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Sample records for influence weight loss

  1. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R

    2012-07-01

    Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P < 0.001). Moreover, having a greater percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reporting higher social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P < 0.001) and having more teammates in the weight loss division and higher social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.

  2. The Influence of Weight-Loss Expectations on Weight Loss and of Weight-Loss Satisfaction on Weight Maintenance in Severe Obesity.

    PubMed

    Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; El Ghoch, Marwan; Gavasso, Ilaria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to whether cognitive mechanisms contribute to weight loss and maintenance. To assess the influence of weight-loss expectations on weight loss, and of weight-loss satisfaction on weight maintenance, in individuals with severe obesity. A randomized controlled trial comparing two types of energy-restricted diets (high protein vs high carbohydrate) combined with weight-loss cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted over 51 weeks and divided into two phases: weight-loss phase (3 weeks of inpatient treatment and 24 weeks of outpatient treatment) and weight maintenance phase (24 weeks of outpatient treatment). Eighty-eight participants with severe obesity (mean age=46.7 years and mean body mass index=45.6), referred to an eating and weight disorders clinical service, were studied. Body weight was assessed at baseline, and after 3, 27 (end of weight-loss phase), and 51 weeks (end of weight maintenance phase). Weight loss expectations were assessed at the time of enrollment, and weight-loss satisfaction was assessed after 27 weeks. The relationship between weight-loss expectations and weight loss was assessed using a linear mixed model. The association between weight-loss satisfaction and final outcomes was tested by linear regression. The two groups had similar weight-loss expectations and satisfaction, and their results were therefore pooled. In general, the total amount of expected weight loss (in kilograms), but not the percentage of expected weight loss, predicted weight loss, and both satisfaction with weight loss and the amount of weight lost (in kilograms) were independent predictors of weight maintenance. Higher expected weight loss improves weight loss, and both the total amount of weight lost and satisfaction with weight loss are associated with weight-loss maintenance at 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Influence of Sleep Disordered Breathing on Weight Loss in a National Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Germain, Anne; Lai, Zongshan; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Goodrich, David E.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Verchinina, Lilia; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. Methods: This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008–February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770). SDB was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was weight change (lb) from MOVE! enrollment to 6- and 12-mo assessments. Weight change over time was modeled with repeated-measures analyses. Results: SDB was diagnosed in one-third of the cohort (n = 28,269). At baseline, veterans with SDB weighed 29 [48] lb more than those without SDB (P < 0.001). On average, veterans attended eight MOVE! visits. Weight loss patterns over time were statistically different between veterans with and without SDB (P < 0.001); veterans with SDB lost less weight (−2.5 [0.1] lb) compared to those without SDB (−3.3 [0.1] lb; P = 0.001) at 6 months. At 12 mo, veterans with SDB continued to lose weight whereas veterans without SDB started to re-gain weight. Conclusions: Veterans with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) had significantly less weight loss over time than veterans without SDB. SDB should be considered in the development and implementation of weight loss programs due to its high prevalence and negative effect on health. Citation: Janney CA, Kilbourne AM, Germain A, Lai Z, Hoerster KD, Goodrich DE, Klingaman EA, Verchinina L, Richardson CR. The influence of sleep disordered breathing on weight loss in a national weight management program. SLEEP 2016;39(1):59–65. PMID:26350475

  4. Signaling proteins that influence energy intake may affect unintentional weight loss in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Wernette, Catherine M; White, B Douglas; Zizza, Claire A

    2011-06-01

    After age 70 to 75 years, average body weight decreases both in ailing and healthy people because of a loss of appetite that results in reduced energy intake and the loss of body fat and lean muscle tissue. This so-called anorexia of aging predisposes elderly people to continued pathologic weight loss and malnutrition-major causes of morbidity and mortality. Health care professionals must understand the many factors involved in the anorexia of aging to help older adults prevent unintentional weight loss. Psychological, social, and cultural factors are important effectors; however, physiological factors are emphasized here because they are not thoroughly understood and they make it inherently difficult for most people to alter their body weight. Monoamines, steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids), endocannabinoids, and proteins all influence body weight. This review is an analysis of proteins from the brain, pancreas, adipose tissue, and gastrointestinal tract that are known to affect energy intake and energy balance, with an attempt to identify those factors that may change with aging. The articles included in this review were obtained by a PubMed database search using the keywords mouse OR rat OR human AND aged OR aging OR older OR elderly AND adult AND anorexia OR "unintentional weight loss," and each of the individual proteins discussed, as well as from the reference lists of those articles. The results reveal that some proteins may be important in the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons, whereas others may not have a significant role. However, many of the proteins that could conceivably have a role in unintentional weight loss have not yet been studied with that question in mind. Preventing unintentional weight loss in older adults is an important goal and further research on the role of proteins important for the maintenance of energy balance and the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons is

  5. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery A A ... Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about more ...

  6. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  7. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious medical problems. Weight loss surgery (also called bariatric surgery) can help very obese people lose weight. But ... Gastric banding is the simplest of the three weight loss surgeries. People who get it might not lose as ...

  8. The Influence of Health Literacy on Reach, Retention, and Success in a Worksite Weight Loss Program.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; You, Wendy; Almeida, Fabio; Blackman, Kacie C A; Harden, Samantha; Glasgow, Russell E; Linnan, Laura; Hill, Jennie L; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-05-14

    Purpose . To examine if employee health literacy (HL) status moderated reach, retention, and weight outcomes in a worksite weight loss program. Design . The study was a two-group cluster randomized controlled weight loss trial. Setting . The study was conducted in 28 worksites. Subjects . Subjects comprised 1460 employees with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2). Interventions . Two 12-month weight loss interventions targeted diet and physical activity behaviors: incentaHEALTH (INCENT; incentivized individually targeted Internet-based intervention) and Livin' My Weigh (LMW; less-intense quarterly newsletters). Measures . A validated three-item HL screening measure was self-completed at baseline. Weight was objectively assessed with the Health Spot scale at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Analysis . The impact of HL on program effectiveness was assessed through fixed-effect parametric models that controlled for individual (i.e., age, gender, race, ethnicity, income, education) and worksite fixed effects. Results . Enrolled employees had significantly higher HL status [13.54 (1.68)] as compared to unenrolled [13.04 (2.17)] (p < .001). This finding was consistent in both interventions. Also, HL moderated weight loss effects (beta = .66; SE = 027; p = .014) and losing >5% weight (beta = -1.53; SE = .77; p < .047). For those with lower baseline HL, the INCENT intervention produced greater weight loss outcomes compared to LMW. The HL level of employees retained was not significantly different from those lost to follow-up. Conclusion . HL influences reach and moderates weight effects. These findings underscore the need to integrate recruitment strategies and further evaluate programmatic approaches that attend to the needs of low-HL audiences.

  9. The Influence of Health Literacy on Reach, Retention, and Success in a Worksite Weight Loss Program.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio; Blackman, Kacie C A; Harden, Samantha; Glasgow, Russell E; Linnan, Laura; Hill, Jennie L; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    To examine if employee health literacy (HL) status moderated reach, retention, and weight outcomes in a worksite weight loss program. The study was a two-group cluster randomized controlled weight loss trial. The study was conducted in 28 worksites. Subjects comprised 1460 employees with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2). Two 12-month weight loss interventions targeted diet and physical activity behaviors: incentaHEALTH (INCENT; incentivized individually targeted Internet-based intervention) and Livin' My Weigh (LMW; less-intense quarterly newsletters). A validated three-item HL screening measure was self-completed at baseline. Weight was objectively assessed with the Health Spot scale at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The impact of HL on program effectiveness was assessed through fixed-effect parametric models that controlled for individual (i.e., age, gender, race, ethnicity, income, education) and worksite random effects. Enrolled employees had significantly higher HL status [13.54 (1.68)] as compared to unenrolled [13.04 (2.17)] (p < .001). This finding was consistent in both interventions. Also, HL moderated weight loss effects (beta = .66; SE = 027; p = .014) and losing >5% weight (beta = -1.53; SE = .77; p < .047). For those with lower baseline HL, the INCENT intervention produced greater weight loss outcomes compared to LMW. The HL level of employees retained was not significantly different from those lost to follow-up. HL influences reach and moderates weight effects. These findings underscore the need to integrate recruitment strategies and further evaluate programmatic approaches that attend to the needs of low-HL audiences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Perceived judgment about weight can negatively influence weight loss: a cross-sectional study of overweight and obese patients.

    PubMed

    Gudzune, Kimberly A; Bennett, Wendy L; Cooper, Lisa A; Bleich, Sara N

    2014-05-01

    To examine the association between patient-perceived judgments about weight by primary care providers (PCPs) and self-reported weight loss. We conducted a national internet-based survey of 600 adults engaged in primary care with a body mass index (BMI)≥25 kg/m(2) in 2012. Our weight loss outcomes included attempted weight loss and achieved ≥10% weight loss in the last 12 months. Our independent variable was "feeling judged about my weight by my PCP." We created an interaction between perceiving judgment and PCP discussing weight loss as an independent variable. We conducted a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for patient and PCP factors using survey weights. Overall, 21% perceived that their PCP judged them about their weight. Respondents who perceived judgment were significantly more likely to attempt weight loss [odds ratios (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-11.14]. They were not more likely to achieve ≥10% weight loss [OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.42-1.76]. Among patients whose PCPs discussed weight loss, 20.1% achieved ≥10% weight loss if they did not perceive judgment by their PCP as compared to 13.5% who perceived judgment. Weight loss discussions between patients and PCPs may lead to greater weight loss in relationships where patients do not perceive judgment about their weight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of risk factors that influence weight loss in patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cacicedo, Jon; Casquero, Francisco; Martinez-Indart, Lorea; Del Hoyo, Olga; Iturriaga, Alfonso Gómez de; Muruzabal, Irma; Carvajal, Claudia; Bóveda, Elsira; Ruiz, Blanca; Loayza, Armando; Usategui, Begoña; Lasso, Aurora; Hortelano, Eduardo; Bilbao, Pedro

    2012-09-01

    To identify risk factors that influence weight loss in patients receiving radiotherapy. It is a well-known fact that cancer patients can be affected by malnutrition at the onset of the disease and during treatment due to the toxicity. Pretreatment weight loss alone does not predict those who will need nutritional supplementation. Instead, a variety of nutritional and tumor related factors needs to be taken into account. A retrospective study was conducted on 129 patients with different tumor locations. Weight loss was evaluated during radiotherapy and one month after treatment. The impact of age, ECOG, chemotherapy, pretreatment weight loss, tumor location, previous surgery and TNM were analyzed. We aimed to identify a high-risk group of patients before starting treatment. The average net weight loss during radiotherapy and one month after treatment for this group of patients was 0.68 kg and 1.6 kg, respectively. Median weight loss during radiotherapy was 2.6 kg for head and neck (HN) patients and 0.27  kg for other tumor sites (p = 0.028). Median weight loss one month after radiotherapy was 3.7 kg for HN patients and 1.1 kg for the rest of the patients (p = 0.034). The median weight loss one month after treatment was 3.2 kg for patients receiving chemotherapy and 0.5 kg for those patients who did not receive chemotherapy (p < 0.001). A regression analysis determined that HN tumor location and the use of chemotherapy were independent risk factors. Nutritional status must be monitored and managed before, during and after treatment. A variety of nutritional and tumor-related factors must be considered. According to our results, head and neck tumors and the use of chemotherapy are the only two factors considered statistically significant. Because patients continue to lose weight after treatment, we recommend close surveillance after radiotherapy.

  12. Detection of risk factors that influence weight loss in patients undergoing radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cacicedo, Jon; Casquero, Francisco; Martinez-Indart, Lorea; del Hoyo, Olga; Iturriaga, Alfonso Gómez de; Muruzabal, Irma; Carvajal, Claudia; Bóveda, Elsira; Ruiz, Blanca; Loayza, Armando; Usategui, Begoña; Lasso, Aurora; Hortelano, Eduardo; Bilbao, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Aim To identify risk factors that influence weight loss in patients receiving radiotherapy. Background It is a well-known fact that cancer patients can be affected by malnutrition at the onset of the disease and during treatment due to the toxicity. Pretreatment weight loss alone does not predict those who will need nutritional supplementation. Instead, a variety of nutritional and tumor related factors needs to be taken into account. Material and methods A retrospective study was conducted on 129 patients with different tumor locations. Weight loss was evaluated during radiotherapy and one month after treatment. The impact of age, ECOG, chemotherapy, pretreatment weight loss, tumor location, previous surgery and TNM were analyzed. We aimed to identify a high-risk group of patients before starting treatment. Results The average net weight loss during radiotherapy and one month after treatment for this group of patients was 0.68 kg and 1.6 kg, respectively. Median weight loss during radiotherapy was 2.6 kg for head and neck (HN) patients and 0.27  kg for other tumor sites (p = 0.028). Median weight loss one month after radiotherapy was 3.7 kg for HN patients and 1.1 kg for the rest of the patients (p = 0.034). The median weight loss one month after treatment was 3.2 kg for patients receiving chemotherapy and 0.5 kg for those patients who did not receive chemotherapy (p < 0.001). A regression analysis determined that HN tumor location and the use of chemotherapy were independent risk factors. Conclusions Nutritional status must be monitored and managed before, during and after treatment. A variety of nutritional and tumor-related factors must be considered. According to our results, head and neck tumors and the use of chemotherapy are the only two factors considered statistically significant. Because patients continue to lose weight after treatment, we recommend close surveillance after radiotherapy. PMID:24669307

  13. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gary D.; Jenks, Monica Z.; Vendela, Mandolyn; Norris, James L.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL) (men: 12, women: 14) or weight stable (WS) group (men: 12, women: 13). WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P < 0.100) and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group. PMID:23326650

  14. Influence of the Resected Gastric Volume on the Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bekheit, Mohamed; Abdel-Baki, Tamer Nabil; Gamal, Mostafa; Abdel-Salam, Wael; Samir, Mohamed; ElKayal, ElSaied; Katri, Khaled

    2016-07-01

    The relation between the resected gastric volume and the weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy appears conflicting in the literature. Both the residual and the resected volumes represent the total gastric volume, and if the weight loss is related to one of the two volumes, it should be related to the other. While some reports indicate that the weight loss is related to the resected gastric volume, others state that the weight loss is not related to the residual volume. The aim is to investigate the influence of the resected gastric volume on the weight loss after surgery. The study included 287 consecutive patients. Gastrectomy was performed encroaching over a 38-Fr calibrating tube all the way to the angle of His. Filling volume of the resected stomach, with tap water, was measured. Patients were analyzed into group 1 with BMI ≤50 kg/m(2) and group 2 >50 kg/m(2). Females represented 74 % of cases. Mean age was 32.9 ± 9.5 years; preoperative BMI = 48.7 ± 7.9 kg/m(2). The mean resected gastric volume was 1525 ± 408 ml, and it was significantly lower in females compared to that in males (1443 ± 311 vs 1824 ± 502 ml, p < 0.001). Data were analyzed in two groups: group 1 with BMI ≤5050 kg/m(2) and group 2 >50 kg/m(2). Both groups were similar in preoperative BMI (p = 0.399) and excess weight percent (EW%) (p = 0.33). Group 2 had a resected gastric volume (1663 ± 424.7 ml) greater than that of group 1 (1440 ± 347 ml; p < 0.001). The percentage of excess weight loss (EWL%) was 57.9 ± 14.5 % at 6 months (62.7 ± 13.5 % vs 48.34 ± 11.29 %, p < 0.001), 77 ± 19 % at 12 months (84 ± 19.6 % vs 68 ± 14.2 %, p = 0.001), 76.6 ± 7.4 % at 18 months (79.7 ± 4.8 vs 74.7 ± 8.2 %, p = 0.5), and 75.8 ± 11.5 % at 24 months (81.7 ± 11.17 vs 70 ± 11 %, p = 0.8) (group 1 vs group 2, respectively). At 12 months, 86

  15. The downside of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Quality of evidence Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Main message Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Conclusion Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option. PMID:22586192

  16. Polymorphism in the CLOCK gene may influence the effect of fat intake reduction on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Loria-Kohen, Viviana; Espinosa-Salinas, Isabel; Marcos-Pasero, Helena; Lourenço-Nogueira, Thais; Herranz, Jesús; Molina, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramirez de Molina, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a weight loss treatment on obesity- associated variables with respect to the CLOCK and FTO genotypes. In all, 179 volunteers (78% female) participated in a 12-week calorie-restriction program; hypocaloric diets of between 5442 and 10048 kJ/d were individually prescribed to all participants. Dietetic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected at baseline and at the end of the intervention. When treatment was over, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were sought in CLOCK and FTO in all participants who provided consent. Bonferroni-corrected linear regression models were used to examine the influence of interactions of the type genotype × dietetic change on obesity-associated variables. Variation in the CLOCK and FTO genotypes had no significant influence on the change in obesity-associated variables. The interaction genotype × percentage intake of dietary fat had a significant influence on body mass index (BMI; adjusted P = 0.03). Participants carrying CLOCK rs3749474 (TT + CT) showed a positive association between the change in percentage intake of dietary fat and change in BMI (β = 0.044; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0119-0.0769; P = 0.008), whereas participants homozygous for the wild-type allele (CC) showed a negative, although nonsignificant association (β = -0.032; 95% CI, -0.0694 to 0.036; P = 0.077). The possession of CLOCK rs3749474 may influence the effect of reducing the percentage intake of dietary fat on obesity-associated variables. Participants carrying this SNP might benefit more than others from weight loss treatment involving dietary fat restriction. The treatment of obesity might therefore be customized, depending on the alleles carried. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Johanna D; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population.

  18. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Johanna D.; Devine, Carol M.; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. PMID:26368577

  19. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  20. Weight loss treatment influences untreated spouses and the home environment: evidence of a ripple effect.

    PubMed

    Gorin, A A; Wing, R R; Fava, J L; Jakicic, J M; Jeffery, R; West, D S; Brelje, K; Dilillo, V G

    2008-11-01

    To examine whether a weight loss program delivered to one spouse has beneficial effects on the untreated spouse and the home environment. We assessed untreated spouses of participants in three sites of Look AHEAD, a multicenter randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of intentional weight loss on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. Participants and spouses (n=357 pairs) were weighed and completed measures of diet and physical activity at 0 and 12 months. Spouses completed household food and exercise environment inventories. We examined differences between spouses of participants assigned to the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or to the enhanced usual care (DSE; diabetes support and education). Spouses of ILI participants lost -2.2+/-4.5 kg vs -0.2+/-3.3 kg in spouses of DSE participants (P<0.001). In addition, more ILI spouses lost > or =5% of their body weight than DSE spouses (26 vs 9%, P<0.001). Spouses of ILI participants also had greater reductions in reported energy intake (P=0.007) and percent of energy from fat (P=0.012) than DSE spouses. Spouse weight loss was associated with participant weight loss (P<0.001) and decreases in high-fat foods in the home (P=0.05). The reach of behavioral weight loss treatment can extend to a spouse, suggesting that social networks can be utilized to promote the spread of weight loss, thus creating a ripple effect.

  1. Do environmental variables influence overnight weight loss of yearling steers in semiarid rangelands?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to measure the weight gains of free-ranging livestock, animals are frequently corralled and confined overnight prior to weighing. Animals may take several days to recover from this overnight loss in weight associated with dehydration and excretion of urine and feces. Quantitative estimates ...

  2. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans.

    PubMed

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe; Vigelsø, Andreas; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-07-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m(2)] were recruited from a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1-10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P < 0.001). Overall differences between CWL, MWL, and WR were observed in MFO (mean [95% confidence interval], in g/min, respectively: 0.46 [0.41-0.52]; 0.32 [0.27-0.38]; 0.45 [0.38-0.51]; P = 0.002), maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max, in ml·min(-1)·FFM(-1), respectively; 49 [46-51]; 43 [40-47]; 41 [39-44]; P = 0.007), HAD-activity (in µmol·g(-1)·min(-1), respectively: 123 [113-133]; 104 [91-118]; 97 [88-105]; P < 0.001), muscle protein content of CD36 (in AU, respectively: 1.1 [1.0-1.2]; 0.9 [0.8-1.0]; 0.9 [0.8-0.9]; P = 0.008) and FABPpm (in AU, respectively, 1.0 [0.8-1.2]; 0.7 [0.5-0.8]; 0.7 [0.5-0.9]; P = 0.008), body fat (in %, respectively: 33 [29-38]; 42 [38-46]; 52 [49-55]; P < 0.001), and plasma triglycerides (in mM, respectively: 0.8 [0.7-1.0]; 1.3 [0.9-1.7]; 1.6 [1.0-2.1]; P = 0.013). CWL and WR both had higher MFO compared with MWL, but based on different mechanisms. CWL displayed higher V̇o2max and intramuscular capacity for fat oxidation, whereas abundance of lipids at whole-body level and in plasma was higher in WR.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been

  3. The influence of preoperative psychological factors on weight loss after bariatric surgery: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lai, Carlo; Aceto, Paola; Petrucci, Ilaria; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Callari, Cosimo; Giustacchini, Piero; Sollazzi, Liliana; Mingrone, Geltrude; Bellantone, Rocco; Raffaelli, Marco

    2016-11-15

    Aim of this study was to investigate relationship between preoperative psychological factors and % total weight loss after gastric bypass. 76 adult patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were preoperatively asked to complete anxiety and depression Hamilton scales and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. At 3- and 6-month follow-up, body weight was assessed. At 6-month follow-up, alexithymic patients showed a poorer % total weight loss compared with non-alexithymic patients (p = .017), and moderately depressed patients showed a lower % total weight loss compared with non-depressed patients (p = .011). Focused pre- and postoperative psychological support could be useful in bariatric patients in order to improve surgical outcome.

  4. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  5. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  6. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... term use. All other drugs are approved for short-term use of no more than a few weeks. Be sure you understand the side effects of weight-loss medicines. Side effects can include: Increase in blood pressure Problems sleeping, headache, nervousness, and palpitations Nausea, constipation, and dry ...

  7. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Porphyria Research You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem in patients with one ... a "crash diet" program requires little knowledge of nutrition in order to ... seem that overweight patients with Porphyria are at a distinct disadvantage, ...

  8. Involuntary weight loss.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Involuntary weight loss remains an important and challenging clinical problem, with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Because of the frequency of finding a serious underlying diagnosis, clinicians must be thorough in assessment, keeping in mind a broad range of possible causes. Although prediction scores exist, they have not been broadly validated; therefore, clinical judgment remains ever essential.

  9. Influence of weight loss on pain, perceived disability and observed functional limitations in obese women.

    PubMed

    Larsson, U Evers

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of weight reduction by dieting on musculoskeletal pain, perceived disability and observed functional limitations in everyday life. : Female outpatients in weight-loss programmes at the Karolinska Hospital, who met the criteria for participating in this study: age 20-65 y and body mass index (BMI) > or =30 kg/m(2). In all, 57 entered the programme studied and 43 completed it. Diet programmes for 8-12 weeks and thereafter 6688 kJ/day for >52 weeks. Questionnaires on musculoskeletal symptoms and obesity-specific questions on basic activities of daily living (ADL), mobility, housework, occupational disability and activities outside home. Test protocol developed for observation of functional limitations in obese women. Assessments at baseline, after 12 and after 64 weeks of dieting. In all, 75% completed the study. Weight loss was 14% (14.7+/-6.1 kg) at 12 weeks and, due to a weight relapse, 10% (10.1+/-8.1 kg) at 64 weeks. At the end of the study period, the proportion of current pain from lower backs and feet had normalised. Important perceived improvements were ability to rise from having fallen over, to walk up stairs and to lift heavy things. Most functional limitations improved, such as climbing onto high stools, walking up stairs with grocery bags, doing pedicure, rising from floor or low furniture. The questionnaire results partly followed the weight development, but the observed improvements were long-lasting. Weight reduction had positive short-term effects on musculoskeletal pain, perceived disability and observed functional limitations. A partial weight relapse had some impact on perceived pain and disability, but not on observed limitations. The maintained improvements may be due to weight loss, but also less pain and increased physical activity.

  10. What influences patient participation in an online forum for weight loss surgery? A qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Das, Anita; Faxvaag, Arild

    2014-02-06

    Many patients who undergo weight loss (bariatric) surgery seek information and social support in online discussion forums, but the vast amount of available information raises concerns about the impact of such information. A secure online discussion forum was developed and offered to bariatric surgery patients. The forum was moderated and allowed contact with peers and health care professionals. The purposes of this study were to explore how individuals undergoing bariatric surgery used the moderated discussion forum and to better understand what influenced their participation in the forum. The study was designed as an explorative case study. We conducted participant observation of the discussion forum over a time period of approximately six months. For further insight, we carried out in-depth semistructured interviews with seven patients who had access to the forum. We analyzed the material inductively, using content and thematic analysis. The patients used the forum as an arena in which to interact with peers and providers, as well as to provide and achieve informational and social support. The analysis suggests that there are three major themes that influenced participation in the online discussion forum: (1) the participant's motivation to seek information, advice, and guidance, (2) the need for social support and networking among peers, and (3) concerns regarding self-disclosure. The findings of this study imply that a moderated discussion forum for bariatric surgery patients has potential for use in a therapeutic context. The discussion forum fulfilled the informational and support needs of the bariatric surgery patients and was particularly useful for those who excluded themselves from the traditional program and experienced barriers to expressing their own needs. Even though our findings imply that the patients benefitted from using the forum regardless of their active or passive participation, restraining factors, such as considerations regarding self

  11. What Influences Patient Participation in an Online Forum for Weight Loss Surgery? A Qualitative Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Faxvaag, Arild

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients who undergo weight loss (bariatric) surgery seek information and social support in online discussion forums, but the vast amount of available information raises concerns about the impact of such information. A secure online discussion forum was developed and offered to bariatric surgery patients. The forum was moderated and allowed contact with peers and health care professionals. Objective The purposes of this study were to explore how individuals undergoing bariatric surgery used the moderated discussion forum and to better understand what influenced their participation in the forum. Methods The study was designed as an explorative case study. We conducted participant observation of the discussion forum over a time period of approximately six months. For further insight, we carried out in-depth semistructured interviews with seven patients who had access to the forum. We analyzed the material inductively, using content and thematic analysis. Results The patients used the forum as an arena in which to interact with peers and providers, as well as to provide and achieve informational and social support. The analysis suggests that there are three major themes that influenced participation in the online discussion forum: (1) the participant’s motivation to seek information, advice, and guidance, (2) the need for social support and networking among peers, and (3) concerns regarding self-disclosure. Conclusions The findings of this study imply that a moderated discussion forum for bariatric surgery patients has potential for use in a therapeutic context. The discussion forum fulfilled the informational and support needs of the bariatric surgery patients and was particularly useful for those who excluded themselves from the traditional program and experienced barriers to expressing their own needs. Even though our findings imply that the patients benefitted from using the forum regardless of their active or passive participation, restraining

  12. Influence of breast-feeding on weight loss, jaundice, and waste elimination in neonates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Fu; Hsu, Mei-Ching; Shen, Chin-Hua; Wang, Chun-Lung; Chang, Shou-Chin; Wu, Keng-Gu; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chen, Shu-Jen

    2011-04-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative began promoting exclusive breast-feeding in 2001 in Taiwan; however, few studies have investigated its impact. This study evaluated the influence of breast-feeding on Taiwanese neonates with regard to the frequency of jaundice, body weight loss (BWL), and elimination of both urine and stool. The medical records of 313 healthy mother-neonate pairs admitted at our hospital were reviewed retrospectively and divided into three groups: exclusively breast-feeding (n=161), mixed (breast/formula) feeding (n=80), and exclusively formula feeding (n=72). Compared with the exclusively formula feeding group, in the exclusively breast-fed neonates, the average total serum bilirubin level at 3 days after birth (p < 0.001) and the rate of significant hyperbilirubinemia ≥ 15 mg/dL (p<0.05) were significantly higher; the average BWLs at 2 and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and the rate of BWL ≥ 10% (p < 0.05) were significantly higher; the average frequency of stool passage at 2 and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and urination at 1, 2, and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001) were significantly less. The factors associated with a mother's choice of infant feeding type include maternal age and delivery method. Breast-feeding during the initial days of life has a significant influence on the degree of jaundice, amount of BWL, and the frequency of stool passage and urination. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina; Harder, Marie N; Taylor, Moira A; Hager, Jörg; Arner, Peter; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Martinez, J Alfredo; Polak, Jan; Rousseau, Francis; Langin, Dominique; Rössner, Stephan; Holst, Claus; MacDonald, Ian A; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kunesova, Marie; Saris, Wim H M; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.

  14. Influence of previous body mass index and sex on regional fat changes in a weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Benito, Pedro J; Cupeiro, Rocio; Peinado, Ana B; Rojo, Miguel A; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-10-05

    Men and women may lose weight in a different fashion. This study compares the changes in different anatomical regions after a well-controlled weight loss program by sex and initial BMI. A total of 180 subjects (48 overweight women, 36 overweight men, and 48 obese women and 48 obese men) were recruited to participate in a 22-week weight loss programme (diet + exercise). Regarding percentage body weight change from baseline, there was no triple interaction (BMI, sex and anatomical region), but there was interaction between BMI and anatomical region (F2,840 = 34.5; p < 0.001), and between sex and anatomical region (F2,840 = 98.8; p < 0.001). Usually, the arms and legs are the regions that lose more weight in obese participants, but men lose the highest percentage of mass from the trunk. There were differences between men and women for the areas of left trunk mass (750g), right trunk mass (700g), total mass of the trunk (1400g), android mass (350g), and finally in the total mass in overweight participants (1300g), with higher values for men than for women. The region that loses more weight and fat is the trunk, followed by the legs, and then the arms, when the loss is observed in function of the total weight or fat lost. Both BMI and sex exert a definite influence fat loss, especially in some anatomical regions.

  15. Sociocultural and Individual Influences on Muscle Gain and Weight Loss Strategies among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the role of body dissatisfaction, body image importance, sociocultural influences (media and parent and peer encouragement), self-esteem and negative affect on body change strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles in adolescent boys and girls. Surveys were administered to 587 boys and 598 girls aged between 11 and 15…

  16. Sociocultural and Individual Influences on Muscle Gain and Weight Loss Strategies among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the role of body dissatisfaction, body image importance, sociocultural influences (media and parent and peer encouragement), self-esteem and negative affect on body change strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles in adolescent boys and girls. Surveys were administered to 587 boys and 598 girls aged between 11 and 15…

  17. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interact to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week meal-controlled weight loss intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy foods enhance weight loss in animal models possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study aimed to determine in overweight women (ages 20-45; n=51) whether inclusion of dairy foods in an energy-restricted diet affects basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, and whet...

  18. Dairy Food Consumption and Meal-Induced Cortisol Response Interacted to Influence Weight Loss in Overweight Women Undergoing a 12-Week, Meal-Controlled, Weight Loss Intervention1234

    PubMed Central

    Witbracht, Megan G.; Van Loan, Marta; Adams, Sean H.; Keim, Nancy L.; Laugero, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy food enhances weight loss in animal models, possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study determined in overweight women (ages 20.0–45.9 y; n = 51) whether including dairy food in an energy-restricted diet affects cortisol concentrations and whether differences in provoked cortisol explain the magnitude of weight loss. Women received either an adequate amount of dairy food (AD), the equivalent of ≥711 mL/d milk, or a low amount of dairy food (LD), the equivalent to ≤238 mL/d milk, in a 12-wk, energy-restricted dietary intervention. Participants were tested in a 12-h laboratory visit, which included 2 standard meals and a dinner buffet that was consumed ad libitum. Salivary cortisol was measured from waking to bedtime. Energy restriction increased (P ≤ 0.04) the minimum and decreased (P ≤ 0.02) the diurnal amplitude in the salivary cortisol concentration from baseline to postintervention. Energy restriction enhanced the dinner meal–stimulated salivary cortisol response (DMR) (P ≤ 0.02) but only in the LD group. Compared with the LD treatment, the AD treatment induced (P ≤ 0.04) greater reductions in body weight and fat, but only in women characterized as having a baseline DMR (responders) (n = 26); weight and fat lost in the AD and LD groups were similar in nonresponders (n = 25). Overall, energy restriction dampened diurnal salivary cortisol fluctuations [symptomatic of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction] and enhanced dinner meal–stimulated salivary cortisol concentrations. The AD treatment prevented the latter. Furthermore, certain phenotypic markers of HPA axis function may help to expose the weight-reducing effects of consuming dairy food. PMID:23190756

  19. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  20. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  1. Weight loss, weight regain and bone health.

    PubMed

    Pines, Amos

    2012-08-01

    The ideal body image for women these days is being slim but, in the real world, obesity becomes a major health problem even in the developing countries. Overweight, but also underweight, may have associated adverse outcomes in many bodily systems, including the bone. Only a few studies have investigated the consequences of intentional weight loss, then weight regain, on bone metabolism and bone density. It seems that the negative impact of bone loss is not reversed when weight partially rebounds following the end of active intervention programs. Thus the benefits and risks of any weight loss program should be addressed individually, and monitoring of bone parameters is recommended.

  2. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.

  3. Influence of activity levels and energy intake on percent excess weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Forbush, Steven; Nof, Leah; Echternach, John; Hill, Cheryl; Rainey, Jacquie

    2011-11-01

    Gastric bypass is a successful medical intervention for weight loss for obesity. Weight loss is substantial after this surgery. Predictors of the most successful weight loss are not yet fully known. The purpose of this study was to define variables that improve percent excess weight loss (%EWL) in this post-surgical population. All patients who underwent the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) during the 5 years preceding the study in one surgical practice (n = 805; respondents = 265; 33%) received the Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire and the Arizona Food Frequency Questionnaire. Analysis through ANOVA testing to determine relationships between selected behaviors and %EWL was performed. Comparisons of differences in mean %EWL were analyzed using the variables of energy consumption/day (energy consumption), hours of activity/day (hours in activity), and energy expended in activity/day (energy expended). Patients with more energy expended, and hours in activity demonstrated significantly better %EWL (p = 0.05) when compared to those with less energy expended or hours in activity. Reported energy consumption did not significantly influence %EWL in this study. This research suggests that in this sample of post-RYGB patients, energy expended in activity, as either energy expended or hours in activity improved their %EWL over those persons not expending as much energy in activity. Increasing the hours in activity improved the maintenance of %EWL in these respondents. Energy consumption did not have a statistically significant effect on %EWL or maintenance of %EWL in these subjects.

  4. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choices include • Eating fewer calories than usual. This strategy helped people in the DPP study lose weight. • Eating a low-carbohydrate diet. • Eating ... of exercise you enjoy. People in the DPP study exercised a total of 150 minutes each ... other strategies can help you lose weight? These actions also ...

  5. Unexplained Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity level, overall health, age, nutrient absorption, and economic and social factors. If you're losing weight ... unintentional. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2018. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 2, ...

  6. Weight loss (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Losing excess weight by eating a healthy diet is one of the best ways of helping to prevent disease. Obesity increases the risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, coronary artery disease, and kidney and gallbladder disorders. The ...

  7. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 31.9 ± 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a 44-wk period of weight maintenance. Body composition was assessed with a 3-compartment model based on body weight, total body water (deuterium dilution), and body volume. RMR was measured (RMRm) with a ventilated hood. In addition, RMR was predicted (RMRp) on the basis of the measured body composition: RMRp (MJ/d) = 0.024 × fat mass (kg) + 0.102 × fat-free mass (kg) + 0.85. Measurements took place before the diet and 8, 20, and 52 wk after the start of the diet. The ratio of RMRm to RMRp decreased from 1.004 ± 0.077 before the diet to 0.963 ± 0.073 after the diet (P < 0.001), and the decrease was sustained after 20 wk (0.983 ± 0.063; P < 0.01) and 52 wk (0.984 ± 0.068; P < 0.01). RMRm/RMRp was correlated with the weight loss after 8 wk (P < 0.01), 20 wk (P < 0.05), and 52 wk (P < 0.05). Weight loss results in adaptive thermogenesis, and there is no indication for a change in adaptive thermogenesis up to 1 y, when weight loss is maintained. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  8. Dramatic weight loss with rufinamide.

    PubMed

    Mourand, Isabelle; Crespel, Arielle; Gelisse, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug considered as second-line therapy in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) have consisted mainly of drowsiness, irritability, vomiting, and loss of appetite. RUF is considered as a "weight-neutral" drug. We found clinically significant weight loss in 7 of 15 consecutive adult patients (47%; 3 male, 4 female, aged 18-31 years) treated with RUF as add-on therapy (800-2,400 mg/day: 23.5-57.1 mg/kg/day). The body mass index (BMI) decreased by 7.3-18.7%. Two patients were obese class I before RUF. Five patients (71%) were underweight before RUF (mild in one case, moderate in two cases, and severe in two cases). Four of these patients stopped RUF because of this adverse effect. RUF was recommenced in two patients using a lower and slower dosing strategy; one patient showed improvement in seizure control and no weight loss but RUF was re-stopped in the second patient because of continued weight loss. Despite of weight loss, RUF was continued in two other patients because it reduced seizure activity. We primarily related weight loss to reduced food intake, that is, loss of appetite and nausea, although in two patients no obvious loss of appetite was reported. RUF can cause clinically significant weight loss in adult patients, even at low dose. This AE can affect patients who are already underweight. There is a possibility that lower starting doses and slower escalation might minimize weight loss, but further information is required to determine whether this is the case. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  10. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss - activity; Weight loss - exercise; Obesity - activity ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  11. Influence of weight-loss diets with different macronutrient compositions on health-related quality of life in obese youth.

    PubMed

    Yackobovitch-Gavan, Michal; Nagelberg, Nessia; Demol, Sharon; Phillip, Moshe; Shalitin, Shlomit

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of weight-loss diets of different macronutrient compositions on weight and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and to examine the relationship between changes in HRQOL parameters and weight loss during weight-loss programs in obese adolescents. Seventy one adolescents (12-18 years, BMI>95th percentile) were randomly allocated to one of three 12-week diet regimens: low-carbohydrate low-fat (LCLF), low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) or high-carbohydrate low-fat (HCLF) diets. Weight, height and fat-mass were measured, and the PedsQL 4.0 questionnaires were administered to the participants at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Significant similar reductions in BMI, BMI-SDS, and fat percentage occurred in all groups. A significant improvement in HRQOL was found only in the LCLF and HCLF groups. For the entire sample, positive correlations were found between emotional and psychosocial functioning at baseline and the reduction in BMI, BMI-SDS, and fat percentage. By multiple regression analysis, higher baseline emotional functioning and BMI-SDS were significant predictors to higher reduction in BMI-SDS during the intervention. Our results support the importance of evaluating and improving psychosocial functioning before initiation of a weight-loss intervention program in adolescents, and the importance of low-fat diets in weight-loss interventions for adolescents.

  12. Influence of heating on the weight loss and mineral phase in MSWI ash: LOI of incineration ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuo

    2017-04-01

    Loss on ignition (LOI) is a very common method for estimating the volatile species in solid sample. Normally, the measurement of LOI can be convenient and accurate, but for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash, the process may become intricate due to the complexity of the sample. In the incineration ash, there exist various phases, such as mineral, metal, organic and glass. The reaction and transformation of some materials during heating will influence the measurement. 5 incineration ash samples were selected and tested in this study. LOI content was basically measured at high (850°C) and relatively low (440°C) temperatures. The comparison between these two measurements showed a large difference. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) were carried out to investigate the mineral changes and weight losses with different ignition temperatures. The mineralogical analysis suggests that the decomposition of hydrate and carbonate phases cannot be neglected for LOI measurement of incineration. A long-time heating under relatively lower temperature (400∼450°C) compared with soil sample measurement (≥500°C) was recommended by this study.

  13. Motivational interviewing for weight loss.

    PubMed

    DiLillo, Vicki; West, Delia Smith

    2011-12-01

    MI is a patient-centered directive counseling style that aims to facilitate patients' likelihood of making behavior change through the exploration and strengthening of personal motivations. Hallmarks of MI include a collaborative relationship between patient and practitioner, a focus on the elicitation and enhancement of change talk, a nonconfrontational style, and a concerted effort to minimize resistance. MI has been applied to a variety of health-related behaviors, and a growing body of research suggests that this approach may be useful in the context of behavioral weight management. Although results are not uniform, the majority of research suggests that MI delivered as an independent component in addition to a behavioral weight loss program can augment weight loss and likely exerts its beneficial effects through enhancement of treatment engagement and adherence to behavioral recommendations. Furthermore, preliminary research suggests that MI may be helpful in promoting weight maintenance after an initial loss has been achieved. Given that behavioral weight management is a relatively new application of MI, a variety of issues merit further investigation. Of particular interest are issues related to the type and extent of provider training necessary to ensure adequate skill development, cost-effectiveness of MI, and translational research to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating MI strategies into real-world weight loss settings.

  14. Respiratory weight losses during exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

  15. Respiratory weight losses during exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

  16. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  17. The goat (Capra hircus) mammary gland secretory tissue proteome as influenced by weight loss: A study using label free proteomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is a significant limitation to animal production. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Herein, labelfree proteomics was used to characterize the effects of SWL in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to...

  18. Women's challenges with postpartum weight loss.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kristen S; Bushee, Tracy D; Phillips, Jennifer D; Kirkpatrick, Terrie; Catledge, Courtney; Braveboy, Kristin; O'Rourke, Carol; Patel, Neema; Prophet, Malshundria; Cooper, Anita; Mosley, Lori; Parker, Christie; Douglas, Gaye M

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine women's experiences of weight loss during the postpartum period. Understanding women's positive and negative experiences can assist health care providers to successfully intervene in helping women lose weight following pregnancy and avoid long-term weight gain and obesity development. Phenomenology, according to Husserl's perspective. Private location of the women's choosing. Twenty-six women, who ranged in age from 25 to 35 years, and had given birth within the last 5 years, were interviewed regarding their experiences with postpartum weight loss. The majority of the sample was Caucasian. Interviews were transcribed and themes were identified from each of the interviews. Comparisons were made between interviews to identify common experiences between women. Data were analyzed according to the Giorgi method. The women in the study had a wide range of experiences. Themes that emerged from the interviews related to women's challenges with return to prepregnancy weight. These included: time and motivation issues, the need for support, and weight and other struggles. This study provides a look inside the lives of women faced with the reality of losing weight after childbirth. Losing weight after delivery is multi-faceted and influenced by many factors. Interventions to assist women with weight loss should target the challenges described in this paper. When effective strategies are developed, education can be done during pregnancy to prepare for the postpartum period. Ultimately, future research efforts can help us to eliminate pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity in women.

  19. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  20. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment’s outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  1. Obesity Epidemic: Pharmaceutical Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Curry, Stephanie A

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease universally defined as an excess of adipose tissue resulting in body mass index (BMI) > 30.0 kg/m2. Over the past few years, the concept of prevention has gained increased awareness, thus leading to the development of additional pharmaceutical options for the treatment of obesity since 2012. Treating obesity revolves around an individualized, multi-disciplinary approach with additional focus on a healthy and supportive lifestyle to maintain the weight loss. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-03.asp].

  2. Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ≥18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:22074195

  3. The clinical and metabolic effects of rapid weight loss in obese pet cats and the influence of supplemental oral L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Center, S A; Harte, J; Watrous, D; Reynolds, A; Watson, T D; Markwell, P J; Millington, D S; Wood, P A; Yeager, A E; Erb, H N

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy, safety, and metabolic consequences of rapid weight loss in privately owned obese cats by means of a canned weight-reduction diet and the influence of orally administered L-carnitine on rate of weight loss, routine clinical evaluations, hepatic ultrasonography, plasma amino acid profiles, and carnitine analytes were evaluated. A double-blinded placebo-controlled design was used with cats randomly divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (n = 14) received L-carnitine (250 mg PO q24h) in aqueous solution and group 2 (n = 10) received an identical-appearing water placebo. Median obesity (body condition scores and percentage ideal body weight) in each group was 25%. Caloric intake was restricted to 60% of maintenance energy requirements (60 kcal/kg) for targeted ideal weight. The reducing formula was readily accepted by all cats. Significant weight loss was achieved by week 18 in each group without adverse effects (group 1 = 23.7%, group 2 = 19.6%). Cats receiving carnitine lost weight at a significantly faster rate (P < .05). Significant increases in carnitine values developed in each group (P < .02). However, significantly higher concentrations of all carnitine moieties and a greater percentage of acetylcarnitine developed in cats of group 1 (P < .01). The dietary formula and described reducing strategy can safely achieve a 20% weight reduction within 18 weeks in obese cats. An aqueous solution of L-carnitine (250 mg PO q12h) was at least partially absorbed, was nontoxic, and significantly increased plasma carnitine analyte concentrations as well as rate of weight loss.

