Based Practice into Responsive School Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoiber, Karen Callan

    2011-01-01

    As the number of children engaging in problem behaviors grows, teachers increasingly report feeling unprepared to effectively meet students' mental health needs. Social-emotional learning (SEL) should be a prominent goal of school programs because social competence prevents school failure. This commentary reviews the challenges associated with…

  8. Learning outside the Laboratory: Ability and Non-Ability Influences on Acquiring Political Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify sources of individual differences in knowledge acquired under natural conditions. Through its direct influence on background knowledge, crystallized intelligence (Gc) had a major impact on political knowledge, acquired over a period of more than 2 months, but there were independent influences of…

  9. Entering adolescence: resistance to peer influence, risky behavior, and neural changes in emotion reactivity.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Masten, Carrie L; Moore, William E; Oswald, Tasha M; Mazziotta, John C; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-03-10

    Adolescence is often described as a period of heightened reactivity to emotions paired with reduced regulatory capacities, a combination suggested to contribute to risk-taking and susceptibility to peer influence during puberty. However, no longitudinal research has definitively linked these behavioral changes to underlying neural development. Here, 38 neurotypical participants underwent two fMRI sessions across the transition from late childhood (10 years) to early adolescence (13 years). Responses to affective facial displays exhibited a combination of general and emotion-specific changes in ventral striatum (VS), ventromedial PFC, amygdala, and temporal pole. Furthermore, VS activity increases correlated with decreases in susceptibility to peer influence and risky behavior. VS and amygdala responses were also significantly more negatively coupled in early adolescence than in late childhood while processing sad and happy versus neutral faces. Together, these results suggest that VS responses to viewing emotions may play a regulatory role that is critical to adolescent interpersonal functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Influence of Mindfulness and Emotion Skills Training on Teachers' Classrooms: The Effects of the Cultivating Emotional Balance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Patricia A.; Foltz, Carol; Snowberg, Karin E.; Sim, Heewon; Kemeny, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivating Emotional Balance (CEB), an emotion skills and mindfulness intervention, improved wellbeing in a sample of teachers. Two studies examined whether such gain is associated with improvements in classrooms. Study 1 examined post-intervention differences in 20 dimensions of classroom climate (N = 21). CEB teachers were rated higher in…

  11. Arousal Rather than Basic Emotions Influence Long-Term Recognition Memory in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Marchewka, Artur; Wypych, Marek; Moslehi, Abnoos; Riegel, Monika; Michałowski, Jarosław M.; Jednoróg, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Emotion can influence various cognitive processes, however its impact on memory has been traditionally studied over relatively short retention periods and in line with dimensional models of affect. The present study aimed to investigate emotional effects on long-term recognition memory according to a combined framework of affective dimensions and basic emotions. Images selected from the Nencki Affective Picture System were rated on the scale of affective dimensions and basic emotions. After 6 months, subjects took part in a surprise recognition test during an fMRI session. The more negative the pictures the better they were remembered, but also the more false recognitions they provoked. Similar effects were found for the arousal dimension. Recognition success was greater for pictures with lower intensity of happiness and with higher intensity of surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust. Consecutive fMRI analyses showed a significant activation for remembered (recognized) vs. forgotten (not recognized) images in anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula as well as in bilateral caudate nuclei and right thalamus. Further, arousal was found to be the only subjective rating significantly modulating brain activation. Higher subjective arousal evoked higher activation associated with memory recognition in the right caudate and the left cingulate gyrus. Notably, no significant modulation was observed for other subjective ratings, including basic emotion intensities. These results emphasize the crucial role of arousal for long-term recognition memory and support the hypothesis that the memorized material, over time, becomes stored in a distributed cortical network including the core salience network and basal ganglia. PMID:27818626

  12. Menstrual cycle influence on cognitive function and emotion processing—from a reproductive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Gingnell, Malin

    2014-01-01

    The menstrual cycle has attracted research interest ever since the 1930s. For many researchers the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. Over the past years methodological improvements in menstrual cycle studies have been noted, and this review summarizes the findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies in healthy women. Whereas the predominant hypotheses of the cognitive field state that sexually dimorphic cognitive skills that favor men are improved during menstrual cycle phases with low estrogen and that cognitive skills that favor women are improved during cycle phases with increased estrogen and/or progesterone, this review has not found sufficient evidence to support any of these hypotheses. Mental rotation has gained specific interest in this aspect, but a meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference in error rate of 1.61 (95% CI −0.35 to 3.57), suggesting, at present, no favor of an early follicular phase improvement in mental rotation performance. Besides the sexually dimorphic cognitive skills, studies exploring menstrual cycle effects on tasks that probe prefrontal cortex function, for instance verbal or spatial working memory, have also been reviewed. While studies thus far are few, results at hand suggest improved performance at times of high estradiol levels. Menstrual cycle studies on emotional processing, on the other hand, tap into the emotional disorders of the luteal phase, and may be of relevance for women with premenstrual disorders. Although evidence at present is limited, it is suggested that emotion recognition, consolidation of emotional memories, and fear extinction is modulated by the menstrual cycle in women. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, several studies report changes in brain reactivity across the menstrual cycle, most notably increased amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase. Thus, to the extent that behavioral changes

  13. No Influence of Positive Emotion on Orbitofrontal Reality Filtering: Relevance for Confabulation.

    PubMed

    Liverani, Maria Chiara; Manuel, Aurélie L; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Nahum, Louis; Schnider, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Orbitofrontal reality filtering (ORFi) is a mechanism that allows us to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality. Its failure induces reality confusion with confabulation and disorientation. Confabulations have been claimed to have a positive emotional bias, suggesting that they emanate from a tendency to embellish the situation of a handicap. Here we tested the influence of positive emotion on ORFi in healthy subjects using a paradigm validated in reality confusing patients and with a known electrophysiological signature, a frontal positivity at 200-300 ms after memory evocation. Subjects made two continuous recognition tasks ("two runs"), composed of the same set of neutral and positive pictures, but arranged in different order. In both runs, participants had to indicate picture repetitions within, and only within, the ongoing run. The first run measures learning and recognition. The second run, where all items are familiar, requires ORFi to avoid false positive responses. High-density evoked potentials were recorded from 19 healthy subjects during completion of the task. Performance was more accurate and faster on neutral than positive pictures in both runs and for all conditions. Evoked potential correlates of emotion and reality filtering occurred at 260-350 ms but dissociated in terms of amplitude and topography. In both runs, positive stimuli evoked a more negative frontal potential than neutral ones. In the second run, the frontal positivity characteristic of reality filtering was separately, and to the same degree, expressed for positive and neutral stimuli. We conclude that ORFi, the ability to place oneself correctly in time and space, is not influenced by emotional positivity of the processed material.

  14. No Influence of Positive Emotion on Orbitofrontal Reality Filtering: Relevance for Confabulation

    PubMed Central

    Liverani, Maria Chiara; Manuel, Aurélie L.; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Nahum, Louis; Schnider, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Orbitofrontal reality filtering (ORFi) is a mechanism that allows us to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality. Its failure induces reality confusion with confabulation and disorientation. Confabulations have been claimed to have a positive emotional bias, suggesting that they emanate from a tendency to embellish the situation of a handicap. Here we tested the influence of positive emotion on ORFi in healthy subjects using a paradigm validated in reality confusing patients and with a known electrophysiological signature, a frontal positivity at 200–300 ms after memory evocation. Subjects made two continuous recognition tasks (“two runs”), composed of the same set of neutral and positive pictures, but arranged in different order. In both runs, participants had to indicate picture repetitions within, and only within, the ongoing run. The first run measures learning and recognition. The second run, where all items are familiar, requires ORFi to avoid false positive responses. High-density evoked potentials were recorded from 19 healthy subjects during completion of the task. Performance was more accurate and faster on neutral than positive pictures in both runs and for all conditions. Evoked potential correlates of emotion and reality filtering occurred at 260–350 ms but dissociated in terms of amplitude and topography. In both runs, positive stimuli evoked a more negative frontal potential than neutral ones. In the second run, the frontal positivity characteristic of reality filtering was separately, and to the same degree, expressed for positive and neutral stimuli. We conclude that ORFi, the ability to place oneself correctly in time and space, is not influenced by emotional positivity of the processed material. PMID:27303276

  15. A cortical network model of cognitive and emotional influences in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Azadeh Hassannejad; Liljenström, Hans

    2015-10-01

    Decision making (DM)(2) is a complex process that appears to involve several brain structures. In particular, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) seem to be essential in human decision making, where both emotional and cognitive aspects are taken into account. In this paper, we present a computational network model representing the neural information processing of DM, from perception to behavior. We model the population dynamics of the three neural structures (amygdala, OFC and LPFC), as well as their interaction. In our model, the neurodynamic activity of amygdala and OFC represents the neural correlates of secondary emotion, while the activity of certain neural populations in OFC alone represents the outcome expectancy of different options. The cognitive/rational aspect of DM is associated with LPFC. Our model is intended to give insights on the emotional and cognitive processes involved in DM under various internal and external contexts. Different options for actions are represented by the oscillatory activity of cell assemblies, which may change due to experience and learning. Knowledge and experience of the outcome of our decisions and actions can eventually result in changes in our neural structures, attitudes and behaviors. Simulation results may have implications for how we make decisions for our individual actions, as well as for societal choices, where we take examples from transport and its impact on CO2 emissions and climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anger Emotional Stress Influences VEGF/VEGFR2 and Its Induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Wei, Sheng; Wei, Xia; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiao, Mingqi; Wu, Jibiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We discuss the influence of anger emotional stress upon VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Methods. We created a rat model of induced anger (anger-out and anger-in) emotional response using social isolation and resident-intruder paradigms and assessed changes in hippocampus' VEGF content, neuroplasticity, and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Results. The resident-intruder method successfully generated anger-out and anger-in models that differed significantly in composite aggression score, aggression incubation, open field behavior, sucrose preference, and weight gain. Anger emotional stress decreased synaptic connections and VEGFR2 expression. Anger emotional stress led to abnormal expression of VEGF/VEGFR2 mRNA and protein and disorderly expression of key factors in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Fluoxetine administration ameliorated behavioral abnormalities and damage to hippocampal neurons caused by anger emotional stress, as well as abnormal expression of some proteins in VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Conclusion. This research provides a detailed classification of anger emotion and verifies its influence upon VEGF and the VEGF-induced signaling pathway, thus providing circumstantial evidence of mechanisms by which anger emotion damages neurogenesis. As VEGFR2 can promote neurogenesis and vasculogenesis in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, these results suggest that anger emotional stress can result in decreased neurogenesis. PMID:27057362

  17. Discrete Model of Opinion Changes Using Knowledge and Emotions as Control Variables

    PubMed Central

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality) is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda. PMID:22984516

  18. Discrete model of opinion changes using knowledge and emotions as control variables.

    PubMed

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality) is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda.

  19. Managing stress: the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping among university students in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nicole M.; Balogun, Shyngle K.; Oratile, Kutlo N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more likely to use problem-solving, cognitive restructuring and express emotion coping strategies. In addition, problems in emotion regulation significantly predicted problem-and emotion-focused engagement, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement and coping strategies. There was a unique finding that non-acceptance of emotional responses, a type of emotion suppression, was positively correlated with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expressing emotion, social support, problem avoidance and wishful thinking coping strategies. Cultural context and implications for student well-being and university support are discussed. PMID:24910491

  20. Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Maria; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Barsalou, Lawrence; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    People believe they see emotion written on the faces of other people. In an instant, simple facial actions are transformed into information about another's emotional state. The present research examined whether a perceiver unknowingly contributes to emotion perception with emotion word knowledge. We present 2 studies that together support a role for emotion concepts in the formation of visual percepts of emotion. As predicted, we found that perceptual priming of emotional faces (e.g., a scowling face) was disrupted when the accessibility of a relevant emotion word (e.g., anger) was temporarily reduced, demonstrating that the exact same face was encoded differently when a word was accessible versus when it was not. The implications of these findings for a linguistically relative view of emotion perception are discussed. PMID:22309717

  1. [Influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder].

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Kai; Liu, Gui-Hua; Qian, Qin-Fang; Ge, Pin; Xie, Yan-Qin; Yang, Min-Yan; Wang, Zhang-Qiong; Ou, Ping

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder (DLD). The 1-3 Years Child Home Nurture Environment Scale, Gesell Developmental Scale, and Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment Scale were used for the evaluation of 125 children with DLD. A total of 130 children with normal language development matched for age and sex were enrolled as control group. Compared with the control group, the DLD group had a significantly higher proportion of children in a bad home nurture environment and significantly lower scores of all domains of home nurture environment (P<0.05). In children with DLD, the home nurture environment score was positively correlated with the level of language development (r=0.536, P<0.01) and the score of ability domain in social emotion (r=0.397, P<0.01) and was negatively correlated with the scores of the domains of explicit behavior, covert behavior, and imbalance in social emotion (r=-0.455, -0.438, and -0.390 respectively, P<0.01). Home nurture environment had direct influence on language development in children with DLD and affected their language development via the mediating effect of social emotion. Home nurture environment influences language development and social emotion in children with DLD, and social emotion has a partial mediating effect between home nurture environment and language development.

  2. Analyzing How Emotion Awareness Influences Students' Motivation, Engagement, Self-Regulation and Learning Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arguedas, Marta; Daradoumis, Thanasis; Xhafa, Fatos

    2016-01-01

    Considering social and emotional competence in learning, "emotion awareness" aims to detect the emotions that students show during their learning interactions and make these emotions explicit to them. Being aware of their emotions, students become more conscious of their situation, what may prompt them to behavioral change. The main goal…

  3. Analyzing How Emotion Awareness Influences Students' Motivation, Engagement, Self-Regulation and Learning Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arguedas, Marta; Daradoumis, Thanasis; Xhafa, Fatos

    2016-01-01

    Considering social and emotional competence in learning, "emotion awareness" aims to detect the emotions that students show during their learning interactions and make these emotions explicit to them. Being aware of their emotions, students become more conscious of their situation, what may prompt them to behavioral change. The main goal…

  4. Emotional intelligence: recognizing and regulating emotions.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Amy

    2005-04-01

    Occupational health nurses are in the unique position to influence health in the work force. To maximize this positive health influence, occupational health nurses should develop the skills of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence includes awareness of self and others and empathy. These behaviors are congruent with the mission of nursing because they improve health outcomes. Occupational health nurses who are emotionally intelligent have improved relationships with others, an important aspect of the nursing role. Emotional intelligence can be developed. The process begins with self-awareness, enhanced through self-care behaviors, such as exercise and journaling. Reading popular self-help literature also can improve self-awareness. After a nurse becomes self-aware, the next phase is to develop an awareness of others. This can be learned using the same type of techniques in the self-awareness stage. The final step is the development of empathy. This is the active step using the knowledge developed in the prior two stages. Through discipline and effort, an individual can learn to actively listen to others. This type of listening fosters empathy. By working in a positive, caring environment, personal growth in emotional intelligence can be enhanced (McMullen, 2003). Through the development of emotional intelligence, the nurse can improve personally and professionally, a win-win situation for all involved.