  4. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) ... bariatric surgery might be an option. About Bariatric Surgery Bariatric surgery had its beginnings in the 1960s, ...

  5. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... of calories a day. And that can slow weight loss to a snail's pace. The answer is to ...

  6. Brain function predictors and outcome of weight loss and weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Breslin, Florence J; Lynch, Anthony M; Patrician, Trisha M; Martin, Laura E; Lepping, Rebecca J; Powell, Joshua N; Yeh, Hung-Wen Henry; Befort, Christie A; Sullivan, Debra; Gibson, Cheryl; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E; Savage, Cary R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates are associated with public health consequences and rising health care costs. Weight loss interventions, while effective, do not work for everyone, and weight regain is a significant problem. Eating behavior is influenced by a convergence of processes in the brain, including homeostatic factors and motivational processing that are important contributors to overeating. Initial neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions that respond differently to visual food cues in obese and healthy weight individuals that are positively correlated with reports of hunger in obese participants. While these findings provide mechanisms of overeating, many important questions remain. It is not known whether brain activation patterns change after weight loss, or if they change differentially based on amount of weight lost. Also, little is understood regarding biological processes that contribute to long-term weight maintenance. This study will use neuroimaging in participants while viewing food and non-food images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging will take place before and after completion of a twelve-week weight loss intervention. Obese participants will be followed though a 6-month maintenance period. The study will address three aims: 1. Characterize brain activation underlying food motivation and impulsive behaviors in obese individuals. 2. Identify brain activation changes and predictors of weight loss. 3. Identify brain activation predictors of weight loss maintenance. Findings from this study will have implications for understanding mechanisms of obesity, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Results will be significant to public health and could lead to a better understanding of how differences in brain activation relate to obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain function predictors and outcome of weight loss and weight loss maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Breslin, Florence J.; Lynch, Anthony M.; Patrician, Trisha M.; Martin, Laura E.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Powell, Joshua N.; Yeh, Hung-Wen (Henry); Befort, Christie A.; Sullivan, Debra; Gibson, Cheryl; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Savage, Cary R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates are associated with public health consequences and rising health care costs. Weight loss interventions, while effective, do not work for everyone, and weight regain is a significant problem. Eating behavior is influenced by a convergence of processes in the brain, including homeostatic factors and motivational processing that are important contributors to overeating. Initial neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions that respond differently to visual food cues in obese and healthy weight individuals that are positively correlated with reports of hunger in obese participants. While these findings provide mechanisms of overeating, many important questions remain. It is not known whether brain activation patterns change after weight loss, or if they change differentially based on amount of weight lost. Also, little is understood regarding biological processes that contribute to long-term weight maintenance. This study will use neuroimaging in participants while viewing food and non-food images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging will take place before and after completion of a twelve-week weight loss intervention. Obese participants will be followed though a 6-month maintenance period. The study will address three aims: 1. Characterize brain activation underlying food motivation and impulsive behaviors in obese individuals. 2. Identify brain activation changes and predictors of weight loss. 3. Identify brain activation predictors of weight loss maintenance. Findings from this study will have implications for understanding mechanisms of obesity, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Results will be significant to public health and could lead to a better understanding of how differences in brain activation relate to obesity. PMID:25533729

  8. Weight management and weight loss strategies of professional jockeys.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jan M; Timperio, Anna F; Crawford, David A; Burns, Cate M; Cameron-Smith, David

    2002-03-01

    Jockeys are required to maintain very low body weight and precise weight control during competition. This study examined the weight loss and weight management strategies of professional horseracing jockeys in the state of Victoria, Australia. An anonymous, self-completed questionnaire was administered (55% response rate, n = 116). Almost half (43%) reported that maintaining riding weight was difficult or very difficult, with 75% routinely skipping meals. In preparation for racing, 60% reported that they typically required additional weight loss, with 81% restricting food intake in the 24 hours prior to racing. Additionally, sauna-induced sweating (29%) and diuretics (22%) were frequently employed to further aid in weight loss prior to racing. These rapid weight loss methods did not differ between the 51% of jockeys who followed a weight management plan compared to those who did not. The impact of these extreme weight loss practices on riding performance and health remains unknown.

  9. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sushama D; Elci, Okan U; Sereika, Susan M; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Turk, Melanie Warziski; Burke, Lora E

    2009-11-03

    To describe participants' adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors) of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT) for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin) during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m(2)). The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 +/- 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001). In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05). Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05). Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05). We observed a decline in adherence to each treatment component as the intervention intensity was reduced. Adherence to multiple treatment components was associated with greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers. Future research needs to focus on improving and maintaining adherence to all components of the treatment protocol to promote weight loss and maintenance.

  10. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Sushama D; Elci, Okan U; Sereika, Susan M; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Turk, Melanie Warziski; Burke, Lora E

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors) of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT) for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin) during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2). The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 ± 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. Results: There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001). In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05). Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05). Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05). Conclusions: We observed a decline in adherence to each treatment component as the intervention intensity was reduced. Adherence to multiple treatment components was associated with greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers. Future research needs to focus on improving and maintaining adherence to all components of the treatment protocol to promote weight loss and maintenance

  11. The influence of calcium supplement on body composition, weight loss and insulin resistance in obese adults receiving low calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Shalileh, Maryam; Shidfar, Farzad; Haghani, Hamid; Eghtesadi, Shahriar; Heydari, Iraj

    2010-07-01

    Obesity and diabetes are the most important problems of public health. Evidence from molecular animal research and epidemiologic investigations indicate that calcium intake may have an influence on body composition, weight and insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of calcium supplementation on body composition, weight, insulin resistance and blood pressure in the face of calorie restriction in obese adults. A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on 40 adults with Body Mass Index > 25kg/m(2) was conducted. Subjects were maintained for 24 weeks on a balanced deficit diet (-500 kcal/d deficit) and randomly assigned into two groups with 1000 mg ca/d as calcium carbonate or placebo. There were no significant differences in variables at the 12th and 24th week between the two groups. The lean mass showed no significant increase in the calcium group at the 12th week compared to baseline and in placebo group at the 24th week compared to the 12th week. The insulin concentration showed a significant decrease in the calcium group at the 12th week compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). The diastolic blood pressure had a significant decrease at the 24th week compared to the 12th week in both groups (p = 0.013-0.009). Results from this study suggest that 24 weeks of supplementation with 1000 mg ca/d did not have any effect on weight, body composition, insulin resistance and blood pressure beyond what can be achieved in an energy restricted diet in obese adults.

  12. Family support and weight-loss strategies among adolescents reporting sustained weight loss.

    PubMed

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Dixon, Robyn; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Teevale, Tasileta

    2013-03-01

    The current research aims to describe the weight-control strategies and family support for young people reporting sustained weight loss in a large, population-based sample. Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of New Zealand youth. New Zealand secondary schools, 2007. Secondary-school students (n 9107). Among young people who attempted weight loss in the previous year, 51% reported long-term weight loss (lost weight and maintained weight loss for 6 months). Students reporting long-term weight loss were more likely to be male, but did not differ by age, ethnicity, socio-economic deprivation or measured weight status from students who reported temporary/recent weight loss or no weight loss. Students with long-term weight loss also reported healthier weight-control strategies (e.g., exercising, eating fewer fatty foods, eating fewer sweets), high parental support for healthy eating/activity and were less likely to report being teased about their weight by their family and having junk food available at home than students with temporary/recent weight loss or no weight loss. Approximately 50% of young people attempting weight loss reported sustained weight loss. Young people who reported sustained weight loss appeared to have more family support than those who did not achieve this, suggesting the importance for weight-control services and interventions in adolescents of actively engaging the family.

  13. Topiramate weight loss in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Alberici, Antonella; Borroni, Barbara; Manelli, Filippo; Griffini, Simona; Zavarise, Paola; Padovani, Alessandro; Dalla Volta, Giorgio

    2009-03-15

    Topiramate (TPM) is generally recognized efficacious and safe in migraine prevention. A significant proportion of patients undergoing TPM administration may show weight loss. In epileptic subjects, high body mass index (BMI) was found to be predictive of weight loss under TPM therapy. We therefore aimed to study whether common clinical determinants may be associated to TPM weigh loss in migraine patients. In our clinical series, high BMI was not found a predictor of weight loss under TPM treatment. Unknown genetic and environmental factors that may determine the courses of weight loss under TPM therapy are still do be identified.

  14. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  15. Body live weight and milk production parameters in the Majorera and Palmera goat breeds from the Canary Islands: influence of weight loss.

    PubMed

    Lérias, Joana R; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-Delanuez, Antonio; Araújo, Susana S; Castro, Noemí; Argüello, Anastasio; Capote, Juan; Almeida, André M

    2013-11-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL), caused by poor quality pastures during the dry season, is the major limitation to animal production in the tropics. One of the ways to counter this problem is to breed animals that show tolerance to SWL. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of feed restriction in milk production and live weight (LW) evolution in two goat breeds, with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: the Majorera (considered to be tolerant) and the Palmera (considered to be susceptible). A total of ten animals per breed were used. Animals were divided in four groups (two for each breed): a restricted group (restricted diet) and a control group. LW and milk yield parameters were recorded through a trial that lasted 23 days in total. Overall, there were no significant differences between both restricted groups, regarding neither LW nor milk yield reductions (LW reduction 13 % and milk yield reduction of 87 % for both restricted groups). In what concerns control groups, there were no significant differences between breeds, thought there were different increments at the end of the trial for both breeds regarding LW (6 and 4 %, for Majorera and Palmera, respectively) and milk yield (28 and 8 %, respectively for Majorera and Palmera). The lack of statistically significant differences between Palmera and Majorera LW and milk yields in restricted groups may be due to the fact that the controlled trial does not replicate harsh field conditions, in which Majorera would excel, and the stress induced by those differences.

  16. Measuring Bearing Wear Via Weight Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E.; Moore, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    Wear in critical parts of bearings measured via amounts of weight lost during use. Technique applicable in general to bearings made of nonporous materials. Weight-loss measurements easier, faster, more precise, and less likely to damage measured parts. Weight-loss measurements performed in clean rooms and under constraint of extreme cleanliness for compatability with liquid oxygen.

  17. Effect of Parent Weight on Weight Loss in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed effect of parent weight and parent control versus child self-control on weight loss in obese preadolescent children over three-year period. Children of nonobese parents had significantly greater decrease in relative weight after one year than children of obese parents. At three years, there was no effect of parent weight. Locus of control…

  18. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  19. Ways to Track Weight Loss Success

    MedlinePlus

    ... is that it doesn't tell you how much fat you've lost. Instead, it weighs everything. And that makes it easy for something like drinking more water to cause frustrating weight fluctuations. Many weight loss ...

  20. Common dietary supplements for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Saper, Robert B; Eisenberg, David M; Phillips, Russell S

    2004-11-01

    Over-the-counter dietary supplements to treat obesity appeal to many patients who desire a "magic bullet" for weight loss. Asking overweight patients about their use of weight-loss supplements and understanding the evidence for the efficacy, safety, and quality of these supplements are critical when counseling patients regarding weight loss. A schema for whether physicians should recommend, caution, or discourage use of a particular weight-loss supplement is presented in this article. More than 50 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss. Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use. Although evidence of modest weight loss secondary to ephedra-caffeine ingestion exists, potentially serious adverse effects have led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to ban the sale of these products. Chromium is a popular weight-loss supplement, but its efficacy and long-term safety are uncertain. Guar gum and chitosan appear to be ineffective; therefore, use of these products should be discouraged. Because of insufficient or conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, ginseng, glucomannan, green tea, hydroxycitric acid, L-carnitine, psyllium, pyruvate, and St. John's wort in weight loss, physicians should caution patients about the use of these supplements and closely monitor those who choose to use these products.

  1. Diet in the management of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Strychar, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, and successful treatment will have an important impact on medical resources utilization, health care costs, and patient quality of life. With over 60% of our population being overweight, physicians face a major challenge in assisting patients in the process of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Low-calorie diets can lower total body weight by an average of 8% in the short term. These diets are well-tolerated and characterize successful strategies in maintaining significant weight loss over a 5-year period. Very-low-calorie diets produce a more rapid weight loss but should only be used for fewer than 16 weeks because of clinical adverse effects. Diets that are severely restricted in carbohydrates (3%–10% of total energy intake) and do not emphasize a reduction of energy intake may be effective in reducing weight in the short term, but there is no evidence that they are sustainable or innocuous in the long term because their high saturated-fat content may be atherogenic. Fat restriction in a weight-loss regimen is beneficial, but the optimal percentage has yet to be determined. Longitudinal trials are needed to resolve these issues. In this article I discuss the evidence for and pitfalls of various types of weight-loss diets and identify issues that physicians need to address in weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. PMID:16389240

  2. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  3. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  4. Internalized weight bias in weight-loss surgery patients: psychosocial correlates and weight loss outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lent, Michelle R; Napolitano, Melissa A; Wood, G Craig; Argyropoulos, George; Gerhard, Glenn S; Hayes, Sharon; Foster, Gary D; Collins, Charlotte A; Still, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between pre-operative internalized weight bias and 12-month post-operative weight loss in adult bariatric surgery patients. Bariatric surgery patients (n=170) from one urban and one rural medical center completed an internalized weight bias measure (the weight bias internalization scale, WBIS) and a depression survey (Beck depression inventory-II, BDI-II) before surgery, and provided consent to access their medical records. Participants (BMI=47.8 kg/m2, age=45.7 years) were mostly female (82.0 %), White (89.5 %), and underwent gastric bypass (83.6 %). The average WBIS score by item was 4.54 ± 1.3. Higher pre-operative WBIS scores were associated with diminished weight loss at 12 months after surgery (p=0.035). Pre-operative WBIS scores were positively associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). Greater internalized weight bias was associated with more depressive symptoms before surgery and less weight loss 1 year after surgery.

  5. Preserving Healthy Muscle during Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Cava, Edda; Yeat, Nai Chien; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2017-05-01

    Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss-associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss-induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e.g., ability to lift items, walk, and climb stairs). The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1) compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2) diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3) weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4) high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5) both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Exercise and Weight Loss: The Uncertain Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    In terms of physical impact, recent studies suggest that many benefits previously attributed to exercise as a factor in weight loss do not exist. Researchers do seem to agree that exercise does have a positive effect on body composition during weight loss. (IAH)

  7. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112 Section 4.112 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  8. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112 Section 4.112 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  9. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112 Section 4.112 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  10. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112 Section 4.112 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  11. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112 Section 4.112 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  12. Life after weight-loss surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... after having weight-loss surgery. The reality of life after surgery may not exactly match your hopes or ... vitamins and minerals for the rest of your life. You will need ... to follow your weight loss and make sure you are eating well.

  13. Gallstones in obesity and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Erlinger, S

    2000-12-01

    The prevalence of cholesterol gallstones is increased in obese persons. The risk is especially high in those with the highest body mass index (relative risk 5-6). Weight loss further increases the risk of gallstones: the prevalence of new gallstones reaches 10-12% after 8-16 weeks of low-calorie diet and more than 30% within 12-18 months after gastric by-pass surgery. About one-third of the stones are symptomatic. The increased prevalence of stones is mostly due to supersaturation of bile with cholesterol, because of an increased synthesis by the liver and secretion into bile. Saturation is further increased during weight loss. It returns toward normal after weight stabilization at a lower level, allowing spontaneous stone dissolution in some cases. Identified risk factors for gallstones during weight loss are a relative loss of weight greater than 24% of initial body weight, a rate of weight loss greater than 1.5 kg per week, a very low calorie diet with no fat, a long overnight fast period and a high serum triglyceride level. Ursodeoxycholic acid decreases cholesterol saturation of bile and gallstone incidence during weight loss. Other preventive measures include a control of weight loss rate, a reduction of the length of overnight fast, and maintenance of a small amount of fat in the diet.

  14. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    PubMed

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening.

  15. The Health Risks of Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Frances M.

    This report compiles scientific evidence and statistics on the health risks of weight loss interventions and is intended to help both professionals and consumers cope in healthful ways with the complex dilemmas of weight. The publication is organized into six chapters: (1) "Risks of Losing Weight"; (2) "Effectiveness of…

  16. Minimal level of participation associated with significant weight loss in a commercially available weight loss program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weight loss has been associated with high levels of participation in interventions; however, less attention has been given to the minimal level of participation needed to reach clinically significant weight loss. This study examined the level of participation associated with a 5% or 10% weight loss ...

  17. Weight loss in humans in space.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Storch, Kenneth J; Stolfi, Adrienne; Mohler, Stanley R; Frey, Mary Anne; Stein, T Peter

    2011-06-01

    Bodyweight loss during spaceflight has been observed among astronauts since the early space missions. Considerable mission data has been accumulated, including data from female astronauts, on the many Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between observed weight loss during spaceflight and potential covariate factors. We performed a statistical analysis of the association between bodyweight change and plausible clinical and mission covariates, using data obtained from the NASA Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH). We confirmed that spaceflight is associated with weight change (-2.1 +/- 0.1%, N = 514). Prospective predictors of weight loss included: being a first-time astronaut, preflight bodyweight and BMI, routinely performing preflight exercise sessions lasting greater than 1 h, and baseline levels of cholesterol, potassium, and chloride. Severe space motion sickness was significantly associated with greater weight loss. Unexpectedly, a higher number of extravehicular activities per mission protected against weight loss. Mission duration had the strongest association with bodyweight change (-2.4 +/- 0.4% per 100 d in space). On average, space missions are associated with cumulative loss of bodyweight over time. Unless effective countermeasures are implemented, significant weight loss will be a likely outcome in a subset of astronauts as mission durations increase. New predictors of intra-mission bodyweight changes and other associated factors are identified.

  18. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Rena R.; Leahey, Tricia; Jeffery, Robert; Johnson, Karen C.; Hill, James O.; Coday, Mace; Espeland, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g. size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicenter study of the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design and Methods Weight losses and adherence (attendance, use of meal replacement products, and minutes of activity) were examined over one year of intervention in 2329 ILI participants in 209 treatment groups, which all received the same weight loss program. Results Weight losses did not cluster among members of a treatment group (intra-class correlation [ICC] of .007), whereas measures of adherence had small/moderate clustering (ICCs of .05–.11). The 209 groups varied in weight losses, with a mean of 8.64 % (SD=2.35 %, interquartile range=6.82%, 10.32%), but neither size nor baseline homogeneity of members affected the outcome. Conclusions Although these findings suggest that it may not be necessary to control for clustering in behavioral weight loss studies, they also indicate that merely treating individuals in groups is not sufficient to harness social influences on weight loss. PMID:23804576

  19. Weight loss and weight loss maintenance in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Walcott-McQuigg, Jacqueline A; Chen, Shu-Pi; Davis, Kara; Stevenson, Ernestine; Choi, Aeree; Wangsrikhun, Suparat

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance in 23 African American women participating in a 32-week lifestyle enhancement awareness program (LEAP), 16 weekly sessions on weight loss and 16 weekly sessions on weight loss maintenance. A pre-test, post-test one group design was used. Measures included dietary readiness to lose weight, bioelectrical impedance analysis, lipid levels, blood pressure, waist/hip ratio, weight, height, and activity level. Women who completed the weight loss phase of the program showed a reduction in weight; body mass index; percentage body fat; and waist/hip ratio; and an increase in physical activity and dietary readiness to control over-eating. Weight loss was significantly correlated with attendance and dietary readiness to decrease emotional eating. Women who continued on to complete the weight loss maintenance classes maintained a significant loss in body mass index, and increased their high-density lipoproteins and dietary readiness to monitor hunger and eating cues. African-American women who sustain weight loss and weight loss maintenance regimens reduce their risks for developing chronic diseases.

  20. Integrated electronic platforms for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Levine, James A

    2010-01-01

    What can be done to build effective weight loss solutions for the 1.5 billion people with obesity? It is self-evident that no one good solution exists for people who are overweight or obese, otherwise it would have been applied across the people who need it worldwide. There is, therefore, an urgent need for approaches that will afford weight loss; what is more, such approaches need to be scalable. For that reason, it is attractive to consider electronic platforms as an avenue for scalable weight loss solutions. Such platforms often do not require substantial investments but rather the integration of pre-existing off-the-shelf components. In this article we explore the concepts and design challenges for electronic platforms that precipitate weight loss. PMID:20214426

  1. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Weight Loss Products More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  2. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  3. Weight Loss Surgery: An Option for Teens?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the operation, such as infections, bleeding, blood clots, vitamin deficiencies, and weight regain. See table below. Possible Complications ... Protein deficiency Hair loss Edema Hypoalbuminemia Anemia Fatigue Vitamin/mineral deficiencies B 12 Folic acid Iron Fat-soluble vitamin ...

  4. Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths

    MedlinePlus

    ... that safe weight loss involves combining a reduced-calorie diet with physical activity to lose 1/2 ... use the Nutrition Facts label to track your calorie intake and number of servings to make healthy ...

  5. The downside of weight loss: realistic intervention in body-weight trajectory.

    PubMed

    Bosomworth, N John

    2012-05-01

    To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option.

  6. Blogging for weight loss: personal accountability, writing selves, and the weight-loss blogosphere.

    PubMed

    Leggatt-Cook, Chez; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2012-09-01

    Body weight is a key concern in contemporary society, with large proportions of the population attempting to control their weight. However, losing weight and maintaining weight loss is notoriously difficult, and new strategies for weight loss attract significant interest. Writing about experiences of weight loss in online journals, or blogging, has recently expanded rapidly. Weight-loss bloggers typically write about daily successes and failures, report calorie consumption and exercise output, and post photographs of their changing bodies. Many bloggers openly court the surveillance of blog readers as a motivation for accountability to their weight-loss goals. Drawing from a sample of weight-loss blogs authored by women, we explore three issues arising from this practice of disclosing a conventionally private activity within an online public domain. First, we examine motivations for blogging, focusing on accountability. Secondly, we consider the online construction of self, exploring how weight-loss bloggers negotiate discourses around fatness, and rework selves as their bodies transform. Finally, we consider the communities of interest that form around weight-loss blogs. This 'blogosphere' provides mutual support for weight loss. However, participating in online social spaces is complicated and bloggers must carefully manage issues of privacy and disclosure. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Recruitment and Retention for a Weight Loss Maintenance Trial Involving Weight Loss Prior to Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Grubber, J. M.; McVay, M. A.; Olsen, M. K.; Bolton, J.; Gierisch, J. M.; Taylor, S. S.; Maciejewski, M. L.; Yancy, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective A weight loss maintenance trial involving weight loss prior to randomization is challenging to implement due to the potential for dropout and insufficient weight loss. We examined rates and correlates of non‐initiation, dropout, and insufficient weight loss during a weight loss maintenance trial. Methods The MAINTAIN trial involved a 16‐week weight loss program followed by randomization among participants losing at least 4 kg. Psychosocial measures were administered during a screening visit. Weight was obtained at the first group session and 16 weeks later to determine eligibility for randomization. Results Of 573 patients who screened as eligible, 69 failed to initiate the weight loss program. In adjusted analyses, failure to initiate was associated with lower age, lack of a support person, and less encouragement for making dietary changes. Among participants who initiated, 200 dropped out, 82 lost insufficient weight, and 222 lost sufficient weight for randomization. Compared to losing sufficient weight, dropping out was associated with younger age and tobacco use, whereas losing insufficient weight was associated with non‐White race and controlled motivation for physical activity. Conclusions Studies should be conducted to evaluate strategies to maximize recruitment and retention of subgroups that are less likely to initiate and be retained in weight loss maintenance trials. PMID:28090340

  8. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Gardner, C D

    2012-07-01

    Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to

  9. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, C D

    2012-01-01

    Although the ‘Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative ‘low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes

  10. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    PubMed Central

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-01-01

    Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction. PMID:16700901

  11. A psychiatric rehabilitation approach to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Brown, Catana; Goetz, Jeannine; Van Sciver, Angela; Sullivan, Debra; Hamera, Edna

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a major problem nationwide and even more prevalent among people with psychiatric disabilities. This study examined the efficacy of a psychiatric rehabilitation weight loss program. Twenty-one individuals participated in the 12-week intervention. Another 15 individuals served as matched controls. Results indicate the intervention group improved more than the control group for weight, body mass index, waist circumference and physical activity. The intervention group lost 2.7 kg (6 lbs) and the control group gained 0.5 kg (1 lb). A weight loss program incorporating psychiatric rehabilitation principles was effective for people with psychiatric disabilities at a community based program.

  12. Dietary adherence during weight loss predicts weight regain.

    PubMed

    Del Corral, Pedro; Bryan, David R; Garvey, W Timothy; Gower, Barbara A; Hunter, Gary R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between previous dietary adherence during a low-calorie diet weight loss intervention and subsequent weight change during a 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance. One hundred and sixteen healthy, recently weight reduced (lost ~12 kg, BMI 22-25 kg/m2) premenopausal women were studied. Dietary adherence was assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW) and body composition change. Comparisons were made between the upper and lower tertiles for previous dietary adherence and subsequent weight change at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Percent weight regained was significantly lower (30.9 ± 6.7% vs. 66.7 ± 9.4%; P < 0.05) in the upper compared to the lower adherence tertile for previous weight loss dietary adherence (49.9 ± 8.8% vs. 96.8 ± 12.8% P < 0.05) at 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively. This difference was partly explained by increases in daily activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) (+95 ± 45 kcal/day vs. -44 ± 42 kcal/day, P < 0.05) and lower daily energy intake (2,066 ± 71 kcal/day vs. 2,289 ± 62 kcal/day, P < 0.05) in the higher tertile for previous dietary adherence, compared to the lower. These findings suggest that higher adherence (i.e., higher tertile) to the previous low-calorie diet predicts lower weight regain over 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance, which is explained by lower energy intake and higher physical activity. Finally, how well an individual adheres to a low-calorie diet intervention during weight loss may be a useful tool for identifying individuals who are particularly vulnerable to subsequent weight regain.

  13. Do feeding practices of obese dogs, before weight loss, affect the success of weight management?

    PubMed

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Gernon, Lucy J; Morris, Penelope J; Biourge, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Dietary factors (e.g. feeding treats and table scraps) can predispose to obesity in dogs, but it is not known whether they also influence success of weight loss. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine which pre-weight-loss factors were associated with outcome of their weight management regimen in dogs. Information from ninety-five dogs attending the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), was reviewed. The effect of different food types (e.g. dry, wet and home-prepared), feeding practices (e.g. method of portion size calculation and number of meals per day) and use of treats was assessed on outcome measures of the weight management regimen. Before weight loss, most owners (sixty-three out of ninety-five, 66 %) fed twice daily, used complete dry food (seventy-two out of ninety-five, 76 %) and calculated portion size either by measuring cup (thirty-six out of ninety-five, 38 %) or by visual estimation (thirty-seven out of ninety-five, 39 %). Feeding treats was common and included purchased treats (forty-one out of ninety-five, 43 %), table scraps (twenty-four out of ninety-five, 25 %), pet food (eighty-three out of ninety-five, 87 %) and human food (eighty-one out of ninety-five, 85 %). The majority of feeding practices did not influence any outcome measure for the weight-loss period (P>0.05 for all). However, metabolisable energy intake during weight loss was significantly higher in dogs fed dry food (P = 0.047) and lower in dogs fed purchased snacks before weight loss (P = 0.036). Thus, most pre-weight-loss factors have limited effect on outcomes of weight loss. The significance of the associations identified between feeding of dried food and purchased treats, and weight-loss energy intake, requires further study.

  14. The weight loss blogosphere: an online survey of weight loss bloggers.

    PubMed

    Evans, Martinus; Faghri, Pouran D; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E; Whited, Matthew C; Appelhans, Bradley M; Busch, Andrew; Coleman, Ailton S

    2016-09-01

    Blogging is a form of online journaling that has been increasingly used to document an attempt in weight loss. Despite the prevalence of weight loss bloggers, few studies have examined this population. We examined characteristics of weight loss bloggers and their blogs, including blogging habits, reasons for blogging, like and dislikes of blogging, and associations between blogging activity and weight loss. Participants (N = 194, 92.3 % female, mean age = 35) were recruited from Twitter and Facebook to complete an online survey. Participants reported an average weight loss of 42.3 pounds since starting to blog about their weight loss attempt. Blogging duration significantly predicted greater weight loss during blogging (β = -3.65, t(185) = -2.97, p = .003). Findings suggest that bloggers are generally successful with their weight loss attempt. Future research should explore what determines weight loss success/failure in bloggers and whether individuals desiring to lose weight would benefit from blogging.

  15. Contribution of Behavior Intervention Components to 24-Month Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Jakicic, John M.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Sustaining weight loss long-term is difficult. Purpose To examine if eating behaviors, physical activity levels, and program participation influence ones ability to achieve ≥5%, ≥7%, and ≥10% weight loss over a period of 24 months. Methods Data from 170 overweight and obese women (BMI = 32.7 ± 4.2 kg/m2) were analyzed in this study. All women followed a standard 24-month behavioral weight loss program in which they were instructed to decrease caloric intake and increase physical activity levels. Eating behaviors, body weight, and physical activity levels were assessed at baseline, 6 and 24 months. Program participation was evaluated by the percentage of group meetings attended and the percentage of telephone calls completed with an interventionist. Three separate step-wise linear regression analyses were performed to identify variables that were predictive of ≥5%, ≥7%, and ≥10% weight loss at 24 months. Results The percentage of telephone calls completed and change in weight loss eating behaviors predicted ≥5% (r2 = 0.16), ≥7% (r2 = 0.14), and ≥10% weight loss (r2 =0.10) at 24 months. However, the change in physical activity levels from baseline to 24 months was only predictive of weight losses ≥10% (r2 =0.11). Conclusion Behavioral factors, such as adopting healthy eating behaviors and telephone contact time, are important components that assist individuals in achieving weight losses ≥5%. However, high levels of physical activity play a more prominent role in sustaining weight losses of ≥10%. Therefore, innovative strategies to enhance long-term exercise adherence should be developed. PMID:19952841

  16. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended.

  17. [Fatigue and weight loss in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2012-04-01

    Fatigue is a common, under recognized, and poorly understood nonmotor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fatigue frequently presents early in PD, and its prevalence increases with disease progression, affecting up to 60% of patients. Fatigue has a negative impact on quality of life. Fatigue is often associated with other nonmotor symptoms, including sleep disturbance, excessive daytime sleepiness, and depression. Only a few reports have been published on the treatment of fatigue in PD (methylphenidate, levodopa, and pramipexole). Further well-designed studies, including physiotherapy, are necessary to develop more effective treatments for PD-associated fatigue. A number of patients with PD lose weight because of loss of fat. However, the evolution and determinants of weight loss are not well established. Possible determinants of weight loss in PD include loss of appetite, impaired hand-mouth coordination, difficulty in chewing and dysphagia, nausea, intestinal hypomotility, and increased energy requirements because of muscular rigidity and involuntary movements. Noticeable weight gain has repeatedly been reported after subthalamic or pallidal deep brain stimulation. Because low body weight is associated with negative health effects and a poor prognosis, monitoring weight and nutritional status should be part of PD management.

  18. Body contouring following massive weight loss.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jesse; Shermak, Michele

    2004-09-01

    Obesity and its associated medical morbidities carry substantial health risk. While massive weight loss allows improvement in health status and lifestyle, physical sequelae due to symptomatic skin redundancy still require treatment. Areas affected include the arms, breasts, abdomen, back, and thighs. After open gastric bypass, patients often have poor abdominal support and incisional hernias. To completely address the treatment of patients following massive weight loss, body contouring procedures are performed, often in one stage and tailored to each patient, to rid the functional and esthetic impairment from skin redundancy. This retrospective study includes 30 patients treated from March 1998 to August 2002 by a single surgeon at an academic hospital. Average weight loss had been 71 kg, and average weight and BMI at the time of contouring surgery were 98.6 kg and 33 kg/m2 respectively. Procedures included abdominal panniculectomy, thighlift, backlift, brachioplasty, mastopexy and incisional hernia repair, performed either alone or in combination. Average weight of resected tissue was 5.9 kg. Average length of stay was 3 days. Complications included seroma, wound breakdown, hematoma requiring surgical drainage, and lymphocele after brachioplasty. One patient died of a pulmonary embolus within weeks after surgery. Patients requiring surgical skin excision after massive weight loss for functional and/or esthetic reasons are challenging, and require individualized approaches with intensive follow-up.

  19. Surgical weight loss: impact on energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Brakonieki, Katrina; Duche, Pascale; Morio, Béatrice; Béatrice, Morio; Boirie, Yves; Yves, Boirie; Laferrère, Blandine

    2013-02-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is often limited in its magnitude and often of short duration, followed by weight regain. On the contrary, bariatric surgery now commonly used in the treatment of severe obesity favors large and sustained weight loss, with resolution or improvement of most obesity-associated comorbidities. The mechanisms of sustained weight loss are not well understood. Whether changes in the various components of energy expenditure favor weight maintenance after bariatric surgery is unclear. While the impact of diet-induced weight loss on energy expenditure has been widely studied and reviewed, the impact of bariatric surgery on total energy expenditure, resting energy expenditure, and diet-induced thermogenesis remains unclear. Here, we review data on energy expenditure after bariatric surgery from animal and human studies. Bariatric surgery results in decreased total energy expenditure, mainly due to reduced resting energy expenditure and explained by a decreased in both fat-free mass and fat mass. Limited data suggest increased diet-induced thermogenesis after gastric bypass, a surgery that results in gut anatomical changes and modified the digestion processes. Physical activity and sustained intakes of dietary protein may be the best strategies available to increase non-resting and then total energy expenditure, as well as to prevent the decline in lean mass and resting energy expenditure.

  20. Surgical Weight Loss: Impact on Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Brakonieki, Katrina; Duche, Pascale; Béatrice, Morio; Yves, Boirie; Laferrère, Blandine

    2016-01-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is often limited in its magnitude and often of short duration, followed by weight regain. On the contrary, bariatric surgery now commonly used in the treatment of severe obesity favors large and sustained weight loss, with resolution or improvement of most obesity-associated comorbidities. The mechanisms of sustained weight loss are not well understood. Whether changes in the various components of energy expenditure favor weight maintenance after bariatric surgery is unclear. While the impact of diet-induced weight loss on energy expenditure has been widely studied and reviewed, the impact of bariatric surgery on total energy expenditure, resting energy expenditure, and diet-induced thermogenesis remains unclear. Here, we review data on energy expenditure after bariatric surgery from animal and human studies. Bariatric surgery results in decreased total energy expenditure, mainly due to reduced resting energy expenditure and explained by a decreased in both fat-free mass and fat mass. Limited data suggest increased diet-induced thermogenesis after gastric bypass, a surgery that results in gut anatomical changes and modified the digestion processes. Physical activity and sustained intakes of dietary protein may be the best strategies available to increase non-resting and then total energy expenditure, as well as to prevent the decline in lean mass and resting energy expenditure. PMID:23224568

  1. Gene–diet interaction and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in investigations of dietary factors, genetic factors, and their interactive effects on obesity and weight loss. Recent findings Even with a tremendous body of research conducted, controversy still abounds regarding the relative effectiveness of various weight-loss diets. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have made great strides in unraveling the genetic basis of regulation of body weight. In prospective cohorts, reproducible evidence is emerging to show interactions between genetic factors and dietary factors such as sugar-sweetened beverage on obesity. In randomized clinical trials, individuals’ genotypes have also been found to modify diet interventions on weight loss, weight maintenance, and changes in related metabolic traits such as lipids, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. However, replication, functional exploration, and translation of the findings into personalized diet interventions remain the chief challenges. Summary Preliminary but promising data have emerged to lend support to gene–diet interaction in determining weight loss and maintenance; and studies in the area hold great promise to inform future personalized diet interventions on the reduction of obesity and related health problems. PMID:24345984

  2. Quick weight loss: sorting fad from fact.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D C

    This article reviews popular diets for their ability to produce effective weight loss. Most of the "evidence" for fad diets is based on anecdotal findings, theories and testimonials of short term results. The most prominent elements of fad diets are those of ritual and sacrifice. These diets offer quick and painless weight loss while allowing consumption of favourite or tasty foods, but place severe restrictions on certain other foods or food categories. Fad diets often work in the short term because they are low-kilojoule diets in disguise; that is, energy intake as a result of the diet is lower than the person's requirements. Successful long term weight loss depends on the consumption over a long period of time of less energy than is expended. The ideal approach is to increase physical activity while modifying eating behaviour to achieve a nutritionally balanced intake.

  3. Bone Metabolism in Obesity and Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Shapses, Sue A.; Sukumar, Deeptha

    2014-01-01

    Excess body weight due to obesity has traditionally been considered to have a positive effect on bone; however, more recent findings suggest that bone quality is compromised. Both obesity and caloric restriction increase fracture risk and are regulated by endocrine factors and cytokines that have direct and indirect effects on bone and calcium absorption. Weight reduction will decrease bone mass and mineral density, but this varies by the individual’s age, gender, and adiposity. Dietary modifications, exercise, and medications have been shown to attenuate the bone loss associated with weight reduction. Future obesity and weight loss trials would benefit from assessment of key hormones, adipokine and gut peptides that regulate calcium absorption, and bone mineral density and quality by using sensitive techniques in high-risk populations. PMID:22809104

  4. Dynamics of weight loss during prolonged spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Leonard, J. I.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    Data from three Skylab flights lasting 28, 59, and 84 days are used to study changes in body composition occurring during extended spaceflight. The analysis includes pre- and postflight measurements used to compute lean body mass and body fat losses for an entire mission using previously accepted methods based on total body water, potassium, and density, and also includes the daily metabolic balances in order to provide an estimate of the time course of the changes in water, protein, and fat. The analytical approach is explained and the results presented, including a summary of changes in lean body mass and changes in weight loss and tissue components. It is concluded that little more than half of the weight loss observed during the missions can be attributed to loss in lean body mass, the remainder being derived from fat stores.

  5. Weight Loss Supplements: Boon or Bane?

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Reshma Mohamed; Omar, Norfaizatul Shalida

    2017-01-01

    Dietary health supplements for weight loss seem to be the future nowadays. However, this industry is plagued by lack of regulations and ignorance regarding the constituents of the supplements. Of all the supplements consumed, the ones for weight loss are most commonly found in the market. Reports of liver failure, kidney impairment and worsening of chronic ailments in patients who consume these supplements are surfacing recently which make us question the credibility of these products. The safety of these products lie in the clear stating of the ingredients by the manufacturer, well informed patient, knowledgeable physician and tight regulations from the regulatory board. PMID:28814927

  6. Weight Loss Supplements: Boon or Bane?

    PubMed

    Ansari, Reshma Mohamed; Omar, Norfaizatul Shalida

    2017-05-01

    Dietary health supplements for weight loss seem to be the future nowadays. However, this industry is plagued by lack of regulations and ignorance regarding the constituents of the supplements. Of all the supplements consumed, the ones for weight loss are most commonly found in the market. Reports of liver failure, kidney impairment and worsening of chronic ailments in patients who consume these supplements are surfacing recently which make us question the credibility of these products. The safety of these products lie in the clear stating of the ingredients by the manufacturer, well informed patient, knowledgeable physician and tight regulations from the regulatory board.

  7. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  8. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, K; Rössner, S

    2005-02-01

    Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintaining the weight loss is an even greater challenge. The identification of factors associated with weight loss maintenance can enhance our understanding for the behaviours and prerequisites that are crucial in sustaining a lowered body weight. In this paper we have reviewed the literature on factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. We have used a definition of weight maintenance implying intentional weight loss that has subsequently been maintained for at least 6 months. According to our review, successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours. Weight maintenance is further associated with an internal motivation to lose weight, social support, better coping strategies and ability to handle life stress, self-efficacy, autonomy, assuming responsibility in life, and overall more psychological strength and stability. Factors that may pose a risk for weight regain include a history of weight cycling, disinhibited eating, binge eating, more hunger, eating in response to negative emotions and stress, and more passive reactions to problems.

  9. Weight-loss dieting behavior: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Odelia

    2012-07-01

    In light of the widespread phenomena of diet failure and excessive dieting, this paper presents a theoretical economic analysis of the decision-making process of weight-loss dieting. The paper incorporates behavioral elements involved in the process of dieting: effort exerted in dieting, influence of social norms concerning body weight, time-inconsistent present biased preferences, and a distinction between naiveté and sophistication. The model explains cyclic dieting and provides interesting insights on the extent of weight-loss dieting. The extent of dieting is an increasing function of initial body weight and a decreasing function of the effort exerted in dieting and the strength of social norms concerning ideal weight. Income and diet strictness have an ambiguous effect. In addition, greater dieting efforts are not necessarily balanced against a slowdown in body metabolism or a higher initial body weight.

  10. The ROI on weight loss at work.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, George L

    2009-12-01

    Workplace weight-loss programs are a win-win tool that companies can use to boost both health and wealth. The financial payoff-for one Texas employer, about $2.50 in return for every dollar spent--stems from lower health care costs and reduced absenteeism.

  11. Weight Loss and Diet in Wrestling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Most weight loss among wrestlers is accomplished by a combination of fasting, induced sweating, and reduced fluid intake resulting in dehydration in the final days prior to competition. The effects of acute thermal dehydration on cardiovascular dynamics are related to a reduction in plasma volume. (JN)

  12. Weight Loss and Diet in Wrestling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Most weight loss among wrestlers is accomplished by a combination of fasting, induced sweating, and reduced fluid intake resulting in dehydration in the final days prior to competition. The effects of acute thermal dehydration on cardiovascular dynamics are related to a reduction in plasma volume. (JN)

  13. Fasting headache, weight loss, and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Mosek, A; Korczyn, A D

    1999-03-01

    Recently, we showed that fasting is a strong headache precipitator unrelated to coffee, tea, or smoking withdrawal or to oversleeping. In the current study, we evaluated the role of dehydration as a possible precipitator of fasting headache. The effects of a 25-hour fast of the Jewish Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) were studied in women who participated in our previous Yom Kippur study. We asked the subjects to weigh themselves at the beginning and at the end of the Yom Kippur fast, assuming that the weight loss would largely reflect dehydration. In all but 1 of the 56 participants, the fast resulted in weight loss but only 28 (50%) reported headache. The average weight loss was 1.4 +/- 0.8 kg in those who developed headache and 1.2 +/- 0.5 kg in those who did not. This small difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that dehydration, as reflected by acute weight loss, is an unlikely cause of headache during a single day of fasting. The mechanism of fasting headache remains unclear.

  14. Executive functions predict weight loss in a medically supervised weight loss programme.

    PubMed

    Galioto, R; Bond, D; Gunstad, J; Pera, V; Rathier, L; Tremont, G

    2016-12-01

    Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Twenty-three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8.8, 68% female, 92% White) enrolled in a medically supervised weight loss programme, involving prescription of a very low calorie diet and strategies to change eating and activity behaviours, underwent comprehensive computerized testing of executive functions at baseline. Weight was obtained at baseline and 8 weeks. Demographic and clinical information were obtained through medical chart review. Participants lost an average of 9.8 ± 3.4% of their initial body weight at 8 weeks. Fewer correct responses on a set-shifting task and faster reaction time on a response inhibition task were associated with lower weight loss percentage at 8 weeks after adjusting for age, education and depressive symptoms. There were no associations between performance on tests of working memory or planning and weight loss. This study shows that worse performance on a set-shifting task (indicative of poorer cognitive flexibility) and faster reaction times on a response inhibition test (indicative of higher impulsivity) are associated with lower weight loss among participants in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Pre-treatment assessment of executive functions may be useful in identifying individuals who may be at risk for suboptimal treatment outcomes. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in larger samples and identify underlying mechanisms.

  15. Executive functions predict weight loss in a medically supervised weight loss programme

    PubMed Central

    Bond, D.; Gunstad, J.; Pera, V.; Rathier, L.; Tremont, G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Methods Twenty‐three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8.8, 68% female, 92% White) enrolled in a medically supervised weight loss programme, involving prescription of a very low calorie diet and strategies to change eating and activity behaviours, underwent comprehensive computerized testing of executive functions at baseline. Weight was obtained at baseline and 8 weeks. Demographic and clinical information were obtained through medical chart review. Results Participants lost an average of 9.8 ± 3.4% of their initial body weight at 8 weeks. Fewer correct responses on a set‐shifting task and faster reaction time on a response inhibition task were associated with lower weight loss percentage at 8 weeks after adjusting for age, education and depressive symptoms. There were no associations between performance on tests of working memory or planning and weight loss. Conclusions This study shows that worse performance on a set‐shifting task (indicative of poorer cognitive flexibility) and faster reaction times on a response inhibition test (indicative of higher impulsivity) are associated with lower weight loss among participants in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Pre‐treatment assessment of executive functions may be useful in identifying individuals who may be at risk for suboptimal treatment outcomes. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in larger samples and identify underlying mechanisms. PMID:28090338

  16. Global warming: is weight loss a solution?

    PubMed

    Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C

    2012-03-01

    The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.