  5. The Influence of Relational Knowledge and Executive Function on Preschoolers' Repeating Pattern Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Loehr, Abbey M.; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Children's knowledge of repeating patterns (e.g., ABBABB) is a central component of early mathematics, but the developmental mechanisms underlying this knowledge are currently unknown. We sought clarity on the importance of relational knowledge and executive function (EF) to preschoolers' understanding of repeating patterns. One hundred…

  6. The Influence of Relational Knowledge and Executive Function on Preschoolers' Repeating Pattern Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Loehr, Abbey M.; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Children's knowledge of repeating patterns (e.g., ABBABB) is a central component of early mathematics, but the developmental mechanisms underlying this knowledge are currently unknown. We sought clarity on the importance of relational knowledge and executive function (EF) to preschoolers' understanding of repeating patterns. One hundred…

  7. Neural and behavioral evidence for affective priming from unconsciously perceived emotional facial expressions and the influence of trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E; Boehm, Stephan G; Paller, Ken A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Affective judgments can often be influenced by emotional information people unconsciously perceive, but the neural mechanisms responsible for these effects and how they are modulated by individual differences in sensitivity to threat are unclear. Here we studied subliminal affective priming by recording brain potentials to surprise faces preceded by 30-msec happy or fearful prime faces. Participants showed valence-consistent changes in affective ratings of surprise faces, although they reported no knowledge of prime-face expressions, nor could they discriminate between prime-face expressions in a forced-choice test. In conjunction with the priming effect on affective evaluation, larger occipital P1 potentials at 145-175 msec were found with fearful than with happy primes, and source analyses implicated the bilateral extrastriate cortex in this effect. Later brain potentials at 300-400 msec were enhanced with happy versus fearful primes, which may reflect differential attentional orienting. Personality testing for sensitivity to threat, especially social threat, was also used to evaluate individual differences potentially relevant to subliminal affective priming. Indeed, participants with high trait anxiety demonstrated stronger affective priming and greater P1 differences than did those with low trait anxiety, and these effects were driven by fearful primes. Results thus suggest that unconsciously perceived affective information influences social judgments by altering very early perceptual analyses, and that this influence is accentuated to the extent that people are oversensitive to threat. In this way, perception may be subject to a variety of influences that govern social preferences in the absence of concomitant awareness of such influences.

  8. The influence of prior expectations on emotional face perception in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Barbalat, Guillaume; Bazargani, Narges; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2013-07-01

    Prior expectations influence the way incoming stimuli are processed. A standard, validated way of manipulating prior expectations is to bias participants to perceive a stimulus by instructing them to look out for this type of stimulus. Here, we investigated the influence of prior expectations on the processing of incoming stimuli (emotional faces) in adolescence. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed activity and functional connectivity in 13 adolescents and 13 healthy adults (matched for gender and intelligence quotient), while they were presented with sequences of emotional faces (happy, fearful, or angry). A specific instruction at the start of each sequence instructed the participants to look out for fearful or angry faces in the subsequent sequence. Both groups responded more accurately and with shorter reaction times (RTs) to faces that were congruent with the instruction. For anger, this bias was lower in the adolescents (for RTs), and adults demonstrated greater activation than adolescents in the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and greater functional connectivity between the vMPFC and the thalamus when the face was congruent with the instruction. Our results demonstrate that the influence of prior expectations (in the form of an instruction) on the subsequent processing of face stimuli is still developing in the adolescent brain.

  9. Asymmetries of Influence: Differential Effects of Body Postures on Perceptions of Emotional Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Nelson, Nicole L.; Horner, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy and speed with which emotional facial expressions are identified is influenced by body postures. Two influential models predict that these congruency effects will be largest when the emotion displayed in the face is similar to that displayed in the body: the emotional seed model and the dimensional model. These models differ in whether similarity is based on physical characteristics or underlying dimensions of valence and arousal. Using a 3-alternative forced-choice task in which stimuli were presented briefly (Exp 1a) or for an unlimited time (Exp 1b) we provide evidence that congruency effects are more complex than either model predicts; the effects are asymmetrical and cannot be accounted for by similarity alone. Fearful postures are especially influential when paired with facial expressions, but not when presented in a flanker task (Exp 2). We suggest refinements to each model that may account for our results and suggest that additional studies be conducted prior to drawing strong theoretical conclusions. PMID:24039996

  10. Influence of emotional stimulus valence on inhibitory control in adults with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cavallet, Mikael; Chaim-Avancini, Tiffany M; Biazoli, Claudinei E; Bazán, Paulo R; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Miguel, Carmen S; Busatto, Geraldo F; Louzã, Mario R; Gawryszewski, Luiz G

    2016-11-01

    Human behavior is influenced both by approach and avoidance automatic reactions to positive and negative stimulus, respectively, but these reactions have not been well studied in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. Moreover, studies employing spatial stimulus-response compatibility tasks in ADHD and healthy control (HC) subjects are scarce and inconclusive. The present study investigated inhibitory control and emotional processing in ADHD adults with a modified stimulus-response compatibility task in which spatial and emotional features of affective stimuli had to be processed together to select the correct response. Manual responses to figures of Favorite and Rival soccer team players were measured, and compatible or incompatible responses were chosen according to the soccer team figure. Eighteen HC participants and sixteen ADHD adults performed the task. We found an ordinary spatial compatibility effect for the Favorite soccer team and a reversed one for the Rival team in the ADHD group but not in the HC group. The effects may be due to stronger approach and withdrawal reactions toward the Favorite soccer team and away from the Rival one, respectively, indicating poor inhibitory control for the ADHD group. These results show that differences between ADHD and HC subjects become prominent when response selection involves both emotional and spatial features of the stimulus.

  11. The influence of culture of honor and emotional intelligence in the acculturation of Moroccan immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zafra, Esther; El Ghoudani, Karima

    2014-01-01

    Migration is a normal process of people seeking new opportunities, work, or leisure in societies. The way people adapt to a new country (acculturation) is a complex process in which immigrants' evaluations about the culture of origin and their perceptions of the host country interact. The combination of these two factors produces four types of acculturation: separation, assimilation, integration, and marginalization. Several variables, such as personality, attitudes, and emotional intelligence, have been studied to help explain this process. However, the impact of a culture of honor and its interaction with other variables remains an open question that may help to explain how migrants can better adjust to their host culture. In this study, we examine the influence of the culture of honor (social) and emotional intelligence (individual) on acculturation. In a sample of 129 Moroccan women (mean age = 29, SD = 9.40) immigrants in Spain (mean time in Spain = 6 years, SD = 3.60), we investigated the relations among the variables of interest. Our results show that no significant differences emerged in the scores given for culture of honor (CH) and the acculturation strategies of the Moroccan immigrant women F(3, 99) = .233; p = .87. However women who preferred the integration strategy scored highest on emotional intelligence (EI), whereas the assimilated immigrants showed the lowest scores for EI F(3, 92) = 4.63; p = .005. Additionally, only in the case of integration does EI mediate between CH and the value given to the immigrant's own and host cultures (p <.001).

  12. The influence of negative emotions on pain: behavioral effects and neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wiech, Katja; Tracey, Irene

    2009-09-01

    The idea that pain can lead to feelings of frustration, worry, anxiety and depression seems obvious, particularly if it is of a chronic nature. However, there is also evidence for the reverse causal relationship in which negative mood and emotion can lead to pain or exacerbate it. Here, we review findings from studies on the modulation of pain by experimentally induced mood changes and clinical mood disorders. We discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying this modulatory influence focusing on the periaqueductal grey (PAG), amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula as key players in both, pain and affective processing.

  13. The influence of self-generated emotions on physical performance: an investigation of happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness.

    PubMed

    Rathschlag, Marco; Memmert, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.

  14. Influence of Ethnic Group-Membership and Gaze Direction on the Perception of Emotions. A Cross-Cultural Study between Germany and China

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Katharina; Bente, Gary; Luo, Siyang; Pfeiffer, Ulrich J.; Han, Shihui; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person’s ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception. PMID:23762487

  15. Influence of ethnic group-membership and gaze direction on the perception of emotions. A cross-cultural study between Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Katharina; Bente, Gary; Luo, Siyang; Pfeiffer, Ulrich J; Han, Shihui; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person's ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception.

  16. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  17. Modeling Social Influences in a Knowledge Management Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Giacomo; Maresca, Paolo; Nota, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The issue of knowledge management in a distributed network is receiving increasing attention from both scientific and industrial organizations. Research efforts in this field are motivated by the awareness that knowledge is more and more perceived as a primary economic resource and that, in the context of organization of organizations, the…

  18. Modeling Social Influences in a Knowledge Management Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Giacomo; Maresca, Paolo; Nota, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The issue of knowledge management in a distributed network is receiving increasing attention from both scientific and industrial organizations. Research efforts in this field are motivated by the awareness that knowledge is more and more perceived as a primary economic resource and that, in the context of organization of organizations, the…

  19. Factors Influencing Primary School Children's Knowledge of Wildlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Mark; Welsh, Angela; Berry, Alice; Templeton, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    We examined the wildlife knowledge of primary (aged 4-12) schoolchildren. In particular, we examined the effects of children's age and gender, as well as the taxonomy and origin (indigenous versus exotic) of wildlife, on the degree of knowledge about different species. We used illustrated "flashcards" of mammals, birds and arthropods,…

  20. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  1. Personal Background Knowledge Influences Cross-Cultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaodong; Bransford, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of the study was to investigate how two types of videos, personal background knowledge (PBK) and general background knowledge (GBK), affect people's interpretation of a classroom problem case that involved a disconnection between a foreign college professor and her students. The PBK video described the professor's…

  2. Factors Influencing Primary School Children's Knowledge of Wildlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Mark; Welsh, Angela; Berry, Alice; Templeton, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    We examined the wildlife knowledge of primary (aged 4-12) schoolchildren. In particular, we examined the effects of children's age and gender, as well as the taxonomy and origin (indigenous versus exotic) of wildlife, on the degree of knowledge about different species. We used illustrated "flashcards" of mammals, birds and arthropods,…

  3. Parental Influences on Children's Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Insights from Developmental Literature on Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Leslie A.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; O'Connor, Teresia M.; Power, Thomas G.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Hazen, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    The following article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to children's behavior, assistance in helping children self-regulate, and motivating children through rewards and punishments. Additionally, sources of variation in parental influences on regulation are examined, including parenting style, child temperament, and child-parent attachment security. Parallels in the nature of parents' role in socializing children's regulation of emotions and energy intake are examined. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22545206

  4. Parental influences on children's self-regulation of energy intake: Insights from developmental literature on emotion regulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to childre...

  5. Disentangling Child and Family Influences on Maternal Expressed Emotion toward Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Kim L.; Bitsakou, Paraskevi; Daley, David; Gramzow, Richard H.; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Simonoff, Emily; Thompson, Margaret J.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We used multi-level modelling of sibling-pair data to disentangle the influence of proband-specific and more general family influences on maternal expressed emotion (MEE) toward children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: MEE was measured using the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) for 60…

  6. Emotion: empirical contribution. Maternal borderline personality pathology and infant emotion regulation: examining the influence of maternal emotion-related difficulties and infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Latzman, Robert D; Elkin, T David; Moore, Sarah Anne; Tull, Matthew T

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that maternal borderline personality (BP) pathology increases offspring risk. This study examined the relations between maternal BP pathology and related emotional dysfunction (including emotion regulation [ER] difficulties and emotional intensity/reactivity) and infant ER difficulties. Specifically, we examined both self-focused and caregiver-focused ER behaviors and the modulation of emotional expressions (one indicator of ER in young children) in response to fear- and anger-eliciting stimuli among 101 infants (12 to 23 months old) of mothers with and without clinically relevant BP pathology. The authors also examined the moderating role of mother-infant attachment. Findings of a series of multiple regression mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on infant ER difficulties through maternal emotional dysfunction, with maternal ER difficulties facilitating an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on expressivity-related indicators of infant ER difficulties and maternal emotional intensity/reactivity linking maternal BP pathology to lower self-focused ER for infants in insecure-resistant attachment relationships.

  7. Emotional Effects on University Choice Behavior: The Influence of Experienced Narrators and Their Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I.; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664

  8. The influence of gender on the relationship between dental anxiety and oral health-related emotional well-being.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Crego, Antonio; Romero-Maroto, Martin

    2013-05-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM.  Children's dental fear and/or anxiety (DFA) has been associated with declines in oral health and quality of life. The influence of gender on the relationship between DFA and oral health-related well-being in children is analysed. DESIGN.  The decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) index was obtained from 161 school-aged children (7-14 years old). Data from children's self-assessed oral health, oral health-related emotional well-being and dental anxiety were collected using questionnaires. RESULTS.  Low scores of emotional well-being were associated with negative self-assessment of oral health and high levels of dental anxiety. Females reported decreased oral health-related emotional well-being compared with males. The analysis of possible moderating effects confirmed that gender influenced the relationship between oral health and DFA. The DMFT index was not associated with self-assessed oral health status, emotional well-being or DFA. CONCLUSION.  For girls, high levels of DFA were associated with low levels of oral health-related emotional well-being. In contrast, dental fear and/or anxiety did not influence oral health-related emotional well-being in boys.

  9. Influence of Content Knowledge on Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Case of Teaching Photosynthesis and Plant Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapyla, Markku; Heikkinen, Jussi-Pekka; Asunta, Tuula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The biological content photosynthesis and plant growth was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 10 primary and 10 secondary (biology) teacher students. Questionnaires, lesson preparation task…

  10. Influence of Content Knowledge on Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Case of Teaching Photosynthesis and Plant Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapyla, Markku; Heikkinen, Jussi-Pekka; Asunta, Tuula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The biological content photosynthesis and plant growth was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 10 primary and 10 secondary (biology) teacher students. Questionnaires, lesson preparation task…

  11. The Influence of Domain Knowledge on Strategy Use during Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazonder, Ard W.; Wilhelm, Pascal; Hagemans, Mieke G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how students' knowledge of a particular domain influences the type of investigative strategy they utilize in an inquiry learning task within that domain. Students with high domain knowledge were assumed to employ a theory-driven strategy, whereas less knowledgeable students were expected to start off in a data-driven mode…

  12. Pre-Existing Background Knowledge Influences Socioeconomic Differences in Preschoolers' Word Learning and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaefer, Tanya; Neuman, Susan B.; Pinkham, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to explore the influence of knowledge on socioeconomic discrepancies in word learning and comprehension. After establishing socioeconomic differences in background knowledge (Study 1), the authors presented children with a storybook that incorporates this knowledge (Study 2). Results indicated that middle-income…

  13. Effects of a Dialogue-Based Program to Improve Emotion Knowledge in Spanish Roma Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura; Ojeda, Vanesa; Lucas-Molina, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Romas are one of the largest minority groups in Spain and Europe, but no specific data on children's socioemotional learning are available. Our goal was to determine the level of socioemotional knowledge of a group of 4- and 5-year-old Roma children and to implement an intervention program at school. Forty-three Roma children participated…

  14. Effects of a Dialogue-Based Program to Improve Emotion Knowledge in Spanish Roma Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura; Ojeda, Vanesa; Lucas-Molina, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Romas are one of the largest minority groups in Spain and Europe, but no specific data on children's socioemotional learning are available. Our goal was to determine the level of socioemotional knowledge of a group of 4- and 5-year-old Roma children and to implement an intervention program at school. Forty-three Roma children participated…

  15. A direct amygdala-motor pathway for emotional displays to influence action: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Grèzes, Julie; Valabrègue, Romain; Gholipour, Bahar; Chevallier, Coralie

    2014-12-01

    An important evolutionary function of emotions is to prime individuals for action. Although functional neuroimaging has provided evidence for such a relationship, little is known about the anatomical substrates allowing the limbic system to influence cortical motor-related areas. Using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractography on a cohort of 40 participants, we provide evidence of a structural connection between the amygdala and motor-related areas (lateral and medial precentral, motor cingulate and primary motor cortices, and postcentral gyrus) in humans. We then compare this connection with the connections of the amygdala with emotion-related brain areas (superior temporal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, and lateral inferior frontal gyrus) and determine which amygdala nuclei are at the origin of these projections. Beyond the well-known subcortical influences over automatic and stereotypical emotional behaviors, a direct amygdala-motor pathway might provide a mechanism by which the amygdala can influence more complex motor behaviors.