  17. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  18. Gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Ugalde-Morales, Emilio; Motola-Kuba, Daniel; Green, Dan

    2013-03-14

    Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy have a high risk of malnutrition secondary to the disease and treatment, and 40-80 % of cancer patients suffer from different degrees of malnutrition, depending on tumour subtype, location, staging and treatment strategy. Malnutrition in cancer patients affects the patient's overall condition, and it increases the number of complications, the adverse effects of chemotherapy and reduces the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate weight-loss prevalence depending on the tumour site and the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy. We included 191 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Files of all patients were reviewed to identify symptoms that might potentially influence weight loss. The nutritional status of all patients was also determined. The cancer sites in the patients were as follows: breast (31·9 %); non-colorectal GI (18·3 %); colorectal (10·4 %); lung (5·8 %); haematological (13·1 %); others (20·5 %). Of these patients, 58 % experienced some degree of weight loss, and its prevalence was higher among the non-colorectal GI and lung cancer patients. Common symptoms included nausea (59·6 %), anorexia (46 %) and constipation (31·9 %). A higher proportion of patients with ≥ 5 % weight loss experienced anorexia, nausea and vomiting (OR 9·5, 2·15 and 6·1, respectively). In conclusion, these results indicate that GI symptoms can influence weight loss in cancer patients, and they should be included in early nutritional evaluations.

  19. Neighborhood factors and six-month weight change among overweight individuals in a weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Dara D; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Goode, Rachel; Zheng, Yaguang; Imes, Christopher C; Fabio, Anthony; Duell, Jessica; Burke, Lora E

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the neighborhood environment and the association with weight change among overweight/obese individuals in the first six months of a 12-month weight loss intervention, EMPOWER, from 2011 to 2015. Measures of the neighborhood environment included neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood income, and neighborhood food retail stores density (e.g., grocery stores). Weight was measured at baseline and 6 months and calculated as the percent weight change from baseline to 6 months. The analytic sample (N = 127) was 91% female and 81% white with a mean age of 51 (± 10.4) years. At 6 months, the mean weight loss was 8.0 kg (± 5.7), which was equivalent to 8.8% (± 6%) of baseline weight. Participants living in neighborhoods in which 25-75% of the residents identified as black had the greatest percentage of weight loss compared to those living in neighborhoods with < 25% or > 75% black residents. No other neighborhood measures were associated with weight loss. Future studies testing individual-level behavioral weight loss interventions need to consider the influence of neighborhood factors, and how neighborhood-level interventions could be enhanced with individual-level interventions that address behaviors and lifestyle changes.

  20. Expectations for weight loss and willingness to accept risk among patients seeking weight loss surgery.

    PubMed

    Wee, Christina C; Hamel, Mary Beth; Apovian, Caroline M; Blackburn, George L; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Colten, Mary Ellen; Hess, Donald T; Huskey, Karen W; Marcantonio, Edward R; Schneider, Benjamin E; Jones, Daniel B

    2013-03-01

    Weight loss surgery (WLS) has been shown to produce long-term weight loss but is not risk free or universally effective. The weight loss expectations and willingness to undergo perioperative risk among patients seeking WLS remain unknown. To examine the expectations and motivations of WLS patients and the mortality risks they are willing to undertake and to explore the demographic characteristics, clinical factors, and patient perceptions associated with high weight loss expectations and willingness to assume high surgical risk. We interviewed patients seeking WLS and conducted multivariable analyses to examine the characteristics associated with high weight loss expectations and the acceptance of mortality risks of 10% or higher. Two WLS centers in Boston. Six hundred fifty-four patients. Disappointment with a sustained weight loss of 20% and willingness to accept a mortality risk of 10% or higher with WLS. On average, patients expected to lose as much as 38% of their weight after WLS and expressed disappointment if they did not lose at least 26%. Most patients (84.8%) accepted some risk of dying to undergo WLS, but only 57.5% were willing to undergo a hypothetical treatment that produced a 20% weight loss. The mean acceptable mortality risk to undergo WLS was 6.7%, but the median risk was only 0.1%; 19.5% of all patients were willing to accept a risk of at least 10%. Women were more likely than men to be disappointed with a 20% weight loss but were less likely to accept high mortality risk. After initial adjustment, white patients appeared more likely than African American patients to have high weight loss expectations and to be willing to accept high risk. Patients with lower quality-of-life scores and those who perceived needing to lose more than 10% and 20% of weight to achieve "any" health benefits were more likely to have unrealistic weight loss expectations. Low quality-of-life scores were also associated with willingness to accept high risk. Most patients

  1. Expectations for Weight Loss and Willingness to Accept Risk Among Patients Seeking Weight Loss Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Christina C.; Hamel, Mary Beth; Apovian, Caroline M.; Blackburn, George L.; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Colten, Mary Ellen; Hess, Donald T.; Huskey, Karen W.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Schneider, Benjamin E.; Jones, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Weight loss surgery (WLS) has been shown to produce long-term weight loss but is not risk free or universally effective. The weight loss expectations and willingness to undergo perioperative risk among patients seeking WLS remain unknown. Objectives To examine the expectations and motivations of WLS patients and the mortality risks they are willing to undertake and to explore the demographic characteristics, clinical factors, and patient perceptions associated with high weight loss expectations and willingness to assume high surgical risk. Design We interviewed patients seeking WLS and conducted multivariable analyses to examine the characteristics associated with high weight loss expectations and the acceptance of mortality risks of 10% or higher. Setting Two WLS centers in Boston. Participants Six hundred fifty-four patients. Main Outcome Measures Disappointment with a sustained weight loss of 20% and willingness to accept a mortality risk of 10% or higher with WLS. Results On average, patients expected to lose as much as 38% of their weight after WLS and expressed disappointment if they did not lose at least 26%. Most patients (84.8%) accepted some risk of dying to undergo WLS, but only 57.5% were willing to undergo a hypothetical treatment that produced a 20% weight loss. The mean acceptable mortality risk to undergo WLS was 6.7%, but the median risk was only 0.1%; 19.5% of all patients were willing to accept a risk of at least 10%. Women were more likely than men to be disappointed with a 20% weight loss but were less likely to accept high mortality risk. After initial adjustment, white patients appeared more likely than African American patients to have high weight loss expectations and to be willing to accept high risk. Patients with lower quality-of-life scores and those who perceived needing to lose more than 10% and 20% of weight to achieve “any” health benefits were more likely to have unrealistic weight loss expectations. Low quality

  2. Factors Associated with Attrition in Weight Loss Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grave, Riccardo Dalle; Suppini, Alessandro; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio

    2006-01-01

    Attrition in weight loss programs is a complex process, influenced by patients' pretreatment characteristics and treatment variables, but available data are contradictory. Only a few variables have been confirmed by more than one study as relevant risk factors, but recently new data of clinical utility emerged from "real world" large observational…

  3. Weight loss interventions for chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Folasade B; Young, Taryn

    2012-07-11

    Asthma and obesity are both public health problems with increasing prevalence globally. Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between asthma and obesity, however there is no good quality evidence on the effect of weight loss on asthma control. To assess the effect of various interventions for weight loss on measures of asthma control and weight loss amongst overweight or obese patients with chronic asthma. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialized Register of Trials (CAGR) (derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and PsycINFO, and handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts). We also searched ongoing trials web sites and dissertation databases up to March 2012. We contacted experts in the field and searched reference lists for additional studies. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of weight loss interventions for overweight or obese participants with asthma compared to either no intervention for weight loss or an alternative weight loss intervention. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data using a data extraction form. We did not undertake any meta-analysis as there were no suitable data to combine. We included four completed studies conducted amongst adults (n = 197). Two were published as abstracts, and two as full articles. Interventions included supervised physical activity, low calorie diet and anti-obesity drugs (singly or in combination), and were compared to usual care (two studies), low calorie diet (one study), while one study had three intervention arms (physical activity versus low calorie diet versus a combination of the two). Two studies were conducted in high-income countries, while two were conducted in upper, middle-income countries.All studies had an unclear risk of selection and a high risk of

  4. Weight loss and retention in a commercial weight loss program and the effect of corporate partnership

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Talamini, Lisa; Johnson, Andrea; Hymel, Alicia M.; Khavjou, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Background No studies report if improvements to commercial weight loss programs affect retention and weight loss. Similarly, no studies report if enrolling in a program through work (with a corporate partner) affects retention and weight loss. Objectives To determine if: 1) adding evidenced-based improvements to a commercial weight loss program increased retention and weight loss, 2) enrolling in a program through work increased retention and weight loss, and 3) if increased weight loss was due to longer retention. Design, Setting, and Participants Data were collected on 60,164 adults who enrolled in Jenny Craig’s Platinum Program over one year in 2001–2002. The program was subsequently renamed the Rewards Program and improved by increasing treatment personalization and including motivational interviewing. Data were then collected on 81,505 Rewards participants who enrolled during 2005 (2,418 of these participants enrolled through their employer, but paid out-of-pocket). Measurements Retention (participants were considered active until ≥42 consecutive days were missed) and weight loss (percent of original body weight) from baseline to the last visit (data were evaluated through week 52). Results Alpha was set at .001. Mean (95% CI) retention (weeks), was significantly higher among Rewards [19.5 (19.4–19.6)] compared to Platinum [16.3 (16.2–16.4)] participants, and Rewards Corporate [25.9 (25.0–26.8)] compared to Non-corporate [21.9 (21.7–22.1)] participants. Modified intent-to-treat analyses indicated that mean (95% CI) percent weight loss was significantly larger among Rewards [6.36 (6.32–6.40)] compared to Platinum [5.45 (5.41–5.49)] participants, and Rewards Corporate [7.16 (6.92–7.40)] compared to Non-corporate [6.20 (6.16–6.24)] participants, with and without adjustment for baseline participant characteristics. In all cases, greater weight loss was secondary to longer retention. Limitations The study was not a randomized controlled trial

  5. Does bone loss begin after weight loss ends? Results 2 years after weight loss or regain in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Von Thun, Nancy L; Sukumar, Deeptha; Heymsfield, Steven B; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-05-01

    Short-term weight loss is accompanied by bone loss in postmenopausal women. The longer-term impact of weight loss on bone in reduced overweight/obese women compared with women who regained their weight was examined in this study using a case-control design. Postmenopausal women (N = 42; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [2.8] kg/m; mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.5] y) were recruited 2 years after the start of a 6-month weight loss trial; those who maintained their weight (weight loss maintainer [WL-M] group) were matched to a cohort of women who regained their weight (weight loss regainer [WL-R] group). Serum hormones and bone markers were measured in a subset. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, spine, radius, and total body, and soft-tissue composition were taken at baseline, 0.5 years, and 2 years. During weight loss, both groups lost 9.3% (3.4%) of body weight, with no significant difference between the groups. After weight loss, weight change was -0.1% (2.7%) and 6.0% (3.3%) in the WL-M (n = 22) and WL-R (n = 20) groups, respectively. After 2 years, both groups lost BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter (P ≤ 0.01), whereas only the WL-M group reduced BMD at the 1/3 radius (P < 0.001). There was greater BMD loss at the trochanter (-6.8% [5.7%]) and 1/3 radius (-4.5% [3.3%]) in the WL-M group compared with the WL-R group after 2 years. Multiple linear regression showed that change in leg fat mass (but not trunk fat) contributed to trochanter BMD loss (P < 0.05). After 2 years, there is no BMD recovery of weight reduction-induced bone loss, irrespective of weight regain. These data suggest that the period after weight loss may be an important point in time to prevent bone loss for those who maintain weight and those who regain weight.

  6. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary data linking testosterone therapy in overweight and obese men with testosterone deficiency to increased lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvement in overall body composition and sustained weight loss. This is of paramount importance because testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency represents a novel and a timely therapeutic strategy for managing obesity in men with testosterone deficiency. Recent findings Long-term testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency produces significant and sustained weight loss, marked reduction in waist circumference and BMI and improvement in body composition. Further, testosterone therapy ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. The aforementioned improvements are attributed to improved mitochondrial function, increased energy utilization, increased motivation and vigor resulting in improved cardio-metabolic function and enhanced physical activity. Summary The implication of testosterone therapy in management of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency is of paramount clinical significance, as it produces sustained weight loss without recidivism. On the contrary, alternative therapeutic approaches other than bariatric surgery failed to produce significant and sustained outcome and exhibit a high rate of recidivism. These findings represent strong foundations for testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency and should spur clinical research for better understanding of usefulness of testosterone therapy in treatment of underlying pathophysiological conditions of obesity. PMID:25105998

  7. Does Spirituality Predict Weight Loss In A Behavioral Weight Loss Program?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    body mass” (CDC, 2002; Stunkard & Wadden, 1993, p. 14). Excess body fat can be assessed by a variety of methods including skinfold thickness ...African American women. SPIRITUALITY AND WEIGHT LOSS 6 Table of Contents Abstract...45 Tables & Figures

  8. Partner Facilitation and Partner Interference in Individuals' Weight Loss Goals.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Jennifer A; Carpenter, Amanda M; Leustek, John

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on the logic of the relational turbulence model, this study examined the ways in which romantic partners facilitate and interfere with individuals' weight loss goals. Participants (N = 122) described the ways in which their romantic partner had recently helped or hindered their weight loss at four times over the course of 2 months. We conducted a content analysis of responses to identify themes of partner facilitation (Research Question 1 [RQ1]) and partner interference (RQ2) in individuals' weight loss goals. Results revealed seven themes of partner facilitation: (a) partner enabling diet, (b) motivation and encouragement, (c) emotional support and positive reinforcement, (d) exercising together, (e) partner enabling exercise, (f) dieting together, and (g) relationship influence and priorities. Four themes of partner interference emerged in the data: (a) inability to plan for healthy meals, (b) inability to control the food environment, (c) preventing or discouraging exercise, and (d) emotional or relational discouragement.

  9. Effect of weight loss on cellulite: gynoid lypodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Smalls, Lola K; Hicks, Matthew; Passeretti, David; Gersin, Keith; Kitzmiller, W John; Bakhsh, Adel; Wickett, R Randall; Whitestone, Jennifer; Visscher, Marty O

    2006-08-01

    Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) affects most women, and many seek plastic surgery consultation to improve appearance. Various products are offered, but the literature on the cause and treatment is limited. Understanding the biological and biophysical factors that affect severity may facilitate the development of effective therapies. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people who have lost significant weight as a result of bariatric surgery or medically supervised weight programs. The effect of weight loss on cellulite severity has not been systematically studied and remains a common patient concern. The authors hypothesized that cellulite severity would decrease with weight loss and subsequent decrease in subcutaneous fat in most subjects. The authors examined the cellulite changes in female subjects who were enrolled in medically supervised weight loss programs using quantitative surface roughness by three-dimensional laser surface scanning, tissue composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, dermal-subcutaneous structure with three-dimensional ultrasound, and tissue elasticity with biomechanical measurements. The majority of subjects had an improvement in cellulite with weight loss, but the condition worsened for others. Improvement was associated with significant reductions in weight and percentage of thigh fat, significantly higher starting body mass index, and significantly greater initial severity. Cellulite worsened with a significantly smaller starting body mass index, smaller reductions in weight accompanied by no change in percentage of thigh fat, and significant increases in tissue compliance. Cellulite is a complex condition, and treatments such as weight loss have variable effects on the improvement or worsening of this condition. Additional studies are required to understand how the factors that influence and modulate cellulite severity, particularly those at the level of the subcutaneous tissue septa, can be manipulated to

  10. Measuring social support for weight loss in an internet weight loss community.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kevin O; Ottenbacher, Allison J; Lucke, Joseph F; Etchegaray, Jason M; Graham, Amanda L; Thomas, Eric J; Bernstam, Elmer V

    2011-02-01

    Although overweight and obese individuals are turning to Internet communities for social support for weight loss, there is no validated online instrument for measuring the subjective social support experiences of participants in these communities. The authors' objective was to determine whether an online version of a validated paper questionnaire, the Weight Management Support Inventory, is appropriate for measuring social support among members of Internet weight loss communities. The authors administered the paper and online versions of the questionnaire in random, counterbalanced fashion to 199 members of a large Internet weight loss community. Scores for the paper and online versions were comparable in between-subjects and within-subjects comparisons. Convergent validity is suggested by the finding that participants who posted messages on Internet forums several times per day reported more social support than those who posted less frequently. However, the instrumental (tangible) support items did not load significantly on the instrumental support factor, suggesting that instrumental support is not relevant to the social support exchanged among participants in these communities. The authors conclude that the online, modified Weight Management Support Inventory, without items for instrumental support, is an appropriate instrument for measuring social support for weight loss among members of Internet weight loss communities.

  11. Vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss is positively correlated with weight and fat loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. Objective: The object...

  12. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. The objective was to determine if...

  13. Up to 7 Years of Sustained Weight Loss for Weight Loss Program Completers

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nia S.; Polsky, Sarit; Catenacci, Victoria A.; Furniss, Anna L.; Prochazka, Allan V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two issues remain elusive in weight management programs: significant, long-term weight loss maintenance and widely accessible programs that produce significant weight loss for reasonable costs. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term weight loss of participants who consecutively renew their annual membership in Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), a national, nonprofit, low-cost, peer-led weight loss program. Methods This completers’ analysis was a retrospective cohort study of overweight and obese men and women who joined TOPS in 2005–2011 and consecutively renewed their annual membership at least once. Data were analyzed from June to October 2013. TOPS participants’ weights are sent to the national database when they join and at the time of their annual renewal, thus follow-up weight is only available for those who renew their membership. Among 207,469 individuals who joined during the study period, 74,629 (35.9%) had at least one consecutive annual renewal and were included in the study. Results Cumulative mean (95% CI) weight change as a percentage of initial weight ranged from −6.0% (−6.0%, −5.9%) for 74,629 participants who renewed at 1 year to −8.3% (−8.7%, −7.8%) for 2,289 participants with 7 years of consecutive annual renewal. Conclusions In the subset of individuals who choose to renew their program membership, TOPS can effectively promote maintenance of clinically significant weight loss for an extended period of time. RCTs are needed to further evaluate this low-cost, widely available program, which could be a viable option to treat overweight and obesity. PMID:26033350

  14. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  15. A randomized trial comparing two approaches to weight loss: Differences in weight loss maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Oehlhof, Marissa W; Hinman, Nova; LeRoy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Ashrafioun, Lee; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Darby, Lynn A; Gumble, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This study compared treatment outcomes for a new weight loss program that emphasized reducing unhealthy relationships with food, body image dissatisfaction, and internalized weight bias (New Perspectives) to a weight loss program that emphasizes environmental modification and habit formation and disruption (Transforming Your Life). Fifty-nine overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to either a 12-week New Perspectives or Transforming Your Life intervention. Despite equivalent outcomes at the end of treatment, the Transforming Your Life participants were significantly more effective at maintaining their weight loss than New Perspectives participants during the 6-month no-treatment follow-up period. PMID:23349402

  16. Weighty dynamics: exploring couples' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction.

    PubMed

    Romo, Lynsey Kluever; Dailey, René M

    2014-01-01

    Although romantic couples can use communication to help one another lose weight and maintain weight loss, the effect of weight loss on partner interaction is less understood. However, an examination of the interpersonal context in which partners manage their weight is important to help partners negotiate their weight, their relationship, and the U.S. obesity epidemic. Guided by systems theory, this study explored partners' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction in relationships in which one partner lost weight and the other did not. Through qualitative questionnaires of 42 adults (21 romantic couples), the dyadic investigation revealed that while losing weight resulted in positive interaction for many partners (e.g., engaging in a shared healthy lifestyle), shedding weight also yielded some negative consequences (e.g., non-weight-loss partner criticism). The extent to which partners embraced new weight management rules and patterns largely influenced post-weight-loss communication and behavior.

  17. Updates in weight loss surgery and gastrointestinal peptides.

    PubMed

    Svane, Maria Saur; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine Nyvold; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-02-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy are referred to as 'metabolic surgery' due to hormonal shifts with impacts on diabetes remission and weight loss. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings in mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of weight loss surgery. Importantly, gut hormone secretion is altered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy due to accelerated transit of nutrients to distal parts of the small intestine, leading to excessive release of L-cell peptide hormones [e.g. glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY].Improved glucose metabolism after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy involves several mechanisms: early increased hepatic insulin sensitivity, resulting from reduced liver fat content in response to the postoperative caloric restriction, improved beta-cell function mediated by exaggerated postprandial GLP-1 secretion; as demonstrated by relapse of impaired glucose tolerance in studies blocking the GLP-1 receptor by exendin 9-39, and later after major weight loss increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Gut hormone secretion changes towards a more anorectic profile and is likely important for less caloric intake and weight loss. Changes in gut hormone secretion after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy surgery induce the beneficial effects on weight and glycemic control through the influence on appetite regulation and insulin secretion.

  18. Greater weight loss among men participating in a commercial weight loss program: a pooled analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barraj, Leila M; Murphy, Mary M; Heshka, Stanley; Katz, David L

    2014-02-01

    Being overweight and obese are significant health concerns for men and women, yet despite comparable needs for effective weight loss and maintenance strategies, little is known about the success of commercial weight loss programs in men. This study tests the hypothesis that men participating in a commercial weight loss program (Weight Watchers) had significantly greater weight loss than men receiving limited support from health professionals for weight loss (controls). A pooled analysis of weight loss and related physiologic parameter data from 2 randomized clinical trials was conducted. After 12 months, analysis of covariance tests showed that men in the commercial program group (n = 85) lost significantly more weight (P < .01) than men in the control group (n = 84); similar significant differences were observed for body mass index and waist circumference. These results suggest that participation in a commercial weight loss program may be a more effective means to lose weight and maintain weight loss.

  19. Friendship clique and peer influences on body image concerns, dietary restraint, extreme weight-loss behaviors, and binge eating in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Paxton, S J; Schutz, H K; Wertheim, E H; Muir, S L

    1999-05-01

    This study explored friendship variables in relation to body image, dietary restraint, extreme weight-loss behaviors (EWEBs), and binge eating in adolescent girls. From 523 girls, 79 friendship cliques were identified using social network analysis. Participants completed questionnaires that assessed body image concerns, eating, friendship relations, and psychological family, and media variables. Similarity was greater for within than for between friendship cliques for body image concerns, dietary restraint, and EWLBs, but not for binge eating. Cliques high in body image concerns and dieting manifested these concerns in ways consistent with a high weight/shape-preoccupied subculture. Friendship attitudes contributed significantly to the prediction of individual body image concern and eating behaviors. Use of EWLBs by friends predicted an individual's own level of use.

  20. Lower weight loss expectations and healthier eating attitudes in older overweight and obese women attempting weight loss.

    PubMed

    Evans, E H; Boothroyd, L G; Muscariello, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Colantuoni, A; Siervo, M

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals may be influenced by individual weight loss expectations (WLEs). Research on these phenomena in older women is lacking. This cross-sectional study compared groups of younger and older women on their WLEs and related attitudes (body dissatisfaction and disordered eating). Twenty-six younger (18-38 years) and 33 older (60-78 years) overweight and obese women were recruited from a weight loss clinic, prior to treatment. Disordered eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction were assessed using validated questionnaires and a pictorial figure-choice scale. Participants reported 10 WLEs categorized according to personal, lifestyle and social factors. Overall, women with a higher body mass index had greater WLEs. Older women reported lower WLEs than younger women (-14.5 kg vs. -22.4 kg) in all categories except past weight. Older women perceived that career success would necessitate the greatest level of weight loss (-18.5 kg), whereas younger women derived their greatest WLEs from mass media (-28.5 kg). Both older and younger groups perceived that their families would be supportive of the smallest amount of weight loss (-8.4 and -17.6 kg, respectively). The groups did not differ on body dissatisfaction, but younger women's disordered eating attitudes were significantly higher (p < .001). Older overweight and obese women have lower WLEs than younger women but experience similar levels of body dissatisfaction and healthier eating attitudes. The attitudinal constructs underlying these differences may be useful in clinical practice to tailor age-specific weight loss interventions. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. Delay discounting and utility for money or weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Y. Y.; Slaven, E. M.; Bickel, W. K.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective Obesity is related to a bias towards smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. This bias is typically examined by studying single commodity discounting. However, weight loss often involves choices among multiple commodities. To our knowledge, no research has examined delay discounting of delayed weight loss compared with other commodities. Methods We examined single commodity discounting of money and cross commodity discounting of money and weight loss in a sample of 84 adults with obesity or overweight statuses interested in weight loss. The exchange rate between money and weight loss was calculated, and participants completed two delay discounting tasks: money now versus money later and money now versus weight loss later. Results Participants discounted weight loss more than money (p < 0.001). When participants were divided into those who preferred weight loss (n = 61) versus money (n = 23), those who preferred money over weight loss discounted weight loss even more than individuals that preferred weight loss (p = 0.003). Conclusions Greater discounting of weight loss for those who preferred money suggest that idiosyncratic preferences are related to multiple commodity discounting, and greater discounting of weight loss across all participants provide insight on important challenges for weight control. PMID:28392932

  2. Delay discounting and utility for money or weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sze, Y Y; Slaven, E M; Bickel, W K; Epstein, L H

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is related to a bias towards smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. This bias is typically examined by studying single commodity discounting. However, weight loss often involves choices among multiple commodities. To our knowledge, no research has examined delay discounting of delayed weight loss compared with other commodities. We examined single commodity discounting of money and cross commodity discounting of money and weight loss in a sample of 84 adults with obesity or overweight statuses interested in weight loss. The exchange rate between money and weight loss was calculated, and participants completed two delay discounting tasks: money now versus money later and money now versus weight loss later. Participants discounted weight loss more than money (p < 0.001). When participants were divided into those who preferred weight loss (n = 61) versus money (n = 23), those who preferred money over weight loss discounted weight loss even more than individuals that preferred weight loss (p = 0.003). Greater discounting of weight loss for those who preferred money suggest that idiosyncratic preferences are related to multiple commodity discounting, and greater discounting of weight loss across all participants provide insight on important challenges for weight control.

  3. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2010-03-25

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fat mass and abdominal fat mass in particular. It is also recognized that obesity and abdominal obesity in particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise interventions.

  4. Perceptions relating to body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions in black South African women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-02-01

    A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.

  5. Weight loss and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa in rats after massive intestinal resection: influence of a glutamine-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidney Resende; Pinto, Paulo Engler; de Miranda, Ariney Costa; Bromberg, Sansom Henrique; Lopasso, Fábio Pinatel; Irya, Kiyoshi

    2004-12-01

    Short-bowel syndrome is responsible for significant metabolic alterations that compromise nutritional status. Glutamine is considered an essential nutrient for enterocytes, so beneficial effects from supplementation of the diet with glutamine are hypothesized. In this study, the effect of a diet enriched with glutamine was evaluated in rats undergoing extensive small bowel resection, with analysis of postoperative weight loss and intestinal morphometrics of villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the duodenal and remnant jejunal mucosa. Three groups of male Wistar rats were established receiving the following diets: with glutamine, without glutamine, and the standard diet of laboratory ration. All animals underwent an extensive small bowel resection, including the ileocecal valve, leaving a remnant jejunum of only 25 cm from the pylorus that was anastomosed lateral-laterally to the ascendant colon. The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment (20th postoperative day). Then they were killed and the remnant intestine was removed. Fragments of duodenal and jejunal mucosa were collected from the remnant intestine and submitted to histopathologic exam. The morphometric study of the intestinal mucosa was accomplished using a digital system (KS 300) connected to an optic microscope. Morphometrics included villi height, crypt depth, and the total thickness of intestinal mucosa. The weight loss comparison among the 3 groups showed no significant loss difference. The morphometric studies showed significantly taller duodenal villi in the glutamine group in comparison to the without glutamine group, but not different from the standard diet group. The measurements obtained comparing the 3 groups for villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the remnant jejunum mucosa were greater in the glutamine-enriched diet group than for the without-glutamine diet group, though not significantly different from with standard-diet group. In rats with

  6. Protein diets, body weight loss and weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-01-01

    The review addresses briefly the relevance of protein diets for body weight loss and weight maintenance. The addition of recent findings on age-dependent protein requirements, specific effects of protein intake and protein source, the relevance of the other dietary macronutrients, especially of 'low-carb', 'protein leverage', the mechanisms of protein-induced satiety, and food-reward makes the review up-to-date. Different effects of protein diets in different age groups result from age-dependent protein requirements that are primarily related to effects on body composition. A protein intake of 0.8 g/kg/day is sufficient to sustain a negative energy balance in adults, irrespective of the protein source. 'Low-carb' diets trace back to the protein-induced effects. Evidence that protein intake drives energy intake as suggested by the 'Protein leverage hypothesis' is scarce and equivocal. Finally, limited protein-induced food reward may affect compliance to a protein diet. An implication of the findings for clinical practice is that a protein intake of 0.8-1.2 g/kg/day is sufficient to sustain satiety, energy expenditure, and fat-free mass, independent of a dietary 'low-carb' content. Limited protein-induced food reward may affect compliance to a protein diet.

  7. Predictors for selection of insurance-funded weight loss approaches in individuals with severe obesity

    PubMed Central

    Matthews-Ewald, Molly R.; Myers, Valerie H.; Newton, Robert L.; Beyl, Robbie; Waldo, Krystal; Dufour, Cody M.; Donato, Sheletta G.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Church, Timothy; Ryan, Donna H.; Brantley, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there are differences in baseline psychological and behavioral characteristics between individuals with severe obesity who chose a surgical or nonsurgical intervention for weight loss. Design and Methods The current study utilized data from a larger study funded by a state insurance company and is unique in that the insurance company funded the weight loss interventions. Participants indicated their preferred method of weight loss, and completed several self-report psychological questionnaires, as well as demographic information. Results Participants (N=605) were 58.8% Caucasian and mostly (86%) female. Logistic regression results indicated that an increased number of weight loss attempts, and select other measures of eating behavior and quality of life may influence individuals’ selection for either surgical or nonsurgical treatments for weight loss. Conclusions Practitioners should pay particular attention to these baseline characteristics that influence choice to examine potential characteristics that may influence the success of these weight loss treatments. PMID:25959516

  8. Weight Loss May Ease Psoriasis Symptoms, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162876.html Weight Loss May Ease Psoriasis Symptoms, Study Finds Quality-of-life boost seen ... 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Could weight loss combat psoriasis? Danish researchers are reporting that obese people with ...

  9. Could a Weight-Loss Surgery Lead to Alcohol Abuse?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Could a Weight-Loss Surgery Lead to Alcohol Abuse? Patients who undergo Roux-en-Y gastric ... weight-loss surgery developed a problem such as alcohol abuse or alcoholism, compared with around 11 percent ...

  10. Loss of control eating with and without the undue influence of weight or shape on self-evaluation: evidence from an adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Carmel; Mond, Jonathan; Bentley, Caroline; Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Rieger, Elizabeth; Rodgers, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The overvaluation of weight and/or shape ("overvaluation"), a diagnostic criterion for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, is increasingly supported for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition (DSM-5) criteria of binge eating disorder (BED). However, current evidence has been largely confined to adult populations. The current study aims to examine the status of overvaluation among adolescents with loss of control (LOC) eating recruited from a large, population-based sample. Subgroups of female adolescents - LOC eating with overvaluation (n = 30); LOC eating without overvaluation (n = 58); obese no LOC eating ("obese control") (n = 36); and "normal-weight control" (normal-weight, no LOC eating) (n = 439) - recruited from secondary schools within the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) were compared on measures of eating disorder psychopathology, general psychological distress and quality of life. Participants in the LOC eating with overvaluation subgroup reported significantly higher levels of eating disorder psychopathology than all other groups, while levels did not differ between participants in the LOC eating without overvaluation and obese control subgroups. On measures of distress and quality of life there were no significant differences between LOC eating with and without overvaluation subgroups. Both reported significantly greater distress and quality of life impairment than normal-weight controls. LOC eating with overvaluation participants had significantly higher levels of distress and quality of life impairment than obese controls, whereas scores on these measures did not differ between LOC eating without overvaluation and obese control subgroups. The results suggest that the presence of overvaluation among adolescents with LOC eating indicates a more severe disorder in terms of eating disorder psychopathology, however may not indicate distress and disability as clearly as it does among adults

  11. [Weight maintenance after weight loss - how the body defends its weight].

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, C; Hauner, H

    2011-01-01

    Mean weight loss of most conservative therapeutic weight loss programmes is about five to six kilograms after one year. In our "obesogenic" environment it is difficult for persons to maintain the new weight. Also continuation of the programme cannot prevent a moderate weight increase in the follow-up year. The reasons for this are not clear: individual lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors may play a role, but also the complex regulatory system of the body "to defend its weight". Nevertheless, for weight maintenance a lifelong change of lifestyle is of critical importance. Concerning nutrition a fat-reduced diet with a decrease of energy density together with regular eating habits and adequate portion size promises the greatest benefit and is likely to allow sufficient satiety. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Determinants of weight loss success with alternate day fasting.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Hoddy, Kristin K; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Trepanowski, John F; Klempel, Monica C; Barnosky, Adrienne; Bhutani, Surabhi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined what characteristics predict weight loss success with alternate day fasting (ADF). Four 8-week trials of ADF (n=121) were included in the analysis. Subjects aged 50-59 y achieved greater (P=0.01) weight loss than other age groups. Males and females achieved similar weight loss. Caucasian subjects achieved greater (P=0.03) weight loss than other races. Baseline body weight and baseline BMI did not predict degree of weight loss achieved with the diet. These findings may help clinicians to decide which population groups may benefit most from an ADF approach.

  13. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  14. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  15. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dyck, D J

    2000-12-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  16. Eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss in a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The eating behaviors restraint and disinhibition have been suggested to predict weight loss (WL) but there is no information on whether these predictors are valid in worksite WL programs, which are increasingly being recommended for reducing the obesity epidemic. This study examined associations bet...

  17. Criteria for Evaluating the Success of Weight Loss Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Outlines six components that can be used as evaluation criteria for weight loss programs: (1) weight loss; (2) maintenance of weight loss; (3) self-efficacy; (4) behavior modification; (5) attrition; and (6) exercise. Indicates that the program that satisfies requirements of all six categories has the best chance of success. (JOW)

  18. Predicting successful long-term weight loss from short-term weight-loss outcomes: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model (the POUNDS Lost study).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Diana M; Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A

    2015-03-01

    Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing <5% of body weight in 1 y. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curve (AUC), and thresholds were calculated for each model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve's capacity to classify participants likely to lose <5% of their body weight at the end of 1 y. The models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Weight loss strategies for treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most serious and prevalent non-communicable diseases of the 21st century. It is also a patient-centered condition in which affected individuals seek treatment through a variety of commercial, medical and surgical approaches. Considering obesity as a chronic medical disease state helps to frame the concept of using a three-stepped intensification of care approach to weight management. As a foundation, all patients should be counseled on evidence-based lifestyle approaches that include diet, physical activity and behavior change therapies. At the second tier, two new pharmacological agents, phentermine-topiramate and lorcaserin, were approved in 2012 as adjuncts to lifestyle modification. The third step, bariatric surgery, has been demonstrated to be the most effective and long-term treatment for individuals with severe obesity or moderate obesity complicated by comorbid conditions that is not responsive to non-surgical approaches. By using a medical model, clinicians can provide more proactive and effective treatments in assisting their patients with weight loss.

  20. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    PubMed Central

    Whigham, L D; Valentine, A R; Johnson, L K; Zhang, Z; Atkinson, R L; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Individuals who focused on calorie counting lost more weight than those who focused on increasing vegetable and fruit (V&F) intake in a weight loss program. We now present serum carotenoid data (biomarkers of V&F intake) from both groups and test whether these biomarkers correlate with changes in weight and body fat. Design: Sixty obese volunteers were randomized to one of the following weight loss programs: 500 kcal per day reduction (Reduction) or a focus on consuming eight vegetables per day and 2–3 fruits per day (HiVeg). Volunteers in the Reduction group were 36.8±10.3 years with a body mass index of 33.5; 83% were white, 17% chose not to report race; 70% were not Hispanic or Latino, 13% were Hispanic or Latino and 17% chose not to report ethnicity. Volunteers in the HiVeg group were 30.4±6.6 years with a body mass index of 33.2: 74% white, 11% Asian, 5% black or African American, 5% multiracial and 5% chose not to report race; 89% were not Hispanic or Latino, 5% were Hispanic or Latino and 5% chose not to report ethnicity. Subjects were taught basic nutrition principles, received breakfast and lunch 5 days per week for 3 months, meals 2 days per week during month 4, then regular phone calls to month 12. Results: Total serum carotenoid concentrations increased from baseline to 3 months and remained elevated at 12 months, but there was no difference between groups. Changes in weight, fat and % fat correlated negatively with serum carotenoid concentrations. Conclusion: Increased serum carotenoids (a biomarker for V&F intake) correlated with improved weight and fat loss indicating that increased V&F consumption is an appropriate strategy for weight loss. However, in light of the fact that the Reduction group lost more weight, the consumption of increased V&F for the purpose of weight loss should happen within the context of reducing total caloric intake. PMID:23449500

  1. The Role of Resistance Exercise in Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the role of weight training in weight loss, noting how weight training contributes to the creation of a negative energy balance and explaining how resistance exercise can cause an increase in fat oxidation, both acutely and chronically. Resistance exercise has an indirect impact on weight and fat loss through increasing resting metabolic…

  2. The Role of Resistance Exercise in Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the role of weight training in weight loss, noting how weight training contributes to the creation of a negative energy balance and explaining how resistance exercise can cause an increase in fat oxidation, both acutely and chronically. Resistance exercise has an indirect impact on weight and fat loss through increasing resting metabolic…

  3. Baseline anandamide levels and body weight impact the weight loss effect of CB1 receptor antagonism in male rats.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Karpefors, Martin; Hansson, Göran I; Carlsson, Björn

    2015-04-01

    The individual weight loss response to obesity treatment is diverse. Here we test the hypothesis that the weight loss response to the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is influenced by endogenous levels of receptor agonists. We show that baseline anandamide levels and body weight independently contribute to predict the treatment response to rimonabant in rodents, demonstrating that addition of biomarkers related to mode of action is relevant for a personalized health care approach to obesity treatment.

  4. Weight Loss Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Playdon, Mary; Thomas, Gwendolyn; Sanft, Tara; Harrigan, Maura; Ligibel, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of weight loss intervention for breast cancer survivors. From October 2012 until March 2013, Pubmed was searched for weight loss intervention trials that reported body weight or weight loss as a primary outcome. Fifteen of these studies are included in this review. Of the 15 studies included, 14 resulted in statistically significant weight loss and 10 obtained clinically meaningful weight loss of ≥5 % from baseline. Evidence was provided of the feasibility of using several methods of weight loss intervention (telephone, in person, individual, group). Successful intervention used a comprehensive approach, with dietary, physical activity, and behavior modification components. Weight loss improved cardiovascular risk factors and markers of glucose homeostasis. However, there is insufficient evidence to identify the components of this intervention that led to successful weight loss, or to determine the weight loss necessary to affect biomarkers linked to breast cancer prognosis. The small number of randomized controlled trials shared several limitations, including small study sample sizes and lack of follow-up beyond 6 months. Intervention with longer follow-up revealed weight regain, showing the importance of considering strategies to promote long-term weight maintenance. Weight loss intervention for breast cancer survivors can lead to statistically significant and clinically meaningful weight loss, but the limited number of interventional studies, small sample sizes, and short duration of follow-up in many studies limit our ability to draw conclusions regarding the most efficacious weight-loss intervention after a breast cancer diagnosis. The findings to date are encouraging, but research on the effect of weight loss on breast cancer recurrence and mortality, and on prevention of weight gain for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, is needed. PMID:26605003

  5. Weight-loss practices among university students in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dosamantes-Carrasco, Darina; Lamure, Michel; López-Loyo, Perla; Hernández-Palafox, Corín; Pineda-Pérez, Dayana; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of weight-loss practices among university students from Tlaxcala, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 2,651 university students was conducted. Logistic regression tests were used to estimate the probability of students trying to lose weight and successfully achieving weight loss. Results Nearly 40% of students attempted to lose weight, though only about 7% lost more than 10% of their body weight and maintained this weight loss during the time of the study. The methods used most were exercise and dieting, and those who dieted were more successful at losing weight. Conclusions The high prevalence of weight-loss attempts and the poor outcomes with these weight-loss methods among this sample of university students is a public health concern. Universities should provide students with healthy weight-control approaches, which include offering information about healthier lifestyles, access to healthy food and opportunities to be physically active. PMID:20013143

  6. Weight Loss in Patients with Dementia: Considering the Potential Impact of Pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Franx, Bart A A; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Gustafson, Deborah R

    2017-06-01

    Unintentional body weight loss is common in patients with dementia and is linked to cognitive impairment and poorer disease outcomes. It is proposed that some dementia medications with market approval, while aiming to improve cognitive and functional outcomes of a patient with dementia, are associated with reported body weight or body mass index loss. This review presents evidence in the published literature on body weight loss in dementia, describes selected theories behind body weight loss, evaluates the potential impact of approved dementia pharmacotherapies on body weight, considers the potential role for medical foods, understands the potential influence of treatments for neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs, and finally, summarizes this important area.

  7. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  8. Physiological weight loss in the breastfed neonate: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Noel-Weiss, Joy; Courant, Genevieve; Woodend, A Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Background Healthy, full-term, exclusively breastfed infants are expected to lose weight in the first days following birth. There are conflicting opinions about what constitutes a normal neonatal weight loss, and about when interventions such as supplemental feedings should be considered. Objective To establish the reference weight loss for the first 2 weeks following birth by conducting a systematic review of studies reporting birth weights of exclusively breastfed neonates. Methods We searched 5 electronic databases from June 2006 to June 2007: the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; MEDLINE (from 1950); CINAHL (from 1982); EMBASE (from 1980); and Ovid HealthSTAR (from 1999). We included primary research studies with weight loss data for healthy, full-term, exclusively breastfed neonates in the first 2 weeks following birth. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Definitions, types of measurements, and reporting styles varied among studies. In most studies, daily weights were not measured and measurements did not continue for 2 weeks. Mean weight loss ranged from 5.7% to 6.6%, with standard deviations around 2%. Median percentage weight loss ranged from 3.2 to 8.3, with the majority around 6%. The majority of infants in these 11 studies regained their birth weight within the first 2 weeks postpartum. The second and third days following birth appear to be the days of maximum weight loss. Discussion Methods used to report weight loss were inconsistent, using either an average of single lowest weights or a combination of weight losses. The 7% maximum allowable weight loss recommended in 4 clinical practice guidelines appears to be based on mean weight loss and does not account for standard deviation. Further research is needed to understand the causes of neonatal weight loss and its implications for morbidity and mortality. PMID:21602959

  9. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <30.0 kg/m2). The Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and the Body Image Assessment for Obesity silhouette charts were used to assess body dissatisfaction. WLEs were categorised according to personal (ideal, happiness, satisfaction, weight history), lifestyle (fitness) and social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P < 0.05). WLEs were directly associated with BMI and the obese group reported greater expectations. Five non-obese subjects (23%) desired to lose more than 20% of their body weight, whereas the proportion was significantly higher in the obese group (17 subjects; 74%). Subjects derived the greatest WLEs from mass media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Vegetarian and weight-loss diets among young adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, C F; Burke, L E; Wing, R R

    2000-03-01

    Young adults frequently experiment with vegetarian and weight-loss diets. Comparisons of their experiences on these two different diets may help in the development of approaches to improve long-term adherence to weight-loss regimens. In the current study vegetarian and weight-loss diets were compared on how long and how strictly they were followed, and reasons why they were initiated and discontinued. From 428 college students surveyed, four groups were delineated: 1) 59 participants had been following a vegetarian diet but not a weight-loss diet (Vegetarian), 2) 117 participants had tried a weight-loss diet but not a vegetarian diet (Weight Loss), 3) 133 participants had followed both a vegetarian and a weight-loss diet (Both), and 4) 119 participants had not tried either diet (Neither). Differences were examined by comparing the Vegetarian and Weight-Loss groups as well as by comparing the two diets within the Both group. Duration of the vegetarian diet was much greater than the weight-loss diet; most participants in the Vegetarian group (62%) remained on their diet for more than 1 year, whereas the majority of the Weight-Loss participants (61%) followed their diet for 1 to 3 months. Similar results were found when comparing the two diets within the Both group. How strictly the two diets were followed, however, did not differ. Analyses revealed that reasons for discontinuing a diet varied; participants were more likely to cite boredom as a reason for discontinuing a weight-loss diet than a vegetarian diet (53% vs. 5% between groups and 30% vs. 10% within the Both group). The longer duration of the vegetarian diet relative to the weight-loss diet warrants further investigation. Results could possibly be applied to behavioral weight-loss treatment to improve long-term maintenance.