  16. Bottom-up and top-down influences of beliefs on emotional responses: fear of heights in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Mühlberger, Andreas; Neumann, Roland; Lozo, Ljubica; Müller, Mathias; Hettinger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    According to cognitive approaches in emotion research, emotions hinge on beliefs that can be true or false. We suggest that emotionally relevant beliefs can be influenced bottom-up e.g. by the depth cues of a virtual environment or top-down e.g. by reappraisal strategies. Our research question is if bottom-up and top-down processes influence the same belief structure or if different belief structures are responsible for bottom-up and top-down influences on emotions. To test these assumptions we exposed participants to a virtual environment that is able to elicit fear of heights and manipulated reappraisal for half of the participants. Moreover, we presented virtual scenes of heights in a monoscopic (less depth cues) and stereoscopic (more depth cues) mode in order to influence the confirmatory processes that are associated with beliefs. Subjective intensity of discomfort and the bending angle as a behavioural response were measured. We observed that although the depth cues and the reappraisal strategy were both effective in reducing the feeling of discomfort, reappraisal and the mode of presentation exert independent effects. Thus, beliefs that are triggered by bottom-up processes (depth cues) change emotions independent of the beliefs triggered by top-down processes (reappraisal).

  17. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  18. Embracing "Fields of Influence" while Exploring Alternative Paths of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiack, Marguerite

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses narrative and reflective methodologies to examine pedagogical practices that enable the production of meaningful relationships. I suggest that the term "fields of influence" encapsulates practices that enable some people to influence relationships with others. The narrative invites readers to consider how the embodied qualities…

  19. The Influence of Knowledge about Causal Mechanisms on Compound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2007-01-01

    Empirical evidence has shown that several factors influence whether a compound is represented as several independent components or as a configuration. However, most of the previous research focused on data-driven factors (e.g., modality of the stimuli presented in the experimental task). In one experiment, I analyzed the influence of people's…

  20. Influence of trait empathy on the emotion evoked by sad music and on the preference for it.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Katahira, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals' trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years) listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking toward them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy (FS). We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that FS, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music.

  1. Escalate shamefully, de-escalate angrily or gratefully: the influence of discrete emotions on escalation of commitment.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liljedahl, Sophie

    2014-08-01

    Decision makers often tend to escalate their commitment when faced with a dilemma of whether to continue a losing course of action. Researchers recently began to investigate the influence of discrete emotions on this decision tendency. However, this work has mainly focused on negative emotions and rarely considered positive emotions, to say nothing of comparing the effects of both of them simultaneously. The current study addresses this need by presenting the results of three experiments that examined the effects of four emotions of both positive and negative valences in escalation situations. Experiment 1 investigated the relationships of three trait emotions (hope, shame, and anger) and escalation of commitment. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effects of three induced emotions (anger, shame, and gratitude) on escalation of commitment in a student sample and an employee sample, respectively. The results revealed that the effects of discrete emotions in escalation situations are mainly due to their associated differences on the appraisal dimension of responsibility that is related to escalation situations rather than their valence. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  2. Influence of trait empathy on the emotion evoked by sad music and on the preference for it

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Katahira, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals’ trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years) listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking toward them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy (FS). We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that FS, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music. PMID:26578992

  3. Effects of naltrexone are influenced by childhood adversity during negative emotional processing in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Savulich, G; Riccelli, R; Passamonti, L; Correia, M; Deakin, J F W; Elliott, R; Flechais, R S A; Lingford-Hughes, A R; McGonigle, J; Murphy, A; Nutt, D J; Orban, C; Paterson, L M; Reed, L J; Smith, D G; Suckling, J; Tait, R; Taylor, E M; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Ersche, K D

    2017-03-07

    Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used in the management of alcohol dependence. Although the endogenous opioid system has been implicated in emotion regulation, the effects of mu-opioid receptor blockade on brain systems underlying negative emotional processing are not clear in addiction. Individuals meeting criteria for alcohol dependence alone (n=18, alcohol) and in combination with cocaine and/or opioid dependence (n=21, alcohol/drugs) and healthy individuals without a history of alcohol or drug dependence (n=21) were recruited. Participants were alcohol and drug abstinent before entered into this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate brain response while viewing aversive and neutral images relative to baseline on 50 mg of naltrexone and placebo. We found that naltrexone modulated task-related activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and functional connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus as a function of childhood adversity (for aversive versus neutral images) in all groups. Furthermore, there was a group-by-treatment-by-condition interaction in the right amygdala, which was mainly driven by a normalization of response for aversive relative to neutral images under naltrexone in the alcohol/drugs group. We conclude that early childhood adversity is one environmental factor that influences pharmacological response to naltrexone. Pharmacotherapy with naltrexone may also have some ameliorative effects on negative emotional processing in combined alcohol and drug dependence, possibly due to alterations in endogenous opioid transmission or the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist actions of naltrexone.

  4. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms: Close Relationships as Social Context and Influence

    PubMed Central

    Marroquín, Brett; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Depression is associated with social dysfunction and maladaptive social environments, but mechanisms through which social relationships affect depressive psychopathology are unclear. We hypothesized that emotion regulation (ER) is such a mechanism, with outcomes of individuals’ ER efforts sensitive to the social context, and individuals’ ER strategy repertoire and use sensitive to social influence. In Study 1, a longitudinal study of community adults (N = 1,319), associations of individuals’ ER strategies with depressive symptoms depended on social connectedness and romantic relationship status (social context hypothesis). Moreover, associations of social connectedness and relationship status with symptoms were accounted for by maladaptive ER concurrently and, for social connectedness, prospectively over 1 year (social influence hypothesis). Study 2a, using a national sample (N = 772), replicated and extended these findings with a broader array of ER strategies, and ruled out alternative explanations regarding social skills and psychological wellbeing. Among participants in romantic relationships (Study 2b; N = 558), intimacy and trust buffered associations of maladaptive ER strategies with symptoms (context), and maladaptive and adaptive ER mediated links between relationship variables and symptoms (influence). Findings suggest that close relationships—and variation in underlying relational processes within relationships— influence the ER strategies people use, and also affect whether individuals’ own ER repertoires contribute to depression when deployed. Results elucidate core social mechanisms of ER in terms of both basic processes and depressive psychopathology, suggest ER is a channel through which social factors affect internal functioning and mental health, and inform relationship pathways for clinical intervention. PMID:26479366

  5. Mechanisms of disturbed emotion processing and social interaction in borderline personality disorder: state of knowledge and research agenda of the German Clinical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja; Ende, Gabriele; Flor, Herta; Kirsch, Peter; Lis, Stefanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Schneider, Miriam; Spanagel, Rainer; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a strong rise in empirical research in the mechanisms of emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder. Major findings comprise structural as well as functional alterations of brain regions involved in emotion processing, such as amygdala, insula, and prefrontal regions. In addition, more specific mechanisms of disturbed emotion regulation, e.g. related to pain and dissociation, have been identified. Most recently, social interaction problems and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms, e.g. disturbed trust or hypersensitivity to social rejection, have become a major focus of BPD research. This article covers the current state of knowledge and related relevant research goals. The first part presents a review of the literature. The second part delineates important open questions to be addressed in future studies. The third part describes the research agenda for a large German center grant focusing on mechanisms of emotion dysregulation in BPD.

  6. Judgements about Knowledge: Searching for Factors that Influence Their Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengelkamp, Christoph; Bannert, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Research in the field of metacomprehension often uses the accuracy of judgements of own knowledge as a measure of monitoring which is a central component of metacognition. One aim of this study is to investigate if the accuracy above chance usually found in studies using traditional texts can be replicated with hypermedia. More…

  7. Designing a Knowledge Mobilization Strategy: Leading through Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Steven

    2015-01-01

    As district leaders consider professional learning opportunities for educators, mobilizing new thought and actions across an entire system is a vexing challenge. Classroom-based learning may unfortunately be viewed as juxtaposed to district-based learning. It becomes essential for district leaders to develop knowledge mobilization strategies which…

  8. Judgements about Knowledge: Searching for Factors that Influence Their Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengelkamp, Christoph; Bannert, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Research in the field of metacomprehension often uses the accuracy of judgements of own knowledge as a measure of monitoring which is a central component of metacognition. One aim of this study is to investigate if the accuracy above chance usually found in studies using traditional texts can be replicated with hypermedia. More…

  9. Emotional Stress and Cardiovascular Complications in Animal Models: A Review of the Influence of Stress Type

    PubMed Central

    Crestani, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stress has been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The impact of stress on physiological and psychological processes is determined by characteristics of the stress stimulus. For example, distinct responses are induced by acute vs. chronic aversive stimuli. Additionally, the magnitude of stress responses has been reported to be inversely related to the degree of predictability of the aversive stimulus. Therefore, the purpose of the present review was to discuss experimental research in animal models describing the influence of stressor stimulus characteristics, such as chronicity and predictability, in cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by emotional stress. Regarding chronicity, the importance of cardiovascular and autonomic adjustments during acute stress sessions and cardiovascular consequences of frequent stress response activation during repeated exposure to aversive threats (i.e., chronic stress) is discussed. Evidence of the cardiovascular and autonomic changes induced by chronic stressors involving daily exposure to the same stressor (predictable) vs. different stressors (unpredictable) is reviewed and discussed in terms of the impact of predictability in cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by stress. PMID:27445843

  10. Personality influences the neural responses to viewing facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Calder, Andrew J; Ewbank, Michael; Passamonti, Luca

    2011-06-12

    Cognitive research has long been aware of the relationship between individual differences in personality and performance on behavioural tasks. However, within the field of cognitive neuroscience, the way in which such differences manifest at a neural level has received relatively little attention. We review recent research addressing the relationship between personality traits and the neural response to viewing facial signals of emotion. In one section, we discuss work demonstrating the relationship between anxiety and the amygdala response to facial signals of threat. A second section considers research showing that individual differences in reward drive (behavioural activation system), a trait linked to aggression, influence the neural responsivity and connectivity between brain regions implicated in aggression when viewing facial signals of anger. Finally, we address recent criticisms of the correlational approach to fMRI analyses and conclude that when used appropriately, analyses examining the relationship between personality and brain activity provide a useful tool for understanding the neural basis of facial expression processing and emotion processing in general.

  11. Factors that influence emotional disturbance in adults living in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    Palomar-Lever, Joaquina; Victorio-Estrada, Amparo

    2012-04-01

    Living in poverty conditions implies exposure to severe circumstances of social disadvantage, associated with greater propensity to contract illnesses. A negative correlation has consistently been observed between health and poverty. The chronic exposure to stress affects people's well-being through the development of symptoms of anxiety and depression. The suffering of these symptoms for a long time period may be considered as part of a more general syndrome of emotional disturbance, in detriment to a person's mental health. The objective of this study is to identify psychological factors that influence emotional disturbance, measured as symptoms of anxiety and depression, in adults living in poverty conditions in Mexico's central region. A total of 913 adults, 65.2% female, were surveyed. The mean age of the participants was 43.71 (±12.58) years and the mean number of years of schooling was 4.04 (±3.36). Variables corresponding to personal characteristics were measured. The results indicate that the most important risk factor for depression is anxiety and vice versa. Additionally, gender, negative self-esteem, lack of adequate strategies for confronting and resolving difficulties, and lack of self-regulation predicted depression, whereas stress, lack of self-regulation, and coping style predicted anxiety. These variables were better predictors than optimism, locus of control, sense of humor or religiosity. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  12. Emotional Stress and Cardiovascular Complications in Animal Models: A Review of the Influence of Stress Type.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stress has been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The impact of stress on physiological and psychological processes is determined by characteristics of the stress stimulus. For example, distinct responses are induced by acute vs. chronic aversive stimuli. Additionally, the magnitude of stress responses has been reported to be inversely related to the degree of predictability of the aversive stimulus. Therefore, the purpose of the present review was to discuss experimental research in animal models describing the influence of stressor stimulus characteristics, such as chronicity and predictability, in cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by emotional stress. Regarding chronicity, the importance of cardiovascular and autonomic adjustments during acute stress sessions and cardiovascular consequences of frequent stress response activation during repeated exposure to aversive threats (i.e., chronic stress) is discussed. Evidence of the cardiovascular and autonomic changes induced by chronic stressors involving daily exposure to the same stressor (predictable) vs. different stressors (unpredictable) is reviewed and discussed in terms of the impact of predictability in cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by stress.

  13. Personality influences the neural responses to viewing facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Calder, Andrew J.; Ewbank, Michael; Passamonti, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive research has long been aware of the relationship between individual differences in personality and performance on behavioural tasks. However, within the field of cognitive neuroscience, the way in which such differences manifest at a neural level has received relatively little attention. We review recent research addressing the relationship between personality traits and the neural response to viewing facial signals of emotion. In one section, we discuss work demonstrating the relationship between anxiety and the amygdala response to facial signals of threat. A second section considers research showing that individual differences in reward drive (behavioural activation system), a trait linked to aggression, influence the neural responsivity and connectivity between brain regions implicated in aggression when viewing facial signals of anger. Finally, we address recent criticisms of the correlational approach to fMRI analyses and conclude that when used appropriately, analyses examining the relationship between personality and brain activity provide a useful tool for understanding the neural basis of facial expression processing and emotion processing in general. PMID:21536554

  14. The influence of neuroticism and psychological symptoms on the assessment of images in three-dimensional emotion space

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Steffen; Kessler, Henrik; Gruss, Sascha; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Scheck, Andreas; Ströbel, Jochen; Hoffmann, Holger; Traue, Harald C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the influence of neuroticism (NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI)) and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)) on pleasure, arousal, and dominance (PAD) ratings of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Methods: The subjects (N=131) were presented with images from the IAPS (30 images) and new images (30 images). The influence of neuroticism and BSI (median split: high vs. low) on the assessment of pleasure, arousal and dominance of the images was examined. Correlations of pleasure, arousal and dominance were presented in a 3-D video animation. Results: Subjects with high scores (compared to subjects with low scores by median split) of neuroticism and psychological symptoms of the BSI rated the presented emotional images more negative in the valence dimension (pleasure), higher in arousal and less dominant. Conclusion: Neuroticism and psychological symptoms influence the subjective emotional evaluation of emotional images. Therefore the location in the three-dimensional emotion space depends on individual differences. Such differences must be kept in mind, if correlations between emotion ratings and other variables like psychobiological measures are analyzed. PMID:21698089

  15. Influence of social support and emotional context on pain processing and magnetic brain responses in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pedro; Larbig, Wolfgang; Braun, Christoph; Preissl, Hubert; Birbaumer, Niels

    2004-12-01

    To examine the effects of social support provided by the presence of patient's significant other on pain ratings, pain thresholds, and brain activity associated with tactile stimulation in 18 fibromyalgia (FM) patients and 18 migraine patients (controls), and to assess the influence of emotional context on thermal pain perception and processing of non-pain-related information. Thermal pain thresholds and somatosensory brain magnetic responses elicited by tactile stimulation at the elbow (a painful tender point in the FM group) and at the finger (nonpainful site) were evaluated under 2 experimental conditions of social support: patient alone and patient's significant other present. Brain activity was recorded using a 151-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography system. Additionally, the emotional context during presentation of tactile stimuli was manipulated by presenting aversive, pain-related pictures and neutral pictures and asking the patients to imagine that they were experiencing the situations depicted. Thermal pain thresholds indicated greater sensitivity in FM patients than in migraine patients, as well as enhanced sensitivity at the elbow than at the fingers. Specifically, in FM patients, there were significant reductions in pain sensitivity and subjective pain ratings when patients were stimulated at the painful tender point in the presence of their significant others as compared with the ratings when the patients were alone. Brain activity elicited by elbow stimulation was also significantly reduced in FM patients when a significant other was present as compared with the activity when the patient was alone. These effects were not observed in the migraine patients. When the significant other was present, FM patients reported less pain and thermal pain sensitivity and showed diminished brain activity elicited upon tactile stimulation of a tender point compared with these levels when the patients were alone. These findings are consistent with the

  16. The impact of knowledge and social influences on adolescents' breast-feeding beliefs and intentions.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Vivien; Power, Kevin; Kaur, Binder; Carter, Harden; Shepherd, Kim

    2006-05-01

    Many health promotion educational interventions assume that increasing knowledge directly influences beliefs, intentions and behaviour, whereas research suggests that knowledge alone is insufficient for behavioural change. Social cognition frameworks such as the Theory of Reasoned Action propose a central role for beliefs and social normative influences. This Scottish study evaluates the role of knowledge and social influences (subjective norms, exposure to breast-feeding, social barriers) on beliefs and future intentions to breast-feed or bottle-feed. Social influences from family and peers are investigated. A cross-sectional between-subjects observational design was used. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 229 (46%) male and 267 (54%) female adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants completed questionnaires during lessons at three secondary schools in Central Scotland. Knowledge about health benefits of breast-feeding was generally poor. Analyses found that perceived social barriers to breast-feeding moderated the relationship between knowledge and beliefs. More knowledge, positive beliefs and supportive subjective norms also predicted future intentions to breast-feed. Parental norms exerted greater influence than peer norms on adolescents' breast-feeding beliefs. Knowledge and social influences are important predictors of positive breast-feeding beliefs and future intentions to breast-feed in adolescents. This has important implications for breast-feeding health promotion interventions in young people.