  11. Personalized weight loss strategies-the role of macronutrient distribution.

    PubMed

    Martinez, J Alfredo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne

    2014-12-01

    A large number of different dietary approaches have been studied in an attempt to achieve healthy, sustainable weight loss among individuals with overweight and obesity. Restriction of energy intake is the primary method of producing a negative energy balance leading to weight loss. However, owing to the different metabolic roles of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in energy homeostasis, diets of similar overall energy content but with different macronutrient distribution can differentially affect metabolism, appetite and thermogenesis. Evidence increasingly suggests that the fuel values of calories provided by distinct macronutrients should be considered separately, as metabolism of specific molecular components generates differences in energy yield. The causes of variation in individual responses to various diets are currently under debate, and some evidence suggests that differences are associated with specific genotypes. This Review discusses all available systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and summarizes the results of relevant randomized controlled intervention trials assessing the influence of macronutrient composition on weight management. The initial findings of research into personalized nutrition, based on the interactions of macronutrient intake and genetic background and its potential influence on dietary intervention strategies, are also discussed.

  12. Guiding patients to safe weight loss.

    PubMed

    Fruh, Sharon M; Mulekar, Madhuri S; Dierking, Jennifer

    2013-10-10

    Many patients have questions about diets, and those adhering to specific diets need patient-tailored monitoring. Nurse practitioners are often called upon to advise, prescribe, and monitor specific weight-reduction and weight-control diets. This article provides guidelines for safe weight reduction and a review of some popular diets.

  13. Epigenetics in Adipose Tissue, Obesity, Weight Loss, and Diabetes12

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, J. Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I.; Claycombe, Kate J.; Schalinske, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them. PMID:24425725

  14. Epigenetics in adipose tissue, obesity, weight loss, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I; Claycombe, Kate J; Schalinske, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them.

  15. Demographic factors and weight change in a worksite weight loss intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Worksites are increasingly being considered as locations for weight loss programs. We examined predictors of weight loss in employees participating in a 6 month randomized study of a weight loss intervention versus wait-listed control at 4 worksites (2 for-profit and 2 non-profit). Measures included...

  16. Weight loss goals of patients in a health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Gareth R; Perri, Michael G; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Goble, Mary; Van Vessem, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment endorse unrealistic expectations regarding their goals for weight loss, although these conclusions are primarily based on research conducted in obesity specialty clinics and/or controlled clinical trials. This study examined the weight loss goals and predictors of these goals among patients participating in obesity treatment in an applied, clinical setting (i.e., managed care organization). Managed care patients enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program (N=143; mean age=46.8 years; mean BMI=36.9 kg/m(2); 89.5% female; 64.5% Caucasian) completed a self-report survey during an initial weight loss session. The survey included items assessing patients' weight loss expectations, including goals for dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weights. Participants completed questions regarding contacts with their primary care physician and physician provision of weight loss counseling and/or referrals. They also provided values for current height and weight. BMI's and weight loss associated with dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weight goals were 24.8 kg/m(2) (30.9% loss), 27.1 kg/m(2) (25.2% loss), 29.3 kg/m(2) (19.7% loss), and 33.0 kg/m(2) (10.4% loss), respectively. There were significant gender differences in weight loss goals, with women endorsing more unrealistic goals than men for dream and happy weights, ps<0.001. Significant predictors of all four weight loss goals included baseline BMI, gender, ethnicity, and frequency of visits with one's primary care physician, ps<0.01. Consistent with previous research, patients participating in a weight loss program implemented in a managed care setting endorsed unrealistic expectations for weight loss. However, more frequent contact with one's primary care physician was associated with more realistic goals. Future, longitudinal research is needed to document the discrepancy between these goals and actual weight loss achieved in such settings as well as to determine

  17. Motivations for Weight Loss Among Active Duty Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Maclin-Akinyemi, Courtney; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Kocak, Mehmet; Talcott, G Wayne; Beauvais, Alexis; Klesges, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    Rates of overweight and obesity among Active Duty Military Personnel remain high despite fitness test requirements, negative consequences of fitness test failure, and emphasis on weight and appearance standards. Specific motivating factors for weight loss influence weight loss program interest and often differ by gender, race, ethnicity, or age. This study investigates the weight loss motivations endorsed by a diverse population of Active Duty Military Personnel initiating a behavioral weight loss study, to inform the development of future recruitment efforts and program development. Active Duty Military Personnel (n = 248) completed a 16-item questionnaire of weight loss motivations before initiating a behavioral weight loss study. We evaluated endorsement patterns by demographic characteristics (body mass index [BMI], gender, race, ethnicity, age, and military rank). Data collection for this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center and acknowledged by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Results indicated that improved physical health, improved fitness, improved quality of life, and to live long were endorsed as "very important" motivations by at least three-fourths of the sample. "To pass the fitness test" was endorsed less frequently as a "very important" motivation, by 69% of the sample. A greater proportion of women as compared to men endorsed being very motivated by improving mood/well-being, quality of life, physical mobility, job performance, appearance, and sex life, as well as fitting into clothes. Participants categorized in the "Other" racial group and African Americans more frequently endorsed motivations to improve fitness and physical strength when compared to Caucasians. Moreover, participants in the "Other" race category were significantly more likely to rate their ability to physically defend themselves, improve physical mobility, and improve

  18. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  19. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  20. Longitudinal weight loss patterns and their behavioral and demographic associations

    PubMed Central

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Lee, Jaehoon; Ptomey, Lauren; Willis, Erik; Schubert, Matt; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Identification of weight change patterns may allow tailored interventions to improve long-term weight loss. Purpose To identify patterns of weight change over 18 mos., and assess participant characteristics and intervention adherence factors associated with weight change patterns in a sample of 359 overweight/obese adults. Methods Weight loss (0–6 mos.) was achieved with reduced energy intake and increased physical activity (PA). Maintenance (7–18 mos.) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued PA. Results Latent profile analysis identified 3 weight change profiles. During weight loss/maintenance, participants in profiles 2 and 3 (18 mos. weight loss ~14%) attended more behavioral sessions, and performed more PA, compared with profile 1 (18 mo. weight loss <1%). Self-efficacy for both weight management and exercise barriers were higher in profiles 2 and 3 compared with profile 1 following weight loss and during maintenance. Conclusion Weight change patterns can be identified and are associated with both participant characteristics and intervention adherence. PMID:26423446

  1. "Guaranteed in Just Six Weeks...". Weight Loss Fads and Fantasies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Allensworth, Diane D.

    1980-01-01

    The most popular fad diets, weight control devices, salons, and diet clubs are examined and the claims of each are evaluated in relation to their long-term success in producing weight loss and control. (JMF)

  2. Circadian rhythmicity as a predictor of weight-loss effectiveness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some of the major challenges associated with successful dietary weight management include the identification of individuals not responsive to specific interventions. The aim was to investigate the potential relationship between weight loss and circadian rhythmicity, using wrist temperature and actim...

  3. "Guaranteed in Just Six Weeks...". Weight Loss Fads and Fantasies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Allensworth, Diane D.

    1980-01-01

    The most popular fad diets, weight control devices, salons, and diet clubs are examined and the claims of each are evaluated in relation to their long-term success in producing weight loss and control. (JMF)

  4. Physiological response of adipocytes to weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Bouwman, Freek G; Mariman, Edwin C M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males), age 20-50 y, and BMI 28-35 kg/m(2), followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod), protein levels (Western blot) and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC) during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4) during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc) and lipolysis (ATGL) were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508.

  5. Physiological Response of Adipocytes to Weight Loss and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Sanne P. M.; Camps, Stefan G. J. A.; Bouwman, Freek G.; Mariman, Edwin C. M.; Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. Objective To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. Methods Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males), age 20–50 y, and BMI 28–35 kg/m2, followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod), protein levels (Western blot) and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. Results A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC) during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4) during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc) and lipolysis (ATGL) were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. Conclusion Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508 PMID:23505452

  6. Caffeine intake is related to successful weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Icken, D; Feller, S; Engeli, S; Mayr, A; Müller, A; Hilbert, A; de Zwaan, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of caffeine intake on weight loss maintenance has not been examined in humans. We compared the daily consumption of coffee and caffeinated beverages between 494 weight loss maintainers and 2129 individuals from the general population controlling for sociodemographic variables, body mass index and physical activity level. Weight loss maintainers reported to consume significantly more cups of coffee and caffeinated beverages compared with the participants in the general population sample. Thus, consumption of caffeinated beverages might support weight loss maintenance. Further studies should investigate possible mechanisms.

  7. Effectiveness of Weight Loss Interventions for Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Holly C.; West, Delia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. Data Source PubMed articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥30) older adults (mean age ≥60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Data Extraction Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data Synthesis Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Results Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p < .05) weight loss without significant risk to obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. Conclusion These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group. PMID:23286596

  8. Effectiveness of weight loss interventions for obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Felix, Holly C; West, Delia S

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. PubMed articles. Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥ 30) older adults (mean age ≥ 60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p < .05) weight loss without significant risk to obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group.

  9. Autonomy Support, Self-Regulation, and Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Amy A.; Powers, Theodore A.; Koestner, Richard; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social support is believed to contribute to weight loss success, yet the type of support received is rarely assessed. To develop more effective weight loss interventions, examinations of the types of support that are associated with positive outcomes are needed. Self-Determination Theory suggests that support for an individual’s autonomy is beneficial and facilitates internalization of autonomous self-regulation. We examined whether autonomy support and directive forms of support were associated with weight loss outcomes in a larger randomized controlled trial. Method Adults (N = 201; 48.9 ± 10.5 years; 78.1% women) participating in a weight loss trial were assessed at 0, 6, and 18 months. Autonomy support (AS), directive support, and autonomous self-regulation (ASR) were measured at 0 and 6 months and examined in relation to 18-month weight loss outcomes. Results Baseline AS and ASR did not predict outcomes; however, AS and ASR at 6 months positively predicted 18-month weight losses (ps < .05), encouragement of healthy eating at 6 months was negatively related to 18-month weight losses (p < .01), and other forms of directive support were not associated with outcomes. Conclusions Autonomy support predicted better weight loss outcomes while some forms of directive support hindered progress. Weight loss trials are needed to determine whether family members and friends can be trained to provide autonomy support and whether this is more effective than programs targeting more general or directive forms of support. PMID:23730718

  10. Effects of breastfeeding on weight loss and recovery of pregestational weight in adolescent and adult mothers.

    PubMed

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Godínez Martínez, Estela; Sánchez Jiménez, Bernarda; Villeda Rodríguez, Gilda Paulina; Pérez Zamora, Julieta; Casanueva, Esther

    2013-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in adolescent mothers has been associated with greater postpartum maternal weight loss. To assess the associations between EBF and weight loss in adolescent and adult mothers and between EBF and weight and length gain of their children. A cohort of 68 adolescent mothers (15 to 19 years), 64 adult mothers (20 to 29 years), and their infants were studied. Anthropometric measurements were performed at 15, 90, 180, and 365 days postpartum in the mothers and children. EBF was defined as consumption of human milk without supplementation of any type (water, juice, nonhuman milk, or food) for 4 months. Sixty-five percent of mothers sustained EBF for 4 months. There were no significant differences in the weight or length of the infants of adolescent and adult mothers at 365 days postpartum. Among infants of adult mothers, there was a significant difference between the weight gain of those were exclusively breastfed and those who were not exclusively breastfed (6,498 +/- 1,060 vs 6,096 +/- 1,035 g, p < .050) at 365 days postpartum, according to the parameters for weight gain and length established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Among both adult and adolescent mothers, those who practiced EBF lost more weight than those who did not practice EBF (-2.9 kg, 95% interquartile range, -5.7 to 0.8 kg, vs -1.8 kg 95% interquartile range -2.8 to 2.2 kg; p = .004). Gestational weight gain, duration of EBF, and recovery menstruation explained 21% of the variance (F = 28.184, p = .001) in change in postpartum maternal weight (in kilograms) from 0 to 365 days postpartum in all mothers. Pregestational weight, duration of EBF, and maternal age were factors that explained 14% (F = 22.759, p = .001) of the change in the weight and length of the infants from 0 to 365 days of life. EBF in adolescent and adult mothers influences postpartum weight loss and provides adequate infant growth in accordance with the WHO 2006 standards.

  11. Weight Loss: Subject Compliance with Prescribed Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph K.; Labbe, Elise E.

    In the past few years, a comprehensive behavioral treatment program has often been the treatment of choice for obesity. The basis for these techniques is the energy balance model of weight control. Obese adults (N=28) completed a 10-week behavioral weight control program and were subsequently monitored during a 2-year follow-up period. During…

  12. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control.

  13. Variability in Weight Change Early in Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment: Theoretical and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Feig, Emily H; Lowe, Michael R

    2017-09-01

    Response early in weight loss treatment predicts long-term weight change. Weight variability, independent of absolute early weight change, may also relate to long-term outcomes. This study examined whether weight variability early in treatment predicted later weight loss and maintenance. Participants were 183 completers of a yearlong behavioral weight loss program (mean age = 51, 81% female, 69% white, mean BMI = 35  kg/m(2) ). Weight variability was calculated using weights from the first 6 and 12 weekly treatment sessions. Multiple linear regressions examined whether weight variability predicted subsequent weight change 6, 12, and 24 months later. Weight variability over 6- and 12-week periods predicted less subsequent weight loss at 12 months (6-week: β = 0.18, P = 0.02; 12-week: β = 0.33, P < 0.01) and 24 months (6-week: β = 0.17, P = 0.03; 12-week: β = 0.15, P = 0.05). Relationships held when adjusting for covariates. Weight variability was more strongly associated with 6-month weight change in men than women (β = 0.27, P = 0.01). Elevated weight variability early in a weight loss program predicted poor long-term outcomes, possibly reflecting inconsistent weight control behaviors. Tracking weight variability could prove useful for improving treatment outcomes. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  14. A dietary quality comparison of popular weight-loss plans.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunsheng; Pagoto, Sherry L; Griffith, Jennifer A; Merriam, Philip A; Ockene, Ira S; Hafner, Andrea R; Olendzki, Barbara C

    2007-10-01

    Popular weight-loss plans often have conflicting recommendations, which makes it difficult to determine the most healthful approach to weight loss. Our study compares the dietary quality of popular weight-loss plans. Dietary quality, measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), was calculated via sample menus provided in published media for the New Glucose Revolution, Weight Watchers, Atkins, South Beach, Zone, Ornish, and 2005 US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid (2005 Food Guide Pyramid) plans. The criterion for determining which weight-loss plans were the most popular was their status on the New York Times Bestseller list. Weight Watchers and the 2005 Food Guide Pyramid plan were included because they are the largest commercial weight-loss plan, and the current government recommendation, respectively. Analysis of variance was used to compare nutrient information among the weight-loss plans. The AHEI scores adjusted for energy content were also compared. Of a maximum possible score of 70, the AHEI scores for each weight-loss plan from the highest to the lowest plan were: Ornish (score 64.6), Weight Watchers high-carbohydrate (score 57.4), New Glucose Revolution (score 57.2), South Beach/Phase 2 (score 50.7), Zone (score 49.8), 2005 Food Guide Pyramid (score 48.7), Weight Watchers high-protein (score 47.3), Atkins/100-g carbohydrate (score 46), South Beach/Phase 3 (score 45.6), and Atkins/45-g carbohydrate (score 42.3). Dietary quality varied across popular weight-loss plans. Ornish, Weight Watchers high-carbohydrate, and New Glucose Revolution weight-loss plans have an increased capacity for cardiovascular disease prevention when assessed by the AHEI.

  15. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    PubMed

    Harden, Samantha M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A; Hill, Jennie L; Linnan, Laura A; Allen, Kacie C; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p < .05) relationships between weight change from baseline to 12 months and change scores of absolute or relative absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity.

  16. Ain't no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predict effort and short-term weight loss.

    PubMed

    De Vet, Emely; Nelissen, Rob M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-05-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. Hereto, 447 overweight and obese participants trying to lose weight completed two questionnaires with a 2-month interval. Many participants set goals that could be considered unrealistically high. However, higher weight loss goals did not predict dissatisfaction but predicted more effort in the weight loss attempt, as well as more self-reported short-term weight loss when baseline commitment and motivation were controlled for.

  17. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    PubMed Central

    Soeliman, Fatemeh Azizi; Azadbakht, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI) diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed. PMID:24949037

  18. Family functioning and weight loss in a sample of african americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Gizlice, Ziya; Cai, Jianwen; Brantley, Phillip J; Ard, Jamy D; Svetkey, Laura P

    2010-12-01

    Traditionally, weight management behavioral research has focused on individual-level influences, with little attention given to interpersonal factors that relate to the family behavioral context. This research examines the association between baseline family functioning scores and weight loss success in a sample of African Americans and Whites enrolled in a 20-week weight loss program with a weight loss goal of ≥ 4 kg. Baseline surveys measuring six family functioning constructs were completed by 291 participants in a trial of weight loss maintenance. Analysis was limited to 217 participants in households with at least one other family member, and providing final weight measurements. We evaluated associations of family functioning, family composition, and demographic variables with weight loss success defined as losing ≥ 5% of initial body weight. Baseline predictors of weight loss success were determined using logistic regression analysis. Participants were on average 61 years of age with BMI of 34 kg/m(2); 57% were female and 75% self-identified as African American. Sixty-two percent lost at least 5% of initial body weight. In bivariate analysis, weight loss success was associated with higher income and education (p < 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively), ethnicity (p < 0.01), and the presence of a spouse (p = 0.01). After adjusting for socio-demographic covariates in a multivariable model, the odds of weight loss success were independently influenced by a significant interaction between ethnicity and family cohesion (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that family context factors influence weight loss behaviors.

  19. Family Functioning and Weight Loss in a Sample of African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Gizlice, Ziya; Cai, Jianwen; Brantley, Phillip J.; Ard, Jamy D.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditionally, weight management behavioral research has focused on individual-level influences, with little attention given to interpersonal factors that relate to the family behavioral context. Purpose This research examines the association between baseline family functioning scores and weight loss success in a sample of African Americans and Whites enrolled in a 20-week weight loss program with a weight loss goal of ≥4 kg. Methods Baseline surveys measuring six family functioning constructs were completed by 291 participants in a trial of weight loss maintenance. Analysis was limited to 217 participants in households with at least one other family member, and providing final weight measurements. We evaluated associations of family functioning, family composition, and demographic variables with weight loss success defined as losing ≥5% of initial body weight. Baseline predictors of weight loss success were determined using logistic regression analysis. Results Participants were on average 61 years of age with BMI of 34 kg/m2; 57% were female and 75% self-identified as African American. Sixty-two percent lost at least 5% of initial body weight. In bivariate analysis, weight loss success was associated with higher income and education (p<0.01 and p=0.05, respectively), ethnicity (p<0.01), and the presence of a spouse (p=0.01). After adjusting for socio-demographic covariates in a multivariable model, the odds of weight loss success were independently influenced by a significant interaction between ethnicity and family cohesion (p<0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that family context factors influence weight loss behaviors. PMID:20721650

  20. Weight Loss Maintenance in African–American Women: Focus Group Results and Questionnaire Development

    PubMed Central

    Goodrick, G. Kenneth; Pavlik, Valory; Markesino, Jennifer; Laws, Donna Y.; Taylor, Wendell C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND African-American women are disproportionately affected by obesity. Weight loss can occur, but maintenance is rare. Little is known about weight loss maintenance in African-American women. OBJECTIVES (1) To increase understanding of weight loss maintenance in African-American women; (2) to use the elicitation procedure from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to define the constructs of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control regarding weight loss and maintenance; and (3) to help develop a relevant questionnaire that can be used to explore weight loss and maintenance in a large sample of African Americans. DESIGN Seven focus groups were conducted with African-American women: four with women successful at weight loss maintenance, three with women who lost weight but regained it. Discussions centered on weight loss and maintenance experiences. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-seven African-American women. APPROACH Content analysis of focus group transcripts. RESULTS Weight loss maintainers lost 22% of body weight. They view positive support from others and active opposition to cultural norms as critical for maintenance. They struggle with weight regain, but have strategies in place to lose weight again. Some maintainers struggle with being perceived as sick or too thin at their new weight. Regainers and maintainers struggle with hairstyle management during exercise. The theoretical constructs from TPB were defined and supported by focus group content. CONCLUSIONS A weight loss questionnaire for African Americans should include questions regarding social support in weight maintenance, the importance of hair management during exercise, the influence of cultural norms on weight and food consumption, and concerns about being perceived as too thin or sick when weight is lost. PMID:17415617

  1. Weight loss maintenance in African-American women: focus group results and questionnaire development.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Ann Smith; Goodrick, G Kenneth; Pavlik, Valory; Markesino, Jennifer; Laws, Donna Y; Taylor, Wendell C

    2007-07-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by obesity. Weight loss can occur, but maintenance is rare. Little is known about weight loss maintenance in African-American women. (1) To increase understanding of weight loss maintenance in African-American women; (2) to use the elicitation procedure from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to define the constructs of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control regarding weight loss and maintenance; and (3) to help develop a relevant questionnaire that can be used to explore weight loss and maintenance in a large sample of African Americans. Seven focus groups were conducted with African-American women: four with women successful at weight loss maintenance, three with women who lost weight but regained it. Discussions centered on weight loss and maintenance experiences. Thirty-seven African-American women. Content analysis of focus group transcripts. Weight loss maintainers lost 22% of body weight. They view positive support from others and active opposition to cultural norms as critical for maintenance. They struggle with weight regain, but have strategies in place to lose weight again. Some maintainers struggle with being perceived as sick or too thin at their new weight. Regainers and maintainers struggle with hairstyle management during exercise. The theoretical constructs from TPB were defined and supported by focus group content. A weight loss questionnaire for African Americans should include questions regarding social support in weight maintenance, the importance of hair management during exercise, the influence of cultural norms on weight and food consumption, and concerns about being perceived as too thin or sick when weight is lost.

  2. Preoperative predictors of weight loss following bariatric surgery: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Livhits, Masha; Mercado, Cheryl; Yermilov, Irina; Parikh, Janak A; Dutson, Erik; Mehran, Amir; Ko, Clifford Y; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard

    2012-01-01

    Obesity affects 32% of adults in the USA. Surgery generates substantial weight loss, but 20-30% fails to achieve successful weight loss. Our objective was to identify preoperative psychosocial factors associated with weight loss following bariatric surgery. We performed a literature search of PubMed® and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness between 1988 and April 2010. Articles were screened for bariatric surgery and weight loss if they included a preoperative predictor of weight loss: body mass index (BMI), preoperative weight loss, eating disorders, or psychiatric disorder/substance abuse. One thousand seven titles were reviewed, 534 articles screened, and 115 included in the review. Factors that may be positively associated with weight loss after surgery include mandatory preoperative weight loss (7 of 14 studies with positive association). Factors that may be negatively associated with weight loss include preoperative BMI (37 out of 62 studies with negative association), super-obesity (24 out of 33 studies), and personality disorders (7 out of 14 studies). Meta-analysis revealed a decrease of 10.1% excess weight loss (EWL) for super-obese patients (95% confidence interval (CI) [3.7-16.5%]), though there was significant heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, and an increase of 5.9% EWL for patients with binge eating at 12 months after surgery (95% CI [1.9-9.8%]). Further studies are necessary to investigate whether preoperative factors can predict a clinically meaningful difference in weight loss after bariatric surgery. The identification of predictive factors may improve patient selection and help develop interventions targeting specific needs of patients.

  3. Dietary and psych predictors of weight loss after gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Fox, Benjamin; Chen, Ellie; Suzo, Andrew; Jolles, Sally; Greenberg, Jacob A; Campos, Guilherme M; Voils, Corrine I; Funk, Luke M

    2015-08-01

    Identifying severely obese patients who will succeed after bariatric surgery remains challenging. Although numerous studies have attempted to identify preoperative patient characteristics associated with weight loss, the roles of many dietary and psychological characteristics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine preoperative dietary and psychological predictors of successful weight loss after bariatric surgery. This retrospective cohort study included all patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from September 2011-June 2013 at a single institution (n = 124). Patient demographics, comorbidities, dietary and psychological factors, and weight loss outcomes were extracted from the electronic medical record. Bivariate associations between these factors and successful weight loss (≥50% excess body weight) were examined. Factors significant at P ≤ 0.1 were included in a multivariate logistic regression model. On bivariate analysis, absence of either type 2 diabetes or hypertension, preoperative weight <270 lbs, no intentional past weight loss >50 lbs, no previous purging or family history of obesity, and no soda consumption preoperatively were associated with successful weight loss (P < 0.1). On multivariate analysis, successful weight loss was inversely associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.73), maximum intentional past weight loss >50 lbs (OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.04-0.43]), and decreasing soda consumption by >50% (OR, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.08-0.99]). Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, significant previous weight loss, and poor soda consumption habits are more likely to experience suboptimal weight loss after bariatric surgery. Additional preoperative counseling and close postoperative follow-up is warranted for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Getting Past a Weight-Loss Plateau

    MedlinePlus

    ... however, for no reason you can identify, the scale has stopped budging, despite your healthy, low-calorie ... keep the rate at which you burn calories (metabolism) up. So as you lose weight, your metabolism ...

  5. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Surgery Types of Surgery Gastric Bypass ... or intestines removed due to ulcers or cancer tended to lose a lot of weight after ...

  6. Successful weight loss among obese U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Huskey, Karen W; Davis, Roger B; Wee, Christina C

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about weight control strategies associated with successful weight loss among obese U.S. adults in the general population. To identify strategies associated with losing at least 5% and 10% of body weight. Multivariable analysis of data from obese adult (BMI ≥30) participants in the 2001-2006 NHANES to identify strategies associated with losing ≥5% and ≥10% of body weight (conducted in 2009-2011). Of 4021 obese adults, 2523 (63%) reported trying to lose weight in the previous year. Among those attempting weight loss, 1026 (40%) lost ≥5% and 510 (20%) lost ≥10% weight. After adjustment for potential confounders, strategies associated with losing ≥5% weight included eating less fat (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.14, 1.75); exercising more (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.05, 1.60); and using prescription weight loss medications (OR=1.77, 95% CI=1.00, 3.13). Eating less fat (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.04, 1.79); exercising more (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.12, 1.65); and using prescription weight loss medications (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.09, 3.86) were also associated with losing ≥10% weight, as was joining commercial weight loss programs (OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.00, 2.96). Adults eating diet products were less likely to achieve 10% weight loss (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.31, 0.72). Liquid diets, nonprescription diet pills, and popular diets had no association with successful weight loss. A substantial proportion of obese U.S. adults who attempted to lose weight reported weight loss, at least in the short term. Obese adults were more likely to report achieving meaningful weight loss if they ate less fat, exercised more, used prescription weight loss medications, or participated in commercial weight loss programs. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Successful Weight Loss Among Obese U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Jacinda M.; Huskey, Karen W.; Davis, Roger B.; Wee, Christina C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about weight control strategies associated with successful weight loss among obese U.S. adults in the general population. Purpose To identify strategies associated with losing at least 5% and 10% of body weight. Methods Multivariable analysis of data from obese adult (BMI ≥30) participants in the 2001–2006 NHANES to identify strategies associated with losing ≥5% and ≥10% of body weight (conducted in 2009–2011). Results Of 4034 obese adults, 2523 (63%) reported trying to lose weight in the previous year. Among those attempting weight loss, 1026 (40%) lost ≥5% and 510 (20%) lost ≥10% weight. After adjustment for potential confounders, strategies associated with losing ≥5% weight included eating less fat (OR 1.41, 95% CI=1.14, 1.75), exercising more (OR 1.29 [95% CI=1.05, 1.60]), and using prescription weight loss medications (OR 1.77 [95% CI=1.00, 3.13]). Eating less fat (OR 1.37 [95% CI=1.04, 1.80]), exercising more (OR 1.36 [95% CI=1.12, 1.65]), and using prescription weight loss medications (OR 2.05 [95% CI=1.09, 3.90]) were also associated with losing ≥10% weight, as was joining commercial weight loss programs (OR 1.72 [95% CI=1.00, 2.96]). Adults eating diet products were less likely to achieve 10% weight loss (OR 0.48 [95% CI=0.31, 0.73]). Liquid diets, nonprescription diet pills, and popular diets had no association with successful weight loss. Conclusions A substantial proportion of obese U.S. adults who attempted to lose weight reported weight loss, at least in the short term. Obese adults were more likely to report achieving meaningful weight loss if they ate less fat, exercised more, used prescription weight loss medications, or participated in commercial weight loss programs. PMID:22516488

  8. Weight loss and its relation to fat aspiration yields in liposuction: a survey in 48 patients.

    PubMed

    Boeni, R

    2012-01-01

    Liposuction surgeons often observe individually fluctuating amounts of aspirated fat. In patients with sagging skin due to previous weight loss there is a tendency of decreased fat aspiration volumes. To study the influence of weight loss on fat aspiration volumes in a series of 48 patients. We matched individuals of the same gender, but with a different weight history from a vast number of patients who had undergone liposuction surgery. The aspirated fat to wetting solution ratio (FWR) of the circumferential abdominal region was evaluated in three groups: A - patients with no weight loss (n = 16; 8 males/ 8 females), B - patients with a history of moderate weight loss (weight loss 5-10% of body weight; n = 16; 8 males/8 females), and C - patients who had a massive weight loss prior to surgery (weight loss exceeding 15% of body weight; n = 16; 8 males/8 females). The aspirated FWR was 3.4 ± 0.5, 1.0 ± 0.3 and 0.4 ± 0.2 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). There are significant differences in patients with moderate or massive weight loss in regard to fat aspiration volumes compared to patients without prior weight loss. These findings point to the importance of a weight loss history prior to surgery. Regardless of lower fat aspiration yields in patients with massive weight loss, good results are still achievable. This is not only due to volume reduction but to skin tightening. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tweeting it off: characteristics of adults who tweet about a weight loss attempt

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry; Schneider, Kristin L; Evans, Martinus; Waring, Molly E; Appelhans, Brad; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Thind, Herpreet; Ziedonis, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe adults who use Twitter during a weight loss attempt and to compare the positive and negative social influences they experience from their offline friends, online friends, and family members. Materials and methods Participants (N=100, 80% female, mean age=37.65, SD=8.42) were recruited from Twitter. They completed a brief survey about their experiences discussing their weight loss attempt with their online and offline friends and provided responses to open-ended questions on the benefits and drawbacks of discussing weight on Twitter, Facebook, and weight-specific social networks. Results Participants rated their connections on Twitter and weight loss-specific social networks to be significantly greater sources of positive social influence for their weight loss (F(3)=3.47; p<0.001) and significantly lesser sources of negative social influence (F(3)=40.39 and F(3)=33.68 (both p<0.001)) than their offline friends, family, and Facebook friends. Greater positive social influence from Twitter and Facebook friends was associated with greater weight loss in participants’ most recent weight loss attempt (r=0.30, r=0.32; p<0.01). The most commonly reported benefits of tweeting about weight loss include social support, information, and accountability. The most common drawbacks reported are that interactions were too brief and lacked personal connection. Discussion People who discuss their weight loss on Twitter report more social support and less negativity from their Twitter friends than their Facebook friends and in-person relationships. Conclusions Online social networks should be explored as a tool for connecting patients who lack weight loss social support from their in-person relationships. PMID:24928175

  11. The maintenance of energy balance is compromised after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Reed, Jennifer L; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo; Doucet, Éric

    2013-04-01

    Available literature reveals that of the majority of individuals who are able to lose weight, only a small number are able to maintain their weight loss over time. Effective weight maintenance strategies after weight loss are illusive, which is most likely the result of a number of yet poorly understood factors. In fact, both appetite and energy expenditure are profoundly altered in response to reductions in body energy reserves. Weight reduction leads to decreased energy needs, but to an augmented drive to eat, thus compromising the maintenance of energy balance in the weight-reduced state by widening the theoretical gap between the 2 components of energy balance. This review first provides a summary of the factors related to the control of feeding and energy expenditure during weight stability. More specifically related to the topic of this review, the bulk of the literature presented depicts the post weight-loss control of appetite and energy expenditure. The integration of the literature presented in this paper reveals that body weight loss seems to orchestrate a coordinated response to resist further energy depletion, that would seem to create a state of increased vulnerability of weight regain. It is argued that these changes are largely responsible for the more than apparent difficulty in maintaining weight maintenance after weight loss. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. N-of-1 study of weight loss maintenance assessing predictors of physical activity, adherence to weight loss plan and weight change.

    PubMed

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part. Data were analysed using time series methods. Predictor variables were based on five theoretical themes: maintenance motives, self-regulation, personal resources, habits, and environmental influences. Dependent variables were: objectively estimated step count and weight, and self-reported WLM plan adherence. For all participants, daily fluctuations in self-reported adherence to their WLM plan were significantly associated with most of the explanatory variables, including maintenance motivation and satisfaction with outcomes, self-regulation, habit, and stable environment. Personal resources were not a consistent predictor of plan adherence. This is the first study to assess theoretical predictions of WLM within individuals. WLM is a dynamic process including the interplay of motivation, self-regulation, habit, resources, and perceptions of environmental context. Individuals maintaining their weight have unique psychological profiles which could be accounted for in interventions.

  13. Diet-induced weight loss: the effect of dietary protein on bone.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minghua; O'Connor, Lauren E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2014-01-01

    High-protein (>30% of energy from protein or >1.2 g/kg/day) and moderately high-protein (22% to 29% of energy from protein or 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg/day) diets are popular for weight loss, but the effect of dietary protein on bone during weight loss is not well understood. Protein may help preserve bone mass during weight loss by stimulating insulin-like growth factor 1, a potent bone anabolism stimulator, and increasing intestinal calcium absorption. Protein-induced acidity is considered to have minimal effect on bone resorption in adults with normal kidney function. Both the quantity and predominant source of protein influence changes in bone with diet-induced weight loss. Higher-protein, high-dairy diets may help attenuate bone loss during weight loss.

  14. An Attempt to Shorten the Quest for Weight Loss Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R.; And Others

    Health psychologists continue to have difficulty identifying prognostic indicators of weight loss success. Psychological, social, and demographic factors have been examined, but correlations with weight loss are disappointing. Actual behaviors or quantifications of specific actions and historical measures were examined for their validity in…

  15. How Adolescent Girls Interpret Weight-Loss Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-01-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years…

  16. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  17. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g., size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicente...

  18. How Adolescent Girls Interpret Weight-Loss Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-01-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years…

  19. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  20. Who participates in internet-based worksite weight loss programs?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The reach and representativeness are seldom examined in worksite weight loss studies. This paper describes and illustrates a method for directly assessing the reach and representativeness of a internet-based worksite weight loss program. Methods A brief health survey (BHS) was administered, between January 2008 and November 2009, to employees at 19 worksites in Southwest Virginia. The BHS included demographic, behavioral, and health questions. All employees were blinded to the existence of a future weight loss program until the completion of the BHS. Results The BHS has a participation rate of 66 percent and the subsequent weight loss program has a participation rate of 30 percent. Employees from higher income households, with higher education levels and health literacy proficiency were significantly more likely to participate in the program (p's < .01). Conclusions Worksite weight loss programs should include targeted marketing strategies to engage employees with lower income, education, and health literacy. PMID:21933429

  1. Weight loss in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mechanisms and implications.

    PubMed

    Agust, Alvar G N; Gari, Patricia G; Sauleda, Jaume; Busquets, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Weight loss occurs frequently in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the precise cellular mechanisms underlying weight loss in COPD are unclear, this is a clinically relevant phenomenon because it contributes to limit the exercise capacity of these patients and, therefore, it jeopardizes their quality of life. More importantly, it is a negative prognostic factor that is independent of the degree of lung function impairment present. Thus, weight loss in COPD constitutes a new therapeutic target. This article reviews the mechanisms and potential consequences of weight loss in COPD and highlights areas that needed future research. It is hoped that a better understanding of its pathogenesis may eventually contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies that contribute to improve the well-being and/or long-term prognosis of patients suffering from this devastating disease and, potentially, from others characterized also by unexplained weight loss.

  2. Mandatory weight loss during the wait for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Weight loss, body fat mass, and leptin in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorefält, Birgitta; Toss, Göran; Granérus, Ann-Kathrine

    2009-04-30

    Weight loss is a common problem in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the causative mechanisms behind this weight loss are unclear. We compared 26 PD patients with sex and age matched healthy controls. Examinations were repeated at baseline, after one and after two years. Body fat mass was measured by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Seventy three per cent of the PD patients lost body weight. Loss of body fat mass constituted a considerable part of the loss of body weight. In the patients who lost weight, serum leptin levels were lower than in those who did not lose weight. The relationship between low body fat mass and low leptin levels seems to be relevant, at least for female PD patients. It is reasonable to believe that low leptin levels in these patients could be secondary to the decreased body fat mass. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Obesity in primary care: evidence for advising weight constancy rather than weight loss in unsuccessful dieters

    PubMed Central

    Pryke, Rachel; Docherty, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    In view of the limited success rates of all weight-loss strategies to date, this article hypothesises that in situations where previous dieting attempts have failed, better outcomes and health improvements will arise from advocating weight-stability goals. This means the promotion of weight maintenance (to ensure any reduction in weight is maintained) and weight constancy (where steps are taken to maintain existing weight without attempting weight loss), rather than advocating existing 5–10% weight-loss targets for these patients. The majority of approaches to obesity focus on weight reduction despite poor evidence of effectiveness. Primary care remains reluctant to engage in ineffective approaches, yet is well placed to give advice, and would undoubtedly adopt effective obesity-management approaches if they were developed. Despite guidance for overweight or obese people to aim for a 5–10% weight reduction, current trends demonstrate escalation of average weights and obesity. A literature review found little information about evaluation of weight-stability approaches (either weight maintenance or weight constancy), despite theoretical support for them. Yet taking steps to protect weight reduction where it is achieved, and to promote weight constancy (without weight loss) where further dieting is predicted to fail, would have a beneficial effect on preventing further growth of obesity-related morbidity in the population. Some evidence exists to support simple behavioural approaches to improve weight stability, but these measures do not feature in current advice and hence are not widely advocated. PMID:18307855

  5. Obesity in primary care: evidence for advising weight constancy rather than weight loss in unsuccessful dieters.

    PubMed

    Pryke, Rachel; Docherty, Andrea

    2008-02-01

    In view of the limited success rates of all weight-loss strategies to date, this article hypothesises that in situations where previous dieting attempts have failed, better outcomes and health improvements will arise from advocating weight-stability goals. This means the promotion of weight maintenance (to ensure any reduction in weight is maintained) and weight constancy (where steps are taken to maintain existing weight without attempting weight loss), rather than advocating existing 5-10% weight-loss targets for these patients. The majority of approaches to obesity focus on weight reduction despite poor evidence of effectiveness. Primary care remains reluctant to engage in ineffective approaches, yet is well placed to give advice, and would undoubtedly adopt effective obesity-management approaches if they were developed. Despite guidance for overweight or obese people to aim for a 5-10% weight reduction, current trends demonstrate escalation of average weights and obesity. A literature review found little information about evaluation of weight-stability approaches (either weight maintenance or weight constancy), despite theoretical support for them. Yet taking steps to protect weight reduction where it is achieved, and to promote weight constancy (without weight loss) where further dieting is predicted to fail, would have a beneficial effect on preventing further growth of obesity-related morbidity in the population. Some evidence exists to support simple behavioural approaches to improve weight stability, but these measures do not feature in current advice and hence are not widely advocated.

  6. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity.

  7. Selecting a Weight-Loss Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... to-use information for eating healthy on the go? The Maintaining a Healthy Weight On the Go pocket guide includes information to help you make ... eating outside the home. Skip footer links and go to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX | ...

  8. Effect of moisture loss on red oak sawlog weight

    Treesearch

    Edward L. Adams

    1971-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effect of moisture loss on the weights of red oak sawlogs. The logs, ranging from 9 to 21 inches in scaling diameter and from 8 to 14 feet in length, were dried for a 12-week period. The 21-log sample lost 7.6 percent of the total green sawlog weight. The weight loss for individual logs ranged from 5.3 to 14.5 percent. In general, as...

  9. Interventions for Sustainable Weight Loss in Military Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0005 TITLE: Interventions for sustainable weight loss in military families PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Interventions for sustainable weight loss in military families 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER n/a 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0005 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...of active duty military personnel (ADMP) to determine: a) whether the new intervention, called Healthy Weight for Living (HWL), results in more

  10. The utility of weight loss medications after bariatric surgery for weight regain or inadequate weight loss: A multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Alfaris, Nasreen; Gomez, Gricelda; Ricks, Elizabeth T; Shukla, Alpana P; Corey, Kathleen E; Pratt, Janey S; Pomp, Alfons; Rubino, Francesco; Aronne, Louis J

    2017-03-01

    Patients who undergo bariatric surgery often have inadequate weight loss or weight regain. We sought to discern the utility of weight loss pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain. Two academic medical centers. We completed a retrospective study to identify patients who had undergone bariatric surgery in the form of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or a sleeve gastrectomy from 2000-2014. From this cohort, we identified patients who were placed on weight loss pharmacotherapy postoperatively for inadequate weight loss or weight regain. We extracted key demographic data, medical history, and examined weight loss in response to surgery and after the initiation of weight loss pharmacotherapy. A total of 319 patients (RYGB = 258; sleeve gastrectomy = 61) met inclusion criteria for analysis. More than half (54%; n = 172) of all study patients lost≥5% (7.2 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight with medications after surgery. There were several high responders with 30.3% of patients (n = 96) and 15% (n = 49) losing≥10% (16.7 to 195.2 lbs) and≥15% (25 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight, respectively, Topiramate was the only medication that demonstrated a statistically significant response for weight loss with patients being twice as likely to lose at least 10% of their weight when placed on this medication (odds ratio = 1.9; P = .018). Regardless of the postoperative body mass index, patients who underwent RYGB were significantly more likely to lose≥5% of their total weight with the aid of weight loss medications. Weight loss pharmacotherapy serves as a useful adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Consequences of obesity and weight loss: a devil's advocate position

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Kuk, J L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple negative health consequences and current weight management guidelines recommend all obese persons to lose weight. However, recent evidence suggests that not all obese persons are negatively affected by their weight and that weight loss does not necessarily always improve health. The purpose of this review is not to trivialize the significant health risks associated with obesity, but to discuss subpopulations of obese people who are not adversely affected, or may even benefit from higher adiposity, and in who weight loss per se may not always be the most appropriate recommendation. More specifically, this review will take a devil's advocate position when discussing the consequences of obesity and weight loss for adults with established cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, weight cyclers, metabolically healthy obese adults, youth, older adults and obese individuals who are highly fit. PMID:25410935

  12. Behaviors and Motivations for Weight Loss in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Callie Lambert; Skelton, Joseph A.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Examine the association between weight loss behaviors and motivations for weight loss in children and adolescents and the association of weight status with these behaviors and motivations in a nationally representative sample. Methods We examined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), focusing on children in the United States ages 8-15 years, in repeated cross-sections from 2005–2011. Results Half of participants (N=6117) reported attempting to lose weight, and children who were obese attempted to lose weight more frequently (76%) than children who were a healthy weight (15%). Children reported attempting to lose weight by both healthy and unhealthy means: “exercising” (92%), “eating less sweets or fatty foods” (84%), “skipping meals” (35%), and “starving” (18%). The motivation to be better at sports was more likely to be associated with attempting weight loss through healthy behaviors, whereas children motivated by teasing were more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors. Motivations for losing weight differed by weight status. Conclusions Many children and adolescents attempt to lose weight, using either or both healthy and unhealthy behaviors, and behaviors differed based on motivations for weight loss. Future research should examine how physicians, parents, and teachers can inspire healthy behavior changes. PMID:26718021

  13. A Summer Day Camp Approach to Adolescent Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam, Mary A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stanford Adolescent Weight Loss Camp, which taught eating and exercise skills to 25 overweight adolescents. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, with improved habits and weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp was very positive. (JAC)

  14. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  15. Predicting successful long-term weight loss from short-term weight-loss outcomes: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model (the POUNDS Lost study)123

    PubMed Central

    Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Objective: The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Design: Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing <5% of body weight in 1 y. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curve (AUC), and thresholds were calculated for each model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve’s capacity to classify participants likely to lose <5% of their body weight at the end of 1 y. The models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Results: Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). Conclusions: The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. The POUNDS Lost study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:25733628

  16. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and gestational weight gain and loss

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Dara D.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Kim, Kevin H.; Amutah, Ndidi N.; Fabio, Anthony; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSED) and gestational weight gain and loss and if the association differed by race. Methods A census tract level NSED index (categorized as low, mid-low, mid-high, and high) was generated from 12 measures from the 2000 US Census data. Gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth records for Allegheny County, PA for 2003–2010 (n=55,608). Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using modified multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the association between NSED and excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and weight loss (versus adequate GWG). Results Black women lived in neighborhoods that were more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to white women. Almost 55% of women gained an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy, and 2% lost weight during pregnancy. Black women were more likely than white women to have inadequate weight gain or weight loss. Mid-high (aRR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.3) and high (aRR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 1.6) NSED compared to low NSED was associated with inadequate weight gain while NSED was not associated with excessive weight gain. Among black women, high versus low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy (RR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5). Among white women, each level of NSED compared to low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy. Conclusion This study demonstrates how neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics can contribute to our understanding of inadequate weight gain and weight loss during pregnancy, having implications for future research and interventions designed to advance pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24026397

  17. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  18. Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. The weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender; therefore, the purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of all weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 ...

  19. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  20. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...

  1. IN-HOSPITAL WEIGHT LOSS, PRESCRIBED DIET AND FOOD ACCEPTANCE

    PubMed Central

    LEANDRO-MERHI, Vania Aparecida; SREBERNICH, Silvana Mariana; GONÇALVES, Gisele Mara Silva; de AQUINO, José Luiz Braga

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight loss and malnutrition may be caused by many factors, including type of disease and treatment. Aim The present study investigated the occurrence of in-hospital weight loss and related factors. Method This cross-sectional study investigated the following variables of 456 hospitalized patients: gender, age, disease, weight variation during hospital stay, and type and acceptance of the prescribed diet. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing patients' weight in the first three days in hospital stay and determining which factors affect weight. The generalized estimating equation was used for comparing the food acceptance rates. The significance level was set at 5%. Results The most prescribed diet was the regular (28.8%) and 45.5% of the patients lost weight during their stay. Acceptance of hospital food increased from the first to the third days of stay (p=0.0022) but weight loss was still significant (p<0.0001). Age and type of prescribed diet did not affect weight loss during the study period but type of disease and gender did. Patients with neoplasms (p=0.0052) and males (p=0.0002) lost more weight. Conclusion Weight loss during hospital stay was associated only with gender and type of disease. PMID:25861060

  2. Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Witbracht, Megan G; Laugero, Kevin D; Van Loan, Marta D; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L

    2012-05-15

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision-making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision-making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participating in a 12-week controlled, calorie-reduced intervention. We hypothesized that a greater amount of weight loss over the course of the intervention would be associated with better performance on the IGT, assessed at the end of the intervention. The intervention led to significant weight loss of 5.8±3.1 kg (p<0.05) and fat loss of 5.1±3.0 kg (p<0.05). Body weight and fat mass losses over the 12-week intervention varied widely, ranging from -12.5 kg to 0.0 kg for body weight and -10.4 kg to +0.8 kg for fat mass. A greater amount of body weight loss was correlated (r=0.425; p<0.01) with a higher total score on the IGT. Similarly, the reduction in body fat mass was also correlated with the IGT score (r=0.408; p<0.05). We examined other physiological (salivary cortisol), metabolic (resting energy expenditure), and behavioral (food intake; dietary restraint) factors that might be related to differences in the magnitude of weight loss. Of these variables, ad libitum consumption of energy, fat and protein during a buffet meal was inversely related to weight loss (r=-0.428; p<0.05; r=-0.375; p<0.05 and r=-0.472; p=0.01, respectively). The present study is the first to report an association between diet-induced weight loss and performance on the IGT, and this association was specific to the loss of body fat. Our results suggest that differences in weight loss may be linked to executive function that involves decision-making about events that have emotionally or socially salient ramifications. These findings underscore the need to further investigate higher cognitive and neuroendocrine pathways that may influence or be altered by the process of dieting and weight loss.

  3. Association of run-in periods with weight loss in obesity randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Affuso, O; Kaiser, K A; Carson, T L; Ingram, K H; Schwiers, M; Robertson, H; Abbas, F; Allison, D B

    2014-01-01

    Study-level design characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been examined in few studies. A pre-randomization run-in period is one such design element that may influence weight loss. We examined 311 obesity RCTs published between 1 January 2007 and 1 July 2009 that examine d weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary end-point. Variables included run-in period, pre-post intervention weight loss, study duration (time), intervention type, percent female and degree of obesity. Linear regression was used to estimate weight loss as a function of (i) run-in (yes/no) and (ii) run-in, time, percent female, body mass index and intervention type. Interaction terms were also examined. Approximately 19% (18.6%) of the studies included a run-in period, with pharmaceutical studies having the highest frequency. Although all intervention types were associated with weight loss (Mean = 2.80 kg, SD = 3.52), the inclusion of a pre-randomization run-in was associated with less weight loss (P = 0.0017) compared with studies that did not include a run-in period. However, this association was not consistent across intervention types. Our results imply that in trials primarily targeting weight loss in adults, run-in periods may not be beneficial for improving weight loss outcomes in interventions. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Effect of weight loss on high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese children.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Barrios, Vicente; Martínez, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico; Argente, Jesús

    2010-12-01

    Our aim was to determine the influence of weight reduction on total (T-) and high-molecular weight (HMW-) adiponectin in obese (OB) prepubertal children. Seventy OB prepubertal white patients were followed for 18 months and studied after reducing their BMI by 1 (n = 51) and 2 standard deviation scores (SDS) (n = 21) under conservative treatment, and 6 months after achieving weight loss (n = 44). Body composition dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum levels of T- and HMW-adiponectin, resistin, leptin, leptin soluble receptor (sOB-R), tumoral necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were determined. The control group consisted of 61 healthy prepubertal children. At diagnosis T-adiponectin was higher (P < 0.01; confidence interval (+0.04) - (+0.15)) and HMW-adiponectin lower (P < 0.001; confidence interval (-0.45) - (-0.21)) in OB children than in controls. A reduction in body fat increased T- and HMW-adiponectin and sOB-R (all P < 0.001) and decreased leptin (P < 0.001) and interleukin-6 levels (P < 0.05). After 6 months of sustained weight reduction a decrease in tumoral necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01) occurred, whereas weight recovery increased leptin (P < 0.001) and decreased T-adiponectin (P < 0.05). HMW-adiponectin levels negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and BMI in the whole cohort (both P < 0.001), as did T-adiponectin levels and HOMA index in OB patients (P < 0.01), but neither T- nor HMW-adiponectin correlated with body fat content (BFC) in OB children. We conclude that the impairment of T- and HMW-adiponectin levels in childhood obesity is different to that in elder OB patients, showing closer relationship with carbohydrate metabolism parameters than with BFC, but increasing their levels after weight loss and in association with metabolic improvement.

  5. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Cheatham, Rachel A; Das, Sai Krupa; Hyatt, Raymond R; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lieberman, Harris R; Lerner, Debra; Roberts, Susan B; Saltzman, Edward

    2014-09-01

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the effects of dietary glycemic load (GL) on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss, body weight and eating behavior self-efficacy were measured every six months in overweight adults participating in a 12-mo randomized trial testing energy-restricted diets differing in GL. All food was provided during the first six months and self-selected thereafter. Total mean weight loss did not differ between groups, and GL-level had no significant effect on eating behavior self-efficacy. In the combined cohort, individuals losing the most weight reported improvements in eating behavior self-efficacy, whereas those achieving less weight loss reported decrements in eating behavior self-efficacy. Decrements in eating behavior self-efficacy were associated with subsequent weight regain when diets were self-selected. While GL does not appear to influence eating behavior self-efficacy, lesser amounts of weight loss on provided-food energy restricted diets may deter successful maintenance of weight loss by attenuating improvements in eating behavior self-efficacy.

  6. Opinions and acceptability of common weight-loss practices.

    PubMed

    Varnado-Sullivan, P J; Savoy, S; O'Grady, M; Fassnacht, G

    2010-12-01

    A disconnect between research findings and public beliefs may lead to further dieting failures for consumers. Participants (N=300) were surveyed to determine their weight loss practices, opinions of weight loss methods, and rated the acceptability of popular and empirically validated weight loss programs. Dieting, the intention to diet, and the use of popular diets and diet aids were prevalent. There was a tendency for participants to view weight as more of a problem for society than themselves. The Behavioral Program was rated as most acceptable and Surgical Treatment least acceptable. However, participants were more likely to try a popular diet or supplement. It is vital for researchers and clinicians to improve communication with the public about efficacious weight loss programs.

  7. Breakfast consumption and weight-loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Brikou, Dora; Zannidi, Dimitra; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Daily breakfast consumption is a common eating behaviour among people who have maintained their weight loss after weight-loss management. However, there is not a precise definition for breakfast in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential associations between breakfast consumption (based on several definitions) and weight-loss maintenance, as well as to explore differences in breakfast quality between individuals who managed to maintain part of the weight loss and in those who regained weight loss. The study sample consisted of 354 participants of the MedWeight study (age: 32 (sd 10) years, 61 % women) who had lost ≥10 % of their initial body weight and either maintained the loss for ≥1 year (maintainers, n 257) or regained weight loss (regainers, n 97). Participants completed online questionnaires and reported their dietary intake through two telephone 24-h recalls. Breakfast consumption was evaluated using twelve different definitions. The analysis indicated that breakfast consumption was associated with weight-loss maintenance only in men, when using self-reported breakfast consumption or the following breakfast definitions: (1) the first eating episode consumed at home and (2) the first eating episode consumed at home excluding caffeinated drinks. This association remained statistically significant even after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Thus, breakfast, the first eating episode of the day, when consumed at home, may be protective against weight regaining.

  8. Evidence-based strategies in weight-loss mobile apps.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Schneider, Kristin; Jojic, Mirjana; DeBiasse, Michele; Mann, Devin

    2013-11-01

    Physicians have limited time for weight-loss counseling, and there is a lack of resources to which they can refer patients for assistance with weight loss. Weight-loss mobile applications (apps) have the potential to be a helpful tool, but the extent to which they include the behavioral strategies included in evidence-based interventions is unknown. The primary aims of the study were to determine the degree to which commercial weight-loss mobile apps include the behavioral strategies included in evidence-based weight-loss interventions, and to identify features that enhance behavioral strategies via technology. Thirty weight-loss mobile apps, available on iPhone and/or Android platforms, were coded for whether they included any of 20 behavioral strategies derived from an evidence-based weight-loss program (i.e., Diabetes Prevention Program). Data on available apps were collected in January 2012; data were analyzed in June 2012. The apps included on average 18.83% (SD=13.24; range=0%-65%) of the 20 strategies. Seven of the strategies were not found in any app. The most common technology-enhanced features were barcode scanners (56.7%) and a social network (46.7%). Weight-loss mobile apps typically included only a minority of the behavioral strategies found in evidence-based weight-loss interventions. Behavioral strategies that help improve motivation, reduce stress, and assist with problem solving were missing across apps. Inclusion of additional strategies could make apps more helpful to users who have motivational challenges. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  9. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  10. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the sub-population that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, i.e. increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors, and to develop strategies to minimize their impact. PMID:23470300

  11. The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hursel, R; Viechtbauer, W; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2009-09-01

    Different outcomes of the effect of green tea on weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance (WM) have been reported in studies with subjects differing in ethnicity and habitual caffeine intake. To elucidate by meta-analysis whether green tea indeed has a function in body weight regulation. English-language studies about WL and WM after green tea supplementation were identified through PubMed and based on the references from retrieved articles. Out of the 49 studies initially identified, a total of 11 articles fitted the inclusion criteria and provided useful information for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes (mean weight change in treatment versus control group) were computed and aggregated based on a random-effects model. The influence of several moderators on the effect sizes was examined. Catechins significantly decreased body weight and significantly maintained body weight after a period of WL (microcirc=-1.31 kg; P<0.001). Inhibition of this effect by high habitual caffeine intake (>300 mg per day) failed to reach significance (microcirc=-0.27 kg for high and microcirc=-1.60 kg for low habitual caffeine intake; P=0.09). Also, the seemingly smaller effect of catechins in Caucasian (microcirc=-0.82 kg) subjects compared with Asians (microcirc=-1.51 kg; P=0.37) did not reach significance. Interaction of ethnicity and caffeine intake was a significant moderator (P=0.04). Catechins or an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-caffeine mixture have a small positive effect on WL and WM. The results suggest that habitual caffeine intake and ethnicity may be moderators, as they may influence the effect of catechins.

  12. Portion Controlled Meals Provide Increases in Diet Quality During Weight Loss and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Willis, Erik A.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Lee, Jaehoon; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavioral weight loss interventions utilizing portion controlled meals (PCMs) produce significant decreases in weight. However, the impact on diet quality during weight maintenance is unknown. To assess the influence of a weight management intervention employing PCMs and increased physical activity on diet quality during weight loss and weight maintenance. Methods 197 overweight and obese adults (67% women; BMI = 34.0±4.6 kg/m2; age = 46.1± 8.9 yrs.) completed an 18-month trial. The weight loss phase, 0–6 months, consisted of energy restriction achieved using PCMs plus fruits and vegetables and increased physical activity. During weight maintenance, 6–18 months, participants consumed a diet designed to maintain weight loss. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) was calculated using data obtained from 3-day food records. Results Body weight was 14.3 ± 6.6%, and 8.7 ± 8.0% below baseline at 6 and 18 months, respectively. The HEI-2010 score following weight loss,(66.6 ± 9.4) was significantly higher than baseline (46.4 ± 8.9) and remained significantly higher than baseline at 18 months (57.7 ± 10.6; both p < 0.001). Conclusion A weight management intervention using PCMs resulted in both clinically significant weight loss and increased diet quality scores, demonstrating that the use of PCMs during weight loss allows for meaningful changes in diet quality during weight maintenance. PMID:25664818

  13. Portion-controlled meals provide increases in diet quality during weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, L T; Willis, E A; Goetz, J R; Lee, J; Szabo-Reed, A N; Sullivan, D K; Donnelly, J E

    2016-04-01

    Behavioural weight-loss interventions utilising portion-controlled meals (PCMs) produce significant decreases in weight. However, their impact on diet quality during weight maintenance is unknown. The present study aimed to assess the influence of a weight management intervention employing PCMs and increased physical activity on diet quality during weight loss and weight maintenance. One hundred and ninety-seven overweight and obese adults [67% women; mean (SD) BMI = 34.0 (4.6) kg m(-2); age = 46.1 (8.9) years] completed an 18-month trial. The weight-loss phase (0-6 months) consisted of energy restriction, which was achieved using PCMs plus fruits and vegetables and increased physical activity. During weight maintenance (6-18 months), participants consumed a diet designed to maintain weight loss. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at baseline, and at 6, 12 and 18 months. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) was calculated using data obtained from 3-day food records. Mean (SD) body weight was 14.3% (6.6%) and 8.7% (8.0%) below baseline at 6 and 18 months, respectively. The mean (SD) HEI-2010 score after weight loss [66.6 (9.4)] was significantly higher than baseline [46.4 (8.9)] and remained significantly higher than baseline at 18 months [57.7 (10.6)] (both P < 0.001). A weight management intervention using PCMs resulted in both clinically significant weight loss and increased diet quality scores, demonstrating that the use of PCMs during weight loss allows for meaningful changes in diet quality during weight maintenance. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Behavioral Weight Loss Treatments for Individuals with Migraine and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Cervoni, Cynthia; Bond, Dale S; Seng, Elizabeth K

    2016-02-01

    Migraine and obesity are each prevalent disorders involving significant personal and societal burden. Epidemiologic research demonstrates a link between migraine and obesity that is further substantiated by putative behavioral, psychosocial, and physiological mechanisms. As obesity is considered a modifiable risk factor for exacerbation of migraine, weight loss may be a particularly useful treatment option for people with comorbid migraine and obesity. Behavioral weight loss interventions complement existing behavioral treatments for migraine and offer patients evidence-based effective strategies for achieving weight loss that could help reduce frequency, severity, and impact of migraine attacks.

  15. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  16. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  17. Cluster analysis of the national weight control registry to identify distinct subgroups maintaining successful weight loss.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Lorraine G; Stroebele, Nanette; Wyatt, Holly R; Catenacci, Victoria A; Peters, John C; Stuht, Jennifer; Wing, Rena R; Hill, James O

    2012-10-01

    The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) is the largest ongoing study of individuals successful at maintaining weight loss; the registry enrolls individuals maintaining a weight loss of at least 13.6 kg (30 lb) for a minimum of 1 year. The current report uses multivariate latent class cluster analysis to identify unique clusters of individuals within the NWCR that have distinct experiences, strategies, and attitudes with respect to weight loss and weight loss maintenance. The cluster analysis considers weight and health history, weight control behaviors and strategies, effort and satisfaction with maintaining weight, and psychological and demographic characteristics. The analysis includes 2,228 participants enrolled between 1998 and 2002. Cluster 1 (50.5%) represents a weight-stable, healthy, exercise conscious group who are very satisfied with their current weight. Cluster 2 (26.9%) has continuously struggled with weight since childhood; they rely on the greatest number of resources and strategies to lose and maintain weight, and report higher levels of stress and depression. Cluster 3 (12.7%) represents a group successful at weight reduction on the first attempt; they were least likely to be overweight as children, are maintaining the longest duration of weight loss, and report the least difficulty maintaining weight. Cluster 4 (9.9%) represents a group less likely to use exercise to control weight; they tend to be older, eat fewer meals, and report more health problems. Further exploration of the unique characteristics of these clusters could be useful for tailoring future weight loss and weight maintenance programs to the specific characteristics of an individual.

  18. Physician Communication Techniques and Weight Loss in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Kathryn I.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Tulsky, James A.; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; James, Iguehi E.; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Manusov, Justin R.E.; Østbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Background Physicians are encouraged to counsel overweight and obese patients to lose weight. Purpose It was examined whether discussing weight and use of motivational-interviewing techniques (e.g., collaborating, reflective listening) while discussing weight predicted weight loss 3 months after the encounter. Methods 40 primary care physicians and 461 of their overweight or obese patient visits were audio recorded between December 2006 and June 2008. Patient actual weight at the encounter and 3 months after the encounter (n=426), whether weight was discussed, physicians’ use of Motivational-Interviewing techniques, and patient, physician and visit covariates (e.g., race, age, specialty) were assessed. This was an observational study and data were analyzed in April 2009. Results No differences in weight loss were found between patients whose physicians discussed weight or did not. Patients whose physicians used motivational interviewing–consistent techniques during weight-related discussions lost weight 3 months post-encounter; those whose physician used motivational interviewing–inconsistent techniques gained or maintained weight. The estimated difference in weight change between patients whose physician had a higher global “motivational interviewing–Spirit” score (e.g., collaborated with patient) and those whose physician had a lower score was 1.6 kg (95% CI=−2.9, −0.3, p=.02). The same was true for patients whose physician used reflective statements 0.9 kg (95% CI=−1.8, −0.1, p=.03). Similarly, patients whose physicians expressed only motivational interviewing–consistent behaviors had a difference in weight change of 1.1 kg (95% CI=−2.3, 0.1, p=.07) compared to those whose physician expressed only motivational interviewing–inconsistent behaviors (e.g., judging, confronting). Conclusions In this small observational study, use of motivational-interviewing techniques during weight loss discussions predicted patient weight loss. PMID

  19. Significant weight loss in breastfed term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Weight loss of greater than 7% from birth weight indicates possible feeding problems. Inadequate oral intake causes weight loss and increases the bilirubin enterohepatic circulation. The objective of this study was to describe the association between total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels and weight loss in healthy term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia after birth hospitalization. Methods We reviewed medical records of breastfed term infants who received phototherapy according to TSB levels readmitted to Caja Petrolera de Salud Clinic in La Paz, Bolivia during January 2005 through October 2008. Results Seventy-nine infants were studied (64.6% were males). The hyperbilirubinemia readmission rate was 5% among breastfed infants. Term infants were readmitted at a median age of 4 days. Mean TSB level was 18.6 ± 3 mg/dL. Thirty (38%) had significant weight loss. A weak correlation between TSB levels and percent of weight loss was identified (r = 0.20; p < 0.05). The frequency of severe hyperbilirubinemia (> 20 mg/dL) was notably higher among infants with significant weight loss (46.7% vs. 18.4%; p < 0.05). The risk of having severe hyperbilirubinemia was approximately 4 times greater for infants with significant weight loss (OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.4-10.8; p < 0.05). Conclusions Significant weight loss could be a useful parameter to identify breastfed term infants at risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia either during birth hospitalization or outpatient follow-up visits in settings where routine pre-discharge TSB levels have not been implemented yet. PMID:20043852

  20. Smartphone applications to support weight loss: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Pfammatter, Angela F; Conroy, David E; Spring, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Lower cost alternatives are needed for the traditional in-person behavioral weight loss programs to overcome challenges of lowering the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity. Smartphones have become ubiquitous and provide a unique platform to aid in the delivery of a behavioral weight loss program. The technological capabilities of a smartphone may address certain limitations of a traditional weight loss program, while also reducing the cost and burden on participants, interventionists, and health care providers. Awareness of the advantages smartphones offer for weight loss has led to the rapid development and proliferation of weight loss applications (apps). The built-in features and the mechanisms by which they work vary across apps. Although there are an extraordinary number of a weight loss apps available, most lack the same magnitude of evidence-based behavior change strategies typically used in traditional programs. As features develop and new capabilities are identified, we propose a conceptual model as a framework to guide the inclusion of features that can facilitate behavior change and lead to reductions in weight. Whereas the conventional wisdom about behavior change asserts that more is better (with respect to the number of behavior change techniques involved), this model suggests that less may be more because extra techniques may add burden and adversely impact engagement. Current evidence is promising and continues to emerge on the potential of smartphone use within weight loss programs; yet research is unable to keep up with the rapidly improving smartphone technology. Future studies are needed to refine the conceptual model’s utility in the use of technology for weight loss, determine the effectiveness of intervention components utilizing smartphone technology, and identify novel and faster ways to evaluate the ever-changing technology. PMID:26236766

  1. Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Bruce M.; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645

  2. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J; Rider, Patrick; Devita, Paul

    2011-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight loss causes mass-driven and behavioral adaptations in the kinematics and kinetics of obese gait. Gait analyses were performed at three time points over ∼1 yr in initially morbidly obese (mass: 125.7 kg; body mass index: 43.2 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy adults. Ten obese adults lost 27.1% ± 5.1 (34.0 ± 9.4 kg) weight by the first follow-up at 7.0 mo (±0.7) and 6.5 ± 4.2% (8.2 ± 6.0 kg) more by the second follow-up at 12.8 mo (±0.9), with a total weight loss of 33.6 ± 8.1% (42.2 ± 14.1 kg; P = 0.001). Subjects walked at a self-selected and a standard 1.5 m/s speed at the three time points and were also compared with an age- and gender-matched comparison group at the second follow-up. Weight loss increased swing time, stride length, gait speed, hip range of motion, maximal knee flexion, and ankle plantarflexion. Weight loss of 27% led to 3.9% increase in gait speed. An additional 6.5% weight loss led to an additional 7.3% increase in gait speed. Sagittal plane normalized knee torque increased and absolute ankle and frontal plane knee torques decreased after weight loss. We conclude that large weight loss produced mechanical plasticity by modifying ankle and knee torques and gait behavior. There may be a weight loss threshold of 30 kg limiting changes in gait kinematics. Implications for exercise prescription are also discussed.

  3. Institutional Improvement in Weight Loss after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Mangieri, Christopher W; Strode, Matthew A; Sherman, William E; Pierotti, Matthew L; Faler, Byron J; Choi, Yong U

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a recent addition to the bariatric surgery armamentarium. It has been demonstrated to be an efficacious stand-alone bariatric procedure in regard to weight loss. This study evaluates the progress of our initial experience with LSG. Retrospective review of prospective data from 2008 to 2010. Compared data between our first operative year of experience with LSG (2008) and our third year of experience (2010). Data compared for up to three years postoperatively. End points were percentage of excess body weight loss (%EWL) and percentage of excess body mass index loss (%EBL). Institutional improvement in %EWL and %EBL rates as our collective experience increased with LSG. Mean increase in %EWL of 14 per cent and mean increase of %EBL of 22 per cent. In our first year performing LSG the institutional weight loss was <50 per cent EWL, which is often cited as a benchmark level for "success" after bariatric surgery. By our third year of experience with LSG we achieved an institutional weight loss >50 per cent EWL. Institutional improvement in weight loss results with LSG as the collective experience increased. Several factors could have contributed to this observation to include a surgical mentorship program and the institution of formal nutritional education. This study demonstrates that institutional experience is a significant factor in weight loss results with LSG.

  4. Using Avatars to Model Weight Loss Behaviors: Participant Attitudes and Technology Development

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Hayes, Sharon; Russo, Giuseppe; Muresu, Debora; Giordano, Antonio; Foster, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality and other avatar-based technologies are potential methods for demonstrating and modeling weight loss behaviors. This study examined avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. Methods: This study consisted of two phases: (1) an online survey to obtain feedback about using avatars for modeling weight loss behaviors and (2) technology development and usability testing to create an avatar-based technology program for modeling weight loss behaviors. Results: Results of phase 1 (n = 128) revealed that interest was high, with 88.3% stating that they would participate in a program that used an avatar to help practice weight loss skills in a virtual environment. In phase 2, avatars and modules to model weight loss skills were developed. Eight women were recruited to participate in a 4-week usability test, with 100% reporting they would recommend the program and that it influenced their diet/exercise behavior. Most women (87.5%) indicated that the virtual models were helpful. After 4 weeks, average weight loss was 1.6 kg (standard deviation = 1.7). Conclusion: This investigation revealed a high level of interest in an avatar-based program, with formative work indicating promise. Given the high costs associated with in vivo exposure and practice, this study demonstrates the potential use of avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. PMID:23911189

  5. Using avatars to model weight loss behaviors: participant attitudes and technology development.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Melissa A; Hayes, Sharon; Russo, Giuseppe; Muresu, Debora; Giordano, Antonio; Foster, Gary D

    2013-07-01

    Virtual reality and other avatar-based technologies are potential methods for demonstrating and modeling weight loss behaviors. This study examined avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. This study consisted of two phases: (1) an online survey to obtain feedback about using avatars for modeling weight loss behaviors and (2) technology development and usability testing to create an avatar-based technology program for modeling weight loss behaviors. Results of phase 1 (n = 128) revealed that interest was high, with 88.3% stating that they would participate in a program that used an avatar to help practice weight loss skills in a virtual environment. In phase 2, avatars and modules to model weight loss skills were developed. Eight women were recruited to participate in a 4-week usability test, with 100% reporting they would recommend the program and that it influenced their diet/exercise behavior. Most women (87.5%) indicated that the virtual models were helpful. After 4 weeks, average weight loss was 1.6 kg (standard deviation = 1.7). This investigation revealed a high level of interest in an avatar-based program, with formative work indicating promise. Given the high costs associated with in vivo exposure and practice, this study demonstrates the potential use of avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p<0.05), and BW regain was 3.7+/-1.4 kg (p<0.05), including changes in body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference, body-composition and leptin concentrations (p<0.05). Linkage disequilibria were observed between PLIN1 and PLIN4: D' >0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (p<0.05). Since the haplotype of the minor alleles PLIN1-4, PLIN5-7 and PLIN6, was related to body-weight regulation at a lower level of body-weight in the men as well in the women we conclude that the PLIN1-4, 6, and 5-7 locus appears as a genetic influencer of obesity risk in humans.

  7. Relation between carbohydrate intake and weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Faria, Silvia Leite; Faria, Orlando Pereira; Lopes, Tatiane Carvalho; Galvão, Marcelle Vieira; de Oliveira Kelly, Emily; Ito, Marina Kiyomi

    2009-06-01

    Weight loss and long-term weight maintenance in bariatric surgery patients are related to maintaining satiety. It can be related to glycemic load (GL) and carbohydrate (g CHO) intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of g CHO and GL and in weight loss on patients who had undergone bariatric surgery. The following measurements/calculations were conducted as follows: current body weight (kg), current BMI, percentage of excess weight loss (PEWL), average monthly weight loss (AMWL), energy intake (kcal per day), and GL calculation. Correlations were found among the studied variables. A multiple linear regression analysis of diet variables executed with GL and weight loss. The population presented 66% of EWL. The average of total energy intake (TEI) was 1220+/-480, and the calculated GL resulted in an average of 73.2. Negative correlations were found between AMWL and TEI (p=0.04), and between AMWL and GL (p=0.009); furthermore, a negative correlation was found between carbohydrate intake in grams and AMWL (p=0.003). A positive correlation (p=0.017) was found between GL and TEI. Weight loss and GL were also correlated. Among the intake variables, GL and g CHO consumed are held accountable for 62 percent of AMWL. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that GL and carbohydrate grams (g CHO) account for 62% of AMWL. The glycemic load and grams of carbohydrate are intake factors that can be useful tools in weight loss and long-term weight maintenance on patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB).

  8. Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment in Antipsychotic Treated Youth.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Ginger E; Kolko, Rachel P; Mills, Monica; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Yingling, Michael D; Schweiger, Julia A; Lenze, Eric J; Newcomer, John W; Wilfley, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Antipsychotic-treated youth have increased risk for the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Behavioral weight loss treatments show promise in reducing obesity and diabetes risk in antipsychotic treated adults, but have received no study in antipsychotic treated youth. We describe a rationale for behavioral weight loss interventions in high-weight antipsychotic treated youth, and report behavioral, anthropomorphic, and metabolic findings from a case series of obese antipsychotic-treated adolescents participating in a short-term, family-based behavioral weight loss intervention. We adapted the Traffic Light Plan, a 16-week family-based weight loss intervention that promotes healthy energy balance using the colors of the traffic light to categorize the nutritional value of foods and intensity of physical activity, adapting a social ecological framework to address health behavior change in multiple social contexts. The intervention was administered to three obese adolescents with long-term antipsychotic medication exposure. Efficacy of the intervention was evaluated with a battery of anthropomorphic and metabolic assessments including weight, body mass index percentile, whole body adiposity, liver fat content, and fasting plasma glucose and lipids. Participants and their parents also filled out a treatment satisfaction questionnaire upon study completion. Two males and 1 female (all aged 14 years) participated. All 3 participants attended all 16 sessions, and experienced beneficial changes in adiposity, fasting lipids and liver fat content associated with weight stabilization or weight loss. Adolescents and their parents all reported a high level of satisfaction with the treatment. Family-based behavioral weight loss treatment can be feasibly delivered and is acceptable to antipsychotic-treated youth and their families. Randomized controlled trials are needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of behavioral weight loss interventions in

  9. Factors influencing weight changes in callitrichids at the Bronx Zoo.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Elena; Shelmidine, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Callitrichids are small monkeys with high metabolic rates who appear to be susceptible to spontaneous diseases and possibly to environmental changes creating challenges in maintaining them in captivity. This study investigates whether life events (i.e. medical, social and housing changes) can influence weight. In previous research, body mass has been shown to be correlated with periods of illness, group composition changes and stress. Weights of 56 individual callitrichid monkeys (20 marmosets, 26 tamarins and 11 lion tamarins) at the WCS's Bronx Zoo were examined over approximately 2½ years. Weight fluctuations were scored based on 5%, 10% and 1 standard deviation criteria during periods of medical (illness and injury), social (introductions and separations), housing (movement within or between buildings) events and during periods when no-events occurred. Additionally, weights were examined for 3 months before and after periods of illness to look for trends in weight changes for 47 medical events (14 marmosets, 21 tamarins and 12 lion tamarins). Moreover, in five alloparenting males (four tamarins and one lion tamarin), weights were examined to determine if weight loss occurred after births as observed in earlier studies. The results show that a 5% and 1SD criterion may be too sensitive a criterion. We therefore deemed that a 10% weight loss may be the best criterion. For marmosets, a 10% weight loss occurred in association with all events. For tamarins, weight loss occurred with housing events. In lion tamarins, weight loss was observed with medical events. No significant weight loss was observed in alloparenting males. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. An Experiment in Group Adolescent Weight Loss Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Frances

    1981-01-01

    A nutrition and diet group was established to lend support to and instill dieting techniques and correct eating habits in a group of 10 girls. Weight loss goals were established but no specific demands were made. (JN)

  11. Metabolism and Weight Loss: How You Burn Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... rest. Your sex. Men usually have less body fat and more muscle than do women of the same age and ... And since muscle tissue burns more calories than fat tissue does, muscle mass is a key factor in weight loss. ...

  12. Weight loss and nutritional considerations in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen L; Greenwood, Carol E

    2008-01-01

    Weight loss is a common problem among both community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and is associated with mortality, morbidity, disease progression, and poor quality of life. The causes of weight loss in this population are multifaceted and include loss of appetite secondary to deterioration of brain regions associated with feeding behavior and functional and behavioral problems associated with AD that make it difficult for individuals to consume adequate energy. The most common weight management strategy is to provide high-energy nutritional supplements to individuals at risk of weight loss. Supplementation is generally effective but tends to be least beneficial for those with the lowest body mass indices. Environmental and social interventions related to mealtimes and feeding are also important.

  13. Can Weight Loss Reduce the Need for Blood Pressure Medication?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can weight loss reduce the need for blood pressure medication? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. If you're ... pounds (2.3 kilograms) can lower your blood pressure. As you slim down, it may be possible ...

  14. An Experiment in Group Adolescent Weight Loss Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Frances

    1981-01-01

    A nutrition and diet group was established to lend support to and instill dieting techniques and correct eating habits in a group of 10 girls. Weight loss goals were established but no specific demands were made. (JN)

  15. Weight-loss surgery - after - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor after weight-loss surgery ... perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient - 2013 update: cosponsored by American Association of ...

  16. Weight-loss surgery - before - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor before weight-loss surgery ... perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient - 2013 update: cosponsored by American Association of ...

  17. Exercise Beats Weight Loss At Helping Seniors' Hearts

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163858.html Exercise Beats Weight Loss at Helping Seniors' Hearts Both ... a healthy boost may want to focus on exercise first, a new study suggests. The research found ...

  18. Gut Bacteria Changes After Some Weight-Loss Surgeries

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165987.html Gut Bacteria Changes After Some Weight-Loss Surgeries Better diversity ... Specifically, the procedure leads to increased diversity of bacteria in the gut, and a microbial population distinct ...

  19. Cu influence on hens weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonina, I. A.; Kleptsyna, E. S.; Petukhov, V. L.; Patrashkov, S. A.

    2003-05-01

    Copper plays an important part in living being bodies. But, both high and low Cu levels may cause human and animal diseases. Some East Siberia areas are characterized by Cu pollution [1]. 5 group of hens were formed: 1 - control, 2-5 - experimental. For a month the hens from experimental groups were drunk with water where Cu content was 5, 10, 20 and 30 times higher than the upper limits (UL). Group 1 - 3 hens' weight was almost the same during the experiment. Weight decrease (from 2020 to 1656 g) was detected in group 4 (20 UL) for the first half a month. All the hens of group 4 except for 3 hens were died for the last 2 weeks. In group 5 (30 UL) all the hens died after 2 ... 14 days. Thus, high Cu concentrations (20 ... 30 UL) cause hens' weight reduction of and their death.

  20. Weighted win loss approach for analyzing prioritized outcomes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaodong; Qiu, Junshan; Bai, Steven; Tian, Hong

    2017-03-26

    To analyze prioritized outcomes, Buyse (2010) and Pocock et al. (2012) proposed the win loss approach. In this paper, we first study the relationship between the win loss approach and the traditional survival analysis on the time to the first event. We then propose the weighted win loss statistics to improve the efficiency of the unweighted methods. A closed-form variance estimator of the weighted win loss statistics is derived to facilitate hypothesis testing and study design. We also calculated the contribution index to better interpret the results of the weighted win loss approach. Simulation studies and real data analysis demonstrated the characteristics of the proposed statistics. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Threshold for Improvement in Insulin Sensitivity with Adolescent Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Levitt Katz, Lorraine E.; Moore, Reneé H.; Xanthopoulos, Melissa S.; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle T.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Berkowitz, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association of weight loss and insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese adolescents following weight loss treatment, and to determine the threshold amount of weight loss required to observe improvements in these measures. Study design A randomized, controlled behavioral weight loss trial was conducted with 113 obese adolescents. Changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI), body-mass index (BMI), and MS criteria were assessed at baseline and at month 4. Results There was significant improvement in all measures of insulin sensitivity at month 4. Mean fasting insulin dropped to 16.6 from 22.3 μU/mL (p<0.0001). HOMA-IR decreased significantly from 4.9 to 3.7 (p=0.001) and WBISI increased significantly from 2.87 to 3.98 (p<0.0001). An 8% reduction in BMI led to a significant improvement in WBISI (p=0.03) and was the optimal threshold. Fewer individuals met criteria for MS after weight loss (p=0.0038), although there were no significant changes in the individual features of the syndrome. Conclusions In this trial, weight loss at month 4 was associated with improved insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents. An approximate decrease in BMI of 8% was the threshold level at which insulin sensitivity improved. As more weight loss programs are designed for obese adolescents, it will be important to have reasonable weight loss goals that will yield improvements in metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:23706362

  2. Impact of parental weight status on weight loss efforts in Hispanic children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parents have been shown to play an important role in weight loss for children. Parents are typically involved either as models for change or as supporters of children's weight loss efforts. It is likely that overweight/obese parents will need to be involved in changing the environment for themselv...

  3. Weight loss maintenance in relation to locus of control: The MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Fappa, Evaggelia; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Gkza, Anastasia; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Locus of control, i.e. the degree of an individual's belief on the control of his/her life, has been related to many health outcomes, including weight loss in overweight/obese individuals. No information is available on the impact of locus of control in maintaining weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of locus of control in weight loss maintenance and explore potential associations with lifestyle factors. Study participants included 239 individuals (41% males) who had lost at least 10% of body weight in the past and either maintained the loss (maintainers: weight maintenance of at least 10% of initial weight) or regained it (regainers). Locus of control was defined by a relevant multi-dimensional scale; participants were categorised to internals and externals, based on "internal" and "others" sub-scales. A significant interaction was found between locus of control and weight loss maintenance status (p < 0.001), with internals being more likely to be maintainers. Regainers had a more external orientation, compared to maintainers. Weight loss methods differ between groups, with internals reporting loosing weight by themselves more frequently, while externals reporting loosing weight mainly with the aid of an expert. Weight cycling of 2-3 kg in a typical year was reported more frequently in internals. Total and vigorous physical activity, as well as total hobbies score were associated with an internal profile, while sedentary activities with an external profile. No differences were found in dietary intake between internals and externals. Our results suggest that weight loss maintenance is associated with an internal locus of control. Individualised treatment, according to locus of control, may increase weight loss maintenance rates in former overweight/obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship Between Intuitive Eating and Postpartum Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Katie; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Banks, Gabrielle G; Bachman, Jessica

    2017-02-07

    Objective Postpartum weight loss is challenging for new mothers who report limited time and difficulties following traditional weight loss methods. Intuitive eating (IE) is a behavior that includes eating based on physical hunger and fullness and may have a role in encouraging weight loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IE and postpartum weight loss. Methods Women 12-18 months postpartum completed a questionnaire regarding weight changes surrounding pregnancy, exercise, breastfeeding and intuitive eating using the Intuitive Eating Scale. Latent growth curve modeling was utilized to determine the relationship between IE, breastfeeding, weight gain during pregnancy, and postpartum weight trajectories. Results Participants (n = 50) were 28.5 ± 4.9 years old, had an average pre-pregnancy BMI of 26.4 ± 6.8 and the majority were married, and non-Hispanic white. The conditional model revealed that more intuitive eating practices predicted greater postpartum BMI decreases (Est. = -0.10, p < .05) when controlling for breastfeeding duration, exercise duration, and initial BMI and pregnancy BMI changes. Greater pregnancy BMI increases were associated with more rapid postpartum BMI decreases (Est. = -0.34, p < .001) while breastfeeding duration, exercise and initial BMI were not related. Conclusions for Practice Postpartum weight retention is a challenge for many women. Following a more intuitive eating approach to food consumption may encourage postpartum weight loss without the required weighing, measuring, recording and assessing dietary intake that is required of traditional weight loss programs. IE could offer an alternative approach that may be less arduous for new mothers.

  5. Does Preoperative Weight Change Predict Postoperative Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy?

    PubMed

    Sherman, William E; Lane, Aaron E; Mangieri, Christopher W; Choi, Yong U; Faler, Byron J

    2015-09-01

    Background: Some institutions and insurance companies mandate a preoperative weight loss regimen prior to bariatric surgery. Previous studies suggest little to no correlation between preoperative and postoperative weight loss for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RNYGB). This study examined the impact of preoperative weight change for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients undergoing LSG at the authors' institution from 2010 to 2012. Patients were grouped based on preoperative weight gain or loss. The correlation between preoperative BMI change and postoperative BMI change was studied, as well as length of surgery. Results: Of 141 patients with 1-year follow-up, 72 lost, six maintained, and 64 gained weight preoperatively. Percentage of excess BMI loss at 1 year was not statistically different between those who lost weight and those who gained weight. Percent change in BMI from initial visit to surgery does not correlate with change in BMI at 1 year postoperatively or with length of surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative weight loss is not a reliable predictor of postoperative weight loss or shorter operative time after LSG. Potential patients who otherwise meet indications for LSG should not be denied based on inability to lose weight.

  6. Weight loss methods and changes in eating habits among successful weight losers.

    PubMed

    Soini, Sirpa; Mustajoki, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-01-01

    Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view. This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss. Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model. Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful.

  7. How adolescent girls interpret weight-loss advertising.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-10-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years interpreted magazine advertising, television (TV) advertising and infomercials for weight-loss products in order to determine whether deceptive advertising techniques were recognized and to assess pre-existing media-literacy skills. A total of 42 participants were interviewed in seven geographic regions of the United States. In groups of three, participants were shown seven print and TV advertisements (ads) for weight-loss products and asked to share their interpretations of each ad. Common factors in girls' interpretation of weight-loss advertising included responding to texts emotionally by identifying with characters; comparing and contrasting persuasive messages with real-life experiences with family members; using prior knowledge about nutrition management and recognizing obvious deceptive claims like 'rapid' or 'permanent' weight loss. Girls were less able to demonstrate skills including recognizing persuasive construction strategies including message purpose, target audience and subtext and awareness of economic factors including financial motives, credibility enhancement and branding.

  8. Resting State Brain Connectivity After Surgical and Behavioral Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lepping, Rebecca J.; Bruce, Amanda S.; Francisco, Alex; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Martin, Laura E.; Powell, Joshua N.; Hancock, Laura; Patrician, Trisha M.; Breslin, Florence J.; Selim, Niazy; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Bruce, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously reported changes in food-cue neural reactivity associated with behavioral and surgical weight loss interventions. Resting functional connectivity represents tonic neural activity that may contribute to weight loss success. Here we explore whether intervention type is associated with differences in functional connectivity after weight loss. METHODS Fifteen obese participants were recruited prior to adjustable gastric banding surgery. Thirteen demographically matched obese participants were selected from a separate behavioral diet intervention. Resting state fMRI was collected three months after surgery/behavioral intervention. ANOVA was used to examine post-weight loss differences between the two groups in connectivity to seed regions previously identified as showing differential cue-reactivity after weight loss. RESULTS Following weight loss, behavioral dieters exhibited increased connectivity between left precuneus/superior parietal lobule (SPL) and bilateral insula pre- to post-meal and bariatric patients exhibited decreased connectivity between these regions pre- to post-meal (pcorrected<.05). CONCLUSIONS Behavioral dieters showed increased connectivity pre- to post-meal between a region associated with processing of self-referent information (precuneus/SPL) and a region associated with interoception (insula) whereas bariatric patients showed decreased connectivity between these regions. This may reflect increased attention to hunger signals following surgical procedures, and increased attention to satiety signals following behavioral diet interventions. PMID:26053145

  9. Effects of metformin on weight loss: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Malin, Steven K; Kashyap, Sangeeta R

    2014-10-01

    Despite the known glucose-lowering effects of metformin, more recent clinical interest lies in its potential as a weight loss drug. Herein, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which metformin decreases appetite and opposes unfavorable fat storage in peripheral tissues. Many individuals struggle to maintain clinically relevant weight loss from lifestyle and bariatric surgery interventions. Long-term follow-up from the Diabetes Prevention Program demonstrates that metformin produces durable weight loss, and decreased food intake by metformin is the primary weight loss mechanism. Although the effect of metformin on appetite is likely to be multifactorial, changes in hypothalamic physiology, including leptin and insulin sensitivity, have been documented. In addition, novel work in obesity highlights the gastrointestinal physiology and circadian rhythm changes by metformin as not only affecting food intake, but also the regulation of fat oxidation and storage in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. Metformin induces modest weight loss in overweight and obese individuals at risk for diabetes. A more detailed understanding of how metformin induces weight loss will likely lead to optimal co-prescription of lifestyle modification with pharmacology for the treatment of obesity independent of diabetes.