  17. The Influence of Electronic Dictionaries on Vocabulary Knowledge Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning needs special strategies in language learning process. The use of dictionaries is a great help in vocabulary learning and nowadays the emergence of electronic dictionaries has added a new and valuable resource for vocabulary learning. The present study aims to explore the influence of Electronic Dictionaries (ED) Vs. Paper…

  18. Superior Analgesic Effect of an Active Distraction versus Pleasant Unfamiliar Sounds and Music: The Influence of Emotion and Cognitive Style

    PubMed Central

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception. PMID:22242169

  19. Adolescent Self-Esteem and Gender: Exploring Relations to Sexual Harassment, Body Image, Media Influence, and Emotional Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Kilmartin, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated self-reported influences on self-esteem involving the media, sexual harassment, body image, family and peer relationships, and emotional expression for 93 boys and 116 girls in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results generally supported a pattern in which boys and girls were most similar in late childhood and again in late adolescence. Discusses…

  20. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Eduardo A Garza; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception.

  1. Adolescent Self-Esteem and Gender: Exploring Relations to Sexual Harassment, Body Image, Media Influence, and Emotional Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Kilmartin, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated self-reported influences on self-esteem involving the media, sexual harassment, body image, family and peer relationships, and emotional expression for 93 boys and 116 girls in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results generally supported a pattern in which boys and girls were most similar in late childhood and again in late adolescence. Discusses…

  2. Influences of Moral, Emotional and Adversity Quotient on Good Citizenship of Rajabhat University's Students in the Northeast of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siphai, Sunan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influences of moral, emotional and adversity quotient on good citizenship of Rajabhat University's students in Northeastern Region of Thailand. The samples included 1,087 undergraduate students from 8 different Rajabhat universities. Data analysis was conducted in descriptive statistics and…

  3. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  4. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  5. Low Family Income and Behavior Problems in Norwegian Preschoolers: Is Child Emotionality a Marker for Sensitivity of Influence?

    PubMed

    Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

    2016-04-01

    Poor children have higher rates of mental health problems than more affluent peers, also in progressive welfare states such as Norway. Temperamental characteristics may render some children more sensitive to the adverse influence of poor economy. This study examined the direct associations between family income-to-needs and mental health and assessed moderation by early temperamental characteristics (i.e., emotionality). Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, associations between income-to-needs across children's first 3 years and internalizing and externalizing problems when children were 5 years old were examined. Differential sensitivity to family income-to-needs was assessed by investigating how emotionality, when children were one-and-a-half and 3 years old, moderated these associations. Significant main effects of income-to-needs and emotionality and a significant interaction effect between income-to-needs and emotionality were found for externalizing problems, but not for internalizing problems. Children in poor families with an emotionally reactive temperament had higher scores on externalizing problems when they were 5 compared with their less emotionally reactive peers.

  6. The Influence Paths of Emotion on the Occupational Safety of Rescuers Involved in Environmental Emergencies- Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    LU, Jintao; YANG, Naiding; YE, Jinfu; WU, Haoran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A detailed study and analysis of previous research has been carried out to illustrate the relationships between a range of environmental emergencies, and their effects on the emotional state of the rescuers involved in responding to them, by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords “emergency rescue”, “occupational safety”, “natural disaster”, “emotional management”. The effect of the rescuers’ emotion on their occupational safety and immediate and long-term emotional behavior is then considered. From these considerations, we suggested four research propositions related to the emotional effects at both individual and group levels, and to the responsibilities of emergency response agencies in respect of ensuring the psychological and physical occupational safety of rescuers during and after environmental emergencies. An analysis framework is proposed which could be used to study the influence paths of these different aspects of emotional impact on a range of occupational safety issues for rescue workers. The authors believe that the conclusions drawn in this paper can provide a useful theoretical reference for decision-making related to the management and protection of the occupational safety of rescuers responding to natural disasters and environmental emergencies. PMID:26060714

  7. The Influence Paths of Emotion on the Occupational Safety of Rescuers Involved in Environmental Emergencies- Systematic Review Article.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jintao; Yang, Naiding; Ye, Jinfu; Wu, Haoran

    2014-11-01

    A detailed study and analysis of previous research has been carried out to illustrate the relationships between a range of environmental emergencies, and their effects on the emotional state of the rescuers involved in responding to them, by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords "emergency rescue", "occupational safety", "natural disaster", "emotional management". The effect of the rescuers' emotion on their occupational safety and immediate and long-term emotional behavior is then considered. From these considerations, we suggested four research propositions related to the emotional effects at both individual and group levels, and to the responsibilities of emergency response agencies in respect of ensuring the psychological and physical occupational safety of rescuers during and after environmental emergencies. An analysis framework is proposed which could be used to study the influence paths of these different aspects of emotional impact on a range of occupational safety issues for rescue workers. The authors believe that the conclusions drawn in this paper can provide a useful theoretical reference for decision-making related to the management and protection of the occupational safety of rescuers responding to natural disasters and environmental emergencies.

  8. How do academic stress and leisure activities influence college students' emotional well-being? A daily diary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieting; Zheng, Yao

    2017-10-01

    China has one of the largest bodies of college students who face growing academic stress that influences their well-being. Using a daily diary method in a group of Chinese college students (n = 139, mean age = 19.50 years, 27% males) who reported their daily positive and negative emotion consecutively for two weeks, this study investigated the dynamic relations between daily academic stress, leisure activities engagement, and emotion, and further examined the moderation of sex on these links. The results showed that at both between- and within-person level, academic stress was positively associated with negative emotion, and leisure activities engagement was positively associated with positive emotion. The association between leisure activities engagement and positive emotion were stronger among female students than among male students. These results suggest that effectively reducing academic stress and actively engaging in leisure activities are both important in promoting and enhancing daily emotional well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. [Is an optimistic memory less easily influenced by negative than by positive emotions?].

    PubMed

    Beneyto Molina, Vicent Blai; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique García

    2012-05-01

    This work examines whether a positive personality trait, such as optimism, can reduce bias in differential words recalled after inducing a certain emotion. After showing a list of words with various emotional valences to a group of 59 subjects, a specific emotional state was induced. Subsequently, the subjects were asked to recall the list of words. The results obtained indicated that less optimistic subjects had a tendency to recall and recognize a greater number of negative words when in a negative emotional condition. Statistical significance was reached in the female group's negative word recognition when experiencing negative emotion.

  10. Emotion regulation and depressive symptoms: Close relationships as social context and influence.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Brett; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Depression is associated with social dysfunction and maladaptive social environments, but mechanisms through which social relationships affect depressive psychopathology are unclear. We hypothesized that emotion regulation (ER) is such a mechanism, with outcomes of individuals' ER efforts sensitive to the social context, and individuals' ER strategy repertoire and use sensitive to social influence. In Study 1, a longitudinal study of community adults (N = 1,319), associations of individuals' ER strategies with depressive symptoms depended on social connectedness and romantic relationship status (social context hypothesis). Moreover, associations of social connectedness and relationship status with symptoms were accounted for by maladaptive ER concurrently and, for social connectedness, prospectively over 1 year (social influence hypothesis). Study 2a, using a national sample (N = 772), replicated and extended these findings with a broader array of ER strategies, and ruled out alternative explanations regarding social skills and psychological wellbeing. Among participants in romantic relationships (Study 2b; N = 558), intimacy and trust buffered associations of maladaptive ER strategies with symptoms (context), and maladaptive and adaptive ER mediated links between relationship variables and symptoms (influence). Findings suggest that close relationships-and variation in underlying relational processes within relationships-influence the ER strategies people use, and also affect whether individuals' own ER repertoires contribute to depression when deployed. Results elucidate core social mechanisms of ER in terms of both basic processes and depressive psychopathology, suggest ER is a channel through which social factors affect internal functioning and mental health, and inform relationship pathways for clinical intervention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. How District Leaders Use Knowledge Management to Influence Principals' Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloughlin, Denise Marie

    2016-01-01

    The study of knowledge management, an integrated system of an organization's culture, conditions, and structure, as applied to educational institutions is limited. It was not known how district leaders use knowledge management to influence principals' instructional leadership performance. The purpose of this qualitative single-case study was to…

  12. Understanding the Influence of Two Mathematics Textbooks on Prospective Secondary Teachers' Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the influence of reading and planning from two differently organized mathematics textbooks on prospective high school mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of exponential functions. The teachers completed a pretest and two posttests. On the pretest, the teachers possessed an incomplete…

  13. The Influence of the Knowledge Base on the Development of Mnemonic Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Peter A.; Naus, Mary J.

    A dominant theme in cognitive psychology is that prior knowledge in long-term memory has a strong influence on an individual's cognitive processing. Citing numerous memory studies with children, knowledge base effects are presented as part of a broader picture of memory development. Using the sort/recall procedure (asking subjects to group sets of…

  14. Parental Knowledge and Substance Use among African American Adolescents: Influence of Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Cook, Emily C.; Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J.; Feinn, Richard; Chinman, Matthew J.; Shepard, Jane K.; Brabham, Tamika; Connell, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental knowledge is defined as parental awareness and information about a child's activities, whereabouts, and associations that is obtained through parental monitoring, parental solicitation, or self-disclosure. Increased parental knowledge is generally associated with lower adolescent substance use; however, the influence of various contextual…

  15. How District Leaders Use Knowledge Management to Influence Principals' Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloughlin, Denise Marie

    2016-01-01

    The study of knowledge management, an integrated system of an organization's culture, conditions, and structure, as applied to educational institutions is limited. It was not known how district leaders use knowledge management to influence principals' instructional leadership performance. The purpose of this qualitative single-case study was to…

  16. Examining the Factors Influencing Participants' Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Irene Y. L.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk

    2009-01-01

    Increasing organizations and educational institutions have implemented virtual learning communities to encourage knowledge sharing. However, this task can not be accomplished simply by grouping people together and telling them "sharing your knowledge will make you learn better". This research attempts to examine the factors influencing knowledge…

  17. Parental Knowledge and Substance Use among African American Adolescents: Influence of Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Cook, Emily C.; Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J.; Feinn, Richard; Chinman, Matthew J.; Shepard, Jane K.; Brabham, Tamika; Connell, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental knowledge is defined as parental awareness and information about a child's activities, whereabouts, and associations that is obtained through parental monitoring, parental solicitation, or self-disclosure. Increased parental knowledge is generally associated with lower adolescent substance use; however, the influence of various contextual…

  18. Influence of Knowledge of Content and Students on Beginning Agriculture Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored experiences of beginning agriculture teachers' approaches to teaching content. The research question guiding the study was: how does agriculture teachers' knowledge of content and students influence their process of breaking down content knowledge for teaching? The researchers employed a grounded theory approach in which five…

  19. Examining the Factors Influencing Participants' Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Irene Y. L.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk

    2009-01-01

    Increasing organizations and educational institutions have implemented virtual learning communities to encourage knowledge sharing. However, this task can not be accomplished simply by grouping people together and telling them "sharing your knowledge will make you learn better". This research attempts to examine the factors influencing knowledge…

  20. The Influence of Emotional State and Pictorial Cues on Perceptual Judgments

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly R. Raddatz; Abigail Werth; Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-10-01

    Perspective displays (e.g., CDTI) are commonly used as decision aids in environments characterized by periods of high emotional arousal (e.g., terrain enhanced primary flight displays). However, little attention has been devoted to understanding how emotional state, independently or in conjunction with other perceptual factors (e.g., pictorial depth cues), can impact perceptual judgments. Preliminary research suggests that induced emotional state (positive or negative) adversely impacts size comparisons in perspective displays (Tran & Raddatz, 2006). This study further investigated how size comparisons are affected by emotional state and pictorial depth cues while attenuating the limitations of the Tran & Raddatz (2006) study. Results confirmed that observers do make slower judgments under induced emotional state. However, observers under negative emotional state showed higher sensitivity (d’) and required more evidence to respond that a size difference exists (response bias) than observers under positive emotional state. Implications for display design and human performance are discussed.

  1. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure

    PubMed Central

    David, Shlomo; Hareli, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist’s truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame) were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of truthfulness in an organizational context. PMID:27247646

  2. Peer Influence on Academic Performance: A Social Network Analysis of Social-Emotional Intervention Effects.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Zhang, Linlin; Hanish, Laura D; Miller, Cindy F; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Kochel, Karen P; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Longitudinal social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine how a social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention may be associated with peer socialization on academic performance. Fifth graders (N = 631; 48 % girls; 9 to 12 years) were recruited from six elementary schools. Intervention classrooms (14) received a relationship building intervention (RBI) and control classrooms (8) received elementary school as usual. At pre- and post-test, students nominated their friends, and teachers completed assessments of students' writing and math performance. The results of longitudinal SNA suggested that the RBI was associated with friend selection and peer influence within the classroom peer network. Friendship choices were significantly more diverse (i.e., less evidence of social segregation as a function of ethnicity and academic ability) in intervention compared to control classrooms, and peer influence on improved writing and math performance was observed in RBI but not control classrooms. The current findings provide initial evidence that SEL interventions may change social processes in a classroom peer network and may break down barriers of social segregation and improve academic performance.

  3. Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia

    2006-05-01

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18 23°C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  4. Influence of emotional context on concreteness effects in words processing for field-independent and field-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Jiao, Lihua; Cui, Lixia

    2014-06-18

    The phenomenon that concrete words are easier to process than abstract words is referred to as the word concreteness effect. Previous research has investigated influences of semantic context and word emotionality on concreteness effects. It is still unclear whether word concreteness effects might be influenced by emotional context for individuals with different cognitive styles. The present study showed how affective congruency between picture context and word target impacts concreteness effects in the word processing for field-independent and field-dependent individuals using event-related potential measures. The participants evaluated pleasantness of the target word following the presentation of an affective picture. Concrete words were associated with a larger N400 and a smaller late positive component (LPC) than abstract words. Moreover, the LPC concreteness effect occurred only in the affectively incongruent context for field-dependent participants. These findings suggest that emotional context and concreteness modulate the N400 independently, but the LPC concreteness effect is influenced by emotional context and cognitive style.

  5. Orthographic Knowledge and Lexical Form Influence Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-03-01

    Many adults struggle with second language acquisition, but learn new native-language words relatively easily. We investigated the role of sublexical native-language patterns on novel word acquisition. Twenty English monolinguals learned 48 novel written words in five repeated testing blocks. Half were orthographically wordlike (e.g., nish, high neighborhood density and high segment/bigram frequency), while half were not (e.g., gofp, low neighborhood density and low segment/bigram frequency). Participants were faster and more accurate at recognizing and producing wordlike items, indicating a native-language similarity benefit. Individual differences in memory and vocabulary size influenced learning, and error analyses indicated that participants extracted probabilistic information from the novel vocabulary. Results suggest that language learners benefit from both native-language overlap and regularities within the novel language.

  6. Orthographic Knowledge and Lexical Form Influence Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    Many adults struggle with second language acquisition, but learn new native-language words relatively easily. We investigated the role of sublexical native-language patterns on novel word acquisition. Twenty English monolinguals learned 48 novel written words in five repeated testing blocks. Half were orthographically wordlike (e.g., nish, high neighborhood density and high segment/bigram frequency), while half were not (e.g., gofp, low neighborhood density and low segment/bigram frequency). Participants were faster and more accurate at recognizing and producing wordlike items, indicating a native-language similarity benefit. Individual differences in memory and vocabulary size influenced learning, and error analyses indicated that participants extracted probabilistic information from the novel vocabulary. Results suggest that language learners benefit from both native-language overlap and regularities within the novel language. PMID:28781397

  7. Does emotional intelligence influence success during medical school admissions and program matriculation?: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian Jaeger; Cook, Chad E; Hilton, Tiffany N

    2016-01-01

    It aimed at determining whether emotional intelligence is a predictor for success in a medical school program and whether the emotional intelligence construct correlated with other markers for admission into medical school. Three databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and ERIC) were searched up to and including July 2016, using relevant terms. Studies written in English were selected if they included emotional intelligence as a predictor for success in medical school, markers of success such as examination scores and grade point average and association with success defined through traditional medical school admission criteria and failures, and details about the sample. Data extraction included the study authors and year, population description, emotional intelligence I tool, outcome variables, and results. Associations between emotional intelligence scores and reported data were extracted and recorded. Six manuscripts were included. Overall, study quality was high. Four of the manuscripts examined emotional intelligence as a predictor for success while in medical school. Three of these four studies supported a weak positive relationship between emotional intelligence scores and success during matriculation. Two of manuscripts examined the relationship of emotional intelligence to medical school admissions. There were no significant relevant correlations between emotional intelligence and medical school admission selection. Emotional intelligence was correlated with some, but not all, measures of success during medical school matriculation and none of the measures associated with medical school admissions. Variability in success measures across studies likely explains the variable findings.

  8. The influence of self-awareness on emotional memory formation: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Erik A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of emotional perception shows that when attention is focused on external features of emotional stimuli (external perceptual orienting—EPO), the amygdala is primarily engaged, but when attention is turned inwards towards one’s own emotional state (interoceptive self-orienting—ISO), regions of the salience network, such as the anterior insula (AI) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), also play a major role. Yet, it is unknown if ISO boosts the contributions of AI and dACC not only to emotional ‘perception’ but also to emotional ‘memory’. To investigate this issue, participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing emotional and neutral pictures under ISO or EPO, and memory was tested several days later. The study yielded three main findings: (i) emotion boosted perception-related activity in the amygdala during both ISO and EPO and in the right AI exclusively during ISO; (ii) emotion augmented activity predicting subsequent memory in AI and dACC during ISO but not during EPO and (iii) high confidence memory was associated with increased amygdala–dACC connectivity, selectively for ISO encoding. These findings show, for the first time, that ISO promotes emotional memory formation via regions associated with interoceptive awareness of emotional experience, such as AI and dACC. PMID:26645274

  9. Does emotional intelligence influence success during medical school admissions and program matriculation?: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It aimed at determining whether emotional intelligence is a predictor for success in a medical school program and whether the emotional intelligence construct correlated with other markers for admission into medical school. Methods Three databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and ERIC) were searched up to and including July 2016, using relevant terms. Studies written in English were selected if they included emotional intelligence as a predictor for success in medical school, markers of success such as examination scores and grade point average and association with success defined through traditional medical school admission criteria and failures, and details about the sample. Data extraction included the study authors and year, population description, emotional intelligence I tool, outcome variables, and results. Associations between emotional intelligence scores and reported data were extracted and recorded. Results Six manuscripts were included. Overall, study quality was high. Four of the manuscripts examined emotional intelligence as a predictor for success while in medical school. Three of these four studies supported a weak positive relationship between emotional intelligence scores and success during matriculation. Two of manuscripts examined the relationship of emotional intelligence to medical school admissions. There were no significant relevant correlations between emotional intelligence and medical school admission selection. Conclusion Emotional intelligence was correlated with some, but not all, measures of success during medical school matriculation and none of the measures associated with medical school admissions. Variability in success measures across studies likely explains the variable findings. PMID:27838916

  10. Facial emotion recognition in psychiatrists and influences of their therapeutic identification on that ability.

    PubMed

    Dalkıran, Mihriban; Gultekin, Gozde; Yuksek, Erhan; Varsak, Nalan; Gul, Hesna; Kıncır, Zeliha; Tasdemir, Akif; Emul, Murat

    2016-08-01

    Although emotional cues like facial emotion expressions seem to be important in social interaction, there is no specific training about emotional cues for psychiatrists. Here, we aimed to investigate psychiatrists' ability of facial emotion recognition and relation with their clinical identification as psychotherapy-psychopharmacology oriented or being adult and childhood-adolescent psychiatrist. Facial Emotion Recognition Test was performed to 130 psychiatrists that were constructed by a set of photographs (happy, sad, fearful, angry, surprised, disgusted and neutral faces) from Ekman and Friesen's. Psychotherapy oriented adult psychiatrists were significantly better in recognizing sad facial emotion (p=.003) than psychopharmacologists while no significant differences were detected according to therapeutic orientation among child-adolescent psychiatrists (for each, p>.05). Adult psychiatrists were significantly better in recognizing fearful (p=.012) and disgusted (p=.003) facial emotions than child-adolescent psychiatrists while the latter were better in recognizing angry facial emotion (p=.008). For the first time, we have shown some differences on psychiatrists' facial emotion recognition ability according to therapeutic identification and being adult or child-adolescent psychiatrist. It would be valuable to investigate how these differences or training the ability of facial emotion recognition would affect the quality of patient-clinician interaction and treatment related outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of self-awareness on emotional memory formation: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pais-Vieira, Carla; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of emotional perception shows that when attention is focused on external features of emotional stimuli (external perceptual orienting--EPO), the amygdala is primarily engaged, but when attention is turned inwards towards one's own emotional state (interoceptive self-orienting--ISO), regions of the salience network, such as the anterior insula (AI) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), also play a major role. Yet, it is unknown if ISO boosts the contributions of AI and dACC not only to emotional 'perception' but also to emotional 'memory'. To investigate this issue, participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing emotional and neutral pictures under ISO or EPO, and memory was tested several days later. The study yielded three main findings: (i) emotion boosted perception-related activity in the amygdala during both ISO and EPO and in the right AI exclusively during ISO; (ii) emotion augmented activity predicting subsequent memory in AI and dACC during ISO but not during EPO and (iii) high confidence memory was associated with increased amygdala-dACC connectivity, selectively for ISO encoding. These findings show, for the first time, that ISO promotes emotional memory formation via regions associated with interoceptive awareness of emotional experience, such as AI and dACC.

  12. Does Preschool Enrichment of Precursors to Arithmetic Influence Intuitive Knowledge of Number in Low Income Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda S.; Jalbert, Julie; Girard, Alain

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether preventive enrichment of pre-math skills has an influence on number knowledge in preschool children from low income families. Our data analyses use two methods to examine the influence of two independent programs implemented during junior kindergarten and kindergarten. The first implies the traditional approach…

  13. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…

  14. The Reflexive Producer: The Influence of Farmer Knowledge upon the Use of Bt Corn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaup, Brent Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of farmer knowledge upon decision making processes. Drawing upon the sociological debates around the ideas of reflexive modernity and biotechnology as well as from classic adoption and diffusion studies, I explore the influences upon farmers' use of "Bacillus thuringiensis" (Bt) corn. Utilizing survey data…

  15. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…

  16. The Reflexive Producer: The Influence of Farmer Knowledge upon the Use of Bt Corn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaup, Brent Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of farmer knowledge upon decision making processes. Drawing upon the sociological debates around the ideas of reflexive modernity and biotechnology as well as from classic adoption and diffusion studies, I explore the influences upon farmers' use of "Bacillus thuringiensis" (Bt) corn. Utilizing survey data…

  17. Is There Any Hope? How Climate Change News Imagery and Text Influence Audience Emotions and Support for Climate Mitigation Policies.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Lauren; Hart, P Sol

    2017-08-02

    Using a national sample, this study experimentally tests the effects of news visuals and texts that emphasize either the causes and impacts of climate change or actions that can be taken to address climate change. We test the effects of variations in text and imagery on discrete emotions (i.e., hope, fear, and anger) and, indirectly, on support for climate mitigation policies. Political ideology is examined as a moderator. The findings indicate that news images and texts that focus on climate-oriented actions can increase hope and, in the case of texts, decrease fear and anger, and these effects generally hold across the ideological spectrum. In turn, the influence of emotions on policy support depends on ideology: Hope and fear increase support for climate policies for all ideological groups but particularly conservatives, whereas anger polarizes the opinions of liberals and conservatives. Implications for climate change communication that appeals to emotions are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Does exposure to ambient odors influence the emotional content of memories?

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Kenia M; Hudson, Judith A; Haviland-Jones, Jeannette; Wilson, Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implicitly presented odors on the emotional content of memory narratives. Participants were exposed to low levels of perfumes or no odors while they reconstructed a memory from childhood and a recurrent dream. Narratives were analyzed for emotional content using the Linguistic and Inquiry Word Count program. Exposure to perfumes increased the percentage of positive emotion words used by participants in recalling both dreams and childhood memories. In addition, exposure to odors decreased the percentage of negative emotion words that men used in their narratives, whereas the opposite effect was found for women. Discussion focuses on gender differences in written emotional expression, possible ways by which perfumes may exert their effects, and the usefulness of using ambient odors and objective content analysis when studying emotions in memories.

  19. Promoting calls to a quitline: quantifying the influence of message theme, strong negative emotions and graphic images in television advertisements.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Davis, Kevin C; Nonnemaker, James M; Kamyab, Kian; Jackson, Christine

    2011-07-01

    To understand the relative effectiveness of television advertisements that differ in their thematic focus and portrayals of negative emotions and/or graphic images in promoting calls to a smokers' quitline. Regression analysis is used to explain variation in quarterly media market-level per smoker calls to the New York State Smokers' Quitline from 2001 to 2009. The primary independent variable is quarterly market-level delivery of television advertisements measured by target audience rating points (TARPs). Advertisements were characterised by their overall objective--promoting cessation, highlighting the dangers of secondhand smoke (SHS) or other--and by their portrayals of strong negative emotions and graphic images. Per smoker call volume is positively correlated with total TARPs (p<0.001), and cessation advertisements are more effective than SHS advertisements in promoting quitline call volume. Advertisements with graphic images only or neither strong negative emotions nor graphic images are associated with higher call volume with similar effect sizes. Call volume was not significantly associated with the number of TARPs for advertisements with strong negative emotions only (p=0.71) or with both graphic images and strong emotions (p=0.09). Exposure to television advertisements is strongly associated with quitline call volume, and both cessation and SHS advertisements can be effective. The use of strong negative emotions in advertisements may be effective in promoting smoking cessation in the population but does not appear to influence quitline call volume. Further research is needed to understand the role of negative emotions in promoting calls to quitlines and cessation more broadly among the majority of smokers who do not call quitlines.

  20. The Influence of Music on Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurotypical Children.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura S

    2017-03-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often struggle with social skills, including the ability to perceive emotions based on facial expressions. Research evidence suggests that many individuals with ASD can perceive emotion in music. Examining whether music can be used to enhance recognition of facial emotion by children with ASD would inform development of music therapy interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of music with a strong emotional valance (happy; sad) on children with ASD's ability to label emotions depicted in facial photographs, and their response time. Thirty neurotypical children and 20 children with high-functioning ASD rated expressions of happy, neutral, and sad in 30 photographs under two music listening conditions (sad music; happy music). During each music listening condition, participants rated the 30 images using a 7-point scale that ranged from very sad to very happy. Response time data were also collected across both conditions. A significant two-way interaction revealed that participants' ratings of happy and neutral faces were unaffected by music conditions, but sad faces were perceived to be sadder with sad music than with happy music. Across both conditions, neurotypical children rated the happy faces as happier and the sad faces as sadder than did participants with ASD. Response times of the neurotypical children were consistently shorter than response times of the children with ASD; both groups took longer to rate sad faces than happy faces. Response times of neurotypical children were generally unaffected by the valence of the music condition; however, children with ASD took longer to respond when listening to sad music. Music appears to affect perceptions of emotion in children with ASD, and perceptions of sad facial expressions seem to be more affected by emotionally congruent background music than are perceptions of happy or neutral faces.

  1. [Influences of Hospital Nurses' perceived reciprocity and Emotional Labor on Quality of Nursing Service and Intent to Leave].

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Aie; Kim, Eunjeong

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship among reciprocity, emotional labor, nursing service quality and intent to leave, and to identify factors influencing nursing service quality and intent to leave. This study was a cross-sectional survey. Participants were 300 nurses working at five general hospitals in two provincial cities in Gyeongsang Province, Korea. From May 1 to June 30, 2014, data were collected using structured questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS/PC ver 20.0 programs. There were relationships between reciprocity and nursing service quality, and intent to leave, and between emotional labor and intent to leave. Participants' general characteristics, reciprocity and emotional labor explained 48.4% of variance in nursing service quality and participants' general characteristics and these two independent variables explained 31.9% of intent to leave. These findings indicate that from the perception of hospital nurses, reciprocity and emotional labor are both very important factors to improve the quality of nursing service and decrease the intent to leave. So nursing managers should try to develop various personnel management programs focused on human emotions, and create a mutual respectable organizational culture and work environment.