  10. Lifestyle and Pharmacological Approaches to Weight Loss: Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Obesity results from a prolonged small positive energy balance, and its treatment needs to reverse this imbalance. Evidence Acquisition: Citations retrieved from PubMed and The Handbook of Obesity 2008 were selected to illustrate the points. Evidence Synthesis: Many different diets have been tried to treat obesity, and weight loss occurs with all of them. There is currently no evidence that clearly supports a superiority of one macronutrient composition for diets used for weight loss. The principal effect seems to be the degree of adherence to the prescribed calorie reduction. Lifestyle strategies to modify eating behavior can be used in individual counseling sessions or in groups, both of which are important in helping patients modify their patterns of eating. Physical activity is particularly important in helping patients maintain a weight loss once achieved and is less valuable for weight loss itself. Food intake is controlled through many different mechanisms, but only a few drugs have been developed that tap these mechanisms. Orlistat, which blocks intestinal lipase, is one; sibutramine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is a second. Surgical approaches provide the most dramatic weight loss and have been demonstrated to reduce long-term mortality and reduce the incidence of diabetes. Conclusions: Weight loss can be achieved by many methods, but the surgical procedures appear to be the most durable. PMID:18987274

  11. Effects of climatic variables on weight loss: a global analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ustulin, Morena; Keum, Changwon; Woo, Junghoon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Rhee, Sang Youl

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have analyzed the effects of weather on factors associated with weight loss. In this study, we directly analyzed the effect of weather on intentional weight loss using global-scale data provided by smartphone applications. Through Weather Underground API and the Noom Coach application, we extracted information on weather and body weight for each user located in each of several geographic areas on all login days. We identified meteorological information (pressure, precipitation, wind speed, dew point, and temperature) and self-monitored body weight data simultaneously. A linear mixed-effects model was performed analyzing 3274 subjects. Subjects in North America had higher initial BMIs than those of subjects in Eastern Asia. During the study period, most subjects who used the smartphone application experienced weight loss in a significant way (80.39%, p-value < 0.001). Subjects who infrequently recorded information about dinner had smaller variations than those of other subjects (βfreq.users dinner*time = 0.007, p-value < 0.001). Colder temperature, lower dew point, and higher values for wind speed and precipitation were significantly associated with weight loss. In conclusion, we found a direct and independent impact of meteorological conditions on intentional weight loss efforts on a global scale (not only on a local level). PMID:28106167

  12. A twin study of weight loss and metabolic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Stunkard, A; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Allison, D B

    2001-04-01

    To assess the genetic contribution to determinants of therapeutic weight loss in obese female identical twins. Subjects were studied for 40 days on an inpatient unit in three phases: 7 baseline days; 28 days of weight reduction by a very low calorie diet (1.6 MJ per day); and 5 days after weight reduction. Fourteen pairs of premenopausal obese female identical twins (age: 39.0+/-1.7 y; body weight (BW): 93.9+/-21.2 kg; body mass index (BMI): 34.2+/-7.8 kg/m2). : Body composition by hydrodensitometry and resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry were assessed before and after weight loss. : There was great variability among pairs in loss of weight (5.9-12.4 kg) and body fat (3.1-12.4 kg). By contrast, the intraclass correlation (ICC) within twin pairs was 0.85, P<0.001 for weight and 0.88, P<0.001 for body fat. A measure of metabolic efficiency, calculated as the difference between 'estimated' and 'measured' energy deficit showed high intrapair correlation (ICC=0.77; P<0.001). The high correlation in metabolic efficiency within twin pairs in response to therapeutic weight loss suggests a strong genetic contribution.

  13. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in successful, long-term weight loss maintainers compared with matched controls with no weight loss history

    PubMed Central

    Clamp, L D; Hume, D J; Lambert, E V; Kroff, J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Weight gain is associated with deterioration in metabolic health, whereas weight loss improves insulin sensitivity. This study assesses the impact of long-term, successfully maintained weight loss and weight-loss relapse on measures of insulin sensitivity and identifies factors that explain variability in insulin sensitivity. Methods: Women (20–45 years) were recruited into four groups: reduced-overweight/obese (RED, n=15); body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (stable low-weight, n=19), BMI⩽27 kg m−2; relapsed-overweight/obese subjects (REL, n=11); and BMI-matched controls (obese stable weight, n=11), BMI⩾27 kg m−2. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test determined fasting and 2 h plasma glucose and insulin. Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI(0,120)) assessed insulin sensitivity. Anthropometric measurements, fasting resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Questionnaires and dietary intake were recorded, and physical activity was measured using accelerometers. Results: RED were more insulin sensitive, characterised by lower fasting (P=0.001) and 2 h insulin (P=0.003) levels compared with all other groups. There were no significant differences in dietary intake, sedentary, light and moderate activity, RMR or RQ in the RED compared with the other three groups. % Body weight (BW) lost (P<0.001), % BW regained (P<0.05), body fat %, light activity (P<0.05, only log HOMA), vigorous activity (P<0.05) and RQ (P<0.01) predicted 61.4% and 59.7% of variability in log HOMA and log ISI(0,120), respectively, in multiple linear regression models. Conclusion: This study showed sustained enhanced insulin sensitivity in successful weight loss maintainers compared with BMI-matched controls with no weight loss history. Weight-loss-relapsed individuals were indistinguishable from controls. Weight loss itself was the strongest predictor of improved insulin sensitivity, whereas

  14. The impact of weight loss among seniors on Medicare spending

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of temporary and permanent weight loss of 10% and 15% on 10-year and lifetime Medicare spending among adults with overweight and obesity aged 65 years and older. Weight loss of this magnitude is consistent with next generation anti-obesity medications recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Methods We follow the approach of a longitudinal dynamic aging process model developed by our research team. This model considers the dynamic relationships between weight, chronic disease, acute medical events, functional status, mortality, health care utilization and spending among Medicare beneficiaries from age 65 until death. Using this model, we estimate baseline Medicare spending over the next decade and then over the lifetime of seniors with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 with at least one weight-related comorbidity (overweight), and seniors with obesity having a BMI ≥ 30 and ≥ 35. We then estimate Medicare spending for this population between ages 65 and 70 over the course of a year, assuming 10% and 15% weight loss under alternative scenarios: with and without weight regain. (Weight regain is assumed to be 90% over a 10-year period.) The difference in spending between baseline (no weight-loss intervention) and the alternative scenarios represent potential gross savings to the Medicare program. Results Permanent weight loss of 10 to 15% will yield $9,445 to $15,987 in gross per capita savings throughout their lifetime, and $8,070 to $13,474 over ten years. Similarly, initial weight loss of 10 to 15% followed by 90% weight regain will result in gross per capita savings of $7,556 to $11,109 over their lifetime, and $6,456 to $8,911 over ten years. Targeting weight loss medications to adults with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) produces greater savings to the Medicare program. Conclusion Medicare can realize significant cost savings through anti-obesity medications that produce substantial weight loss, and as a result, reduce the

  15. The impact of weight loss among seniors on Medicare spending.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Kenneth E; Yang, Zhou; Long, Kathleen M; Garvey, W Timothy

    2013-03-20

    To examine the impact of temporary and permanent weight loss of 10% and 15% on 10-year and lifetime Medicare spending among adults with overweight and obesity aged 65 years and older. Weight loss of this magnitude is consistent with next generation anti-obesity medications recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. We follow the approach of a longitudinal dynamic aging process model developed by our research team. This model considers the dynamic relationships between weight, chronic disease, acute medical events, functional status, mortality, health care utilization and spending among Medicare beneficiaries from age 65 until death. Using this model, we estimate baseline Medicare spending over the next decade and then over the lifetime of seniors with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 with at least one weight-related comorbidity (overweight), and seniors with obesity having a BMI ≥ 30 and ≥ 35. We then estimate Medicare spending for this population between ages 65 and 70 over the course of a year, assuming 10% and 15% weight loss under alternative scenarios: with and without weight regain. (Weight regain is assumed to be 90% over a 10-year period.) The difference in spending between baseline (no weight-loss intervention) and the alternative scenarios represent potential gross savings to the Medicare program. Permanent weight loss of 10 to 15% will yield $9,445 to $15,987 in gross per capita savings throughout their lifetime, and $8,070 to $13,474 over ten years. Similarly, initial weight loss of 10 to 15% followed by 90% weight regain will result in gross per capita savings of $7,556 to $11,109 over their lifetime, and $6,456 to $8,911 over ten years. Targeting weight loss medications to adults with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) produces greater savings to the Medicare program. Medicare can realize significant cost savings through anti-obesity medications that produce substantial weight loss, and as a result, reduce the progression to type 2 diabetes, and

  16. Meal replacement with a low-calorie diet formula in weight loss maintenance after weight loss induction with diet alone.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, C; Montagna, C; Alcaraz, F; Balsa, J A; Zamarrón, I; Arrieta, F; Botella-Carretero, J I

    2009-10-01

    Weight loss in obesity can reduce morbidity and mortality and benefits persist as long as weight loss is maintained. Weight maintenance is difficult in the long term and new strategies need to be developed to achieve this goal. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of substituting a low-calorie diet formula for a meal in a weight loss program during the maintenance phase. Randomized paralleled clinical trial including 62 adult patients with at least a 5% weight loss with diet alone for 6 months, randomized to two groups: daily replacement of one meal with a low-calorie diet formula, or dieting alone for another 6 months (weight maintenance phase). Weight maintenance or further weight loss occurred in 83.9% of patients in the intervention group, whereas only in 58.1% in the control group (P=0.025). As a whole, patients in the intervention group lost a further 3.2+/-3.7% of initial weight compared with a 1.3+/-3.6% in the control group (P=0.030). Body fat mass diminished in both groups, with no differences between them (1.6+/-3.5 vs 1.0+/-9.3 kg, respectively, P=0.239), and the same happened with free fat mass (0.9+/-3.3 vs 0.4+/-6.7 kg, respectively, P=0.471). A multivariate logistic regression analysis (R (2)=0.114, P=0.023) retained only the intervention as a predictor of the achievement of weight maintenance with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 3.756 (1.138-12.391). Substitution of a low-calorie diet formula for a meal is an effective measure for weight loss maintenance compared with dieting alone.

  17. Diet and Gastrointestinal Bypass–Induced Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Chandarana, Keval; Gelegen, Cigdem; Karra, Efthimia; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Drew, Megan E.; Fauveau, Veronique; Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Withers, Dominic J.; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bariatric surgery causes durable weight loss. Gut hormones are implicated in obesity pathogenesis, dietary failure, and mediating gastrointestinal bypass (GIBP) surgery weight loss. In mice, we determined the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO), subsequent dieting, and GIBP surgery on ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). To evaluate PYY’s role in mediating weight loss post-GIBP, we undertook GIBP surgery in PyyKO mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Male C57BL/6 mice randomized to a high-fat diet or control diet were killed at 4-week intervals. DIO mice underwent switch to ad libitum low-fat diet (DIO-switch) or caloric restriction (CR) for 4 weeks before being killed. PyyKO mice and their DIO wild-type (WT) littermates underwent GIBP or sham surgery and were culled 10 days postoperatively. Fasting acyl-ghrelin, total PYY, active GLP-1 concentrations, stomach ghrelin expression, and colonic Pyy and glucagon expression were determined. Fasting and postprandial PYY and GLP-1 concentrations were assessed 30 days postsurgery in GIBP and sham pair-fed (sham.PF) groups. RESULTS DIO progressively reduced circulating fasting acyl-ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1 levels. CR and DIO-switch caused weight loss but failed to restore circulating PYY to weight-appropriate levels. After GIBP, WT mice lost weight and exhibited increased circulating fasting PYY and colonic Pyy and glucagon expression. In contrast, the acute effects of GIBP on body weight were lost in PyyKO mice. Fasting PYY and postprandial PYY and GLP-1 levels were increased in GIBP mice compared with sham.PF mice. CONCLUSIONS PYY plays a key role in mediating the early weight loss observed post-GIBP, whereas relative PYY deficiency during dieting may compromise weight-loss attempts. PMID:21292870

  18. Exercise and weight loss: no sex differences in body weight response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Finlayson, Graham; Näslund, Erik; Blundell, John

    2014-07-01

    There is a view that exercise is less effective for weight loss in women compared with men. This systematic review examines the evidence for sex-based differences in the effect of exercise on body weight. We hypothesize that, when energy expenditure is equivalent, there will be no evidence for sex differences in body weight response to exercise.

  19. Rise of plasma ghrelin with weight loss is not sustained during weight maintenance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin is postulated to be an orexigenic signal that promotes weight regain after weight loss (WL). However, it is not known whether this putative effect of ghrelin is sustained after weight stabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrati...

  20. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to <9 h) sleepers increased their sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (≥9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  1. Sleep Is Increased By Weight Gain and Decreased By Weight Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhiwei; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Fang, Jidong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether weight loss could reverse excessive sleep in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Design: Three groups of mice participated in the study. A weight gain/loss group was fed with high-fat food for 6 weeks (weight gain), and regular food again for 4 weeks (weight loss). A control group and a weight gain only group were fed with regular food and high-fat food, respectively, for 10 weeks after the baseline. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6 mice. Measurements: The amounts of wake, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS) were determined at week 0 (baseline), week 6, and week 10. Results: The weight gain/loss group displayed a significant decrease in wakefulness and increases in NREMS and episodes of NREMS during 6 weeks of weight gain, which were reversed during subsequent 4 weeks of weight loss. The weight gain only group displayed significant decrease in wakefulness and increase of NREMS and REMS at both week 6 and week 10. The control group did not show significant sleep alterations during the experiment. Conclusion: These observations indicate that sleep alterations induced by weight gain are reversed by weight loss in obese animals. These data may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the well-established association between obesity and sleepiness in humans and may lead to new therapeutic strategies for these 2 increasingly prevalent problems in the modern societies. Citation: Guan Z; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Fang J. Sleep is increased by weight gain and decreased by weight loss in mice. SLEEP 2008;31(5):627-633. PMID:18517033

  2. Biological Mechanisms that Promote Weight Regain Following Weight Loss in Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ochner, Christopher N.; Barrios, Dulce M.; Lee, Clement D.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss dieting remains the treatment of choice for the vast majority of obese individuals, despite the limited long-term success of behavioral weight loss interventions. The reasons for the near universal unsustainability of behavioral weight loss in [formerly] obese individuals have not been fully elucidated, relegating researchers to making educated guesses about how to improve obesity treatment, as opposed to developing interventions targeting the causes of weight regain. This article discusses research on several factors that may contribute to weight regain following weight loss achieved through behavioral interventions, including adipose cellularity, endocrine function, energy metabolism, neural responsivity, and addiction-like neural mechanisms. All of these mechanisms are engaged prior to weight loss, suggesting that so called “anti-starvation” mechanisms are activated via reductions in energy intake, rather than depletion of energy stores. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms are not necessarily part of a homeostatic feedback system designed to regulate body weight or even anti-starvation mechanisms per se. Though they may have evolved to prevent starvation, they appear to be more accurately described as anti-weight loss mechanisms, engaged with caloric restriction irrespective of the adequacy of energy stores. It is hypothesized that these factors may combine to create a biological disposition that fosters the maintenance of an elevated body weight and work to restore the highest sustained body weight, thus precluding the long-term success of behavioral weight loss. It may be necessary to develop interventions that attenuate these biological mechanisms in order to achieve long-term weight reduction in obese individuals. PMID:23911805

  3. Biological mechanisms that promote weight regain following weight loss in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Ochner, Christopher N; Barrios, Dulce M; Lee, Clement D; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2013-08-15

    Weight loss dieting remains the treatment of choice for the vast majority of obese individuals, despite the limited long-term success of behavioral weight loss interventions. The reasons for the near universal unsustainability of behavioral weight loss in [formerly] obese individuals have not been fully elucidated, relegating researchers to making educated guesses about how to improve obesity treatment, as opposed to developing interventions targeting the causes of weight regain. This article discusses research on several factors that may contribute to weight regain following weight loss achieved through behavioral interventions, including adipose cellularity, endocrine function, energy metabolism, neural responsivity, and addiction-like neural mechanisms. All of these mechanisms are engaged prior to weight loss, suggesting that these so called "anti-starvation" mechanisms are activated via reductions in energy intake, rather than depletion of energy stores. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms are not necessarily part of a homeostatic feedback system designed to regulate body weight, or even anti-starvation mechanisms per se. Although they may have evolved to prevent starvation, they appear to be more accurately described as anti-weight loss mechanisms, engaged with caloric restriction irrespective of the adequacy of energy stores. It is hypothesized that these factors may combine to create a biological disposition that fosters the maintenance of an elevated body weight and works to restore the highest sustained body weight, thus precluding the long-term success of behavioral weight loss. It may be necessary to develop interventions that attenuate these biological mechanisms in order to achieve long-term weight reduction in obese individuals. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Plastic reconstructive operations after weight loss through gastric banding].

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, M; Piza-Katzer, H

    2002-09-01

    The number of patients who desire reconstructive surgery after a huge weight loss through gastric banding is increasing. From 1999 to 2001, 40 reconstructive operations were performed on 25 patients after an average decrease in weight of 58 kg. Six months later, a follow-up examination was done. A questionnaire was handed out and the aesthetic results were judged by five independent plastic surgeons. The department of psychology judged the patient's attitude towards their body, the presentation of their body for attractiveness, satisfaction with life, anxiety and depression, and changes in experience and behavior. The results showed a discrepancy between the subjective satisfaction of the patients and the judgment of the plastic surgeons; the preference for long scars instead of remaining surplus tissue, the necessity of a strict indication for transplantation of one's own tissue, the importance of detailed preoperative information using pictures, advantages and disadvantages of simultaneous operations in different anatomical regions, the need for exact planning and postoperative care as well as the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork. These results will influence the indication for a reconstructive operation in the future.

  5. Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Quantity and Weight Loss in Women Participating in a Weight-Loss Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; Morrow, Kelly L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Perfect, Michelle M.; Ravia, Jennifer J.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Karanja, Njeri; Rock, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who report fewer total hours of sleep are more likely to be overweight or obese. Few studies have prospectively evaluated weight-loss success in relation to reported sleep quality and quantity. This analysis sought to determine the association between sleep characteristics and weight loss in overweight or obese women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a weight-loss program. We hypothesized that in overweight/obese women, significant weight loss would be demonstrated more frequently in women who report a better Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Global Score or sleep >7 h/night as compared to women who report a worse PSQI score or sleep ≤7 h/night. Women of ages 45.5 ± 10.4 (mean ± SD) years and BMI of 33.9 ± 3.3 (n = 245) were randomized and completed PSQI at baseline and 6 months; 198 had weight change assessed through 24 months. At baseline, 52.7% reported PSQI scores above the clinical cutoff of 5. Better subjective sleep quality increased the likelihood of weight-loss success by 33% (relative risk (RR), 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52–0.86), as did sleeping >7 h/night. A worse Global Score at 6 months was associated with a 28% lower likelihood of continued successful weight loss at 18 months, but unassociated by 24 months. These results suggest that sleep quality and quantity may contribute to weight loss in intervention-based studies designed to promote weight control in overweight/obese adult women. PMID:22402738

  6. Relationship between sleep quality and quantity and weight loss in women participating in a weight-loss intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Morrow, Kelly L; Flatt, Shirley W; Wertheim, Betsy C; Perfect, Michelle M; Ravia, Jennifer J; Sherwood, Nancy E; Karanja, Njeri; Rock, Cheryl L

    2012-07-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who report fewer total hours of sleep are more likely to be overweight or obese. Few studies have prospectively evaluated weight-loss success in relation to reported sleep quality and quantity. This analysis sought to determine the association between sleep characteristics and weight loss in overweight or obese women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a weight-loss program. We hypothesized that in overweight/obese women, significant weight loss would be demonstrated more frequently in women who report a better Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Global Score or sleep >7 h/night as compared to women who report a worse PSQI score or sleep ≤7 h/night. Women of ages 45.5 ± 10.4 (mean ± SD) years and BMI of 33.9 ± 3.3 (n = 245) were randomized and completed PSQI at baseline and 6 months; 198 had weight change assessed through 24 months. At baseline, 52.7% reported PSQI scores above the clinical cutoff of 5. Better subjective sleep quality increased the likelihood of weight-loss success by 33% (relative risk (RR), 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52-0.86), as did sleeping >7 h/night. A worse Global Score at 6 months was associated with a 28% lower likelihood of continued successful weight loss at 18 months, but unassociated by 24 months. These results suggest that sleep quality and quantity may contribute to weight loss in intervention-based studies designed to promote weight control in overweight/obese adult women.

  7. The cancer anorexia/weight loss syndrome: therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Karin F; Jatoi, Aminah

    2005-07-01

    The cancer anorexia/weight loss syndrome is characterized by loss of weight, loss of appetite, overall decline in quality of life, and shortened survival in patients with advanced incurable cancer. It is highly prevalent. To date, treatment options that have been firmly established with good scientific evidence are limited to progestational agents and corticosteroids, both of which have been demonstrated to improve appetite but have otherwise failed to have a favorable impact on some of the other aspects of this syndrome. As the mechanisms behind this syndrome are further elucidated, more effective therapeutic strategies will likely emerge.

  8. Success of a weight loss plan for overweight dogs: The results of an international weight loss study

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, John; Bissot, Thomas; Hours, Marie-Anne; Moreno, Bernabe; Feugier, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a global concern in dogs with an increasing prevalence, and effective weight loss solutions are required that work in different geographical regions. The main objective was to conduct an international, multi-centre, weight loss trial to determine the efficacy of a dietary weight loss intervention in obese pet dogs. Methods A 3-month prospective observational cohort study of weight loss in 926 overweight dogs was conducted at 340 veterinary practices in 27 countries. Commercially available dry or wet weight loss diets were used, with the initial energy allocation being 250–335 kJ/kg target body weight0.75/day (60–80 kcal/kg target body weight0.75/day) depending on sex and neuter status. The primary outcome measure was percentage weight loss; the main secondary outcomes were changes in activity, quality of life, and food-seeking behaviour, which were subjectively determined from owner descriptions. Results At baseline, median (range) age was 74 (12 to 193) months and median body condition score was 8 (range 7–9). 896 of the 926 dogs (97%) lost weight, with mean weight loss being 11.4 ±5.84%. Sexually intact dogs lost more weight than neutered dogs (P = 0.001), whilst female dogs lost more weight than male dogs (P = 0.007), with the difference being more pronounced in North and South American dogs (median [Q1, Q3]: female: 11.5% [8.5%, 14.5%]; male: 9.1% [6.3%, 12.1%], P = 0.053) compared with those from Europe (female: 12.3% [8.9%, 14.9%]; male: 10.9% [8.6%, 15.4%]). Finally, subjective scores for activity (P<0.001) and quality of life (P<0.001) increased sequentially, whilst scores for food-seeking behaviour decreased sequentially (P<0.001) during the study. Conclusion This is the largest international multi-centre weight loss study conducted to date in obese dogs. Most dogs lost a clinically significant amount of weight, although there were notable differences between dogs of different sex, neuter status and in different geographical

  9. Within-day protein distribution does not influence body composition responses during weight loss in resistance-training adults who are overweight.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Joshua L; Kim, Jung Eun; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Campbell, Wayne W

    2017-09-13

    Background: Emerging research suggests that redistributing total protein intake from 1 high-protein meal/d to multiple moderately high-protein meals improves 24-h muscle protein synthesis. Over time, this may promote positive changes in body composition.Objective: We sought to assess the effects of within-day protein intake distribution on changes in body composition during dietary energy restriction and resistance training.Design: In a randomized parallel-design study, 41 men and women [mean ± SEM age: 35 ± 2 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 ± 0.5] consumed an energy-restricted diet (750 kcal/d below the requirement) for 16 wk while performing resistance training 3 d/wk. Subjects consumed 90 g protein/d (1.0 ± 0.03 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), 125% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance, at intervention week 1) in either a skewed (10 g at breakfast, 20 g at lunch, and 60 g at dinner; n = 20) or even (30 g each at breakfast, lunch, and dinner; n = 21) distribution pattern. Body composition was measured pre- and postintervention.Results: Over time, whole-body mass (least-squares mean ± SE: -7.9 ± 0.6 kg), whole-body lean mass (-1.0 ± 0.2 kg), whole-body fat mass (-6.9 ± 0.5 kg), appendicular lean mass (-0.7 ± 0.1 kg), and appendicular fat mass (-2.6 ± 0.2 kg) each decreased. The midthigh muscle area (0 ± 1 cm(2)) did not change over time, whereas the midcalf muscle area decreased (-3 ± 1 cm(2)). Within-day protein distribution did not differentially affect these body-composition responses.Conclusion: The effectiveness of dietary energy restriction combined with resistance training to improve body composition is not influenced by the within-day distribution of protein when adequate total protein is consumed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02066948. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Long-term weight status in regainers after weight loss by lifestyle intervention: status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-11-01

    After having participated in a weight loss trial, most participants do not stabilise the obtained weight loss but return to their initial weight. The aim of this review is to describe the main determinants of continued low weight status after weight loss, and the effectiveness of physical activity (PA), energy restriction and macronutrient composition of the diet for low long-term weight regain. Studies with intervention periods of at least 3 months duration of weight reduction measures and a follow-up at least 2 years after the intervention period were considered as eligible for the review. Owing to limited data, the studies describing the role of PA in weight management were eligible with a follow-up of 1 year only. It appears that a diet with self-regulation of dietary intake seems to be given a prominent role in the strategy of successful long-term weight loss among the obese. This measure could be combined with behaviour therapy and PA and tailored to the individual situation. However, considering available evidence it is difficult to conclude regarding unambiguous measures and to recommend a specific dietary intervention. Nevertheless, interventions should be effective in promoting intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. The harmonisation and standardisation of data collection in the follow-up period of long-term weight loss studies is a major challenge.

  11. Transforming Your Life: An Environmental Modification Approach to Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A.; Young, Kathleen M.; Koball, Afton; Gumble, Amanda; Darby, Lynn A.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Wott, Carissa B.; Hinman, Nova

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compared a traditional behavioral weight loss program with a weight loss intervention emphasizing environmental modification and habit formation and disruption. Fifty-four overweight and obese adults (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to either a 14-week LEARN or TYL intervention. Forty-two participants completed the six-month follow-up assessment. Treatment outcomes between LEARN and TYL participants were equivalent. During the six-month no-treatment follow-up period, participants evidenced a 3.3 lb (SD = 9.2) weight gain. The TYL intervention appears to represent an attractive option for individuals seeking an alternative to the traditional behavioral approach to weight loss. PMID:20929947

  12. Hypertension in Obesity and the Impact of Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jordana B

    2017-08-24

    Several interrelated mechanisms promote the development of hypertension in obesity, often contributing to end organ damage including cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. The treatment of hypertension in obesity is complicated by a high prevalence of resistant hypertension, as well as unpredictable hemodynamic effects of many medications. Weight loss stabilizes neurohormonal activity and causes clinically significant reductions in blood pressure. While lifestyle interventions can improve blood pressure, they fail to consistently yield sustained weight loss and have not demonstrated long-term benefits. Bariatric surgery provides more permanent weight reduction, corresponding with dramatic declines in blood pressure and attenuation of long-term cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is closely linked to the prevalence, pathophysiology, and morbidity of obesity. There are multiple barriers to managing hypertension in obesity. Surgical weight loss offers the most promise in reducing blood pressure and decreasing end organ damage in this patient population.

  13. Weight loss motivations: a latent class analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Stephenie C; Schneider, Kristin L; Wang, Monica L; Liu, Qin; Magner, Robert; Estabrook, Barbara; Druker, Susan; Pbert, Lori

    2014-07-01

    To identify subgroups of adults with respect to weight loss motivations and assess factors associated with subgroup membership. A cross-sectional survey among 414 overweight/ obese employees in 12 Massachusetts high schools was conducted. Latent class analysis (LCA) defined distinct weight loss motivation classes. Multinomial logistic regression assessed participant characteristics with class membership. Three classes emerged: improving health; improving health and looking/feeling better; and improving health, looking/feeling, better and improving personal/social life. Compared to class 1, class 2 was more likely to be female and younger and class 3 was more likely to be female, younger, have children at home, and perceive themselves as very over-weight. Findings can inform targeted weight loss interventions.

  14. Should providers encourage realistic weight expectations and satisfaction with lost weight in commercial weight loss programs? a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ames, Gretchen E; Thomas, Colleen S; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Attrition is a problem among patients who participate in commercial weight loss programs. One possible explanation is that if patients are unable to reach a weight that they expect to achieve, they may be more likely to drop out of treatment. This study investigated variables associated with attrition among 30 obese patients who completed a liquid meal replacement program (LMR) and enrolled in a 52-week Small Changes Maintenance intervention (SCM). Patients lost a median 18% of body weight during LMR and completed assessments about weight expectations and weight satisfaction pre- and post-SCM. Of the 30 patients who started SCM, 8 (27%) were lost to attrition. Odds of SCM attrition were higher in patients who lost ≤ 18.2% of pre-LMR weight (OR: 12.25, P = 0.035), had lower satisfaction (≤7) pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040), and who expected further weight loss of 9.1 kg or more pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040). SCM completers significantly increased weight loss expectations by a median of 2.3 kg from pre-SCM to post-SCM (WSR P = 0.049) that paralleled weight regained post-SCM (2.7 kg). After completion of a medically-supervised commercial weight loss program, patients with the greatest expectations for further weight loss and the lowest weight satisfaction were more likely to drop out of SCM. Failure to participate in maintenance treatment may lead to regain of greater than half of lost weight over the next year. Among SCM completers, lower expectations for further weight loss and greater weight satisfaction appeared to be associated with continued engagement in maintenance treatment.

  15. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-07-16

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  16. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  17. Iodine content of U.S. weight-loss food.

    PubMed

    Kuriti, Manikya; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Leung, Angela M

    2014-03-01

    The recommended iodine intake is 150 μg/day in adults, 220 μg/day during pregnancy, and 290 μg/day during lactation. Individuals exclusively consuming restricted diets as part of a weight-loss program may be at risk for mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to assess the iodine content in meals and snacks from 3 U.S. commercial weight-loss programs, all of which are intended to be the sole source of dietary intake during the desired weight-loss period. The iodine contents in the products representing 1 week of all meals and snacks from 3 U.S. commercial weight-loss programs were measured by spectrophotometry. The measured total iodine content in 1 week's worth of food from each program is reported as an average level per day. A total of 53 total items were analyzed (29 different items [7 breakfasts, 7 lunches, 7 dinners, 6 snacks, 2 desserts] from Jenny Craig®, 21 different items [7 breakfasts, 7 lunches, 7 dinners] from Nutrisystem®, and 3 different items [1 breakfast, 1 lunch, 1 dinner; each to be intended to be eaten daily for 1 week] from Medifast®). Daily iodine content (mean ± SD) of meals and snacks from the weight-loss programs were 34.2 ± 1.2 (Jenny Craig®), 12.2 ± 0.7 (Nutrisystem®), and 70.1 ± 1.1 (Medifast) μg/day. These results indicate that the dietary content in the foods from 3 U.S. commercial weight-loss programs is far less than the recommendations for iodine intake of 150 μg/day in nonpregnant, nonlactating adults. Individuals following each weight-loss program should be advised to take a multivitamin containing 150 mg of iodine daily.

  18. The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, P S; Higgins, J A; Giles, E D; Sherk, V D; Jackman, M R

    2015-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is a substantial challenge in obesity therapeutics. Dieting leads to significant adaptations in the homeostatic system that controls body weight, which promotes overeating and the relapse to obesity. In this review, we focus specifically on the adaptations in white adipose tissues that contribute to the biological drive to regain weight after weight loss. Weight loss leads to a reduction in size of adipocytes and this decline in size alters their metabolic and inflammatory characteristics in a manner that facilitates the clearance and storage of ingested energy. We present the hypothesis whereby the long-term signals reflecting stored energy and short-term signals reflecting nutrient availability are derived from the cellularity characteristics of adipose tissues. These signals are received and integrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and an energy gap between appetite and metabolic requirements emerges and promotes a positive energy imbalance and weight regain. In this paradigm, the cellularity and metabolic characteristics of adipose tissues after energy-restricted weight loss could explain the persistence of a biological drive to regain weight during both weight maintenance and the dynamic period of weight regain. PMID:25614203

  19. The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss.

    PubMed

    MacLean, P S; Higgins, J A; Giles, E D; Sherk, V D; Jackman, M R

    2015-02-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is a substantial challenge in obesity therapeutics. Dieting leads to significant adaptations in the homeostatic system that controls body weight, which promotes overeating and the relapse to obesity. In this review, we focus specifically on the adaptations in white adipose tissues that contribute to the biological drive to regain weight after weight loss. Weight loss leads to a reduction in size of adipocytes and this decline in size alters their metabolic and inflammatory characteristics in a manner that facilitates the clearance and storage of ingested energy. We present the hypothesis whereby the long-term signals reflecting stored energy and short-term signals reflecting nutrient availability are derived from the cellularity characteristics of adipose tissues. These signals are received and integrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and an energy gap between appetite and metabolic requirements emerges and promotes a positive energy imbalance and weight regain. In this paradigm, the cellularity and metabolic characteristics of adipose tissues after energy-restricted weight loss could explain the persistence of a biological drive to regain weight during both weight maintenance and the dynamic period of weight regain. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity reviews © 2015 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Weight loss therapy for clinical management of patients with some atherosclerotic diseases: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Oshakbayev, Kuat; Dukenbayeva, Bibazhar; Otarbayev, Nurzhan; Togizbayeva, Gulnar; Tabynbayev, Nariman; Gazaliyeva, Meruyert; Idrisov, Alisher; Oshakbayev, Pernekul

    2015-11-25

    The prevalence and burden of atherosclerotic (AS) diseases are increasing during the last twenty years. Some studies show a close relationship between overweight and AS, but influence on AS diseases of different weight loss methods are still studying. The purpose of the research was to study the effectiveness of a weight loss program in AS patients in randomized controlled trial, and to develop a conception of evolution of AS. A randomized controlled prospective clinical trial including 97 people, from them 71 patients with various AS manifestations. Patients were divided in 2 subgroups for non-drug weight loss program, and conventional drug therapy. The weight loss program included calorie restriction with 100-150 kcal/day, fat-free vegetables, salt diet, and optimum physical activity. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. The weight loss subgroup lost ranging between 7-20% from an initial weight (P = 0.016). Weight loss was achieved due to fatty mass reduction only (P = 0.005). Hemoglobin levels (P < 0.001), bone mineral density (P < 0.001), percentages of water (P = 0.006) and muscle masses (P = 0.0038) were increased in weight loss subgroup. Ejection fraction (P < 0.0001), systolic output (P < 0.0001) were increased in patients with coronary artery disease. The weight loss program led to a decrease in symptomatic drugs doses up to total abolition. A conception of AS was developed. The weight loss program treated the AS diseases; improved laboratory and instrumental parameters, decreased symptomatic drugs doses. AS development is a logical way of ontogenetic ageing of body fat. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01700075. State registration is # 0109RK000079, code is O.0475 at the National Center for Scientific and Technical Information of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  1. Weight loss-induced stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue is related to weight regain.

    PubMed

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Camps, Stefan G; Renes, Johan; Bouwman, Freek G; Westerterp, Klaas R; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2016-03-14

    Initial successful weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention. Compared with lean people, cellular stress in adipose tissue is increased in obese subjects. However, the relation between cellular stress and the risk for weight regain after weight loss is unclear. Therefore, we determined the expression levels of stress proteins during weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to weight regain. In vivo findings were compared with results from in vitro cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. In total, eighteen healthy subjects underwent an 8-week diet programme with a 10-month follow-up. Participants were categorised as weight maintainers or weight regainers (WR) depending on their weight changes during the intervention. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after the diet and after the follow-up. In vitro differentiated SGBS adipocytes were starved for 96 h with low (0·55 mm) glucose. Levels of stress proteins were determined by Western blotting. WR showed increased expressions of β-actin, calnexin, heat shock protein (HSP) 27, HSP60 and HSP70. Changes of β-actin, HSP27 and HSP70 are linked to HSP60, a proposed key factor in weight regain after weight loss. SGBS adipocytes showed increased levels of β-actin and HSP60 after 96 h of glucose restriction. The increased level of cellular stress proteins in the adipose tissue of WR probably resides in the adipocytes as shown by in vitro experiments. Cellular stress accumulated in adipose tissue during weight loss may be a risk factor for weight regain.

  2. A Losing Battle: Weight Regain Does Not Restore Weight Loss-Induced Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Villalon, Karen L.; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Wolfe, Pam; Jankowski, Catherine M.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported significant bone mineral density (BMD) loss in postmenopausal women after modest weight loss. It remains unclear whether the magnitude of BMD change in response to weight loss is appropriate (i.e., proportional to weight loss) and whether BMD is recovered with weight regain. We now report changes in BMD after a 1-year follow-up. Subjects (n = 23) in this secondary analysis were postmenopausal women randomized to placebo as part of a larger trial. They completed a 6-month exercise-based weight loss program and returned for follow-up at 18 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline, 6, and 18 months. At baseline, subjects were aged 56.8 ± 5.4 years (mean ± s.d.), 10.0 ± 9.2 years postmenopausal, and BMI was 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2. They lost 3.9 ± 3.5 kg during the weight loss intervention. During follow-up, they regained 2.9 ± 3.9 kg. Six months of weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in lumbar spine (LS) (−1.7 ± 3.5%; P = 0.002) and hip (−0.04 ± 3.5%; P = 0.03) BMD that was accompanied by an increase in a biomarker of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX: 34 ± 54%; P = 0.08). However, weight regain was not associated with LS (0.05 ± 3.8%; P = 0.15) or hip (−0.6 ± 3.0%; P = 0.81) bone regain or decreased bone resorption (CTX: −3 ± 37%; P = 0.73). The findings suggest that BMD lost during weight reduction may not be fully recovered with weight regain in hormone-deficient, postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to identify effective strategies to prevent bone loss during periods of weight loss. PMID:21852813

  3. Weight loss strategies for adolescents: a 14-year-old struggling to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David S

    2012-02-01

    With prevalence approaching 20% in the United States, adolescent obesity has become a common problem for patients, parents, and clinicians. Obese adolescents may experience physical and psychosocial complications, as illustrated by the case of Ms K, a 14-year-old girl with a body mass index of 40. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of pediatric obesity treatment is modest in younger children and declines in older children and adolescents, and few interventions involving adolescents have produced significant long-term weight loss. Nevertheless, novel strategies to alter energy balance have shown preliminary evidence of benefit in clinical trials, including a diet focused on food quality rather than fat restriction and a lifestyle approach to encourage enjoyable physical activity throughout the day rather than intermittent exercise. Parents can have an important influence on weight-related behaviors in adolescents despite typically complicated emotional dynamics at this age, especially through the use of noncoercive methods. A key parenting practice applicable to children of all ages is to create a protective environment in the home, substituting nutritious foods for unhealthful ones and facilitating physical activities instead of sedentary pursuits. Other behaviors that may promote successful long-term weight management include good sleep hygiene, stress reduction, and mindfulness. Ultimately, the obesity epidemic can be attributed to changes in the social environment that hinder healthful lifestyle habits, and prevention will require a comprehensive public health strategy.

  4. Impact of Weight Loss Surgery on Esophageal Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Rishi D.; Choksi, Yash A.

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has come to the forefront of weight loss treatment due to its complex interactions via anatomic, physiologic, and neurohormonal changes leading to sustained weight loss. Unlike lifestyle and pharmacologic options, which fail to show long-term sustained weight loss, bariatric surgery has been shown to decrease overall mortality and morbidity. Bariatric surgery can be purely restrictive, such as laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), or restrictive-malabsorptive, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). These surgeries cause specific anatomic changes that promote weight loss; however, they also have unintended effects on the esophagus, particularly in terms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal motility. Via restrictive surgery, LAGB has been widely reported to cause significant weight loss, although studies have also shown an increase and worsening of GERD as well as elevated rates of esophageal dilation, aperistalsis, and alterations in lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Along with LAGB, LSG has shown not only a worsening of GERD, but also the formation of de novo GERD in patients who were asymptomatic before the operation. In a restrictive-malabsorptive approach, RYGB has been reported to improve GERD and preserve esophageal motility. Bariatric surgery is a burgeoning field with immense implications on overall mortality. Future randomized, controlled trials are needed to better understand which patients should undergo particular surgeries, with greater emphasis on esophageal health and prevention of GERD and esophageal dysmotility. PMID:27134597

  5. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  6. Weight loss support seeking on twitter: the impact of weight on follow back rates and interactions.

    PubMed

    May, Christine N; Waring, Molly E; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Oleski, Jessica L; Olendzki, Effie; Evans, Martinus; Carey, Jennifer; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2017-03-01

    People seek weight loss support on online social networks, but little is known about how to build a supportive community. We created four Twitter accounts portraying women interested in weight loss (two obese, two normal weight/overweight) and followed health care professional and peer accounts for 2-5 weeks. We examined follow back rates, interactions, and organic follows from professionals and peers by weight status. Follow back rates did not differ by weight status when following professionals (6.8 % normal weight/overweight vs 11.0 % for obese; p = 0.4167) or peers (6.7 % for normal weight/overweight vs 10.8 % for obese; p = 0.1548). Number of interactions and organic followers also did not differ by weight status. Peers interacted with study accounts significantly more than professionals (p = 0.0138), but interactions were infrequent. Women seeking weight loss support on Twitter may need to be present for more than 5 weeks to build an interactive weight loss community.

  7. Gastrointestinal Hormones and Bariatric Surgery-induced Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ionut, Viorica; Burch, Miguel; Youdim, Adrienne; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. While recent statistics have demonstrated that obesity rates have begun to plateau, more severe classes of obesity are accelerating at a faster pace with important implications in regards to treatment. Bariatric surgery has a profound and durable effect on weight loss, being to date one of the most successful interventions for obesity. Objective To provide updates to the possible role of gut hormones in post bariatric surgery weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Design and Methods The current review examines the changes in gastro-intestinal hormones with bariatric surgery and the potential mechanisms by which these changes could result in decreased weight and adiposity. Results The mechanism by which bariatric surgery results in body weight changes is incompletely elucidated, but it clearly goes beyond caloric restriction and malabsorption. Conclusion Changes in gastro-intestinal hormones, including increases in GLP-1, PYY, and oxyntomodulin, decreases in GIP and ghrelin, or the combined action of all these hormones might play a role in induction and long-term maintenance of weight loss. PMID:23512841

  8. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2016-11-29

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  9. Genetic background (DDD/Sgn versus C57BL/6J) strongly influences postnatal growth of male mice carrying the A(y) allele at the agouti locus: identification of quantitative trait loci associated with diabetes and body weight loss.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi; Satou, Kunio

    2013-05-04

    Mice carrying the A(y) allele at the agouti locus become obese and are heavier than their non-A(y) littermates. However, this does not hold true for the genetic background of the DDD mouse strain. At 22 weeks of age, DDD.Cg-A(y) females are heavier than DDD females, whereas DDD.Cg-A(y) males are lighter than DDD males. This study aimed to determine the possible cause and identify the genes responsible for the lower body weight of DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Growth curves of DDD.Cg-A(y) mice were analyzed and compared with those of B6.Cg-A(y) mice from 5 to 25 weeks. In DDD.Cg-A(y) males, body weight gain stopped between 16 and 17 weeks and the body weight gradually decreased; thus, the lower body weight was a consequence of body weight loss. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in backcrossed (BC) males of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-A(y)) F(1)-A(y) mice. For the body weight at 25 weeks, significant QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 and 4. The DDD allele was associated with a lower body weight at both loci. In particular, the QTL on chromosome 4 interacted with the A(y) allele. Furthermore, suggestive QTLs for plasma glucose and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were coincidentally mapped to chromosome 4. The DDD allele was associated with increased glucose and decreased adiponectin levels. When the body weight at 25 weeks and plasma glucose levels were considered as dependent and independent variables, respectively, BC A(y) males were classified into two groups according to statistical analysis using the partition method. Mice of one group had significantly higher glucose and lower adiponectin levels than those of the other group and exhibited body weight loss as observed with DDD-A(y) males. The lower body weight of DDD.Cg-A(y) male mice was a consequence of body weight loss. Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor causing body weight loss. The QTL on distal chromosome 4 contained the major responsible genes. This QTL

  10. Genetic background (DDD/Sgn versus C57BL/6J) strongly influences postnatal growth of male mice carrying the Ay allele at the agouti locus: identification of quantitative trait loci associated with diabetes and body weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mice carrying the Ay allele at the agouti locus become obese and are heavier than their non-Ay littermates. However, this does not hold true for the genetic background of the DDD mouse strain. At 22 weeks of age, DDD.Cg-Ay females are heavier than DDD females, whereas DDD.Cg-Ay males are lighter than DDD males. This study aimed to determine the possible cause and identify the genes responsible for the lower body weight of DDD.Cg-Ay males. Results Growth curves of DDD.Cg-Ay mice were analyzed and compared with those of B6.Cg-Ay mice from 5 to 25 weeks. In DDD.Cg-Ay males, body weight gain stopped between 16 and 17 weeks and the body weight gradually decreased; thus, the lower body weight was a consequence of body weight loss. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in backcrossed (BC) males of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-Ay) F1-Ay mice. For the body weight at 25 weeks, significant QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 and 4. The DDD allele was associated with a lower body weight at both loci. In particular, the QTL on chromosome 4 interacted with the Ay allele. Furthermore, suggestive QTLs for plasma glucose and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were coincidentally mapped to chromosome 4. The DDD allele was associated with increased glucose and decreased adiponectin levels. When the body weight at 25 weeks and plasma glucose levels were considered as dependent and independent variables, respectively, BC Ay males were classified into two groups according to statistical analysis using the partition method. Mice of one group had significantly higher glucose and lower adiponectin levels than those of the other group and exhibited body weight loss as observed with DDD-Ay males. Conclusions The lower body weight of DDD.Cg-Ay male mice was a consequence of body weight loss. Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor causing body weight loss. The QTL on distal chromosome 4 contained the major responsible genes

  11. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J. Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Design and Methods Subjects were studied before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n=17) or LAGB (n=10). We evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli; sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences; sweetness palatability; eating behavior; and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Results Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (−12±10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (−7±5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (−22 ±5%), influence of emotions (−27±5%) and external food cues (−30±4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P-values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P=0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds or MSG preferences. Conclusions LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. PMID:24167016

  12. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women.

    PubMed

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A; Klein, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception, which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Subjects were studied before and after ∼20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 17) or LAGB (n = 10). The following have been evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli, sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences, sweetness palatability, eating behavior, and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (-12 ± 10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (-7 ± 5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (-22 ± 5%), influence of emotions (-27 ± 5%), and external food cues (-30 ± 4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P = 0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds nor MSG preferences. LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Is lost lean mass from intentional weight loss recovered during weight regain in postmenopausal women?123

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Mary F; Davis, Cralen C; Wang, Xuewen; Beavers, Daniel P; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the well-known recidivism of obesity, surprisingly little is known about the composition of body weight during weight regain. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether the composition of body weight regained after intentional weight loss is similar to the composition of body weight lost. Design: The design was a follow-up to a randomized controlled trial of weight loss in which body composition was analyzed and compared in 78 postmenopausal women before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 6 and 12 mo after the intervention. Results: All body mass and composition variables were lower immediately after weight loss than at baseline (all P < 0.05). More fat than lean mass was lost with weight loss, which resulted in body-composition changes favoring a lower percentage of body fat and a higher lean-to-fat mass ratio (P < 0.001). Considerable interindividual variability in weight regain was noted (CV = 1.07). In women who regained ≥2 kg body weight, a decreasing trend in the lean-to-fat mass ratio was observed, which indicated greater fat mass accretion than lean mass accretion (P < 0.001). Specifically, for every 1 kg fat lost during the weight-loss intervention, 0.26 kg lean tissue was lost; for every 1 kg fat regained over the following year, only 0.12 kg lean tissue was regained. Conclusions: Although not all postmenopausal women who intentionally lose weight will regain it within 1 y, the data suggest that fat mass is regained to a greater degree than is lean mass in those who do experience some weight regain. The health ramifications of our findings remain to be seen. PMID:21795437

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Weight-Loss Interventions in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Lawrence J.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Coughlin, Janelle W.; Daumit, Gail; Miller, Edgar R.; Dalcin, Arlene; Jerome, Gerald J.; Geller, Steven; Noronha, Gary; Pozefsky, Thomas; Charleston, Jeanne; Reynolds, Jeffrey B.; Durkin, Nowella; Rubin, Richard R.; Louis, Thomas A.; Brancati, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and its cardiovascular complications are extremely common medical problems, but evidence on how to accomplish weight loss in clinical practice is sparse. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to examine the effects of two behavioral weight-loss interventions in 415 obese patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Participants were recruited from six primary care practices; 63.6% were women, 41.0% were black, and the mean age was 54.0 years. One intervention provided patients with weight-loss support remotely — through the telephone, a study-specific Web site, and e-mail. The other intervention provided in-person support during group and individual sessions, along with the three remote means of support. There was also a control group in which weight loss was self-directed. Outcomes were compared between each intervention group and the control group and between the two intervention groups. For both interventions, primary care providers reinforced participation at routinely scheduled visits. The trial duration was 24 months. Results At baseline, the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) for all participants was 36.6, and the mean weight was 103.8 kg. At 24 months, the mean change in weight from baseline was −0.8 kg in the control group, −4.6 kg in the group receiving remote support only (P<0.001 for the comparison with the control group), and −5.1 kg in the group receiving in-person support (P<0.001 for the comparison with the control group). The percentage of participants who lost 5% or more of their initial weight was 18.8% in the control group, 38.2% in the group receiving remote support only, and 41.4% in the group receiving in-person support. The change in weight from baseline did not differ significantly between the two intervention groups. Conclusions In two behavioral interventions, one delivered with in-person support and the other delivered remotely

  15. Increased Hydration Can Be Associated with Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Simon N.

    2016-01-01

    This mini-review develops the hypothesis that increased hydration leads to body weight loss, mainly through a decrease in feeding, and a loss of fat, through increased lipolysis. The publications cited come from animal, mainly rodent, studies where manipulations of the central and/or the peripheral renin–angiotensin system lead to an increased drinking response and a decrease in body weight. This hypothesis derives from a broader association between chronic hypohydration (extracellular dehydration) and raised levels of the hormone angiotensin II (AngII) associated with many chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Proposed mechanisms to explain these effects involve an increase in metabolism due to hydration expanding cell volume. The results of these animal studies often can be applied to the humans. Human studies are consistent with this hypothesis for weight loss and for reducing the risk factors in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27376070

  16. Body contouring surgery for military personnel following massive weight loss.

    PubMed

    Chong, S J; Kok, Y O; Foo, C L

    2011-12-01

    The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties.

  17. Mechanisms of weight loss and improved metabolism following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Mulla, Christopher M; Middelbeek, Roeland J W; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-09-03

    Bariatric surgery is increasingly recognized as one of the most effective interventions to help patients achieve significant and sustained weight loss, as well as improved metabolic and overall health. Unfortunately, the cellular and physiological mechanisms by which bariatric surgery achieves weight loss have not been fully elucidated, yet are critical to understanding the central role of the intestinal tract in whole-body metabolism and to developing novel strategies for the treatment of obesity. In this review, we provide an overview of potential mechanisms contributing to weight loss, including effects on regulation of energy balance and both central and peripheral nervous system regulation of appetite and metabolism. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the gastrointestinal tract, including alterations in bile acid physiology, secretion of intestinally derived hormones, and the microbiome, as a potent mediator of improved metabolism in postbariatric patients. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Science of weight loss supplements: compromised by conflicts of interest?

    PubMed

    Lobb, Ano

    2010-10-14

    Weight loss supplements often contain powerful pharmacoactive ingredients with the potential to cause harm. Trials used to determine product safety and effectiveness, meanwhile, tend to be small, of short duration, and frequently lack financial conflict of interest disclosures. These factors could conspire to place consumers at risk, especially when published research cited in advertising cloaks products with the suggestion that their safety and effectiveness have been proven by science. Examples of current and former weight loss products backed by potentially conflicted or low quality research include Metabolife-356, Hydroxycut, Xenadrine and LeptiCore. Published research, especially in the field of weight loss supplements, needs better conflict of interest disclosure, and regulators should consider how research findings are used in marketing claims.

  19. Cardiometabolic Risk After Weight Loss and Subsequent Weight Regain in Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Beavers, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the effect of intentional weight loss and subsequent weight regain on cardiometabolic risk factors in older adults. The objective of this study was to determine how cardiometabolic risk factors change in the year following significant intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women, and if observed changes were affected by weight and fat regain. Methods. Eighty, overweight and obese, older women (age = 58.8±5.1 years) were followed through a 5-month weight loss intervention and a subsequent 12-month nonintervention period. Body weight/composition and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure; total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting glucose and insulin; and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance) were analyzed at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6- and 12-months postintervention. Results. Average weight loss during the 5-month intervention was 11.4±4.1kg and 31.4% of lost weight was regained during the 12-month follow-up. On average, all risk factor variables were significantly improved with weight loss but regressed toward baseline values during the year subsequent to weight loss. Increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance during the postintervention follow-up were significantly (p < .05) associated with weight and fat mass regain. Among women who regained weight, model-adjusted total cholesterol (205.8±4.0 vs 199.7±2.9mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (128.4±3.4 vs 122.7±2.4mg/dL), insulin (12.6±0.7 vs 11.4±0.7mg/dL), and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (55.8±3.5 vs 50.9±3.7mg/dL) were higher at follow-up compared with baseline. Conclusions. For postmenopausal women, even partial weight regain following intentional weight loss is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Conversely, maintenance of or continued weight loss is

  20. Cardiometabolic risk after weight loss and subsequent weight regain in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Beavers, Daniel P; Beavers, Kristen M; Lyles, Mary F; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of intentional weight loss and subsequent weight regain on cardiometabolic risk factors in older adults. The objective of this study was to determine how cardiometabolic risk factors change in the year following significant intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women, and if observed changes were affected by weight and fat regain. Eighty, overweight and obese, older women (age = 58.8±5.1 years) were followed through a 5-month weight loss intervention and a subsequent 12-month nonintervention period. Body weight/composition and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure; total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting glucose and insulin; and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance) were analyzed at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6- and 12-months postintervention. Average weight loss during the 5-month intervention was 11.4±4.1kg and 31.4% of lost weight was regained during the 12-month follow-up. On average, all risk factor variables were significantly improved with weight loss but regressed toward baseline values during the year subsequent to weight loss. Increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance during the postintervention follow-up were significantly (p < .05) associated with weight and fat mass regain. Among women who regained weight, model-adjusted total cholesterol (205.8±4.0 vs 199.7±2.9mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (128.4±3.4 vs 122.7±2.4mg/dL), insulin (12.6±0.7 vs 11.4±0.7mg/dL), and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (55.8±3.5 vs 50.9±3.7mg/dL) were higher at follow-up compared with baseline. For postmenopausal women, even partial weight regain following intentional weight loss is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Conversely, maintenance of or continued weight loss is associated with sustained improvement in the

  1. Assessing the need for a protocol in monitoring weight loss and nutritional status in orthognathic surgery based on patients experiences.

    PubMed

    Ruslin, Muhammad; Dekker, Hannah; Tuinzing, Dirk B; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2017-02-01

    To investigate retrospectively the orthognathic surgery (OGS) patients experience in weight loss and the influence of gender, age, duration of the surgical procedure, length of hospital stay, location of surgery and use of intermaxillary fixation (IMF) or without IMF on postoperative weight loss. A total of 4487 patients treated by OGS where all patients visited the outpatient clinic one, three and six weeks after the surgical procedure. After six weeks, patients filled out a questionnaire in which weight loss was addressed. The patients were asked to give an estimate of their experiences weight loss. The population was first divided in two groups weight loss and no weight loss. In the weight loss group there is no significant difference in weight loss between patients with IMF and patients without IMF. In the weight loss group there were significantly more females then males. Further, in the subgroup IMF the operation time was significantly longer compared with the subgroup without IMF. The other parameters including age and hospital stay were not different in the groups. IMF in orthognathic treatment does not result in a difference self-reported loss of body weight compared to patients without IMF. Treatment protocols should include pre- and post-operative dietician consultations and possible indications for medical nutrition and vitamins. Key words:Assessing, protocol, weight loss, experiences, orthognathic surgery.

  2. Assessing the need for a protocol in monitoring weight loss and nutritional status in orthognathic surgery based on patients experiences

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Hannah; Tuinzing, Dirk B.; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate retrospectively the orthognathic surgery (OGS) patients experience in weight loss and the influence of gender, age, duration of the surgical procedure, length of hospital stay, location of surgery and use of intermaxillary fixation (IMF) or without IMF on postoperative weight loss. Material and Methods A total of 4487 patients treated by OGS where all patients visited the outpatient clinic one, three and six weeks after the surgical procedure. After six weeks, patients filled out a questionnaire in which weight loss was addressed. The patients were asked to give an estimate of their experiences weight loss. The population was first divided in two groups weight loss and no weight loss. Results In the weight loss group there is no significant difference in weight loss between patients with IMF and patients without IMF. In the weight loss group there were significantly more females then males. Further, in the subgroup IMF the operation time was significantly longer compared with the subgroup without IMF. The other parameters including age and hospital stay were not different in the groups. Conclusions IMF in orthognathic treatment does not result in a difference self-reported loss of body weight compared to patients without IMF. Treatment protocols should include pre- and post-operative dietician consultations and possible indications for medical nutrition and vitamins. Key words:Assessing, protocol, weight loss, experiences, orthognathic surgery. PMID:28210448

  3. Bodybuilding, Energy, and Weight-Loss Supplements are Associated with Deployment and Physical Activity in U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    the herbal weight-loss supplement hydroxycut. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:477–478. 22. Baum M, Weiss M. The influence of a taurine containing drink on...Naval Health Research Center Bodybuilding, Energy, and Weight-Loss Supplements Are Associated With Deployment and Physical Activity in U.S...Weight-Loss Supplements Are Associated With Deployment and Physical Activity in U.S. Military Personnel ISABEL G. JACOBSON, MPH, JAIME L. HORTON, BS

  4. Weight Loss after Gastric Bypass Is Associated with a Variant at 15q26.1

    PubMed Central

    Hatoum, Ida J.; Greenawalt, Danielle M.; Cotsapas, Chris; Daly, Mark J.; Reitman, Marc L.; Kaplan, Lee M.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of weight loss attained after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery follows a wide and normal distribution, and recent evidence indicates that this weight loss is due to physiological, rather than mechanical, mechanisms. To identify potential genetic factors associated with weight loss after RYGB, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 693 individuals undergoing RYGB and then replicated this analysis in an independent population of 327 individuals undergoing RYGB. We found that a 15q26.1 locus near ST8SIA2 and SLCO3A1 was significantly associated with weight loss after RYGB. Expression of ST8SIA2 in omental fat of these individuals at baseline was significantly associated with weight loss after RYGB. Gene expression analysis in RYGB and weight-matched, sham-operated (WMS) mice revealed that expression of St8sia2 and Slco3a1 was significantly altered in metabolically active tissues in RYGB-treated compared to WMS mice. These findings provide strong evidence for specific genetic influences on weight loss after RYGB and underscore the biological nature of the response to RYGB. PMID:23643386

  5. Personality, attrition and weight loss in treatment seeking women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, R; Calugi, S; Compare, A; El Ghoch, M; Petroni, M L; Colombari, S; Minniti, A; Marchesini, G

    2015-10-01

    Studies on small samples or in single units applying specific treatment programmes found an association between some personality traits and attrition and weight loss in individuals treated for obesity. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment personality traits were associated with weight loss outcomes in the general population of women with obesity. Attrition and weight loss outcomes after 12 months were measured in 634 women with obesity (mean age, 48; body mass index (BMI), 37.8 kg m(-2)) seeking treatment at eight Italian medical centres, applying different medical/cognitive behavioural programmes. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), eating disorder features with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). Within the 12-month observation period, 32.3% of cases were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for demographic confounders and the severity of eating disorders, no TCI personality traits were significantly associated with attrition, while low scores of the novelty seeking temperament scale remained significantly associated with weight loss ≥ 10% (odds ratio, 0.983; 95% confidence interval, 0.975-0.992). Additional adjustment for education and job did not change the results. We conclude that personality does not systematically influence attrition in women with obesity enrolled into weight loss programmes in the community, whereas an association is maintained between novelty seeking and weight loss outcome. Studies adapting obesity interventions on the basis of individual novelty seeking scores might be warranted to maximize the results on body weight.

  6. Weight loss and related behavior changes among lesbians.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Sarah; Young, Laura; Dietrich, Mary; Blakemore, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are known risk factors for several modifiable, if not preventable diseases. Growing evidence suggests that lesbians may have higher rates of obesity than other women. This study was designed to describe weight loss and behavior changes related to food choices and exercise habits among lesbians who participated in a predominantly lesbian, mainstream, commercial weight loss program. Behavioral changes were recorded in exercise, quality of food choices, and number of times dining out. Although there were several limitations based on sample size and heterogeneity, the impact of a lesbian-supportive environment for behavior change was upheld.

  7. Weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Babb, Tony G

    2014-12-01

    During submaximal exercise, some otherwise healthy obese women experience breathlessness, or dyspnea on exertion (+DOE), while others have mild or no DOE (-DOE). We investigated whether weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty nine obese women were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n = 14, RPB ≥ 4, 34 ± 8 years, and 36 ± 3 kg/m(2)) and -DOE ( n= 15, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 8 years, and 36 ± 4 kg/m(2)) and then completed a 12-week weight loss program. Both groups lost a moderate amount of weight (+DOE: 6.6 ± 2.4 kg, -DOE: 8.4 ± 3.5 kg, and p < 0.001). RPB decreased significantly in the +DOE group (from 4.7 ± 1.1 to 3.1 ± 1.6) and remained low in the -DOE (from 1.5 ± 0.7 to 1.6 ± 1.1) (interaction p < 0.002). Most physiological variables measured (i.e. body composition, fat distribution, pulmonary function, oxygen cost of breathing, and cardiorespiratory measures) improved with weight loss; however, the decrease in RPB was not correlated with any of these variables (p > 0.05). In conclusion, moderate weight loss was effective in reducing breathlessness on exertion in obese women who experienced DOE at baseline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Weight Loss Reduces Dyspnea on Exertion in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Babb, Tony G.

    2014-01-01

    During submaximal exercise, some otherwise healthy obese women experience breathlessness, or dyspnea on exertion (+DOE), while others have mild or no DOE (−DOE). We investigated whether weight loss could reduce DOE. 29 obese women were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n=14, RPB≥4, 34±8yr, 36±3kg/m2) and −DOE (n=15, RPB≤2, 32±8yr, 36±4kg/m2) and then completed a 12-week weight loss program. Both groups lost a moderate amount of weight (+DOE: 6.6±2.4kg, −DOE: 8.4±3.5kg, p<0.001). RPB decreased significantly in the +DOE group (from 4.7±1.1 to 3.1±1.6) and remained low in the −DOE (from 1.5±0.7 to 1.6±1.1) (interaction p<0.002). Most physiological variables measured (i.e. body composition, fat distribution, pulmonary function, oxygen cost of breathing, cardiorespiratory measures) improved with weight loss; however, the decrease in RPB was not correlated with any of these variables (p>0.05). In conclusion, moderate weight loss was effective in reducing breathlessness on exertion in obese women who experienced DOE at baseline. PMID:25220695

  9. A randomized controlled trial of financial incentives for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Volpp, Kevin G.; John, Leslie K; Troxel, Andrea B; Norton, Laurie; Fassbender, Jennifer; Loewenstein, George

    2012-01-01

    Context Identifying effective strategies for treating obesity is both a clinical challenge and a public health priority due to the health consequences of obesity. Objective To determine whether common decision errors identified by behavioral economists such as prospect theory, loss aversion, and regret could be used to design an effective weight loss intervention. Design 3-arm randomized controlled trial in which participants were randomized to either usual care (weigh ins once a month) or one of two financial incentives arms. One incentive arm used deposit contracts in which participants put their own money at risk (matched 1:1 by the study) which they would lose if they failed to lose weight. The second used lottery-based incentives in which participants who met the weight loss target had each day a 1 in 5 chance of winning a small reward ($10) and a 1 in 100 chance of winning a large reward ($100). All participants were given a weight loss goal of 1 pound per week for 16 weeks, and results were analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis of variance models. Setting Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Patients 57 patients with BMIs between 30-40 aged between 30 and 70, with no contraindications for study participation. Main Outcome Measures Weight loss after 16 weeks. Results Participants in both incentive groups lost significantly more weight than participants in the control group (3.9 pounds); (Lottery = 13.1 lbs; p-value for lottery vs. control .014; deposit contract = 14.0 lbs, p-value vs. control .003). 47.4% of deposit contract participants and 52.6% of lottery arm participants met the 16-pound weight loss goal compared to 10.5% in the control group (p-value 0.014.). By the end of 7 months, substantial amounts of weight were regained; however, incentive participants weighed significantly less than they did at the study start whereas controls did not. Low lost to follow-up rates (7.0%) during the weight loss phase of the study suggest that both

  10. Obesity, Intentional Weight Loss, and Physical Disability in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Marsh, Anthony P.; Chmelo, Elizabeth; Rejeski, Jared J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We examine obesity, intentional weight loss, and physical disability in older adults. Based on prospective epidemiological studies, BMI exhibits a curvilinear relationship with physical disability; there appears to be some protective effect associated with older adults being overweight. Whereas the greatest risk for physical disability occurs in older adults who are ≥class II obesity, the effects of obesity on physical disability appears to be moderated by both sex and race. Obesity at age 30 constitutes a greater risk for disability later in life than when obesity develops at age 50 or later; however, physical activity may buffer the adverse effects obesity has on late life physical disability. Data from a limited number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reinforce the important role that physical activity plays in weight loss programs for older adults. Furthermore, short-term studies have found that resistance training may be particularly beneficial in these programs since this mode of exercise attenuates the loss of fat-free mass during caloric restriction. Multi-year RCTs are needed to examine whether weight loss can alter the course of physical disablement in aging and to determine the long-term feasibility and effects of combining resistance exercise with weight loss in older adults. PMID:19922431

  11. Obesity, intentional weight loss and physical disability in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rejeski, W J; Marsh, A P; Chmelo, E; Rejeski, J J

    2010-09-01

    We examine obesity, intentional weight loss and physical disability in older adults. Based on prospective epidemiological studies, body mass index exhibits a curvilinear relationship with physical disability; there appears to be some protective effect associated with older adults being overweight. Whereas the greatest risk for physical disability occurs in older adults who are ≥class II obesity, the effects of obesity on physical disability appears to be moderated by both sex and race. Obesity at age 30 years constitutes a greater risk for disability later in life than when obesity develops at age 50 years or later; however, physical activity may buffer the adverse effects obesity has on late life physical disability. Data from a limited number of randomized clinical trials reinforce the important role that physical activity plays in weight loss programmes for older adults. Furthermore, short-term studies have found that resistance training may be particularly beneficial in these programmes as this mode of exercise attenuates the loss of fat-free mass during caloric restriction. Multi-year randomized clinical trials are needed to examine whether weight loss can alter the course of physical disablement in aging and to determine the long-term feasibility and effects of combining resistance exercise with weight loss in older adults. © 2009 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2009 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Community-based behavioral weight-loss treatment: long-term maintenance of weight loss, physiological, and psychological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Latner, Janet D; Ciao, Anna C; Wendicke, Annemarie U; Murakami, Jessica M; Durso, Laura E

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a significant public health problem, and sustainable long-term treatments are needed. This study examined a community-based model of weight-loss treatment. Ninety participants were recruited from eight community organizations (mean age: 49.65 years, mean body mass index: 35.80 kg/m(2); 64% female). Treatment groups were randomly assigned to two maintenance conditions: 1) self-help continuing care, or 2) assessment-only. Both received the same initial 20-session group behavioral treatment. Those randomized to continuing care were additionally instructed to meet as self-sustaining groups for 18 months post-treatment. Weight, physiological, behavioral, and psychological outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and at six-month and 18-month follow-up. Eighty-seven percent of participants completed treatment. Participant treatment satisfaction and therapist adherence to treatment protocol were high. No group differences or time by group interaction effects emerged. Participants achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment, with no significant weight regain at six-month or 18-month follow-up. Treatment produced sustained changes in waist circumference, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, eating patterns, physical activity, quality of life, and body image. A community-based treatment program may be an effective form of behavioral-weight-loss treatment for overweight/obese adults. Weight losses, along with physiological and psychological benefits, were sustained over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Human Thrifty Phenotype Associated With Less Weight Loss During Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Hohenadel, Maximilian G.; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Successful weight loss is variable for reasons not fully elucidated. Whether effective weight loss results from smaller reductions in energy expenditure during caloric restriction is not known. We analyzed whether obese individuals with a “thrifty” phenotype, that is, greater reductions in 24-h energy expenditure during fasting and smaller increases with overfeeding, lose less weight during caloric restriction than those with a “spendthrift” phenotype. During a weight-maintaining period, 24-h energy expenditure responses to fasting and 200% overfeeding were measured in a whole-room indirect calorimeter. Volunteers then underwent 6 weeks of 50% caloric restriction. We calculated the daily energy deficit (kilocalories per day) during caloric restriction, incorporating energy intake and waste, energy expenditure, and daily activity. We found that a smaller reduction in 24-h energy expenditure during fasting and a larger response to overfeeding predicted more weight loss over 6 weeks, even after accounting for age, sex, race, and baseline weight, as well as a greater rate of energy deficit accumulation. The success of dietary weight loss efforts is influenced by the energy expenditure response to caloric restriction. Greater decreases in energy expenditure during caloric restriction predict less weight loss, indicating the presence of thrifty and spendthrift phenotypes in obese humans. PMID:25964395

  14. A Human Thrifty Phenotype Associated With Less Weight Loss During Caloric Restriction.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Martin; Thearle, Marie S; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Hohenadel, Maximilian G; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2015-08-01

    Successful weight loss is variable for reasons not fully elucidated. Whether effective weight loss results from smaller reductions in energy expenditure during caloric restriction is not known. We analyzed whether obese individuals with a "thrifty" phenotype, that is, greater reductions in 24-h energy expenditure during fasting and smaller increases with overfeeding, lose less weight during caloric restriction than those with a "spendthrift" phenotype. During a weight-maintaining period, 24-h energy expenditure responses to fasting and 200% overfeeding were measured in a whole-room indirect calorimeter. Volunteers then underwent 6 weeks of 50% caloric restriction. We calculated the daily energy deficit (kilocalories per day) during caloric restriction, incorporating energy intake and waste, energy expenditure, and daily activity. We found that a smaller reduction in 24-h energy expenditure during fasting and a larger response to overfeeding predicted more weight loss over 6 weeks, even after accounting for age, sex, race, and baseline weight, as well as a greater rate of energy deficit accumulation. The success of dietary weight loss efforts is influenced by the energy expenditure response to caloric restriction. Greater decreases in energy expenditure during caloric restriction predict less weight loss, indicating the presence of thrifty and spendthrift phenotypes in obese humans.

  15. The relationship between pretreatment dietary composition and weight loss during a randomised trial of different diet approaches.

    PubMed

    McVay, M A; Jeffreys, A S; King, H A; Olsen, M K; Voils, C I; Yancy, W S

    2015-02-01

    Identifying pretreatment dietary habits that are associated with weight-loss intervention outcomes could help guide individuals' selection of weight-loss approach among competing options. A pretreatment factor that may influence weight-loss outcomes is macronutrient intake. Overweight and obese Durham Veterans Affairs outpatients were randomised to a weight-loss intervention with a low-carbohydrate diet (n = 71) or orlistat medication therapy plus a low-fat diet (n = 73). Percentage fat, carbohydrate and protein intake prior to treatment were measured using 4-day food records. Linear mixed-effects models were used to determine whether pretreatment percentage macronutrient intake influenced weight trajectories and weight loss in each weight-loss condition. Participant's mean age was 53 years, baseline body mass index was 39.3 kg m(-2) and 72% were male. A higher pretreatment percentage carbohydrate intake was associated with less rapid initial weight loss (P = 0.02) and less rapid weight regain (P = 0.03) in the low-carbohydrate diet condition but was not associated with weight trajectories in the orlistat plus low-fat diet condition. In both conditions, a higher pretreatment percentage fat intake was associated with more rapid weight regain (P < 0.01). Pretreatment percentage protein intake was not associated with weight trajectories. None of the pretreatment macronutrients were associated with weight loss on study completion in either condition. Selection of a weight-loss approach on the basis of pretreatment macronutrient intake is unlikely to improve weight outcomes at the end of a 1-year treatment. However, pretreatment macronutrient intake may have implications for tailoring of interventions to slow weight regain after weight loss. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-06

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes.

  17. Adolescents' Perceptions of Relative Weight and Self-Reported Weight Loss Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felts, Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1990 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine adolescents' perceptions of relative weight and the relationship of these perceptions to physical activity levels, weight loss efforts, and television viewing time. About 25 percent (860) considered themselves too fat and reported little physical activity. (SM)

  18. The relationship of incubational egg weight loss with parthenogenesis in Chinese Painted quail (Coturnix chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wells, J B; Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; McDaniel, C D

    2012-01-01

    Parthenogenesis, embryonic development of an unfertilized egg, has been studied extensively in turkeys. Recently it has been revealed that parthenogenesis also occurs in Chinese Painted quail, and the percentage of eggs exhibiting parthenogenesis is negatively correlated with clutch sequence position. In broiler breeders, it has been reported that the first egg of a clutch sequence loses less egg weight during incubation than subsequent eggs. Because the incidence of parthenogenesis is greater and egg weight loss is less in the first egg of a clutch sequence, it is possible that egg weight loss is less in parthenogenetic eggs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between egg weight loss (a measure of eggshell quality) and parthenogenesis. Daily, individual eggs were collected and labeled. To determine egg weight loss, eggs were weighed before setting and then again after 10 d of incubation. Eggs were stored for 0 to 3 d at 20°C and incubated at 37.5°C. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine if relationships existed between egg weight loss and average incidence of parthenogenesis, parthenogen size, egg storage, and average clutch sequence position for all hens examined (157) as well as only for hens that exhibited parthenogenesis (102). The percentage of egg weight loss was negatively correlated with the incidence of parthenogenetic eggs and parthenogen size. However, the percentage of egg weight loss was positively correlated with average clutch position. In conclusion, it appears that eggshell quality possibly influences the incidence of parthenogenesis in Chinese Painted quail eggs because as the percentage of egg weight loss decreases, the incidence of parthenogenesis increases.

  19. Access to care for adolescents seeking weight loss surgery.

    PubMed

    Inge, Thomas H; Boyce, Tawny W; Lee, Margaret; Kollar, Linda; Jenkins, Todd M; Brandt, Mary L; Helmrath, Michael; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Zeller, Meg H; Harmon, Carroll M; Courcoulas, Anita; Michalsky, Marc P

    2014-12-01

    Adolescents seeking weight loss surgery (WLS) frequently encounter obstacles obtaining treatment authorization from insurance carriers. This study identified factors influencing authorization for adolescents with clinical indications for WLS. A retrospective review was conducted for adolescents with clinical indications for WLS at five adolescent centers. This cohort represented a consecutive series of adolescents with insurance benefits for WLS for whom insurance authorization was sought between 2009 and 2011. Outcomes included number and timing of insurance authorizations for surgery, denials, and appeals. Records from 57 adolescents (74% female; mean age 16 (range: 12-17) years; mean BMI 51.3 kg/m(2) ) were reviewed. Of these, only 47% were approved with the original request. Eighty percent of those denied were approved on appeal, while 11% never obtained authorization for surgery. Age less than 18 years and proposed procedure were the most common reasons for denial. Less than half of adolescents with clinical indications for surgery received approval for the procedure on the first request. The appeal process typically resulted in overturning of denials, so that surgical care could be delivered. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  20. Epigenetic patterns in successful weight loss maintainers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y-T; Maccani, J Z J; Hawley, N L; Wing, R R; Kelsey, K T; McCaffery, J M

    2015-05-01

    DNA methylation changes occur in animal models of calorie restriction, simulating human dieting, and in human subjects undergoing behavioral weight loss interventions. This suggests that obese (OB) individuals may possess unique epigenetic patterns that may vary with weight loss. Here, we examine whether methylation patterns in leukocytes differ in individuals who lost sufficient weight to go from OB to normal weight (NW; successful weight loss maintainers; SWLMs) vs currently OB or NW individuals. This study examined peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) methylation patterns in NW (n=16, current/lifetime BMI 18.5-24.9) and OB individuals (n=16, current body mass index (BMI)⩾30), and SWLM (n=16, current BMI 18.5-24.9, lifetime maximum BMI ⩾30, average weight loss 57.4 lbs) using an Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadArray. No leukocyte population-adjusted epigenome-wide analyses were significant; however, potentially differentially methylated loci across the groups were observed in ryanodine receptor-1 (RYR1; P=1.54E-6), myelin protein zero-like 3 (MPZL3; P=4.70E-6) and alpha 3c tubulin (TUBA3C; P=4.78E-6). In 32 obesity-related candidate genes, differential methylation patterns were found in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; gene-wide P=0.00018). In RYR1, TUBA3C and BDNF, SWLM differed from OB but not NW. In this preliminary investigation, leukocyte SWLM DNA methylation patterns more closely resembled NW than OB individuals in three gene regions. These results suggest that PBMC methylation is associated with weight status.

  1. Weight loss and P wave dispersion: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Anna Giulia; Grecchi, Ilaria; Muggia, Chiara; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if therapeutic weight loss reduces P wave dispersion. 20 obese patients (10 males and 10 females), part of a randomized clinical trial, were examined over a 6 month period. They were treated with a diet, aiming at 5% weight loss at the 6th month. After physical examination, they underwent laboratory tests, bioelectrical impedance analysis and a electrocardiogram (ECG). ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then magnified 400 times. We examined at baseline and at the 6th month, maximum and minimum P-wave duration, P-wave dispersion and heart rate. Comparing responders (patients who lost 5% of weight at t6) and not responders (who lost less than 5%), responders showed a significant reduction of P wave dispersion value (-0.38 [SD: 0.35] mm equal to -32.3 [SD: 11.3] % p=0.00001). All responders present a reduction of P wave dispersion, while for not-responders this is no longer evident. Finally, a good degree of correlation (r=0.54) between P wave dispersion difference and the decrease of weight was noticed. Females have a better response in P dispersion reduction strictly connected with their weight loss with a good correlation, (r=0.7, p=0.002), versus a moderate correlation evidenced in males (r=0.5, p=0.011). P wave duration and dispersion are significantly reduced in patients who lost more than 5% of weight and this decrease is highly related to the extent of weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Internalized weight stigma and its ideological correlates among weight loss treatment seeking adults.

    PubMed

    Carels, R A; Young, K M; Wott, C B; Harper, J; Gumble, A; Hobbs, M Wagner; Clayton, A M

    2009-01-01

    There are significant economic and psychological costs associated with the negative weight-based social stigma that exists in American society. This pervasive anti-fat bias has been strongly internalized among the overweight/obese. While the etiology of weight stigma is complex, research suggests that it is often greater among individuals who embrace certain etiological views of obesity or ideological views of the world. This investigation examined 1) the level of internalized weight stigma among overweight/obese treatment seeking adults, and 2) the association between internalized weight stigma and perceived weight controllability and ideological beliefs about the world ('just world beliefs', Protestant work ethic). Forty-six overweight or obese adults (BMI >or=27 kg/m2) participating in an 18- week behavioral weight loss program completed implicit (Implicit Associations Test) and explicit (Obese Person's Trait Survey) measures of weight stigma. Participants also completed two measures of ideological beliefs about the world ("Just World Beliefs", Protestant Ethic Scale) and one measure of beliefs about weight controllability (Beliefs about Obese Persons). Significant implicit and explicit weight bias was observed. Greater weight stigma was consistently associated with greater endorsement of just world beliefs, Protestant ethic beliefs and beliefs about weight controllability. Results suggest that the overweight/obese treatment seeking adults have internalized the negative weight-based social stigma that exists in American society. Internalized weight stigma may be greater among those holding specific etiological and ideological beliefs about weight and the world.

  3. Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure, and energy intake during diet induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    DeLany, James P; Kelley, David E; Hames, Kazanna C; Jakicic, John M; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2014-02-01

    Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss. The total EE was examined by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the intake/balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA). Weight loss of 9.6 ± 6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (-122 ± 319 vs. -376 ± 305 kcal day⁻¹), elimination of the drop in AEE (83 ± 279 vs. -211 ± 284 kcal day⁻¹) and greater weight loss (13.0 ± 7.0 vs. 8.1 ± 6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7-12. Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  4. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    PubMed

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  5. Association between Weight and Smoking Not Mediated by Weight Loss Attempts or Bullying.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Leia M; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    Youth smoking and obesity may both be mediated by weight control behaviors and experiences of bullying. This study examines associations between smoking and obesity among youth, and explores whether associations are mediated by weight loss attempts or bullying experiences. Data from 24,173 grade 9 to 12 students in the COMPASS study (2012-13) were used to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoking, weight status, attempting to lose weight, and being a victim of bullying. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to examine correlates of smoking. Among youth, 11% reported currently smoking, 20% were overweight or obese, 42% reported attempting to lose weight, and 18% reported being bullied. Girls who reported attempting to lose weight had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.42, p = .0039), and students who reported being bullied had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.85, p < .0001). Both variables were significantly associated with smoking independent of weight status. For girls, weight loss attempts were associated with smoking. For both sexes, being bullied was associated with smoking, independent of weight status. Programs attempting to reduce smoking among youth should consider the effects of weight control behaviors and bullying irrespective of weight status.

  6. Changes in self-efficacy and dietary adherence: the impact on weight loss in the PREFER study.

    PubMed

    Warziski, Melanie T; Sereika, Susan M; Styn, Mindi A; Music, Edvin; Burke, Lora E

    2008-02-01

    Findings from studies examining self-efficacy and its relationship to weight loss have been inconsistent. We examined self-efficacy specific to changing eating behaviors in the PREFER trial, an 18-month behavioral weight-loss study, to determine if self-efficacy and dietary adherence were associated with weight change, and what impact self-efficacy had on weight change after controlling for adherence. Measurements included the weight efficacy lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire, body weight, self-reported fat gram intake, kilocalorie intake, and adherence to kilocalorie and fat gram goals at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. The sample (N = 170) was 88.2% female and 70.0% Caucasian; the mean age was 44.1 years (SD = 8.8). Mean weight loss at 18 months was 4.64% (SD = 6.24) of baseline body weight and the mean increase in self-efficacy was 11.70% (SD = 38.61). Self-efficacy improved significantly over time (p = 0.04) and was associated with weight loss (p = 0.02). Adherence to the fat gram goal was associated with weight loss (p = 0.0003), and self-efficacy remained associated with weight loss after controlling for fat gram adherence (p = 0.0001). Consistent with self-efficacy theory, improvement in self-efficacy over time supported greater weight loss. Adherence to the fat gram goal also influenced weight loss.

  7. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  8. Weight Loss Program in a Student Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Susan McConville

    1980-01-01

    The overweight college student is faced not only with the normal anxieties of adolescence but also with the special stress of surviving in a new environment. The nurse practitioner can guide students to bear responsibility for good health and provide a sound nutritional framework for a weight loss program. (CJ)

  9. Organizing a Community "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Kirstin D.

    2013-01-01

    The program described here shows how Extension can be a strong collaborative partner in a rural setting in improving the overall health of the community by organizing a three month "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge. A pre-and post-fitness assessment and bi-weekly weigh-ins were administered. Three healthy lifestyle educational…

  10. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  11. Differential diagnosis of emotional disorders that cause weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, P. E.; Garner, D. M.; Kaplan, A. S.; Rodin, G.; Kennedy, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, anorexia nervosa has received much attention in the scientific and lay press. As a result there is a danger that the other emotional disorders that can present with weight loss and vomiting will be overlooked. Case examples are presented for anorexia nervosa, conversion disorder, schizophrenia and depression. The presentation and treatment of these four disorders are compared. PMID:6367916

  12. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  13. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  14. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  15. Organizing a Community "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Kirstin D.

    2013-01-01

    The program described here shows how Extension can be a strong collaborative partner in a rural setting in improving the overall health of the community by organizing a three month "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge. A pre-and post-fitness assessment and bi-weekly weigh-ins were administered. Three healthy lifestyle educational…

  16. A worksite-based weight loss intervention for obesity prevention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...

  17. Weight Loss Program in a Student Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Susan McConville

    1980-01-01

    The overweight college student is faced not only with the normal anxieties of adolescence but also with the special stress of surviving in a new environment. The nurse practitioner can guide students to bear responsibility for good health and provide a sound nutritional framework for a weight loss program. (CJ)

  18. Belly Fat in Men: Why Weight Loss Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... you're not physically active. Loss of muscle mass decreases the rate at which your body uses calories, which can make it more challenging to maintain a healthy weight. According to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, men in their ...

  19. Effect of Length of Treatment on Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Michael G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Tested efficacy of behavior therapy for obesity and duration of treatment. Assigned obese clients (N=48) to either 20 or 40 weekly sessions with identical program content; treatment procedures were introduced more gradually in extended treatment. Both groups showed equivalent weight loss at week 20; extended treatment produced significantly…

  20. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    PubMed

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  1. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  2. Effect of Length of Treatment on Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Michael G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Tested efficacy of behavior therapy for obesity and duration of treatment. Assigned obese clients (N=48) to either 20 or 40 weekly sessions with identical program content; treatment procedures were introduced more gradually in extended treatment. Both groups showed equivalent weight loss at week 20; extended treatment produced significantly…

  3. The role of social support in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Avgeraki, Evangelia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The role of social support in weight management is not fully understood, as more support has been linked to both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. We examined social support in relation to weight loss maintenance, comparing between maintainers and regainers of weight loss. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of people who have intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and are either maintaining this loss for over a year (maintainers), or have regained weight (regainers). Demographics and lifestyle habits questionnaires are completed online. Dietary assessment is carried out by two telephone 24 h recalls. Perceived social support was assessed by validated scales examining support from family and friends regarding healthy eating and exercise. 289 maintainers and 122 regainers participated. Regainers received more support compared to maintainers. However, maintainers reported receiving compliments and active participation, whereas regainers receiving verbal instructions and encouragements. Maintainers who received diet support displayed improved dietary intakes, such as lower energy intake; regainers' diet was unaffected by support. Positive, rather than instructive, support appears beneficial in weight loss maintenance.

  4. Innovation in Weight Loss Programs: A 3-Dimensional Virtual-World Approach

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Anne P; DeVaneaux, Celeste A

    2012-01-01

    -efficacy (P = .04), fruit and vegetable consumption (P = .007), and weight loss self-efficacy (P < .001). Post hoc paired t tests indicated significant improvements across all of the variables for the virtual-world group. Conclusions Overall, these results offer positive early evidence that a virtual-world-based weight loss program can be as effective as a face-to-face one relative to biometric changes. In addition, our results suggest that a virtual world may be a more effective platform to influence meaningful behavioral changes and improve self-efficacy. PMID:22995535

  5. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  6. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H.; Carter, Stephen J.; Plaisance, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity related energy expenditure (AEE, kcal/d) and physical activity index (ARTE) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by a decrease in AEE, ARTE, and non-training physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free living energy expenditure. Methods 140 pre-menopausal women underwent an average of 25 pound weight loss during an 800 kcal/day diet of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times/wk (40 min/d), another resistance trained 3 times/wk (10 exercises/2 sets x10 repetitions) and the third group did not exercise. DXA was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry to measure resting (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and non-training physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. Results TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no exercise group, but not for the aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. The resistance trainers increased ARTE. Heart rate and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Conclusion Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free living energy expenditure separate from the exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increased physical activity, while ease and economy in walking associates with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. PMID:25606816

  7. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution1234

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. Objectives: We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. Design: We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Results: Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). Conclusions: UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers. PMID:22760561

  8. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers.

  9. Oxygenation and ventilation characteristics in obese sedated dogs before and after weight loss: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mosing, M; German, A J; Holden, S L; MacFarlane, P; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; Iff, I

    2013-11-01

    This prospective clinical study examined the effect of obesity and subsequent weight loss on oxygenation and ventilation during deep sedation in pet dogs. Data from nine dogs completing a formalised weight loss programme were evaluated. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to quantify body fat mass prior to and after weight loss. Dogs were deeply sedated and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Sedation was scored using a semi-objective scheme. As part of the monitoring of sedation, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) were measured after 10 min in dorsal recumbency. Oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2) was monitored continuously using pulse oximetry, starting oxygen supplementation where indicated (SpO2<90%) via a face mask. Morphometric measurements were taken from DEXA images and compared before and after weight loss. Several oxygen indices were calculated and correlated with body fat variables evaluated by DEXA. All body fat variables improved significantly after weight loss. PaO2 increased from 27.9±19.2 kPa to 34.8±24.4 kPa, while FiO2 decreased from 0.74±0.31 to 0.66±0.35. Morphometric measurements improved significantly after weight loss. PaO2/FiO2 (inspired oxygen fraction) and Pa/AO2 (ratio of PaO2 to alveolar PO2) also improved significantly, but there was no change in f-shunt and PaCO2 after weight loss. On multiple linear regression analysis, all oxygen indices were negatively associated with thoracic fat percentage. In conclusion, obesity decreases oxygenation in dogs during deep sedation. Oxygenation status improves with successful weight loss, but ventilation is not influenced by obesity.