  2. Emotion-focused coping and distraction: sex differences in the influence of anxiety sensitivity during noxious heat stimulation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, T; Keogh, E; Chen, M J-L; French, C C

    2012-03-01

    While previous research has indicated that the relative efficacy of attentional strategies on pain may be influenced by anxiety sensitivity (AS) and sex, no study appears to have examined this within the context of an emotion-focus versus distraction paradigm. The present study compared the effect of attentional emotion-focus and distraction instructions on pain response with noxious heat stimulation in 114 healthy adults (62 women and 52 men) varying in levels of AS. Results indicated that men reported a significantly higher mean tolerance time than women. Moderated regression analysis also revealed a significant strategy × anxiety sensitivity × sex interaction on pain tolerance. For those low in AS, relative efficacy was dependent upon sex, with distraction superior to emotion-focusing in women, but with strategies equivalent in men. For those high in AS, however, distraction resulted in uniformly greater pain tolerance than attentional emotion-focusing. These results indicate that AS and sex may be influential in determining the relative effectiveness of distraction and emotion-based attentional strategies for pain management.

  3. Job Strain and Self-Reported Insomnia Symptoms among Nurses: What about the Influence of Emotional Demands and Social Support?

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Kröning Luna, Caroline; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Toivanen, Susanna; Araújo, Tania; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-01-01

    Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses (N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses. PMID:26557699

  4. The influence of combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training on amygdala response during face emotion recognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; D'Esposito, Mark; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2013-08-30

    Both cognitive and social-cognitive deficits impact functional outcome in schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation studies indicate that targeted cognitive and/or social-cognitive training improves behavioral performance on trained skills. However, the neural effects of training in schizophrenia and their relation to behavioral gains are largely unknown. This study tested whether a 50-h intervention which included both cognitive and social-cognitive training would influence neural mechanisms that support social ccognition. Schizophrenia participants completed a computer-based intervention of either auditory-based cognitive training (AT) plus social-cognition training (SCT) (N=11) or non-specific computer games (CG) (N=11). Assessments included a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task of facial emotion recognition, and behavioral measures of cognition, social cognition, and functional outcome. The fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Results were strongest for emotion recognition of happy, surprise and fear: relative to CG participants, AT+SCT participants showed a neural activity increase in bilateral amygdala, right putamen and right medial prefrontal cortex. Across all participants, pre-to-post intervention neural activity increase in these regions predicted behavioral improvement on an independent emotion perception measure (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Among AT+SCT participants alone, neural activity increase in right amygdala predicted behavioral improvement in emotion perception. The findings indicate that combined cognition and social-cognition training improves neural systems that support social-cognition skills.

  5. Job Strain and Self-Reported Insomnia Symptoms among Nurses: What about the Influence of Emotional Demands and Social Support?

    PubMed

    Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Kröning Luna, Caroline; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Toivanen, Susanna; Araújo, Tania; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-01-01

    Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses (N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses.

  6. Influence of nutritional knowledge on the use and interpretation of Spanish nutritional food labels.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, E; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the nutritional knowledge of Spanish consumers and its relationship with the correct use of food labels. Consumers were asked about their nutritional knowledge and some functional foods and about their understanding of food labeling and their use of it to select healthy food. A 2-part questionnaire was employed. The 1st part concerned their knowledge of nutritional facts, including their knowledge about macronutrients and perception of certain functional foods, while the 2nd part addressed some questions regarding food labels. The results revealed no statistically significant differences in nutritional knowledge by either age or gender, but a direct relationship with educational level. The association between nutritional knowledge and the perception and understanding of food labeling showed that the nutritional label rarely influenced the food purchases of the group with low nutritional knowledge, who considered that this information was too technical. More than half of the consumers did not consider the calorie or sugar content important for selecting food. In addition, the group with low nutritional knowledge stated that they never or rarely looked at the food labels to check whether it was low-fat food that they were buying. Knowing the status of the consumer's nutritional knowledge allows health campaigns to be designed; considering the influence of cultural factors and the perception of food labeling is very useful for promoting better nutritional information. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Emotions about Teaching about Human-Induced Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is receiving increasing attention as a classroom topic. At the same time, research has shown that individuals have strong emotions about the topic. Emotions about controversial topics and individuals' dispositions toward knowledge have been shown to influence judgments about these topics. This study examined the relationships…

  8. Emotions about Teaching about Human-Induced Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is receiving increasing attention as a classroom topic. At the same time, research has shown that individuals have strong emotions about the topic. Emotions about controversial topics and individuals' dispositions toward knowledge have been shown to influence judgments about these topics. This study examined the relationships…

  9. The influence of sex versus sex-related traits on long-term memory for gist and detail from an emotional story.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Larry; Gorski, Lukasz; Belcher, Annabelle; Huynh, Quyen

    2004-06-01

    Recent findings demonstrate sex-related differences in the neurobiological mechanisms by which emotional arousal influences memory, and raise questions about the extent to which memory for emotional events may differ between males and females. Here we examine whether sex-related differences exist in the recall of central (gist) information and peripheral detail from an emotional story. Healthy subjects viewed a brief, narrated slide-show containing emotional elements in its middle section. One week later, they received an incidental multiple-choice recognition test for the story. Following the test, each subject completed the BEM Sex-Role Inventory, an assessment of sex-related masculine and feminine traits. The results reveal no differences in recall of either central or peripheral story information when considering the performance of actual men and women, but a significant difference when considering male and females as determined by their BEM test scores. "BEM" males (subjects with net male BEM scores) showed significantly enhanced recall of central emotional information. "BEM" females did not. Both groups showed significantly enhanced recall of peripheral emotional information, although this effect appeared larger in BEM females than in BEM males. The influences of "BEM" sex and type of information (central, peripheral) significantly interacted to influence emotional memory performance. These findings confirm the existence of sex-related influences in the recall of emotional information, and suggest that sex-related traits, rather than actual sex per se, may be a more sensitive indicator of these influences.

  10. The Relative Power of an Emotion's Facial Expression, Label, and Behavioral Consequence to Evoke Preschoolers' Knowledge of Its Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Lay people and scientists alike assume that, especially for young children, facial expressions are a strong cue to another's emotion. We report a study in which children (N=120; 3-4 years) described events that would cause basic emotions (surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness) presented as its facial expression, as its label, or as its…

  11. Does Training Toddlers in Emotion Knowledge Lead to Changes in Their Prosocial and Aggressive Behavior toward Peers at Nursery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornaghi, Veronica; Brazzelli, Elisa; Grazzani, Ilaria; Agliati, Alessia; Lucarelli, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Within the flourishing area of research demonstrating the efficacy of emotion-based interventions carried out by trained teachers in educational contexts in increasing children's emotional skills, this study makes an original contribution to the existing literature by focusing on the effects of this kind of intervention on…

  12. The Role of Knowledge and Skills for Managing Emotions in Adaptation to School: Social Behavior and Misconduct in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Paulo N.; Mestre, Jose M.; Guil, Rocio; Kremenitzer, Janet Pickard; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Students' ability to evaluate emotionally challenging situations and identify effective strategies for managing emotions in themselves and others was negatively related to poor classroom social behavior across three studies. These studies, involving 463 students from two Spanish high schools and one American university, examined indicators of…

  13. Unexpected and just missed: the separate influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, Evelien; Moors, Agnes; De Houwer, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that a goal-incongruent outcome leads to more intense negative emotions when it is unexpected and close to a goal-congruent outcome. Until now, however, no studies have disentangled the influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on emotions. We experimentally manipulated each of these variables in 3 slot machine experiments and measured emotions via differences in motivation (i.e., the tendency to repair the goal incongruence) and feelings (i.e., disappointment, frustration, and anger). The experiments consisted of a series of trials that each started with the sequential presentation of 3 symbols. In case of a win trial, all symbols were equal (e.g., AAA) and the participant gained 10 cents; in case of a loss trial, one or more of the symbols differed and the participant gained 0 cents. Three different loss trials were compared: unexpected proximal ones (e.g., AAB), expected proximal ones (e.g., ABA), and expected distal ones (e.g., ABC). The tendency to repair was measured online via behavior as well as retrospectively via self-reports; feelings were measured retrospectively (Experiments 1 and 2) or online (Experiment 3). Unexpected losses seemed to increase the tendency to repair as well as feelings of disappointment (in all experiments) and feelings of frustration and anger (in Experiments 1 and 3). Proximal losses increased only the tendency to repair (in all experiments). This suggests that the appraisals of expectancy and proximity have a distinct influence on emotions.

  14. Age influences the relation between subjective valence ratings and emotional word use during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn H; DiGirolamo, Marissa A; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Recent research reveals an age-related increase in positive autobiographical memory retrieval using a number of positivity measures, including valence ratings and positive word use. It is currently unclear whether the positivity shift in each of these measures co-occurs, or if age uniquely influences multiple components of autobiographical memory retrieval. The current study examined the correspondence between valence ratings and emotional word use in young and older adults' autobiographical memories. Positive word use in narratives was associated with valence ratings only in young adults' narratives. Older adults' narratives contained a consistent level of positive word use regardless of valence rating, suggesting that positive words and concepts may be chronically accessible to older adults during memory retrieval, regardless of subjective valence. Although a relation between negative word use in narratives and negative valence ratings was apparent in both young and older adults, it was stronger in older adults' narratives. These findings confirm that older adults do vary their word use in accordance with subjective valence, but they do so in a way that is different from young adults. The results also point to a potential dissociation between age-related changes in subjective valence and in positive word use.

  15. Attachment Representation Moderates the Influence of Emotional Context on Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Rainer; Heinisch, Christine; Kungl, Melanie T.; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    The induction of emotional states has repeatedly been shown to affect cognitive processing capacities. At a neurophysiological level, P3 amplitude responses that are associated with attention allocation have been found to be reduced to task-relevant stimuli during emotional conditions as compared to neutral conditions suggesting a draining impact of emotion on cognitive resources. Attachment theory claims that how individuals regulate their emotions is guided by an internal working model (IWM) of attachment that has formed early in life. While securely attached individuals are capable of freely evaluating their emotions insecurely attached ones tend to either suppress or heighten the emotional experience in a regulatory effort. To explore how attachment quality moderates the impact of emotional contexts on information processing event-related potentials (ERPs) in 41 individuals were assessed. Subjects were instructed to detect neutral target letters within an oddball paradigm. Various images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as background pictures and represented negative, positive and neutral task-irrelevant contexts. Attachment representation was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and individuals were assigned to one of three categories (secure, insecure-dismissing, insecure-preoccupied). At a behavioral level, the study revealed that negative emotionally conditions were associated with the detection of less target stimuli in insecure-dismissing subjects. Accordingly, ERPs yielded reduced P3 amplitudes in insecure-dismissing subjects when given a negative emotional context. We interpret these findings in terms of less sufficient emotion regulation strategies in insecure-dismissing subjects at the cost of accurate behavioral performance. The study suggests that attachment representation differentially moderates the relationship between emotional contexts and information processing most evident in insecure

  16. Fetal Iron Deficiency and Genotype Influence Emotionality in Infant Rhesus Monkeys123

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Mari S; Hogrefe, Casey E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anemia during the third trimester of fetal development affects one-third of the pregnancies in the United States and has been associated with postnatal behavioral outcomes. This study examines how fetal iron deficiency (ID) interacts with the fetal monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype. MAOA metabolizes monoamine neurotransmitters. MAOA polymorphisms in humans affect temperament and modify the influence of early adverse environments on later behavior. Objective: The aim of the study was to advance translation of developmental ID research in animal models by taking into account genetic factors that influence outcomes in human populations. Methods: Male infant rhesus monkeys 3–4 mo old born to mothers fed an ID (10 ppm iron) diet were compared with controls (100 ppm iron). Infant monkeys with high- or low-transcription rate MAOA polymorphisms were equally distributed between diet groups. Behavioral responses to a series of structured experiences were recorded during a 25-h separation of the infants from their mothers. Results: Infant monkeys with low-transcription MAOA polymorphisms more clearly demonstrated the following ID effects suggested in earlier studies: a 4% smaller head circumference, a 39% lower cortisol response to social separation, a 129% longer engagement with novel visual stimuli, and 33% lesser withdrawal in response to a human intruder. The high MAOA genotype ID monkeys demonstrated other ID effects: less withdrawal and emotionality after social separation and lower “fearful” ratings. Conclusion: MAOA × ID interactions support the role of monoamine neurotransmitters in prenatal ID effects in rhesus monkeys and the potential involvement of common human polymorphisms in determining the pattern of neurobehavioral effects produced by inadequate prenatal nutrition. PMID:25733484

  17. Emotional Distress among LGBT Youth: The Influence of Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.; Azrael, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between being lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgendered (i.e., "LGBT") and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian.…

  18. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control, interpersonal…

  19. Playmate Preferences of Preschoolers: The Influence of Emotion, Gender, and Family Expressiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorber, Anne Verbeck; Cunningham, Joseph G.

    This study investigated effects of gender, emotion, and family expressiveness on preschool children's reactions to narrative characters' emotion expressions. Forty-five preschool children rank-ordered playmate preferences for male and female story characters who expressed happiness, anger, sadness, fear, and neutrality and indicated how much they…

  20. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  1. Emotional Enhancement Effect of Memory: Removing the Influence of Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Tobias; Glascher, Jan; Moritz, Steffen; Buchel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    According to the modulation hypothesis, arousal is the crucial factor in the emotional enhancement of memory (EEM). However, the multifactor theory of the EEM recently proposed that cognitive characteristics of emotional stimuli, e.g., relatedness and distinctiveness, also play an important role. The current study aimed to investigate the…

  2. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  3. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control, interpersonal…

  4. Emotional Distress among LGBT Youth: The Influence of Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.; Azrael, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between being lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgendered (i.e., "LGBT") and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian.…

  5. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  6. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  7. Emotional Enhancement Effect of Memory: Removing the Influence of Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Tobias; Glascher, Jan; Moritz, Steffen; Buchel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    According to the modulation hypothesis, arousal is the crucial factor in the emotional enhancement of memory (EEM). However, the multifactor theory of the EEM recently proposed that cognitive characteristics of emotional stimuli, e.g., relatedness and distinctiveness, also play an important role. The current study aimed to investigate the…

  8. Emotional Contrast or Compensation? How Support Reminders Influence the Pain of Acute Peer Disapproval in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaes, Sander; Sedikides, Constantine; Reijntjes, Albert; Brummelman, Eddie; Bushman, Brad J.

    2015-01-01

    When children experience habitual peer difficulties, adults often remind them that many people care about them. How do such reminders of support impact children's emotional responses to acute experiences of peer disapproval? Intuitively, support reminders would exert compensatory effects attenuating the emotional impact of acute disapproval.…

  9. Child-orientated environmental education influences adult knowledge and household behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damerell, P.; Howe, C.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2013-03-01

    Environmental education is frequently undertaken as a conservation intervention designed to change the attitudes and behaviour of recipients. Much conservation education is aimed at children, with the rationale that children influence the attitudes of their parents, who will consequently change their behaviour. Empirical evidence to substantiate this suggestion is very limited, however. For the first time, we use a controlled trial to assess the influence of wetland-related environmental education on the knowledge of children and their parents and household behaviour. We demonstrate adults exhibiting greater knowledge of wetlands and improved reported household water management behaviour when their child has received wetland-based education at Seychelles wildlife clubs. We distinguish between ‘folk’ knowledge of wetland environments and knowledge obtained from formal education, with intergenerational transmission of each depending on different factors. Our study provides the first strong support for the suggestion that environmental education can be transferred between generations and indirectly induce targeted behavioural changes.

  10. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  11. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  12. Unattentive speech processing is influenced by orthographic knowledge: evidence from mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Morais, José; Colin, Cécile; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-10-01

    How far can acquired knowledge such as orthographic knowledge affect pre-existing abilities such as speech perception? This controversial issue was addressed by investigating the automaticity of the influence of orthographic knowledge on speech processing. Many studies demonstrated this influence in active, lexico-semantic speech processing tasks. However, it has never been observed when speech is unattended. Here, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), an automatic index of experience-dependent auditory traces, was recorded in an unattended oddball paradigm manipulating the orthographic congruency between frequent and deviant spoken riming words. Both orthographically congruent and incongruent deviant words elicited a typical MMN over the fronto-central regions, with a stronger response in the incongruent condition. The finding showed that the orthographic dimension of spoken words influences a physiological marker of speech processing although participants were required not to attend to the auditory input. This provides evidence for an impact of acquiring a written code on speech processing.

  13. The Lived Experiences of Secondary School Principals with Respect to Their Perceptions of the Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Their Leadership: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Marc A.

    2009-01-01

    In the realm of educational leadership little attention has been given to emotional intelligence. This phenomenological narrative study was designed to explore the lived experiences of school principals with respect to their perceptions of the influence of emotional intelligence on their leadership. Research indicates that principals have an…

  14. The Lived Experiences of Secondary School Principals with Respect to Their Perceptions of the Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Their Leadership: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Marc A.

    2009-01-01

    In the realm of educational leadership little attention has been given to emotional intelligence. This phenomenological narrative study was designed to explore the lived experiences of school principals with respect to their perceptions of the influence of emotional intelligence on their leadership. Research indicates that principals have an…

  15. Influence of PBL with Open-Book Tests on Knowledge Retention Measured with Progress Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J. B. M.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical students (n = 1,648) of three medical schools were…

  16. Influence of PBL with Open-Book Tests on Knowledge Retention Measured with Progress Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J. B. M.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical students (n = 1,648) of three medical schools were…

  17. Influence of PBL with open-book tests on knowledge retention measured with progress tests.

    PubMed

    Heijne-Penninga, M; Kuks, J B M; Hofman, W H A; Muijtjens, A M M; Cohen-Schotanus, J

    2013-08-01

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical students (n = 1,648) of three medical schools were analyzed. Two schools had PBL driven curricula, and the third one had a traditional curriculum (TC). One of the PBL schools (PBLob) used a combination of open-book (assessing backup knowledge) and closed-book tests (assessing core knowledge); the other two schools (TC and PBLcb) only used closed-book tests. The items of the progress tests were divided into core and backup knowledge. T tests (with Bonferroni correction) were used to analyze differences between curricula. PBL students performed significantly better than TC students on core knowledge (average effect size (av ES) = 0.37-0.74) and PBL students tested with open-book tests scored somewhat higher than PBL students tested without such tests (av ES = 0.23-0.30). Concerning backup knowledge, no differences were found between the scores of the three curricula. Students of the two PBL curricula showed a substantially better long-term knowledge retention than TC students. PBLob students performed somewhat better on core knowledge than PBLcb students. These outcomes suggest that a problem-based instructional approach in particular can stimulate long-term knowledge retention. Distinguishing knowledge into core and backup knowledge and using open-book tests alongside closed-book tests could enhance long-term core knowledge retention.

  18. Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture

    PubMed Central

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The anterior insula (AI) maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence that social-emotional feelings are cognitively constructed within cultural frames, we asked Chinese and American participants to report their feeling strength to admiration and compassion-inducing narratives during fMRI with simultaneous electrocardiogram recording. Trial-by-trial, cardiac arousal and feeling strength correlated with ventral and dorsal AI activity bilaterally but predicted different variance, suggesting that interoception and social-emotional feeling construction are concurrent but dissociable AI functions. Further, although the variance that correlated with cardiac arousal did not show cultural effects, the variance that correlated with feelings did. Feeling strength was especially associated with ventral AI activity (the autonomic modulatory sector) in the Chinese group but with dorsal AI activity (the visceral-somatosensory/cognitive sector) in an American group not of Asian descent. This cultural group difference held after controlling for posterior insula (PI) activity and was replicated. A bi-cultural East-Asian American group showed intermediate results. The findings help elucidate how the AI supports feelings and suggest that previous reports that dorsal AI activation reflects feeling strength are culture related. More broadly, the results suggest that the brain's ability to construct conscious experiences of social emotion is less closely tied to visceral processes than neurobiological models predict and at least partly open to cultural influence and

  19. A study of the influence of nursing education on development of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Shanta, Linda; Gargiulo, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The Future of Nursing, Leading Change, Advancing Health (Institute of Medicine 2011) challenged the profession of nursing to assume leadership of interdisciplinary health care teams. Leading these teams requires cognitive ability to manage highly charged and emotional work. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a characteristic necessary to process emotional information for creative problem solving. In addition, emerging evidence indicates there may be an association of nurses' EI and quality patient care (K. Adams et al., 2011). The foundation for development of competencies essential for nursing practice begins with nursing education. This quasi-experimental study investigated if baccalaureate-level nursing education increased the level of EI as operationalized by J. D. Mayer and P. Salovey's (2004) four-branch abilities model. Findings indicated that senior nursing students scored higher on the ability to understand and reason about emotions over pre-nursing students (P < .05); however, pre-nursing students scored higher than senior nursing students on the ability to accurately perceive emotions (P < .05). Regression analysis found that self-estimated grade point average was the only significant predictor of overall EI. Although the senior nursing students demonstrated strength in the ability to reason about emotion, the ability to perceive emotion seemed to have declined. This problem requires further research and action through transformed nursing education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of oxytocin on emotion recognition from body language: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bernaerts, Sylvie; Berra, Emmely; Wenderoth, Nicole; Alaerts, Kaat

    2016-10-01

    The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. One mechanism by which OT is hypothesized to promote prosocial behavior is by enhancing the processing of socially relevant information from the environment. With the present study, we explored to what extent OT can alter the 'reading' of emotional body language as presented by impoverished biological motion point light displays (PLDs). To do so, a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, assessing performance on a bodily emotion recognition task in healthy adult males before and after a single-dose of intranasal OT (24 IU). Overall, a single-dose of OT administration had a significant effect of medium size on emotion recognition from body language. OT-induced improvements in emotion recognition were not differentially modulated by the emotional valence of the presented stimuli (positive versus negative) and also, the overall tendency to label an observed emotional state as 'happy' (positive) or 'angry' (negative) was not modified by the administration of OT. Albeit moderate, the present findings of OT-induced improvements in bodily emotion recognition from whole-body PLD provide further support for a link between OT and the processing of socio-communicative cues originating from the body of others. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the amygdala, in combination with the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, plays an important role in the retrieval of memories for emotional events. The neural regions necessary for online emotional processing also influence emotional memory retrieval, perhaps through the reexperience of emotion during the retrieval process. PMID:17723029

  2. The influence of explicit conceptual knowledge on perception of physical motions: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanmei; Qian, Xing; Yang, Yuankui; Leng, Yue

    2013-04-29

    Event-related potential is used to study the influence of explicit conceptual knowledge on the perception of physical motions. Participants holding correct or wrong physics concept performed an oddball task with a pair of stimuli. For half of the blocks, the motion consistent with the physical law was the oddball stimulus and the motion inconsistent with the physical law was the standard stimulus and vice versa. The participants holding correct conceptual knowledge showed the larger parietal P3 to the incorrect target stimulus. By contrast, the participants holding wrong conceptual knowledge showed the larger parietal P3 to the correct target stimulus. The results suggest that explicit conceptual knowledge could affect the perception of physical motions. People tend to bias their perception toward the existing explicit knowledge. This study could be helpful for understanding the contribution of education to human perception.

  3. Understanding Risky Behavior: The Influence of Cognitive, Emotional and Hormonal Factors on Decision-Making under Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kusev, Petko; Purser, Harry; Heilman, Renata; Cooke, Alex J.; Van Schaik, Paul; Baranova, Victoria; Martin, Rose; Ayton, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Financial risky decisions and evaluations pervade many human everyday activities. Scientific research in such decision-making typically explores the influence of socio-economic and cognitive factors on financial behavior. However, very little research has explored the holistic influence of contextual, emotional, and hormonal factors on preferences for risk in insurance and investment behaviors. Accordingly, the goal of this review article is to address the complexity of individual risky behavior and its underlying psychological factors, as well as to critically examine current regulations on financial behavior. PMID:28203215

  4. Judgment of other people's facial expressions of emotions is influenced by their concurrent affective hand movements.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2008-06-01

    We investigated whether emotional information from facial expression and hand movement quality was integrated when identifying the expression of a compound stimulus showing a static facial expression combined with emotionally expressive dynamic manual actions. The emotions (happiness, neutrality, and anger) expressed by the face and hands were either congruent or incongruent. In Experiment 1, the participants judged whether the stimulus person was happy, neutral, or angry. Judgments were mainly based on the facial expressions, but were affected by manual expressions to some extent. In Experiment 2, the participants were instructed to base their judgment on the facial expression only. An effect of hand movement expressive quality was observed for happy facial expressions. The results conform with the proposal that perception of facial expressions of emotions can be affected by the expressive qualities of hand movements.

  5. Brain mechanisms for emotional influences on perception and attention: what is magic and what is not.

    PubMed

    Pourtois, Gilles; Schettino, Antonio; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2013-03-01

    The rapid and efficient selection of emotionally salient or goal-relevant stimuli in the environment is crucial for flexible and adaptive behaviors. Converging data from neuroscience and psychology have accrued during the last decade to identify brain systems involved in emotion processing, selective attention, and their interaction, which together act to extract the emotional or motivational value of sensory events and respond appropriately. An important hub in these systems is the amygdala, which may not only monitor the emotional value of stimuli, but also readily project to several other areas and send feedback to sensory pathways (including striate and extrastriate visual cortex). This system generates saliency signals that modulate perceptual, motor, as well as memory processes, and thus in turn regulate behavior appropriately. Here, we review our current views on the function and properties of these brain systems, with an emphasis on their involvement in the rapid and/or preferential processing of threat-relevant stimuli. We suggest that emotion signals may enhance processing efficiency and competitive strength of emotionally significant events through gain control mechanisms similar to those of other (e.g. endogenous) attentional systems, but mediated by distinct neural mechanisms in amygdala and interconnected prefrontal areas. Alterations in these brain mechanisms might be associated with psychopathological conditions, such as anxiety or phobia. We conclude that attention selection and awareness are determined by multiple attention gain control systems that may operate in parallel and use different sensory cues but act on a common perceptual pathway.

  6. The role of emotional eating and stress in the influence of short sleep on food consumption.

    PubMed

    Dweck, Julia S; Jenkins, Steve M; Nolan, Laurence J

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased energy consumption. The present studies were conducted to determine what role emotional eating and stress might play in these relationships. The first was an exploratory questionnaire study in which sleep quality and duration were measured in conjunction with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 184 women. Emotional and external eating scores were significantly higher in those who reported poor sleep quality (but were not related to sleep duration). In a second study of 64 women who were provided with snacks in the laboratory under stressed and control conditions, elevated food consumption was observed in those who scored high on emotional eating and who reported short sleep (a significant stress × emotional eating × sleep duration interaction) but not in those who reported poor sleep quality. No effects were found in liking or wanting of food and few effects were found on appetite. BMI was not related to sleep duration or sleep quality in either study. The results suggest that the relationship between short sleep and elevated food consumption exists in those who are prone to emotional eating. An external stressor elevated consumption in normal sleepers to the level observed in short sleepers, however, it did not significantly elevate consumption in short sleepers. Future examinations of the effects of sleep duration and quality on food consumption should examine emotional eating status.

  7. The influence of emotional salience on the integration of person names into context.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang

    2015-06-03

    Previous event-related potentials (ERP) studies on the processing of emotional information in sentence/discourse context have yielded inconsistent findings. An important reason for the discrepancies is the different lexico-semantic properties of the emotional words. The present study controlled for the lexico-semantic meaning of emotional information by endowing the same person names with either positive or negative valence. ERPs were computed for positively and negatively valenced person names that were either congruent or incongruent to previous emotional contexts. We found that positive names elicited an N400 effect while negative names elicited a P600 effect in response to the incongruence. These results suggest that the integration of positive and negative information into emotional context exhibits different time courses, with a relatively delayed integration for negative information. Our study demonstrates that using person names constitutes a new and improved tool for investigating the integration of emotional information into context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Does school health and home economics education influence adults' food knowledge?

    PubMed

    Worsley, A; Wang, W C; Yeatman, H; Byrne, S; Wijayaratne, P

    2016-12-01

    Home economics and health teachers are to be found in many parts of the world. They teach students about food in relation to its nutritional, safety and environmental properties. The effects of such teaching might be expected to be reflected in the food knowledge of adults who have undertaken school education in these areas. This study examined the food knowledge associations of school home economics and health education among Australian adults. Two separate online surveys were conducted nationwide among 2022 (November 2011) and 2146 Australian adults (November-December 2012). True/false and multiple choice questions in both surveys were used to assess nutrition, food safety and environmental knowledge. Knowledge scores were constructed and compared against respondents' experience of school health or home economics education via multiple regression analyses. The results from both studies showed that home economics (and similar) education was associated with higher levels of food knowledge among several age groups. The associations of home economics education with food knowledge differed across several Australian states and recall of home economics themes differed across the age groups. These findings suggest that home economics education may bring about long-lasting learning of food knowledge. Further research is required, however, to confirm the findings and to test the causal influence of home economics education on adults' food knowledge.

  9. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Memory: A Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brod, Garvin; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Shing, Yee Lee

    2013-01-01

    Across ontogenetic development, individuals gather manifold experiences during which they detect regularities in their environment and thereby accumulate knowledge. This knowledge is used to guide behavior, make predictions, and acquire further new knowledge. In this review, we discuss the influence of prior knowledge on memory from both the psychology and the emerging cognitive neuroscience literature and provide a developmental perspective on this topic. Recent neuroscience findings point to a prominent role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and of the hippocampus (HC) in the emergence of prior knowledge and in its application during the processes of successful memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. We take the lateral PFC into consideration as well and discuss changes in both medial and lateral PFC and HC across development and postulate how these may be related to the development of the use of prior knowledge for remembering. For future direction, we argue that, to measure age differential effects of prior knowledge on memory, it is necessary to distinguish the availability of prior knowledge from its accessibility and use. PMID:24115923

  10. The influence of prior knowledge on memory: a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    PubMed

    Brod, Garvin; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Shing, Yee Lee

    2013-10-08

    Across ontogenetic development, individuals gather manifold experiences during which they detect regularities in their environment and thereby accumulate knowledge. This knowledge is used to guide behavior, make predictions, and acquire further new knowledge. In this review, we discuss the influence of prior knowledge on memory from both the psychology and the emerging cognitive neuroscience literature and provide a developmental perspective on this topic. Recent neuroscience findings point to a prominent role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and of the hippocampus (HC) in the emergence of prior knowledge and in its application during the processes of successful memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. We take the lateral PFC into consideration as well and discuss changes in both medial and lateral PFC and HC across development and postulate how these may be related to the development of the use of prior knowledge for remembering. For future direction, we argue that, to measure age differential effects of prior knowledge on memory, it is necessary to distinguish the availability of prior knowledge from its accessibility and use.

  11. Influences on Young Children's Knowledge: The Case of Road Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Joy

    1998-01-01

    Argues that effective road safety education for young children needs to incorporate constructivist and socio-cultural perspectives on learning. Excerpts interviews with young children highlighting the variety of influences affecting children's road safety knowledge and examination of a road safety curriculum to illustrate the value of a dual…

  12. The Influence of Trust on Knowledge Donating and Collecting: An Examination of Malaysian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, See-Kwong; Sandhu, Manjit-Singh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of affect-based trust and cognition-based trust on knowledge sharing behaviour by adopting the theory of planned behaviour in selected universities in Malaysia. The research adopted survey method and a total of 545 participants from 30 universities. Multiple regression was used to assess the…

  13. The Influence of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge Theoretical Framework on Research on Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecoli, Storey

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Lee S. Shulman's theoretical framework, has had a substantial influence on research in preservice teacher education, and consequently, schools of education. This review builds from Grossman's case studies that concluded that beginning teachers provided with excellent teacher education developed more substantial PCK…

  14. Learning in the Beat: What Influences Environmental Journalists' Perception of Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Bruno; Tandoc, Edson C., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey of environmental journalists in the United States to explore individual, routine, and organizational influences on perceived knowledge of environmental issues. Using the gatekeeping theory, we found that routine and organizational factors, such as orientation to particular sources and affiliation to an organization, predict…

  15. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Perception and Action: Relationships to Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Gavin; Michelakakis, Elizabeth Evgenia; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan

    2016-01-01

    Autism is characterised by a range of perceptual and sensorimotor deficits, which might be related to abnormalities in how autistic individuals use prior knowledge. We investigated this proposition in a large non-clinical population in the context of the size-weight illusion, where individual's expectations about object weight influence their…

  16. Exploring the Influence of Nature Relatedness and Perceived Science Knowledge on Proenvironmental Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obery, Amanda; Bangert, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing proenvironmental behavior of individuals residing in the Northern Rocky Mountains (N = 267). Measures of relatedness to nature and perceived science knowledge were collected through a convenience sample approach using multiple avenues such as city email lists, organizational…

  17. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Perception and Action: Relationships to Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Gavin; Michelakakis, Elizabeth Evgenia; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan

    2016-01-01

    Autism is characterised by a range of perceptual and sensorimotor deficits, which might be related to abnormalities in how autistic individuals use prior knowledge. We investigated this proposition in a large non-clinical population in the context of the size-weight illusion, where individual's expectations about object weight influence their…

  18. Influence of Gender and Knowledge on Secondary School Students' Scientific Creativity Skills in Nakuru District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okere, Mark I. O.; Ndeke, Grace C. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and knowledge on scientific creativity among form three biology students (third year in secondary school cycle) in Nakuru district in Kenya. The cross- sectional survey research was employed. A sample of eight schools with a total of 363 students was selected from the population…

  19. The Influence of Textbooks on Teachers' Knowledge of Chemical Bonding Representations Relative to Students' Difficulties Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergqvist, Anna; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Textbooks are integral tools for teachers' lessons. Several researchers observed that school teachers rely heavily on textbooks as informational sources when planning lessons. Moreover, textbooks are an important resource for developing students' knowledge as they contain various representations that influence students' learning.…

  20. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Viewing and Interpreting Graphics with Macroscopic and Molecular Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle; Wiebe, Eric N.; Carter, Glenda

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the use of multiple representations with macroscopic and molecular features can improve conceptual understanding; however, the influence of prior knowledge of the domain cannot be overlooked. Using eye-tracking technology and sequential analysis, this study investigated how high school students (n = 54) with…

  1. The Influence of Parental Support, Knowledge, and Authoritative Parenting on Hmong and European American Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Andrew J.; Small, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a community-wide survey of adolescents to compare adolescent perceptions of parental support, knowledge, and authoritative decision making in samples of Hmong and European Americans. Additional analyses considered variation in parental influence on adolescent outcomes across these groups. The results suggested that Hmong American…

  2. A Narrative Inquiry into the Influence of Coaching Methodology on Three Specific Teacher Knowledge Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindell, Peter Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This narrative inquiry studied the influences of coaching methodology, critical incidents, and critical relationships on three specific teacher knowledge communities--the Portfolio Group, the Houston ISD literacy coach network, and the Imperial ISD Secondary English Language Arts helping teacher workgroup. This inquiry is situated within the…

  3. Learning in the Beat: What Influences Environmental Journalists' Perception of Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Bruno; Tandoc, Edson C., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey of environmental journalists in the United States to explore individual, routine, and organizational influences on perceived knowledge of environmental issues. Using the gatekeeping theory, we found that routine and organizational factors, such as orientation to particular sources and affiliation to an organization, predict…

  4. A Narrative Inquiry into the Influence of Coaching Methodology on Three Specific Teacher Knowledge Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindell, Peter Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This narrative inquiry studied the influences of coaching methodology, critical incidents, and critical relationships on three specific teacher knowledge communities--the Portfolio Group, the Houston ISD literacy coach network, and the Imperial ISD Secondary English Language Arts helping teacher workgroup. This inquiry is situated within the…

  5. The Influence of Parental Support, Knowledge, and Authoritative Parenting on Hmong and European American Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Andrew J.; Small, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a community-wide survey of adolescents to compare adolescent perceptions of parental support, knowledge, and authoritative decision making in samples of Hmong and European Americans. Additional analyses considered variation in parental influence on adolescent outcomes across these groups. The results suggested that Hmong American…

  6. Influence of Computer Anxiety and Knowledge on Computer Utilization of Senior Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, Rafiu Ademola

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The increase in computer usage is rapid and has also generated new challenges. This study investigated the influence of computer anxiety and knowledge on computer utilization among senior secondary school students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Method: A sample of four hundred students randomly selected from twenty secondary schools…

  7. The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Viewing Repertoire on Learning from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Jelle; Kommers, Piet A. M.; de Brock, Bert; Tolboom, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Video is increasingly used as an instructional tool. It is therefore becoming more important to improve learning of students from video. We investigated whether student learning effects are influenced through an instruction about other viewing behaviours, and whether these learning effects depend on their prior knowledge. In a controlled…

  8. The Influence of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge Theoretical Framework on Research on Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecoli, Storey

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Lee S. Shulman's theoretical framework, has had a substantial influence on research in preservice teacher education, and consequently, schools of education. This review builds from Grossman's case studies that concluded that beginning teachers provided with excellent teacher education developed more substantial PCK…

  9. The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Viewing Repertoire on Learning from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Jelle; Kommers, Piet A. M.; de Brock, Bert; Tolboom, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Video is increasingly used as an instructional tool. It is therefore becoming more important to improve learning of students from video. We investigated whether student learning effects are influenced through an instruction about other viewing behaviours, and whether these learning effects depend on their prior knowledge. In a controlled…

  10. Influence of Computer Anxiety and Knowledge on Computer Utilization of Senior Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, Rafiu Ademola

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The increase in computer usage is rapid and has also generated new challenges. This study investigated the influence of computer anxiety and knowledge on computer utilization among senior secondary school students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Method: A sample of four hundred students randomly selected from twenty secondary schools…

  11. When Ideology Meets Conflict-Related Content: Influences on Emotion Generation and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Pliskin, Ruthie; Halperin, Eran; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Sheppes, Gal

    2017-04-17

    Do rightists and leftists experience information about suffering and harm with differing emotional intensities, depending on the identity of target depicted? Do they consequently choose differently how to regulate or cope with these emotions? Research has identified ideological differences in emotional processes, but it has yet to identify what types of content lead to ideological differences in emotional intensity or whether these content-dependent differences relate to differing preferences for engaging versus disengaging emotion-regulation strategies. We posited that right-left differences in experienced emotional intensity would be context-dependent, emerging mostly in response to depictions of harm to the outgroup, in accordance with the centrality of intergroup attitudes to ideological self-placement in conflict. Study 1 (N = 83) supported this hypothesis, with leftists (vs. rightists) experiencing outgroup harm (but not ingroup harm or conflict-irrelevant harm) with greater emotional intensity. Study 2 (N = 101), which replicated this finding, additionally examined whether behavioral differences in regulatory choice consequently emerge mostly regarding outgroup harm. We tested 2 competing hypotheses as to the nature of these differences: (a) the intensity hypothesis, positing that leftists (more than rightists) would regulate their intensified reactions to outgroup harm through disengagement-distraction (vs. engagement-reappraisal) due to a documented greater preference for disengaging coping strategies as intensity increases, and (b) the motivation hypothesis, positing that leftists (more than rightists) would prefer engagement-reappraisal (vs. disengagement-distraction), consistent with leftists' documented greater preference for intergroup empathy. Results exclusively supported the intensity hypothesis, and the significance of both studies is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Does where you live influence what you know? Community effects on health knowledge in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Catherine S; Reed, Holly E; White, Michael J

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines community effects on health knowledge in a developing country setting. We examine knowledge about the etiology and prevention of child illnesses using a unique 2002 representative survey of communities and households in Ghana. We find that community context matters appreciably, even after adjusting for the anticipated positive effects of an individual's education, literacy, media exposure and household socioeconomic status. The proportion of literate adults and the presence of a market in a community positively influence a person's health knowledge. In other words, even if a person herself is not literate, living in a community with high levels of literacy or a regular market can still positively affect her health knowledge. Our results suggest that social networks and diffusion play a key role in these community effects. In turn, these results offer policy implications for Ghana and sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. The Influence of Fisher Knowledge on the Susceptibility of Reef Fish Aggregations to Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  14. The influence of fisher knowledge on the susceptibility of reef fish aggregations to fishing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  15. Risk Taking Under the Influence: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory of Emotion in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Susan E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain

    2008-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory explains risky decision making in children, adolescents, and adults, incorporating social and cultural factors as well as differences in impulsivity. Here, we provide an overview of the theory, including support for counterintuitive predictions (e.g., when adolescents “rationally” weigh costs and benefits, risk taking increases, but it decreases when the core gist of a decision is processed). Then, we delineate how emotion shapes adolescent risk taking—from encoding of representations of options, to retrieval of values/principles, to application of those values/principles to representations of options. Our review indicates that: (i) Gist representations often incorporate emotion including valence, arousal, feeling states, and discrete emotions; and (ii) Emotion determines whether gist or verbatim representations are processed. We recommend interventions to reduce unhealthy risk-taking that inculcate stable gist representations, enabling adolescents to identify quickly and automatically danger even when experiencing emotion, which differs sharply from traditional approaches emphasizing deliberation and precise analysis. PMID:19255597

  16. The influence of interpersonal aggression on maternal perceptions of infant emotions: Associations with early parenting quality.

    PubMed

    Dayton, Carolyn J; Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Busuito, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that mothers who have experienced child maltreatment and aggression within their adult relationships may be at particular risk for misinterpreting infant emotions, leading to less sensitive parenting behaviors. Participants were 120 pregnant women recruited for a larger, longitudinal study investigating the role of psychosocial and environmental risk on women and their young children. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy, and when children were 1 and 2 years of age. Participants completed a projective test designed to elicit individual differences in perceptions of infant emotions and an observer-rated assessment of parenting behaviors was conducted in the family home. Using structural equation modeling, we tested associations between maternal interpersonal aggression exposure and perceptions of infant emotion and parenting behaviors. Results demonstrated that a history of child abuse and intimate partner conflict were associated with a maternal tendency to view ambiguous infant facial expressions as negative (i.e., negative attribution bias), and in turn, with less parenting sensitivity over time. Findings suggest that negative attributions of infant emotion may be 1 mechanism by which a history of trauma and violence exposure contributes to less sensitive parenting for some mothers. Implications for intervention include the need for trauma-informed clinical services and psychoeducational methods that help mothers more accurately read and respond to infant emotional expression and bids for connection. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Altruistic aptitude: age-dependent influence of temperament and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Faron-Lasyk, Aneta; Borecki, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear why some people behave altruistically and others do not. This study seeks to determine what psychological features could help predict altruistic behavior. We addressed the issue by examining distinct dimensions of temperament and emotional intelligence and their associations with the level of proaltruistic aptitude in two distant age-groups, young (20-29 years) and senior (60-79 years) persons. The study was one of a self-reported psychometric survey. The major findings were that emotional intelligence, rather than temperament, is strongly associated with the expression of altruistic behavior in both young and senior subjects, despite a general decrease in the characteristics of emotional intelligence in advanced age. We also failed to substantiate the presence of an appreciable difference in the level of declared altruism between the senior and young subjects. High emotional intelligence, often underling social engagement and bonding, seems thus a good predictor of altruistic aptitude to be displayed by a person. The independence of this association of age-changes in emotional agility is suggestive of causal relationship. The study is relevant for an understanding of the enigmatic origins of important social behaviors like altruism.

  18. Influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-11-01

    In order to assess the influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods, 104 consumers filled out a Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire and answered a conjoint task. Participants had to evaluate 16 concepts consisting of combinations of carrier products (yogurt, milk desserts, pan bread and mayonnaise) and nutritional modifications (regular product, low-fat, enriched with antioxidants, and enriched with fibre). Three groups of consumers were identified with different level of nutritional knowledge. Highly significant differences were found in the healthiness evaluations of the clusters, which mainly depended on nutritional knowledge related to the links of diet and diseases. Highly significant differences in willingness to try functional foods were also found between the clusters. Whereas consumers with the lowest nutritional knowledge were not interested in consuming functional foods, the addition of fibre or antioxidants to healthy products increased the willingness of consumers with the highest level of nutritional knowledge to try the evaluated functional foods. These results suggested that lack of nutritional knowledge might limit the acceptance of functional foods and thus the use of health claims might be necessary to assure that consumers are aware of their health benefits.

  19. Breastfeeding in Samoa: A Study to Explore Women's Knowledge and the Factors which Influence Infant Feeding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Lucy E; Dunne, Thomas F; Lock, Lauren J; Price, Lucy A

    2017-01-01

    A decline in breastfeeding rates in Samoa has been reported over the last century. To assess the length of time women breastfeed, their knowledge of both the advantages of and recommendations for breastfeeding, and the factors that influence their decisions to continue or discontinue breastfeeding, a questionnaire was distributed at Tupua Tamasese Meaole Hospital. One hundred and twenty-one eligible participants were included aged 18–50 years (mean age 28.2). Ninety percent of participants initiated breastfeeding, and the majority (78%) of babies were exclusively breastfed for at least the recommended 6 months. Many mothers introduced complementary (solid) foods later than World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation's International Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommendations of 6 months. Awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding was mixed. The most widely known advantage was “the development of an emotional bond between mother and baby” (67%). Other advantages were less widely known. Only a small minority were aware that breastfeeding reduces risk of maternal diabetes and aids weight loss post partum. Doctors and healthcare workers were listed as the top factors encouraging breastfeeding. Participants' comments revealed a generally positive attitude towards breastfeeding, a very encouraging finding. Participants identified that the number of breastfeeding breaks available at work and the length of their maternity leave were factors discouraging breastfeeding. Future studies are necessary to determine if problems identified in this study are applicable on a national level. These could be important to determine measures to improve breastfeeding practices in Samoa. PMID:28090399

  20. Sensitivity to musical emotion is influenced by tonal structure in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cunmei; Liu, Fang; Wong, Patrick C M

    2017-08-08

    Emotional communication in music depends on multiple attributes including psychoacoustic features and tonal system information, the latter of which is unique to music. The present study investigated whether congenital amusia, a lifelong disorder of musical processing, impacts sensitivity to musical emotion elicited by timbre and tonal system information. Twenty-six amusics and 26 matched controls made tension judgments on Western (familiar) and Indian (unfamiliar) melodies played on piano and sitar. Like controls, amusics used timbre cues to judge musical tension in Western and Indian melodies. While controls assigned significantly lower tension ratings to Western melodies compared to Indian melodies, thus showing a tonal familiarity effect on tension ratings, amusics provided comparable tension ratings for Western and Indian melodies on both timbres. Furthermore, amusics rated Western melodies as more tense compared to controls, as they relied less on tonality cues than controls in rating tension for Western melodies. The implications of these findings in terms of emotional responses to music are discussed.