  10. Effect of surgical weight loss on sleep architecture in adolescents with severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Kalra, M; Mannaa, Mohannad; Fitz, Kelly; Kumar, Sunil; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Sheng, Xiaohua; Inge, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Sleep duration and sleep fragmentation have been proposed to play a role in the development and progression of obesity-associated morbidity. Weight loss results in resolution of obesity-associated morbidity. Our aim was to determine the effect of weight loss on sleep architecture in adolescents with severe obesity. Retrospective analysis of polysomnograhic data from all adolescents who underwent overnight sleep study before and after weight loss surgery was performed. Polysomnographic variables of sleep architecture after weight loss were compared to baseline by paired Student's t test (normally distributed data) or Wilcoxon test (variables not meeting normality criteria). The mean (+/-SEM) age of 19 subjects meeting inclusion criteria was 16.5 +/- 0.35 years, mean body mass index was 60.3 +/- 2.11 kg/m2, and 66% were female. Obstructive sleep apnea was present in 14 subjects (74%). The average interval between the baseline and repeat polysomnograms was 0.91 +/- 0.16 years, and average weight loss was 66.4 +/- 8.8 kg. Surgical weight loss resulted in increased sleep efficiency (80.2% vs 73.1%, p = 0.01), reduced time in stage 1 sleep (3.0% vs 6.0%, p = 0.02), and reduced arousal index (7.6 +/- 0.6/h vs 11.3 +/- 1.2, p = 0.01). Our data demonstrate a marked improvement in sleep efficiency and sleep fragmentation with surgical weight loss. Given the emerging evidence that surgical weight loss results in resolution of obesity-associated psychosocial, metabolic, and cardiovascular morbidity, these results suggest that correction of sleep fragmentation could be an important but as yet underappreciated factor influencing changes in these other major comorbidities of obesity.

  11. Fatty Acid Composition of Adipose Tissue Triglycerides After Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance: the DIOGENES Study

    PubMed Central

    KUNEŠOVÁ, M.; HLAVATÝ, P.; TVRZICKÁ, E.; STAŇKOVÁ, B.; KALOUSKOVÁ, P.; VIGUERIE, N.; LARSEN, T. M.; VAN BAAK, M. A.; JEBB, S. A.; MARTINEZ, J. A.; PFEIFFER, A. F. H.; KAFATOS, A.; HANDJIEVA-DARLENSKA, T.; HILL, M.; LANGIN, D.; ŽÁK, A.; ASTRUP, A.; SARIS, W. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP/HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7), myristoleic (14:1n-5) and trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t). Negative correlation was found with baseline oleic acid (18:1n-9). Lower baseline monounsaturated fatty acids (14:1n-5, 16:1n-7 and trans 16:1n-7) in adipose tissue triglycerides predict better weight maintenance. Lower oleic acid predicts lower weight decrease. These findings suggest a specific role of monounsaturated fatty acids in weight management and as weight change predictors. PMID:23098653

  12. Melanocortin-4 Receptor Signaling Is Required for Weight Loss after Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hatoum, Ida J.; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Vanhoose, Amanda M.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Yin, Deng Ping; Ellacott, Kate L. J.; Ma, Lian Li; Blaszczyk, Kasia; Keogh, Julia M.; Cone, Roger D.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf

    2012-01-01

    Context: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is one of the most effective long-term therapies for the treatment of severe obesity. Recent evidence indicates that RYGB effects weight loss through multiple physiological mechanisms, including changes in energy expenditure, food intake, food preference, and reward pathways. Objective: Because central melanocortin signaling plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, we investigated whether genetic disruption of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) in rodents and humans affects weight loss after RYGB. Methods and Results: Here we report that MC4R−/− mice lost substantially less weight after surgery than wild-type animals, indicating that MC4R signaling is necessary for the weight loss effects of RYGB in this model. Mice heterozygous for MC4R remain fully responsive to gastric bypass. To determine whether mutations affect surgically induced weight loss in humans, we sequenced the MC4R gene in 972 patients undergoing RYGB. Patients heterozygous for MC4R mutations exhibited the same magnitude and distribution of postoperative weight loss as patients without such mutations, suggesting that although two normal copies of the MC4R gene are necessary for normal weight regulation, a single normal copy of the MC4R gene is sufficient to mediate the weight loss effects of RYGB. Conclusions: MC4R is the first gene identified that is required for the sustained effects of bariatric surgery. The need for MC4R signaling for the weight loss effects of RYGB in mice underscores the physiological mechanisms of action of this procedure and demonstrates that RYGB both influences and is dependent on the normal pathways that regulate energy balance. PMID:22492873

  13. Effect of moderate diet-induced weight loss and weight regain on cardiovascular structure and function

    PubMed Central

    de las Fuentes, Lisa; Waggoner, Alan D.; Mohammed, B. Selma; Stein, Richard I.; Miller, Bernard V.; Foster, Gary D.; Wyatt, Holly; Klein, Samuel; Davila-Roman, Victor G.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this prospective, single-site, two-year dietary intervention study was to evaluate the effects of moderate weight reduction and subsequent partial weight regain on cardiovascular structure and function. Background Obesity is associated with adverse cardiac and vascular structural and functional alterations. Methods Sixty obese subjects (age: 46±10 years, body mass index: 37±3 kg/m2) were evaluated during their participation in a weight loss study. Cardiac and vascular ultrasound studies were performed at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after start of intervention. Results Forty-seven subjects (78%) completed the entire two-year follow-up. Average weight loss was 7.3±4.0, 9.2±5.6, 7.8±6.6 and 3.8±7.9% at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Age- and sex- adjusted mixed linear models revealed that the follow-up time was significantly associated with decreases in weight (p<0.0001), left ventricular (LV) mass (p=0.001), and carotid intima-media thickness (p<0.0001); there was also significant improvement in LV diastolic (E’, p≤0.0001) and systolic (S’, p=.001) function. Partial weight regain diminished the maximal observed beneficial effects of weight loss, however cardiovascular parameters measured at two years still showed a net benefit compared with baseline. Conclusions Diet-induced moderate weight loss in obese subjects is associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular structure and function. Subsequent weight regain is associated with partial loss of these beneficial effects. PMID:20082927

  14. Taking Orlistat: Predicting Weight Loss over 6 Months.

    PubMed

    Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the predictors of weight loss following orlistat with a focus on both baseline variables and changes in beliefs and behaviours occurring over the course of taking the drug. Patients (n = 566) prescribed orlistat completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months concerning their weight, beliefs and behaviours. By 6 months the majority had lost some weight and showed improvements in diet. Many had also stopped taking the drug and a large minority reported using it flexibly as a lifestyle drug. Those who lost most weight showed a decrease in beliefs in a medical solution, a decrease in unhealthy eating, an increased belief in treatment control and an increased belief that the unpleasant consequences are both due to their eating behaviour and just part of the drug. When taken with fatty food orlistat causes symptoms such as anal leakage and oily stools. These may encourage some patients to focus on the behavioural aspects of their weight problem thus promoting the dietary changes needed for both short and longer term weight loss. When prescribing orlistat, clinicians should encourage patients to see the consequences as an education as a means to promote the effectiveness of this form of medical management.

  15. Weight loss goals among African-American women with type 2 diabetes in a behavioral weight control program.

    PubMed

    White, Della B; Bursac, Zoran; Dilillo, Vicki; West, Delia S

    2011-11-01

    African-American women with type 2 diabetes experience limited weight loss in behavioral weight control programs. Some research suggests that overly ambitious weight loss expectations may negatively affect weight losses achieved but it is unknown whether they affect weight loss among African-American women. The current study examined personal weight loss goals and expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss among African-American women with type 2 diabetes starting a behavioral obesity treatment. We also explored associations among these factors and weight loss treatment outcomes. Self-identified African-American women (N = 84) in a 24-session group program were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At baseline, women indicated weight loss goals of 14.1 ± 6.6 kg (14% of initial weight). They also reported relatively high expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss (7-10%). On average, participants lost 3.0 ± 3.9 kg (3% of initial weight) and attended 73 ± 21% of group sessions. Neither weight loss goals nor expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss was correlated with either actual weight loss outcome or attendance. Having higher personal weight loss goals was associated with lower expectations of satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss. This suggests that African-American women with type 2 diabetes enter treatment hoping to lose far more weight than they are likely to achieve. It is important to understand the psychosocial sequelae of failing to reach these goals on subsequent weight maintenance and future weight loss attempts within this population.

  16. Weight loss practices in Taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Takito, Monica Yuri; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rap-id weight loss among male and female Taekwondo athletes from all competitive levels. A questionnaire was administered to 72 men (regional/state level, n=31; national/international level, n=41) and 44 women (regional/state level, n=9; national/international, n=35). Among the male athletes, 77.4% of the regional/state level and 75.6% of the national/international athletes declared to have reduced weight to compete in lighter weight categories. Among women, 88.9% of regional/state level and 88.6% of national/international level reported the use of rapid weight loss strategies. Athletes reported to usually lose ~3% of their body weight, with some athletes reaching ~7% of their body weight. The methods used to achieve weight loss are potentially dangerous to health and no difference between sexes was found. Four methods were more frequently used by men athletes in higher competitive levels as compared to lower levels, as follows: skipping meals (Z=2.28, P=0.023, η2=0.21), fasting (Z=2.337, P=0.019, η2=0.22), restricting fluids (Z=2.633, P=0.009, η2=0.24) and spitting (Z=2.363, P=0.018, η2=0.22). Taekwondo athletes lost ~3% of their body mass, using methods potentially dangerous for their health. Although no difference was found between sexes, lower level athletes more frequently used methods such as skipping meals, fasting, restricting fluids and spitting. Considering that these health-threating methods are more commonly used by lower level athletes, specific education programs should be directed to them. PMID:27419116

  17. Weight loss practices in Taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Takito, Monica Yuri; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rap-id weight loss among male and female Taekwondo athletes from all competitive levels. A questionnaire was administered to 72 men (regional/state level, n=31; national/international level, n=41) and 44 women (regional/state level, n=9; national/international, n=35). Among the male athletes, 77.4% of the regional/state level and 75.6% of the national/international athletes declared to have reduced weight to compete in lighter weight categories. Among women, 88.9% of regional/state level and 88.6% of national/international level reported the use of rapid weight loss strategies. Athletes reported to usually lose ~3% of their body weight, with some athletes reaching ~7% of their body weight. The methods used to achieve weight loss are potentially dangerous to health and no difference between sexes was found. Four methods were more frequently used by men athletes in higher competitive levels as compared to lower levels, as follows: skipping meals (Z=2.28, P=0.023, η(2)=0.21), fasting (Z=2.337, P=0.019, η(2)=0.22), restricting fluids (Z=2.633, P=0.009, η(2)=0.24) and spitting (Z=2.363, P=0.018, η(2)=0.22). Taekwondo athletes lost ~3% of their body mass, using methods potentially dangerous for their health. Although no difference was found between sexes, lower level athletes more frequently used methods such as skipping meals, fasting, restricting fluids and spitting. Considering that these health-threating methods are more commonly used by lower level athletes, specific education programs should be directed to them.

  18. CB(1) blockade-induced weight loss over 48 weeks decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss in humans.

    PubMed

    Bergholm, R; Sevastianova, K; Santos, A; Kotronen, A; Urjansson, M; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Tiikkainen, M; Rissanen, A; Lundbom, N; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2013-05-01

    Studies in mice have suggested that endocannabinoid blockade using the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) blocker rimonabant prevents obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. To determine effects of rimonabant on liver fat in humans, we measured liver fat content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 37 subjects who used either a CB1 blocker rimonabant or placebo in a double-blind, randomized manner. This was retrospectively compared with a historical hypocaloric diet weight loss group (n=23). Weight loss averaged 8.5±1.4 kg in the rimonabant, 1.7±1.0 kg in the placebo and 7.5±0.2 kg in the hypocaloric diet group (P<0.001, rimonabant vs placebo; NS, rimonabant vs hypocaloric diet). Liver fat decreased more in the rimonabant (5.9% (2.5-14.6%) vs 1.8% (0.9-3.5%), before vs after) than in the placebo group (6.8% (2.2-15.7%) vs 4.9% (1.6-7.8%), before vs after, P<0.05). The percentage change in body weight correlated closely with the percentage loss of liver fat (r=0.70, P>0.0001). The decreases in liver fat were comparable between the rimonabant and the young historical hypocaloric diet groups. We conclude that, unlike in mice, in humans rimonabant decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss.

  19. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  20. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  1. Weight loss in the early stage of progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Ayako; Kaneko, Satoshi; Wate, Reika; Oki, Mitsuaki; Nagashima, Masato; Asayama, Shinya; Nakamura, Masataka; Fujita, Kengo; Saito, Akemi; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2017-02-01

    To clarify whether weight change in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is caused by the disease itself or secondarily by other factors. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 51 patients with PD and 14 patients with PSP, especially during the early stage of their diseases. All patients were independent in terms of their activities of daily living and did not have any feeding difficulty. The body mass index measured within 3 years after the disease onset did not show a significant difference between the two diseases. However, the subsequent weight was stable in patients with PD and significantly decreased in patients with PSP. Weight loss begins in the early stage of PSP, whereas dopaminergic treatment may contribute to keep weight in the early stage of PD through reduction of energy expenditure and/or improvement in appetite.

  2. Energy expenditure, energy intake, and weight loss in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, E T; Dvorak, R V

    2000-02-01

    Alzheimer disease is one of the leading causes of death among older individuals. Unexplained weight loss and cachexia are frequent clinical findings in patients with Alzheimer disease. Thus, it has been postulated that Alzheimer disease may be associated with dysfunction in body weight regulation. This brief review examines the interrelations among energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition in Alzheimer disease. We explored whether abnormally high daily energy expenditures, low energy intakes, or both contribute to unexplained weight loss and a decline in nutritional status. Specifically, we considered studies that examined energy intake, body composition, and daily energy expenditure and its components. The application of doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry to understand the etiology of wasting has increased our knowledge regarding the relation among energy expenditure, physical activity levels, and body composition in Alzheimer disease patients. Although the number of studies are limited, results do not support the notion that a hypermetabolic state contributes to unexplained weight loss in Alzheimer disease, even in cachectic patients. Recent findings are presented suggesting an association between abnormally elevated levels of physical activity energy expenditure and elevated appendicular skeletal muscle mass and energy intake in Alzheimer disease patients. Clinical strategies aimed at developing lifestyle and dietary interventions to maintain adequate energy intake, restore energy balance, and maintain skeletal muscle mass should be a future area of investigation in Alzheimer disease research.

  3. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials.

    PubMed

    Johns, David J; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12-month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta-regression was conducted in STATA v12. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty-nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was -0.8 kg (95% CI -1.1 to -0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of -0.53 kg (95% CI -0.96 to -0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh-in was associated with a weight change of -0.42 kg (95% CI -0.81 to -0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh-ins was associated with weight change. Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow-up. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  4. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David J.; Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A.; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Methods Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12‐month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta‐regression was conducted in STATA v12. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty‐nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was −0.8 kg (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of −0.53 kg (95% CI −0.96 to −0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh‐in was associated with a weight change of −0.42 kg (95% CI −0.81 to −0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh‐ins was associated with weight change. Conclusions Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow‐up. PMID:27028279

  5. Equivalent weight loss for weight management programs delivered by phone and clinic.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Joseph E; Goetz, Jeannine; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K; Lambourne, Kate; Mayo, Matthew S; Hunt, Suzanne; Lee, Jae Hoon; Honas, Jeffrey J; Washburn, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) weight management is costly and presents barriers for individuals seeking treatment; thus, alternate delivery systems are needed. The objective of this study was to compare weight management delivered by FTF clinic or group conference calls (phone). Randomized equivalency trial in 295 overweight/obese men/women (BMI = 35.1±4.9, Age = 43.8±10.2, Minority = 39.8%). Weight loss (0-6 months) was achieved by reducing energy intake between 1,200 and 1,500 kcal/day and progressing physical activity (PA) to 300 min/week. Weight maintenance (7-18 months) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued 300 min/week of PA. Behavioral weight management strategies were delivered weekly for 6 months and gradually reduced during 7-18 months. A cost analysis provided a comparison of expenses between groups. Weight change from baseline to 6 months was -13.4 ± 6.7% and -12.3 ± 7.0% for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. Weight change from 6-18 months was 6.4 ± 7.0% and 6.4 ± 5.2%, for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. The cost to FTF participants was $789.58 more per person. Phone delivery provided equivalent weight loss and maintenance and reduced program cost. Ubiquitous access to phones provides a vast reach for this approach. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  6. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women: a 6-mo randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Geiker, Nina Rw; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D; Larsen, Thomas M; Hill, James O; Astrup, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. We examined the effect in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women of a diet and exercise weight-loss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program that was tailored to metabolic changes of the menstrual cycle (Menstralean) or to undergo simple energy restriction (control). Thirty-one women (19 Menstralean and 12 control women) completed the study [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.0 ± 5.2]. Both groups lost weight during the study. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the Menstralean group did not achieve a clinically significant weight loss compared with that of the control group (P = 0.61). In per-protocol analyses, a more-pronounced weight loss of 4.3 ± 1.4 kg (P = 0.002) was shown in adherent Menstralean subjects than in the control group. A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01622114. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Fecal sodium and potassium losses in low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Verma, R P; John, E; Fornell, L; Vidyasagar, D

    1993-01-01

    We measured 24-hour fecal losses of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) in immediate post natal period of preterm neonates to determine the role of this route in the electrolyte imbalances seen in such infants. The values from preterm infants were compared to a group of age matched term infants. Eleven studies were done on unfed extremely low birth weight infants (group I, birth weight < 1200 gms), seven on fed preterm infants (group II, birth weight 1201-2500 gms) and nine on fed term infants (group III, birth weight 2501-4000 gms). Measured and derived variables compared between the groups were 24 hour fecal volume, total fecal electrolyte contents, Na or K lost per kg of body weight and per gm. of stool and Na or K losses as percent of intake. Although 24 hour fecal volume was lowest in group I, none of the variables related to Na differed between groups I and II whereas all of them were significantly lower in group I when compared with group III. Groups II and III differed only in terms of Na loss/gm stool which was lower in the previous group. Conversely K loss/gm of stool was significantly higher in group I when compared with both groups II and III and the only variable that differed between groups II and III was a higher fecal K content as fraction of intake. Fecal K/Na ratio was highest in group I, and decreased progressively with advancing gestational age, whereas creatinine clearance was lowest in group I and increased along with gestational age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The effects of rikkunshito on body weight loss after esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masaki; Nakamori, Mikihito; Ojima, Toshiyasu; Katsuda, Masahiro; Hayata, Keiji; Iwahashi, Makoto; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2016-07-01

    After esophagectomy, esophageal cancer patients suffer from malnutrition, anorexia, and dysfunction of digestion and absorption. Rikkunshito, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, reportedly attenuates gastrointestinal symptoms and appetite loss after gastrointestinal surgery. We evaluated the clinical effect of rikkunshito and its relationship with ghrelin in esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy. This prospective nonrandomized study included 40 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy at Wakayama Medical University Hospital. They were assigned to either the control group (n = 20, April 2011-January 2012) or the rikkunshito group (n = 20, January 2012-August 2012). Patients in the rikkunshito group received 2.5 g of rikkunshito before every meal for 48 wk beginning 4 wk after surgery. During the 48-week treatment, we assessed body weight loss, nutritional parameters, and quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Esophageal scale). The primary end point was the rate of body weight loss in two groups after the 48-week treatments. The rate of body weight loss was significantly less in the rikkunshito group than in the control group (P = 0.016). The acyl ghrelin level after the 48-week treatments was significantly higher in the rikkunshito group (131.7% ± 74.5%) than in the control group (75.6% ± 47.5%, P = 0.039). For the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Esophageal symptom scale, satisfaction of food consumption in the rikkunshito group was significantly better than in the control group at 52 wk postoperatively (P = 0.031). For esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy, rikkunshito is useful for improving body weight loss in connection with an increase in plasma acyl ghrelin levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaping to lose weight: Predictors of adult e-cigarette use for weight loss or control.

    PubMed

    Morean, Meghan E; Wedel, Amelia V

    2017-03-01

    Some traditional cigarette smokers are motivated to smoke to lose weight or control their weight. The current study evaluated whether a subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping to lose or control their weight and examined potential predictors of vaping for weight management. Adult e-cigarette users (n=459) who reported wanting to lose weight or maintain their weight completed an anonymous online survey. Participants reported on demographics, vaping frequency, e-cigarette nicotine content, cigarette smoking status, preferred e-cigarette/e-liquid flavors, current weight status (i.e., overweight, underweight), use of dieting strategies associated with anorexia and bulimia, lifetime history of binge eating, self-discipline, and impulse control. Binary logistic regression was used to examine whether vaping for weight loss/control was associated with the aforementioned variables. Participants who reported vaping for weight loss/control (13.5%) were more likely to vape frequently (adjOR=1.15; 95% CI [1.00, 1.31]); be overweight (adjOR=2.80; [1.33, 5.90]); restrict calories (adjOR=2.23; [1.13, 4.42]); have poor impulse control (adjOR=0.59; [0.41, 0.86]); and prefer coffee- (adjOR=2.92; [1.47, 5.80]) or vanilla-flavored e-liquid (adjOR=7.44; [1.56, 36.08]). A subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping for weight loss/control, raising concerns about expanded, scientifically unsubstantiated uses of e-cigarettes. Identifying where individuals obtain information about vaping for weight loss (e.g., e-cigarette ads, Internet) and whether weight-related motives promote e-cigarette initiation among e-cigarette naïve individuals is important to informing regulatory efforts. Further research also is needed to better understand the link between e-liquid flavors and weight loss motivations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors of Weight Loss Maintenance following an Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Abildso, Christiaan G.; Fitzpatrick, Sean J.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional weight loss among overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) is associated with numerous health benefits, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) following participation in weight management programming has proven to be elusive. Many individuals attempting to lose weight join formal programs, especially women, but these programs vary widely in focus, as do postprogram weight regain results. We surveyed 2,106 former participants in a community-based, insurance-sponsored weight management program in the United States to identify the pre, during, and post-intervention behavioral and psychosocial factors that lead to successful WLM. Of 835 survey respondents (39.6% response rate), 450 met criteria for inclusion in this study. Logistic regression analyses suggest that interventionists should assess and discuss weight loss and behavior change perceptions early in a program. However, in developing maintenance plans later in a program, attention should shift to behaviors, such as weekly weighing, limiting snacking in the evening, limiting portion sizes, and being physically active every day. PMID:24738027

  11. liraglutide (SAXENDA⁰) and obesit. Still no satisfactory weight loss drugs.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    No existing weight loss drug has an acceptable harm-benefit balance. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 agonist administered by subcutaneous injection and already authorised in type 2 diabetes, is also approved for use in the European Union by obese patients or overweight individuals with other cardiovascular risk factors. The recommended dose in this setting is 3 mg per day, instead of the dose of 1.2 to 1.8 mg per day used in diabetes. In four randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, each lasting one year, mean weight loss with liraglutide, beyond the placebo effect, was about 5% among patients initially weighing between 100 and 118 kg. These trials were not designed to show an effect of liraglutide on complications of excess weight. Gallstones, one of the complications of obesity, were more frequent in the liraglutide groups. Partial weight regain was reported during the 3 months following liraglutide withdrawal. effects, including pancreatic disorders. Patients should not be exposed to these unjustified risks. The known adverse effect profile of liraglutide, which includes severe pancreatitis and gallstones, was confirmed in the trials in obese patients. Gastrointestinal disorders (nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea) were very frequent. Hypoglycaemic episodes, sometimes severe, have mainly been reported in diabetic patients. Reactions at the injection site can also be serious. In trials in obese patients, liraglutide was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. In practice, sometimes excessive weight loss is a known adverse effect of GLP-1 agonists used in diabetes. Many patients lose several kilograms with high-dose liraglutide but regain the weight after treatment discontinuation. Liraglutide has no proven impact on complications of obesity and carries a risk of serious adverse.

  12. Development of 'Twazon': An Arabic App for Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Alnasser, Aroub; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman; Marais, Debbi

    2016-05-16

    Weight gain and its related illnesses have become a major public health issue across the world, with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries seeing dramatic increases in obesity and overweight, and yet there is very little information on how to intervene with this demographic due to cultural and linguistic barriers. As the use of smartphones and apps has also increased in the region, information communication technologies could be a cost-effective means of facilitating the delivery of behavior-modification interventions directly to the target population. Although there are existing apps that offer lifestyle-modification tools, they do not give consideration to the evidence-based practices for weight management. This offers an opportunity to create an Arabic language weight loss app that offers localized content and adheres to evidence-informed practices that are needed for effective weight loss. This paper describes the process of developing an Arabic weight loss app designed to facilitate the modification of key nutritional and physical activity behaviors among Saudi adults, while taking into consideration cultural norms. The development of the Twazon app involved: (1) reviewing all available Arabic weight loss apps and compared with evidence-based practices for weight loss, (2) conducting a qualitative study with overweight and obese Saudi women to ascertain their preferences, (3) selecting which behavioral change strategies and guidelines to be used in the app, (4) creating the Saudi Food Database, (5) deciding on graphic design for both iPhone operating system and Android platforms, including user interface, relational database, and programming code, and (6) testing the beta version of the app with health professionals and potential users. The Twazon app took 23 months to develop and included the compilation of an original Saudi Food database. Eight subjects gave feedback regarding the content validity and usability of the app and its features during a pilot

  13. The role of genes involved in lipolysis on weight loss program in overweight and obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Luglio, Harry Freitag; Sulistyoningrum, Dian Caturini; Susilowati, Rina

    2015-01-01

    The ability of obese people to reduce weight in the same treatment varied. Genetic make up as well as the behavioral changes are important for the successfulness of the program. One of the most proposed genetic variations that have been reported in many intervention studies was genes that control lipolysis process. This review summarizes studies that were done showing the influence of genetic polymorphisms in lipolysis pathway and weight loss in a weight loss treatment program. Some studies had shown that certain enzymes involved in this process were related to successfulness of weight loss program. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in PLIN (11482G>A) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) are the most studied polymorphisms that have effect on weight loss intervention. However, those studies were not conclusive because of limited number of subjects used and controversies in the results. Thus, replication and confirmation on the role of those genes in weight loss are important due to their potential to be used as predictors of the results of the program. PMID:26388665

  14. Fenfluramine treatment in female rats accelerates the weight loss associated with activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Atchley, Deann P D; Eckel, Lisa A

    2005-02-01

    Serotonin plays an important role in controlling food intake and regulating body weight. Thus, altered serotonergic function may be involved in the etiology of anorexia nervosa. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined whether activation of the serotonin system increases the severity of activity-based anorexia, an animal model of anorexia nervosa in which food-restricted rats are housed with access to running wheels. This paradigm promotes symptoms of anorexia nervosa, including hypophagia, hyperactivity, and weight loss. Food-restricted rats received injections of a serotonin agonist, fenfluramine, or saline 1.5 h prior to their daily 2-h period of food access. A third saline-injected group was pair-fed to the fenfluramine group. Drug treatment and food restriction were terminated following a 25% weight loss. During food restriction, each group developed symptoms of activity-based anorexia. Although similar reductions in food intake were observed in fenfluramine-treated and pair-fed rats, only fenfluramine-treated rats displayed an accelerated rate of weight loss, relative to saline-treated rats. Thus, some other nonanorexic aspect of fenfluramine, perhaps its influence on metabolism, must underlie the accelerated rate of weight loss in this group. Our results suggest that increased activation of the serotonin system exacerbates the weight loss associated with activity-based anorexia.

  15. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, F. Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M.; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications. PMID:26457296

  16. [Ketogenic diets and weight loss: basis and effectiveness].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín

    2008-06-01

    The international consensus is that carbohydrates are the basis of the food pyramid of a healthy diet. Today's specialists believe that the best way to lose weight is by cutting down on calories, essentialy in the form of fat. However, this paper will clarify that ketogenic diets are, from a physiological, biochemicale and practical point of view, a much more effective way of losing weight, since such diets provide metabolic advantages such as the capacity to preserve muscle mass, reduce appetite, to have a lower metabolic efficiency, produce a metabolic activation of thermogenesis and favour a greater fat loss even with a greater number of calories.

  17. [Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar].

    PubMed

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Veerman, E C I

    2012-12-01

    Erosive tooth wear was diagnosed in the dentition of a 15-year-old girl with a Moroccan background. After an anamnesis, extensive analysis of possible risk factors and a study of the pattern of erosion, it was concluded that the erosive tooth wear was induced by daily consumption of a glass of apple cider vinegar Further investigation revealed that in North-African culture, women have used apple cider vinegar to achieve weight loss for generations. Bodybuilders are also known to make use of this method of weight reduction.

  18. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed

    Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1997-01-04

    for maintaining weight after a major weight loss. The rate of the initial weight loss did not influence long term outcome.

  19. Resolution of NASH with weight loss documented by hepatic MRI.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vasvi; Luthra, Saurav; Elajami, Tarec K; Welty, Francine K

    2015-01-06

    A 57-year-old Asian woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidaemia and history of breast cancer, was referred to the cardiovascular health and lipid centre for evaluation and management of dyslipidaemia and NASH (Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) in 2010. She originally had a detailed work up at the liver clinic for elevated liver enzymes, with no associated symptoms. Initial hepatic MRI on 22 January 2007 showed diffuse fatty infiltration quantitated at 15%. We counselled her on lifestyle modifications, including dietary measures and exercise, geared toward weight loss. Over the next 2 years, she lost 24.5 lbs; repeat hepatic MRI on 22 December 2011 showed 6% hepatic fat, which is within the normal range. This case demonstrates the efficacy of significant weight loss in the improvement and resolution of NASH. We believe that this is the first case report documenting this through liver MRI. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Michael V.; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A.; Bayley, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the U.S. and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments. PMID:27574603

  1. Resolution of NASH with weight loss documented by hepatic MRI

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vasvi; Luthra, Saurav; Elajami, Tarec K; Welty, Francine K

    2015-01-01

    A 57-year-old Asian woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidaemia and history of breast cancer, was referred to the cardiovascular health and lipid centre for evaluation and management of dyslipidaemia and NASH (Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) in 2010. She originally had a detailed work up at the liver clinic for elevated liver enzymes, with no associated symptoms. Initial hepatic MRI on 22 January 2007 showed diffuse fatty infiltration quantitated at 15%. We counselled her on lifestyle modifications, including dietary measures and exercise, geared toward weight loss. Over the next 2 years, she lost 24.5 lbs; repeat hepatic MRI on 22 December 2011 showed 6% hepatic fat, which is within the normal range. This case demonstrates the efficacy of significant weight loss in the improvement and resolution of NASH. We believe that this is the first case report documenting this through liver MRI. PMID:25564638

  2. Self-regulatory theory and weight-loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Testa, Rylan J; Brown, Ronald T

    2015-03-01

    We examined the relationships between promotion and prevention focus and caloric consumption in reaction to a dietary lapse scenario among weight loss maintainers. Participants were 65 adult females who had attained and maintained a weight loss of 10 % or more for at least 1 month. After engaging in a dietary lapse in a feeding laboratory, participants completed a "bogus" taste test, during which they could consume as much food as they liked. It was hypothesized that promotion and prevention focus would predict caloric consumption, mediated by depressive and anxious affect. Prevention focus, but not promotion focus, was positively associated with proportion of daily calories consumed. Affect was not a mediator. Prevention focus may be deleterious for dietary maintenance following dietary lapses. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed in light of prior research. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research also are presented.

  3. Weight loss in combat sports: physiological, psychological and performance effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present article briefly reviews the weight loss processes in combat sports. We aimed to discuss the most relevant aspects of rapid weight loss (RWL) in combat sports. Methods This review was performed in the databases MedLine, Lilacs, PubMed and SciELO, and organized into sub-topics: (1) prevalence, magnitude and procedures, (2) psychological, physiological and performance effects, (3) possible strategies to avoid decreased performance (4) organizational strategies to avoid such practices. Results There was a high prevalence (50%) of RWL, regardless the specific combat discipline. Methods used are harmful to performance and health, such as laxatives, diuretics, use of plastic or rubber suits, and sauna. RWL affects physical and cognitive capacities, and may increase the risk of death. Conclusion Recommendations during different training phases, educational and organizational approaches are presented to deal with or to avoid RWL. PMID:23237303

  4. [Ephedrine and ephedra in weight loss products and other preparations].

    PubMed

    van der Hooft, C S; Stricker, B H Ch

    2002-07-13

    Ephedrine is a sympathicomimetic agent that stimulates the central nervous and cardiovascular systems and causes bronchodilatation. It is one of the alkaloids in the herb Ephedra which is the basis of several over-the-counter herbal products, among which a number of popular weight-loss products. The Dutch Inspectorate for Health Care has received reports of adverse reactions presumably associated with Ephedra-containing weight-loss products. These adverse reactions comprised mainly palpitations, stress, headache and insomnia. The Ministry of Health in Canada has recently requested a market recall of some ephedrine-containing herbal products in response to a large number of adverse reactions reported in association with these products. The adverse reactions included stroke, heart attacks, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures and psychotic disorders. The voluntary recall concerns especially products that were marketed without approval and contain Ephedra in combination with caffeine or other stimulants. In the Netherlands, the status of Ephedra-containing products is currently reconsidered.

  5. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Michael V; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Bayley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the U.S. and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.

  6. Brain response to food stimulation in obese, normal weight, and successful weight loss maintainers

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Lawrence H.; Hassenstab, Jason J.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Bond, Dale S.; Demos, Kathryn E.; Haley, Andreana P.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Del Parigi, Angelo; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    As many people struggle with maintenance of weight loss, the study of successful weight loss maintainers (SWLM) can yield important insights into factors contributing to weight loss maintenance. However, little research has examined how SWLM differ from people who are obese or normal weight (NW) in brain response to orosensory stimulation. The goal of this study was to determine if SWLM exhibit different brain responses to orosensory stimulation. Brain response to one-minute orosensory stimulation with a lemon lollipop was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) among 49 participants, including SWLM (n=17), NW (n=18) and obese (n=14) controls. Significant brain responses were observed in nine brain regions, including the bilateral insula, left inferior frontal gyrus, left putamen, and other sensory regions. All regions also exhibited significant attenuation of this response over one minute. The SWLM exhibited greater response compared to the other groups in all brain regions. Findings suggest that the response to orosensory stimulation peaks within 40 seconds and attenuates significantly between 40-60 seconds in regions associated with sensation, reward, and inhibitory control. Greater reactivity among the SWLM suggests that greater sensory reactivity to orosensory stimulation, increased anticipated reward, and subsequently greater inhibitory processing are associated with weight loss maintenance. PMID:22569002

  7. Body weight loss as an indicator of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Marinho, L A; Rettori, O; Vieira-Matos, A N

    2001-01-01

    Body weight loss (BWL), a major prognostic factor in breast cancer, was included as a parameter to be monitored in the recent breast cancer surveillance guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. The aim of this work was prospectively to evaluate BWL as an indicator of breast cancer recurrence. Body weight was measured every 2 months for 10.4+/-3.7 (SD) months in 109 disease-free breast cancer patients in stage II node-positive and stage III disease. The correlation between unexplained BWL and recurrence was studied. Attempts were made to define the limits in weight variations among disease-free patients beyond which recurrence could be suspected. Unexplained BWL was observed in 16/19 (84%) patients developing recurrence, versus 9/90 (10%) patients remaining disease-free. There was a significant (p < 0.001) correlation between BWL and recurrence. BWL anticipated the diagnosis of recurrence by 6 (range 4-12) months. Based on the average percentage weight variation +/- 2 SD (95% confidence interval) of the disease-free group, the limits for BWL beyond which recurrence could be suspected were a 5.8% decrease in the last 6 months, 3.6% in the last 2 months or 3.0% of the patient's mean weight. However, because of the large variation in the amplitude of individual weight oscillations among disease-free patients (from < 0.5% to > 5.9% of the mean weight), individual limits derived from the patient's own body weight curve seemed more reliable. The results suggest that unexplained BWL is a valuable indicator of incipient breast cancer recurrence. Careful monitoring of body weight in breast cancer patients during follow-up is encouraged.

  8. Gastric bypass may promote weight loss in overweight partners.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Floor; Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; Geenen, Rinie; von Rosenstiel, Ines A; Hinnen, Chris; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela; Gerdes, Victor E A

    2015-01-01

    Following bariatric surgery, patients are expected to implement diet and lifestyle changes that may be imitated by cohabitating family members. We hypothesize that cohabitating family members will lose weight and improve their eating behavior within 1 year after surgery. In this observational prospective study, family members of patients who had gastric bypass surgery (88 partners, 20 children ≥18 years old, and 25 children between 12 and 17 years old) were repeatedly assessed. Family members were asked to assess their weight and height before and 3, 6, and 12 months following bariatric surgery, and they filled out the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Between baseline and 1 year following surgery, 49 partners of patients who underwent gastric bypass surgery (66.2%) lost weight, 6 (8.1%) remained stable, and 19 (25.7%) gained weight. Body mass index of partners (P = .002), particularly of overweight partners (P < .001)-but not children-showed a small, significant decrease over time. No significant changes in eating behavior among partners or children were found. The study indicates that gastric bypass surgery may have a ripple effect, with body weight in partners of patients decreasing over time. However, there is considerable variation in the postoperative weight loss of partners. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  9. Herbal Weight Loss Pill Overdose: Sibutramine Hidden in Pepper Pill

    PubMed Central

    Pamukcu Gunaydin, Gul; Dogan, Nurettin Ozgur; Levent, Sevcan; Kurtoglu Celik, Gulhan

    2015-01-01

    Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5 mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times. PMID:25861489

  10. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within < 3% were considered as weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  11. Evidence-based practices for the prevention of weight loss in nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Mary J; Schumacher, Julie Raeder

    2011-03-01

    Weight loss is common among nursing home residents. Food intake is often inadequate for elderly residents but is only one of several factors contributing to potential weight loss. Three common issues resulting in weight loss include starvation (or wasting), cachexia, and sarcopenia. Significant weight loss leads to increased mortality, increased morbidity, and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this article is to discuss the geriatric syndrome of weight loss in elderly nursing home residents and provide recommendations to decrease and prevent weight loss. A list of available evidence-based protocols related to weight loss issues is provided.

  12. Short-term effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk factors in morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed

    Busetto, Luca; Sergi, Giuseppe; Enzi, Giuliano; Segato, Gianni; De Marchi, Francesco; Foletto, Mirto; De Luca, Maurizio; Pigozzo, Sabrina; Favretti, Franco

    2004-08-01

    To analyze the short-term effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk factors in morbidly obese patients. Five metabolic cardiovascular risk factors (blood glucose, blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides) were determined before and 15.3 +/- 2.1 months after laparoscopic gastric banding in 650 morbidly obese patients. Global cardiovascular risk was calculated according to the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) scoring system. Mean weight loss was 22.7 +/- 20.4 kg. Normalization of the metabolic alteration was observed in 67.3% of patients with diabetes, 38.3% of patients with hypercholesterolemia, 72.5% of patients with low HDL-cholesterol, 72.3% of patients with hypertriglyceridemia, and 46.7% of patients with hypertension. PROCAM score fell from 31.4 +/- 11.6 to 28.0 +/- 12.0 points (p < 0.001). The modifications of total cholesterol and blood pressure were unrelated to percentage weight loss. Percentage weight loss was significantly related to the reductions of fasting blood glucose, triglyceride level, and the PROCAM score and to the increase of HDL-cholesterol concentrations observed after surgery. However, the strength of these four relationships was generally low. The variations of HDL-cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure levels were more influenced by actual energy balance than by the extent of weight loss. Weight loss observed in the first 12 to 18 months after gastric banding was associated with a significant improvement of single cardiovascular risk factors and global risk. On the other hand, the extent of weight loss was poorly related to the magnitude of improvement in cardiovascular risk.

  13. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R; Astrup, Arne; Bouwman, Freek G; van Otterdijk, Sanne; Wodzig, Will K W H; van Baak, Marleen A; Larsen, Thomas M; Jebb, Susan A; Kafatos, Anthony; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kunesova, Marie; Saris, Wim H M; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2011-02-14

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured. Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%. A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  14. Contribution of Malabsorption to Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mahawar, Kamal K; Sharples, Alistair J

    2017-08-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is traditionally classified as a combined restrictive and malabsorptive operation. This notion of the operation influences its technical variations and revisions for patients who do not achieve significant weight loss after this surgery. There is an increasing body of literature suggesting a role for appetite suppression mediated by neuro-hormonal signals after RYGB. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review published English language scientific literature to determine the role of malabsorption towards weight loss achieved with RYGB. This review finds that there is little or no malabsorption of carbohydrates or protein after RYGB but there is some fat malabsorption. Overall, malabsorption makes a little (approximately 11.0% in the early period) overall contribution to weight loss after RYGB.

  15. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2007-07-30

    Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models), but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie"). Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1) dietary carbohydrate, via its effect on hormone levels

  16. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    PubMed Central

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2007-01-01

    Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models), but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie"). Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1) dietary carbohydrate, via its effect on hormone levels

  17. Ketosis and appetite-mediating nutrients and hormones after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sumithran, P; Prendergast, L A; Delbridge, E; Purcell, K; Shulkes, A; Kriketos, A; Proietto, J

    2013-07-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by compensatory changes, which increase appetite and encourage weight regain. There is some evidence that ketogenic diets suppress appetite. The objective is to examine the effect of ketosis on a number of circulating factors involved in appetite regulation, following diet-induced weight loss. Of 50 non-diabetic overweight or obese subjects who began the study, 39 completed an 8-week ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED), followed by 2 weeks of reintroduction of foods. Following weight loss, circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), leptin, gastrointestinal hormones and subjective ratings of appetite were compared when subjects were ketotic, and after refeeding. During the ketogenic VLED, subjects lost 13% of initial weight and fasting BHB increased from (mean±s.e.m.) 0.07±0.00 to 0.48±0.07 mmol/l (P<0.001). BHB fell to 0.19±0.03 mmol/l after 2 weeks of refeeding (P<0.001 compared with week 8). When participants were ketotic, the weight loss induced increase in ghrelin was suppressed. Glucose and NEFA were higher, and amylin, leptin and subjective ratings of appetite were lower at week 8 than after refeeding. The circulating concentrations of several hormones and nutrients which influence appetite were altered after weight loss induced by a ketogenic diet, compared with after refeeding. The increase in circulating ghrelin and subjective appetite which accompany dietary weight reduction were mitigated when weight-reduced participants were ketotic.

  18. Naltrexone + bupropion (Mysimba). Too risky for only modest weight loss.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Weight loss and its long-term maintenance are mainly based on dietary measures and regular physical activity. There are currently no weight-loss medications with a favourable harm-benefit balance. Bupropion is chemically related to certain amphetamines, while naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist. A fixed-dose combination of these two drugs has received marketing authorisation in the European Union for obese patients and for over-weight patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. In five placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind trials, the patients, weighing on average between 100 kg and 105 kg (average body mass index 36 kg/m2), the naltrexone + bupropion combination was associated with an average weight loss of a few additional kilograms compared with placebo, after 6 months or one year of treatment. There are no post-trial follow-up data to show whether or not the patients regained their lost weight after treatment discontinuation. One trial including more than 8900 patients examined the effect of the naltrexone + bupropion combination on the freauency of maior cardiovascular events, but poor handling of an interim analysis undermined the validity of the final results. The known adverse effects of bupropion consist of potentially severe neuropsychiatric disorders such as aggressiveness, depression and suicidal ideation, and also allergic reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Misuse and excessive consumption have been reported. In trials in obese or overweight patients, the naltrexone + bupropion combination caused sometimes severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including seizures, cognitive impairment, dizziness, anxiety, sleep disorders and psychotic symptoms. In clinical trials, the combination led to an increase in blood pressure compared with placebo, and also an excess of cardiac arrhythmias. About half of patients who took naltrexone + bupropion experienced gastrointestinal disorders such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. The

  19. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight