Iskander, John; Haber, Penina; Herrera, Guillermo
In the event that a vaccine is available during an influenza pandemic, vaccine safety monitoring will occur as part of comprehensive public health surveillance of the vaccination campaign. Though inactivated influenza vaccines have been widely used in the United States and much is known about their safety profile, attention will need to be paid to both common self-limited adverse reactions and rarer, more serious events that may or may not be causally related to vaccination. The primary surveillance systems used to generate and test hypotheses about vaccine safety concerns are the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), respectively. Examples of recent use of these systems to investigate influenza vaccine safety and enhancements planned for use during a pandemic are presented. Ethical issues that will need to be addressed as part of an overall vaccine safety response include risk communication and injury compensation. Advance planning and the use of available technologic solutions are needed to respond to the scientific and logistic challenges involved in safely implementing mass vaccination during a pandemic. PMID:17132333
Halsey, Neal A; Talaat, Kawsar R; Greenbaum, Adena; Mensah, Eric; Dudley, Matthew Z; Proveaux, Tina; Salmon, Daniel A
Most influenza vaccines are generally safe, but influenza vaccines can cause rare serious adverse events. Some adverse events, such as fever and febrile seizures, are more common in children than adults. There can be differences in the safety of vaccines in different populations due to underlying differences in genetic predisposition to the adverse event. Live attenuated vaccines have not been studied adequately in children under 2 years of age to determine the risks of adverse events; more studies are needed to address this and several other priority safety issues with all influenza vaccines in children. All vaccines intended for use in children require safety testing in the target age group, especially in young children. Safety of one influenza vaccine in children should not be extrapolated to assumed safety of all influenza vaccines in children. The low rates of adverse events from influenza vaccines should not be a deterrent to the use of influenza vaccines because of the overwhelming evidence of the burden of disease due to influenza in children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Groom, Holly C; Henninger, Michelle L; Smith, Ning; Koppolu, Padma; Cheetham, T Craig; Glanz, Jason M; Hambidge, Simon J; Jackson, Lisa A; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Klein, Nicola P; McCarthy, Natalie L; Nordin, James D; Weintraub, Eric S; Naleway, Allison L
Pregnant women are at risk for influenza-related complications and have been recommended for vaccination by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) since 1990. Annual rates of influenza coverage of pregnant women have been consistently low. The Vaccine Safety Datalink was used to assess influenza vaccine coverage over 10 consecutive years (2002-2012); assess patterns related to changes in ACIP recommendations; identify predictors of vaccination; and compare the results with those published by national U.S. surveys. Retrospective cohort study of 721,898 pregnancies conducted in 2014. Coverage rates were assessed for all pregnancies and for live births only. Multivariate regression analysis identified predictors associated with vaccination. Coverage increased from 8.8% to 50.9% in 2002-2012. Seasonal coverage rates increased slowly following the 2004 ACIP influenza vaccine recommendation (to remove the first trimester restriction), but spiked significantly during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Significant predictors of vaccination during pregnancy included older age; vaccination in a previous season; high-risk conditions in addition to pregnancy; pregnancy during either the 2004-2005 or 2009-2010 seasons; entering the influenza season after the first trimester of pregnancy; and a pregnancy with longer overlap with the influenza season (p<0.001 for each). Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women increased between the 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 seasons, although it was still below the developmental Healthy People 2020 goal of 80%. The 2004 ACIP language change positively impacted first-trimester vaccination uptake. Vaccine Safety Datalink data estimates were consistent with U.S. estimates. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...
Gregersen, Jens-Peter; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Trusheim, Heidi; Bröker, Michael
After more than 60 years, the conventional production of influenza vaccines employing fertilized chicken eggs has reached its limits - both in terms of temporal flexibility and vaccine production volume. This problem is compounded by the fact that the pandemic-driven situation in 2009 has roughly doubled the overall vaccine demand. Modern cell culture technology has significant advantages over the conventional method of manufacturing influenza vaccines employing embryonated chicken eggs, and enables manufacturers to respond rapidly to the increasing worldwide seasonal and pandemic-driven need for influenza vaccines. Recent articles in the popular press claiming that cell culture-based influenza vaccines can cause tumors have fomented uncertainty among the general population and physicians, and also discredit officially accepted test results and product licensing. This article provides an overview of the safety profile of the cell culture technology, of the cells and of the final vaccine product.
Gotoh, Kensei; Ito, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Eitaro; Kaneko, Kenitiro; Kiuchi, Tetsuya; Ando, Hisami; Kimura, Hiroshi
Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for pediatric liver transplant recipients, who are at high risk of influenza-related complications. However, effectiveness and safety of vaccination may differ among influenza seasons in this population and have not been fully evaluated. Subjects comprised 38 pediatric liver transplant recipients with or without influenza vaccination through the 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons. Recipients received inactivated trivalent (AH1/AH3/B) influenza vaccine, and comparisons were made to non-vaccinated recipients with regard to effectiveness and safety. No significant differences were seen between recipient groups for acute allograft rejection, acute febrile illness, or influenza virus infection. No serious systemic adverse events were observed in vaccinated recipients. Seroprotection rate (defined as the proportion of recipients with HI antibody titer ≥ 1:40), seroconversion rate (proportion of recipients with a ≥ 4-fold increase in HI titers), and geometric mean titers were mostly elevated after vaccination for the three influenza antigens in each season. These three indicators of immunogenicity showed similar results in both vaccinated recipients and vaccinated healthy children in the 2007-2008 season. These findings suggest that pediatric liver transplant patients may respond safely to inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines in a similar manner to healthy children, and effectiveness varies among influenza seasons.
Nordin, James D; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Benitez, Gabriela Vazquez; Nichol, Kristin; Lipkind, Heather; Naleway, Allison; Lee, Grace M; Hambidge, Simon; Shi, Wei; Olsen, Avalow
To estimate the risks for medically attended events occurring within 42 days of receiving trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and to evaluate specific risks of first-trimester vaccination. This retrospective observational cohort study compared rates of medically attended adverse events in trivalent inactivated influenza-vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Using a Poisson distribution and log link, we calculated maternal adjusted incident rate ratios for composite safety outcomes for the full cohort and the subset vaccinated during the first trimester. The cohort included 75,906 vaccinated (28.4% in the first trimester) and 147,992 unvaccinated women matched by age, site, and pregnancy start date. In the first 3 days after vaccination, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was not associated with increased risk of specified medically attended events, including allergic reactions, cellulitis, and seizures (full cohort adjusted incident rate ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-1.55; P=.48; first-trimester adjusted incident rate ratio .97, 95% CI 0.53-1.78; P=.93). In the first 42 days, no incident cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, or Bells palsy were identified. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was not associated with thrombocytopenia (full cohort adjusted incident rate ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.68--1.19; P=.45; first-trimester adjusted incident rate ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.22-1.39; P=.21) or an acute neurologic event (full cohort adjusted incident rate ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.54-1.6; P=.75; first-trimester adjusted incident rate ratio 1.05, 95% CI 0.46-2.38; P=.91). Receipt of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk of adverse events in the 42 days after vaccination, supporting its safety for the mother.
Stockwell, Melissa S; Cano, Maria; Jakob, Kathleen; Broder, Karen R; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Castaño, Paula M; Lewis, Paige; Barrett, Angela; Museru, Oidda I; Castellanos, Ormarys; LaRussa, Philip S
The feasibility and accuracy of text messaging to monitor events after influenza vaccination throughout pregnancy and the neonatal period has not been studied, but may be important for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines and future maternal vaccines. This prospective observational study was conducted during 2013-2014 and analyzed in 2015-2016. Enrolled pregnant women receiving inactivated influenza vaccination at a gestational age <20 weeks were sent text messages intermittently through participant-reported pregnancy end to request fever, health events, and neonatal outcomes. Text message response rates, Day 0-2 fever (≥100.4°F), health events, and birth/neonatal outcomes were assessed. Most (80.2%, n=166) eligible women enrolled. Median gestational age was 8.9 (SD=3.9) weeks at vaccination. Response rates remained high (80.0%-95.2%). Only one Day 0-2 fever was reported. Women reported via text both pregnancy- and non-pregnancy-specific health events, not all associated with medical visits. Most pregnancy-specific events in the electronic medical record (EMR) were reported via text message. Of all enrollees, 84.9% completed the study (131 reported live birth, ten reported pregnancy loss). Two losses reported via text were not medically attended; there was one additional EMR-identified loss. Gestational age and weight at birth were similar between text message-reported and EMR-abstracted data and 95% CIs were overlapping for proportions of prematurity, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and major birth defects, as identified by text message-reported versus EMR-abstracted plus text message-reported versus EMR-abstracted data only. This study demonstrated the feasibility of text messaging for influenza vaccine safety surveillance sustained throughout pregnancy. In these women receiving inactivated influenza vaccination during pregnancy, post-vaccination fever was infrequent and a typical pattern of maternal and neonatal health outcomes was observed
Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L
Until recently, most vaccines against avian influenza were based on oil-emulsified inactivated low- or high-pathogenicity viruses. Now, recombinant fowl pox and avian paramyxovirus type 1 vaccines with avian influenza H5 gene inserts (+ or - N1 gene insert) are available and licensed. New technologies might overcome existing limitations to make available vaccines that can be grown in tissue culture systems for more rapid production; provide optimized protection, as a result of closer genetic relations to field viruses; allow mass administration by aerosol, in drinking-water or in ovo; and allow easier strategies for identifying infected birds within vaccinated populations (DIVA). The technologies include avian influenza viruses with partial gene deletions, avian influenza-Newcastle disease virus chimeras, vectored vaccines such as adenoviruses and Marek's disease virus, and subunit vaccines. These new methods should be licensed only after their purity, safety, efficacy and potency against avian influenza viruses have been demonstrated, and, for live vectored vaccines, restriction of viral transmission to unvaccinated birds. Use of vaccines in countries affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza will not only protect poultry but will provide additional safety for consumers. Experimental studies have shown that birds vaccinated against avian influenza have no virus in meat and minimal amounts in eggs after HPAI virus challenge, and that replication and shedding from their respiratory and alimentary tracts is greatly reduced.
Woo, Emily Jane; Moro, Pedro L; Cano, Maria; Jankosky, Christopher
On January 16, 2013, the Food and Drug Administration approved recombinant hemagglutinin influenza vaccine (RIV3) (Spodoptera frugiperda cell line; Flublok), which is the first completely egg-free flu vaccine licensed in the United States. To improve our understanding of the safety profile of this vaccine, we reviewed and summarized reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following RIV3. Through June 30, 2016, VAERS received 88 reports. Allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, were the most common type of adverse event. Based on medical review, 10 cases met the Brighton Collaboration case definition of anaphylaxis, 21 reports described allergic reactions other than anaphylaxis, and 11 reports described signs and symptoms that suggested hypersensitivity. Other adverse events included injection site reactions, fatigue, myalgia, headache, and fever. The occurrence of anaphylaxis and other allergic reactions in some individuals may reflect an underlying predisposition to atopy that may manifest itself after an exposure to any drug or vaccine, and it does not necessarily suggest a causal relationship with the unique constituents that are specific to the vaccine product administered. Further research may elucidate the mechanism of allergic reactions following influenza vaccination: it is possible that egg proteins and influenza hemagglutinin play little or no role. Vaccination remains the single best defense against influenza and its complications. The information summarized here may enable policy makers, health officials, clinicians, and patients to make a more informed decision regarding vaccination strategies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Parrella, Adriana; Gold, Michael; Marshall, Helen; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Watson, Maureen; Baghurst, Peter
To assess parental vaccine safety views and future vaccination decisions after an adverse event following immunization (AEFI) experienced by their child. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted of parents of children aged 0-7 y, identified in AEFI reports submitted to the South Australian Immunization Section, Department Health. The reports included childhood National Immunization Program (NIP), seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines. Interviews were conducted following a national suspension of the 2010 seasonal trivalent influenza (STIV) vaccine. Parental attitudes toward vaccine safety, reasons for reporting the AEFI and impact on future vaccination intent were assessed. Of 179 parents interviewed, 88% were confident in the safety of vaccines in general. Parents reporting an AEFI to the STIV were more likely to state the event had influenced future vaccination decisions than the NIP vaccine reporters (65% vs 14%, p < 0.001), with 63% stating refusal or hesitance to re-vaccinate their children against influenza. Media reports of the 2010 STIV program suspension was the most common reason for reporting an AEFI for parents of children who received an influenza vaccination. The AEFI experience did not impact on parental decision to continue with routine childhood NIP schedules, regardless of whether children received influenza or NIP vaccines. In contrast, most parents whose child experienced an AEFI to the 2010 STIV stated decreased confidence in the safety of influenza vaccines, which is likely to have impacted on the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination in 2011. Addressing influenza vaccine safety concerns to promote influenza vaccination in the community is required.
Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Choi, Hee Jung; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo
Several studies have reported poor immune responses to conventional influenza vaccines in HIV-infected individuals. This study sought to elicit more potent immunogenicity in HIV-infected adults using an intradermal vaccine compared with a conventional intramuscular vaccine. This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted at 3 university hospitals during the 2011/2012 pre-influenza season. Three vaccines were used in HIV-infected adults aged 18 - 60 years: an inactivated intramuscular vaccine (Agrippal), a reduced-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu9μg) and a standard-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu15μg). Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibodies and INF-γ ELISpot assay were measured at the time of vaccination and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were recorded for 7 d. A total of 28 Agrippal, 30 IDflu9μg, and 28 IDflu15μg volunteers were included in this analysis. One month after vaccination, the GMTs and differences in INF-γ ELISpot assay results were similar among the 3 groups. Seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates and mean fold increases (MFI) among the 3 groups were also similar, at approximately 80%, 50-60% and 2.5 - 10.0, respectively. All three vaccines satisfied the CHMP criteria for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains, but not those for the B strain. In univariate analysis, no demographic or clinical factors, including age, CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV viral load, ART status and vaccine type, were related to failure to achieve seroprotection. The three vaccines were all well-tolerated and all reported reactions were mild to moderate. However, there was a tendency toward a higher incidence of local and systemic reactions in the intradermal vaccine groups. The intradermal vaccine did not result in higher immunogenicity compared to the conventional intramuscular vaccine, even with increased antigen dose.
The squalene oil-in-water emulsion MF-59 adjuvant was developed initially to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations such as children and adults with known suboptimal response. Developed in the 1990s, it was initially licensed in Europe for use in seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly. Since that time, both Avian and p2009H1N1 vaccines have also been developed. Overall, more than 30,000 individuals have participated in clinical trials of MF-59 adjuvanted vaccine and more than 160 million doses of licensed vaccine have been administered. Safety and effectiveness data from clinical trials and observation studies attest to the safety of MF-59 and to its ability to enhance the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in children and the elderly.
Carr, Silvana; Allison, Kim J; Van De Velde, Lee-Ann; Zhang, Kelly; English, Elizabeth Y; Iverson, Amy; Daw, Najat C; Howard, Scott C; Navid, Fariba; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Yang, Jie; Adderson, Elisabeth E; McCullers, Jonathan A; Flynn, Patricia M
The safety and immunogenicity of live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has not been compared to that of the standard trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in children with cancer. Randomized study of LAIV versus TIV in children with cancer, age 2-21 years, vaccinated according to recommendations based on age and prior vaccination. Data on reactogenicity and other adverse events and blood and nasal swab samples were obtained following vaccination. Fifty-five eligible subjects (mean age, 10.4 years) received vaccine (28 LAIV/27 TIV). Both vaccines were well tolerated. Rhinorrhea reported within 10 days of vaccination was similar in both groups (36% LAIV vs 33% TIV, P > .999). Ten LAIV recipients shed virus; the latest viral shedding was detected 7 days after vaccination. Immunogenicity data were available for 52 subjects, or 26 in each group. TIV induced significantly higher postvaccination geometric mean titers against influenza A viruses (P < .001), greater seroprotection against influenza A/H1N1 (P = .01), and greater seroconversion against A/H3N2 (P = .004), compared with LAIV. No differences after vaccination were observed against influenza B viruses. As expected, serum antibody response against influenza A strains were greater with TIV than with LAIV in children with cancer. Both vaccines were well tolerated, and prolonged viral shedding after LAIV was not detected. NCT00906750.
Lone, Nazir I; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Robertson, Chris; McMenamin, Jim; von Wissmann, Beatrix; Vasileiou, Eleftheria; Butler, Chris; Ritchie, Lewis D; Gunson, Rory; Schwarze, Jürgen; Sheikh, Aziz
Introduction Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014. There is limited evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine programme in children and the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination programme among different age and at-risk groups of people. Methods and analysis Test negative and cohort study designs will be used to estimate VE. A primary care database covering 1.25 million people in Scotland for the period 2000/2001 to 2015/2016 will be linked to the Scottish Immunisation Recall Service (SIRS), Health Protection Scotland virology database, admissions to Scottish hospitals and the Scottish death register. Vaccination status (including LAIV uptake) will be determined from the primary care and SIRS database. The primary outcome will be influenza-positive real-time PCR tests carried out in sentinel general practices and other healthcare settings. Secondary outcomes include influenza-like illness and asthma-related general practice consultations, hospitalisations and death. An instrumental variable analysis will be carried out to account for confounding. Self-controlled study designs will be used to estimate the risk of adverse events associated with influenza vaccination. Ethics and dissemination We obtained approval from the National Research Ethics Service Committee, West Midlands—Edgbaston. The study findings will be presented at
Erofeeva, M K; Mel'nikov, S Ia; Semchenko, A V; Korovkin, S A; Nikonorov, I Iu; Maksakova, V L; Voĭtsekhovskaia, E M; Erman, E S; Gonchar, V V; Pozdeev, V K; Drinevskiĭ, V P
Assessment of reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity after single intramuscular immunization of children with Grifor vaccine. Reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity of Grifor vaccine compared with Vaxigrip vaccine was evaluated during phase III clinical trial in the Institute of Influenza. Thirty-six children aged 12 - 17 years, divided on 2 groups, participated in single blind comparative prospective randomized trial. Seroconversion factor, seroconversion and seroprotection levels were evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Results of study of systemic and local reactogenicity in children during first 7 days after immunization with Grifor and Vaxigrip vaccine showed good tolerability, areactogenicity and safety of both vaccines. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry and urinalysis results as well as serum IgE level did not change after vaccination. After immunization with Grifor vaccine, seroconversion rate to influenza virus subtypes A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B was 70%, 50%, and 70% respectively, seroprotection rate--90%, 80%, and 85% respectively, and seroconversion factor--6.5, 2.7, and 4.0 respectively. This trial, which was performed in tightly controlled conditions, had demonstrated that Grifor vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic against influenza viruses A and B and satisfies criteria of both Federal Service for Surveillance for Protection of Consumers Rights and Human Welfare and CHMP of EMA. Obtained results allow to recommend the Grifor vaccine for use in pediatric practice according to national immunization schedule.
Jacobson, Robert M
Rates of reported adverse events are remarkably low. VAERS identifies an adverse event rate approximating 11.4 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses. Approximately 15% of these reports represent SAEs, but less than 2% involve death; in most cases, reviews have shown no causal relation between the events and the vaccine. Across the spectrum of vaccines in use (including those directed against influenza and hepatitis B virus), many claims of adverse events regarding vaccines represent typical reactions to vaccinations. These reactions can be thought of as foreign-body reactions and predominate among the inactivated vaccines. In controlled studies, the adverse event rates that occur with vaccination resemble those that occur with placebo injections. Typical reactions associated with live viral and bacterial vaccines, such as MMR and varicella vaccines, may resemble attenuated forms of the disease for which the vaccine is directed. Other claims against vaccines represent chance-coincidence or misunderstood data; further studies of claims have vindicated the overall safety of the vaccines in most cases. Two documented safety concerns with vaccines, however, have demonstrated that vaccines (like other biologics and pharmacologic) can result in harm (eg, rotavirus and OPV vaccines). The denouement with these vaccines indicates the broad postmarketing data collection and evaluation that extends efforts made with prelicensure study to balance the benefits from vaccination with the risk for harm. Overall, measures including prelicensure study and postlicensure surveillance, such as VAERS, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Centers, have resulted in an exceptional safety profile for the vaccines in use.
Vasil'eva, R I; Merkur'eva, L A; Iatsenko, V G; Vasil'eva, A M; Shvager, M M
In a strictly controlled epidemiological trial on 12,643 school children aged 11-14 years the reactogenic properties and safety of killed influenza chromatographic vaccine under the conditions of multiple immunization were studied. A single immunization dose of the vaccine (0.2 ml) contained the hemagglutinins of influenza viruses A/Philippines/82 (H3N3) and A/Kiev/59/79 (H1N1), 3.5 micrograms each. The preparation was introduced by means of a jet injector. The vaccine was shown to be clinically and immunologically safe under the conditions of the regular multiple immunization of children over the period of 4 years.
Treanor, John J; Schiff, Gilbert M; Hayden, Frederick G; Brady, Rebecca C; Hay, C Mhorag; Meyer, Anthony L; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Liang, Hua; Gilbert, Adam; Cox, Manon
A high priority in vaccine research is the development of influenza vaccines that do not use embryonated eggs as the substrate for vaccine production. To determine the dose-related safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of an experimental trivalent influenza virus hemagglutinin (rHA0) vaccine produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial at 3 US academic medical centers during the 2004-2005 influenza season among 460 healthy adults without high-risk indications for influenza vaccine. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a single injection of saline placebo (n = 154); 75 microg of an rHA0 vaccine containing 15 microg of hemagglutinin from influenza A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) and influenza B/Jiangsu/10/03 virus and 45 microg of hemagglutinin from influenza A/Wyoming/3/03(H3N2) virus (n = 153); or 135 microg of rHA0 containing 45 microg of hemagglutinin each from all 3 components (n = 153). Serum samples were taken before and 30 days following immunization. Primary safety end points were the rates and severity of solicited and unsolicited adverse events. Primary immunogenicity end points were the rates of 4-fold or greater increases in serum hemagglutinin inhibition antibody to each of the 3 vaccine strains before and 28 days after inoculation. The prespecified primary efficacy end point was culture-documented influenza illness, defined as development of influenza-like illness associated with influenza virus on a nasopharyngeal swab. Rates of local and systemic adverse effects were low, and the rates of systemic adverse effects were not different in either vaccine group than in the placebo group. Hemagglutinin inhibition antibody responses to the H1 component were seen in 3% of placebo, 51% of 75-microg vaccine, and 67% of 135-microg vaccine recipients, while responses to B were seen in 4% of placebo, 65% of 75-microg vaccine, and 92% of 135-microg vaccine recipients. Responses
Fiore, Anthony E; Bridges, Carolyn B; Cox, Nancy J
safety of LAIV among young children suggest an increased risk of wheezing in some young children, and the vaccine is not recommended for children younger than 2 years old, ages 2-4 old with a history of recurrent wheezing or reactive airways disease, or older persons who have any medical condition that confers an increased risk of influenza-related complications.The effectiveness of influenza vaccines is related predominantly to the age and immune competence of the vaccinee and the antigenic relatedness of vaccine strains to circulating strains. Vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza illness when the vaccine strains are well matched to circulating strains is 70-90% in randomized, placebo-controlled trials conducted among children and young healthy adults, but is lower among elderly or immunocompromised persons. In years with a suboptimal match, vaccine benefit is likely to be lower, although the vaccine can still provide substantial benefit, especially against more severe outcomes. Live, attenuated influenza vaccines have been most extensively studied among children, and have been shown to be more effective than inactivated vaccines in several randomized controlled trials among young children.Influenza vaccination is recommended in the United States for all children six months or older, all adults 50 years or older, all persons with chronic medical conditions, and pregnant women, and contacts of these persons, including healthcare workers. The global disease burden of influenza is substantial, and the World Health Organization has indicated that member states should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing influenza vaccination into national immunization programs. More research is needed to develop more effective seasonal influenza vaccines that provide long-lasting immunity and broad protection against strains that differ antigenically from vaccine viruses.
Shedding of Live Vaccine Virus, Comparative Safety, and Influenza-Specific Antibody Responses after Administration of Live Attenuated and Inactivated Trivalent Influenza Vaccines to HIV-Infected Children
Levin, Myron J.; Song, Lin-Ye; Fenton, Terrence; Nachman, Sharon; Patterson, Julie; Walker, Robert; Kemble, George; Allende, Maria; Hultquist, Micki; Yi, Tingting; Nowak, Barbara; Weinberg, Adriana
HIV-infected children (n = 243), ≥5 to <18 years old, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy, were stratified by immunologic status and randomly assigned to receive intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or intramuscular trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). The safety profile after LAIV or TIV closely resembled the previously reported tolerability to these vaccines in children without HIV infection. Post-vaccination hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses and shedding of LAIV virus were also similar, regardless of immunological stratum, to antibody responses and shedding previously reported for children without HIV infection. LAIV should be further evaluated for a role in immunizing HIV-infected children. PMID:18597900
Beeler, Judy A; Eichelberger, Maryna C
Respiratory viral infections in infants and young children frequently cause illness that can easily progress to hospitalization and death. There are currently no licensed vaccines to prevent respiratory viral disease in children younger than 6 months, reflecting safety concerns and the difficulty in inducing effective immune responses in infants. This review discusses vaccines that have been developed, or are currently being developed, against influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, with a focus on studies performed to demonstrate their safety and efficacy, and the impact of immunologic immaturity and maternal antibodies on the infant response to vaccines.
Naval Health Research Center Safety of the Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccine among Pregnant Women and Their Newborns Ava M.S. Conlin Anna...Safety of the Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Among Pregnant U.S. Military Women and Their Newborns Ava Marie S. Conlin, DO, MPH, Anna T. Bukowinski...with either the pandemic H1N1 vaccine between October 2009 and June 2010 or with seasonal influenza vaccine between October 2008 and June 2009. Rates of
... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.
The live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is preferentially recommended for use in most children yet remains unsafe for the groups most at risk. Here we have improved the safety of a mouse-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccine containing the same attenuating amino acid mutations as in human LAIV by adding an additional mutation at PB1 residue 319. This results in a vaccine with a 20-fold decrease in protective efficacy and a 10,000-fold increase in safety. PMID:26676793
Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate versus inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine in healthy adults aged ≥18 years: a phase III, randomized trial.
Tinoco, Juan Carlos; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Aranza Doniz, Carlos; Chandrasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Dewé, Walthère; Liu, Aixue; Innis, Bruce L; Jain, Varsha K
Two influenza B lineages have been co-circulating since the 1980s, and because inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) contains only one B strain, it provides little/no protection against the alternate B-lineage. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages versus TIV in healthy adults. Subjects received one dose of QIV (lot 1, 2, or 3) or one of two TIVs (B strain from Victoria or Yamagata lineage); randomization was 2:2:2:1:1. Hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed 21-days post-vaccination; superiority of QIV versus TIV for the alternate B-lineage was demonstrated if the 95% confidence interval (CI) lower limit for the GMT ratio was ≥1.5, and non-inferiority against the shared strains was demonstrated if the 95% CI upper limit for the GMT ratio was ≤1.5. Reactogenicity and safety were assessed during the post-vaccination period. NCT01196975. Immunogenicity of QIV lots was consistent, QIV was superior to TIV for the alternate B-lineage strain, and QIV was non-inferior versus TIVs for shared strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B-strain). Reactogenicity and safety profile of the QIV was consistent with seasonal influenza vaccines. QIV provided superior immunogenicity for the added B strain without affecting the antibody response to the TIV strains, and without compromising safety. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Naleway, Allison L; Irving, Stephanie A; Henninger, Michelle L; Li, De-Kun; Shifflett, Pat; Ball, Sarah; Williams, Jennifer L; Cragan, Janet; Gee, Julianne; Thompson, Mark G
Pregnant women and their infants are vulnerable to severe disease and secondary complications from influenza infection. For this reason, annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all pregnant women in the United States. Women frequently cite concerns about vaccine safety as a barrier to vaccination. This review describes the safety of inactivated influenza vaccination during pregnancy with a focus on maternal obstetric events, including hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, and chorioamnionitis. Included in the review are new findings from two studies which examined the safety of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccination during pregnancy. The first study enrolled 641 pregnant women during the 2010-2011 season and prospectively followed them until delivery or pregnancy termination. The second study enrolled 1616 pregnant women during the 2010-2011 influenza season, and followed the women and their infants for six months after delivery. No associations between inactivated influenza vaccination and gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, or chorioamnionitis were observed in either cohort. When considered as a whole, these studies should further reassure women and clinicians that influenza vaccination during pregnancy is safe for mothers.
Wood, Nicholas J; Blyth, Chris C; Willis, Gabriela A; Richmond, Peter; Gold, Michael S; Buttery, Jim P; Crawford, Nigel; Crampton, Michael; Yin, J Kevin; Chow, Maria Yui Kwan; Macartney, Kristine
To examine influenza vaccine safety in Australian children aged under 10 years in 2013. Active prospective surveillance study conducted with parents or carers of children who received influenza vaccine in outpatient clinics at six tertiary paediatric hospitals or from selected primary health care providers between 18 March and 19 July 2013. Parental-reported frequency of systemic reactions (fever, headache, nausea, abdominal symptoms, convulsions, rash, rigors and fatigue), injection site reactions (erythema, swelling and/or pain at the injection site), use of antipyretics or analgesics, and medical attendance or advice within 72 hours after vaccination. Of 981 children enrolled in the surveillance, 893 children aged 6 months to < 10 years were eligible for inclusion. These children received 1052 influenza vaccine doses. Fever was reported in 5.5% (95% CI, 4.1%-7.3%) and 6.5% (95% CI, 3.5%-10.9%) of children after Doses 1 and 2, respectively. One febrile convulsion occurred in a child with a known seizure disorder. Injection site reactions occurred in 21.2% (95% CI, 18.5%-24.1%) and 6.0% (95% CI, 3.1%-10.2%) after Doses 1 and 2, respectively; most were mild. Very few parents sought medical follow-up for their child's reaction: 22 (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.6%-3.9%) after Dose 1, and 11 (5.5%; 95% CI, 2.8%-9.6%) after Dose 2. These results are consistent with clinical trials and other observational studies of influenza vaccines currently registered for use in young children in Australia and can reassure parents and health care providers that influenza vaccination is safe and well tolerated.
Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min
This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months.
Piedra, Pedro A
The trivalent, cold-adapted influenza vaccine (CAIV-T, FluMist, Aviron, Mountain View, CA) is a live attenuated influenza virus vaccine that is administered by nasal spray. CAIV-T is efficacious in preventing influenza virus infection. The vaccine was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration for licensure in healthy children and adults. Universal immunization is being considered in children, and an effective vaccine with minimal adverse reactions is thus required. The published studies on the safety of CAIV-T in children reviewed in this article were clinical trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted in children from 1975 to 1991, clinical trials from 1991 to 1993 sponsored by a cooperative agreement between NIH and Wyeth-Ayerst Research, and clinical trials from 1995 to the present sponsored by a cooperative agreement between NIH and Aviron. Safety assessments included the occurrence of: 1) specific influenza-like symptoms, unexpected symptoms, and use of medications within the first 10 days after vaccination; 2) acute illness and use of medication within 11 to 42 days postvaccination; 3) serious adverse events and rare events within 42 days after vaccination; 4) healthcare utilization within 14 days after vaccination; and 5) acute respiratory symptoms with annual sequential vaccine doses. CAIV-T was safe and well-tolerated. Transient, mild respiratory symptoms were observed in a minority (10%-15%) of children and primarily with the first CAIV-T dose. Vomiting and abdominal pain occurred in fewer than 2 percent of CAIV-T recipients. The gastrointestinal symptoms were mild and of short duration. An excess of illness or use of medication was not observed after the 10th day of vaccination. Sequential annual doses of CAIV-T were well-tolerated and not associated with increased reactogenicity. CAIV-T did not cause an increase in healthcare utilization. Thus CAIV-T is safe in healthy children and should complement the use of inactivated
Bednarczyk, Robert A; Chu, Samantha L; Sickler, Heather; Shaw, Jana; Nadeau, Jessica A; McNutt, Louise-Anne
Annual influenza vaccine coverage for young adults (including college students) remains low, despite a 2011 US recommendation for annual immunization of all people 6 months and older. College students are at high risk for influenza morbidity given close living and social spaces and extended travel during semester breaks when influenza circulation typically increases. We evaluated influenza vaccine uptake following an on-campus vaccine campaign at a large, public New York State university. Consecutive students visiting the University Health Center were recruited for a self-administered, anonymous, written survey. Students were asked about recent influenza vaccination, barriers to influenza vaccination, and willingness to get vaccinated to protect other vulnerable individuals they may encounter. Frequencies and proportions were evaluated. Of 653 students approached, 600 completed surveys (92% response proportion); respondents were primarily female (61%) and non-Hispanic white (59%). Influenza vaccine coverage was low (28%). Compared to coverage among non-Hispanic white students (30%), coverage was similar among Hispanic (30%) and other race/ethnicity students (28%) and lowest among non-Hispanic black students (17%). Among the unvaccinated, the most commonly selected vaccination barriers were "Too lazy to get the vaccine" (32%) and "Don't need the vaccine because I'm healthy" (29%); 6% of unvaccinated students cited cost as a barrier. After being informed that influenza vaccination of young, healthy people can protect other vulnerable individuals (e.g., infants, elderly), 71% of unvaccinated students indicated this would increase their willingness to get vaccinated. Influenza vaccine uptake among college students is very low. While making vaccine easily obtained may increase vaccine uptake, college students need to be motivated to get vaccinated. Typically healthy students may not perceive a need for influenza vaccine. Education about vaccinating healthy individuals
Gao, Dongqi; Yang, Huisuo; Deng, Bing; Yin, Gang; Song, Wenjing; Zhang, Haiyang; Li, Yapin
Influenza, caused by the influenza virus, is a contagious acute viral respiratory disease with a high incidence rate and wide and rapid spread. Influenza-related morbidity, mortality, and hospitalization rates remain high and are increasing continuously in high-risk groups, with a significant impact on human health and the economy. In order to evaluate the immunogenicity of 3 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines in Chinese military, we conducted this field trial. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of 3 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines(TIVs)manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline(GSK), Beijing Sinovac Biotech (Sinovac), and Shenzhen Sanofi Pasteur (Pasteur) in healthy Chinese servicemen. We used theimported GSKTIV as the control, comparing it with the 2 domestic TIVs in a 1:1:1randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in a military command in Beijing. Healthy individuals, aged between 18 and 34 years, who had not received any influenza vaccine in the preceding3 years were enrolled and administered one dose of a TIV. Safety data were collected throughout the whole study (day 0 to day 30). Blood samples were collected to assess the subjects' immunogenicity before vaccination and 21 d after vaccination. In total, 292 subjects enrolled in the study. Twelve participants (4.1%) reported 12 adverse events. The incidence of adverse events was 1%, 5%, and7% for the GSK, Sinovac, and Pasteur TIVs, respectively. The reported injection-site reaction frequencies were similar for all 3 TIVs (p = 0.217). However, the proportion of systemic reactions was higher after the GSKTIV than after the Pasteur or Sinovac TIV (7.1% vs 3.1% or1%, respectively; p = 0.020). Three TIVs satisfied both the European and US Food and Drug Administration criteria for H1N1-179, H1N1-74, H3N2, and B strains based on the post vaccination sero-protection, the sero-conversion rate, and the geometric mean titer ratio. The Sinovac TIV, Pasteur TIV, and GSK TIV were well tolerated and immunogenic in
Song, Hyoyoung; Bock, Hans; Guadagno, Alana; Costantini, Marco; Baehner, Frank; Kim, Yeon Ho; Ahn, Seung In; Son, Ki Hyuk; Yim, Dong-Seok
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a major cause of meningitis and pneumonia with high morbidity and mortality rates in young children. The introduction of effective and well-tolerated conjugate Hib vaccines, has nearly eradicated this disease in many countries. We investigated the safety of the Hib PRP-CRM197 vaccine in a multi-center post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study. Korean children (N = 764) aged 1-33 months were enrolled when receiving a routine primary immunization or a booster vaccine with Hib PRP-CRM197 and solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded using a diary card for 7 and 28 days after each vaccination, respectively. In this study, AEs were reported by 66% of subjects but were generally mild, with 42% of subjects reporting solicited AEs and 46% reporting unsolicited AEs. Among the unsolicited AEs, 98% were determined to be unrelated to the study vaccine. The studied Hib PRP-CRM197 vaccine was well tolerated by the study group and found to have a similar safety profile to that reported in other clinical studies. This vaccine is suitable for routine immunization against Hib disease among Korean children. AEs due to this vaccine will continue to be monitored.
Zverev, V V; Korovkin, S A; Mironov, A N; Mel'nikov, S Ia; Mikhaĭlova, N A; Kostinov, M P; Dyldina, N V; Zhirova, S N
Phase I clinical trial of inactivated virosomal split influenza vaccine "Grifor" was conducted in the Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera as accredited base for such trials. Forty healthy volunteers (males and females) aged 18 - 50 years consented to participate in the trial. Reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity of new Russian influenza vaccine were assessed. Analysis of obtained results showed that there was evidence of safety and low reactogenicity of the vaccine as well as of its high immunogenic characteristics, which satisfied both the EMEA's Committee for Proprietal Medicinal Products criteria and requirements of Federal Service for Surveillance for Protection of Consumers Rights and Human Welfare (MU 126.96.36.1998-03) for inactivated influenza vaccines.
Halsey, Neal A; Proveaux, Tina
Unpublished data can sometimes provide valuable information on the safety of biologic products. We assessed information potentially available from regulatory authorities, manufacturers, and public health agencies. We explored 4 recently established vaccine registries, reviewed package inserts from 99 influenza vaccines, and contacted vaccine manufacturers and regulatory agencies for data on influenza vaccine safety in pregnant women. The vaccine registries did not have sufficient data to analyze and there are problems with the quality of the information. The majority of package inserts provided no product-specific safety information for pregnant women, especially in less developed countries. The majority of available data come from reports gathered from passive adverse event reporting systems in the general population and reports of women enrolled in clinical trials of influenza vaccines who became pregnant at various times before or after receiving influenza vaccine. The information was not collected in a systematic manner, there are inconsistencies in the follow up of pregnant women and the available information about pregnancy outcomes. Considerable resources would be needed to systematically identify all of the information, try to obtain missing follow up information, and conduct analyses. There would be substantial limitations to any attempt to conduct a systematic analysis. The value of trying to analyze unpublished data on the safety of influenza vaccine in pregnancy is limited and would require considerable resources to thoroughly investigate. Expanding efforts to identify and review unpublished data regarding the safety of influenza vaccines in pregnancy is not likely to produce information of high scientific value or information that could not be identified from publications and other publically available data. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ambrose, Christopher S.; Levin, Myron J.
Two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses have circulated globally since 1985. However, licensed trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines contain antigens from only a single influenza B virus and thus provide limited immunity against circulating influenza B strains of the lineage not present in the vaccine. In recent years, predictions about which B lineage will predominate in an upcoming influenza season have been no better than chance alone, correct in only 5 of the 10 seasons from 2001 to 2011. Consequently, seasonal influenza vaccines could be improved by inclusion of influenza B strains of both lineages. The resulting quadrivalent influenza vaccines would allow influenza vaccination campaigns to respond more effectively to current global influenza epidemiology. Manufacturing capacity for seasonal influenza vaccines has increased sufficiently to supply quadrivalent influenza vaccines, and methods to identify the influenza B strains to include in such vaccines are in place. Multiple manufacturers have initiated clinical studies of quadrivalent influenza vaccines. Data from those studies, taken together with epidemiologic data regarding the burden of disease caused by influenza B infections, will determine the safety, effectiveness, and benefit of utilizing quadrivalent vaccines for the prevention of seasonal influenza disease. PMID:22252006
Scheifele, David W.; McNeil, Shelly A.; Ward, Brian J.; Dionne, Marc; Cooper, Curtis; Coleman, Brenda; Loeb, Mark; Rubinstein, Ethan; McElhaney, Janet; Hatchette, Todd; Li, Yan; Montomoli, Emanuele; Schneeberg, Amy; Bettinger, Julie A.; Halperin, Scott A.; Research Network, PHAC/CIHR Influenza
To determine if newer influenza vaccines can safely improve seroprotection rates of older adults, we compared three licensed trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs) in a randomized, controlled trial with evaluator blinding. Participants were non-frail adults ≥ 65 y old, annually TIV-immunized. Study vaccines included intradermal (IDV), MF59-adjuvanted (ADV) and subunit (TIV) formulations of equal potency and strain composition. Blood was obtained before vaccination (V1) and 21 (V2) and 180 d (V3) afterward and tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. Safety diaries were completed daily by participants and specific tolerability questions were posed regarding injections and symptoms. In total, 911 participants were immunized and 887 (97.4%) completed V3. Groups had similar demographics. General symptom rates post-vaccination were similar among groups. Rates of injection site redness after IDV/ADV/TIV were 75%/13%/13% and rates of pain were 29%/38%/20%, respectively, but each vaccine was well tolerated, with symptoms causing little bother. Baseline antibody titers did not differ significantly among groups but B/Brisbane titers were too high for meaningful response assessments. At V2, seroprotection rates (HAI titer ≥ 40) were highest after ADV, the rate advantage over IDV and TIV being significant at 11.8% and 11.4% for H3N2 and 10.2% and 12.5% for H1N1, respectively. At day 180, seroprotection rates had declined ~25% and no longer differed significantly among groups. While IDV and TIV were also well tolerated, ADV induced modestly higher antibody titers in seniors to influenza A strains at 3 weeks but not 6 months post-vaccination. Immune responses to IDV and TIV were similar in this population. PMID:23839537
Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D
Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.
Bae, E Young; Choi, Ui Yoon; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Jeong, Dae Chul; Rhim, Jung Woo; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Il; Kang, Jin Han
Influenza virus vaccination is recommended for children, but so far, active vaccination has not been achieved because most parents lack knowledge of vaccine safety and many doctors are reluctant to administer vaccine due to concerns that steroids might alter immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and safety of inactivated trivalent split influenza virus vaccine between children with recurrent wheezing and healthy children of the same age group. Sixty-eight healthy children and 62 children with recurrent wheezing took part in this study. Seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers (GMTs), and geometric mean titer ratios (GMTRs) were measured by a hemagglutination inhibition assay for the assessment of immunogenicity. Solicited and unsolicited local and systemic adverse events were measured for the assessment of safety. Regarding immunogenicity, the seroconversion and seroprotection rates showed no difference overall between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. Also, no difference was observed between steroid-treated and nontreated groups with recurrent wheezing. Generally, the GMTs after vaccination were higher in the one-dose vaccination groups for healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing, but the GMTRs revealed different results according to strain in the two groups. Regarding safety, solicited local and systemic adverse events showed no differences between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. This study demonstrates that inactivated split influenza virus vaccine is able to induce protective immune responses in healthy children, as observed in previous studies, as well as in children with recurrent wheezing who require frequent steroid treatment.
Cox, Andrew; Dewhurst, Stephen
The live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is preferentially recommended for use in most children yet remains unsafe for the groups most at risk. Here we have improved the safety of a mouse-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccine containing the same attenuating amino acid mutations as in human LAIV by adding an additional mutation at PB1 residue 319. This results in a vaccine with a 20-fold decrease in protective efficacy and a 10,000-fold increase in safety. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
... FAQs about Vaccine Safety Research Publications HDM Reports ISO Scientific Agenda Ensuring Safety History Understanding Side Effects ... Datalink Publications Emergency Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO File Formats Help: How do I view different ...
Karanfil, Lynne V; Bahner, Jan; Hovatter, Joan; Thomas, William L
To determine whether a mandatory seasonal influenza vaccination program will increase vaccination rates among healthcare personnel (HCP) and affiliated physicians. MedStar Health is a not-for-profit regional healthcare organization that includes 9 hospitals with approximately 25,000 HCP and approximately 4,000 affiliated physicians. HCP describes any person employed by MedStar Health. With previous vaccination rates parallel to reported national rates of 54% among HCP, MedStar Health introduced a mandatory seasonal influenza vaccination program promulgated during the 2009-2010 influenza season. HCP and affiliated physicians were given an opportunity to apply for medical or religious exemptions. Noncompliant HCP were terminated. Noncompliant physicians had their privileges administratively suspended for the influenza season. HCP compliance (vaccinated and exempt) was 99.9%. The influenza vaccination rate among HCP was 98.5%. There were 338 approved medical exemptions and 18 approved religious exemptions. Only 0.01% of HCP (9 full-time, 2 part-time, and 17 per diem employees) were terminated. Overall, 93% of the affiliated physicians were vaccinated; 7 religious and 99 medical exemptions were granted. In total, 149 physicians (4%) had their admitting privileges suspended during the influenza season. A mandatory influenza vaccination program achieves high rates of vaccination among HCP and affiliated physicians.
Cox, Andrew; Baker, Steven F.; Nogales, Aitor
The live attenuated influenza virus vaccine (LAIV) is preferentially recommended for use in persons 2 through 49 years of age but has not been approved for children under 2 or asthmatics due to safety concerns. Therefore, increasing safety is desirable. Here we describe a murine LAIV with reduced pathogenicity that retains lethality at high doses and further demonstrate that we can enhance safety in vivo through mutations within NS1. This model may permit preliminary safety analysis of improved LAIVs. PMID:25552727
Liao, Zhengfa; Tang, Hao; Xu, Xiaojia; Liang, Yaping; Xiong, Yongzhen; Ni, Jindong
Objective To assess the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccine in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Relevant articles were retrieved from electronic databases. Seroprotection rate, seroconversion rate and factors that increase antibody geometric mean titer (GMT) were used as indices to measure the immunogenicity. The safety of vaccine was assessed through monitoring adverse events, which included side effects and SLE exacerbations. We performed a meta-analysis of influenza vaccine seroprotection, seroconversion and adverse effects. SLE exacerbation after vaccination was comprehensively described. We used the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) guidelines to determine whether influenza can induce adequate immunogenicity in patients with SLE. Results Eighteen studies with 1966 subjects met the inclusion criteria. At least 565 of the subjects were patients with low-to-moderate SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score or stable SLE disease. Compared with the general population, seroprotection rate in SLE patients was significantly decreased in patients with H1N1 [odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27–0.50] and H3N2 vaccination (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24–0.93), but not influenza B vaccination (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.24–1.25). Seroconversion rate also significantly decreased in patients with H1N1 (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.27–0.57) and influenza B (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.29–0.76) vaccination, but not H3N2 vaccination (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.21–1.79). However, the immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in SLE patients almost reached that of the CPMP guidelines. The OR for side effects (patients versus healthy controls) was 3.24 (95% CI: 0.62–16.76). Among 1966 patients with SLE, 32 experienced mild exacerbation of SLE and five had serious side effects for other reasons. Conclusion Influenza vaccine has moderate effect on protecting patients with SLE. The side effects of influenza vaccine are not serious
Sarsenbayeva, Gulbanu; Volgin, Yevgeniy; Kassenov, Markhabbat; Issagulov, Timur; Bogdanov, Nikolay; Nurpeissova, Ainur; Sagymbay, Altynay; Abitay, Ruslan; Stukova, Marina; Sansyzbay, Abylay; Khairullin, Berik
The paper describes the results of preclinical testing of the preparation 'Vaccine allantoic split-virus inactivated against seasonal influenza'. Acute toxicity and local irritating effect, anaphylactic reactions to different antigens (vaccine and ovalbumin), delayed-type hypersensitivity to ram erythrocytes, humoral immune response in hemaggtination reaction, immunogenic activity was studied in laboratory animals of various species (mice, rats, guinea pigs). Comparative analysis of the results from testing immunogenic activity of the preparation under study and the commercial influenza vaccines was performed. The preclinical testing has demonstrated safety and immune response of the seasonal split influenza vaccine, so it may be recommended for clinical study on limited contingent of volunteers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Greenberg, David P; Robertson, Corwin A; Talbot, H Keipp; Decker, Michael D
Frequent mismatches between the predominant circulating B strain lineage and the B strain lineage in trivalent influenza vaccines have resulted in missed opportunities to prevent influenza illness. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing B strains from each of the 2 lineages have been developed for improved prevention of influenza B infections. Here, we describe the results of a phase III, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter trial examining the safety and immunogenicity of a split-virion inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) in 675 adults ≥ 65 y of age (NCT01218646). Participants were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive a single intramuscular injection with the investigational IIV4, or one of 2 split-virion trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3s): a licensed IIV3 containing a B Victoria-lineage strain or an investigational IIV3 containing a B Yamagata-lineage strain. Post-vaccination (day 21) hemagglutinin inhibition titers to all strains induced by IIV4 were statistically non-inferior to those induced by the 2 IIV3s. In addition, for each B strain, rates of seroconversion in the IIV4 group were superior to those induced by the comparator IIV3 not containing that B strain. For all vaccines, the most common solicited reaction was injection-site pain, and most reactions were mild to moderate in intensity and transient. Overall safety profiles were similar between IIV4 and the IIV3s, and no vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. These results confirm that in adults ≥ 65 y of age, IIV4 was well tolerated and immunogenic against the additional B lineage strain without compromising the immunogenicity of the other 3 vaccine strains.
Esposito, Susanna; Giavoli, Claudia; Trombetta, Claudia; Bianchini, Sonia; Montinaro, Valentina; Spada, Anna; Montomoli, Emanuele; Principi, Nicola
Obesity may be a risk factor for increased hospitalization and deaths from infections due to respiratory pathogens. Additionally, obese patients appear to have impaired immunity after some vaccinations. To evaluate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in overweight and obese children, 28 overweight/obese pediatric patients and 23 healthy normal weight controls aged 3-14 years received a dose of TIV. Four weeks after vaccine administration, significantly higher seroprotection rates against the A/H1N1 strain were observed among overweight/obese children compared with normal weight controls (p<0.05). Four months after vaccination, similar or slightly higher seroconversion and seroprotection rates against the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains were detected in overweight/obese than in normal weight children, whereas significantly higher rates of seroconversion and seroprotection against the B strain were found in overweight/obese patients than in normal weight controls (p<0.05 for seroconversion and seroprotection). Geometric mean titers (GMTs) and fold increase against B strains were significantly higher in overweight/obese patients than in normal weight controls 4 months after vaccine administration (p<0.01 for GMT values and p<0.05 for fold increase). The frequency of local and systemic reactions was similar between the groups, and there were no serious adverse events. The results of this study indicate that in overweight and obese children, antibody response to TIV administration is similar or slightly higher than that evidenced in normal weight subjects of similar age and this situation persists for at least 4 months after vaccine administration in the presence of a favorable safety profile.
Nishi, Junichiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Imuta, Naoko; Minami, Taketsugu; Kawano, Yoshifumi
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (PRP-T) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in Japan in December 2008 and February 2010, respectively. The concurrent administration of these vaccines is routinely performed worldwide. However, the safety of the simultaneous administration of these vaccines has not been fully evaluated in Japan, because it has rarely been performed thus far. We conducted a 2-year prospective, observational, multicenter study on PRP-T and PCV7 safety from February 2009 through January 2011 in 29 facilities located in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Objective severe adverse events included anaphylactoid reaction, encephalitis/encephalopathy, neurological events, severe focal reactions, systemic eruption/urticaria, fever above 39℃ within 2 days after inoculation, and other complications requiring hospitalization. The incidences of these events for PRP-T and PCV7 administration were 0.68% (76/11,197) and 0.92% (28/3,049), respectively. No deaths or subsequent complications were reported during the course of the study. There was no significant difference in the incidence of severe adverse events between the single and co-administration groups for both vaccines: PRP-T, 0.55% (31/5,662) versus 0.81% (45/5,535; P = 0.11); PCV7, 0.88% (11/1,247) versus 0.94% (17/1,802; P = 0.86). These results suggest that the simultaneous administration of vaccines including PRP-T and/or PCV7 does not increase the incidence of severe adverse events in Japanese children.
Comparison of immunogenicity and safety of an influenza vaccine administered concomitantly with a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine in the elderly
Purpose Previous studies have demonstrated the immunogenicity and safety of the co-administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) with the polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). However, there is no direct comparison study that evaluates the immunogenicity and safety of IIV3 given concomitantly with PCV13 or PPV23 in the elderly. Materials and Methods During the 2012-2013 influenza vaccination period, 224 healthy elderly volunteers aged 65 years and older randomly received IIV3 given concomitantly with either PCV13 (PCV13+IIV3) or PPV23 (PPV23+IIV3) in a 1:1 ratio. Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies for IIV3 were measured at the time of vaccination and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were recorded prospectively in a clinical diary during a 7-day period. Results A total of 220 participants blood samples for analysis of immunogenicity and kept a clinical diary for safety analysis (PCV13+IIV3, n=110; PPV23+IIV3, n=110). One month after vaccination, both groups satisfied the Committee for Medical Products for Human Use criteria for A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B strains, showing comparable seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates and geometric mean titer fold. The assessments of immunogenicity were similar in both groups. The most common local and systemic reactions were pain at the injection site and generalized myalgia. They were generally mild or moderate in intensity. The adverse events were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusion PCV13+IIV3 and PPV23+IIV3 demonstrated similar immunogenicity and safety in the elderly. PMID:28168172
Lécu, Alexis; De Langhe, Christophe; Petit, Thierry; Bernard, Frédéric; Swam, Hanny
Due to the spread of the H5N1 highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza virus across Europe, a preventive vaccination occurred in early 2006 among 135 French zoologic institutions. Approximately 25,000 birds were vaccinated with a H5N2 inactivated vaccine. Among them, 4,369 birds were monitored by members of Association Francophone des Vétérinaires de Parc Zoologique regarding safety issues of the vaccination protocol. A total of 1,686 blood samples were collected before the first injection (n = 255), at the time of booster (n = 463), 60 day after the booster (n = 514), and 180 day (n = 229) and 330 day (n = 217) after the initial injection. Thus, sera of 126 species representing 15 different avian orders were tested using the hemagglutinin inhibition assay to evaluate seroconversion and the long-term serologic profile of selected anti-H5 antibody. Safety was considered satisfactory in all orders, and there were no deleterious effects on large-volume injection/body weight ratio. After the second injection, 71% of the birds developed a titer > or =32, with a mean titer of 558. Titers then decreased in all birds, with 42% of the remaining birds having a titer > or =32 at day 180 and only 26% at day 330. Results demonstrated that a booster 42 days after initial vaccination was mandatory to raise the titer above 32, considered to be the protective level in poultry, and to increase the number of seroconverted birds. Differences in the serologic responses among the orders and species of birds were detected and could be linked with the variation of vaccine dose injected per body weight or with species-specific immune response. The protocol for additional campaigns will be adjusted for some bird orders through the increase of injected dose or a half yearly booster to sustain better titers over the year. Vaccination is a useful tool, together with biosecurity, that should always be used as a primary method of preventing and controlling avian influenza outbreaks.
Yuen, Carol Y S; Tarrant, Marie
Influenza is a highly infectious respiratory disease that can impose significant health risks leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Receiving influenza vaccination is the most important and effective means of preventing the infection and its related complications. During pregnancy, physiological changes increase susceptibility to influenza infection, and women contracting infectious diseases during pregnancy are more likely to have adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy is safe for both pregnant women and their fetus, and pregnant women are now the highest priority group for vaccination. Despite the accumulated evidence of the benefits and safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, uptake among pregnant women remains suboptimal. Concerns about the vaccine's safety persist, and the fear of birth defects remains the predominant barrier to vaccination. Targeted interventions have been shown effective in enhancing influenza vaccination uptake among pregnant women. Reluctance to be vaccinated should be addressed by offering accurate information to counteract the misperceptions about the risk of influenza infection during pregnancy as well as to educate mothers about the safety and benefits of influenza vaccination. High-quality randomized controlled trials are recommended to evaluate the effectiveness of individual or multifaceted approaches to increase vaccine uptake.
Tabynov, K; Kydyrbayev, Z; Ryskeldinova, S; Assanzhanova, N; Kozhamkulov, Y; Inkarbekov, D; Sansyzbay, A
To design and evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a modified-live vaccine to prevent equine influenza virus (EIV) infection based on the novel reassortant cold-adapted strain A/HK/Otar/6:2/2010. Surface proteins (HA, NA) from the wild-type strain A/equine/Otar/764/2007 (H3N8) and internal proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, NS) from the attenuated cold-adapted donor strain A/Hong Kong/1/68/162/35CA (H3N2) were included in the vaccine. Horses were administered 10(9.2) EID50 /mL of the modified-live vaccine or saline solution using a nasal spray. The clinical condition of the animals was assessed throughout the study and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for virus titration. Two yearlings in each group were euthanased on day 5 post vaccination (PV) for histological examination and measurement of viral titres in the organs. Serum samples and nasal secretions were collected to evaluate serological response. Lymphoproliferation after restimulation in vitro was determined to evaluate cell-mediated immunity. To evaluate the protective capacity of the vaccine, the yearlings in both groups were challenged with the wild-type virus at 28 days PV and their clinical condition and serological response was evaluated. Nasal swabs were collected to assess viral shedding from the upper respiratory tract. Single intranasal administration of a modified-live EIV vaccine caused no adverse effects and vaccinated yearlings and pregnant mares did not form detectable levels of antibodies by days 7, 14 and 28 PV, as indicated by the HI reaction and ELISA. Secretory antibodies could be detected on day 7 and reached maximal levels on day 14 PV. In vitro studies showed that the yearlings and pregnant mares both formed a cell-mediated immune response by day 14 PV. The vaccine protected yearlings against challenge with wild-type virus. We conclude that single intranasal administration of the modified-live EIV vaccine was safe in the yearlings and pregnant mares that we treated, and was
La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; D’Egidio, Valeria; Sestili, Cristina; Spadea, Antonietta
Background The risk of getting influenza and pneumococcal disease is higher in cancer patients, and serum antibody levels tend to be lower in patients with hematological malignancy. Objective To assess flu and pneumococcal vaccinations efficacy, effectiveness, and safety in onco-hematological patients. Methods Two systematic reviews and possible meta-analysis were conducted to summarize the results of all primary study in the scientific literature about the flu and pneumococcal vaccine in onco-hematological patients. Literature searches were performed using Pub-Med and Scopus databases. StatsDirect 2.8.0 was used for the analysis. Results 22 and 26 studies were collected respectively for flu and pneumococcal vaccinations. Protection rate of booster dose was 30% (95% CI=6–62%) for H1N1. Pooled prevalence protection rate of H3N2 and B was available for meta-analysis only for first dose, 42.6% (95% CI=23.2 – 63.3 %) and 39.6 % (95% CI=26%–54.1%) for H3N2 and B, respectively. Response rate of booster dose resulted 35% (95% CI=19.7–51.2%) for H1N1, 23% (95% CI=16.6–31.5%) for H3N2, 29% (95% CI=21.3–37%) for B. Conclusion Despite the low rate of response, flu, and pneumococcal vaccines are worthwhile for patients with hematological malignancies. Patients undergoing chemotherapy in particular rituximab, splenectomy, transplant recipient had lower and impaired response. No serious adverse events were reported for both vaccines. PMID:27648207
Yin, J Kevin; Khandaker, Gulam; Rashid, Harunor; Heron, Leon; Ridda, Iman; Booy, Robert
The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic has highlighted the need to have immunogenicity and safety data on the new pandemic vaccines. There is already considerable heterogeneity in the types of vaccine available and of study performed around the world. A systematic review and meta-analysis is needed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccines. We searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and other online databases up to 1st October 2010 for studies in any language comparing different pandemic H1N1 vaccines, with or without placebo, in healthy populations aged at least 6 months. The primary outcome was seroprotection according to haemagglutination inhibition (HI). Safety outcomes were adverse events. Meta-analysis was performed for the primary outcome. We identified 18 articles, 1 only on safety and 17 on immunogenicity, although 1 was a duplicate. We included 16 articles in the meta-analysis, covering 17,921 subjects. Adequate seroprotection (≥70%) was almost invariably achieved in all age groups, and even after one dose and at low antigen content (except in children under 3 years receiving one dose of non-adjuvanted vaccine). Non-adjuvanted vaccine from international companies and adjuvanted vaccines containing oil in water emulsion (e.g. AS03, MF59), rather than aluminium, performed better. Two serious vaccination-associated adverse events were reported, both of which resolved fully. No death or case of Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported. The pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 vaccine, with or without adjuvant, appears generally to be seroprotective after just one dose and safe among healthy populations aged ≥36 months; very young children (6-35 months) may need to receive two doses of non-adjuvanted vaccine or one dose of AS03(A/B)-adjuvanted product to achieve seroprotection.
Banzhoff, Angelika; Stoddard, Jeffrey J.
Seasonal influenza causes clinical illness and hospitalization in all age groups; however, conventional inactivated vaccines have only limited efficacy in young children. MF59®, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, has been used since the 1990s to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the elderly, a population with waning immune function due to immunosenescence. Clinical trials now provide information to support a favorable immunogenicity and safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in young children. Published data indicate that Fluad®, a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine with MF59, was immunogenic and well tolerated in young children, with a benefit/risk ratio that supports routine clinical use. A recent clinical trial also shows that Fluad provides high efficacy against PCR-confirmed influenza. Based on the results of clinical studies in children, the use of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine offers the potential to enhance efficacy and make vaccination a viable prevention and control strategy in this population. PMID:22327501
Houser, Katherine; Subbarao, Kanta
Vaccination is the best method for the prevention and control of influenza. Vaccination can reduce illness and lessen severity of infection. This review focuses on how currently licensed influenza vaccines are generated in the U.S., why the biology of influenza poses vaccine challenges, and vaccine approaches on the horizon that address these challenges. PMID:25766291
Yin, J. Kevin; Khandaker, Gulam; Rashid, Harunor; Heron, Leon; Ridda, Iman; Booy, Robert
Please cite this paper as: Yin et al. (2011) Immunogenicity and safety of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine: systematic review and meta‐analysis. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 299–305. The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic has highlighted the need to have immunogenicity and safety data on the new pandemic vaccines. There is already considerable heterogeneity in the types of vaccine available and of study performed around the world. A systematic review and meta‐analysis is needed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccines. We searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and other online databases up to 1st October 2010 for studies in any language comparing different pandemic H1N1 vaccines, with or without placebo, in healthy populations aged at least 6 months. The primary outcome was seroprotection according to haemagglutination inhibition (HI). Safety outcomes were adverse events. Meta‐analysis was performed for the primary outcome. We identified 18 articles, 1 only on safety and 17 on immunogenicity, although 1 was a duplicate. We included 16 articles in the meta‐analysis, covering 17 921 subjects. Adequate seroprotection (≥70%) was almost invariably achieved in all age groups, and even after one dose and at low antigen content (except in children under 3 years receiving one dose of non‐adjuvanted vaccine). Non‐adjuvanted vaccine from international companies and adjuvanted vaccines containing oil in water emulsion (e.g. AS03, MF59), rather than aluminium, performed better. Two serious vaccination‐associated adverse events were reported, both of which resolved fully. No death or case of Guillain–Barré syndrome was reported. The pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 vaccine, with or without adjuvant, appears generally to be seroprotective after just one dose and safe among healthy populations aged ≥36 months; very young children (6–35 months) may need to receive two
Huang, Yafang; Wang, Huili; Wan, Ling; Lu, Xiaoqin; Tam, Wilson W.S.
Abstract There are conflicts on whether influenza vaccinated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are associated with a decreased immunogenicity and safety, compared with healthy controls. We conducted meta-analyses to compare SLE patients with healthy controls for flu-vaccine immunogenicity, as well as for adverse events. PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library were searched by October 15, 2015. Studies were included when they met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, methodological quality, and outcomes. The primary outcome was seroprotection (SP) rate after immunization. A total of 15 studies were included. There were significant differences in SP rates between the SLE patients and healthy controls, respectively, for H1N1 (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.73–0.87) and B strain (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65–0.87), but not for H3N2 (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.68–1.03). Subgroup analyses demonstrated SLE patients with immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, azathioprine and prednisone had significantly lower SP rates, compared with healthy controls. SLE patients with nonadjuvanted H1N1 vaccine had significantly lower SP rate, compared with healthy controls. SLE patients were not associated with increased adverse events (RR 1.88, 95% CI 0.94–3.77). SLE generates immunogenicity differently, compared with healthy controls in pandemic H1N1 and B strains, but same in seasonal H3N2 strain. Nonadjuvant and special kind of immunosuppressive biologics can play an important role in SLE immunogenicity to flu vaccine. There is no significant difference in adverse event rates between SLE patients and healthy controls. PMID:27175678
Cox, Andrew; Baker, Steven F; Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Dewhurst, Stephen
The live attenuated influenza virus vaccine (LAIV) is preferentially recommended for use in persons 2 through 49 years of age but has not been approved for children under 2 or asthmatics due to safety concerns. Therefore, increasing safety is desirable. Here we describe a murine LAIV with reduced pathogenicity that retains lethality at high doses and further demonstrate that we can enhance safety in vivo through mutations within NS1. This model may permit preliminary safety analysis of improved LAIVs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
McMillan, M; Porritt, K; Kralik, D; Costi, L; Marshall, H
Pregnant women are considered the most important risk group for influenza vaccination. Despite this, the potential risk of harm from the vaccine on the fetus is a key factor in low uptake of the vaccine. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on the safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy on fetal development. A search of the literature was undertaken from the inception of each database up to March 2014. Both observational and clinical trials were considered. Fetal outcomes were present in 19 observational studies, and 14 of those were primarily investigating the monovalent influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine. There was significant methodological and clinical heterogeneity of the included studies and a narrative summary and tabling of results was performed. Fetal death outcomes for women in later pregnancy ranged from OR 0.34 to 2.95 with 95% confidence intervals crossing or below the null value. Spontaneous abortion less than 24 weeks ranged from HR 0.45 to OR 1.23, with 95% confidence intervals crossing or below the null value. Congenital malformations for women vaccinated during their first trimester ranged from OR 0.67 to 2.18 and imprecise confidence intervals crossed the null value. Included in this review were some high quality studies, although overall the studies have a high risk of selection and confounding bias. Results do not indicate that maternal influenza vaccination is associated with an increased risk of fetal death, spontaneous abortion, or congenital malformations. Statistical imprecision and clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the observational studies mean it is not possible to totally exclude adverse effects. Further studies investigating women vaccinated during their first trimester should be the highest priority to allow for more precise estimates, especially for spontaneous abortion, and congenital abnormality outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Yoon Jae; Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Paul; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Young Jae; Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Kyusik; Seong, Baik Lin
In our previous study, X-31ca-based H5N1 LAIVs, in particular, became more virulent in mice than the X-31ca MDV, possibly by the introduction of the surface antigens of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, implying that additional attenuation is needed in this cases to increase the safety level of the vaccine. In this report we suggest an approach to further increase the safety of LAIV through additional cold-adapted mutations in the hemagglutinin. The cold-adaptation of X-31 virus resulted in four amino acid mutations in the HA. We generated a panel of 7:1 reassortant viruses each carrying the hemagglutinins with individual single amino acid mutations. We examined their phenotypes and found a major attenuating mutation, N81K. This attenuation marker conferred additional temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotype to the LAIV. Our data indicate that the cold-adapted mutation in the HA confers additional attenuation to the LAIV strain, without compromising its productivity and immune response. - Highlights: • Cold-adaptation process induced four amino acid mutations in the HA of X-31 virus. • The four mutations in the HA also contributed to attenuation of the X-31ca virus • N81K mutation was the most significant marker for the attenuation of X-31ca virus. • Introduction of N81K mutation into H3N2 LAIV further attenuated the vaccine. • This approach provides a useful guideline for enhancing the safety of the LAIVs.
van Doorn, Eva; Liu, Heng; Ben-Yedidia, Tamar; Hassin, Shimon; Visontai, Ildiko; Norley, Stephen; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hak, Eelko
Abstract Introduction: Influenza is a major respiratory viral infection of humans with high mortality and morbidity rates and profound economic impact. Although influenza vaccines are generally updated yearly to match the viruses expected in the coming season, genetic mutation and reassortment can result in unexpected novel strains. Therefore, it is important to develop universal vaccines inducing protective immunity to such strains before they appear. This clinical trial is designed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Multimeric-001 (M-001), which contains conserved epitopes of influenza A and B. M-001 is able to induce both humoral and cellular immunity and provides broad strain coverage. Methods: In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and controlled phase IIb trial, 222 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 60 years will be randomized into 3 groups (1:1:1) to receive either 2 intramuscular injections of 0.5 mg M-001 (arm 1), 1.0 mg M-001 (arm 2), or saline (arm 3—placebo), before receiving an investigational (whole virus, inactivated, aluminum phosphate gel [AlPO4]-adjuvanted) prepandemic influenza vaccine (H5N1). Primary outcomes are safety and cellular immune responses (cell-mediated immunity [CMI]) induced by M-001, evaluated by multiparametric flow cytometry of intracellular cytokines. The secondary outcome is the serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer toward the H5N1 vaccine strain. Additionally, exploratory outcomes include evaluation of CMI by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of cytokine mRNA, HAI titers toward H5-drifted strains, serum single radial hemolysis titers toward the H5N1 study vaccine, and the association between CMI markers and antibody response. Discussion: There is a need for influenza vaccines that give the population a broader protection against multiple strains of influenza virus. M-001 might be such vaccine which will be tested in this current trial as a standalone vaccine and as a pandemic
Cooper, C L; Davis, H L; Morris, M L; Efler, S M; Krieg, A M; Li, Y; Laframboise, C; Al Adhami, M J; Khaliq, Y; Seguin, I; Cameron, D W
CPG 7909, a 24-mer B-Class CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), was tested for safety, tolerability and its ability to augment the immunogenicity of a commercial trivalent killed split influenza vaccine (Fluarix containing A/Beijing/262/95, A/Sydney/5/97 and B/Harbin/7/94; SmithKline Beecham) in a phase Ib blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Sixty healthy volunteers were recruited in two consecutive cohorts of 30 subjects, who were randomly assigned to receive Fluarix plus 1mg CPG 7909 or Fluarix plus saline control (15 subjects each). Vaccines were administered by intramuscular injection on a single occasion with subjects in the first cohort receiving a 1/10th dose of Fluarix and those in the second cohort receiving the full-dose. All safety measures including physical evaluation, laboratory blood assays, and assays for DNA autoimmunity were within normal values except for transient and clinically inconsequential decreases in total white blood cell counts in groups receiving CPG 7909. All vaccines were found to be generally well tolerated with similar frequency and intensity for most adverse reactions for groups receiving CPG 7909 as controls. Exceptions were injection site pain and headache, which were reduced in frequency in subjects receiving the 1/10th Fluarix dose without CpG, compared to the frequency in all other groups. There was a lack of pre-existing immunity, defined as hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) activity < or =20, for all subjects to the influenza strains A/Beijing/262/95 and B/Harbin/7/94 and for some subjects to A/Sydney/5/97. Post-vaccination humoral immune responses, as determined 2 and 4 weeks later by assay of HI activity and ELISA to detect antibodies against hemagglutinin (anti-HA) were similar for both full and reduced Fluarix doses but the cellular immune responses (measured as PBMC antigen-specific IFN-gamma secretion) were reduced in the 1/10th Fluarix dose group. Humoral responses were not significantly enhanced by the addition
Lee, Yoon Jae; Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Paul; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Young Jae; Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Kyusik; Seong, Baik Lin
In our previous study, X-31ca-based H5N1 LAIVs, in particular, became more virulent in mice than the X-31ca MDV, possibly by the introduction of the surface antigens of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, implying that additional attenuation is needed in this cases to increase the safety level of the vaccine. In this report we suggest an approach to further increase the safety of LAIV through additional cold-adapted mutations in the hemagglutinin. The cold-adaptation of X-31 virus resulted in four amino acid mutations in the HA. We generated a panel of 7:1 reassortant viruses each carrying the hemagglutinins with individual single amino acid mutations. We examined their phenotypes and found a major attenuating mutation, N81K. This attenuation marker conferred additional temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotype to the LAIV. Our data indicate that the cold-adapted mutation in the HA confers additional attenuation to the LAIV strain, without compromising its productivity and immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DiazGranados, Carlos A.; Dunning, Andrew J.; Robertson, Corwin A.; Talbot, H. Keipp; Landolfi, Victoria; Greenberg, David P.
Background. High-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV-HD) is an alternative to the standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV-SD) in the United States for influenza prevention in older adults. IIV-HD improved efficacy relative to IIV-SD in a randomized controlled trial. Recent observational studies suggest that previous influenza vaccination may influence the immunogenicity and effectiveness of current-season vaccination. Methods. The original study was a double-blind, randomized trial comparing IIV-HD to IIV-SD in adults aged ≥65 years over 2 influenza seasons. A subset of year 1 (Y1) participants reenrolled in year 2 (Y2), receiving vaccine by random assignment in both years. We evaluated the effect of Y1 vaccination on Y2 relative vaccine efficacy (VE), immunogenicity (hemagglutination inhibition [HAI] titers), and safety among reenrolled participants. Results. Of 14 500 Y1 participants, 7643 reenrolled in Y2. Relative to participants who received IIV-SD both seasons, VE was higher for IIV-HD vaccinees in Y2 (28.3% overall; 25.1% for Y1 IIV-HD, Y2 IIV-HD; and 31.6% for Y1 IIV-SD, Y2 IIV-HD). In multivariate logistic regression models, Y1 vaccine was not a significant modifier of Y2 VE (P = .43), whereas Y2 IIV-HD remained significantly associated with lower influenza risk (P = .043). Compared to administration of IIV-SD in both years, postvaccination HAI titers were significantly higher for patterns that included IIV-HD in Y2. No safety concerns were raised with IIV-HD revaccination. Conclusions. IIV-HD is likely to provide clinical benefit over IIV-SD irrespective of previous-season vaccination with IIV-HD or IIV-SD. IIV-HD consistently improved immune responses, and no safety concerns emerged in the context of IIV-HD revaccination. PMID:26908801
Taylor, Laura; Greeley, Rebecca; Dinitz-Sklar, Jill; Mazur, Nicole; Swanson, Jill; Wolicki, JoEllen; Perz, Joseph; Tan, Christina; Montana, Barbara
On September 30, 2015, the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) was notified by an out-of-state health services company that an experienced nurse had reused syringes for multiple persons earlier that day. This occurred at an employee influenza vaccination clinic on the premises of a New Jersey business that had contracted with the health services company to provide influenza vaccinations to its employees. The employees were to receive vaccine from manufacturer-prefilled, single-dose syringes. However, the nurse contracted by the health services company brought three multiple-dose vials of vaccine that were intended for another event. The nurse reported using two syringes she found among her supplies to administer vaccine to 67 employees of the New Jersey business. She reported wiping the syringes with alcohol and using a new needle for each of the 67 persons. One of the vaccine recipients witnessed and questioned the syringe reuse, and brought it to the attention of managers at the business who, in turn, reported the practice to the health services company contracted to provide the influenza vaccinations.
Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Lee, Jacob; Woo, Heung Jeong; Wie, Seong-Heon; Lee, Jin-Soo; Kim, Shin Woo; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Hun; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Woo Joo
Cell culture-derived influenza vaccines (CCIVs) have several important advantages over egg-based influenza vaccines, including shorter production time, better preservation of wild-type virus antigenicity and large-scale production capacity. A randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial was undertaken to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a novel cell culture-derived inactivated, subunit, trivalent influenza vaccine (NBP607, SK Chemicals, Seongnam, Korea) compared to the control vaccine (AgrippalS1, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Srl, Siena, Italy) among healthy adults aged 19 years or older (Clinical trial Number-NCT02344134). Immunogenicity was determined at pre-vaccination, 1 month and 6 month post-vaccination by the hemagglutination inhibition assay. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were assessed after vaccination. A total of 1156 healthy subjects were recruited. NBP607 met all of the criteria of Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) at 21 days post-vaccination. Contrary to NBP607, the control vaccine did not satisfy the seroconversion criteria for influenza B irrespective of age. Although the geometric mean titer for each influenza subtype declined gradually, seroprotection rate still remained ≥80% for all subtypes up to six month after NBP607 administration. NBP607 recipients met the seroprotection criteria for all three influenza subtypes up to 6 month post-vaccination. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of adverse events between the NBP607 and control groups. NBP607, a novel CCIV, showed excellent immunogenicity that lasted ≥6 months after vaccination and had tolerable safety profiles. In particular, NBP607 was more immunogenic against influenza B compared to the control, an egg-based subunit vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brady, Rebecca C; Hu, Wilson; Houchin, Vonda G; Eder, Frank S; Jackson, Kenneth C; Hartel, Gunter F; Sawlwin, Daphne C; Albano, Frank R; Greenberg, Michael
A trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (CSL's TIV, CSL Limited) was licensed under USA accelerated approval regulations for use in persons≥18 years. We performed a randomized, observer-blind study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of CSL's TIV versus an established US-licensed vaccine in a population≥6 months to <18 years of age. Subjects were stratified as follows: Cohort A (≥6 months to <3 years); Cohort B (≥3 years to <9 years); and Cohort C (≥9 years to <18 years). The subject's age and influenza vaccination history determined the dosing regimen (one or two vaccinations). Subjects received CSL's TIV (n=739) or the established vaccine (n=735) in the autumn of 2009. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers were determined pre-vaccination and 30 days after the last vaccination. No febrile seizures or other vaccine-related SAEs were reported. After the first vaccination for Cohorts A and B, respectively, the relative risks of fever were 2.73 and 2.32 times higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Irritability and loss of appetite (for Cohort A) and malaise (for Cohort B) were also significantly higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) for CSL's TIV versus the established vaccine were 385.49 vs. 382.45 for H1N1; 669.13 vs. 705.61 for H3N2; and 100.65 vs. 93.72 for B. CSL's TIV demonstrated immunological non-inferiority to the established vaccine in all cohorts.
Every year, Influenza virus infection is at the origin of substantial excess in morbidity and mortality in developed as well as developing countries. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic drift which cause annual replacement of strain included in classical trivalent vaccines. Less frequently, this virus can also undergo antigenic shift, which corresponds to a major antigenic change and can lead to an extra medical burden. Several vaccines have been made available to immunize individuals against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza viruses. For seasonal Influenza vaccines, live attenuated and classical inactivated trivalent vaccines have been licensed and are widely used. Additionally, several strategies are under investigations to improve further the efficacy of existing seasonal vaccines in children and elderly. These include the use of adjuvant, increase in antigen content, or alternative route of delivery. Similarly, several approaches have been licensed to address additional challenge posed by pandemic viruses. The different vaccination strategies used to maximise protection against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza will be reviewed and discussed in the perspective the current threat posed by the H1N1v pandemic Influenza.
Barbosa, Rafael Polidoro Alves; Salgado, Ana Paula Carneiro; Garcia, Cristiana Couto; Filho, Bruno Galvão; Gonçalves, Ana Paula de Faria; Lima, Braulio Henrique Freire; Lopes, Gabriel Augusto Oliveira; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Peixoto, Andiara Cristina Cardoso; de Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Ataíde, Marco Antônio; Zirke, Carla Aparecida; Cotrim, Tatiane Marques; Costa, Érica Azevedo; Almeida, Gabriel Magno de Freitas; Russo, Remo Castro; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Machado, Alexandre de Magalhães Vieira
Recombinant influenza viruses are promising viral platforms to be used as antigen delivery vectors. To this aim, one of the most promising approaches consists of generating recombinant viruses harboring partially truncated neuraminidase (NA) segments. To date, all studies have pointed to safety and usefulness of this viral platform. However, some aspects of the inflammatory and immune responses triggered by those recombinant viruses and their safety to immunocompromised hosts remained to be elucidated. In the present study, we generated a recombinant influenza virus harboring a truncated NA segment (vNA-Δ) and evaluated the innate and inflammatory responses and the safety of this recombinant virus in wild type or knock-out (KO) mice with impaired innate (Myd88 -/-) or acquired (RAG -/-) immune responses. Infection using truncated neuraminidase influenza virus was harmless regarding lung and systemic inflammatory response in wild type mice and was highly attenuated in KO mice. We also demonstrated that vNA-Δ infection does not induce unbalanced cytokine production that strongly contributes to lung damage in infected mice. In addition, the recombinant influenza virus was able to trigger both local and systemic virus-specific humoral and CD8+ T cellular immune responses which protected immunized mice against the challenge with a lethal dose of homologous A/PR8/34 influenza virus. Taken together, our findings suggest and reinforce the safety of using NA deleted influenza viruses as antigen delivery vectors against human or veterinary pathogens.
Garcia, Cristiana Couto; Filho, Bruno Galvão; Gonçalves, Ana Paula de Faria; Lima, Braulio Henrique Freire; Lopes, Gabriel Augusto Oliveira; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Peixoto, Andiara Cristina Cardoso; de Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Ataíde, Marco Antônio; Zirke, Carla Aparecida; Cotrim, Tatiane Marques; Costa, Érica Azevedo; Almeida, Gabriel Magno de Freitas; Russo, Remo Castro; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Machado, Alexandre de Magalhães Vieira
Recombinant influenza viruses are promising viral platforms to be used as antigen delivery vectors. To this aim, one of the most promising approaches consists of generating recombinant viruses harboring partially truncated neuraminidase (NA) segments. To date, all studies have pointed to safety and usefulness of this viral platform. However, some aspects of the inflammatory and immune responses triggered by those recombinant viruses and their safety to immunocompromised hosts remained to be elucidated. In the present study, we generated a recombinant influenza virus harboring a truncated NA segment (vNA-Δ) and evaluated the innate and inflammatory responses and the safety of this recombinant virus in wild type or knock-out (KO) mice with impaired innate (Myd88 -/-) or acquired (RAG -/-) immune responses. Infection using truncated neuraminidase influenza virus was harmless regarding lung and systemic inflammatory response in wild type mice and was highly attenuated in KO mice. We also demonstrated that vNA-Δ infection does not induce unbalanced cytokine production that strongly contributes to lung damage in infected mice. In addition, the recombinant influenza virus was able to trigger both local and systemic virus-specific humoral and CD8+ T cellular immune responses which protected immunized mice against the challenge with a lethal dose of homologous A/PR8/34 influenza virus. Taken together, our findings suggest and reinforce the safety of using NA deleted influenza viruses as antigen delivery vectors against human or veterinary pathogens. PMID:24927156
Zerbini, Cristiano A F; Ribeiro Dos Santos, Rodrigo; Jose Nunes, Maria; Soni, Jyoti; Li, Ping; Jain, Varsha K; Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua
The World Health Organization influenza forecast now includes an influenza B strain from each of the influenza B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) for inclusion in seasonal influenza vaccines. Traditional trivalent influenza vaccines include an influenza B strain from one lineage, but because two influenza B lineages frequently co-circulate, the effectiveness of trivalent vaccines may be reduced in seasons of influenza B vaccine-mismatch. Thus, quadrivalent vaccines may potentially reduce the burden of influenza compared with trivalent vaccines. In this Phase III, open-label study, we assessed the immunogenicity and safety of Southern Hemisphere inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (Fluarix™ Tetra) in Brazilian adults (NCT02369341). The primary objective was to assess hemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses against each vaccine strain 21 days after vaccination in adults (aged ≥18-60 years) and older adults (aged >60 years). Solicited adverse events for four days post-vaccination, and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events for 21 days post-vaccination were also assessed. A total of 63 adults and 57 older adults received one dose of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine at the beginning of the 2015 Southern Hemisphere influenza season. After vaccination, in adults and older adults, the hemagglutination-inhibition titers fulfilled the European licensure criteria for immunogenicity. In adults, the seroprotection rates with HI titer ≥1:40 were 100% (A/H1N1), 98.4% (A/H3N2), 100% (B/Yamagata), and 100% (B/Victoria); in older adults were 94.7% (A/H1N1), 96.5% (A/H3N2), 100% (B/Yamagata), and 100% (B/Victoria). Pain was the most common solicited local adverse events in adults (27/62) and in older adults (13/57), and the most common solicited general adverse events in adults was myalgia (9/62), and in older adults were myalgia and arthralgia (both 2/57). Unsolicited adverse events were reported by 11/63 adults and 10/57 older adults
Imamura, Takashi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Sasaki, Takashi; Kokumai, Norihide; Ohgitani, Toshiaki; Sawata, Akira; Lin, Zhifeng; Sakaguchi, Masashi
We previously reported the development of an inactivated oil-adjuvanted avian influenza vaccine using an apathogenic H5N1 strain of the same lineage as the Eurasian lineage viruses currently epidemic in Asia. In this study, we confirmed the safety and evaluated the efficacy of this vaccine in layer chicken farms by field trials. No problematic adverse reactions occurred in the safety test. In addition, no adverse effects were observed in the field trial, and the antibody titer exceeded a protective level (hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer of 16) at 3 weeks after a single injection. Based on the above findings, this vaccine was confirmed to be safe and induced a protective level of antibody titer with a single injection in the chickens at the farms.
Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P
The criteria to assess public health policies are fundamental to policy optimization. Using a model parametrized with survey-based contact data and mortality data from influenza pandemics, we determined optimal vaccine allocation for five outcome measures: deaths, infections, years of life lost, contingent valuation, and economic costs. We find that optimal vaccination is achieved by prioritization of schoolchildren and adults aged 30 to 39 years. Schoolchildren are most responsible for transmission, and their parents serve as bridges to the rest of the population. Our results indicate that consideration of age-specific transmission dynamics is paramount to the optimal allocation of influenza vaccines. We also found that previous and new recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention both for the novel swine-origin influenza and, particularly, for seasonal influenza, are suboptimal for all outcome measures.
Barrett, P Noel; Berezuk, Gregory; Fritsch, Sandor; Aichinger, Gerald; Hart, Mary Kate; El-Amin, Wael; Kistner, Otfried; Ehrlich, Hartmut J
The use of cell-culture technologies for the manufacture of influenza vaccines might contribute to improved strain selection and robust vaccine supplies. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a Vero-cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine, and assessed the correlation between vaccine efficacy and haemagglutination inhibition antibody titre. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial undertaken in 36 centres in the USA, healthy adults (aged 18-49 years) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to one injection of either placebo or Vero-cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine during the 2008-09 season. Randomisation was done in blocks by use of the random number generator algorithm, and participants were allocated by use of a centralised telephone system. The primary objective was the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing cell-culture-confirmed influenza infection with viruses that were antigenically matched to one of the vaccine strains. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00566345. 7250 participants were randomly assigned to vaccine (n=3626) and placebo (n=3624). 7236 were analysed for the primary outcome (n=3619 and n=3617, respectively). Overall protective efficacy for antigenically matched influenza infection was 78·5% (95% CI 60·8-88·2). The vaccine was well tolerated with no treatment-related serious adverse events. Adverse events were mainly mild and transient. An HI titre of at least 1:15 provided a reliable correlate of cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine-induced protection; no additional benefit was noted with titres greater than 1:30. The data indicate that existing correlates of protection afforded with egg-derived seasonal influenza vaccines also apply to this vaccine. Federal (US Government) funds from the Office for Preparedness and Response, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, under contract to DynPort Vaccine Company. Copyright
Zhang, Han; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E
Influenza is an illness of global public health concern. Influenza viruses have been responsible for several pandemics affecting humans. Current influenza vaccines have proved satisfactory safety; however, they have limitations and do not provide protection against unexpected emerging influenza virus strains. Therefore, there is an urgent need for alternative approaches to conventional influenza vaccines. The development of universal influenza vaccines will help alleviate the severity of influenza pandemics. Influenza DNA vaccines have been the subject of many studies over the past decades due to their ability to induce broad-based protective immune responses in various animal models. The present review highlights the recent advances in influenza DNA vaccine research and its potential as an affordable universal influenza vaccine.
Ben-Yehuda, Arie; Joseph, Aviva; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Zeira, Evelyne; Even-Chen, Simcha; Louria-Hayon, Igal; Babai, Ilan; Zakay-Rones, Zichria; Greenbaum, Evgenia; Galprin, Ilia; Glück, Reinhard; Zurbriggen, Rinaldo; Kedar, Eli
Influenza and its complications account for substantial morbidity and mortality, especially among the elderly. In young adults, immunization provides 70-90% protection, while among the elderly the vaccine may be only =50% effective; hence, the need for new, more immunogenic vaccines. We compared the safety and immunogenicity of a novel, interleukin-2 (IL-2) -supplemented trivalent liposomal influenza vaccine (designated INFLUSOME-VAC) with that of a commercial trivalent split virion vaccine in community-residing elderly volunteers (mean age 81 years) in winter of 2000/2001. Eighty-one individuals were randomly assigned to be vaccinated intramuscularly, either with the standard vaccine (n=33) or with INFLUSOME-VAC (n=48) prepared from the former. The two vaccines contained equal amounts of hemagglutinin (HA) ( approximately 15 microgram of each viral strain); INFLUSOME-VAC consisted of liposomal antigens admixed with liposomal human IL-2 (Lip IL-2) (33 microgram = 6x10(5) IU/dose). At 1 month post-vaccination, seroconversion rates (tested by hemagglutination inhibition) for the A/New Caledonia (H1N1) and A/Moscow (H3N2) strains were significantly higher (P=0.04) in the INFLUSOME-VAC group (65 versus 45%, 44 versus 24%, respectively). Moreover, INFLUSOME-VAC induced a greater anti-neuraminidase (NA-N2) response (P<0.05). Anti-IL-2 antibodies were undetected, and no increase in anti-phospholipid IgG antibodies was found in the INFLUSOME-VAC group. Adverse reactions were similar in both groups. Thus, INFLUSOME-VAC appears to be both safe and more immunogenic than the currently used vaccine in the elderly.
Arriola, Carmen S; Mercado-Crespo, Melissa C; Rivera, Brenda; Serrano-Rodriguez, Ruby; Macklin, Nora; Rivera, Angel; Graitcer, Samuel; Lacen, Mayra; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kennedy, Erin D
Influenza vaccination is recommended annually for all persons 6 months and older. Reports of increased influenza-related morbidity and mortality during the 2013-2014 influenza season raised concerns about low adult influenza immunization rates in Puerto Rico. In order to inform public health actions to increase vaccination rates, we surveyed adults in Puerto Rico regarding influenza vaccination-related attitudes and barriers. A random-digit-dialing telephone survey (50% landline: 50% cellphone) regarding influenza vaccination, attitudes, practices and barriers was conducted November 19-25, 2013 among adults in Puerto Rico. Survey results were weighted to reflect sampling design and adjustments for non-response. Among 439 surveyed, 229 completed the survey with a 52% response rate. Respondents' median age was 55 years; 18% reported receiving 2013-2014 influenza vaccination. Among 180 unvaccinated respondents, 38% reported barriers associated with limited access to vaccination, 24% reported they did not want or need influenza vaccination, and 20% reported safety concerns. Vaccinated respondents were more likely to know if they were recommended for influenza vaccination, to report greater perceived risk of influenza illness, and to report being less concerned about influenza vaccine safety (p-value<0.05). Of the 175 respondents who saw a healthcare provider (HCP) since July 1, 2013, 38% reported their HCP recommended influenza vaccination and 17% were offered vaccination. Vaccination rates were higher among adults who received a recommendation and/or offer of influenza vaccination (43% vs. 14%; p-value<0.01). Failure of HCP to recommend and/or offer influenza vaccination and patient attitudes (low perceived risk of influenza virus infection) may have contributed to low vaccination rates during the 2013-2014 season. HCP and public health practitioners should strongly recommend influenza vaccination and provide vaccinations during clinical encounters or refer patients
Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.
SUPPLEMENT ARTICLES PEDIATRICS Volume 127, Supplement 1, May 2011 S79 by on May 9, 2011 www.pediatrics.orgDownloaded from ters for Disease Control...influenza vaccines and live versus in- activated) were made. RTIMS investi- gators collected supplemental infor- mation by follow-up telephone and e-mail...been added for RCA had po- SUPPLEMENT ARTICLES PEDIATRICS Volume 127, Supplement 1, May 2011 S81 by on May 9, 2011 www.pediatrics.orgDownloaded from
Greene, Sharon K.; Rett, Melisa D.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Li, Lingling; Kulldorff, Martin; Marcy, S. Michael; Daley, Matthew F.; Belongia, Edward A.; Baxter, Roger; Fireman, Bruce H.; Jackson, Michael L.; Omer, Saad B.; Nordin, James D.; Jin, Robert; Weintraub, Eric S.; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Lee, Grace M.
Background Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) can be triggered by gastrointestinal or respiratory infections, including influenza. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the United States, monovalent inactivated influenza vaccine (MIV) availability coincided with high rates of wildtype influenza infections. Several prior studies suggested an elevated GBS risk following MIV, but adjustment for antecedent infection was limited. Methods We identified patients enrolled in health plans participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink and diagnosed with GBS from July 2009 through June 2011. Medical records of GBS cases with 2009–10 MIV, 2010–11 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV), and/or a medically-attended respiratory or gastrointestinal infection in the 1 through 141 days prior to GBS diagnosis were reviewed and classified according to Brighton Collaboration criteria for diagnostic certainty. Using a case-centered design, logistic regression models adjusted for patient-level time-varying sources of confounding, including seasonal vaccinations and infections in GBS cases and population-level controls. Results Eighteen confirmed GBS cases received vaccination in the 6 weeks preceding onset, among 1.27 million 2009–10 MIV recipients and 2.80 million 2010–11 TIV recipients. Forty-four confirmed GBS cases had infection in the 6 weeks preceding onset, among 3.77 million patients diagnosed with medically-attended infection. The observed-versus-expected odds that 2009–10 MIV/2010–11 TIV was received in the 6 weeks preceding GBS onset was odds ratio = 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59–3.99; risk difference = 0.93 per million doses, 95% CI, −0.71–5.16. The association between GBS and medically-attended infection was: odds ratio = 7.73, 95% CI, 3.60–16.61; risk difference = 11.62 per million infected patients, 95% CI, 4.49–26.94. These findings were consistent in sensitivity analyses using alternative infection definitions
... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months ...
Phase II, randomized, open, controlled study of AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 pre-pandemic influenza vaccine in children aged 3 to 9 years: follow-up of safety and immunogenicity persistence at 24 months post-vaccination.
Díez-Domingo, Javier; Baldó, José-María; Planelles-Catarino, Maria Victoria; Garcés-Sánchez, María; Ubeda, Isabel; Jubert-Rosich, Angels; Marès, Josep; Garcia-Corbeira, Pilar; Moris, Philippe; Teko, Maurice; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Gillard, Paul
An AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine elicited broad and persistent immune responses with an acceptable safety profile up to 6 months following the first vaccination in children aged 3-9 years. In this follow-up of the Phase II study, we report immunogenicity persistence and safety at 24 months post-vaccination in children aged 3-9 years. The randomized, open-label study assessed two doses of H5N1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 influenza vaccine (1·9 μg or 3·75 μg hemagglutinin antigen) formulated with AS03A or AS03B (11·89 mg or 5·93 mg tocopherol, respectively). Control groups received seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. Safety was assessed prospectively and included potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs). Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition assay 12 and 24 months after vaccination; cross-reactivity and cell-mediated responses were also assessed. (NCT00502593). The safety population included 405 children. Over 24 months, five events fulfilled the criteria for pIMDs, of which four occurred in H5N1 vaccine recipients, including uveitis (n = 1) and autoimmune hepatitis (n = 1), which were considered to be vaccine-related. Overall, safety profiles of the vaccines were clinically acceptable. Humoral immune responses at 12 and 24 months were reduced versus those observed after the second dose of vaccine, although still within the range of those observed after the first dose. Persistence of cell-mediated immunity was strong, and CD4(+) T cells with a TH 1 profile were observed. Two doses of an AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine in children showed low but persistent humoral immune responses and a strong persistence of cell-mediated immunity, with clinically acceptable safety profiles up to 24 months following first vaccination. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Greene, Sharon K; Rett, Melisa; Weintraub, Eric S; Li, Lingling; Yin, Ruihua; Amato, Anthony A; Ho, Doreen T; Sheikh, Sarah I; Fireman, Bruce H; Daley, Matthew F; Belongia, Edward A; Jacobsen, Steven J; Baxter, Roger; Lieu, Tracy A; Kulldorff, Martin; Vellozzi, Claudia; Lee, Grace M
An increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following administration of the 1976 swine influenza vaccine led to a heightened focus on GBS when monovalent vaccines against a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin were introduced in 2009. GBS cases following receipt of monovalent inactivated (MIV) and seasonal trivalent inactivated (TIV) influenza vaccines in the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project in 2009-2010 were identified in electronic data and confirmed by medical record review. Within 1-42 days following vaccination, 9 cases were confirmed in MIV recipients (1.48 million doses), and 8 cases were confirmed in TIV-only recipients who did not also receive MIV during 2009-2010 (1.72 million doses). Five cases following MIV and 1 case following TIV-only had an antecedent respiratory infection, a known GBS risk factor; furthermore, unlike TIV, MIV administration was concurrent with heightened influenza activity. In a self-controlled risk interval analysis comparing GBS onset within 1-42 days following MIV with GBS onset 43-127 days following MIV, the risk difference was 5.0 cases per million doses (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 9.5). No statistically significant increased GBS risk was found within 1-42 days following TIV-only vaccination versus 43-84 days following vaccination (risk difference = 1.1 cases per million doses, 95% confidence interval: -3.1, 5.4). Further evaluation to assess GBS risk following both vaccination and respiratory infection is warranted.
Kawai, Naoki; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Iwaki, Norio; Satoh, Ietaka; Kawashima, Takashi; Tsuchimoto, Taizo; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo
The effectiveness of the influenza vaccine used in the 2001-2002 influenza season in Japan was investigated in a large-scale, geographically widely distributed, Internet-based study. Data were collected from 8841 of 9902 subjects registered by 38 clinics prior to the start of influenza season. Subjects were categorized into three groups by vaccination regimen: unvaccinated, vaccinated once, and vaccinated twice. Efficacy was also analyzed for three age groups: 0-15, 16-64, and 65-104 years. Influenza-like illness (ILI) was diagnosed according to Ministry of Health (MWH, Labor and Welfare in Japan) criteria. Laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were analyzed separately. The respective vaccine efficacy in the 0-15 years group for the one- and two-dose regimens was 67.6 and 84.5% for ILI and 54.0 and 79.8% for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Influenza vaccination was also shown to be effective in subjects 16-64 years. Vaccine effectiveness was not able to be determined for the over 65 years group, probably due to an insufficient number of infected patients. These results suggest that influenza vaccination is effective for children and adults and that a two-dose regimen is superior to a single dose in children 0-15 years.
Rodriguez Weber, Miguel A; Claeys, Carine; Aranza Doniz, Carlos; Feng, Yang; Innis, Bruce L; Jain, Varsha K; Peeters, Mathieu
Because inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain 1 influenza B strain, whereas 2 lineages may co-circulate, B lineage mismatch is frequent. We assessed an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages versus TIV in young children. Children aged 18-47 months who had received 2 doses of TIV in a study during the previous season (primed cohort, n = 192) were randomized 1:1 to receive 1 dose of TIV or QIV, and a further 407 children (unprimed cohort) were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 doses of TIV or QIV 28 days apart. Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) prevaccination and 28 days after each vaccination. Immunogenic non-inferiority QIV versus TIV for shared strains, and superiority against the alternate-lineage B strain were based on HI geometric mean titers (pooled analyses of primed and half of unprimed cohort with Day 56 immunogenicity assessment). Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were assessed during each 7- and 28-day postvaccination period, respectively (NCT00985790). Non-inferiority for shared strains and superiority for the alternate-lineage B strain unique to QIV was demonstrated for QIV versus TIV. QIV was immunogenic against all 4 vaccine strains and 87.0%, 88.6%, 69.8% and 97.9% of children had postvaccination titers of ≥ 1:40 against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Victoria and B/Yamagata, respectively. Reactogenicity and safety of QIV was consistent with TIV. QIV provided superior immunogenicity for the alternate-lineage B strain compared with TIV without interfering with immune responses to shared strains. Further studies are warranted to assess QIVs in children and to establish the clinical benefits of QIV versus TIV.
Shaw, Alan R
Influenza vaccines have been available since the 1950s and have seen increasingly wide use as public health authorities expanded recommendations. Recent events including shortages and avian influenza outbreaks have renewed interest in influenza vaccines, particularly improved vaccines.
de Bruijn, I A; Nauta, J; Gerez, L; Palache, A M
Several approaches are currently being pursued in order to improve the efficacy of influenza vaccines in elderly individuals and others who have impaired immune responses to conventional influenza vaccines. There are two influenza vaccines available for elderly subjects: Fluad (Chiron) and Invivac (Solvay Pharmaceuticals). The present clinical study was a randomized, endpoint-blind, parallel group study in elderly subjects aged 61 years and older to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines as compared to a standard influenza vaccine Invivac (Solvay Pharmaceuticals). The three vaccines had similar immunogenicity results, whereas the tolerability profile of Invivac was better as compared to Fluad.
... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) EspaÃ± ...
Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are considered at higher risk of influenza-related complications and are listed worldwide among the subjects for whom yearly influenza vaccination is strongly recommended. However, influenza vaccination coverage of patients with ESRD is significantly lower than desired. This paper explores why compliance with official recommendations for influenza vaccination is poor in patients with ESRD and analyzes the true risk of infection as well as the immunogenicity, the effectiveness and the safety of influenza vaccination in these patients. Epidemiological and clinical data support the importance of influenza in conditioning clinical deterioration of patients with ESRD, particularly in relation to their level of immunosuppression. However, the variable levels of immunodeficiency detected in patients with ESRD may reduce the immune response to influenza vaccination, which appears to be lower than that usually found in healthy subjects. However, few studies are available, and they are difficult to compare for several reasons. Additionally, limited data have been collected on influenza vaccine effectiveness, although the available studies support positive results of vaccination on outcomes of severe disease. Despite such limitations, it is important to highlight that all the available studies have confirmed the good safety and tolerability of inactivated influenza vaccines. These findings, together with the risks associated with influenza in these patients, support annual influenza vaccination in patients with ESRD as well as vaccination of their close contacts and should be presented in educational programs organized for nephrologists and patient associations.
Mizukami, Takuo; Momose, Haruka; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Takizawa, Kazuya; Araki, Kumiko; Furuhata, Keiko; Ishii, Ken J.; Hamaguchi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Kazunari
Vaccines are beneficial and universal tools to prevent infectious disease. Thus, safety of vaccines is strictly evaluated in the preclinical phase of trials and every vaccine batch must be tested by the National Control Laboratories according to the guidelines published by each country. Despite many vaccine production platforms and methods, animal testing for safety evaluation is unchanged thus far. We recently developed a systems biological approach to vaccine safety evaluation where identification of specific biomarkers in a rat pre-clinical study evaluated the safety of vaccines for pandemic H5N1 influenza including Irf7, Lgals9, Lgalsbp3, Cxcl11, Timp1, Tap2, Psmb9, Psme1, Tapbp, C2, Csf1, Mx2, Zbp1, Ifrd1, Trafd1, Cxcl9, β2m, Npc1, Ngfr and Ifi47. The current study evaluated whether these 20 biomarkers could evaluate the safety, batch-to-batch and manufacturer-to-manufacturer consistency of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine using a multiplex gene detection system. When we evaluated the influenza HA vaccine (HAv) from four different manufactures, the biomarker analysis correlated to findings from conventional animal use tests, such as abnormal toxicity test. In addition, sensitivity of toxicity detection and differences in HAvs were higher and more accurate than with conventional methods. Despite a slight decrease in body weight caused by HAv from manufacturer B that was not statistically significant, our results suggest that HAv from manufacturer B is significantly different than the other HAvs tested with regard to Lgals3bp, Tapbp, Lgals9, Irf7 and C2 gene expression in rat lungs. Using the biomarkers confirmed in this study, we predicted batch-to-batch consistency and safety of influenza vaccines within 2 days compared with the conventional safety test, which takes longer. These biomarkers will facilitate the future development of new influenza vaccines and provide an opportunity to develop in vitro methods of evaluating batch-to-batch consistency and
Han, Seung Beom; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Hye Jo; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Park, Joon Soo; Kim, Hwang Min; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Dong Ho; Choi, Young Youn; Cha, Sung-Ho; Hong, Young Jin; Kang, Jin Han
A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, active-control phase III clinical trial was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine. Korean children between the ages of 6 months and 18 y were enrolled and randomized into a study (study vaccine) or a control vaccine group (commercially available trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine) in a 5:1 ratio. Antibody responses were determined using hemagglutination inhibition assay, and post-vaccination immunogenicity was assessed based on seroconversion and seroprotection rates. For safety assessment, solicited local and systemic adverse events up to 28 d after vaccination and unsolicited adverse events up to 6 months after vaccination were evaluated. Immunogenicity was assessed in 337 and 68 children of the study and control groups. In the study vaccine group, seroconversion rates against influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B strains were 62.0% (95% CI: 56.8-67.2), 53.4% (95% CI: 48.1-58.7), and 54.9% (95% CI: 48.1-60.2), respectively. The corresponding seroprotection rates were 95.0% (95% CI: 92.6-97.3), 93.8% (95% CI: 91.2-96.4), and 95.3% (95% CI: 93.0-97.5). The lower 95% CI limits of the seroconversion and seroprotection rates were over 40% and 70%, respectively, against all strains. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates were not significantly different between the study and control vaccine groups. Furthermore, the frequencies of adverse events were not significantly different between the 2 vaccine groups, and no serious vaccination-related adverse events were noted. In conclusion, the study vaccine exhibited substantial immunogenicity and safety in Korean children and is expected to be clinically effective.
Aguilar-Díaz, Fatima Del Carmen; Jiménez-Corona, Maria Eugenia; Ponce-de-León-Rosales, Samuel
We undertook this study to review attitudes, beliefs and practices of healthcare workers (HCW) toward pandemic influenza A vaccine (H1N1) 2009 reported in the literature. Relevant papers published from 2009-2011 reporting attitudes, beliefs and practices of HCW towards pandemic influenza vaccine were identified. Variables such as age, gender, profession, work place area, and previous vaccination uptake were analyzed. In this study, 30 articles regarding attitudes and beliefs toward pandemic influenza vaccination, vaccine uptake and intention to accept vaccine were analyzed. Most studies were cross-sectional in design. Vaccination intention and uptake varies among different countries, 13.5-89.0% and 7.5-63.0%, respectively. Most common reasons for rejection were fear of adverse events, doubt regarding efficacy, not feeling as belonging to a high-risk group and believing that influenza is not a serious illness. Physicians show more favorable attitudes compared to nurses. The main predictor of vaccine uptake was having received previous influenza vaccination. Pandemic influenza uptake was low in most countries. The main reason among HCW for rejection was concern regarding side effects. It is necessary to establish educational programs to provided reliable information and raise awareness of HCW about vaccine use so that they can act as vaccine promoters among the general population.
Doroshenko, Alexander; Halperin, Scott A
Annual influenza epidemics continue to have a considerable impact in both developed and developing countries. Vaccination remains the principal measure to prevent seasonal influenza and reduce associated morbidity and mortality. The WHO recommends using established mammalian cell culture lines as an alternative to egg-based substrates in the manufacture of influenza vaccine. In June 2007, the EMEA approved Optaflu, a Madin Darby canine kidney cell culture-derived influenza vaccine manufactured by Novartis Vaccines. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of cell culture-based technology for influenza vaccine production, compares immunogenicity and safety data for Optaflu with that of currently marketed conventional egg-based influenza vaccines, and considers the prospects for wider use of cell culture-based influenza vaccines.
Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...
Background Pneumococcal infections are major causes of child mortality and morbidity worldwide and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major concern, especially in Asian countries. The present study was designed to evaluate the reactogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) when co-administered with the licensed diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B virus, inactivated poliovirus and H. influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) in a 3-dose primary vaccination course in Vietnamese infants. Methods This phase III, open, randomised study was conducted in one centre in Ho Chi Minh City between February and July 2011. Healthy infants (N=300) were randomised (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib alone (Control group) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. Results Within 31 days post-vaccination, 8.2% of overall doses in the PHiD-CV group and 3.0% of overall doses in the Control group were followed by at least one solicited and/or unsolicited, local and/or general adverse event of grade 3 intensity. Pain at injection site was the most common grade 3 solicited symptom, which was reported following 6.5% and 1.0% of overall doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups, respectively. Within 4 days post-vaccination, the most common solicited local and general symptoms reported with any intensity were pain (48.9% and 31.0% of doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups) and irritability (58.0% and 40.4% of doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups). Within 31 days post-vaccination, the incidence of unsolicited symptoms was comparable in both groups (following 12.3% and 14.8% of doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups, respectively). Throughout the study, 13 serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 9 infants in the PHiD-CV group and 11 SAEs in 6 infants in the Control group. None of them were fatal or
Zhou, Jian; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jinghui; Ma, Lei; Cun, Yina; Song, Shaohui; Liao, Guoyang
Vaccination is the practiced and accessible measure for preventing influenza infection. Because chicken embryos used for vaccine production have various insufficiencies, more efficient methods are needed. African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a safe substitute for influenza vaccine production for humans. However, the influenza virus usually had low-yield in Vero cells, which limits the usage of Vero cellular vaccines. This study used 2 high-yield influenza viruses in Vero cells: A/Yunnan/1/2005Va (H3N2) and B/Yunnan/2/2005Va (B) as donor viruses. It used 3 wild strain viruses to reassort new adaptation viruses, including: A/Tianjin/15/2009(H1N1), A/Fujian/196/2009(H3N2), and B/Chongqing/1384/2010(B). These three new viruses could maintain the characteristic of high-yield in Vero cells. Furthermore, they could keep the immunogenic characteristics of the original wild influenza viruses. Importantly, these viruses were shown as safe in chicken embryo and guinea pigs assessment systems. These results provide an alternative method to produce influenza vaccine based on Vero cells.
Tsurudome, Yukari; Kimachi, Kazuhiko; Okada, Yusuke; Matsuura, Kenta; Ooyama, Yusuke; Ibaragi, Kayo; Kino, Yoichiro; Ueda, Kohji
Two antigenically distinct B strain lineages of influenza virus have co-circulated since the mid-1980s; however, inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines contain only one B lineage. The mismatch between the circulating and vaccine lineages has been a worldwide issue. In this study, an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) candidate containing two B lineages was manufactured and its immunogenicity and safety evaluated in an open-label, uncontrolled trial. In this phase II trial, 50 subjects aged 20-64 years received two doses of QIV s.c. 1 to 4 weeks apart. Sera were collected pre- and post-vaccination and safety assessed from the first vaccination to 21 ± 7 days after the second vaccination. After the first vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition titers against each strain increased markedly; the seroconversion rate, geometric mean titer ratio and seroprotection rate being 94.0%, 24.93, and 100.0%, respectively, for the A/H1N1pdm09 strain; 94.0%, 12.47, and 98.0%, respectively, for the A/H3N2 strain; 54.0%, 4.99, and 66.0%, respectively, for B/Yamagata strain, and 72.0%, 6.23 and 80.0%, respectively, for the B/Victoria strain, thus fulfilling the criteria of the European Medical Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. Also, the QIV induced sufficient single radial hemolysis and neutralizing antibodies against all four vaccine strains. No noteworthy adverse events were noted. The results of this trial demonstrate that QIV is well tolerated and immunogenic for each strain, suggesting that QIV potentially improves protection against influenza B by resolving the issue of B lineage mismatch.
Stephenson, Iain; Nicholson, Karl G; Glück, Reinhardt; Mischler, Robert; Newman, Robert W; Palache, Abraham M; Verlander, Neville Q; Warburton, Fiona; Wood, John M; Zambon, Maria C
In 1999, avian influenza A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2) virus emerged as a pandemic threat to human beings. We aimed to assess safety, tolerability, and antigenicity of whole virus and subunit H9N2 vaccines in healthy volunteers. In a phase I randomised trial we randomly assigned 60 participants to whole virus or subunit H9N2 vaccine. Two doses of 7.5 microg, 15 microg, or 30 microg haemagglutinin influenza A H9N2 vaccine, were given 3 weeks apart. We measured antibody responses by haemagglutination-inhibition and microneutralisation. The primary outcome was geometric mean antibody titre 21 days after vaccination. Analysis was per protocol. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated. The antibody titres after vaccination did not differ significantly between subunit and whole virus vaccine. 24 of 60 prevaccination serum samples had unexpected reactivity to H9N2, but only in participants older than 32 years, in whom one dose of either vaccine evoked antibody responses associated with protection. In participants aged 32 years or younger, antibody responses to one dose of whole virus or subunit vaccine were poor, fulfilling none of the criteria used for yearly relicensing of interpandemic vaccines. Whole virus vaccine produced a significantly higher probability of seroconversion compared with subunit virus for this age-group. In immunologically naive patients whole-virus vaccine produced better responses than subunit vaccine. Two doses of subunit or whole virus vaccine would leave a large proportion of the naive population (< or =32 years) unprotected against A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2). Primed patients should be protected with a single dose of either vaccine.
Vesikari, Timo; Forstén, Aino; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Cioppa, Giovanni Della; Beygo, Jenny; Borkowski, Astrid; Groth, Nicola; Bennati, Mariaviviana; von Sonnenburg, Frank
The potential consequences of an avian influenza pandemic warrants the development of safe, highly immunogenic pre-pandemic A/H5N1 vaccines with cross-clade protection. In this randomized, controlled study we compared the immunogenicity and safety of an MF59(®)-adjuvanted (Novartis Vaccines, Marburg, Germany) A/H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccine with that of a licensed, MF59-adjuvanted, seasonal influenza vaccine. Healthy adult (18-60 years, n=3372) and elderly (≥61 years, n=275) volunteers received either an initial dose of a licensed, non-adjuvanted, trivalent, seasonal influenza vaccine (Agrippal(®)) on Day 1, followed by one dose of MF59-H5N1 study vaccine on Day 22 and a second dose of MF59-H5N1 on Day 43, or alternatively, placebo on Day 1 followed by one dose of MF59-adjuvanted seasonal reference vaccine on Day 22 and a second dose of reference vaccine on Day 43. Homologous and cross-reactive A/H5N1 antibody responses were analysed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI), single radial haemolysis (SRH), and microneutralization (MN) assays three weeks after each vaccination. Vaccine safety was assessed throughout the study. Analysis by HI assay found that two doses of MF59-H5N1 resulted in a seroconversion rate of 56% and a geometric mean ratio (GMR) of 7.1 in adult subjects. Similar results were observed on analysis by SRH (GMR 4.03; seroconversion 78% and seroprotection 91%) and MN (seroconversion 67%) assays. These data met the European licensure criteria for influenza vaccines. No significant difference in immunogenicity was detected between the adult and elderly populations. Anti-A/H5N1 cross-clade antibodies were detected by SRH, 49% of adult and 32% of elderly subjects achieved seroconversion after the second vaccine dose. Overall, MF59-H5N1 containing 7.5μg antigen was less reactogenic than the MF59-adjuvanted trivalent seasonal vaccine which contained 15μg antigen for each component strain. Two doses of MF59-H5N1 vaccine were well tolerated and induced
A growing body of literature defends the efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination for health care workers in reducing the mortality of hospitalized patients. I review the evidence concerning influenza vaccination, concluding that universal vaccination of health care workers against influenza should be considered standard patient care and that nonvaccination represents maleficent care. I further argue that the ethical responsibility to ensure universal vaccination of staff against seasonal influenza lies not only with individual health care providers but with each individual health care institution.
Choi, Won Suk; Noh, Ji Yun; Lee, Jacob; Choi, Jun Yong; Lee, Jin-Soo; Kim, Moo Soo; Kim, Hee Soo; Bang, Joon; Lavis, Nathalie; Kim, Woo Joo
VaxigripTetra® (Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France) is a quadrivalent split-virion inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) containing two B-lineage strains approved in the European Union and Taiwan in 2016 for individuals ≥ 3 years of age. Here, we describe an observer-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial study evaluating the immunogenicity and safety of the Northern Hemisphere 2015-2016 formulations of IIV4 and the licensed split-virion trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in the Republic of Korea (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT02550197). The study included 300 Korean adults 18-60 years of age randomized 2:1 to receive a single injection of IIV4 or IIV3. For each of the four vaccine strains in IIV4, 21 days after vaccination, geometric mean post-/pre-vaccination ratios of hemagglutination inhibition titers were ≥ 3.97. Seroconversion/significant increases rates were ≥ 40% for all but the A/H1N1 strain, for which the rate was 39.7%. Results were similar for the three strains in IIV3. For the additional B-lineage strain not in IIV3 (Victoria), hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were higher for IIV4 than for IIV3. Solicited reactions and adverse events were similar between IIV4 and IIV3, and no serious adverse events or new safety signals were detected. These results confirm the robust immunogenicity and acceptable safety of IIV4 in adults 18-60 years of age and show that including a second B-lineage strain should provide broader protection against B-strain influenza without affecting vaccine safety or the immunogenicity of other three vaccine strains.
Wu, Nanping; Wang, Frederick X.C.; Weng, Tianhao; Han, Chengcong; Lu, Xiangyun; Yu, Dongshan; Wu, Haibo; Cheng, Linfang; Chen, Honglin; Yao, Hangping; Li, Lanjuan
Developing a safe and effective H7N9 influenza vaccine was initiated in early spring 2013, following human infections with a novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. In this study, a candidate H7N9 vaccine seed strain is produced using reverse genetics, with HA and NA derived from a human H7N9 virus and the remaining genes from the PR8 backbone virus which grows well in eggs. We verified that the virulence and transmissibility of the recombinant H7N9 vaccine seed strain were decreased as compared to wild-type H7N9 virus, to levels comparable with PR8. Using the seed virus, we produced a monovalent split influenza A (H7N9) MF59-adjuvanted vaccine that was immunogenic in mice. Our H7N9 vaccine is selected for clinical investigation and potential human use. To assess the safety of our H7N9 vaccine, we performed acute toxicity, repeated dose toxicity and active systemic anaphylaxis tests. Our results showed that, under the conditions used in this study, the NOEAL (no obvious adverse effect level) was 30 μg/0.5 mL. PMID:27768591
Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine administered concomitantly with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines to children less than 2 years of age.
Nolan, Terry; Bernstein, Henry; Blatter, Mark M; Bromberg, Kenneth; Guerra, Fernando; Kennedy, William; Pichichero, Michael; Senders, Shelly D; Trofa, Andrew; Collard, Alix; Sullivan, Diane C; Descamps, Dominique
The availability of a hepatitis A virus vaccine for infant and early childhood immunization could reduce the transmission of hepatitis A virus in the United States. This study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a hepatitis A virus vaccine (Havrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) administered concomitantly with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines to children < 2 years. In this open, comparative, multicenter study, 1084 healthy children aged 11 to 25 months were allocated (4:4:3:3:4 ratio) to 5 treatment groups based on age and previous vaccination history. Subjects 11 to 13 months of age received 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine 6 months apart (N = 243). Subjects aged 15 to 18 months received 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine 6 months apart (N = 241); or hepatitis A virus vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis, and H influenzae type b at month 0 and the second dose of hepatitis A virus vaccine 6 months later (N = 183); or diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and H influenzae type b at month 0 and hepatitis A virus vaccine at months 1 and 7 (N = 175). Subjects 23 to 25 months of age received hepatitis A virus vaccine at months 0 and 6 (N = 242). Immune responses were measured at baseline and 30 days after vaccine doses, and solicited and unsolicited adverse events were collected. After 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine, all of the subjects in all of the groups were seropositive. Coadministration of hepatitis A virus vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and H influenzae type b vaccines did not impact the immunogenicity of the 3 vaccines, except for the antipertussis toxoid vaccine response, which was slightly decreased. Hepatitis A virus vaccine was well tolerated in children 11 to 25 months of age. The administration of 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine on a 0- and 6-month schedule starting at 11 to 13 months of age or at 15 to 18 months of age was as
Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M; Shakir, Saad; Dryburgh, Moira; Mantay, Brian J; McDonnell, Patrick; Layton, Deborah
AIMS During the global H1N1 influenza A (swine flu) pandemic 2009–2010, swine flu vaccines were expeditiously licensed and a mass vaccination programme for high risk groups, including pregnant women, was introduced in the UK. This pilot active safety surveillance study was performed to establish the feasibility of rapidly monitoring the new swine flu vaccines in large patient numbers receiving or offered the vaccination under normal conditions of use within a short time frame. METHODS A cohort design with safety data capture through modern technologies was carried out in Scotland, UK during the winter swine flu vaccination programme 2009–2010 in individuals receiving or offered the swine flu vaccination. The main outcome measures were self-reported serious adverse events (SAEs) and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS The cohort comprised 4066 people; 3754 vaccinated and 312 offered the vaccination but not vaccinated. There were 939 self-reported events (838 different events), 53 judged to fit SAE criteria by the investigators, with nine judged as possibly, probably or definitely vaccine related. None of the seven deaths (six in vaccinees) were judged as vaccine related. One hundred and twenty-eight women reported 130 pregnancies during the study with 117 pregnant at study start. There were reports of four miscarriages in three women and six possible congenital abnormalities in live births. CONCLUSIONS Overall, no significant safety issues were identified. The methodology and use of modern technologies to collect safety data from large numbers of patients was successful and could be used again in similar safety studies. PMID:22082196
Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M; Shakir, Saad; Dryburgh, Moira; Mantay, Brian J; McDonnell, Patrick; Layton, Deborah
During the global H1N1 influenza A (swine flu) pandemic 2009-2010, swine flu vaccines were expeditiously licensed and a mass vaccination programme for high risk groups, including pregnant women, was introduced in the UK. This pilot active safety surveillance study was performed to establish the feasibility of rapidly monitoring the new swine flu vaccines in large patient numbers receiving or offered the vaccination under normal conditions of use within a short time frame. A cohort design with safety data capture through modern technologies was carried out in Scotland, UK during the winter swine flu vaccination programme 2009-2010 in individuals receiving or offered the swine flu vaccination. The main outcome measures were self-reported serious adverse events (SAEs) and pregnancy outcomes. The cohort comprised 4066 people; 3754 vaccinated and 312 offered the vaccination but not vaccinated. There were 939 self-reported events (838 different events), 53 judged to fit SAE criteria by the investigators, with nine judged as possibly, probably or definitely vaccine related. None of the seven deaths (six in vaccinees) were judged as vaccine related. One hundred and twenty-eight women reported 130 pregnancies during the study with 117 pregnant at study start. There were reports of four miscarriages in three women and six possible congenital abnormalities in live births. Overall, no significant safety issues were identified. The methodology and use of modern technologies to collect safety data from large numbers of patients was successful and could be used again in similar safety studies. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.
Conlin, Ava Marie S; Bukowinski, Anna T; Sevick, Carter J; DeScisciolo, Connie; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F
To assess adverse pregnancy outcomes among active-duty U.S. military women who received pandemic H1N1 vaccine during pregnancy as well as adverse health outcomes among the newborns resulting from these pregnancies. The primary study population was a retrospective cohort of active-duty U.S. military women vaccinated during pregnancy with either the pandemic H1N1 vaccine between October 2009 and June 2010 or with seasonal influenza vaccine between October 2008 and June 2009. Rates of pregnancy loss, preeclampsia or eclampsia, and preterm labor were compared between pandemic H1N1 vaccine-exposed (n=10,376) and seasonal influenza vaccine-exposed pregnancies (n=7,560). A secondary study population consisted of newborns resulting from these pregnancies. Rates of preterm birth, birth defects, fetal growth problems, and the male-to-female sex ratio were compared between newborns exposed to pandemic H1N1 vaccine and newborns exposed to seasonal influenza vaccine in utero. No significant differences were observed in rates of pregnancy loss (6.4% compared with 6.5%), preeclampsia or eclampsia (5.8% compared with 5.2%), or preterm labor (6.5% compared with 6.2%) between pandemic H1N1 vaccine-exposed and seasonal influenza vaccine-exposed pregnancies. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in rates of preterm birth (6.2% compared with 6.3%), birth defects (2.1% compared with 2.0%), fetal growth problems (2.6% compared with 2.4%), or the male-to-female sex ratio (1.05 compared with 1.07) between newborns exposed in utero to pandemic H1N1 vaccine compared with seasonal influenza vaccine. Rates of all outcomes were lower or similar to overall general population rates. This study had at least 80% power to detect hazard ratios of 1.18-1.21 or odds ratios of 1.10-1.36, depending on outcome prevalence. No adverse pregnancy or newborn health outcomes associated with pandemic H1N1 vaccination during pregnancy were noted among our cohort. These findings should be used to
Diez-Domingo, Javier; de Martino, Maurizio; Lopez, Jose Garcia-Sicilia; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Villani, Alberto; Moreno-Perez, David; Hernández, María Méndez; Aldeán, Javier Álvarez; Mateen, Ahmed Abdul; Enweonye, Igwebuike; de Rooij, Richard; Chandra, Richa
This descriptive, non-comparative, phase III study evaluated the safety and tolerability of cell culture-derived (TIVc) and egg-derived (TIV) seasonal influenza vaccines in children at risk of influenza-related complications. Four hundred and thirty subjects were randomized 2:1 to TIVc or TIV. Subjects aged 3 to <9 years received one dose (if previously vaccinated, n=89) or two doses (if not previously vaccinated, n=124) of the study vaccines; the 9 to <18-year-olds (n=213) received one dose. Reactogenicity was assessed for 7 days after vaccination; safety was monitored for 6 months. After any vaccination, the most frequently reported solicited local adverse event (AE) was tenderness/pain (TIVc 44%, 66%, 53% and TIV 56%, 51%, 65% in the age groups 3 to <6 years, 6 to <9 years, and 9 to <18 years, respectively) and the systemic AE was irritability (22% TIVc, 24% TIV) in 3 to <6-year-olds and headache in 6 to <9-year-olds (20% TIVc, 13% TIV) and 9 to <18-year-olds (21% TIVc, 26% TIV). There were no cases of severe fever (≥40°C). No vaccine-related serious AEs were noted. New onset of chronic disease was reported in ≤1% of subjects. TIVc and TIV had acceptable tolerability and similar safety profiles in at-risk children (NCT01998477). Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong
Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759
Keitel, Wendy; Groth, Nicola; Lattanzi, Maria; Praus, Michaela; Hilbert, Anne Katrin; Borkowski, Astrid; Tsai, Ted F
Dose-sparing strategies and new production technologies will be necessary to produce adequate supplies of vaccines for pandemic influenza. One approach is to include adjuvant, which can reduce the amount of antigen required for immunization and stimulate cross-reactive responses to drifted variants of novel viruses. Dose-sparing studies of adjuvant, itself a finite resource, have not previously been reported for H5N1 vaccine development. A total of 753 healthy 18-40-year-old adults were randomized to one of 12 groups (N approximately 60/group) to receive two intramuscular doses, 21 days apart, of 3.75, 7.5 or 15 microg of cell culture grown influenza A/H5N1 hemagglutinin (A/Indonesia/5/2005 (H5N1)/PR-8-IBCDC-RG2), each dose level formulated with 0%, 25%, 50% or 100% of the MF59 dose contained in licensed influenza vaccine. 752 subjects actually received one dose, and 695 a second dose. Serum hemagglutination inhibition and neutralizing antibody levels, were determined before and 21 days after each dose. Safety and reactogenicity were assessed by self-completed diary cards. Nonadjuvanted H5N1 formulations were poorly immunogenic, but antibody responses were significantly enhanced by all doses of MF59 for each antigen level. The 3.75 microg H5N1 containing 50% MF59 satisfied the European criteria for pandemic vaccine licensure. All formulations were well tolerated, although MF59 dose-dependent increases in the frequency of injection site pain were observed. The frequencies of injection site and systemic reactions were lower after receipt of the second dose of vaccine. No vaccine-related SAE was reported. Dose-sparing of both antigen and adjuvant is possible without compromising immunogenicity, while improving reactogenicity and is a promising strategy that will expand the availability of vaccines for global control of pandemic influenza.
Jamieson, Denise J; Kissin, Dmitry M; Bridges, Carolyn B; Rasmussen, Sonja A
Influenza vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention efforts among pregnant women. Prior to 2005, data from studies conducted on pregnant women were limited, with much of the supporting evidence coming from influenza vaccine studies conducted among nonpregnant, age-matched populations. Since 2005, however, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine for pregnant women, including evidence of maternal transfer of antibody. In addition, the clinical benefit of influenza vaccination, both for the mother and infant, was demonstrated in a landmark randomized clinical trial conducted in Bangladesh. Additional randomized clinical trials with laboratory-confirmed influenza as the primary outcome are underway in countries without a current influenza vaccination program, but such trials are unlikely to be conducted in the United States or other countries that already recommend the vaccination of pregnant women. However, current evidence supports the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine and its effectiveness in reducing the risk of influenza-related illness among pregnant women. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chambers, T M; Quinlivan, M; Sturgill, T; Cullinane, A; Horohov, D W; Zamarin, D; Arkins, S; García-Sastre, A; Palese, P
Three previously described NS1 mutant equine influenza viruses encoding carboxy-terminally truncated NS1 proteins are impaired in their ability to inhibit type I IFN production in vitro and are replication attenuated, and thus are candidates for use as a modified live influenza virus vaccine in the horse. One or more of these mutant viruses is safe when administered to horses, and recipient horses when challenged with wild-type influenza have reduced physiological and virological correlates of disease. Vaccination and challenge studies were done in horses, with measurement of pyrexia, clinical signs, virus shedding and systemic proinflammatory cytokines. Aerosol or intranasal inoculation of horses with the viruses produced no adverse effects. Seronegative horses inoculated with the NS1-73 and NS1-126 viruses, but not the NS1-99 virus, shed detectable virus and generated significant levels of antibodies. Following challenge with wild-type influenza, horses vaccinated with NS1-126 virus did not develop fever (>38.5 degrees C), had significantly fewer clinical signs of illness and significantly reduced quantities of virus excreted for a shorter duration post challenge compared to unvaccinated controls. Mean levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-6 were significantly higher in control animals, and were positively correlated with peak viral shedding and pyrexia on Day +2 post challenge. These data suggest that the recombinant NS1 viruses are safe and effective as modified live virus vaccines against equine influenza. This type of reverse genetics-based vaccine can be easily updated by exchanging viral surface antigens to combat the problem of antigenic drift in influenza viruses.
Casajuana, Josep; Iglesias, Begoña; Fàbregas, Mireia; Fina, Francesc; Vallès, Joan-Antoni; Aragonès, Rosa; Benítez, Mència; Zabaleta, Edurne
Background Influenza vaccines are recommended for administration by the intramuscular route. However, many physicians use the subcutaneous route for patients receiving an oral anticoagulant because this route is thought to induce fewer hemorrhagic side effects. Our aim is to assess the safety of intramuscular administration of influenza vaccine in patients on oral anticoagulation therapy. Methods Design: Randomised, controlled, single blinded, multi-centre clinical trial. Setting: 4 primary care practices in Barcelona, Spain. Participants: 229 patients on oral anticoagulation therapy eligible for influenza vaccine during the 2003–2004 season. Interventions: intramuscular administration of influenza vaccine in the experimental group (129 patients) compared to subcutaneous administration in the control group (100 patients). Primary outcome: change in the circumference of the arm at the site of injection at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes: appearance of local reactions and pain at 24 hours and at 10 days; change in INR (International Normalized Ratio) at 24 hours and at 10 days. Analysis was by intention to treat using the 95% confidence intervals of the proportions or mean differences. Results Baseline variables in the two groups were similar. No major side effects or major haemorrhage during the follow-up period were reported. No significant differences were observed in the primary outcome between the two groups. The appearance of local adverse reactions was more frequent in the subcutaneous administration group (37,4% vs. 17,4%, 95% confidence interval of the difference 8,2% to 31,8%). Conclusion This study shows that the intramuscular administration route of influenza vaccine in patients on anticoagulant therapy does not have more side effects than the subcutaneous administration route. Registration number NCT00137579 at clinicaltrials.gov PMID:18507871
van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Marché, Sylvie; Steensels, Mieke; Van Borm, Steven; Bublot, Michel
Although it is well accepted that the present Asian H5N1 panzootic is predominantly an animal health problem, the human health implications and the risk of human pandemic have highlighted the need for more information and collaboration in the field of veterinary and human health. H5 and H7 avian influenza (AI) viruses have the unique property of becoming highly pathogenic (HPAI) during circulation in poultry. Therefore, the final objective of poultry vaccination against AI must be eradication of the virus and the disease. Actually, important differences exist in the control of avian and human influenza viruses. Firstly, unlike human vaccines that must be adapted to the circulating strain to provide adequate protection, avian influenza vaccination provides broader protection against HPAI viruses. Secondly, although clinical protection is the primary goal of human vaccines, poultry vaccination must also stop transmission to achieve efficient control of the disease. This paper addresses these differences by reviewing the current and future influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies in birds.
Hubble, Michael W; Zontek, Tracy L; Richards, Michael E
Because of their frequent patient interactions, particularly with patients in long-term care facilities, emergency medical services (EMS) professionals are at risk of contracting and spreading influenza. However, influenza vaccination rates among EMS professionals are poorly quantified. We sought to document vaccination rates of EMS professionals and identify predictors of vaccination uptake. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina EMS professionals after the 2007-2008 influenza season. The survey assessed vaccination status as well as beliefs regarding influenza illness and vaccine effectiveness similar to the constructs of the Health Belief Model. Prediction of vaccine uptake was modeled using logistic regression. A total of 601 EMS professionals completed the survey. Among the respondents, 47.9% reported receiving the influenza vaccination; vaccination rates varied among rural, suburban, and urban respondents (p = 0.01). Significant differences were found between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups regarding employer vaccine recommendation (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, p < 0.01), employer-offered influenza training (OR = 1.5, p < 0.01), employer-offered vaccination (OR = 3.3, p < 0.01), and belief in vaccine safety (OR = 27.5, p < 0.01) and effectiveness (OR = 9.5, p < 0.01). Most respondents believed they were at higher risk for influenza, the risk of adverse reactions was outweighed by prevention of disease, the vaccine was safe and effective, and vaccination protected themselves and their patients; however, only 9.1% supported mandatory vaccination. Those who were not vaccinated cited reasons such as belief in personal health as a protector against influenza, concerns about vaccine effectiveness, and the lack of an employer mandate. Predictors of vaccination included previous influenza diagnosis, perceived higher risk compared with that in the general population, belief in vaccine effectiveness, belief of favorable risk benefit ratio, employer
Lopez, Pio; Caicedo, Yolanda; Sierra, Alexandra; Tilman, Sandrine; Banzhoff, Angelika; Clemens, Ralf
We performed a phase II randomized, controlled, open-label, single-center study (Centros de Estudios de Infectología Pediátrica, Colombia) to examine the feasibility of combined administration of seasonal and MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 influenza vaccines using extemporaneous mixing or simultaneous administration. The primary objective of the study was to assess the immunogenicity of seasonal influenza and A/H5N1 vaccines using European licensure criteria (Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use [CHMP]); the secondary objective was to assess vaccine reactogenicity and safety. In 401 healthy 18-40-year-old subjects, both vaccines were immunogenic in all settings; the vaccine for seasonal influenza met all CHMP criteria, unaffected by coadministration of A/H5N1 vaccine in separate or mixed injections. Likewise, the immunogenicity of A/H5N1 vaccine was unaffected by seasonal influenza vaccination, with hemagglutination inhibition seroprotection rates of 28%-40% after 1 dose and 67%-80% after 2 doses, sufficient to meet CHMP criteria. Solicited local and systemic adverse events were mainly mild to moderate. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported during the study period. These data demonstrate that seasonal and MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 influenza vaccines can be given as a mixed injection or by simultaneous separate injections without affecting immunogenicity or safety, supporting the feasibility of incorporating prepandemic MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 vaccines into seasonal influenza vaccination programs and the development of tetravalent influenza vaccines, including pandemic strains. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00481065.
Wong, Sook-San; Webby, Richard J
The challenges in successful vaccination against influenza using conventional approaches lie in their variable efficacy in different age populations, the antigenic variability of the circulating virus, and the production and manufacturing limitations to ensure safe, timely, and adequate supply of vaccine. The conventional influenza vaccine platform is based on stimulating immunity against the major neutralizing antibody target, hemagglutinin (HA), by virus attenuation or inactivation. Improvements to this conventional system have focused primarily on improving production and immunogenicity. Cell culture, reverse genetics, and baculovirus expression technology allow for safe and scalable production, while adjuvants, dose variation, and alternate routes of delivery aim to improve vaccine immunogenicity. Fundamentally different approaches that are currently under development hope to signal new generations of influenza vaccines. Such approaches target nonvariable regions of antigenic proteins, with the idea of stimulating cross-protective antibodies and thus creating a "universal" influenza vaccine. While such approaches have obvious benefits, there are many hurdles yet to clear. Here, we discuss the process and challenges of the current influenza vaccine platform as well as new approaches that are being investigated based on the same antigenic target and newer technologies based on different antigenic targets.
SUMMARY The challenges in successful vaccination against influenza using conventional approaches lie in their variable efficacy in different age populations, the antigenic variability of the circulating virus, and the production and manufacturing limitations to ensure safe, timely, and adequate supply of vaccine. The conventional influenza vaccine platform is based on stimulating immunity against the major neutralizing antibody target, hemagglutinin (HA), by virus attenuation or inactivation. Improvements to this conventional system have focused primarily on improving production and immunogenicity. Cell culture, reverse genetics, and baculovirus expression technology allow for safe and scalable production, while adjuvants, dose variation, and alternate routes of delivery aim to improve vaccine immunogenicity. Fundamentally different approaches that are currently under development hope to signal new generations of influenza vaccines. Such approaches target nonvariable regions of antigenic proteins, with the idea of stimulating cross-protective antibodies and thus creating a “universal” influenza vaccine. While such approaches have obvious benefits, there are many hurdles yet to clear. Here, we discuss the process and challenges of the current influenza vaccine platform as well as new approaches that are being investigated based on the same antigenic target and newer technologies based on different antigenic targets. PMID:23824369
safety and the benefits of pandemic influenza vaccination may have contributed to both a very low uptake of pandemic vaccines and a decreased uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in the first post-pandemic season. In the upcoming years, the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines should be carefully monitored in all target groups to identify if this trend continues and to guide public health authorities in developing more effective vaccination and communication strategies for seasonal influenza vaccination. PMID:23113995
Jefferson, Tom; Rivetti, Alessandro; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo; Demicheli, Vittorio; Ferroni, Eliana
-study evidence of effect on school absenteeism by children and caring parents from work. Variability in study design and presentation of data was such that a meta-analysis of safety outcome data was not feasible. Extensive evidence of reporting bias of safety outcomes from trials of live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) impeded meaningful analysis. One specific brand of monovalent pandemic vaccine is associated with cataplexy and narcolepsy in children and there is sparse evidence of serious harms (such as febrile convulsions) in specific situations. Influenza vaccines are efficacious in preventing cases of influenza in children older than two years of age, but little evidence is available for children younger than two years of age. There was a difference between vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, partly due to differing datasets, settings and viral circulation patterns. No safety comparisons could be carried out, emphasising the need for standardisation of methods and presentation of vaccine safety data in future studies. In specific cases, influenza vaccines were associated with serious harms such as narcolepsy and febrile convulsions. It was surprising to find only one study of inactivated vaccine in children under two years, given current recommendations to vaccinate healthy children from six months of age in the USA, Canada, parts of Europe and Australia. If immunisation in children is to be recommended as a public health policy, large-scale studies assessing important outcomes, and directly comparing vaccine types are urgently required. The degree of scrutiny needed to identify all global cases of potential harms is beyond the resources of this review. This review includes trials funded by industry. An earlier systematic review of 274 influenza vaccine studies published up to 2007 found industry-funded studies were published in more prestigious journals and cited more than other studies independently from methodological quality and size. Studies funded from public
Tsang, Peter; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Strout, Cynthia B; Sperling, Malcolm; Greenberg, David P; Ozol-Godfrey, Ayca; DiazGranados, Carlos; Landolfi, Victoria
We conducted a randomized, controlled, multicenter, phase II study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational intradermal (ID) trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and a high-dose (HD) intramuscular (IM) TIV in older adults (≥65 years of age). Older adult subjects were immunized with ID vaccine containing either 15μg hemagglutinin (HA)/strain (n=636) or 21μg HA/strain (n=634), with HD IM vaccine containing 60μg HA/strain (n=320), or with standard-dose (SD) IM vaccine (Fluzone(®); 15μg HA/strain; n=319). For comparison, younger adults (18-49 years of age) were immunized with SD IM vaccine. In older adults, post-vaccination geometric mean titers induced by the ID vaccines were superior to those induced by the SD IM vaccine for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains and non-inferior for the B strain. Seroconversion rates induced by the ID vaccines were superior to those induced by the SD IM vaccine in older adults for the A/H1N1 and B strains and non-inferior for the A/H3N2 strain. Results did not differ significantly for the two ID vaccine dosages. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers, seroconversion rates, and most seroprotection rates were significantly higher in HD vaccine recipients than in older adult recipients of the SD IM or ID vaccines and, for most measures, were comparable to those of younger adult SD IM vaccine recipients. Injection-site reactions, but not systemic reactions or unsolicited adverse events, were more common with the ID vaccines than with the IM vaccines. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. This study demonstrated that: (1) the ID and HD vaccines were well-tolerated and more immunogenic than the SD IM vaccine in older adults; (2) the HD vaccine was more immunogenic than the ID vaccines in older adults; and (3) the HD vaccine in older adults and the SD IM vaccine in younger adults elicited comparable antibody responses (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no.: NCT00551031).
Gendon, Iu Z
The review characterizes the currently used cold-adapted donor strains of influenza virus attenuation to prepare cold-adapted reassortants with actual epidemic influenza virus strains. It considers new procedures for preparing attenuated influenza virus strains for live influenza vaccines, as well as analytical methods and the genome composition of reassortants. Recent data on the safety of live cold-adapted influenza vaccines (LCAIVs), including those on the genetic stability of vaccine reassortants and the immunogenicity and efficacy of these vaccines for different age groups, are discussed. There is evidence for the design of live human vaccines against avian influenza. It is concluded that LCAIVs are highly effective for immunization of children.
Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine when coadministered with Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines in children 15 months of age.
Trofa, Andrew F; Klein, Nicola P; Paul, Ian M; Michaels, Marian G; Goessler, Mary; Chandrasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Blatter, Mark
This study (NCT00197236) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine when coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in children 15 months of age. This was an open-labeled, multicenter study with healthy subjects enrolled and randomized (1:1:1) into 3 treatment groups. A total of 394 subjects received the first study vaccinations at 15 months of age. Group HAV (N = 135) received 2 doses of HAV vaccine 6 to 9 months apart. Group HAV+DTaP+Hib (N = 127) received HAV vaccine coadministered with DTaP and Hib vaccines and the second dose of HAV vaccine, 6 to 9 months later. Group DTaP+Hib→HAV (N = 132) received the DTaP and Hib vaccines at 15 months of age, followed by HAV vaccine 30 days later and the second dose of HAV vaccine 7 to 10 months after the DTaP+Hib vaccines. Immune responses were evaluated before the first study vaccination and 30 days after each vaccine dose. Solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were collected. After 2 doses of the HAV vaccine, all subjects in the 3 groups were seropositive. The geometric mean concentration of anti-HAV antibodies ranged between 1625.1 and 1904.4 mIU/mL. Coadministration of the 3 vaccines did not impact immunogenicity of the HAV, DTaP, or Hib vaccines. Vaccines were well tolerated in all groups. A 2-dose schedule of HAV vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to children starting at 15 months of age. Immune responses to the DTaP or Hib vaccines were similar whether they were administered alone or were coadministered with the HAV vaccine.
Esposito, Susanna; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Daleno, Cristina; Peia, Francesco; Scala, Alessia; Serra, Domenico; Mirra, Nadia; Galeone, Carlotta; Principi, Nicola
In order to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in patients with β-thalassemia major, 31 subjects (19 males; mean age 17.8±8.7 years) with β-thalassemia major and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Four weeks after vaccination, seroconversion rates were about 80% and seroprotection rates 100% in both groups. Three months after vaccination, most of the subjects remained seroconverted and the seroprotection rates were 93.5% among the patients and 100% among the controls. Safety and tolerability were also very good, with no differences between the groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beyer, W E P; Nauta, J J P; Palache, A M; Giezeman, K M; Osterhaus, A D M E
Several inactivated influenza vaccine formulations for systemic administration in man are currently available for annual (seasonal) immunization: split virus and subunit (either plain-aqueous, or virosomal, or adjuvanted by MF59). From a literature search covering the period 1978-2009, 33 articles could be identified, which described randomized clinical trials comparing at least two of the four vaccine formulations with respect to serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody response, local and systemic vaccine reactions and serious adverse events after vaccination, and employing seasonal vaccine components and doses. In total, 9121 vaccinees of all ages, either healthy or with underlying diseases, were involved. Most vaccinees were primed or had been vaccinated in previous years. For immunogenicity, homologous post-vaccination geometric mean HI titers (GMTs) were analyzed by a random effects model for continuous data. Unreported standard deviations (SD) were addressed by imputing assumed SD-values. Age and health state of the vaccinees appeared to have little influence on the outcome. The immunogenicity of split, aqueous and virosomal subunit formulations were similar, with geometric mean ratio values (GMR, quotient of paired GMT-values) varying around one (0.93-1.24). The MF59-adjuvanted subunit vaccine induced, on average, larger antibody titers than the non-adjuvanted vaccine formulations, but the absolute increase was small (GMR-values varying between 1.25 and 1.40). Vaccine reactions were analyzed using a random effects model for binary data. Local and systemic reactogenicity was similar among non-adjuvanted formulations. The adjuvanted subunit formulation was more frequently associated with local reactions than the non-adjuvanted formulations (rate ratio: 2.12, significant). Systemic reactions were similar among all vaccine formulations. The original articles emphasized the mild and transient character of the vaccine reactions and the absence of serious
Soltani, Jafar; Jamil Amjadi, Mohamad
We studied the safety of a trivalent inactivated surface antigen (split virion, inactivated) influenza vaccine, Begrivac® (Novartis Company), widely used in health care workers in Kurdistan. A longitudinal follow-up study was performed in Sanandaj city, west of Iran, recruiting 936 people. A questionnaire was completed for each participant, and all symptoms or abnormal physical findings were recorded. In part 1 of the study, the post-vaccination complaints were headache (5.3%), fever (7.9%), weakness (9.6%), chills (10.1%), sweating (10.5%), arthralgia (20.2%), and malaise (21.5%). Swelling of the injection site was seen in 267 (30.3%) participants, and pruritus of the injection site was seen in 290 (32.9%) participants. Redness and induration were also reported in 42.5% of the participants. Local reactions were mainly mild and lasted for 1-2 days. No systemic reactions were reported in the second part of the study. None of the participants experienced any inconvenience. We concluded that local adverse reactions after the trivalent inactivated split influenza vaccine, Begrivac®, in health care workers were far more common than expected. Continuous surveillance is needed to assess the potential risks and benefits of newly produced influenza vaccines.
Smetana, Jan; Chlibek, Roman; Shaw, Jana; Splino, Miroslav; Prymula, Roman
Seasonal influenza is a prevalent and serious annual illness resulting in widespread morbidity and economic disruption throughout the population; the elderly and immunocompromised are particularly vulnerable to serious sequelae and mortality. The changing demographics worldwide to an aging society have important implications for public health policy and pharmaceutical innovations. For instance, primary prevention via immunization is effective in reducing the burden of influenza illness among the elderly. However, the elderly may be insufficiently protected by vaccination due to the immunosenescence which accompanies aging. In addition, vaccine hesitancy among the younger populations increases the likelihood of circulating infectious diseases, and thus concomitant exposure. While it is clear that the development of more immunogenic vaccines is an imperative and worthy endeavor, clinical trials continue to demonstrate that the current influenza vaccine formulation remains highly effective in reducing morbidity and mortality when well matched to circulating strains.
Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans; Rivera, Luis; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani Kumar; Lattanzi, Maria; Kieninger, Dorothee; Cioppa, Giovanni Della
Mass immunization of children has the potential to decrease infection rates and prevent the transmission of influenza. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of different formulations of cell-derived MF59-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in children and adolescents. This was a randomized, single-blind, multicenter study with a total of 666 healthy subjects aged 6 months–17 y in one of 3 vaccination groups, each receiving formulations containing different amounts of influenza A/H1N1 antigen with or without MF59. A booster trivalent seasonal MF59 vaccine was administered one year after primary vaccinations. Antibody titers were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays obtained on days 1, 22, 43, 366, and 387 (3 weeks post booster). Safety was monitored throughout the study. One vaccination with 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 50% MF59 (3.75_halfMF59) or 7.5 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 100% MF59 (7.5_fullMF59) induced an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% of children in the 1–<3, 3–8, and 9–17 y cohorts; however, 2 vaccinations with nonadjuvanted 15 μg A/H1N1 antigen were needed to achieve this response in the 1–<3 and 3–8 y cohorts. Among children aged 6–11 months, 1 dose of 7.5_fullMF59 resulted in an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% while 2 doses of 3.75_halfMF59 were required to achieve this result. All vaccines were well tolerated. Our findings support the immunogenicity and safety of the 3.75_halfMF59 (2 doses for children <12 months) and 7.5_fullMF59 vaccine formulations for use in children and adolescents aged 6 months to 17 y The use of the 3.75_halfMF59 could have the benefit of antigen and adjuvant sparing, increasing the available vaccine doses allowing vaccination of more people. PMID:25621884
Pepin, Stephanie; Szymanski, Henryk; Rochín Kobashi, Ilya Angélica; Villagomez Martinez, Sandra; González Zamora, José Francisco; Brzostek, Jerzy; Huang, Li-Min; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chen, Po-Yen; Ahonen, Anitta; Forstén, Aino; Seppä, Ilkka; Quiroz, René Farfán; Korhonen, Tiina; Rivas, Enrique; Monfredo, Celine; Hutagalung, Yanee; Menezes, Josemund; Vesikari, Timo
ABSTRACT A quadrivalent, inactivated, split-virion influenza vaccine containing a strain from both B lineages (IIV4) has been developed, but its safety and immunogenicity in young children has not been described. This was a phase III, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multi-center study to examine the immunogenicity and safety of IIV4 in children 3–8 y of age (EudraCT no. 2011-005374-33). Participants were randomized 5:1:1 to receive the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere formulation of IIV4, an investigational trivalent comparator (IIV3) containing the B/Victoria lineage strain, or the licensed Northern Hemisphere IIV3 containing the B/Yamagata lineage strain. Participants who had not previously received a full influenza vaccination schedule received 2 doses of vaccine 28 d apart; all others received a single dose. 1242 children were included. For all 4 strains, IIV4 induced geometric mean haemagglutination inhibition titres non-inferior to those induced by the IIV3 comparators. For both B strains, geometric mean antibody titres induced by IIV4 were superior to those induced by the IIV3 with the alternative lineage strain. Similar proportions of participants vaccinated with IIV4 and IIV3 reported solicited injection-site reactions, solicited systemic reactions, and vaccine-related adverse events. A single vaccine-related serious adverse event, thrombocytopenia, was reported 9 d after vaccination with IIV4 and resolved without sequelae. In conclusion, in children aged 3–8 y who received one dose or 2 doses 28 d apart, IIV4 had an acceptable safety profile, was as immunogenic as IIV3 for the shared strains, and had superior immunogenicity for the additional B strain. PMID:27565435
Pepin, Stephanie; Szymanski, Henryk; Rochín Kobashi, Ilya Angélica; Villagomez Martinez, Sandra; González Zamora, José Francisco; Brzostek, Jerzy; Huang, Li-Min; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chen, Po-Yen; Ahonen, Anitta; Forstén, Aino; Seppä, Ilkka; Quiroz, René Farfán; Korhonen, Tiina; Rivas, Enrique; Monfredo, Celine; Hutagalung, Yanee; Menezes, Josemund; Vesikari, Timo
A quadrivalent, inactivated, split-virion influenza vaccine containing a strain from both B lineages (IIV4) has been developed, but its safety and immunogenicity in young children has not been described. This was a phase III, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multi-center study to examine the immunogenicity and safety of IIV4 in children 3-8 y of age (EudraCT no. 2011-005374-33). Participants were randomized 5:1:1 to receive the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere formulation of IIV4, an investigational trivalent comparator (IIV3) containing the B/Victoria lineage strain, or the licensed Northern Hemisphere IIV3 containing the B/Yamagata lineage strain. Participants who had not previously received a full influenza vaccination schedule received 2 doses of vaccine 28 d apart; all others received a single dose. 1242 children were included. For all 4 strains, IIV4 induced geometric mean haemagglutination inhibition titres non-inferior to those induced by the IIV3 comparators. For both B strains, geometric mean antibody titres induced by IIV4 were superior to those induced by the IIV3 with the alternative lineage strain. Similar proportions of participants vaccinated with IIV4 and IIV3 reported solicited injection-site reactions, solicited systemic reactions, and vaccine-related adverse events. A single vaccine-related serious adverse event, thrombocytopenia, was reported 9 d after vaccination with IIV4 and resolved without sequelae. In conclusion, in children aged 3-8 y who received one dose or 2 doses 28 d apart, IIV4 had an acceptable safety profile, was as immunogenic as IIV3 for the shared strains, and had superior immunogenicity for the additional B strain.
Boesteanu, Alina C.; Babu, Nadarajan S.; Wheatley, Margaret; Papazoglou, Elisabeth S.; Katsikis, Peter D.
Current influenza virus vaccines primarily elicit antibodies and can be rendered ineffective by antigenic drift and shift. Vaccines that elicit CD8+ T cell responses targeting less variable proteins may function as universal vaccines that have broad reactivity against different influenza virus strains. To generate such a universal vaccine, we encapsulated live influenza virus in a biopolymer and delivered it to mice subcutaneously. This vaccine was safe, induced potent CD8+ T cell immunity and protected mice against heterosubtypic lethal challenge. Safety of subcutaneous (SQ) vaccination was tested in Rag2−/−γc−/− double knockout mice which we show cannot control intranasal infection. Biopolymer encapsulation of live influenza virus could be used to develop universal CD8+ T cell vaccines against heterosubtypic and pandemic strains. PMID:21034826
Doty, Richard L; Berman, Austin H; Izhar, Mohammad; Hamilton, Hugh B; Villano, Danylko; Vazquez, Britney E; Warrum, Maja N; Mahbob, Mariam
Although influenza vaccines have saved millions of lives, some have been associated with extremely rare adverse effects such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, Bell's palsy, and optic neuritis. Despite the fact that olfactory loss after an influenza vaccination is noted in one case report, no quantitative olfactory testing was performed. Hence, it is unclear whether, in fact, olfactory dysfunction can be associated with such vaccinations. This study was designed to (1) identify patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center who attributed their empirically determined chemosensory disturbances to influenza vaccinations and (2) determine whether influenza vaccinations add to the degree of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction due to other causes. A retrospective analysis of self-reported etiologies of 4554 consecutive patients presenting to the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center with complaints of chemosensory dysfunction was performed. Those who reported dysfunction secondary to influenza vaccinations were identified. Additionally, in a subset of 925 patients for whom detailed inoculation histories were available, it was determined whether the number of lifetime inoculations added to the deficits due to other causes. Nine of the 4554 patients (0.19%) attributed olfactory disturbances to an influenza vaccination. None complained of taste dysfunction. All nine had abnormally low scores on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (p < 0.001), with three being anosmic and six microsmic. Seven had elevated phenyl ethyl alcohol detection thresholds (p < 0.05). Two cases exhibited mild-to-moderate loss of whole mouth taste function. Of the 925 patients, no association was evident between the number of lifetime vaccinations and the chemosensory test scores. In accord with previous studies, age and sex were significantly related to the test scores. A very small percentage of the 4554 patients evaluated (0.19%) attributed their
Shope, Richard E.
Either living or heat-killed H. influenzae suis vaccines, given intramuscularly to swine, elicit an immune response capable of modifying the course of a later swine influenza infection. The protection afforded is only partial and is in no way comparable to the complete immunity afforded by swine influenza virus vaccines. PMID:19870654
Winokur, Patricia L; Patel, Shital M; Brady, Rebecca; Chen, Wilbur H; El-Kamary, Samer S; Edwards, Kathryn; Creech, C Buddy; Frey, Sharon; Keitel, Wendy A; Belshe, Robert; Walter, Emmanuel; Bellamy, Abbie; Hill, Heather
Influenza A(H5N1) vaccination strategies that improve the speed of the immunological response and cross-clade protection are desired. We compared the immunogenicity of a single 15-μg or 90-μg dose of A/H5N1/Indonesia/05/05 (clade 2) vaccine in adults who were previously primed with A/H5N1/Vietnam/1203/2004 (clade 1) vaccine. High-dose vaccine resulted in significantly higher titers to both clade 1 and 2 antigens. Clade 2 titers were unaffected by the previous dose of clade 1 vaccine. Low-dose priming with a mismatched pandemic influenza A(H5N1) vaccine would improve the rapidity, magnitude, and cross-reactivity of the immunological response following a single high-dose, unadjuvanted, pandemic vaccine.
Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark
Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278
Valdespino-Gomez, Jose Luis; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes; de León-Rosales, Samuel Ponce
The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported, as of September 2009, that the influenza A (H1N1) influenza pandemic has originated >300,000 laboratory-confirmed cases and 3917 deaths in 191 countries. It is recognized that pandemic vaccines have their greatest impact as a preventive strategy when administered before or near the peak incidence of cases in an outbreak. Therefore, vaccination campaigns should be in place when influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccines are available. We undertook this study to provide updated information on clinical evaluation of influenza A (H1N1) vaccines and review recommendations for influenza A (H1N1) vaccination campaigns and public health policy. The following methods were used: 1) review of registry at ClinicalTrials.gov. 2) search of PubMed Central (PMC) for influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. 3) review of recommendations of WHO, Mexican Health Secretariat (SSA) and Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on influenza A (H1N1) vaccination campaigns. Until October 1, 2009 there were 11 available influenza A (H1N1) candidate strains provided by WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network. ClinicalTrials.gov registers 45 phase I and II clinical trials evaluating immunogenicity and safety of influenza A (H1N1) vaccines. Preliminary results support administration of a single dose and use of adjuvants. Main recommendations of WHO, SSA and ACIP include epidemiologic considerations, objectives, definition of target groups and reinforcement of other mitigation measures. The present pandemic of influenza A (H1N1) has shown mild to moderate severity. Vaccination strategies in Mexico will have the objective of decreasing severe outcomes, slowing transmission, protecting groups at increased risk of infection, complications, or death, and preventing overload of health services. Control of the pandemic should include reinforcement of other non-pharmacologic measures of mitigation and, importantly, an adequate strategy of social communication.
Carmona Martinez, Alfonso; Salamanca de la Cueva, Ignacio; Boutet, Philippe; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Smolenov, Igor; Devaster, Jeanne-Marie
Background: There is a need for better vaccines and vaccine strategies to reduce the burden of influenza in very young children. Methods: This phase 1, open-label study assessed the reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity of an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) containing low doses of hemagglutinin antigen (7.5 µg each strain), adjuvanted with a tocopherol-based oil-in-water emulsion Adjuvant System (AS03). Influenza vaccine-naïve children aged 6–35 months were sequentially enrolled to receive TIV-AS03D (1.48 mg tocopherol) or TIV-AS03C (2.97 mg tocopherol), then a 6-month booster of conventional TIV. The primary endpoint was the incidence of fever (axillary temperature >38 °C) for 7 days post-vaccination. Immune responses were assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. Results: Forty children were sequentially enrolled into the TIV-AS03D or the TIV-AS03C group. Fever >38.0 °C was reported in 5/20 (25.0%) and 7/20 (35.0%) children after the first and second doses of TIV-AS03D, respectively, and in 7/20 (35.0%) children after 1 dose of TIV-AS03C; the latter fulfilled the holding rule for safety, and the second dose of TIV-AS03C was cancelled. HI immune responses exceeded adult European licensure criteria for the immunogenicity, and all children had HI antibody titers ≥ 1:40 after 1 dose of TIV booster against booster strains. Conclusions: One dose of primary vaccine containing a low dose of antigen and AS03 may be a possible influenza vaccination strategy for young children. The relatively high frequency of fever warrants further investigation, although the generalizability of the findings are uncertain given that many of the children had antibody evidence suggesting recent infection with A(H1N1)pdm09. PMID:25424805
Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Kim, Nam Hee; Chang, Sung Hee; Lee, Jina; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Su Eun; Eun, Byung Wook; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Hoan Jong
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all countries adopt Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine into routine child immunization programs to protect children from the significant burden of life-threatening pneumonia and meningitis. In this blind, comparative, randomized, phase-III Korean multicenter study, we assessed immunogenicity and safety following primary vaccination of a new H. influenzae type b tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, LBVH0101 (LG Life Sciences, Ltd., Seoul, Korea) compared with Hiberix™ (GSK, Rixensart, Belgium) in Korean children at 2, 4 and 6 months of age followed by a booster vaccination at 12-15 months. Serum anti-PRP IgG concentration and bactericidal activity were determined. Local/systemic symptoms were assessed after vaccination. Serious adverse events were recorded throughout the study. A total of 185 infants were included in immunogenicity evaluations. After the second and third doses of LBVH0101, 90.32% and 100% of infants achieved an antibody level ≥1 μg/mL, respectively, compared with 78.26% and 96.74% of those who received Hiberix™. After the second vaccination, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of LBVH0101 recipients was 7.34 μg/mL and was higher than that of Hiberix™ recipients (3.55 μg/mL). After the third vaccination, the GMCs were 14.59 μg/mL and 12.15 μg/mL in the LBVH0101 and Hiberix™ recipients, respectively. The booster dose produced higher antibody concentrations: 30.25 μg/mL and 71.64 μg/mL for LBVH0101 and Hiberix™ recipients, respectively. Bactericidal capacity and antibody potency of anti-PRP IgG induced by LBVH0101 was 35.05 and 116.27 after the second and third vaccinations, respectively, compared with 53.76 and 79.64 for Hiberix™. Anti-PRP IgG seroprotection rate and GMC were similar post-primary immunization between the groups; both showed functional maturation and similar booster responses. LBVH0101 had comparable safety results as the control vaccine, Hiberix™, as
Moro, Maria Luisa; Nobilio, Lucia; Voci, Claudio; Di Mario, Simona; Candela, Silvia; Magrini, Nicola
A two phases post authorization safety and effectiveness study of individuals vaccinated with the MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine, Focetria (Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics, Siena, Italy), was conducted in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. The second phase study aim was to detect short- and long-term adverse events of special interest (AESIs) following vaccination, and to measure vaccine effectiveness in term of hospital admissions. A population-based cohort study using record linkage of automated healthcare databases is described. Focetria was administered to 127,522 subjects between October 2009 and February 2010. Vaccinated subjects were generally less healthy than unvaccinated ones. Propensity to be vaccinated was calculated for each subject, and vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects were matched accordingly (103,642 subjects in each group). AESIs were validated against clinical records. In the overall (pre-matching) cohort, a total of 504 short-term incident AESIs (28 in 127,522 vaccinated and 476 in 3,967,917 unvaccinated subjects) were registered (unadjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7). No fatalities were recorded. In the matched cohort, a total of 26 short-term incident AESIs (11 in the vaccinated and 15 in the unvaccinated group) were registered, with no differences between groups (OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.3, 1.6). Most frequent short-term incident AESIs were convulsions (4 out of 11), and demyelinating diseases (3 out of 11). In the long-term a total of 121 incident AESIs (60 in the vaccinated and 61 in the unvaccinated group) were registered, with no differences between groups (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.4). Most common long-term incident AESIs were demyelinating diseases (21 out of 60), and vasculitis (13 out of 60). Vaccine effectiveness was not assessed as the majority of subjects were vaccinated at the end of the pandemic peak and few cases (<0.1%) had laboratory confirmation. This population-based cohort study
Moore, Brenda S
Influenza vaccine is essential to preventing influenza among health care workers and their patients. Therefore, the staff of the employee health clinic worked diligently to provide an opportunity for all employees to receive influenza vaccinations. Despite these efforts, a significant percentage of employees declined the vaccine. During the 2007-2008 influenza season, employees were instructed to either receive the influenza vaccine or decline in writing. The vaccination rate for all staff members and direct caregivers, during the 2007-2008 vaccination season, was 52%, with 35% declining and 13% not participating. In response to the 35% declining, data were analyzed to develop an effective educational tool focused on reasons for declination. This article presents an overview of the study, the reasons employees declined influenza vaccine, and strategies for improving vaccination rates. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Cox, Rebecca Jane; Haaheim, Lars Reinhardt
Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen, which exerts a huge human and economic toll on society. Influenza is a vaccine preventable disease, however, the vaccine strains must be annually updated due to the continuous antigenic changes in the virus. Inactivated influenza vaccines have been used for over 50 years and have an excellent safety record. Annual vaccination is therefore recommended for all individuals with serious medical conditions, like COPD, and protects the vaccinee against influenza illness and also against hospitalization and death. In COPD patients, influenza infection can lead to exacerbations resulting in reduced quality of life, hospitalization and death in the most severe cases. Although there is only limited literature on the use of influenza vaccination solely in COPD patients, there is clearly enough evidence to recommend annual vaccination in this group. This review will focus on influenza virus and prophylaxis with inactivated influenza vaccines in COPD patients and other "at risk" groups to reduce morbidity, save lives, and reduce health care costs.
submitting a licence application in Europe, a $US27.5 million payment for approval of a refrigerator-stable liquid formulation of FluMist and as much as $US50 million for licensing of FluMist internationally. In July 2003 MedImmune announced that it had received approximately $US28 million in milestone payments during Q2 of 2003 for the approval of FluMist. CSL Ltd of Australia will collaborate on the development, sale and distribution of MedImmune Vaccine's vaccine in Australia, New Zealand and certain countries in the South Pacific. MedImmune is to acquire vaccine research programmes in respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus from MedImmune Vaccines. The company's primary interest is in FluMist. In May 2002, MedImmune licensed exclusive rights to Crucell's proprietary human cell line PER.C6 for use in its influenza vaccine programmes. On 11 March 2002, American Home Products changed its name and the names of its subsidiaries Wyeth-Ayerst and Wyeth-Lederle to Wyeth. Wyeth's vaccines division is called Wyeth Vaccines. On 29 September 2000, Aviron announced that it had been awarded a $US2.7 million Challenge Grant from NIAID for development of vaccines against pandemic strains of influenza based on FluMist intranasal technology. The cold-adapted live influenza vaccine has been widely evaluated in the US and Japan since 1975 in clinical trials involving several thousand people. Aviron completed phase II clinical trials in adults in the US and phase III trials in US children aged 15-71 months. Additional phase III trials in adults and the elderly are ongoing. Aviron also commenced phase III trials to test the safety of its intranasal live vaccine in children with moderate to severe asthma. The vaccine is delivered using the AccuSpray nasal delivery system by Becton Dickinson, which will supply the system for FluMist through the 2001-2002 influenza season under an agreement with Aviron made in August 1998. On 7 March 2000, Aviron announced that Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines
Ahluwalia, Indu B; Singleton, James A; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Harrison, Leslie
Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have recommended that pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, regardless of pregnancy trimester, because of their increased risk for severe complications from influenza. However, the uptake of the influenza vaccine by pregnant women has been low. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, pregnant women were identified as a priority population to receive the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (2009 H1N1) monovalent vaccine in addition to the seasonal influenza vaccine. In this issue, we highlight information from the 10 states that collected data using the survey administered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) about seasonal vaccine coverage among women with recent live births and reasons for those who chose not to get vaccinated. The combined estimates from PRAMS of influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009-2010 season, which included data from October 2009 to March 2010, from 10 states were 50.7% for seasonal and 46.6% for 2009 H1N1 vaccine among women with recent live births. Among women who did not get vaccinated, reasons varied from worries about the safety of the vaccines for self and baby to not normally getting the vaccination. Further evaluation is needed on ways to increase influenza vaccination among pregnant women, effectively communicate the risk of influenza illness during pregnancy, and address women's concerns about influenza vaccination safety during pregnancy.
Gendon, Iu Z; Vasiliev, Iu M
Scientific data is presented and problems of influenza prophylaxis in various age groups are discussed. Influenza prophylaxis in neonates is possible by inducing maternal antibodies, this dictates the necessity of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Problems of influenza prophylaxis are most pressing in the group of children from 6 months to 2 years of age. More effective vaccines that do not cause adverse reactions are necessary for the children of this age group. Influenza prophylaxis in healthy working adults is most important for reducing economical impact during influenza epidemics. Influenza prophylaxis in the elderly is reasonable by using novel and more effective vaccines with adjuvants. The optimal method for influenza prophylaxis in the population in general is mass vaccination of children (80%), when, besides the induction of protection in children, influenza morbidity may decrease up to 80% in the other age groups of unvaccinated population.
de Vries, R D; Altenburg, A F; Rimmelzwaan, G F
The extensive antigenic drift displayed by seasonal influenza viruses and the risk of pandemics caused by newly emerging antigenically distinct influenza A viruses of novel subtypes has raised considerable interest in the development of so-called universal influenza vaccines. We review options for the development of universal flu vaccines and discuss progress that has been made recently.
Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun
Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8(+) T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides 'self-adjuvanting' activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches.
Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun
Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8+ T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides ‘self-adjuvanting’ activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches. PMID:25876176
Scaglione, F; Cattaneo, G; Alessandria, M; Cogo, R
The aim of the study was to determine the properties of a standardized extract of ginseng root in inducing a higher immune response in vaccination against influenza. Attention was also paid to the common cold in this multicentre, two-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind investigation. A total of 227 volunteers who visited 3 private practices in Milan received daily oral capsule doses of either placebo (113) or 100 mg of standardized ginseng extract Ginsana G 115 (114) for a period of 12 weeks within which they received an anti-influenza polyvalent vaccination at week 4. As a result, while the frequency of influenza or common cold between weeks 4 and 12 was 42 cases in the placebo group, it was only 15 cases in the G115 group, the difference being statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). Whereas antibody titres by week 8 rose to an average of 171 units in the placebo group, they rose to an average of 272 units in the G115 group (p < 0.0001). Natural killer (NK) activity levels at weeks 8 and 12 were nearly twice as high in the G115 group as compared to the placebo group (p < 0.0001). In all the volunteers, laboratory values of 24 safety parameters showed no significant differences between the end and the beginning of the 12-week study in either of the groups. There were only 9 adverse events in the study, the principal one being insomnia.
... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...
Mosterín Höpping, Ana; Fonville, Judith M.; Russell, Colin A.; James, Sarah; Smith, Derek J.
Epidemics of seasonal influenza viruses cause considerable morbidity and mortality each year. Various types and subtypes of influenza circulate in humans and evolve continuously such that individuals at risk of serious complications need to be vaccinated annually to keep protection up to date with circulating viruses. The influenza vaccine in most parts of the world is a trivalent vaccine, including an antigenically representative virus of recently circulating influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and influenza B viruses. However, since the 1970s influenza B has split into two antigenically distinct lineages, only one of which is represented in the annual trivalent vaccine at any time. We describe a lineage selection strategy that optimizes protection against influenza B using the standard trivalent vaccine as a potentially cost effective alternative to quadrivalent vaccines. PMID:26896685
Mosterín Höpping, Ana; Fonville, Judith M; Russell, Colin A; James, Sarah; Smith, Derek J
Epidemics of seasonal influenza viruses cause considerable morbidity and mortality each year. Various types and subtypes of influenza circulate in humans and evolve continuously such that individuals at risk of serious complications need to be vaccinated annually to keep protection up to date with circulating viruses. The influenza vaccine in most parts of the world is a trivalent vaccine, including an antigenically representative virus of recently circulating influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and influenza B viruses. However, since the 1970s influenza B has split into two antigenically distinct lineages, only one of which is represented in the annual trivalent vaccine at any time. We describe a lineage selection strategy that optimizes protection against influenza B using the standard trivalent vaccine as a potentially cost effective alternative to quadrivalent vaccines.
McEvoy, Suzanne P
In Australia, annual vaccination with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) is recommended for healthcare providers. Each year, an influenza vaccination program is run in south metropolitan area hospitals in Perth, Western Australia. In 2010, a survey to examine side effects following vaccination and subsequent significant respiratory illnesses during the influenza season was undertaken. A total of 2245 individuals vaccinated in the area-wide hospital vaccination program responded, representing 50% of consenting recipients. Data linkage was performed to ascertain additional information such as brand details. Side effects within 48 h of receipt of the influenza vaccine were reported by 387 (17.2%). Only 30 respondents (1.3%) had to seek health advice following a side effect temporally related to influenza vaccination and 10 (0.4%) required treatment. Recipients who received Fluvax®(364, 18.0%; CSL Biotherapies) were more likely to report side effects than those who received another brand (23, 10.2%; OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.24-3.03, P=0.004). The difference in the side effect profiles was largely confined to systemic effects. Most respondents (1621, 72.2%) did not require time off work for a respiratory illness during the subsequent influenza season. Overall, the influenza vaccine was demonstrated to be safe among this large sample of predominantly healthcare workers. A higher rate of adverse events, albeit primarily mild, was reported among recipients of Fluvax® in 2010.
Limited production capacity and delays in vaccine development are major obstacles to vaccination programs that are designed to mitigate a pandemic influenza. In order to evaluate and compare the impact of various vaccination strategies during a pandemic influenza, we developed an age/risk-structured model of influenza transmission, and parameterized it with epidemiological data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza A pandemic. Our model predicts that the impact of vaccination would be considerably diminished by delays in vaccination and staggered vaccine supply. Nonetheless, prioritizing limited H1N1 vaccine to individuals with a high risk of complications, followed by school-age children, and then preschool-age children, would minimize an over-all attack rate as well as hospitalizations and deaths. This vaccination scheme would maximize the benefits of vaccination by protecting the high-risk people directly, and generating indirect protection by vaccinating children who are most likely to transmit the disease. PMID:21361402
The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.
Mulligan, Mark J.; Bernstein, David I.; Frey, Sharon; Winokur, Patricia; Rouphael, Nadine; Dickey, Michelle; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Spearman, Paul; Anderson, Edwin; Graham, Irene; Noah, Diana L.; Mangal, Brian; Kim, Sonnie; Hill, Heather; Whitaker, Jenifer; Emery, William; Beck, Allison; Stephens, Kathy; Hartwell, Brooke; Ogilvie, Melinda; Rimann, Nayoka; Osinski, Eileen; Destefano, Ellen; Gajadhar, Theda; Strudwick, Amanda; Pierce, Karen; Lai, Lilin; Yue, Ling; Wang, Dongli; Ying, Carl; Cline, Amy; Foltz, Tara; Wagner, Nancy; Dull, Geraldine; Pacatte, Thomas; Taggart, Barbara; Johnson, Valerie; Haller, Logan; Looney, Candi; Li, Shixiong; May, Megan; Myers, Bridgette; May, Rachel; Parker, Lawanda; Cochran, Nertaissa; Bowen, Donna; Bell, Michelle; Scoggins, Jeffery; Burns, Angela; Stablein, Claire; Wolff, Mark; Jolles, Bernadette; Leung, Brenda; Lambert, Linda; Shorer, Shy; Buchanan, Wendy; Murray, Suzanne; Chang, Soju; Gorman, Richard
Background Avian influenza A/H5N1 has threatened human health for nearly 2 decades. Avian influenza A vaccine without adjuvant is poorly immunogenic. A flexible rapid tactic for mass vaccination will be needed if a pandemic occurs. Methods A multicenter, randomized, blinded phase 1 clinical trial evaluated safety and antibody responses after point-of-use mixing of influenza A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) vaccine with MF59 adjuvant. Field-site pharmacies mixed 3.75, 7.5, or 15 mcg of antigen with or without MF59 adjuvant just prior to intramuscular administration on days 0 and 21 of healthy adults aged 18–49 years. Results Two hundred and seventy subjects were enrolled. After vaccination, titers of hemagglutination inhibition antibody ≥1:40 were achieved in 80% of subjects receiving 3.75 mcg + MF59 vs only 14% receiving 15 mcg without adjuvant (P < .0001). Peak hemagglutination inhibition antibody geometric mean titers for vaccine + MF59 were ∼65 regardless of antigen dose, and neutralizing titers were 2- to 3-fold higher. Vaccine + MF59 produced cross-reactive antibody responses against 4 heterologous H5N1 viruses. Excellent safety and tolerability were demonstrated. Conclusions Point-of-use mixing of H5N1 antigen and MF59 adjuvant achieved target antibody titers in a high percentage of subjects and was safe. The feasibility of the point-of-use mixing should be studied further. PMID:25734170
Influenza is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality each year in the United States. From 1976 to 2007, annual deaths from influenza ranged from approximately 3,300 to 49,000. Vaccination against influenza has been recommended to prevent illness and related complications, and since 2010, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that all persons aged ≥6 months be vaccinated against influenza each year. In 2013, CDC published a model to quantify the annual number of influenza-associated illnesses and hospitalizations averted by influenza vaccination during the 2006-11 influenza seasons. Using that model with 2012-13 influenza season vaccination coverage rates, influenza vaccine effectiveness, and influenza hospitalization rates, CDC estimated that vaccination resulted in 79,000 (17%) fewer hospitalizations during the 2012-13 influenza season than otherwise might have occurred. Based on estimates of the percentage of influenza illnesses that involve hospitalization or medical attention, vaccination also prevented approximately 6.6 million influenza illnesses and 3.2 million medically attended illnesses. Influenza vaccination during the 2012-13 season produced a substantial reduction in influenza-associated illness. However, fewer than half of persons aged ≥6 months were vaccinated. Higher vaccination rates would have resulted in prevention of a substantial number of additional cases and hospitalizations.
... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) EspaÃ±ol ...
Altay, Fatma Aybala; Güz, Galip; Altay, Mustafa
abstract A peritoneal dialysis patient who experienced a repeating attack after a vaccination for influenza while she was being followed and treated succesfully for subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is presented. This case shows SAT as a rare condition following vaccination.. Thus, SAT should be considered as a possible outcome following influenza vaccination and flu-like syndrome. PMID:26809709
Goodman, Kenneth; Mossad, Sherif B; Taksler, Glen B; Emery, Jonathan; Schramm, Sarah; Rothberg, Michael B
Despite influenza vaccination being an integral part of prenatal care, vaccination rates remain low. To evaluate the impact of pre-visit video education on patients' vaccination health beliefs and vaccination rate. From November 2013-January 2014 unvaccinated patients seen for routine prenatal carewere randomized into 2 study groups: pre-visit vaccination video education or control. Pre- and post-video health beliefs were assessed on a 5-point scale, and unvaccinated participants were subsequently interviewed by phone. In 105 randomized participants, intervention positively influenced health beliefs, as demonstrated by differences in mean pre- versus post-video scores for intervention versus control: vaccination may harm mother (difference = -0.05, p = 0.009) and baby (difference = -0.44, p = 0.015), and vaccination can protect mother (difference = 0.49, p = 0.003) and baby (difference = 0.59, p = 0.001). Vaccination rates were 28% intervention and 25% control (p = 0.70). Provider recommendation was associated with vaccination (47% if recommended vs. 12% if not, p < 0.001). Phone interviews revealed susceptibility, to influenza and vaccine safety as primary reasons for remaining unvaccinated. Video education positively influenced vaccination health beliefs without impacting vaccination rates. Physician's recommendation was strongly associated with participant's decision to become vaccinated and may be most effective when emphasizing influenza vaccination's protective impact on the newborn,.
Data mining for prospective early detection of safety signals in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS): a case study of febrile seizures after a 2010-2011 seasonal influenza virus vaccine.
Martin, David; Menschik, David; Bryant-Genevier, Marthe; Ball, Robert
Reports of data mining results as an initial indication of a prospectively detected safety signal in the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) have been limited. In April 2010 a vaccine safety signal for febrile seizures after Fluvax(®) and Fluvax(®) Junior was identified in Australia without the aid of data mining. In order to refine Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine safety surveillance, VAERS data mining analyses based on vaccine brand name were initiated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We describe the strategies that led to the finding of a novel safety signal using empirical Bayesian data mining. The primary US VAERS analysis calculated an empirical Bayesian geometric mean (EBGM), which was adjusted for age group, sex and year received. A secondary age-stratified analysis calculated a separate EBGM for 11 pre-defined age subsets. These bi-weekly analyses were generated with database restrictions that separated live and inactivated vaccines as well as with the US VAERS database. A cutoff of 2.0 at the fifth percentile of the confidence interval (CI) for the EBGM, the EB05, was used to identify vaccine adverse event combinations for further evaluation. Examination of potential interactions among concomitantly administered vaccines is based on the Interaction Signal Score (INTSS), which is a relative measure of how much excess disproportionality is present in the three-dimensional combination of two vaccines and one adverse event term. An INTSS >1 indicates that the CI for the three-dimensional analysis is larger than and does not overlap with the CI from the highest two-dimensional analysis. We subsequently examined the possibility of masking by removing all 2,095 Fluzone(®) 2010-2011 reports from the 10 December 2010 version of the VAERS database. In addition, we calculated relative reporting ratios to observe the relative contribution of adjustment and the Multi-Item Gamma Poisson Shrinker (MGPS) algorithm to EBGM values. On 10
Heikkinen, Terho; Tsolia, Maria; Finn, Adam
Despite ample evidence for the great burden that annual influenza epidemics place on children and society in general, few European countries currently recommend influenza vaccination of healthy children of any age. The most frequently cited reasons for reluctance to extend general vaccine recommendations to children include the view that influenza is a mild illness of limited clinical importance, lack of country-specific data on disease burden, uncertainty about the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccines in children and inadequate evidence of cost-effectiveness of vaccinating children. In recent years, several clinical studies have provided new and important information that help address many of these areas of question and concern. In light of this newly available scientific evidence, influenza vaccine recommendations for children should be properly reevaluated in all European countries. Furthermore, to allow for variation in costs and patterns of healthcare delivery between different countries, cost-effectiveness analyses of influenza vaccination of healthy children should be performed in each country or region. Finally, increased efforts should be made to educate both healthcare professionals and the great public about recent findings and advances in the field of pediatric influenza.
The influenza pandemic of 2009 demonstrated the inability of the established global capacity for egg-based vaccine production technology to provide sufficient vaccine for the population in a timely fashion. Several alternative technologies for developing influenza vaccines have been proposed, among which non-replicating virus-like particles (VLPs) represent an attractive option because of their safety and immunogenic characteristics. VLP vaccines against pandemic influenza have been developed in tobacco plant cells and in Sf9 insect cells infected with baculovirus that expresses protein genes from pandemic influenza strains. These technologies allow rapid and large-scale production of vaccines (3-12 weeks). The 2009 influenza outbreak provided an opportunity for clinical testing of a pandemic influenza VLP vaccine in the midst of the outbreak at its epicenter in Mexico. An influenza A(H1N1)2009 VLP pandemic vaccine (produced in insect cells) was tested in a phase II clinical trial involving 4,563 healthy adults. Results showed that the vaccine is safe and immunogenic despite high preexisting anti-A(H1N1)2009 antibody titers present in the population. The safety and immunogenicity profile presented by this pandemic VLP vaccine during the outbreak in Mexico suggests that VLP technology is a suitable alternative to current influenza vaccine technologies for producing pandemic and seasonal vaccines.
Findlay, P.; Gibbons, Y; Primrose, W; Ellis, G; Downie, G
The efficacy of the influenza vaccine in reducing mortality and hospital admissions is established, particularly in the elderly. However, up to 50% of those at risk do not receive the vaccine. These patients are also at risk from pneumococcal infection and there is considerable overlap between the target group for each vaccine. This study sought to identify at risk individuals from consecutive admissions to an acute geriatric unit and to gain an insight into their perceptions with regard to vaccination. The awareness of each vaccine was recorded, together with the vaccination history. Seventy four per cent of the final cohort had heard of the influenza vaccine, while only 13% had heard of the pneumococcal vaccine. Fifty per cent perceived themselves to be at risk from influenza and its complications and 87% of the cohort believed it to be a serious infection. Influenza vaccine was judged to confer good protection by 72% of the sample and yet up to 50% believed that the vaccine can make the recipient ill. Influenza is perceived as a serious infection by patients and yet many do not believe themselves to be at particular risk. Although influenza vaccination is believed to confer protection, the decision whether, or not, to accept the vaccine is coloured by many factors, including popular myths and anecdotal information from friends and relatives. The uptake of influenza vaccine is suboptimal and the awareness of the pneumococcal vaccine certainly in the elderly is poor. The need for a comprehensive nationwide education campaign promoting both influenza and pneumococcal vaccine is highlighted. Keywords: influenza vaccine; pneumococcal vaccine PMID:10727564
Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…
Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…
Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E
Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control.
Shi, Nianmin; Luo, Feng-Ji; Li, Li; Zheng, Dongyi; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Zhao-Yun; Yang, Liqing; Liu, Zhaoqiu; Ai, Xing; Bai, Yunhua; Lu, Qiang
To compare the safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine administered via the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscles, 320 healthy Chinese infants <12 mo of age were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded study and divided into 2 age groups: 2–5 mo and 6–12 mo. Each age group was then randomized (1:1) to either the vastus lateralis (experimental) group who received Hib vaccination into this muscle 2 or 3 times at monthly intervals, or the deltoid (control) group who received Hib vaccination into this muscle either 3 times (2–5 mo group) or twice (6–12 mo group) at monthly intervals. Local and systemic adverse reactions after each vaccine dose were recorded, and Hib-PRP antibody concentrations were determined by ELISA at 28 d after completion of the immunization schedule. There were no significant differences in the proportions of subjects with post-immunization Hib-PRP antibody concentrations ≥1.0 μg/mL or ≥0.15 μg/mL with the two injection sites for either age group, or in the post-immunization Hib-PRP antibody concentrations achieved (P > 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the rates of local and systemic reactions after the first and second vaccinations between the 2 injection sites for either age group (P > 0.05), but the rate of systemic reactions in the 2–5 mo group after the third vaccination via the vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower than after deltoid vaccination (0% vs 8.57%; P < 0.05). Thus, administration via the vastus lateralis muscle is worth considering for Hib vaccination. PMID:23842003
Wooten, Karen G; Wortley, Pascale M; Singleton, James A; Euler, Gary L
Knowledge and beliefs about influenza vaccine that differ across racial or ethnic groups may promote racial or ethnic disparities in vaccination. To identify associations between vaccination behavior and personal beliefs about influenza vaccine by race or ethnicity and education levels among the U.S. elderly population. Data from a national telephone survey conducted in 2004 were used for this study. Responses for 3875 adults ≥ 65 years of age were analyzed using logistic regression methods. Racial and ethnic differences in beliefs were observed. For example, whites were more likely to believe influenza vaccine is very effective in preventing influenza compared to blacks and Hispanics (whites, 60%; blacks, 47%, and Hispanics, 51%, p<0.01). Among adults who believed the vaccine is very effective, self-reported vaccination was substantially higher across all racial/ethnic groups (whites, 93%; blacks, 76%; Hispanics, 78%) compared to adults who believed the vaccine was only somewhat effective (whites 67%; blacks 61%, Hispanics 61%). Also, vaccination coverage differed by education level and personal beliefs of whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Knowledge and beliefs about influenza vaccine may be important determinants of influenza vaccination among racial/ethnic groups. Strategies to increase coverage should highlight the burden of influenza disease in racial and ethnic populations, the benefits and safety of vaccinations and personal vulnerability to influenza disease if not vaccinated. For greater effectiveness, factors associated with the education levels of some communities may need to be considered when developing or implementing new strategies that target specific racial or ethnic groups. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Goodman, Kenneth; Mossad, Sherif B.; Taksler, Glen B.; Emery, Jonathan; Schramm, Sarah; Rothberg, Michael B.
Objective Despite influenza vaccination being an integral part of prenatal care, vaccination rates remain low. We evaluated the impact of pre-visit video education on patients' vaccination health beliefs and vaccination rate. Study design From November 2013-January 2014, unvaccinated patients seen for routine prenatal care were randomized to pre-visit vaccination video education or control. Pre and post video health beliefs were assessed on a 5-point scale and unvaccinated participants were subsequently interviewed by phone. Results In 105 randomized participants, intervention positively influenced health beliefs as demonstrated by differences in mean pre- vs. post scores for intervention vs. control: vaccination may harm mother (difference =-0.05, p=0.009) and baby (difference=-0.44, p=0.015), and vaccination can protect mother (difference=0.49, p=0.003) and baby (difference=0.59, p=0.001). Vaccination rates were 28% intervention and 25% control (p=0.70). Provider recommendation was associated with vaccination (47% if recommended vs.12% if not, p<.001). Phone interviews revealed susceptibility to influenza and vaccine safety as primary reasons for remaining unvaccinated Conclusions Video education positively influenced vaccination health beliefs without impacting vaccination rates. Physician's recommendation was strongly associated with participant's decision to become and may be most effective when emphasizing influenza vaccination's protective impact on the newborn. PMID:26775454
Pregliasco, F.; Sodano, L.; Mensi, C.; Selvaggi, M. T.; Adamo, B.; D'Argenio, P.; Giussani, F.; Simonetti, A.; Carosella, M. R.; Simeone, R.; Dentizi, C.; Montanaro, C.; Ponzio, G.
This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners. PMID:10083710
Macias, Alejandro E; Precioso, Alexander R; Falsey, Ann R
There is a heavy disease burden due to seasonal influenza in pregnant women, their fetuses, and their newborns. The main aim of this study was to review and analyze current evidence on safety, immunogenicity, and clinical benefits of the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in pregnant women. Current evidence shows that in pregnant women, the seasonal and pandemic IIVs are safe and well tolerated. After vaccination, pregnant women have protective concentrations of anti-influenza antibodies, conferring immunogenicity in newborns. The best evidence, to date, suggests that influenza vaccination confers clinical benefits in both pregnant women and their newborns. Vaccination with either the seasonal or pandemic vaccine has been shown to be cost-effective in pregnancy. There are scarce data from randomized clinical trials; fortunately, new phase 3 clinical trials are under way. In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, data suggest that the greatest clinical benefit for infants occurs if the IIV is administered within the first weeks of availability of the vaccine, at the beginning of the influenza season, regardless of the pregnancy trimester. The optimal timing to vaccinate pregnant women who live in tropical regions is unclear. Based on evaluation of the evidence, the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) recommends that to prevent seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality in infants and their mothers, all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, should be vaccinated with the IIV. For countries where vaccination against influenza is starting or expanding, the GII recommends that pregnant women have the highest priority. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
de Vries, Rory D; Altenburg, Arwen F; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F
Currently used influenza vaccines are only effective when the vaccine strains match the epidemic strains antigenically. To this end, seasonal influenza vaccines must be updated almost annually. Furthermore, seasonal influenza vaccines fail to afford protection against antigenically distinct pandemic influenza viruses. Because of an ever-present threat of the next influenza pandemic and the continuous emergence of drift variants of seasonal influenza A viruses, there is a need for an universal influenza vaccine that induces protective immunity against all influenza A viruses. Here, we summarize some of the efforts that are ongoing to develop universal influenza vaccines.
Alvarez, I; Corral, J; Arranz, A; Foruria, A; Landa, V; Lejarza, J R; Marijuán, L; Martínez, J M
The present study investigated the level of immunity of the population against three strains of the influenza virus (A Chile/1/83 -A Philippines/2/82 and B URSS/100/83) before and three months after vaccination, and the immune response to whole virus vaccine as compared with fragmented virus vaccine. A high percentage of the population had titers greater than or equal to 1/10 before vaccination for the Chile (54%) and Philippines (65.7%) strains, while titers against the URSS strain were lower (25.4%). There was a definitive increase in antibody titer in the vaccinated population, although it was lower than expected. The overall response to both vaccines, with protecting titers greater than or equal to 1/40 after vaccination was 65.2% for the Chile strain, 74.6% for the Philippines strain, and 15% for the URSS strain. No differences in the overall immune response were found between the groups vaccinated with whole and fragmented virus.
Frenck, Robert W; Belshe, Robert; Brady, Rebecca C; Winokur, Patricia L; Campbell, James D; Treanor, John; Hay, Christine M; Dekker, Cornelia L; Walter, Emmanuel B; Cate, Thomas R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark; Leduc, Tom; Tornieporth, Nadia
The aim of the study was to determine whether reduced doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) administered by the intradermal (ID) route generated similar immune responses to standard TIV given intramuscularly (IM) with comparable safety profiles. Recent changes in immunization recommendations have increased the number of people for whom influenza vaccination is recommended. Thus, given this increased need and intermittent vaccine shortages, means to rapidly expand the vaccine supply are needed. Previously healthy subjects 18-64 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four TIV vaccine groups: standard 15 μg HA/strain TIV IM, either 9 μg or 6 μg HA/strain of TIV ID given using a new microinjection system (BD Soluvia™ Microinjection System), or 3 μg HA/strain of TIV ID given by Mantoux technique. All vaccines contained A/New Caledonia (H1N1), A/Wyoming (H3N2) and B/Jiangsu strains of influenza. Sera were obtained 21 days after vaccination and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays were performed and geometric mean titers (GMT) were compared among the groups. Participants were queried immediately following vaccination regarding injection pain and quality of the experience. Local and systemic reactions were collected for 7 days following vaccination and compared. Ten study sites enrolled 1592 subjects stratified by age; 18-49 years [N=814] and 50-64 years [N=778]. Among all subjects, for each of the three vaccine strains, the GMTs at 21 days post-vaccination for both the 9 μg and the 6 μg doses of each strain given ID were non inferior to GMTs generated after standard 15 μg doses/strain IM. However, for the 3 μg ID dose, only the A/Wyoming antigen produced a GMT that was non-inferior to the standard IM dose. Additionally, in the subgroup of subjects 50-64 years of age, the 6μg dose given ID induced GMTs that were inferior to the standard IM TIV for the A/H1N1 and B strains. No ID dose produced a GMT superior to that seen after standard
Costantino, Claudio; Mazzucco, Walter; Azzolini, Elena; Baldini, Cesare; Bergomi, Margherita; Biafiore, Alessio Daniele; Bianco, Manuela; Borsari, Lucia; Cacciari, Paolo; Cadeddu, Chiara; Camia, Paola; Carluccio, Eugenia; Conti, Andrea; De Waure, Chiara; Di Gregori, Valentina; Fabiani, Leila; Fallico, Roberto; Filisetti, Barbara; Flacco, Maria E; Franco, Elisabetta; Furnari, Roberto; Galis, Veronica; Gallea, Maria R; Gallone, Maria F; Gallone, Serena; Gelatti, Umberto; Gilardi, Francesco; Giuliani, Anna R; Grillo, Orazio C; Lanati, Niccolò; Mascaretti, Silvia; Mattei, Antonella; Micò, Rocco; Morciano, Laura; Nante, Nicola; Napoli, Giuseppe; Nobile, Carmelo; Palladino, Raffaele; Parisi, Salvatore; Passaro, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Rustico, Ennio; Saponari, Anita; Schioppa, Francesco S; Signorelli, Carlo; Siliquini, Roberta; Trabacchi, Valeria; Triassi, Maria; Varetta, Alessia; Ziglio, Andrea; Zoccali, Angela; Vitale, Francesco; Amodio, Emanuele
Although influenza vaccination is recognized to be safe and effective, recent studies have confirmed that immunization coverage among health care workers remain generally low, especially among medical residents (MRs). Aim of the present multicenter study was to investigate attitudes and determinants associated with acceptance of influenza vaccination among Italian MRs. A survey was performed in 2012 on MRs attending post-graduate schools of 18 Italian Universities. Each participant was interviewed via an anonymous, self-administered, web-based questionnaire including questions on attitudes regarding influenza vaccination. A total of 2506 MRs were recruited in the survey and 299 (11.9%) of these stated they had accepted influenza vaccination in 2011–2012 season. Vaccinated MRs were older (P = 0.006), working in clinical settings (P = 0.048), and vaccinated in the 2 previous seasons (P < 0.001 in both seasons). Moreover, MRs who had recommended influenza vaccination to their patients were significantly more compliant with influenza vaccination uptake in 2011–2012 season (P < 0.001). “To avoid spreading influenza among patients” was recognized as the main reason for accepting vaccination by less than 15% of vaccinated MRs. Italian MRs seem to have a very low compliance with influenza vaccination and they seem to accept influenza vaccination as a habit that is unrelated to professional and ethical responsibility. Otherwise, residents who refuse vaccination in the previous seasons usually maintain their behaviors. Promoting correct attitudes and good practice in order to improve the influenza immunization rates of MRs could represent a decisive goal for increasing immunization coverage among health care workers of the future. PMID:24603089
Frey, Sharon E.; Bernstein, David I.; Gerber, Michael A.; Keyserling, Harry L.; Munoz, Flor M.; Winokur, Patricia L.; Turley, Christine B.; Rupp, Richard E.; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark; Noah, Diana L.; Ross, Allison C.; Cress, Gretchen; Belshe, Robert B.
Background. Administering 2 separate vaccines for seasonal and pandemic influenza was necessary in 2009. Therefore, we conducted a randomized trial of monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine (2009 H1N1 vaccine) and seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV; split virion) given sequentially or concurrently in previously vaccinated children. Methods. Children randomized to 4 study groups and stratified by age received 1 dose of seasonal TIV and 2 doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine in 1 of 4 combinations. Injections were given at 21-day intervals and serum samples for hemagglutination inhibition antibody responses were obtained prior to and 21 days after each vaccination. Reactogenicity and adverse events were monitored. Results. All combinations of vaccines were safe in the 531 children enrolled. Generally, 1 dose of 2009 H1N1 vaccine and 1 dose of TIV, regardless of sequence or concurrency of administration, was immunogenic in children ≥10 years of age; children <10 years of age required 2 doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Conclusions. Vaccines were generally well tolerated. The immune responses to 2009 H1N1 vaccine were adequate regardless of the sequence of vaccination in all age groups but the sequence affected titers to TIV antigens. Two doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine were required to achieve a protective immune response in children <10 years of age. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00943202. PMID:22802432
Frasca, Daniela; Blomberg, Bonnie B
Influenza vaccination is less effective in elderly as compared to young individuals. Several studies have identified immune biomarkers able to predict a protective humoral immune response to the vaccine. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the effects of aging on influenza vaccine responses and on biomarkers so far identified, and we discuss the relevance of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on these vaccine responses.
Folb, Peter I; Bernatowska, Ewa; Chen, Robert; Clemens, John; Dodoo, Alex N O; Ellenberg, Susan S; Farrington, C Patrick; John, T Jacob; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Macdonald, Noni E; Miller, Elizabeth; Salisbury, David; Schmitt, Heinz-J; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Wimalaratne, Omala
Established in 1999, the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety advises the World Health Organization (WHO) on vaccine-related safety issues and enables WHO to respond promptly, efficiently, and with scientific rigor to issues of vaccine safety with potential global importance. The committee also assesses the implications of vaccine safety for practice worldwide and for WHO policies. We describe the principles on which the committee was established, its modus operandi, and the scope of the work undertaken, both present and future. We highlight its recent recommendations on major issues, including the purported link between the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autism and the safety of the mumps, influenza, yellow fever, BCG, and smallpox vaccines as well as that of thiomersal-containing vaccines.
Folb, Peter I.; Bernatowska, Ewa; Chen, Robert; Clemens, John; Dodoo, Alex N. O.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Farrington, C. Patrick; John, T. Jacob; Lambert, Paul-Henri; MacDonald, Noni E.; Miller, Elizabeth; Salisbury, David; Schmitt, Heinz-J.; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Wimalaratne, Omala
Established in 1999, the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety advises the World Health Organization (WHO) on vaccine-related safety issues and enables WHO to respond promptly, efficiently, and with scientific rigor to issues of vaccine safety with potential global importance. The committee also assesses the implications of vaccine safety for practice worldwide and for WHO policies. We describe the principles on which the committee was established, its modus operandi, and the scope of the work undertaken, both present and future. We highlight its recent recommendations on major issues, including the purported link between the measles–mumps–rubella vaccine and autism and the safety of the mumps, influenza, yellow fever, BCG, and smallpox vaccines as well as that of thiomersal-containing vaccines. PMID:15514229
Ojha, Rohit P; Stallings-Smith, Sericea; Flynn, Patricia M; Adderson, Elisabeth E; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha N; Gaur, Aditya H
We explored whether collective concerns about the safety, effectiveness, and necessity of influenza vaccines mediate racial/ethnic disparities in vaccine uptake among health care workers (HCWs). We used a self-administered Web-based survey to assess race/ethnicity (exposure), concerns about influenza vaccination (mediator; categorized through latent class analysis), and influenza vaccine uptake (outcome) for the 2012 to 2013 influenza season among HCWs at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee. We used mediation analysis to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the total, direct, and indirect effects of race/ethnicity on influenza vaccine uptake. Non-Hispanic Blacks had lower influenza vaccine uptake than non-Hispanic Whites (total effect: PR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.75, 0.99), largely mediated by high concern about influenza vaccines (natural indirect effect: PR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.84, 0.94; controlled direct effect: PR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.85, 1.1). Hispanic and Asian HCWs had modestly lower uptake than non-Hispanic Whites, also mediated by high concern about influenza vaccines. Racial/ethnic disparities among HCWs could be attenuated if concerns about the safety, effectiveness, and necessity of influenza vaccines were reduced.
Luo, Feng-Ji; Yang, Li-Qing; Ai, Xing; Bai, Yun-Hua; Wu, Jiang; Li, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Lu, Min; Li, Li; Wang, Zhao-Yun; Shi, Nian-Min
The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic strain was for the first time included in the 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial in Chinese population to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the 2010-2011 TIV manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and compared it with the counterpart vaccines manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur and Sinovac Biotech. Healthy toddlers (6-36 mo), children (6-12 y) and older adults (≥60 y) with 300 participants in each age group were enrolled to randomly receive two doses (toddlers, 28 d apart) or one dose (children and older adults). The immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. The solicited injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) were collected within 7 d after vaccination. All the three TIVs were well-tolerated with 15.1% of participants reporting AEs, most of which were mild. No serious AEs and unusual AEs were reported. Fever and pain were the most common systemic and injection-site AEs, respectively. The three TIVs showed good immunogenicity. The seroprotection rates against both H1N1 and H3N2 strains were more than 87% in toddlers after two doses and more than 95% in children and more than 86% in older adults after one dose. The seroprotection rates against B strain were 68-71% in toddlers after two doses, 70-74% in children and 69-72% in older adults after one dose. In conclusion, the three 2010-2011 TIVs had good immunogenicity and safety in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults and were generally comparable in immunogenicity and reactogenicity.
Hawken, Steven; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Deeks, Shelley L.; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; McGeer, Allison J.; Ducharme, Robin; Campitelli, Michael A.; Coyle, Doug
It is unclear whether seasonal influenza vaccination results in a net increase or decrease in the risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To assess the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination on the absolute risk of acquiring GBS, we used simulation models and published estimates of age- and sex-specific risks for GBS, influenza incidence, and vaccine effectiveness. For a hypothetical 45-year-old woman and 75-year-old man, excess GBS risk for influenza vaccination versus no vaccination was −0.36/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval −1.22 to 0.28) and −0.42/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval, –3.68 to 2.44), respectively. These numbers represent a small absolute reduction in GBS risk with vaccination. Under typical conditions (e.g. influenza incidence rates >5% and vaccine effectiveness >60%), vaccination reduced GBS risk. These findings should strengthen confidence in the safety of influenza vaccine and allow health professionals to better put GBS risk in context when discussing influenza vaccination with patients. PMID:25625590
Rouphael, Nadine G; Paine, Michele; Mosley, Regina; Henry, Sebastien; McAllister, Devin V; Kalluri, Haripriya; Pewin, Winston; Frew, Paula M; Yu, Tianwei; Thornburg, Natalie J; Kabbani, Sarah; Lai, Lilin; Vassilieva, Elena V; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard W; Mulligan, Mark J; Prausnitz, Mark R
Microneedle patches provide an alternative to conventional needle-and-syringe immunisation, and potentially offer improved immunogenicity, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, acceptability, and safety. We describe safety, immunogenicity, and acceptability of the first-in-man study on single, dissolvable microneedle patch vaccination against influenza. The TIV-MNP 2015 study was a randomised, partly blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1, clinical trial at Emory University that enrolled non-pregnant, immunocompetent adults from Atlanta, GA, USA, who were aged 18-49 years, naive to the 2014-15 influenza vaccine, and did not have any significant dermatological disorders. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to four groups and received a single dose of inactivated influenza vaccine (fluvirin: 18 μg of haemagglutinin per H1N1 vaccine strain, 17 μg of haemagglutinin per H3N2 vaccine strain, and 15 μg of haemagglutinin per B vaccine strain) (1) by microneedle patch or (2) by intramuscular injection, or received (3) placebo by microneedle patch, all administered by an unmasked health-care worker; or received a single dose of (4) inactivated influenza vaccine by microneedle patch self-administered by study participants. A research pharmacist prepared the randomisation code using a computer-generated randomisation schedule with a block size of 4. Because of the nature of the study, participants were not masked to the type of vaccination method (ie, microneedle patch vs intramuscular injection). Primary safety outcome measures are the incidence of study product-related serious adverse events within 180 days, grade 3 solicited or unsolicited adverse events within 28 days, and solicited injection site and systemic reactogenicity on the day of study product administration through 7 days after administration, and secondary safety outcomes are new-onset chronic illnesses within 180 days and unsolicited adverse events within 28 days, all analysed by intention to treat
Tomar, Jasmine; Born, Philip A; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J
Cold-chain requirements, limited stockpiling potential and the lack of potent immune responses are major challenges of parenterally formulated influenza vaccines. Decreased cold chain dependence and stockpiling can be achieved if vaccines are formulated in a dry state using suitable excipients and drying technologies. Furthermore, having the vaccine in a dry state enables the development of non-parenteral patient friendly dosage forms: microneedles for transdermal administration, tablets for oral administration, and powders for epidermal, nasal or pulmonary administration. Moreover, these administration routes have the potential to elicit an improved immune response. This review highlights the rationale for the development of dried influenza vaccines, as well as processes used for the drying and stabilization of influenza vaccines; it also compares the immunogenicity of dried influenza vaccines administered via non-invasive routes with that of parenterally administered influenza vaccines. Finally, it discusses unmet needs, challenges and future developments in the field of dried influenza vaccines.
Khan, Afshin Alaf; Varan, Aiden Kennedy; Esteves-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Siddiqui, Mariam; Sultana, Shazia; Ali, Asad S; Zaidi, Anita K M; Omer, Saad B
Facilitators and barriers to influenza vaccination among pregnant women in the developing world are poorly understood, particularly in South Asia. We assessed intention to accept influenza vaccine among ethnically diverse low-income pregnant women in Pakistan. From May to August 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women who visited health centers in urban slums in Karachi city. We assessed intention to accept influenza vaccine against socio-demographic factors, vaccination history, vaccine recommendation sources, and other factors. In an unvaccinated study population of 283 respondents, 87% were willing to accept the vaccine, if offered. All except two participants were aware of symptoms typically associated with influenza. Perceived vaccine safety, efficacy, and disease susceptibility were significantly associated with intention to accept influenza vaccine (p<0.05). Regardless of intention to accept influenza vaccine, 96% rated healthcare providers as highly reliable source of vaccine information. While a recommendation from a physician was critical for influenza vaccine acceptance, parents-in-law and husbands were often considered the primary decision-makers for pregnant women seeking healthcare including vaccination. Maternal influenza vaccination initiatives in South Asia should strongly consider counseling of key familial decision-makers and inclusion of healthcare providers to help implement new vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zverev, V V; Katlinskiĭ, A V; Kostinov, M P; Zhirova, S N; Erofeeva, M K; Stukova, M A; Korovkin, S A; Mel'nikov, S Ia; Semchenko, A V; Mironov, A N
Scientic-production association "Microgen" has finished 1st phase of clinical trials of candidate vaccines against avian influenza in order to assess their reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity. Two vaccines constructed from NIBRG-14 vaccine strain [A/Vietnam/1 194/2004 (H5N1)], obtained from World Health Organization, were studied: "OrniFlu" (inactivated subunit influenza vaccine adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide) and inactivated polymer-subunit influenza vaccine with polyoxydonium (IPSIV). Clinical trial of the vaccines with different quantity of antigen (15, 30, and 45 mcg of H5N1 virus hemagglutinin) was carried out in Influenza Research Institute (St. Petersburg) and in Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera (Moscow). Analysis of results allowed to conclude that both vaccines were safe, well tolerated and characterized by low reactogenicity. Two-doses vaccination schedule was needed to meet required seroconversion and seroprotection rates (> or =1:40 in > or =70% of vaccinated volunteers). "Orni-Flu" vaccine containing 15 mcg of hemagglutinin and optimal quantity of aluminium hydroxide (0.5 mg) in one dose as well as IPSIV containing 45 mcg of hemagglutinin and 0.75 mg of polyoxydonium in one dose were most immunogenic after 2 doses - seroprotection rates in microneutralization assay were 72.2% and 77.0% respectively. Marked influence of aluminium hydroxide content on immunogenicity of the "OrniFlu" vaccine was confirmed in the study. Optimal quantity of adjuvant was 0.5 mg per dose. According to basic concept of vaccine development, preference is given to vaccine that under minimal quantity of antigen induces sufficient specific immune response and is safe in volunteers. "OrniFlu" vaccine containing 15 mcg of H5N1 virus hemagglutinin and optimal quantity of aluminium hydroxide (0.5 mg) corresponded to these requirements that allowed researchers to recommend it for clinical trials of 2nd phase.
Mossad, Sherif B
Faced with a shortage of the inactivated intramuscular influenza vaccine this year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has revised its guidelines for immunization and use of antiviral agents. The most rational solution at this time is to direct the supply of scarce vaccine to patients at highest risk of influenza-related complications.
Wang, Tiffany L; Jing, Ling; Bocchini, Joseph A
As healthcare-associated influenza is a serious public health concern, this review examines legal and ethical arguments supporting mandatory influenza vaccination policies for healthcare personnel, implementation issues and evidence of effectiveness. Spread of influenza from healthcare personnel to patients can result in severe harm or death. Although most healthcare personnel believe that they should be vaccinated against seasonal influenza, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that only 79% of personnel were vaccinated during the 2015-2016 season. Vaccination rates were as low as 44.9% in institutions that did not promote or offer the vaccine, compared with rates of more than 90% in institutions with mandatory vaccination policies. Policies that mandate influenza vaccination for healthcare personnel have legal and ethical justifications. Implementing such policies require multipronged approaches that include education efforts, easy access to vaccines, vaccine promotion, leadership support and consistent communication emphasizing patient safety. Mandatory influenza vaccination for healthcare personnel is a necessary step in protecting patients. Patients who interact with healthcare personnel are often at an elevated risk of complications from influenza. Vaccination is the best available strategy for protecting against influenza and evidence shows that institutional policies and state laws can effectively increase healthcare personnel vaccination rates, decreasing the risk of transmission in healthcare settings. There are legal and ethical precedents for institutional mandatory influenza policies and state laws, although successful implementation requires addressing both administrative and attitudinal barriers.
Shen, Yonggang; Hu, Yuansheng; Meng, Fanya; Du, Wenjun; Li, Wei; Song, Yufei; Ji, Xiaoci; Huo, Liqun; Fu, Zhenping; Yin, Weidong
ABSTRACT Anflu® is a seasonal trivalent inactivated split-virion influenza vaccine manufactured by Sinovac Biotech Co., Ltd. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the safety of Anflu® (2013–14 formulation: H1N1, H3N2 and BYAM) in infants and adults and its immunogenicity and cross-reactivity against mismatched influenza B lineage and avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses (hereafter BVIC and H7N9, respectively) in adults. In this phase IV open label trial, infants 6–35 months old (n=61) each received two injections with 28 days apart; adults 18–60 yrs old (n=60) and elderly >60 yrs old (n=61) each received one injection. Information of adverse events was collected through safety observation and follow-up visits. Pre- and post-immune blood samples (day 0 and 21) were collected from subjects ≥18 yrs old to detect hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers and calculate seroprotection rates (SPRs) and seroconversion rates (SCRs). The overall adverse reaction incidence was 1.6% (3/182), and no serious adverse event was reported during the study period. For subjects ≥18 yrs old, the SCRs, SPRs, and the geometric mean titers (GMTs) met the European criteria for all three strains. In addition, the point estimations of SCR, SPR and GMT for BVIC also met the European criteria. Six subjects were seroconverted against H7N9; however the serological results did not meet the European criteria. In conclusion, the results showed a satisfactory safety and immunogenicity profile of Anflu® and cross-reactivity against BVIC, but did not demonstrate cross-reactivity against H7N9 (Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02269852). PMID:26934750
Hirota, Yoshio; Kaji, Masaro
In 1976, influenza mass vaccination among schoolchildren was started under the Preventive Vaccination Law, which was intended to control epidemics in the community. However, in the late 1980s, questions about this policy and vaccine efficacy arose, and a campaign against vaccination began. In 1994, influenza was excluded from the target diseases list in the Preventive Vaccination Law, without considering the immunization policy with respect to the common indications in high-risk groups. In 2001, the Law was again amended, specifying target groups, such as the elderly aged 65 or over, for influenza vaccination. In the 2005--2006 season, vaccine coverage among the elderly reached 52%. This shows that the need for vaccination has gradually become understood. However, the anti-vaccination campaign, which claims that the influenza vaccine has no efficacy, is still active. Vaccine efficacy studies that were not properly conducted are also being reported. In 2002, the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare organized a research group on vaccine efficacy consisting of epidemiologists. The present symposium, as part of the 9th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Vaccinology in 2005, was planned to further introduce epidemiological concepts useful in studying influenza vaccine efficacy.
Yu, Mei-Ching; Chou, Yuan-Lin; Lee, Pei-Lun; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Kow-Tong
The purpose of this study was to investigate influenza vaccination coverage and the factors influencing acceptance of influenza vaccination among patients with diabetes in Taiwan using the Health Belief Model (HBM). From January 1 to February 28, 2012, 700 patients with diabetes who visited National Cheng Kung University Hospital were invited to participate in the study. A total of 691 (99%) patients with diabetes were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 64.7 years (SD = 10.7). The percentages of patients with diabetes who received seasonal influenza vaccination were 31%, 33%, and 35% in 2009–2010, 2010–2011, and 2011–2012, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that patients with diabetes who were female, were older, had comorbidities, had a more positive perception of the benefits of the influenza vaccine and had lower perceived barriers to influenza vaccination were more likely to receive the influenza vaccine in 2011–2012 (adjusted R2 = 0.47; Chi-square = 276.50; P < 0.001). Patients with diabetes perceived the risk of swine influenza to be similar to that of seasonal influenza. Consequently, in the absence of an increase in the perceived risk of influenza, a low level of actual vaccination against seasonal influenza is forecasted. Strategies to improve the uptake of influenza vaccination include interventions that highlight the risk posed by pandemic influenza while simultaneously offering tactics to ameliorate this risk. PMID:24503629
Jackson, Lisa A.; Chen, Wilbur H.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Wald, Anna; Brady, Rebecca C.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Winokur, Patricia; Mulligan, Mark J.; Keyserling, Harry L.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Rouphael, Nadine; Noah, Diana L.; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark C.
Background. Adjuvanted vaccines have the potential to improve influenza pandemic response. AS03 adjuvant has been shown to enhance the immune response to inactivated influenza vaccines. Methods. This trial was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine at varying dosages of hemagglutinin with and without extemporaneously mixed AS03 adjuvant system in adults ≥18 years of age. Adults were randomized to receive 2 doses of 1 of 5 vaccine formulations (3.75 µg, 7.5 µg, or 15 µg with AS03 or 7.5 µg or 15 µg without adjuvant). Results. The study population included 544 persons <65 years of age and 245 persons ≥65 years of age. Local adverse events tended to be more frequent in the adjuvanted vaccine groups, but severe reactions were uncommon. In both age groups, hemagglutination inhibition antibody geometric mean titers after dose one were higher in the adjuvanted groups, compared with the 15 µg unadjuvanted group, and this difference was statistically significant for the comparison of the 15 µg adjuvanted group with the 15 µg unadjuvanted group. Conclusions. AS03 adjuvant system improves the immune response to inactivated 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in both younger and older adults and is generally well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00963157 PMID:22782949
Ortiz, Justin R; Englund, Janet A; Neuzil, Kathleen M
Seasonal influenza is responsible for three to five million severe cases of disease annually, and up to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Pregnant women and infants suffer disproportionately from severe outcomes of influenza. The excellent safety profile and reliable immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine support WHO recommendations that pregnant women be vaccinated to decrease complications of influenza disease during pregnancy. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine is not routinely used in most low-and middle-income countries and is not widely used in pregnant women worldwide. Two recent prospective, controlled trials of maternal influenza vaccination in Bangladesh and US Native American reservations demonstrated that inactivated influenza vaccine given to pregnant women can decrease laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection in their newborn children. These studies support consideration of the feasibility of targeted influenza vaccine programs in resource-constrained countries. Platforms exist for the delivery of influenza vaccine to pregnant women worldwide. Even in the least developed countries, an estimated 70% of women receive antenatal care, providing an opportunity for targeted influenza vaccination. Challenges to the introduction of maternal influenza vaccination in resource-constrained countries exist, including issues regarding vaccine formulation, availability, and cost. Nonetheless, maternal influenza vaccination remains an important and potentially cost-effective approach to decrease influenza morbidity in two high-risk groups - pregnant women and young infants.
Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study
Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay
abstract The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years. PMID:26337197
Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.
Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay
The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years.
Bayas Rodríguez, José M; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Mena Pinilla, Guillermo
Given the threat of an avian influenza A (H5N1) pandemic, vaccines that could be used in a new influenza pandemic began to be developed in 2004. The possible pandemic scenarios included highly serious situations with high incidence and mortality. Due to the need for the greatest possible number of vaccines to be available in a short period of time, studies with "model" vaccines were started, which allowed the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccines to be determined before identifying which virus would cause the pandemic. The use of adjuvants also formed part of these strategies. Subsequently, studies with the pandemic A (H1N1) strain were performed and additional studies continue to be performed. The vaccination strategies adopted have not been aimed at containing the infection but rather at ameliorating its effects. The choice of candidate groups for vaccination was not made hastily but after evaluating a large body of information on the epidemiology of the disease and the characteristics of the available vaccines. The population to be vaccinated is basically the same as that recommended to undergo seasonal influenza vaccination. In the ethical context of primum non nocere special emphasis has been placed on the vaccination of health personnel. All the available information supports the safety of the adjuvants and preservatives used in some of the authorized vaccines, as stated by the World Health Organization and many other prestigious organizations. So far 65 million doses have been administered throughout the world and the various adverse events detected by surveillance systems have been similar to those observed with other influenza vaccines and those that could be expected among millions of persons. Lessons must be drawn from the course of the present pandemic and the strategies used to deal with this situation as there will be other pandemics.
Eichner, Martin; Schwehm, Markus; Eichner, Linda; Gerlier, Laetitia
After vaccination, vaccinees acquire some protection against infection and/or disease. Vaccination, therefore, reduces the number of infections in the population. Due to this herd protection, not everybody needs to be vaccinated to prevent infections from spreading. We quantify direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination examining the standard Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model as well as simulation results of a sophisticated simulation tool which allows for seasonal transmission of four influenza strains in a population with realistic demography and age-dependent contact patterns. As shown analytically for the simple SIR and SIRS transmission models, indirect vaccination effects are bigger than direct ones if the effective reproduction number of disease transmission is close to the critical value of 1. Simulation results for 20-60% vaccination with live influenza vaccine of 2-17 year old children in Germany, averaged over 10 years (2017-26), confirm this result: four to seven times as many influenza cases are prevented among non-vaccinated individuals as among vaccinees. For complications like death due to influenza which occur much more frequently in the unvaccinated elderly than in the vaccination target group of children, indirect benefits can surpass direct ones by a factor of 20 or even more than 30. The true effect of vaccination can be much bigger than what would be expected by only looking at vaccination coverage and vaccine efficacy.
The influenza pandemic of 2009 demonstrated the inability of the established global capacity for egg-based vaccine production technology to provide sufficient vaccine for the population in a timely fashion. Several alternative technologies for developing influenza vaccines have been proposed, among which non-replicating virus-like particles (VLPs) represent an attractive option because of their safety and immunogenic characteristics. VLP vaccines against pandemic influenza have been developed in tobacco plant cells and in Sf9 insect cells infected with baculovirus that expresses protein genes from pandemic influenza strains. These technologies allow rapid and large-scale production of vaccines (3–12 weeks). The 2009 influenza outbreak provided an opportunity for clinical testing of a pandemic influenza VLP vaccine in the midst of the outbreak at its epicenter in Mexico. An influenza A(H1N1)2009 VLP pandemic vaccine (produced in insect cells) was tested in a phase II clinical trial involving 4,563 healthy adults. Results showed that the vaccine is safe and immunogenic despite high preexisting anti-A(H1N1)2009 antibody titers present in the population. The safety and immunogenicity profile presented by this pandemic VLP vaccine during the outbreak in Mexico suggests that VLP technology is a suitable alternative to current influenza vaccine technologies for producing pandemic and seasonal vaccines. PMID:22330956
Montana, Marc; Verhaeghe, Pierre; Ducros, Caroline; Terme, Thierry; Vanelle, Patrice; Rathelot, Pascal
Few studies show the reluctance of the people to get vaccinated against A (H1N1) influenza for fear of side effects of squalene (MF59, AS03, AF03) and thimerosal. The aim of this paper is to assess the safety in using these adjuvants and preservative reviewing data of clinical trials relative to which formulation includes these compounds. In the current state of knowledge, these vaccines have proved to be effective even though they more frequently give local adverse events than non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines. Systemic side effects are generally not serious. In the studies, adjuvanted vaccines do not increase neither the risk of Guillain Barre syndrome nor auto-immune diseases. There is no convincing evidence that exposure to thimerosal in vaccines had any deletorious effect on physiological outcome.
Halperin, Scott A.; Smith, Bruce; Nolan, Coleen; Shay, Janet; Kralovec, Jaroslav
Background Enhancement of immune function has been claimed as a benefit of some natural health products, although few have been subjected to randomized clinical trials. We evaluated the effect of an oral dietary supplement derived from the edible microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa on immune response after influenza vaccination. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled community-based clinical trial in a convenience sample of 124 healthy adults at least 50 years of age randomly assigned to receive the study product (200 or 400 mg of a Chlorella-derived dietary supplement) or placebo. Participants took the study product or placebo once daily for 28 days. On day 21, we administered a single dose of a licensed trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine. We obtained serum specimens to measure hemagglutination inhibition titres before and 7 and 21 days after vaccination. The primary immunological outcomes were the proportion of participants with a 4-fold or greater increase in antibodies and geometric mean antibody titres after vaccination; the proportion of participants reporting adverse events during therapy was the safety outcome. Results A total of 117 (94%) participants completed all aspects of the study. There were no differences in the proportions of recipients of 200 or 400 mg of the Chlorella-derived dietary supplement or placebo who achieved at least a 4-fold increase in antibodies (proportions for the 3 virus strains ranged from 17.9% to 28.2% for the 200-mg group, from 11.1% to 22.2% for the 400-mg group and from 19.0% to 21.4% for the placebo group; p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Reports of adverse events were similar for recipients of the supplement and placebo, except with regard to fatigue, which was reported more frequently by recipients of 200 mg of the supplement (18/41 or 44%) than by those who received 400 mg of the supplement (8/40 or 20%; p = 0.032) or placebo (8/42 or 19%; p = 0.019). Recipients of 400 mg of the supplement
García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Alvarez-Pasquín, María-José; Mena, Guillermo; Llupià, Anna; Aldea, Marta; Sequera, Victor-Guillermo; Sanz, Sergi; Tuells, Jose; Navarro-Alonso, José-Antonio; de Arísteguí, Javier; Bayas, José-María
Vacunas.org (http://www.vacunas.org), a website founded by the Spanish Association of Vaccinology offers a personalized service called Ask the Expert, which answers any questions posed by the public or health professionals about vaccines and vaccination. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with questions on vaccination safety and determine the characteristics of questioners and the type of question asked during the period 2008-2010. A total of 1341 questions were finally included in the analysis. Of those, 30% were related to vaccine safety. Questions about pregnant women had 5.01 higher odds of asking about safety (95% CI 2.82-8.93) than people not belonging to any risk group. Older questioners (>50 years) were less likely to ask about vaccine safety compared to younger questioners (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76). Questions made after vaccination or related to influenza (including H1N1) or travel vaccines were also associated with a higher likelihood of asking about vaccine safety. These results identify risk groups (pregnant women), population groups (older people) and some vaccines (travel and influenza vaccines, including H1N1) where greater efforts to provide improved, more-tailored vaccine information in general and on the Internet are required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lopez-de-Andres, Ana; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo
Traditionally, influenza is not considered to be a serious disease in healthy children. However, for vulnerable populations, such as young children and those with chronic medical conditions, influenza can lead to serious complications and even death. This study aimed to assess vaccination coverage among Spanish children under 16 years of age in 2006, and to describe the factors associated with vaccination. Cross-sectional survey. In total, 8851 records of children included in the Spanish National Health Survey for 2006 were analysed. The reply ('yes' or 'no') to the question: 'Did you have a flu shot in the latest campaign?' was used as a dependent variable. Influenza vaccine coverage was calculated as the percentage of individuals aged 6 months to 16 years whose parents reported that they had been vaccinated against influenza in the most recent campaign. The influence of sociodemographic variables on vaccination and the presence of associated chronic diseases (asthma and/or diabetes) were also analysed. Vaccination coverage among Spanish children in 2006 was 6.82%: 19.43% in children with associated conditions (asthma and/or diabetes), and 5.81% in healthy children. The only factor significantly associated with influenza vaccination in children with associated conditions was household income; children with a lower household monthly income were more likely to have been vaccinated against influenza than children with a higher household monthly income (odds ratio 1.96). In children for whom vaccination is not indicated, the probability of being vaccinated against influenza was greater in those whose parents were not university graduates. Influenza vaccination coverage in Spanish children is low. Socio-economic inequalities continue to be a factor at the time of vaccination.
Dorribo, V; Lazor-Blanchet, C; Hugli, O; Zanetti, G
Vaccination of health care workers (HCW) against seasonal influenza (SI) is recommended but vaccination rate rarely reach >30%. Vaccination coverage against 2009 pandemic influenza (PI) was 52% in our hospital, whilst a new policy requiring unvaccinated HCW to wear a mask during patient care duties was enforced. To investigate the determinants of this higher vaccination acceptance for PI and to look for an association with the new mask-wearing policy. A retrospective cohort study, involving HCW of three critical departments of a 1023-bed, tertiary-care university hospital in Switzerland. Self-reported 2009-10 SI and 2009 PI vaccination statuses, reasons and demographic data were collected through a literature-based questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, uni- and multivariate analyses were then performed. There were 472 respondents with a response rate of 54%. Self-reported vaccination acceptance was 64% for PI and 53% for SI. PI vaccination acceptance was associated with being vaccinated against SI (OR 9.5; 95% CI 5.5-16.4), being a physician (OR 7.7; 95% CI 3.1-19.1) and feeling uncomfortable wearing a mask (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Main motives for refusing vaccination were: preference for wearing a surgical mask (80% for PI, not applicable for SI) and concerns about vaccine safety (64%, 50%) and efficacy (44%, 35%). The new mask-wearing policy was a motivation for vaccination but also offered an alternative to non-compliant HCW. Concerns about vaccine safety and efficiency and self-interest of health care workers are still main determinants for influenza vaccination acceptance. Better incentives are needed to encourage vaccination amongst non-physician HCW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Candela, Silvia; Pergolizzi, Sara; Ragni, Pietro; Cavuto, Silvio; Nobilio, Lucia; Di Mario, Simona; Dragosevic, Valentina; Groth, Nicola; Magrini, Nicola
An observational, non-comparative, prospective, surveillance study of individuals vaccinated with the MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine, Focetria, (Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics, Siena, Italy), was performed in Italy during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. This study assessed the short-term (six-week) safety profile of the investigational vaccine in real time. After vaccination (N=7943), adverse events (AE) were assessed using both active (telephone) and passive (healthcare database) follow-up in enrolled vaccinated subjects, including infants (6-23 months), pregnant women, and the immunosuppressed. The treating physicians of all subjects experiencing AEs post-vaccination were consulted for clinical information on the conditions reported. All AEs were coded according to ICD-10. A total of 1583 AEs occurred during the study, 67 (4.2%) of which were serious adverse events (SAEs). One SAE was considered to be possibly related to vaccination (transitory and ill-defined neurologic disorder experienced by a 16-year-old asthmatic male). Three adverse events of special interest (AESI) were identified (convulsions experienced by two epileptic subjects), none of which were considered to be vaccine-related. Six individuals died during the study period, in each case the cause of death was not related to vaccination (four cases of severe underlying co-morbidity, one case of psychoactive drug misuse, and one case of acute myocardial infarction). No cases of clinically relevant AEs, SAEs, or AESI were observed within a six-week period of vaccine administration. In accordance with existing clinical and post-marketing safety data, the results of this active surveillance study demonstrate a good safety profile for the MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 vaccine, Focetria, within the general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marcu, Afrodita; Rubinstein, Helena; Michie, Susan; Yardley, Lucy
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are encouraged to get vaccinated during influenza pandemics to reduce their own, and patients', risk of infection, and to encourage their patients to get immunised. Despite extensive research on HCWs' receipt of vaccination, little is known about how HCWs articulate pandemic influenza vaccination advice to patients. To explore HCWs' uptake of the A/H1N1 vaccine during the pandemic of 2009-2010, their recommendations to patients at the time, and their anticipated choices around influenza vaccination under different pandemic scenarios. We conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups with eight vaccinated and seventeen non-vaccinated HCWs from primary care practices in England. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. The HCWs constructed their receipt of vaccination as a personal choice informed by personal health history and perceptions of vaccine safety, while they viewed patients' vaccination as choices made following informed consent and medical guidelines. Some HCWs received the A/H1N1 vaccine under the influence of their local practice organizational norms and values. While non-vaccinated HCWs regarded patients' vaccination as patients' choice, some vaccinated HCWs saw it also as a public health issue. The non-vaccinated HCWs emphasised that they would not allow their personal choices to influence the advice they gave to patients, whereas some vaccinated HCWs believed that by getting vaccinated themselves they could provide a reassuring example to patients, particularly those who have concerns about influenza vaccination. All HCWs indicated they would accept vaccination under the severe pandemic scenario. However, most non-vaccinated HCWs expressed reticence to vaccinate under the mild pandemic scenario. Providing evidence-based arguments about the safety of new vaccines and the priority of public health over personal choice, and creating strong social norms for influenza vaccination as part of the organizational culture
Sullivan, Seth J; Jacobson, Robert; Poland, Gregory A
On 23 December 2009, the US FDA approved Fluzone® High Dose, a high-dose formulation of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, for prevention of influenza in people 65 years of age and older. As it was approved via an accelerated process designed to allow expeditious availability of safe and effective products with promise to treat or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases, the manufacturer is required to conduct further studies to demonstrate effectiveness. Although these studies are underway, a recently completed randomized, controlled trial demonstrated that this vaccine, containing four-times more hemagglutinin than standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines, can produce an enhanced immunologic response in subjects of 65 years of age and older, while maintaining a favorable safety profile. This article introduces the vaccine, presents currently available safety and immunogenicity data, discusses current recommendations for use, and proposes what we can expect in the coming years.
Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T
The organizational literature on infection control in residential care facilities is limited. Using a nationally representative dataset, we examined the organizational factors associated with implementing at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, as well as the effect of vaccination policies on health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccine uptake in residential care facilities. The study was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to address the study's objectives. Facility size, director's educational attainment, and having a written influenza pandemic preparedness plan were significantly associated with the implementation of at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, after controlling for other facility-level factors. Recommending vaccination to employees, providing vaccination on site, providing vaccinations to employees at no cost, and requiring vaccination as a condition of employment were associated with higher employee influenza vaccination rates. Residential care facilities can improve vaccination rates among employees by adopting effective employee vaccination policies. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Santomauro, Francesca; Porchia, Barbara Rita; Niccolai, Giuditta; Pellegrino, Elettra; Bonanni, Paolo; Lorini, Chiara
Immunization of health care workers (HCWs) against influenza has been associated with improvements in patient safety. The aim of this study is to assess the beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge of HCWs and health profession students regarding influenza. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to HCWs in three local Florentine healthcare units, at Careggi University Teaching Hospital, and to students in health profession degree programs. A total of 2576 questionnaires were fully completed. A total of 12.3% of subjects responded that they were “always vaccinated” in all three of the seasonal vaccination campaigns studied (2007–2008 to 2009–2010), 13.1% had been vaccinated once or twice, and 74.6% had not received vaccinations. Although the enrolled subjects tended to respond that they were “never vaccinated,” they considered influenza to be a serious illness and believed that the influenza vaccine is effective. The subjects who refused vaccination more frequently believed that the vaccine could cause influenza and that it could have serious side effects. More than 60% of the “always vaccinated” group completely agreed that HCWs should be vaccinated. Self-protection and protecting family members or other people close to the respondent from being infected and representing potential sources of influenza infection can be considered motivating factors for vaccination. The results highlight the importance of improving vaccination rates among all HCWs through multi-component interventions. Knowledge of influenza should be reinforced. PMID:26344950
Soleimani, Sina; Shahsavandi, Shahla; Maddadgar, Omid
Immunization with DNA vaccines as a novel alternative to conventional vaccination strategy requires adjuvant for improving vaccine efficacy. The conserved immunogenic HA2 subunit, which harbors neutralizing epitopes is a promising vaccine candidate against influenza viruses. In this study, for the first time we explore the idea of using host interferon inducible Mx protein to increase the immunogenicity of HA2 H9N2 influenza DNA vaccine. The potency and safety of the Mx adjuvanted-HA2 vaccine was evaluated in BALB/c mice by different prime-boost strategies. To assess the effect of the vaccination on the virus clearance rate, mice were challenged with homologous influenza virus. Administration of the adjuvanted vaccine and boosting with the same regimen could effectively enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses in treated mice. These data demonstrated that Mx as host defense peptide can be potentiated for improving influenza vaccine efficacy.
Lagos, Rosanna E; Muñoz, Alma E; Levine, Myron M; Lepetic, Alejandro; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Schuerman, Lode
The safety and immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix™) were assessed in 240 healthy Chilean children randomized to receive 3 doses of PHiD-CV (PHiD-CV group) or hepatitis A vaccine (HAV control group) at 2-4-6 months of age. All were offered 1 HAV dose at 12 months (outside study). The PHiD-CV group received a second HAV dose at 18-21 months and PHiD-CV booster at 20-23 months. The HAV control group received 2 PHiD-CV catch-up doses at 18-21 and 20-23 months. Adverse events were recorded and pneumococcal antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured. Both PHiD-CV vaccination schedules were well tolerated and immunogenic against the pneumococcal vaccine serotypes and protein D. The reactogenicity of PHiD-CV primary, booster and catch-up doses was in line with previous PHiD-CV studies, although generally higher than with HAV. For each vaccine serotype, the percentage of subjects with antibody concentrations ≥0.2 µg/ml (GSK's 22F-inhibition ELISA) was at least 93.2% following 3 PHiD-CV primary doses and at least 97.4% post-booster; percentages with OPA titers ≥8 were at least 91.7% post-booster. After 2-dose catch-up, at least 94.3% of children had antibody concentrations ≥0.2 µg/ml against each serotype except 6B (84.3%); at least 95.2% had OPA titers ≥8 except against serotypes 1, 5 and 6B. In conclusion, the safety profiles of 2 PHiD-CV vaccination schedules (3-dose primary plus booster and 2-dose catch-up) were in line with previous studies and PHiD-CV was immunogenic for all 10 vaccine serotypes and protein D.
Patil, Rajan R
Background: There has been major controversy over vaccine safety in India following newspaper reports citing right to information (RTI) disclosure that there have been increasing vaccine related deaths following immunization in children in the recent years. Methods: Secondary data analysis. Results and Conclusion: Adverse effect following immunization (AEFI) events in recent years are being linked to closure of three government owned vaccine producing public sector units (PSU) closures in India. The media reports quoting government sources suggest that the total number of reported deaths due to AEFI in a pre-closure of vaccine PSUs 7 years (2001–2007) was 136, whereas it is 355 in the post vaccine PSU closure 3 years (2008 to 2010). There is an issue of comparability of numbers of AEFI deaths pre- (2001–2007) and post-vaccine PSU closure era (2008–2011) and linking increased AEFI deaths to vaccine PSU closure. PMID:24299731
Pereira, Claudia C; Bishai, David
In the USA, influenza vaccines are available as parenteral injections or as an intranasal preparation. Injectable influenza vaccines are available in either multidose vial (MDV), single-dose vial or prefilled syringe (PFS) presentations. PFSs have gained market share in the USA but have not yet reached the levels of uptake currently seen in Western Europe. Here, we review the topic of vaccine presentation in the USA, with a special focus on influenza vaccines. Second, we present the results of a time-motion study that measured administration costs of influenza vaccination comparing MDVs versus PFSs during the 2009/2010 influenza campaign. Vaccinating with MDVs took an average 37.3 s longer than PFSs. The cost of administering 1000 immunizations in 2009 using MDVs were US$8596 versus US$8920.21 using PFSs. In a pandemic situation where 300 million Americans would require vaccination, PFSs would save 3.12 million h in healthcare worker time, worth US$111.1 million. The higher acquisition costs of PFS vaccines compared with MDVs are offset by lower administrative costs and increased safety.
Wu, Jiang; Liu, Shu-Zhen; Dong, Shan-Shan; Dong, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Wu-Li; Lu, Min; Li, Chang-Gui; Zhou, Ji-Chen; Fang, Han-Hua; Liu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ying; Qiu, Yuan-Zheng; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Jiang-Ting; Zhong, Xiang; Yin, Wei-Dong; Feng, Zi-Jian
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 has the potential to cause a pandemic. Many prototype pandemic influenza A (H5N1) vaccines had been developed and well evaluated in adults in recent years. However, data in children are limited. Herein we evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of adjuvanted split-virion and whole-virion H5N1 vaccines in children. An open-labelled phase I trial was conducted in children aged 3-11 years to receive aluminum-adjuvated, split-virion H5N1 vaccine (5-30 microg) and in children aged 12-17 years to receive aluminum-adjuvated, whole-virion H5N1 vaccine (5-15 microg). Safety of the two formulations was assessed. Then a randomized phase II trial was conducted, in which 141 children aged 3-11 years received the split-virion vaccine (10 or 15 microg) and 280 children aged 12-17 years received the split-virion vaccine (10-30 microg) or the whole-virion vaccine (5 microg). Serum samples were collected for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays. 5-15 microg adjuvated split-virion vaccines were well tolerated in children aged 3-11 years and 5-30 microg adjuvated split-virion vaccines and 5 microg adjuvated whole-virion vaccine were well tolerated in children aged 12-17 years. Most local and systemic reactions were mild or moderate. Before vaccination, all participants were immunologically naïve to H5N1 virus. Immune responses were induced after the first dose and significantly boosted after the second dose. In 3-11 years children, the 10 and 15 microg split-virion vaccine induced similar responses with 55% seroconversion and seroprotection (HI titer >or=1:40) rates. In 12-17 years children, the 30 microg split-virion vaccine induced the highest immune response with 71% seroconversion and seroprotection rates. The 5 microg whole-virion vaccine induced higher response than the 10 microg split-virion vaccine did. The aluminum-adjuvanted, split-virion prototype pandemic influenza A (H5N1) vaccine showed good safety and immunogenicity in
Esposito, Susanna; Selicorni, Angelo; Daleno, Cristina; Valzano, Antonia; Cerutti, Marta; Galeone, Carlotta; Consolo, Silvia; Menni, Francesca; Principi, Nicola
In some subjects with severe neurological diseases, a reduced immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine has been demonstrated. Patients with Williams or Cornelia de Lange syndrome frequently have abnormalities in neurodevelopment. This study has evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of a monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in these subjects. Eighteen patients with Williams syndrome (ten males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 12.74 ± 4.49 years), 11 with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (six males; mean age 12.90 ± 4.85 years) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (16 males; mean age 12.49 ± 4.55 years), never vaccinated against influenza, received a dose of the vaccine between 1 and 30 November 2009. Four weeks later, the seroconversion rates in the three groups were between 72% and 80% and the seroprotection rates were 100%, with a similar increase in antibody levels. Two months later, most of the subjects remained seroconverted with no statistically significant difference between the groups, and about 94% of the patients with Williams syndrome, all of those with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and all of the healthy controls were still seroprotected. Safety and tolerability were very good, with no difference between the groups. None of the patients developed documented influenza during the study period. These results show that the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a single dose of the monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in children and adolescents with Williams or Cornelia de Lange syndrome and moderate to severe mental disabilities is very good, and similar to that of healthy subjects.
Yuen, Carol Y S; Dodgson, Joan E; Tarrant, Marie
Pregnant women are the highest priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination. However, their vaccination uptake remains suboptimal. The purpose of this study is to explore Hong Kong women's perceptions of the threat of influenza infection during pregnancy, the risks and benefits of influenza vaccination, and their decision-making processes. We used a qualitative descriptive design and recruited women who had just given births to a live infant from April to June 2011. Participants were recruited from a large teaching hospital in Hong Kong and were interviewed in the immediate postpartum period. A total of 32 postpartum women were interviewed, and two had been vaccinated during pregnancy. Following thematic analysis, three themes emerged: perceived risk of influenza infection, perceived risk of influenza vaccine, and decision-making cues. Overall, participants held negative impressions about influenza vaccination during pregnancy, and they underestimated the threat of influenza to themselves and their fetus. They were also confused about the safety and efficacy of the influenza vaccine and the differences between preventive strategies and treatment for influenza. Most participants reported that their health care providers (HCPs) did not offer or recommend vaccination. Because of negative media reports about vaccination, participants were hesitant to receive the vaccine. Motivating forces for vaccine acceptance were a perceived high prevalence of circulating influenza during their pregnancy and HCP recommendations and reassurances that the vaccination was safe, effective, and beneficial for the fetus. Vaccination promotion strategies need to focus on encouraging HCPs to take the initiative to discuss vaccination with their pregnant clients and provide accurate and unbiased information about the risks of influenza and the benefits of vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Kasajima, Megumi; Phelps, Charles E; Fiscella, Kevin; Bennett, Nancy M; Szilagyi, Peter G
The impact of vaccine shortages on disparities in influenza vaccination is uncertain. The objective of this research was to examine the association between influenza vaccine supply and racial/ethnic disparities in vaccination rates among elderly Medicare beneficiaries. Cross-sectional multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed in 2010 to examine whether racial/ethnic disparities in vaccination rates changed across two consecutive seasons: from (Period 1) 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 seasons through (Period 4) 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 seasons. Self-reported receipt of influenza vaccine across consecutive years was examined among community-dwelling non-Hispanic African-American (AA); non-Hispanic white (W); English-speaking Hispanic (EH); and Spanish-speaking Hispanic (SH) elderly enrolled in the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (unweighted n=2306-2504, weighted n=8.23-8.99 million for Periods 1 through 4). During Periods 1 and 2, when vaccine supply increased nationally, adjusted racial/ethnic disparities in the influenza vaccination rate decreased by 1.8%-7.4% (W-AA disparity); 4.5%-6.6% (W-EH disparity); and 6.6%-11% (W-SH disparity) (all p<0.001). During Period 4, when vaccine supply declined, adjusted disparities in vaccination rates increased by 2.3% (W-AA disparity) and 6.1% (W-EH disparity) but decreased by 6.6% (W-SH disparity) probably due to a "floor effect" (constant low rates among SH; all p<0.001). Improved vaccine supply was generally associated with reduced racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination rates, whereas worse supply was associated with increased disparities. To avoid future widening of racial health disparities, policy options include stabilizing the vaccine supply and preferential delivery of vaccines to safety-net providers serving AA and Hispanic populations during a shortage. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Chyongchiou J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Raymund, Mahlon; Ambrose, Christopher S; Zimmerman, Richard K
This randomized cluster trial was designed to improve workplace influenza vaccination rates using enhanced advertising, choice of vaccine type (intranasal or injectable) and an incentive. Workers aged 18-49 years were surveyed immediately following vaccination to determine factors associated with vaccination behavior and choice. The questionnaire assessed attitudes, beliefs and social support for influenza vaccine, demographics, and historical, current, and intentional vaccination behavior. Of the 2389 vaccinees, 83.3% received injectable vaccine and 16.7% received intranasal vaccine. Factors associated with previous influenza vaccination were older age, female sex, higher education and greater support for injectable vaccine (all P<.02). Current influenza vaccination with intranasal vaccine vs. injectable vaccine was associated with higher education, the study interventions, greater support for the intranasal vaccine and nasal sprays, less support of injectable vaccine, more negative attitudes about influenza vaccine, and a greater likelihood of reporting that the individual would not have been vaccinated had only injectable vaccine been offered (all P<.01). Intentional vaccine choice was most highly associated with previous vaccination behavior (P<.001). A key to long term improvements in workplace vaccination is to encourage first time influenza vaccination through interventions that include incentives, publicity and vaccine choice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jun, L; Yuguo, C; Zhiguo, W; Jinfeng, L; Huawei, M; Xiuhua, L; Yonggui, Z; Yanhua, X; Kong, Y; Hongtao, L; Yuliang, Z
Invasive meningitis and pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important cause of childhood mortality in countries where Hib vaccination is not routine. We evaluated the non-inferiority of a licensed Hib vaccine, PRP-CRM(197) compared with a second licensed Hib vaccine, PRP-T, following the recommended Chinese immunisation schedule for infants between 6 months and 1 year of age. In the first study phase, 6-12 month-old infants received two primary doses of either PRP-CRM(197) (n = 335) or PRP-T (n = 335) vaccine administered 1 month apart. In the second study phase 8 months later, the same children received a single booster dose of vaccine identical to that use for priming (PRP-CRM(197), n = 327; PRP-T, n = 333). Serum levels of anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Non-inferiority of primary and booster doses was assessed in terms of percentages of subjects with anti-PRP antibody levels associated with providing short-term (≥ 0.15 μg/ml) and long-term (≥ 1.0 μg/ml) protection; the non-inferiority margin was set at -5%. PRP-CRM(197) was demonstrated to be non-inferior to PRP-T. Anti-PRP antibodies levels ≥ 0.15 μg/ml and ≥ 1.0 μg/ml were achieved by 97% of infants in the PRP-CRM(197) group and 98% of infants in the PRP-T group 1 month after primary immunisation, and by all subjects (100%) in both vaccine groups 1 month after booster administration. Safety profiles for both vaccines were similar; no serious adverse events, deaths or adverse events leading to withdrawal occurred during the study. PRP-CRM(197) was well-tolerated and immunologically non-inferior to a licensed comparator Hib vaccine in Chinese infants (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01044316 & NCT01226953). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Choi, Hyo-Jick; Yoo, Dae-Goon; Bondy, Brian J.; Quan, Fu-Shi; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo; Prausnitz, Mark R.
A microneedle patch coated with vaccine simplifies vaccination by using a patch-based delivery method and targets vaccination to the skin for superior immunogenicity compared to intramuscular injection. Previous studies of microneedles have demonstrated effective vaccination using freshly prepared microneedles, but the issue of long-term vaccine stability has received only limited attention. Here, we studied the long-term stability of microneedles coated with whole inactivated influenza vaccine guided by the hypothesis that crystallization and phase separation of the microneedle coating matrix damages influenza vaccine coated onto microneedles. In vitro showed that the vaccine lost stability as measured by hemagglutination activity in proportion to the degree of coating matrix crystallization and phase separation. Transmission electron microscopy similarly showed damaged morphology of the inactivated virus vaccine associated with crystallization. In vivo assessment of immune response and protective efficacy in mice further showed reduced vaccine immunogenicity after influenza vaccination using microneedles with crystallized or phase-separated coatings. This work shows that crystallization and phase separation of the dried coating matrix are important factors affecting long-term stability of influenza vaccine-coated microneedles. PMID:22361098
Tosh, Pritish K.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.
Influenza is an important contributor to population and individual morbidity and mortality. The current influenza pandemic with novel H1N1 has highlighted the need for health care professionals to better understand the processes involved in creating influenza vaccines, both for pandemic as well as for seasonal influenza. This review presents an overview of influenza-related topics to help meet this need and includes a discussion of the burden of disease, virology, epidemiology, viral surveillance, and vaccine strain selection. We then present an overview of influenza vaccine—related topics, including vaccine production, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, influenza vaccine misperceptions, and populations that are recommended to receive vaccination. English-language articles in PubMed published between January 1, 1970, and October 7, 2009, were searched using key words human influenza, influenza vaccines, influenza A, and influenza B. PMID:20118381
Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri
This study examines the impact of past experience with influenza and the influenza vaccine on four categories of the Health Belief Model: beliefs about susceptibility to contracting influenza, severity of illness, perceived benefits of the vaccine in preventing influenza, and perceived barriers to getting vaccinated. The study population comprised…
Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri
This study examines the impact of past experience with influenza and the influenza vaccine on four categories of the Health Belief Model: beliefs about susceptibility to contracting influenza, severity of illness, perceived benefits of the vaccine in preventing influenza, and perceived barriers to getting vaccinated. The study population comprised…
Díez-Domingo, Javier; Garcés-Sanchez, Maria; Baldó, José-María; Planelles, María Victoria; Ubeda, Isabel; JuBert, Angels; Marés, Josep; Moris, Philippe; Garcia-Corbeira, Pilar; Dramé, Mamadou; Gillard, Paul
The development of vaccines against pandemic influenza viruses for use in children is a public health priority. In this phase II, randomized, open study, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of H5N1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (NIBRG-14) (clade 1) prepandemic influenza vaccine were assessed in children aged 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 years. Children were randomized to receive 2 doses, given 21 days apart, of A/Vietnam/1194/2004 vaccine containing 1.9 microg or 3.75 microg hemagglutinin antigen (HA), adjuvanted with a tocopherol-based oil-in-water emulsion (AS03) containing 11.86 mg (AS03(A)) or 5.93 mg (AS03(B)) tocopherol. Control groups received 2 doses of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). Humoral immune responses, reactogenicity, and safety were the primary outcome measures; cross-reactivity and cell-mediated responses were also assessed (NCT00502593). Between 49 and 51 children in each age stratum (aged 3-5 and 6-9 years) received H5N1 vaccine, and between 17 and 18 children in each age stratum received TIV. After the second dose, recipients of H5N1 vaccine (1.9 microg HA/AS03(B), 3.75 microg HA/AS03(B), and 3.75 microg HA/AS03(A)) achieved humoral antibody titers against the vaccine-homologous strain, which fulfilled the United States influenza vaccines licensure criteria for immunogenicity. With the exception of 1 child, there were no H5N1 immune responses in children who received TIV. The most frequent injection-site event was pain in all groups, and the H5N1 vaccine had a clinically acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Exploratory analyses in children aged 3 to 5 years indicated that the induction of CD4 T-cell responses polarized in favor of a T-helper 1 profile. The results showed that 2 doses of AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine at antigen-sparing doses of 1.9 microg or 3.75 microg HA elicited broad and persistent immune responses with acceptable reactogenicity, and without safety concerns, in children aged 3 to 9 years.
Douville, Lauren E; Myers, Angela; Jackson, Mary Anne; Lantos, John D
To determine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of children's hospital health care workers toward mandatory influenza vaccination. Self-administered, Web-based questionnaire. A large, tertiary children's hospital. A random sample of 585 health care workers, including physicians, nurses, and all other hospital employees. Outcome Measure Attitudes of health care workers toward mandatory policies for annual influenza vaccination of health care workers as related to their opinions on safety, effectiveness, and knowledge about influenza and influenza vaccination. Many employees (70%) thought influenza vaccination should be mandatory for health care workers who did not have a medical contraindication. Nearly everyone, 363 of 391 (94%), who favored mandatory immunization had been immunized themselves. Of those who opposed mandatory immunization, 45 of 81 (55.6%) had been immunized (P < .001). Individuals who supported mandatory policies were more likely to believe that the vaccine is safe for both children and adults. There was no significant difference between the percentages of promandate and antimandate employees who believed influenza was dangerous for the patients where they work (66.5% and 62%, respectively, P = .07). Only 29% of antimandate employees believed they were at high risk of contracting influenza, compared with 51% of promandate employees (P < .001). Approval of mandatory influenza vaccine policies was high; however, attitudes about the dangers of influenza for patients were not associated with acceptance of mandatory vaccination policies for health care workers. Educational efforts targeting health care workers' fears and misconceptions about influenza vaccines might help to decrease the reservoir of unimmunized health care workers.
Huang, Yafang; Wang, Huili; Wan, Ling; Lu, Xiaoqin; Tam, Wilson W S
There are conflicts on whether influenza vaccinated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are associated with a decreased immunogenicity and safety, compared with healthy controls. We conducted meta-analyses to compare SLE patients with healthy controls for flu-vaccine immunogenicity, as well as for adverse events.PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library were searched by October 15, 2015. Studies were included when they met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, methodological quality, and outcomes. The primary outcome was seroprotection (SP) rate after immunization.A total of 15 studies were included. There were significant differences in SP rates between the SLE patients and healthy controls, respectively, for H1N1 (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.73-0.87) and B strain (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65-0.87), but not for H3N2 (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.68-1.03). Subgroup analyses demonstrated SLE patients with immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, azathioprine and prednisone had significantly lower SP rates, compared with healthy controls. SLE patients with nonadjuvanted H1N1 vaccine had significantly lower SP rate, compared with healthy controls. SLE patients were not associated with increased adverse events (RR 1.88, 95% CI 0.94-3.77).SLE generates immunogenicity differently, compared with healthy controls in pandemic H1N1 and B strains, but same in seasonal H3N2 strain. Nonadjuvant and special kind of immunosuppressive biologics can play an important role in SLE immunogenicity to flu vaccine. There is no significant difference in adverse event rates between SLE patients and healthy controls.
Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Brydak, Lidia Bernadeta
Influenza is one of the most common respiratory diseases affecting people of all age groups all over the world. Seasonal influenza leads to substantial morbidity and mortality on a global scale. Vaccines are undeniably one of the most important health advances of the past century, however, managing influenza in working populations remains a difficult issue. Vaccination of health care workers (HCW) is an efficient way to reduce the risk of occupational infection and to prevent nosocomial transmission to vulnerable patients. Despite this, achieving high immunization rates among those professionals is a challenge. Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers have significant impact on the frequency with which vaccines are offered and accepted, but many HCWs are poorly equipped to make informed recommendations about vaccine merits and risks. Principal reasons for vaccination are the willing not to be infected and avoiding transmission to patients and the family. The main reasons for refusing is lack of time, a feeling of invulnerability to vaccination, conviction of not being at risk, of being too young or in good health. Misconceptions about influenza vaccine efficacy, like adverse effects, and fear of contracting illness from the vaccine are significantly associated with noncompliance with vaccination. Therefore, strategies to increase awareness of the importance of recommending influenza immunization among health professionals are required.
Amorij, J-P.; Huckriede, A.; Wilschut, J.; Frijlink, H. W.
Influenza vaccination represents the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, today all influenza vaccines are formulated as liquids that are unstable at ambient temperatures and have to be stored and distributed under refrigeration. In order to stabilize influenza vaccines, they can be brought into the dry state using suitable excipients, stabilizers and drying processes. The resulting stable influenza vaccine powder is independent of cold-chain facilities. This can be attractive for the integration of the vaccine logistics with general drug distribution in Western as well as developing countries. In addition, a stockpile of stable vaccine formulations of potential vaccines against pandemic viruses can provide an immediate availability and simple distribution of vaccine in a pandemic outbreak. Finally, in the development of new needle-free dosage forms, dry and stable influenza vaccine powder formulations can facilitate new or improved targeting strategies for the vaccine compound. This review represents the current status of dry stable inactivated influenza vaccine development. Attention is given to the different influenza vaccine types (i.e. whole inactivated virus, split, subunit or virosomal vaccine), the rationale and need for stabilized influenza vaccines, drying methods by which influenza vaccines can be stabilized (i.e. lyophilization, spray drying, spray-freeze drying, vacuum drying or supercritical fluid drying), the current status of dry influenza vaccine development and the challenges for ultimate market introduction of a stable and effective dry-powder influenza vaccine. PMID:18338241
Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Tamames, Sonia
Seasonal influenza is an annual challenge for health-care systems, due to factors such as co-circulation of 2 influenza A subtypes jointly with 2 influenza B lineages; the antigenic drift of these virus, which eludes natural immunity, as well as immunity conferred by vaccination; together with influenza impact in terms of morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccines have been available for more than 70 years and they have progressed in formulation, production and delivery route. Recommendations on vaccination are focused on those with a higher probability of severe disease, and have a progressively wider coverage, and classically based on inactivated vaccines, but with an increasing importance of attenuated live vaccines. More inactivated vaccines are becoming available, from adyuvanted and virosomal vaccines to intradermal delivery, cell-culture or quadrivalent. Overall vaccine effectiveness is about 65%, but varies depending on characteristics of vaccines, virus, population and the outcomes to be prevented, and ranges from less than 10% to almost 90%. Future challenges are formulations that confer more extensive and lasting protection, as well as increased vaccination coverage, especially in groups such as pregnant women and health-care professionals, as well as being extended to paediatrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Neuzil, Kathleen M; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Nyari, Linda J; Bright, Rick A; Boslego, John W
The 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that a pandemic influenza virus has the potential to spread more rapidly in today's highly interconnected world than in the past. While pandemic morbidity and mortality are likely to be greatest in low-resource countries, manufacturing capacity and access to influenza vaccines predominantly exist in countries with greater resources and infrastructure. Even with recently expanded manufacturing capacity, the number of doses available within a 6-month timeframe would be inadequate to fully immunize the global population if the decision to implement a global vaccination program were made today. Improved, affordable vaccines are needed to limit the consequences of a global influenza outbreak and protect low-resource populations. PATH's Influenza Vaccine Project is supporting a range of activities in collaboration with private- and public-sector partners to advance the development of promising influenza vaccines that can be accessible and affordable for people in low-resource countries.
Domachowske, Joseph B; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Bautista, Milagros; Feng, Yang; Claeys, Carine; Peeters, Mathieu; Innis, Bruce L; Jain, Varsha
Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have cocirculated since 2001, yet trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain 1 influenza B antigen, meaning lineage mismatch with the vaccine is frequent. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages vs TIV in healthy children aged 3-17 years. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive QIV or 1 of 2 TIVs (either B/Victoria or B/Yamagata lineage; N = 2738). Hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed 28 days after 1 or 2 doses in primed and unprimed children, respectively. Immunological noninferiority of QIV vs TIV against shared strains, and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was based on geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroconversion rates. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01196988). Noninferiority against shared strains and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was demonstrated for QIV vs TIV. QIV was highly immunogenic; seroconversion rates were 91.4%, 72.3%, 70.0%, and 72.5% against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata, respectively. Reactogenicity and safety of QIV was consistent with TIV. QIV vs TIV showed superior immunogenicity for the additional B strain without interfering with immune responses to shared strains. QIV may offer improved protection against influenza B in children compared with current trivalent vaccines.
Domachowske, Joseph B.; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Bautista, Milagros; Feng, Yang; Claeys, Carine; Peeters, Mathieu; Innis, Bruce L.; Jain, Varsha
Background. Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have cocirculated since 2001, yet trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain 1 influenza B antigen, meaning lineage mismatch with the vaccine is frequent. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages vs TIV in healthy children aged 3–17 years. Methods. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive QIV or 1 of 2 TIVs (either B/Victoria or B/Yamagata lineage; N = 2738). Hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed 28 days after 1 or 2 doses in primed and unprimed children, respectively. Immunological noninferiority of QIV vs TIV against shared strains, and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was based on geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroconversion rates. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01196988). Results. Noninferiority against shared strains and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was demonstrated for QIV vs TIV. QIV was highly immunogenic; seroconversion rates were 91.4%, 72.3%, 70.0%, and 72.5% against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata, respectively. Reactogenicity and safety of QIV was consistent with TIV. Conclusions. QIV vs TIV showed superior immunogenicity for the additional B strain without interfering with immune responses to shared strains. QIV may offer improved protection against influenza B in children compared with current trivalent vaccines. PMID:23470848
de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.
ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345
Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Cox, Rebecca Jane; Haaheim, Lars Reinhardt
Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen, which exerts a huge human and economic toll on society. Influenza is a vaccine preventable disease, however, the vaccine strains must be annually updated due to the continuous antigenic changes in the virus. Inactivated influenza vaccines have been used for over 50 years and have an excellent safety record. Annual vaccination is therefore recommended for all individuals with serious medical conditions, like COPD, and protects the vaccinee against influenza illness and also against hospitalization and death. In COPD patients, influenza infection can lead to exacerbations resulting in reduced quality of life, hospitalization and death in the most severe cases. Although there is only limited literature on the use of influenza vaccination solely in COPD patients, there is clearly enough evidence to recommend annual vaccination in this group. This review will focus on influenza virus and prophylaxis with inactivated influenza vaccines in COPD patients and other “at risk” groups to reduce morbidity, save lives, and reduce health care costs. PMID:18229561
Immunogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens in a hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine in comparison with the licensed Infanrix hexa
Vesikari, Timo; Rivera, Luis; Korhonen, Tiina; Ahonen, Anitta; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Hezareh, Marjan; Janssens, Winnie; Mesaros, Narcisa
ABSTRACT Safety and immunogenicity of 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) were evaluated in a Primary (NCT01248884) and a Booster vaccination (NCT01453998) study. In the Primary study, 721 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation A (DATAPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), or B (DBTBPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) or the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa, GSK; control group) at 2, 3, 4 months of age. Infants were planned to receive a booster dose at 12–15 months of age with the same formulation received in the Primary study; however, following high incidence of fever associated with the investigational formulations in the Primary study, the Booster study protocol was amended and all infants yet to receive a booster dose (N = 385) received the licensed vaccine. In the Primary study, non-inferiority of 3-dose vaccination with investigational formulations compared with the licensed vaccine was not demonstrated due to anti-pertactin failing to meet the non-inferiority criterion. Post-primary vaccination, most infants had seroprotective levels of anti-diphtheria (100% of infants), anti-tetanus antigens (100%), against hepatitis B (≥ 97.5% across groups), polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (≥ 88.0%) and poliovirus types 1–3 (≥ 90.5%). Seropositivity rates for each pertussis antigen were 100% in all groups. Higher incidence of fever (> 38°C) was reported in infants receiving the investigational formulations (Primary study: 75.0% [A] and 72.1% [B] vs 58.8% [control]; Booster study, before amendment: 49.4% and 46.6% vs 37.4%, respectively). The development of the investigational formulations was not further pursued. PMID:28340322
Immunogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens in a hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine in comparison with the licensed Infanrix hexa.
Vesikari, Timo; Rivera, Luis; Korhonen, Tiina; Ahonen, Anitta; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Hezareh, Marjan; Janssens, Winnie; Mesaros, Narcisa
Safety and immunogenicity of 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) were evaluated in a Primary (NCT01248884) and a Booster vaccination (NCT01453998) study. In the Primary study, 721 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation A (DATAPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), or B (DBTBPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) or the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa, GSK; control group) at 2, 3, 4 months of age. Infants were planned to receive a booster dose at 12-15 months of age with the same formulation received in the Primary study; however, following high incidence of fever associated with the investigational formulations in the Primary study, the Booster study protocol was amended and all infants yet to receive a booster dose (N = 385) received the licensed vaccine. In the Primary study, non-inferiority of 3-dose vaccination with investigational formulations compared with the licensed vaccine was not demonstrated due to anti-pertactin failing to meet the non-inferiority criterion. Post-primary vaccination, most infants had seroprotective levels of anti-diphtheria (100% of infants), anti-tetanus antigens (100%), against hepatitis B (≥ 97.5% across groups), polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (≥ 88.0%) and poliovirus types 1-3 (≥ 90.5%). Seropositivity rates for each pertussis antigen were 100% in all groups. Higher incidence of fever (> 38°C) was reported in infants receiving the investigational formulations (Primary study: 75.0% [A] and 72.1% [B] vs 58.8% [control]; Booster study, before amendment: 49.4% and 46.6% vs 37.4%, respectively). The development of the investigational formulations was not further pursued.
Honarvar, Behnam; Odoomi, Neda; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Kashkoli, Golnar Sami; Khavandegaran, Fatemeh; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran; Moghadami, Mohsen
Objective: Vaccination provides the most effective protection against maternal, fetal and neonatal complications of influenza infection. This study aimed to determine the uptake rate of influenza vaccination including 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza vaccination and the reasons for acceptance or rejection among pregnant women. Result: Mean age of the 416 pregnant women enrolled in this study was 27.06 ± 5.27 y. Only 25 (6%) of 397 women had history of vaccination. Of 383 (92.06%) pregnant women who had rejected vaccination, 116 (30.28%) declared that they lacked information about influenza vaccination and 44 (11.48%) felt that they did not need vaccination. Concerns about the safety of influenza vaccination were reported by only 2 women (0.52%). Of the 25 (6%) pregnant women who were vaccinated against influenza, 15 (60%) accepted because of advice they received from persons other than physicians, 5 (20%) believed that influenza vaccination is necessary for everyone, and 3 (12%) accepted because of a history of frequent influenza virus infections in previous years. Method: This questionnaire based study was conducted at obstetrics and maternity hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Pregnant women were interviewed individually and privately. SPSS was used for data analysis. Conclusion: Most of the unvaccinated and vaccinated pregnant women lacked sufficient knowledge about influenza. Education of pregnant women about influenza vaccination and encouragement from physicians may have a remarkable effect on turning poor compliance into high flu vaccination uptake among pregnant women. PMID:23032162
Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Lambach, Philipp; Paget, John; Vandemaele, Katelijn; Fitzner, Julia; Zhang, Wenqing
The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This article reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. Global health databases were searched in three thematic areas - policy, availability and protective benefits in the context of human seasonal influenza vaccine in the tropics and subtropics. We excluded studies on monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine, vaccine safety, immunogenicity and uptake, and disease burden. Seventy-four countries in the tropics and subtropics representing 60% of the world's population did not have a national vaccination policy against seasonal influenza. Thirty-eight countries used the Northern Hemisphere and 21 countries the Southern Hemisphere formulation. Forty-six countries targeted children and 57 targeted the elderly; though, the age cut-offs varied. Influenza vaccine supply increased twofold in recent years. However, coverage remained lower than five per 1000 population. Vaccine protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza in the tropics ranged from 0% to 42% in the elderly, 20-77% in children and 50-59% in healthy adults. Vaccinating pregnant women against seasonal influenza prevented laboratory-confirmed influenza in both mothers (50%) and their infants <6 months (49-63%). Guidelines on vaccine composition, priority risk groups and vaccine availability varied widely. The evidence on vaccine protection was scarce. Countries in the tropics and subtropics need to strengthen and expand their evidence-base required for making informed decisions on influenza vaccine introduction and expansion, and how much benefit to expect. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brown, Derek S; Arnold, Sarah E; Asay, Garrett; Lorick, Suchita A; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Messonnier, Mark L
The use of alternative venues beyond physician offices may help to increase rates of population influenza vaccination. Schools provide a logical setting for reaching children, but most school-located vaccination (SLV) efforts to date have been limited to local areas. The potential reach and acceptability of SLV at the national level is unknown in the United States. To address this gap, we conducted a nationally representative online survey of 1088 parents of school-aged children. We estimate rates of, and factors associated with, future hypothetical parental consent for children to participate in SLV for influenza. Based on logistic regression analysis, we estimate that 51% of parents would be willing to consent to SLV for influenza. Among those who would consent, SLV was reported as more convenient than the regular location (42.1% vs. 19.9%, P<0.001). However the regular location was preferred over SLV for the child's well-being in case of side effects (46.4% vs. 20.9%, P<0.001) and proper administration of the vaccine (31.0% vs. 21.0%, P<0.001). Parents with college degrees and whose child received the 2009-2010 seasonal or 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination were more likely to consent, as were parents of uninsured children. Several measures of concern about vaccine safety were negatively associated with consent for SLV. Of those not against SLV, schools were preferred as more convenient to the regular location by college graduates, those whose child received the 2009-2010 seasonal or 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination, and those with greater travel and clinic time. With an estimated one-half of U.S. parents willing to consent to SLV, this study shows the potential to use schools for large-scale influenza vaccination programs in the U.S.
Gendon, Iu Z
Published data related with comparison studies of safety, efficiency and some other properties of cold-adapted live influenza vaccine (LIV) and of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) are analyzed. LIV and IIV do not differ by systemic reactions after administration; however, it is not ruled out that there can be unfavorable reactions in vaccination of persons with allergy to the chicken-embryo proteins as well as in cases of persistence/reversion of cold-adapted strain observed in vaccination of persons with primary impairments of the immune system. There are no convincing data, up to now, on that LIV is superior to IIV in coping with influenza pandemics. The efficiency of LIV and IIV for children aged 3 years and more and for healthy adults is virtually identical. Additional controllable field comparative studies of LIV and IIV efficiency in immunization of elderly persons are needed. Limited data on LIV efficiency for children aged 2 months and more were obtained. The need in a 2-stage vaccination of all age group with the aim of ensuring responses to all 3 LIV components is, certainly, a LIV disadvantage. In case of IIV, the 2-stage vaccination is needed only for persons who were not ill with influenza. The intranasal LIV administration has, from the practical and psychological standpoints, an advantage before the IIV administration by syringe. The ability of LIV to protect from the drift influenza-virus variations could be its advantage before IIV; still, more research is needed to verify it. Transplantable cell lines meeting the WHO requirements could be an optimal substrate for the production of LIV and IIV. Children are the optimal age group for influenza prevention by cold-adapted LIV, whereas, IIV fits better for vaccination of adults and elderly persons.
Chen, Wilbur H.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Hill, Heather; Noah, Diana L.; Creech, C. Buddy; Patel, Shital M.; Mangal, Brian; Kotloff, Karen L.
Background The national stockpile for influenza pandemic preparedness includes vaccines against an array of strains and adjuvants that could be utilized to induce immunologic priming as a pandemic wave emerges. We assessed the feasibility of a strategy that allows the flexibility of postmanufacture mixture of vaccine and adjuvant at the point of care. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial among healthy adults aged 18–49 years who received 2 doses of inactivated influenza A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1 clade 2.2.3) virus vaccine containing either 3.75, 7.5, or 15 µg of hemagglutinin (HA) with or without AS03 adjuvant, administered 21 days apart. Subjects were observed for local (injection site) and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events. Sera were tested for hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) antibody levels against the homologous strain and 4 heterologous avian strains. Results Vaccine containing ASO3 adjuvant was associated with significantly more local reactions compared with nonadjuvanted vaccine, but these were short-lived and resolved spontaneously. Although the immune response to nonadjuvanted vaccine was poor, 2 doses of AS03-adjuvanted vaccine containing as little as 3.75 µg of HA elicited robust immune responses resulting in seroprotective titers (≥1:40) to the homologous strain in ≥86% of subjects by HAI and in 95% of subjects by MN. Cross-clade antibody responses were also observed with AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, but not nonadjuvanted vaccine. Conclusions AS03 adjuvant formulated with inactivated vaccine at the administration site significantly enhanced the immune responses to H5N1 vaccine and has the potential to markedly improve vaccine responses and accelerate delivery during an influenza pandemic. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01317758. PMID:25734159
Naval Health Research Center Mid-Season Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates for the 2013–2014 Influenza Season Angelia A. Cost...2000–2013 P A G E 1 5 Brief report: mid-season influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates for the 2013–2014 influenza season Angelia A. Cost, PhD...Mid-Season Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates for the 2013–2014 Influenza Season Angelia A
Huber, Victor C
Vaccination against influenza represents our most effective form of prevention. Historical approaches toward vaccine creation and production have yielded highly effective vaccines that are safe and immunogenic. Despite their effectiveness, these historical approaches do not allow for the incorporation of changes into the vaccine in a timely manner. In 2013, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that induces immunity toward the influenza virus hemagglutinin was approved for use in the USA. This vaccine represents the first approved vaccine formulation that does not require an influenza virus intermediate for production. This review presents a brief history of influenza vaccines, with insight into the potential future application of vaccines generated using recombinant technology.
Salleras, Luis; Navas, Encarna; Torner, Nuria; Prat, Andreu A.; Garrido, Patricio; Soldevila, Núria; Domínguez, Angela
The aim of this study was to systematically review published studies that evaluated the efficiency of inactivated influenza vaccination in preventing seasonal influenza in children. The vaccine evaluated was the influenza-inactivated vaccine in 10 studies and the virosomal inactivated vaccine in 3 studies. The results show that yearly vaccination of children with the inactivated influenza vaccine saves money from the societal and family perspectives but not from the public or private provider perspective. When vaccination does not save money, the cost-effectiveness ratios were very acceptable. It can be concluded, that inactivated influenza vaccination of children is a very efficient intervention. PMID:23295894
Immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid aluminum phosphate adjuvanted Haemophilus influenzae type b PRP-CRM197-conjugate vaccine in healthy Japanese children: A phase III, randomized, observer-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study.
Togashi, Takehiro; Mitsuya, Nodoka; Kogawara, Osamu; Sumino, Shuji; Takanami, Yohei; Sugizaki, Kayoko
Broad use of monovalent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines based on the capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP), has significantly reduced invasive Hib disease burden in children worldwide, particularly in children aged <1year. In Japan, PRP conjugated to tetanus toxoid (PRP-T) vaccine has been widely used since the initiation of public funding programs followed by a routine vaccination designation in 2013. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of PRP conjugated to a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant (PRP-CRM197) vaccine with the PRP-T vaccine when administered subcutaneously to healthy Japanese children in a phase III study. Additionally, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety profiles of a diphtheria-tetanus acellular pertussis (DTaP) combination vaccine when concomitantly administered with either PRP-CRM197 or PRP-T vaccines. The primary endpoint was the "long-term seroprotection rate", defined as the group proportion with anti-PRP antibody titers ⩾1.0μg/mL, after the primary series. Long-term seroprotection rates were 99.3% in the PRP-CRM197 group and 95.6% in the PRP-T group. The intergroup difference (PRP-CRM197 group - PRP-T group) was 3.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.099-7.336), demonstrating that PRP-CRM197 vaccine was non-inferior to PRP-T vaccine (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the "short-term seroprotection rate" (anti-PRP antibody titer ⩾0.15μg/mL) before booster vaccination was higher in the PRP-CRM197 group than in PRP-T. Concomitant administration of PRP-CRM197 vaccine with DTaP vaccine showed no differences in terms of immunogenicity compared with concomitant vaccination with PRP-T vaccine and DTaP vaccine. Although CRM197 vaccine had higher local reactogenicity, overall, both Hib vaccines had acceptable safety and tolerability profiles. The immunogenicity of PRP-CRM197 vaccine administered subcutaneously as a three-dose primary series in children followed by a booster vaccination 1year after the
Kang, Kyuri; Han, Seunghoon; Hong, Taegon; Jeon, Sangil; Paek, Jeongki; Kang, Jin Han
Purpose A phase I clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of newly developed egg-cultivated trivalent inactivated split influenza vaccine (TIV) in Korea. Materials and Methods The TIV was administered to 43 healthy male adults. Subjects with high pre-existing titers were excluded in a screening step. Immune response was measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Results The seroprotection rates against A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2) and B/Brisbane/60/2009 were 74.42% [95% confidence interval (CI): 61.38–87.46], 72.09% (95% CI: 58.69–85.50), and 86.05% (95% CI: 75.69–96.40), respectively. Calculated seroconversion rates were 74.42% (95% CI: 61.38–87.46), 74.42% (95% CI: 61.38–87.46), and 79.07% (95% CI: 66.91–91.23), respectively. There were 25 episodes of solicited local adverse events in 21 subjects (47.73%), 21 episodes of solicited general adverse events in 16 subjects (36.36%) and 5 episodes of unsolicited adverse events in 5 subjects (11.36%). All adverse events were grade 1 or 2 and disappeared within three days. Conclusion The immunogenicity and safety of TIV established in this phase I trial are sufficient to plan a larger scale clinical trial. PMID:27593862
In this study we describe the sociodemographic characteristics of people participating in a clinical trial on the safety and immunogenicity of a H5N1 influenza vaccine and we identify the main motivations for joining it. PMID:22452976
Ogimi, Chikara; Tanaka, Risa; Saitoh, Akihiko; Oh-Ishi, Tsutomu
Children with rheumatic diseases receiving immunosuppressive therapy are a high-risk group for influenza virus infection; however, few data are available regarding the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccine for those individuals. This was a prospective study evaluating the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccine in 49 children (mean ± standard deviation: 12.1 ± 4.8 years, age range: 0-21 years) with pediatric rheumatic diseases including juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n = 23), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 12), juvenile dermatomyositis (n = 6), and others (n = 8), who were receiving immunosuppressive therapies. A total of 36 healthy children were selected as a control. The influenza virus type-A and B antibody titers were measured using hemagglutinin inhibition before and after the vaccination. There were no significant differences in the percentage of vaccine recipients with an increase in the serum titers ≥ 4× after vaccination (H1N1, H3N2, and B strain) between the 2 groups (P = 0.49, P = 0.25, P = 0.56, respectively), demonstrating similar immunogenicity of the influenza vaccination between patients and control groups. There were no serious adverse effects related to the vaccine in either group. In the children with pediatric rheumatic diseases receiving immunosuppressive agents, influenza vaccination resulted in serum antibody titers similar to those in the controls without major adverse effects. Such children receiving immunosuppressive therapy are a high-risk group for influenza virus infection, therefore vaccine should be given.
On June 11, 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the outbreaks caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus had reached pandemic proportions. The pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) is the predominant influenza strain in the human population. It has also crossed the species barriers a...
Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study.
Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota
This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3-4-5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17-19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children.
Araz, Ozgur M; Galvani, Alison; Meyers, Lauren A
Pandemic influenza is an international public health concern. In light of the persistent threat of H5N1 avian influenza and the recent pandemic of A/H1N1swine influenza outbreak, public health agencies around the globe are continuously revising their preparedness plans. The A/H1N1 pandemic of 2009 demonstrated that influenza activity and severity might vary considerably among age groups and locations, and the distribution of an effective influenza vaccine may be significantly delayed and staggered. Thus, pandemic influenza vaccine distribution policies should be tailored to the demographic and spatial structures of communities. Here, we introduce a bi-criteria decision-making framework for vaccine distribution policies that is based on a geospatial and demographically-structured model of pandemic influenza transmission within and between counties of Arizona in the Unites States. Based on data from the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, the policy predicted to reduce overall attack rate most effectively is prioritizing counties expected to experience the latest epidemic waves (a policy that may be politically untenable). However, when we consider reductions in both the attack rate and the waiting period for those seeking vaccines, the widely adopted pro rata policy (distributing according to population size) is also predicted to be an effective strategy.
Brydak, L B; Wozniak-Kosek, A; Nitsch-Osuch, A
In Poland between several thousand and several million cases of influenza and suspected influenza cases are registered, depending on the epidemic season. A variety of methods are available for the detection of the influenza viruses responsible for respiratory infection starting with the isolation of the virus in chick embryos or in cell lines such as MDCK, VERO, etc., and finishing with a variety of modifications of the classical PCR molecular biology such as PCR multiplex and Real-Time. The most effective way to combat influenza is through vaccination. Regular vaccination is one of the few steps that may be taken to protect individuals, especially in high-risk groups, from the potential and serious complications of influenza. In many countries, including Poland, despite the recommendations, the rate of vaccination against influenza is still low in all age groups. In the epidemic season 2011/2012, the level of distribution of the seasonal influenza vaccines was 4.5% of the population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Naru; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying
The ongoing threat of influenza epidemics and pandemics has emphasized the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines against infections from divergent influenza viruses. In this review, we first introduce the structure and life cycle of influenza A viruses, describing major influenza A virus-caused pandemics. We then compare different types of influenza vaccines and discuss current advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines, particularly those based on nucleoprotein (NP), extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. We also illustrate potential strategies for improving the efficacy of subunit influenza vaccines. PMID:25529753
Moser, Alexandre; Mabire, Cédric; Hugli, Olivier; Dorribo, Victor; Zanetti, Giorgio; Lazor-Blanchet, Catherine; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas
Influenza is a major concern for Emergency Medical Services (EMS); EMS workers' (EMS-Ws) vaccination rates remain low despite promotion. Determinants of vaccination for seasonal influenza (SI) or pandemic influenza (PI) are unknown in this setting. The influence of the H1N1 pandemic on EMS-W vaccination rates, differences between SI and PI vaccination rates, and the vaccination determinants were investigated. A survey was conducted in 2011 involving 65 Swiss EMS-Ws. Socio-professional data, self-declared SI/PI vaccination status, and motives for vaccine refusal or acceptation were collected. Response rate was 95%. The EMS-Ws were predominantly male (n=45; 73%), in good health (87%), with a mean age of 36 (SD=7.7) years. Seventy-four percent had more than six years of work experience. Self-declared vaccination rates were 40% for both SI and PI (PI+/SI+), 19% for PI only (PI+/SI-), 1.6% for SI only (PI-/SI+), and 39% were not vaccinated against either (PI-/SI-). Women's vaccination rates specifically were lower in all categories but the difference was not statistically significant. During the previous three years, 92% of PI+/SI+ EMS-Ws received at least one SI vaccination; it was 8.3% in the case of PI-/SI- (P=.001) and 25% for PI+/SI- (P=.001). During the pandemic, SI vaccination rate increased from 26% during the preceding year to 42% (P=.001). Thirty percent of the PI+/SI+ EMS-Ws declared that they would not get vaccination next year, while this proportion was null for the PI-/SI- and PI+/SI- groups. Altruism and discomfort induced by the surgical mask required were the main motivations to get vaccinated against PI. Factors limiting PI or SI vaccination included the option to wear a mask, avoidance of medication, fear of adverse effects, and concerns about safety and effectiveness. Average vaccination rate in this study's EMS-Ws was below recommended values, particularly for women. Previous vaccination status was a significant determinant of PI and future
Safety, Immunogenicity, and Antibody Persistence following an Investigational Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae Triple-Protein Vaccine in a Phase 1 Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Adults
Vink, Peter; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Lestrate, Pascal; Boutriau, Dominique
We investigated a protein-based nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and pneumococcal (HiP) vaccine containing pneumococcal histidine triad D (PhtD), detoxified pneumolysin (dPly), and NTHi protein D (PD) in adults. In a phase I study, 40 healthy 18- to 40-year-old subjects were randomized (2:2:1) to receive two HiP doses administered 60 days apart, with or without AS03 adjuvant (HiP-AS and HiP groups, respectively), or Engerix B (GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) as a control. Safety, antibodies, and antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell immune responses were assessed before and until 480 days after vaccination. No serious adverse events were reported, and no subject withdrew due to an adverse event. Local and systemic symptoms were reported more frequently in the HiP-AS group than in the other two groups. The frequency and intensity of local and systemic symptoms appeared to increase after the second dose of HiP-AS or HiP but not Engerix B. Antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for PhtD, dPly, and PD increased after each dose of HiP-AS or HiP, with higher GMCs being observed in the HiP-AS group (statistically significant for anti-PD after dose 1 and anti-Ply after dose 2). GMCs remained higher at day 420 than prior to vaccination in both the HiP-AS and HiP groups. Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells increased after each dose but were unmeasurable by day 480. Two doses of an investigational PhtD-dPly-PD protein vaccine induced humoral immunity and antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses after each dose, with generally higher responses when the vaccine was administered with AS03. HiP combined with AS03 appeared to be more reactogenic than the antigens alone. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00814489.) PMID:24173029
Coelingh, Kathleen L; Luke, Catherine J; Jin, Hong; Talaat, Kawsar R
Avian and animal influenza viruses can sporadically transmit to humans, causing outbreaks of varying severity. In some cases, further human-to-human virus transmission does not occur, and the outbreak in humans is limited. In other cases, sustained human-to-human transmission occurs, resulting in worldwide influenza pandemics. Preparation for future pandemics is an important global public health goal. A key objective of preparedness is to gain an understanding of how to design, test, and manufacture effective vaccines that could be stockpiled for use in a pandemic. This review summarizes results of an ongoing collaboration to produce, characterize, and clinically test a library of live attenuated influenza vaccine strains (based on Ann Arbor attenuated Type A strain) containing protective antigens from influenza viruses considered to be of high pandemic potential.
Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E
Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2015. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, other adult vaccinations are recommended for specific populations based on a person's age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 5.9%); coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic disparities in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Awareness of the need for vaccines for adults is low
Park, Jae-Keun; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.
Influenza viruses are a significant public health threat, causing both annually circulating epidemics and unpredictable pandemics. Vaccination is the best means of control against individual cases of influenza and also for decreasing epidemic spread in the population. However, rapid influenza virus evolution requires continual reformulation of vaccines for annual influenza epidemics, and because pandemics cannot be accurately predicted, no current vaccine strategy can induce broad protection against all subtypes of influenza viruses. Recent work has suggested that such broadly protective, or “universal”, influenza virus vaccines might be achievable using vaccine strategies that target conserved B- and T-cell epitopes. PMID:26977452
Schuind, Anne; Segall, Nathan; Drame, Mamadou; Innis, Bruce L
Cell-culture-derived (CC) influenza vaccine production methods could provide benefits over classical embryonated-egg technology, including a higher production capacity and the faster creation of a supply that meets demand. A CC-inactivated split-virus influenza A/Indonesia/5/2005(H5N1) vaccine derived from the EB66 cell line (hereafter, "CC-H5N1") was investigated in a phase 1 randomized, blinded study. Healthy adults (n = 521) received 2 vaccine doses (days 0 and 21) of either investigational CC-H5N1 vaccine (1.9 µg or 3.75 µg of hemagglutinin antigen [HA] with the AS03 adjuvant system or 15 µg of plain HA), embryonated-egg-derived vaccines (3.75 µg of HA with AS03 or 15 µg of plain HA), or placebo. Assessment of the adjuvant effect and immunogenicity was performed using Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research acceptability criteria 21 days after dose 2. Safety was assessed until month 12. AS03-adjuvanted CC-H5N1 elicited a homologous hemagglutination inhibition antibody response that satisfied immunogenicity criteria 21 days after dose 2 and persisted at month 12. Adjuvant effect and immune response against a drift-variant strain were demonstrated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. The immunogenicity and safety of the CC-H5N1 formulation containing 3.75 µg of HA and AS03 appeared to be similar to those for the licensed egg-derived AS03-adjuvanted control vaccine. The feasibility of the EB66 cell line to produce an immunogenic influenza vaccine with acceptable safety profile was demonstrated. Antigen sparing was achieved through combination with AS03 adjuvant. This CC-H5N1 might contribute to the rapid access of vaccine in the event of an influenza A(H5N1) pandemic. NCT01236040. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Mossad, Sherif B
Influenza vaccination remains our best measure to prevent epidemic and pandemic influenza. We must continue to improve vaccination rates for targeted populations. Antiviral options are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors.
Griffin, Marie R
Each year, an average of 5 to 10 percent of the U.S. population has symptomatic influenza illness, 226,000 persons are hospitalized and 24,000 die due to influenza-associated illness. Hospitalization rates are highest at the extremes of age, about one per 1,000 or higher in infants, persons age 65 and older and persons with chronic medical conditions. Ninety percent of deaths are in persons age 65 and older, but deaths also occur rarely in healthy children and young adults. Current influenza vaccines are moderately effective, with current evidence suggesting that they can prevent about half of influenza-associated symptomatic illness, outpatient visits, hospitalizations and deaths, with the evidence weaker for the most serious complications. Current licensed vaccines have mild immediate adverse effects and serious adverse effects are rare. Annual estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness against the spectrum of clinical illness and in all age groups are needed to evaluate and support current vaccine policies and to help guide more effective vaccine development. Increased use of the current imperfect vaccines could prevent substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S.
Suarez, David L
Vaccination for both low pathogenicity avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used by countries that have become endemic for avian influenza virus, but stamping-out policies are still common for countries with recently introduced disease. Stamping-out policies of euthanatizing infected and at-risk flocks has been an effective control tool, but it comes at a high social and economic cost. Efforts to identify alternative ways to respond to outbreaks without widespread stamping out has become a goal for organizations like the World Organisation for Animal Health. A major issue with vaccination for avian influenza is trade considerations because countries that vaccinate are often considered to be endemic for the disease and they typically lose their export markets. Primarily as a tool to promote trade, the concept of DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) has been considered for avian influenza, but the goal for trade is to differentiate vaccinated and not-infected from vaccinated and infected animals because trading partners are unwilling to accept infected birds. Several different strategies have been investigated for a DIVA strategy, but each has advantages and disadvantages. A review of current knowledge on the research and implementation of the DIVA strategy will be discussed with possible ways to implement this strategy in the field. The increased desire for a workable DIVA strategy may lead to one of these ideas moving from the experimental to the practical.
Friede, M; Serdobova, I; Palkonyay, L; Kieny, M P
Increase of influenza vaccine production capacity in developing countries has been identified as an important element of global pandemic preparedness. Nevertheless, technology transfer for influenza vaccine production to developing country vaccine manufacturers has proven difficult because of lack of interested technology providers. As an alternative to an individual provider-recipient relationship, a technology and training platform (a "hub") for a generic non-proprietary process was established at a public sector European manufacturer's site. The conditions for setting up such a platform and the potential applicability of this model to other biologicals are discussed.
Gentile, A; Juárez, M; Hernandez, S; Moya, A; Bakir, J; Lucion, M
opportunities were detected. Parents had little concern about the safety of influenza vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davenport, F. M.
The history of the development of influenza virus vaccine is traced from its origin with experimental studies of influenza virus in ferrets and mice and the first trials in man. Knowledge of the basis of immunity to the viruses in experimental animals and in man has grown steadily over the years and has been essential to successful immunization. Virus variation affecting the surface antigens of the virus is seen as the principal obstacle to the application of vaccines in man. So significant are the changes occurring during antigenic drift that former concepts of a polyvalent vaccine cannot provide a solution of the problem of the composition of vaccines. Disrupted virus vaccines appear to provide the answer to the prevention of vaccine reactions. PMID:461277
Kattah, Nicole H.; Newell, Evan; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Davis, Mark M.; Utz, Paul J.
Background Existing methods to measure influenza vaccine immunogenicity prohibit detailed analysis of epitope determinants recognized by immunoglobulins. The development of highly multiplex proteomics platforms capable of capturing a high level of antibody binding information will enable researchers and clinicians to generate rapid and meaningful readouts of influenza-specific antibody reactivity. Methods We developed influenza hemagglutinin (HA) whole-protein and peptide microarrays and validated that the arrays allow detection of specific antibody reactivity across a broad dynamic range using commercially available antibodies targeted to linear and conformational HA epitopes. We derived serum from blood draws taken from 76 young and elderly subjects immediately before and 28±7 days post-vaccination with the 2008/2009 trivalent influenza vaccine and determined the antibody reactivity of these sera to influenza array antigens. Results Using linear regression and correcting for multiple hypothesis testing by the Benjamini and Hochberg method of permutations over 1000 resamplings, we identified antibody reactivity to influenza whole-protein and peptide array features that correlated significantly with age, H1N1, and B-strain post-vaccine titer as assessed through a standard microneutralization assay (p<0.05, q <0.2). Notably, we identified several peptide epitopes that were inversely correlated with regard to age and seasonal H1N1 and B-strain neutralization titer (p<0.05, q <0.2), implicating reactivity to these epitopes in age-related defects in response to H1N1 influenza. We also employed multivariate linear regression with cross-validation to build models based on age and pre-vaccine peptide reactivity that predicted vaccine-induced neutralization of seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 influenza strains with a high level of accuracy (84.7% and 74.0%, respectively). Conclusion Our methods provide powerful tools for rapid and accurate measurement of broad antibody-based immune
Eichelberger, Maryna C; Green, Martin D
Every year, > 100 million doses of licensed influenza vaccine are administered worldwide, with relatively few serious adverse events reported. Initiatives to manufacture influenza vaccines on different platforms have come about to ensure timely production of strain-specific as well as universal vaccines. To prevent adverse events that may be associated with these new vaccines, it is important to evaluate the toxicity of new formulations in animal models. This review outlines preclinical studies that evaluate safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness of novel products to support further development and clinical trials. This has been done through a review of the latest literature describing vaccines under development. The objective of preclinical safety tests is to demonstrate the absence of toxic contaminants and adventitious agents. Additional tests that characterize vaccine content more completely, or demonstrate the absence of exacerbated disease following virus challenge in vaccinated animals, may provide additional data to ensure the safety of new vaccine strategies.
... Proclamation 8615--National Influenza Vaccination Week, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0...;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8615 of December 7, 2010 National Influenza Vaccination Week... complications take American lives each year. During National Influenza Vaccination Week, we remind all Americans...
Cooper, Curtis; Thorne, Anona
Clinical experience suggests Oculorespiratory Syndrome (ORS) following influenza vaccination is rare in HIV but this is not well evaluated. We assessed ORS incidence in a randomized influenza vaccine trial of HIV participants. The overall incidence was 0.8% suggesting that influenza vaccine ORS incidence is reduced in HIV.
Herl Jenlink, Carolyn; Kuehnert, Paul; Mazyck, Donna
The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus presented a major challenge to health departments, schools, and other community partners to effectively vaccinate large numbers of Americans, primarily children. The use of school-located vaccination (SLV) programs to address this challenge led health departments and schools to become creative in developing models for…
Herl Jenlink, Carolyn; Kuehnert, Paul; Mazyck, Donna
The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus presented a major challenge to health departments, schools, and other community partners to effectively vaccinate large numbers of Americans, primarily children. The use of school-located vaccination (SLV) programs to address this challenge led health departments and schools to become creative in developing models for…
Avian influenza (AI) vaccines have been developed and used to protect poultry and other birds in various countries of the world. Protection is principally mediated by an immune response to the subtype-specific hemagglutinin (HA) protein. AI vaccines prevent clinical signs of disease, death, egg pr...
Savidan, Emmanuelle; Chevat, Catherine; Marsh, Grenville
We review published economic evaluations of influenza vaccination for children, including direct individual benefits and indirect societal benefits, to determine whether more studies are needed to fully understand the expected benefits of such strategies. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to May 2006 and in-press articles to October 2006 for studies including economic analyses of influenza vaccination in children. Abstracts of all potentially relevant articles were screened. Fifteen relevant articles from 1983 were retained. Most were based on modelling, using previously published data and considered the societal perspective. Three were a part of prospective clinical trials. Various paediatric vaccination scenarios and parameters were considered. Vaccinating children against influenza was cost saving or cost effective in 10/15 studies, cost saving or effective only under certain conditions in three studies, and not cost saving or effective in two studies whatever the outcome or perspective considered. Most published evidence points to an economic interest for society of vaccinating children against influenza. However, differences in study design hinder the comparison of the various vaccination strategies considered. Comparable and complete data on the burden and cost of disease, and the cost of vaccination are needed, especially outside of North America.
Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young
Objective The aims of the present study were to investigate the women's perspective on influenza infection and vaccination and to evaluate how they influence vaccine acceptability, in Korean women of childbearing age. Methods This was a prospective study by random survey of women of childbearing age (20 to 45 years). They were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes and acceptability of influenza vaccination before and during pregnancy. This study utilized data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2008 and 2012, to analyze the recent influenza vaccination trends. Results According to KNHANES (2008-2012), influenza vaccination rates in women of childbearing age have increased up to 26.4%, after 2009. The questionnaire was completed by 308 women. Vaccination rate during pregnancy or planning a pregnancy was 38.6%. The immunization rate increased significantly with the mean number of correct answers (P<0.001). Women who received influenza vaccination were more likely to be previously informed of the recommendations concerning the influenza vaccination before or during pregnancy, received the influenza vaccination in the past, and of the opinion that influenza vaccination is not dangerous during pregnancy, with odds ratios of 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.44 to 33.33; P<0.0001), 3.6 (95% CI, 1.84 to 6.97; P=0.0002) and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.34 to 5.47; P=0.0057). Conclusion Influenza vaccination rate in women of childbearing age has increased in this study and national data. More information and recommendation by healthcare workers, especially obstetricians, including safety of vaccination, might be critical for improving vaccination rate in women of childbearing age. PMID:25798420
Uhart, Mathieu; Bricout, Hélène; Clay, Emilie; Largeron, Nathalie
ABSTRACT Influenza B strains represent on average 23% of all circulating strains in Europe and when there is a vaccine mismatch on B strains, additional influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths as well as substantial additional costs are observed. The objective was to estimate the public health and economic impact of seasonal influenza vaccination with quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV) compared to trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) in Europe (EU). Based on data from 5 EU countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK) during 10 influenza seasons from 2002 to 2013, epidemiological and associated economic outcomes were estimated for each season for the actual scenario where the TIV was used, and for a hypothetical scenario where QIV could have been used instead. By using QIV, this study estimated that for the 5 EU countries, an additional 1.03 million (327.9/100,000 inhabitants) influenza cases, 453,000 (143.9/100,000) general practitioners consultations, 672,000 (213.1/100,000) workdays lost, 24,000 (7.7/100,000) hospitalizations and 10,000 (3.1/100,000) deaths could have been avoided compared to the use of TIV over the 10-seasons-period. This study estimates that QIV can be of economic value since from a societal perspective 15 million Euros would have been saved on general practitioners consultations (14 million Euros from third-party payer perspective), 77 million on hospitalizations (74 million Euros from third-party payer perspective) and 150 million Euros on workdays lost, across the 5 EU countries. In conclusion, the present study estimates that, compared to TIV, QIV may result in a substantial decrease in epidemiological burden and in influenza-related costs. PMID:27166916
Kumar, Supriya; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Kim, Kevin H.; Musa, Donald; Hilyard, Karen M.; Freimuth, Vicki S.
Research on influenza vaccine uptake has focused largely on intrapersonal determinants (perceived risk, past vaccine acceptance, perceived vaccine safety) and on physician recommendation. The authors used a social ecological framework to examine influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Surveying an adult population (n = 2,079) in…
Kumar, Supriya; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Kim, Kevin H.; Musa, Donald; Hilyard, Karen M.; Freimuth, Vicki S.
Research on influenza vaccine uptake has focused largely on intrapersonal determinants (perceived risk, past vaccine acceptance, perceived vaccine safety) and on physician recommendation. The authors used a social ecological framework to examine influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Surveying an adult population (n = 2,079) in…
Bicho, Diana; Queiroz, João António; Tomaz, Cândida Teixeira
Current influenza vaccines have long been used to fight flu infectious; however, recent advances highlight the importance of produce new alternatives. Even though traditional influenza vaccines are safe and usually effective, they need to be uploaded every year to anticipate circulating flu viruses. This limitation together with the use of embryonated chicken eggs as the substrate for vaccine production, is time-consuming and could involve potential biohazards in growth of new virus strains. Plasmid DNA produced by prokaryote microorganisms and encoding foreign proteins had emerged as a promising therapeutic tool. This technology allows the expression of a gene of interest by eukaryotic cells in order to induce protective immune responses against the pathogen of interest. In this review, we discuss the strategies to choose the best DNA vaccine to be applied in the treatment and prevention of influenza. Specifically, we give an update of influenza DNA vaccines developments, all involved techniques, their main characteristics, applicability and technical features to obtain the best option against influenza infections.
Brady, Rebecca C.; Treanor, John J.; Atmar, Robert L.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Edelman, Robert; Chen, Wilbur H.; Winokur, Patricia; Belshe, Robert; Graham, Irene L.; Noah, Diana Lee; Guo, Kuo; Hill, Heather
A total of 600 healthy adults ≥ 65 years were randomized to receive 2 vaccinations 1 month apart of a subvirion avian influenza A/H5N1 vaccine containing 3.75, 7.5, 15, or 45 μg of hemagglutinin (HA) with or without aluminum hydroxide (AlOH). All formulations were safe. Groups given the vaccine with AlOH had more injection site discomfort. Dose-related increases in antibody responses were noted after the second vaccination. Antibody responses to the vaccine were not enhanced by AlOH at any HA dose level. A microneutralization titer ≥ 40 was observed in 36% and 40% of subjects who received 45 μg of HA with or without AlOH, respectively. PMID:19577636
... Influenza Vaccination Subgroup's Draft Report and Draft Recommendations for Achieving the Healthy People 2020 Annual Coverage Goals for Influenza Vaccination in Healthcare Personnel AGENCY: National Vaccine... of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC), Healthcare Personnel Influenza...
Esposito, Susanna; Tagliaferri, Laura; Daleno, Cristina; Valzano, Antonia; Picciolli, Irene; Tel, Francesca; Prunotto, Giulia; Serra, Domenico; Galeone, Carlotta; Plebani, Anna; Principi, Nicola
In order to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of the 2009 A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine administered sequentially or simultaneously with seasonal virosomal-adjuvanted influenza vaccine to HIV-infected children and adolescents, 36 HIV-infected children and adolescents, and 36 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were randomised 1:1 to receive the pandemic vaccine upon enrollment and the seasonal vaccine one month later, or to receive the pandemic and seasonal vaccines simultaneously upon enrollment. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates against the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus were 100% two months after vaccine administration in both groups, regardless of the sequence of administration. Geometric mean titres against pandemic and seasonal antigens were significantly higher when the seasonal and pandemic vaccines were administered simultaneously than when the seasonal vaccine was administered alone. Local and systemic reactions were mild and not increased by simultaneous administration. In conclusion, the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine is as immunogenic, safe and well tolerated in HIV-infected children and adolescents as in healthy controls. Its simultaneous administration with virosomal-adjuvanted seasonal antigens seems to increase immune response to both pandemic and seasonal viruses with the same safety profile as that of the pandemic vaccine alone. However, because this finding cannot be clearly explained by an immunological viewpoint, further studies are needed to clarify the reasons of its occurrence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, D.J.; Ackley, D.H.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.
Although influenza vaccine efficacy is 70--90% in young healthy first-time vaccinees, the efficacy in repeat vaccinees has varied considerably. In some studies, vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was higher than in first-time vaccinees, whereas in other studies vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was significantly lower than in first-time vaccinees and sometimes no higher than in unvaccinated controls. It is known that the closeness of the antigenic match between the vaccine strain and the epidemic virus is important for vaccine effectiveness. In this study the authors show that the antigenic differences between a first vaccine strain and a second vaccine strain, and between the first vaccine strain and the epidemic strain, might account for the observed variation in attack rate among two-time vaccinees.
Phase II, randomized, open, controlled study of AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 pre-pandemic influenza vaccine in children aged 3 to 9 years: follow-up of safety and immunogenicity persistence at 24 months post-vaccination
Díez-Domingo, Javier; Baldó, José-María; Planelles-Catarino, Maria Victoria; Garcés-Sánchez, María; Ubeda, Isabel; Jubert–Rosich, Angels; Marès, Josep; Garcia-Corbeira, Pilar; Moris, Philippe; Teko, Maurice; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Gillard, Paul
Background An AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine elicited broad and persistent immune responses with an acceptable safety profile up to 6 months following the first vaccination in children aged 3–9 years. Methods In this follow-up of the Phase II study, we report immunogenicity persistence and safety at 24 months post-vaccination in children aged 3–9 years. The randomized, open-label study assessed two doses of H5N1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 influenza vaccine (1·9 μg or 3·75 μg hemagglutinin antigen) formulated with AS03A or AS03B (11·89 mg or 5·93 mg tocopherol, respectively). Control groups received seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. Safety was assessed prospectively and included potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs). Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition assay 12 and 24 months after vaccination; cross-reactivity and cell-mediated responses were also assessed. (NCT00502593). Results The safety population included 405 children. Over 24 months, five events fulfilled the criteria for pIMDs, of which four occurred in H5N1 vaccine recipients, including uveitis (n = 1) and autoimmune hepatitis (n = 1), which were considered to be vaccine-related. Overall, safety profiles of the vaccines were clinically acceptable. Humoral immune responses at 12 and 24 months were reduced versus those observed after the second dose of vaccine, although still within the range of those observed after the first dose. Persistence of cell-mediated immunity was strong, and CD4+ T cells with a TH1 profile were observed. Conclusions Two doses of an AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine in children showed low but persistent humoral immune responses and a strong persistence of cell-mediated immunity, with clinically acceptable safety profiles up to 24 months following first vaccination. PMID:25652873
Omer, Saad B; Bednarczyk, Robert; Madhi, Shabir A; Klugman, Keith P
Influenza virus infection contributes to substantial morbidity and mortality globally. Included in the list of groups at higher risk of either influenza infection or severe complications following influenza infection are pregnant women and their newborns. Influenza vaccination offers a safe and effective means to prevent or lessen the severity of influenza infections. Recent research has helped elucidate the impact of influenza infection and vaccination on pregnant women and their newborn children and young infants. This review summarizes recent findings in this area and identifies additional gaps in the evidence base that need to be addressed to appropriately inform vaccination policies worldwide, to protect pregnant women and their children from influenza and related complications.
Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Wise, Lesley; Miller, Elizabeth
Concern about a possible increased risk of Bell's palsy after parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine was raised following the publication in 2004 of a Swiss study in which there was an increased risk following the nasal inactivated formulation of the vaccine. When data from passive reporting systems in the United States and the United Kingdom were examined there was some evidence of increased reporting following the parenteral vaccine. A large population based study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) was therefore performed to test the hypothesis that there was an increased risk of Bell's palsy in the three months following parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine. The risk was also assessed for the same period following pneumococcal vaccine and was stratified into three age groups (<45, 45-64 and 65+ years). Relative incidence (RI) estimates were calculated using the self-controlled case-series method and showed no evidence of an increased risk in the three months following parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine RI 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.78-1.08). There was also no evidence of an increased risk in any age group or following pneumococcal vaccine. A significant increase was seen on the day of vaccination (day 0) probably due to opportunistic recording of cases.
Maurer, Jürgen; Harris, Katherine M; Uscher-Pines, Lori
Influenza vaccination remains below the federally targeted levels outlined in Healthy People 2020. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, racial and ethnic minorities are less likely to be vaccinated for influenza, despite being at increased risk for influenza-related complications and death. Also, vaccinated minorities are more likely to receive influenza vaccinations in office-based settings and less likely to use non-medical vaccination locations compared to non-Hispanic white vaccine users. To assess the number of "missed opportunities" for influenza vaccination in office-based settings by race and ethnicity and the magnitude of potential vaccine uptake and reductions in racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination if these "missed opportunities" were eliminated. National cross-sectional Internet survey administered between March 4 and March 14, 2010 in the United States. Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adults living in the United States (N = 3,418). We collected data on influenza vaccination, frequency and timing of healthcare visits, and self-reported compliance with a potential provider recommendation for vaccination during the 2009-2010 influenza season. "Missed opportunities" for seasonal influenza vaccination in office-based settings were defined as the number of unvaccinated respondents who reported at least one healthcare visit in the Fall and Winter of 2009-2010 and indicated their willingness to get vaccinated if a healthcare provider strongly recommended it. "Potential vaccine uptake" was defined as the sum of actual vaccine uptake and "missed opportunities." The frequency of "missed opportunities" for influenza vaccination in office-based settings was significantly higher among racial and ethnic minorities than non-Hispanic whites. Eliminating these "missed opportunities" could have cut racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination by roughly one half. Improved office-based practices regarding influenza
Bartz, H; von Knebel-Döberitz, M
As a result of decreasing willingness to be vaccinated some diseases, which seemingly had been eradicated, may reappear. One example for this is the increase of measles cases in the United Kingdom since the 1990s after a decrease of immunization rate in response to a subsequently discredited publication suggesting a link between the triple measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. As the incidence of vaccine preventable diseases decreases, vaccine safety dominates personal risk-benefit analysis. To deal with such concerns this review discusses pre- and post-licensing procedures controlling vaccine safety, taking HPV vaccination as well as vaccination against rotavirus as examples.
Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri
This study examines the impact of past experience with influenza and the influenza vaccine on four categories of the Health Belief Model: beliefs about susceptibility to contracting influenza, severity of illness, perceived benefits of the vaccine in preventing influenza, and perceived barriers to getting vaccinated. The study population comprised employees at different workplaces in Israel. The results indicate that individuals who took flu shots in the past perceived higher levels of benefits from the vaccine and lower barriers to getting the vaccine than those who had not been vaccinated. In addition, those who had influenza over the last 2 years exhibited higher levels of perceived susceptibility and lower levels of perceived benefits from the vaccine. These results imply that an individual's health beliefs regarding the flu vaccine can be changed as a result of accumulated experience with the illness and the vaccine. Therefore, recommendations for first-time vaccination may have implications on decisions to be vaccinated over the long run.
Madan, Anuradha; Segall, Nathan; Ferguson, Murdo; Frenette, Louise; Kroll, Robin; Friel, Damien; Soni, Jyoti; Li, Ping; Innis, Bruce L.; Schuind, Anne
Background. Almost 700 cases of human infection with avian influenza A/H7N9 have been reported since 2013. Pandemic preparedness strategies include H7N9 vaccine development. Methods. We evaluated an inactivated H7N9 vaccine in an observer-blind study in healthy adults aged 18–64 years. Participants (420) were randomized to receive 1 of 4 AS03-adjuvanted vaccines (low or medium dose of hemagglutinin with AS03A or AS03B), one nonadjuvanted vaccine, or placebo. The coprimary immunogenicity objective determined whether adjuvanted vaccines elicited an immune response against the vaccine-homologous virus, 21 days after the second vaccine dose per US and European licensure criteria in the per-protocol cohort (n = 389). Results. All adjuvanted vaccines met regulatory acceptance criteria. In groups receiving adjuvanted formulations, seroconversion rates were ≥85.7%, seroprotection rates ≥91.1%, and geometric mean titers ≥92.9% versus 23.2%, 28.6%, and 17.2 for the nonadjuvanted vaccine. The AS03 adjuvant enhanced immune response at antigen-sparing doses. Injection site pain occurred more frequently with adjuvanted vaccines (in ≤98.3% of vaccinees) than with the nonadjuvanted vaccine (40.7%) or placebo (20.0%). None of the 20 serious adverse events reported were related to vaccination. Conclusions. Two doses of AS03-adjuvanted H7N9 vaccine were well tolerated and induced a robust antibody response at antigen-sparing doses in healthy adults. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01999842. PMID:27609809
Mohn, Kristin G-I; Smith, Ingrid; Sjursen, Haakon; Cox, Rebecca
Since 2003 (US) and 2012 (Europe) the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been used as an alternative to the traditional inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV). The immune responses elicted by LAIV mimic natural infection and have been found to provide broader clinical protection in children compared to the IIVs. However, our knowledge of the detailed immunological mechanisims induced by LAIV remain to be fully elucidated, and despite 14 years on the global market, there exists no correlate of protection. Recently, matters are further complicated by differing efficacy data from the US and Europe which are not understood. Better understanding of the immune responses after LAIV may aid in achieving the ultimate goal of a future "universal influenza vaccine". In this review we aim to cover the current understanding of the immune responses induced after LAIV.
Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L.; MacDonald, Judy; Collins, Ramona; Frank, Christine J.; Davis, Amy E.
Background School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns. Purpose We explored parents’ perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program. Participants Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone. Findings Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV), Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support), families (e.g. convenience), the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities), the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness) and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles). Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized), families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions) and the education sector (loss of instructional time). Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process. Conclusions Parents perceived advantages and
Lehmann, Birthe A; Chapman, Gretchen B; Franssen, Frits M E; Kok, Gerjo; Ruiter, Robert A C
The prevention of health care acquired infections is an important objective for patient safety and infection control in all health care settings. Influenza vaccination uptake among health care workers (HCWs) is the most effective method to prevent transmission to patients, but vaccination coverage rates are low among HCWs. Several educational campaigns have been developed to increase the influenza vaccination coverage rates of HCWs, but showed only small effects. The aim of this study was to test an opt-out strategy in promoting uptake among HCWs in a tertiary care center for patients with complex chronic organ failure. HCWs were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the opt-out condition (N=61), participants received an e-mail with a pre-scheduled appointment for influenza vaccination, which could be changed or canceled. In the opt-in condition (N=61), participants received an e-mail explaining that they had to schedule an appointment if they wanted to get vaccinated. The findings show no statistically detectable effect of condition on being vaccinated against influenza. However, HCWs in the opt-out condition were more likely to have an appointment for influenza vaccination, which in turn increased the probability of getting vaccinated. To change the default to promote influenza vaccination among HCWs might be an easy and cost-effective alternative to the complex vaccination campaigns that have been proposed in recent years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Rashid, Harunor; Shafi, Shuja; Haworth, Elizabeth; Memish, Ziad A; El Bashir, Haitham; Ali, Kamal A; Booy, Robert
In pilgrims returning to the UK from the Hajj in 2005 and 2006, protection from PCR-confirmed influenza by influenza vaccine was estimated using verified vaccination histories from those with symptoms consistent with influenza. Of 538 patients whose nasal swabs were analysed and immunisation histories confirmed 115 (21%) were in a high-risk group for influenza; half of these (58/115) were immunised against influenza, compared with a fifth (90/423) of those not at high risk. Five percent of vaccinated 'at risk' pilgrims compared with 14% of unvaccinated (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.1-1.4) had confirmed influenza. Rates of influenza in vaccinated and unvaccinated 'not at risk' pilgrims were similar (10% vs. 11%). Seasonal influenza vaccine was insignificantly protective against influenza in Hajj pilgrims.
Poeppl, Wolfgang; Lagler, Heimo; Raderer, Markus; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Zielinski, Christoph; Herkner, Harald; Burgmann, Heinz
Patients with malignancies are at increased risk of serious influenza related complications with higher rates of hospitalization and mortality than healthy cohorts. Although annual vaccination against influenza infection is recommended, vaccination rates among cancer patients are apparently low. The reasons for the low compliance to influenza vaccine and the influenza vaccination rate among Austrian cancer patients have not been studied in detail yet. From July 1, 2013 to October 31, 2013, 444 patients treated in the outpatient departments of the Clinical Division of Oncology and the Clinical Division of Haematology and Haemostaseology of the General Hospital Vienna participated in a survey on different aspects of influenza vaccination. In total, only 80 out of 444 patients (18%) had received influenza vaccination in the previous year. The influenza vaccination rate was higher amongst patients with haematological malignancies (22%) compared to patients with solid tumours (13%). Higher age was significantly associated with a higher probability for being vaccinated. Collecting information about influenza vaccination primarily from media or the internet was not significantly associated with influenza vaccination status. Information through a medical consultation or a recommendation by the attending physician resulted in significant higher influenza vaccination coverage rates. Only 199 out of the 444 patients (44.8%) were informed by a physician about influenza vaccination and only 18 out of 337 patients (5.3%) with a diagnosis of a malignant disease were informed by their treating oncologist. The main reasons for influenza vaccination denial were concerns about interaction with the malignant disease and potential side-effects. Information about influenza vaccination during a medical consultation and a clear recommendation by the attending physician are highly predictive for acceptance of influenza vaccination. Increased awareness among physicians, especially
Tabynov, Kaissar; Yespembetov, Bolat; Matikhan, Nurali; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Zinina, Nadezhda; Kydyrbayev, Zhailaubay; Assanzhanova, Nurika; Tabynov, Kairat; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Mukhitdinova, Gulnara; Sansyzbay, Abylai
Previously we developed and evaluated a candidate influenza viral vector based Brucella abortus vaccine (Flu-BA) administered with a potent adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in cattle, which was found safe and highly effective. This study was aimed to establish a proof-of-concept of the efficacy of Flu-BA vaccine formulation in sheep and goats. We vaccinated sheep and goats with Flu-BA vaccine and as a positive control vaccinated a group of animals with a commercial B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine. Clinically, both Flu-BA and Rev.1 vaccines were found safe. Serological analysis showed the animals received Flu-BA vaccine did not induce antibody response against Brucella Omp16 and L7/L12 proteins during the period of our study (56days post-initial vaccination, PIV). But observed significant antigen-specific T cell response indicated by increased lymphocyte stimulation index and enhanced secretion of IFN-γ at day 56 PIV in Flu-BA group. The Flu-BA vaccinated animals completely protected 57.1% of sheep and 42.9% of goats against B. melitensis 16M challenge. The severity of brucellosis in terms of infection index and colonization of Brucella in tissues was significantly lower in the Flu-BA group compared to negative control animals group. Nevertheless, positive control commercial Rev.1 vaccine provided strong antigen-specific T cell immunity and protection against B. melitensis 16M infection. We conclude that the Flu-BA vaccine induces a significant antigen-specific T-cell response and provides complete protection in approximately 50% of sheep and goats against B. melitensis 16M infection. Further investigations are needed to improve the efficacy of Flu-BA and explore its practical application in small ruminants.
Perdue, Michael L; Arnold, Frank; Li, Sheng; Donabedian, Armen; Cioce, Vittoria; Warf, Thomas; Huebner, Robert
Influenza vaccines have been prepared in embryonated chicken eggs and used for more than 60 years. Although this older technology is adequate to produce hundreds of millions of doses per year, most viral vaccines are now being produced in cell culture platforms. The question of whether egg-based influenza vaccines will continue to serve the needs of the growing influenza vaccine market is considered here. In 2006, the US government committed to support the development of cell-based influenza vaccines by funding advanced development and expansion of domestic manufacturing infrastructure. Funding has also been provided for other recombinant DNA approaches that do not depend on growth of influenza viruses. As the influenza vaccine industry expands over the next 5-10 years, it will be interesting to follow which of these various technologies are able to best meet the needs of a growing influenza vaccine market.
Poder, Airi; Simurka, Pavol; Li, Ping; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David
Vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent influenza. This observer-blind, randomized study in children 10-17 years of age assessed whether the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses elicited by H1N1/2009 vaccines adjuvanted with AS03 (an adjuvant system containing α-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion) or without adjuvant, met the European regulatory immunogenicity criteria at Days 21 and 182. Three hundred and ten healthy children were randomized (3:3:3:5) to receive one dose of 3.75 μg hemagglutinin (HA) AS03A-adjuvanted vaccine, one or two doses of 1.9 μg HA AS03B-adjuvanted vaccine, or one dose of 15 μg HA pandemic vaccine. All children received a booster dose of the allocated vaccine at Day 182. Serum samples were tested for HI antibody response at Days 21, 42, 182 and 189. All vaccination regimens elicited HI antibody responses that met the European regulatory criteria at Days 21 and 42. HI antibody responses fulfilling European regulatory criteria were still observed six months after the first vaccine dose in all study vaccines groups. Two doses of 1.9 μg HA AS03B-adjuvanted vaccine elicited the strongest HI antibody response throughout the study. The non-adjuvanted 15 μg HA vaccine elicited a lower HI antibody response than the AS03-adjuvanted vaccines. At Day 189, the European regulatory criteria were met for all vaccines with baseline HI antibody titers as reference. An anamnestic response for all vaccines was suggested at Day 189, based on the rapid increase in HI antibody geometric mean titers (1.5-2.5-fold increase). Injection site reactogenicity was higher following the AS03-adjuvanted vaccines compared with the non-adjuvanted vaccine. No safety concerns were identified for any study vaccine. All study vaccines elicited HI antibody responses that persisted at purported protective levels through six months after vaccination and fulfilled the European regulatory criteria. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published
Arya, Bikas K; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Saha, Malay K; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Moss, William J; Panda, Samiran; Das, Ranjan Saurav; Mallick, Mausom; Mandal, Sutapa
Children living with HIV are at increased risk of disease from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Data are limited on the immunogenicity of a two-dose, catch-up schedule for Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) among HIV-infected children accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) late. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate baseline immunity to Hib and the immunogenicity and safety of two doses of HibCV among HIV-infected Indian children; and (2) document the threshold antibody level required to prevent Hib colonization among HIV-infected children following immunization. We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-infected children 2-15 years of age and HIV-uninfected children 2-5 years of age. HIV-infected children received two doses of HibCV and uninfected children received one. Serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies were measured at baseline and two months after immunization in the HIV-infected children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected at baseline and follow-up. 125 HIV-infected and 44 uninfected children participated. 40% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART and 26% had a viral load >100,000 copies/mL. The geometric mean concentration of serum anti-Hib PRP antibody increased from 0.25 μg/mL at baseline to 2.65 μg/mL after two doses of HibCV, representing a 10.6-fold increase (p<0.0001). 76% percent of HIV-infected children mounted an immune response. Moderate or severe immune suppression, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, and lower baseline antibody levels were associated with lower post-vaccine serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies. A serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibody level ≥ 3.3 μg/mL was protective against Hib NP colonization. There were no differences in adverse events between HIV-infected and uninfected children. Including a catch-up immunization schedule for older HIV infected children in countries introducing Hib vaccines is important. Older HIV-infected children with delayed access to ART and without suppressed viral loads
Patel, Sapna; Faraj, Yasser; Duso, Debra K; Reiley, William W; Karlsson, Erik A; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Vajdy, Michael
Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS), based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus. Vaccinations of inbred Brag Albino strain c (BALB/c) mice, with HA mixed with NIDS compared to other adjuvants, i.e., a squalene oil in water emulsion (Sq. oil), and the Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist Poly (I:C), induced significantly lower select innate pro-inflammatory responses in serum, but induced significantly higher adaptive antibody and splenic T Helper 1 (TH1) or TH2, but not TH17, responses. Vaccinations with NIDS protected against infection, as measured by clinical scores, lung viral loads, and serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. The NIDS exhibited a strong dose sparing effect and the adjuvant action of NIDS was intact in the outbred CD1 mice. Importantly, vaccinations with the Sq. oil, but not NIDS, induced a significantly higher Serum Amyloid P component, an acute phase reactant secreted by hepatocytes, and total serum IgE. Thus, the NIDS may be used as a clinically safer and more efficacious vaccine adjuvant against influenza, and potentially other infectious diseases.
Patel, Sapna; Faraj, Yasser; Duso, Debra K.; Reiley, William W.; Karlsson, Erik A.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Vajdy, Michael
Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS), based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus. Vaccinations of inbred Brag Albino strain c (BALB/c) mice, with HA mixed with NIDS compared to other adjuvants, i.e., a squalene oil in water emulsion (Sq. oil), and the Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist Poly (I:C), induced significantly lower select innate pro-inflammatory responses in serum, but induced significantly higher adaptive antibody and splenic T Helper 1 (TH1) or TH2, but not TH17, responses. Vaccinations with NIDS protected against infection, as measured by clinical scores, lung viral loads, and serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. The NIDS exhibited a strong dose sparing effect and the adjuvant action of NIDS was intact in the outbred CD1 mice. Importantly, vaccinations with the Sq. oil, but not NIDS, induced a significantly higher Serum Amyloid P component, an acute phase reactant secreted by hepatocytes, and total serum IgE. Thus, the NIDS may be used as a clinically safer and more efficacious vaccine adjuvant against influenza, and potentially other infectious diseases. PMID:28531130
Kim, Hanna; Lindley, Megan C.; Dube, Donna; Kalayil, Elizabeth J.; Paiva, Kristi A.; Raymond, Patricia
Context In October 2012, the Rhode Island Department of Health (HEALTH) amended its health care worker (HCW) vaccination regulations to require all HCWs to receive annual influenza vaccination or wear a surgical mask during direct patient contact when influenza is widespread. Unvaccinated HCWs failing to wear a mask are subject to a fine and disciplinary action. Objective To describe the implementation of the 2012 Rhode Island HCW influenza vaccination regulations and examine their impact on vaccination coverage. Design Two data sources were used: (1) a survey of all health care facilities subject to the HCW regulations and (2) HCW influenza vaccination coverage data reported to HEALTH by health care facilities. Descriptive statistics and paired t tests were performed using SAS Release 9.2. Setting and participants For the 2012-2013 influenza season, 271 inpatient and outpatient health care facilities in Rhode Island were subject to the HCW regulations. Main Outcome Measure Increase in HCW influenza vaccination coverage. Results Of the 271 facilities, 117 facilities completed the survey (43.2%) and 160 facilities reported vaccination data to HEALTH (59.0%). Between the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 influenza seasons, the proportion of facilities having a masking policy, as required by the revised regulations, increased from 9.4% to 94.0% (P< .001). However, the proportion of facilities implementing Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices–recommended strategies to promote HCW influenza vaccination did not increase. The majority of facilities perceived benefits to collecting HCW influenza vaccination data, including strengthening infection prevention efforts (83.2%) and improving patient and coworker safety (75.2%). Concurrent with the new regulations, influenza vaccination coverage among employee HCWs in Rhode Island increased from 69.7% in the 2011-2012 influenza season to 87.2% in the 2012-2013 season. Conclusion Rhode Island's experience demonstrates that
Fukase, Hiroyuki; Furuie, Hidetoshi; Yasuda, Yuji; Komatsu, Ryoya; Matsushita, Kenji; Minami, Taketsugu; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Kusadokoro, Haruko; Sawata, Hiroshi; Nakura, Noriko; Lattanzi, Maria
Effective vaccination strategies are required to combat future influenza pandemics. Here we report the results of three independent clinical trials performed in Japan to assess the immunogenicity, tolerability and safety of varying doses of a cell culture-derived MF59(®)-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic vaccine in healthy Japanese paediatric, adult and elderly subjects. One hundred and twenty-three children (6 months-18 years), and 200 adults (19-60 years) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses of vaccine containing either 7.5 μg antigen with a full (9.75 mg) adjuvant dose, or 3.75 μg antigen with a half (4.875 mg) adjuvant dose. One hundred elderly (≥ 61 years) subjects received only the low antigen/adjuvant vaccine formulation. Immunogenicity was assessed by haemagglutination inhibition assay at baseline and three weeks after the first and second vaccine doses on Days 22 and 43, respectively. Solicited and unsolicited adverse reactions were recorded for seven and 21 days post-immunization, respectively. In adult and elderly subjects, a single low antigen/adjuvant dose vaccination was sufficient to meet all of the three European licensure criteria established for influenza vaccines. One high, or two low antigen/adjuvant dose vaccinations were required to meet the licensure criteria in paediatric subjects. Both vaccine formulations were well tolerated, with the majority of adverse reactions mild to moderate in severity. None of the five serious adverse events reported throughout the three trials were considered to be vaccine-related by the investigators. The use of MF59 adjuvant allows for much reduced vaccine antigen content, and a single dose administration schedule in adults and the elderly. The production of pandemic vaccine using modern cell culture techniques is highly advantageous in terms of the quantity, quality, and rapidity of antigen production; these benefits, in combination with the use of MF59, maximize manufacturing capacity and
Zheng, M; Luo, J; Chen, Z
Vaccination is the safest and most effective measure against influenza virus infections. However, traditional influenza vaccines cannot respond effectively to an unforeseen epidemic or pandemic caused by a virus with antigenic drifts or antigenic shifts. Therefore, developing a universal influenza vaccine (UIV) that induces broad-spectrum and long-term immunity has become a major trend in influenza vaccine research and development. This article reviews the development of UIVs based on these conserved influenza virus proteins. The matrix protein (M1, M2) and nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza viruses have highly conserved sequences, and they become the major target antigens of current UIV studies.
Taylor, Eric G.; Atkins, Katherine E.; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Galvani, Alison P.
Objective Americans do not vaccinate nearly enough against Influenza (flu) infection, despite severe health and economic burden of influenza. Younger people are disproportionately responsible for transmission, but do not suffer severely from the flu. Thus, to achieve herd immunity, prosocial motivation needs to be a partial driver of vaccination decisions. Past research has not established the causal role of prosociality in flu vaccination, and the current research evaluates such causal relationship by experimentally eliciting prosociality through messages about flu victims. Methods In an experimental study, we described potential flu victims who would suffer from the decision of others to not vaccinate to 3952 Internet participants across eight countries. We measured sympathy, general prosociality, and vaccination intentions. The study included two identifiable victim conditions (one with an elderly victim and another with a young victim), an unidentified victim condition, and a no message condition. Results We found that any of the three messages increased flu vaccination intentions. Moreover, this effect was mediated by enhanced prosocial motives, and was stronger among people who were historical non-vaccinators. In addition, younger victim elicited greater sympathy, and describing identifiable victims increased general sympathy and prosocial motives. Conclusions These findings provide direct experimental evidence on the causal role of prosocial motives in flu vaccination, by showing that people can be prompted to vaccinate for the sake of benefiting others. PMID:27459237
Fisher, Barbra M; Scott, Janice; Hart, Jan; Winn, Virginia D; Gibbs, Ronald S; Lynch, Anne M
We examined vaccination rates during pregnancy against both seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza and reasons for nonadherence to recommended guidelines during the 2009 through 2010 influenza season. Demographic and vaccination data were collected using a cross-sectional approach. Among 813 postpartum women, 520 (64%) reported receiving the seasonal influenza vaccination and 439 (54%) reported receiving the H1N1 influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Most received vaccinations at their obstetrician's office. Major reasons for not receiving vaccination were: not knowledgeable about the vaccine importance (25%), concerns for effects on fetal and maternal health (18% and 9%, respectively), and not knowledgeable about where to obtain vaccination (9%). Reported H1N1 influenza vaccination rates were significantly lower in blacks (37%) compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asian/other (57%, 59%, and 58%, respectively; P < .0001). Subsequent campaigns for improving vaccination rates in pregnancy should focus on educating patients about vaccine importance and safety. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Plasai, Valaikanya; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Viputsiri, Ong-Arj; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn; Panichpathompong, Usa; Tarnmaneewongse, Veerachai; Baron-Papillon, Florence; Cheunkitmongkol, Sunate
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of influenza vaccinations among the elderly in Bangkok in reducing influenza-like illness (ILI) and influenza-related complications. Using a non-randomized, controlled, prospective methodology, healthy, active people aged 60 years or more, living in the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) area, were studied. The two study cohorts comprised 519 persons in the vaccinated group and 520 in the non-vaccinated group. The outcome under study was influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported by the study volunteers. The two groups were comparable for most socio-demographic characteristics, except for gender, level of education, marital status, and smoking habit. The age range was 60-88 years (mean: 68 years). Females outnumbered males in both groups, with ratio of female to male of 2.6:1 and 1.9:1 in the vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups, respectively. The top three co-morbidities among these groups were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease, in that order. Only 1% of the volunteers reported lung disease as co-morbidity. During the 12-month study period, a total of 107 volunteers reported ILI in both groups, with 38 persons in the vaccinated group and 69 persons in the non-vaccinated group. There were 46 ILI episodes in the vaccinated group, and 86 in the non-vaccinated group, for a total of 132 episodes. The incidence rates rates of influenza in this population, therefore, were 8.9% for the vaccinated and 16.9% for the non-vaccinated groups; with a reduction in the rate of reported ILI and doctor visits of 8%. Vaccine effectiveness was rated at 47.6%, crude risk ratio at 1.9 (1.33-2.75), and adjusted risk ratio at 1.92 (95% CI: 1.25-2.95), after adjustment for gender, marital status, education, and smoking habit. No complications due to ILI were observed in this population during the study period. Hospitalizations during this period were due to non-ILI related causes, such as cancer and accident.
A randomized, dose-ranging assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine vs. co-administration of DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines in 12 to 24 months old Filipino toddlers
Quiambao, Beatriz; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Kolhe, Devayani; Gatchalian, Salvacion
As progress toward global poliovirus eradication continues, more and more countries are moving away from use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) to inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) in national vaccination schedules. Reduction of antigen dose in IPV could increase manufacturing capacity and facilitate the change from OPV to IPV. Combination vaccines reduce the number of injections required to complete vaccination, thus playing an important role in maintaining high vaccine coverage with good public acceptability. Three formulations of a combined, candidate hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) differing only in IPV antigen content (full-dose, half-dose and one-third dose as compared with available stand-alone IPV vaccines), were evaluated when administered to healthy toddlers. Controls received separately administered licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines. Immunogenicity was assessed before and one month after vaccination. Safety and reactogenicity data were assessed for 30 d after vaccination. A total of 312 Filipino children were vaccinated in their second year of life. Each DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation was non-inferior to control in terms of pre-defined criteria for IPV immunogenicity. Post-vaccination GMTs against each poliovirus type were increased between 4.2- and 37.9-fold over pre-vaccination titers. Non-inferiority to other vaccine antigens was also demonstrated. The safety profile of the 3 DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulations resembled licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib Kft and IPV in terms of the frequency and intensity of adverse reactions after vaccination. Further investigation of DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib containing reduced quantity of IPV antigen for primary vaccination in infants is warranted. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT number: NCT01106092 PMID:22330958
A randomized, dose-ranging assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine vs. co-administration of DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines in 12 to 24 months old Filipino toddlers.
Quiambao, Beatriz; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Kolhe, Devayani; Gatchalian, Salvacion
As progress toward global poliovirus eradication continues, more and more countries are moving away from use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) to inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) in national vaccination schedules. Reduction of antigen dose in IPV could increase manufacturing capacity and facilitate the change from OPV to IPV. Combination vaccines reduce the number of injections required to complete vaccination, thus playing an important role in maintaining high vaccine coverage with good public acceptability. Three formulations of a combined, candidate hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) differing only in IPV antigen content (full-dose, half-dose and one-third dose as compared with available stand-alone IPV vaccines), were evaluated when administered to healthy toddlers. Controls received separately administered licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines. Immunogenicity was assessed before and one month after vaccination. Safety and reactogenicity data were assessed for 30 d after vaccination. A total of 312 Filipino children were vaccinated in their second year of life. Each DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation was non-inferior to control in terms of pre-defined criteria for IPV immunogenicity. Post-vaccination GMTs against each poliovirus type were increased between 4.2- and 37.9-fold over pre-vaccination titers. Non-inferiority to other vaccine antigens was also demonstrated. The safety profile of the 3 DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulations resembled licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib Kft and IPV in terms of the frequency and intensity of adverse reactions after vaccination. Further investigation of DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib containing reduced quantity of IPV antigen for primary vaccination in infants is warranted. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT number: NCT01106092.
Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide
In Japan, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is the only approved influenza vaccine. It is typically administrated by hypodermic injection, and children under 13 years of age are recommended to be vaccinated two times during each winter season. Live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is administered by a thimerosal-free nasal spray. If LAIV is approved in the future in Japan, parents will have an alternative type of influenza vaccine for their children. This study investigated parents' preference for the type of seasonal influenza vaccine for their children if alternatives are available. The marginal willingness to pay for vaccine benefits was also evaluated. We conducted a discrete choice experiment, a quantitative approach that is often used in healthcare studies, in January 2013. Respondents were recruited from a registered online survey panel, and parents with at least one child under 13 years of age were offered questionnaires. This study showed that for seasonal influenza vaccines for their children, parents are more likely to value safety, including thimerosal-free vaccines and those with a lower risk of adverse events, instead of avoiding the momentary pain from an injection. If LAIV is released in Japan, the fact that it is thimerosal-free could be an advantage. However, for parents to choose LAIV, they would need to accept the slightly higher risk of minor adverse events from LAIV.
Cherdantsev, A P; Kostinov, M P; Kuselman, A I; Voznesenskaia, N V
Evaluation of alterations of immune response regulation and possible risk of antenatal development of fetus in postvaccination period in pregnant women immunized against influenza A (H1N1). Women were vaccinated with MonoGrippol plus vaccine in the II trimester of physiological pregnancy. At certain intervals ofthe vaccination period (before the vaccination, 7 and 30 days after the vaccination) major biochemical markers in blood sera (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, urea) and levels of key cytokines in spontaneous and stimulated test (IL-1alpha, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFNgamma, TNFalpha) were evaluated. Vaccination safety for the fetus and trophoblast development was evaluated by using human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and trophoblasitc beta-1-glycoprotein (TBG) levels. During vaccination in 13% of cases mild local reactions were noted, in 26.1%--general systemic reactions in the form of weakness, dizziness and headaches. Levels of major biochemical markers at days 7 and 30 after the vaccination did not have any significant difference from the initial values (p > 0.05). Cytokine levels in spontaneous and stimulated tests also did not change significantly. Markers of the course of pregnancy and fetus development (HCG, AFP and TBG) in the two groups observed had comparable values. Vaccination of pregnant women against influenza A (H1N1) by Russian subunit formulation (MonoGrippol plus) showed reactogenicity comparable to control group by the level of influence on general metabolic and immunologic homeostasis and on the course of pregnancy, which is an evidence of its safety.
Wu, Joel T.; Poland, Gregory A.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Tilburt, Jon C.
Despite improvements in clinician education, symptom awareness, and respiratory precautions, influenza vaccination rates for health care workers have remained unacceptably low for more than three decades, adversely affecting patient safety. When public health is jeopardized, and a safe, low-cost, and effective method to achieve patient safety exists, health care organizations and public health authorities have a responsibility to take action and change the status quo. Mandatory influenza vaccination for health care workers is supported not only by scientific data but also by ethical principles and legal precedent. The recent influenza pandemic provides an opportunity for policymakers to reconsider the benefits of mandating influenza vaccination for health care workers, including building public trust, enhancing patient safety, and strengthening the health care workforce. PMID:21228284
... UPDATE: Parotitis and Influenza FAQ Parotitis and Influenza Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing Results When Influenza is Circulating Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing Results When Influenza is NOT ...
Remschmidt, Cornelius; Wichmann, Ole; Harder, Thomas
There is a growing body of evidence on the risks and benefits of influenza vaccination in various target groups. Systematic reviews are of particular importance for policy decisions. However, their methodological quality can vary considerably. To investigate the methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination (efficacy, effectiveness, safety) and to identify influencing factors. A systematic literature search on systematic reviews on influenza vaccination was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and three additional databases (1990-2013). Review characteristics were extracted and the methodological quality of the reviews was evaluated using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool. U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test, and multivariable linear regression analysis were used to assess the influence of review characteristics on AMSTAR-score. Fourty-six systematic reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Average methodological quality was high (median AMSTAR-score: 8), but variability was large (AMSTAR range: 0-11). Quality did not differ significantly according to vaccination target group. Cochrane reviews had higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews (p=0.001). Detailed analysis showed that this was due to better study selection and data extraction, inclusion of unpublished studies, and better reporting of study characteristics (all p<0.05). In the adjusted analysis, no other factor, including industry sponsorship or journal impact factor had an influence on AMSTAR score. Systematic reviews on influenza vaccination showed large differences regarding their methodological quality. Reviews conducted by the Cochrane collaboration were of higher quality than others. When using systematic reviews to guide the development of vaccination recommendations, the methodological quality of a review in addition to its content should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Icardi, Giancarlo; Orsi, Andrea; Ceravolo, Antonella; Ansaldi, Filippo
Among the several strategies explored for (1) the enhancement of the immune response to influenza immunization, (2) the improvement of the vaccine acceptability and (3) the overcoming of the egg-dependency for vaccine production, intradermal administration of influenza vaccine emerges as a promising alternative to conventional intramuscular route, thanks to the recent availability of new delivery devices and the perception of advantages in terms of immunogenicity, safety, reduction of antigen content and acceptability. Data from clinical trials performed in children, adults <60 y and elderly people and post-marketing surveillance demonstrate that actually, licensed intradermal influenza vaccines, Intanza™ 9 and 15 µg and Fluzone™ Intradermal, administered by the microinjection system Soluvia™, show an excellent acceptability, tolerability and safety profile. Formulations containing 9 and 15 μg per strain demonstrate, respectively, comparable and superior immunogenicity than conventional intramuscular vaccines. Licensed intradermal influenza vaccines can be considered a valid alternative to standard intramuscular vaccination offering significant advantages in low-responder populations and helping to increase influenza vaccination coverage rates especially in people with fear of needles or high apprehension associated with annual vaccination. PMID:22293531
Rinderknecht, Stephen; Bryant, Kristina; Nolan, Terry; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Doniz, Carlos Aranza; Weber, Miguel Angel Rodriguez; Cohen, Christopher; Aris, Emmanuel; Mesaros, Narcisa; Miller, Jacqueline M.
The safety profile of HibMenCY was compared with licensed Hib conjugate vaccines in a pooled analysis that included more than 8,500 subjects who were administered a four-dose series of HibMenCY or commercially available Hib vaccines at 2, 4, 6 and 12–15 mo of age in two primary vaccination and two fourth dose phase 3 studies. In all studies, HibMenCY or Hib vaccine was co-administered with age-appropriate, routinely recommended vaccines. In one primary and one fourth dose study (n = 4180), local and general symptoms were solicited using diary cards for 4 d after each dose. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) indicating new onset of chronic disease (NOCD), rash, and conditions prompting Emergency Room (ER) visits were reported from dose 1 until 6 mo after dose 4. The incidences of solicited local and general symptoms were similar following HibMenCY and commercially available Hib vaccines. For some solicited symptoms (pain at the injection site and irritability), rates were lower in the HibMenCY group compared with the Hib control group (p value < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the incidences of SAEs, NOCDs, rash, or AEs leading to ER visits, with the exceptions of anemia and viral gastroenteritis, which occurred significantly less frequently in those receiving HibMenCY than those receiving commercially available Hib vaccines. In this pooled safety analysis, the safety profile of HibMenCY was similar to the safety profile of licensed monovalent Hib vaccines, despite the addition of meningococcal antigens. These studies are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00345579 (primary vaccination study), NCT00345683 (fourth dose vaccination study) and NCT00289783 (primary and fourth dose vaccination studies) PMID:22327493
Buckland, Barry C
The development and manufacture of an Influenza vaccine is unlike any other product in the Vaccine industry because of the need to change composition on a yearly basis. The poor efficacy of Influenza vaccines over the past 2 y in the Northern Hemisphere invites questions on how the vaccines are manufactured and how change in vaccine composition is controlled. The opinion expressed in this commentary is that the risk of not making the correct HA protein is increased by the need to adapt the new seasonal virus for good propagation in embryonated chicken eggs. This adaptation is required because not enough doses can be made in time for the new 'flu season unless productivity is reasonable. This problem is not necessarily solved by going to a cell culture host for virus propagation and that may explain why this more advanced technology approach is not more widely used. A vaccine based on hemagglutinin (HA) protein that does not involve Influenza virus propagation (such as Flublok®) side steps this particular problem. The exact HA sequence can be used as is in the virus. The technology can be run at large scale, already at 2 × 21,000L in Japan, in contrast to eggs where scale-up is by multiplication; the HA product is highly purified and made consistently in the form of rosettes. PMID:25844949
Tamura, Shin-Ichi; Ainai, Akira; Suzuki, Tadaki; Kurata, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Hideki
Influenza is a contagious, acute respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. The mucosal lining in the host respiratory tract is not only the site of virus infection, but also the site of defense; it is at this site that the host immune response targets the virus and protects against reinfection. One of the most effective methods to prevent influenza is to induce specific antibody (Ab) responses in the respiratory tract by vaccination. Two types of influenza vaccines, intranasal live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines and parenteral (injectable) inactivated vaccines, are currently used worldwide. These vaccines are approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration. Live attenuated vaccines induce both secretory IgA (S-IgA) and serum IgG antibodies (Abs), whereas parenteral vaccines induce only serum IgG Abs. However, intranasal administration of inactivated vaccines together with an appropriate adjuvant induces both S-IgA and IgG Abs. Several preclinical studies on adjuvant-combined, nasal-inactivated vaccines revealed that nasal S-IgA Abs, a major immune component in the upper respiratory tract, reacted with homologous virus hemagglutinin (HA) and were highly cross-reactive with viral HA variants, resulting in protection and cross-protection against infection by both homologous and variant viruses, respectively. Serum-derived IgG Abs, which are present mainly in the lower respiratory tract, are less cross-reactive and cross-protective. In addition, our own clinical trials have shown that nasal-inactivated whole virus vaccines, including a built-in adjuvant (single-stranded RNA), induced serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) Ab titers that fulfilled the EMA criteria for vaccine efficacy. The nasal-inactivated whole virus vaccines also induced high levels of nasal HI and neutralizing Ab titers, although we have not yet evaluated the nasal HI titers due to the lack of official criteria to establish efficacy based
Weber, David J; Orenstein, Walter; Rutala, William A
Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide each year. Healthcare-associated influenza is a frequent event. Health care personnel (HCP) may be the source for infecting patients and may propagate nosocomial outbreaks. All HCP should receive a dose of influenza vaccine each year to protect themselves and others. This commentary will discuss the study recently published in the IJHPR by Nutman and Yoeli which assessed the beliefs and attitudes of HCP in an Israel hospital regarding influenza and the influenza vaccine. Unfortunately, as noted by Nutman and Yoeli in this issue many HCP in Israel choose not to receive influenza immunization and many harbor misconceptions regarding their risk for influenza as well as the benefits of influenza vaccine. We also discuss proven methods to increase acceptance by HCP for receiving an annual influenza vaccine.
Awali, Reda A; Samuel, Preethy S; Marwaha, Bharat; Ahmad, Nazir; Gupta, Puneet; Kumar, Vinod; Ellsworth, Joseph; Flanagan, Elaine; Upfal, Mark; Russell, Jim; Kaplan, Carol; Kaye, Keith S; Chopra, Teena
This study investigated the factors influencing influenza vaccination rates among health care personnel (HCP) and explored HCP's attitudes toward a policy of mandatory vaccination. In September 2012, a 33-item Web-based questionnaire was administered to 3,054 HCP employed at a tertiary care hospital in metropolitan Detroit. There was a significant increase in the rate of influenza vaccination, from 80% in the 2010-2011 influenza season (before the mandated influenza vaccine) to 93% in 2011-2012 (after the mandate) (P < .0001). Logistic regression showed that HCP with a history of previous influenza vaccination were 7 times more likely than their peers without this history to receive the vaccine in 2011-2012. A pro-mandate attitude toward influenza vaccination was a significant predictor of receiving the vaccine after adjusting for demographics, history of previous vaccination, awareness of the hospital's mandatory vaccination policy, and patient contact while providing care (P = .01). The increased rate of influenza vaccination among HCP was driven by both an awareness of the mandatory policy and a pro-mandate attitude toward vaccination. The findings of this study call for better education of HCP on the influenza vaccine along with enforcement of a mandatory vaccination policy. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kraut, Allen; Graff, Lesley; McLean, Daria
Many health care personnel (HCP) choose not to get vaccinated against influenza despite recommendations to do so. The pH1N1 epidemic gave a unique opportunity to evaluate the attitudes to influenza vaccination of a group of HCP who routinely choose not to get vaccinated, but accepted the pH1N1 vaccine. HCP employed at a tertiary care hospital in Winnipeg, Canada who received the pH1N1 vaccine were invited to participate in an online survey asking about attitudes and experiences regarding seasonal and pH1N1 influenza and vaccination. Those eligible included primarily nurses, other clinical staff, and support staff, as few physicians work as employees. Of the 684 respondents (29% return rate), 504 reported routinely getting vaccinated (RV) for seasonal influenza and 180 reported routinely not getting vaccinated (NRV). These two groups had different attitude towards the two strains of influenza, with markedly lower level of concern about seasonal influenza than pH1N1 for the NRV group. The contrast was especially notable regarding the NRV's view of the seriousness of the illness, their sense of exposure risk, and their confidence in the vaccine effectiveness (for all, seasonal
Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b–Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old
Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai
A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6–23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2–5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6–23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2–5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases. PMID:25833163
Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.
Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai
A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.
Mooney, Alaina J; Tompkins, S Mark
Influenza A viruses continue to emerge and re-emerge, causing outbreaks, epidemics and occasionally pandemics. While the influenza vaccines licensed for public use are generally effective against seasonal influenza, issues arise with production, immunogenicity, and efficacy in the case of vaccines against pandemic and emerging influenza viruses, and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in particular. Thus, there is need of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. This review discusses advances in alternative influenza vaccines, touching briefly on licensed vaccines and vaccine antigens; then reviewing recombinant subunit vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines and DNA vaccines, with the main focus on virus-vectored vaccine approaches. PMID:23440999
Odusanya, Olumuyiwa O; Kuyinu, Yetunde A; Kehinde, Omolara A; Shafi, Fakrudeen; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Rüggeberg, Jens U; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode
In a previous study, 3-dose primary vaccination of Nigerian infants with the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes, with comparable tolerability between PHiD-CV and control groups. In an open-label study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01153893), 68 primed children received a PHiD-CV booster dose co-administered with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) booster dose at 15–21 months and 36 children unprimed for pneumococcal vaccination received two PHiD-CV catch-up doses (first dose co-administered with DTPa booster dose) at 15–21 and 17–23 months. Adverse events were recorded and immune responses were measured before and one month after vaccination. In both groups, pain was the most frequent solicited local symptom and fever was the most frequent solicited general symptom after the booster dose and each catch-up dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms and no vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After booster vaccination, for each vaccine serotype, at least 98.5% of children had an antibody concentration ≥0.2 µg/ml and at least 94.0% had an opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titer ≥8. After 2-dose catch-up, for each vaccine serotype, at least 97.1% had an antibody concentration ≥0.2 µg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.9%) and 23F (88.6%), and at least 91.4% had an OPA titer ≥8, except for serotypes 6B (77.4%) and 19F (85.3%). PHiD-CV induced antibody responses against protein D in both groups. In conclusion, PHiD-CV administered to Nigerian toddlers as a booster dose or 2-dose catch-up was well tolerated and immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D. PMID:24356787
Prior to 2003, vaccines against avian influenza (AI) had limited, individual country or regional use in poultry. In late 2003, H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) AI spread from China to multiple Southeast Asian countries, and to Europe during 2005 and Africa during 2006, challenging governments and all p...
Nakayama, Tetsuo; Kumagai, Takuji; Nishimura, Naoko; Ozaki, Takao; Okafuji, Teruo; Suzuki, Eitaro; Miyata, Akiko; Okada, Kenji; Ihara, Toshiaki
Although anaphylaxis is an extremely rare vaccine-associated adverse event, it occurred in young children following administration of the 2011/12 seasonal split influenza vaccine, which contained 2-phenoxyethanol as the preservative. These children had high levels of IgE antibodies against influenza vaccine components. We herein investigated why these children were sensitized. One hundred and seventeen series of serum samples were obtained immediately before, and one month after the first and second immunizations with the HA split vaccine of 2011/12. Forty-two sequential serum samples were collected in the acute and convalescent phases (2 and 4 weeks) after natural infection with H1N1 Pdm in 2009. IgE antibodies developed following the vaccination of young children with seasonal split vaccines, whereas no significant IgE response was observed following natural infection with H1N1 Pdm 2009. The prevalence of IgE antibodies was not influenced by outbreaks of H1N1 Pdm. Repeated immunization with the HA split vaccine induced IgE sensitization against the influenza vaccine irrespective of the H1N1, H3N2, or B influenza subtypes. The reasons why anaphylaxis only occurred in recipients of the influenza vaccine containing 2-phenoxyethanol are still being investigated, and the size distribution of antigen particles may have shifted to a slightly larger size. Since the fundamental reason was IgE sensitization, current split formulation for the seasonal influenza vaccine needs to be reconsidered to prevent the induction of IgE sensitization.
Taksler, Glen B; Rothberg, Michael B; Cutler, David M
Older adults have the highest influenza-related morbidity and mortality risk, but the influenza vaccine is less effective in the elderly. It is unknown whether influenza vaccination of nonelderly adults confers additional disease protection on the elderly population. We examined the association between county-wide influenza vaccination coverage among 520 229 younger adults (aged 18-64 years) in the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System Survey and illnesses related to influenza in 3 317 709 elderly Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years, between 2002 and 2010 (13 267 786 person-years). Results were stratified by documented receipt of a seasonal influenza vaccine in each Medicare beneficiary. Increases in county-wide vaccine coverage among younger adults were associated with lower adjusted odds of illnesses related to influenza in the elderly. Compared with elderly residents of counties with ≤15% of younger adults vaccinated, the adjusted odds ratio for a principal diagnosis of influenza among elderly residents was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, .88-.94) for counties with 16%-20% of younger adults vaccinated, 0.87 (.84-.90) for counties with 21%-25% vaccinated, 0.80 (.77-.83) for counties with 26%-30% vaccinated, and 0.79 (.76-.83) for counties with ≥31% vaccinated (P for trend <.001). Stronger associations were observed among vaccinated elderly adults, in peak months of influenza season, in more severe influenza seasons, in influenza seasons with greater antigenic match to influenza vaccine, and for more specific definitions of influenza-related illness. In a large, nationwide sample of Medicare beneficiaries, influenza vaccination among adults aged 18-64 years was inversely associated with illnesses related to influenza in the elderly. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Goeijenbier, Marco; Moesker, Fleur M; van den Dries, Lennert; Goeijenbier, Simone; De Gruyter, Heidi L M; Lehmann, Michael H; Mutsert, Gerrie de; van de Vijver, David A M C; Volz, Asisa; Fouchier, Ron A M; van Gorp, Eric C M; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Sutter, Gerd; Osterhaus, Albert D M E
Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a promising viral vector platform for the development of an H5N1 influenza vaccine. Preclinical assessment of MVA-based H5N1 vaccines showed their immunogenicity and safety in different animal models. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the MVA-haemagglutinin-based H5N1 vaccine MVA-H5-sfMR in healthy individuals. In a single-centre, double-blind phase 1/2a study, young volunteers (aged 18-28 years) were randomly assigned with a computer-generated list in equal numbers to one of eight groups and were given one injection or two injections intramuscularly at an interval of 4 weeks of a standard dose (10(8) plaque forming units [pfu]) or a ten times lower dose (10(7) pfu) of the MVA-H5-sfMR (vector encoding the haemagglutinin gene of influenza A/Vietnam/1194/2004 virus [H5N1 subtype]) or MVA-F6-sfMR (empty vector) vaccine. Volunteers and physicians who examined and administered the vaccine were masked to vaccine assignment. Individuals who received the MVA-H5-sfMR vaccine were eligible for a booster immunisation 1 year after the first immunisation. Primary endpoint was safety. Secondary outcome was immunogenicity. The trial is registered with the Dutch Trial Register, number NTR3401. 79 of 80 individuals who were enrolled completed the study. No serious adverse events were identified. 11 individuals reported severe headache and lightheadedness, erythema nodosum, respiratory illness (accompanied by influenza-like symptoms), sore throat, or injection-site reaction. Most of the volunteers had one or more local (itch, pain, redness, and swelling) and systemic reactions (rise in body temperature, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, chills, malaise, and fatigue) after the first, second, and booster immunisations. Individuals who received the 10(7) dose had fewer systemic reactions. The MVA-H5-sfMR vaccine at 10(8) pfu induced significantly higher antibody responses after one and two immunisations than did 10(7) pfu when
Winstanley, P A; Tjia, J; Back, D J; Hobson, D; Breckenridge, A M
Plasma concentrations of theophylline, and urinary recovery of theophylline and its metabolites [1, 3-dimethyluric acid, 3-methyl xanthine and 1-methyluric acid] were measured before and after highly purified subunit influenza vaccination in seven healthy subjects, and five subjects with chronic obstructive bronchitis. No cases of theophylline toxicity were seen, and there was no increase in mean plasma theophylline concentration or significant decrease in urinary metabolite concentration after vaccination. An antibody response to vaccination was demonstrated in all subjects. Highly purified subunit influenza vaccination may be given with safety to patients on theophylline. PMID:4027135
Nannei, Claudia; Chadwick, Christopher; Fatima, Hiba; Goldin, Shoshanna; Grubo, Myriam; Ganim, Alexandra
Through its Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the United States Department of Health and Human Services has produced a checklist to support policy-makers and influenza vaccine manufacturers in identifying key technological, political, financial, and logistical issues affecting the sustainability of influenza vaccine production. This checklist highlights actions in five key areas that are beneficial for establishing successful local vaccine manufacturing. These five areas comprise: (1) the policy environment and health-care systems; (2) surveillance systems and influenza evidence; (3) product development and manufacturing; (4) product approval and regulation; and (5) communication to support influenza vaccination. Incorporating the checklist into national vaccine production programmes has identified the policy gaps and next steps for countries involved in GAP's Technology Transfer Initiative. Lessons learnt from country experiences provide context and insight that complement the checklist's goal of simplifying the complexities of influenza prevention, preparedness, and vaccine manufacturing.
Vollaard, Albert; Schreuder, Imke; Slok-Raijmakers, Lizzy; Opstelten, Wim; Rimmelzwaan, Guus; Gelderblom, Hans
Patients with solid tumours receiving chemotherapy are at risk for influenza complications. Yearly influenza vaccination is recommended to patients treated with chemotherapy. However, adherence to vaccination is low, most likely due to lack of data on efficacy, optimal timing and safety of vaccination. There is scarce evidence for the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in adult patients with solid tumours and chemotherapy on reduction of pneumonia, decreased mortality and fewer interruptions of oncological treatment. A review of 20 non-randomised serological studies in adult patients with different cancer types and chemotherapy provides insight in general trends of response to vaccination. Overall, the magnitude of the antibody response after influenza vaccination (i.e. seroconversion) can be lower than in healthy controls, but the majority of patients with solid tumours is able to mount a timely, protective immunological response (i.e. seroprotection) regardless of chemotherapy schedule, similar to healthy controls. Small sample sizes, patient heterogeneity and lack of comparable study designs limit more specific recommendations related to cancer type and optimal timing of vaccination. The inactivated influenza vaccine is safe to administer to immunosuppressed patients; side-effects are similar to those in healthy individuals. Although vaccination before start of chemotherapy is preferred to ensure optimal protection in adults with solid tumours, also vaccination during chemotherapy can reduce influenza-related complications considering the overall trends in serological response. Given the increased morbidity and mortality of influenza, influenza vaccination should be advocated as an inexpensive and safe preventive measure in patients with solid tumours receiving chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scheifele, David W; Marty, Kim; LaJeunesse, Carol; Fan, Shu Yu; Bjornson, Gordean; Langley, Joanne M; Halperin, Scott A
In contrast to the gradual pace of conventional vaccine trials, evaluation of influenza vaccines often must be accelerated for use in a pandemic or for annual re-licensure. Descriptions of how best to design studies for rapid completion are few. In August, 2010, we conducted a rapid trial with a seasonal influenza vaccine for 2010-2011 given to persons vaccinated with an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine in 2009, to determine whether re-exposure to the H1N1(2009) component of the seasonal vaccine would cause increased reactions. We describe the strategies that we believe were responsible for success in meeting the desired timeline. The key means for expediting the study were: use of a few experienced, well-staffed centers; efficient completion of administrative approvals; advance recruitment of volunteers; synchronized start among centers with rapid completion (≤1 week) of first visits; rapid data assembly via the Internet; and a well-prepared data analysis plan. We chose to use a randomized, blinded, cross-over design to allow estimation of vaccine-attributable adverse event rates, with sufficient power (320 participants) to detect events occurring at true rates ≥1% with ≥90% probability. Planned enrollment numbers, center synchronization, and timelines, including review by a safety board prior to the cross-over step (second doses), were achieved. A detailed safety report was delivered to federal health officials just 32 days after study initiation and was used to fine-tune public messaging prior to the mass vaccination programs across Canada. This aggressive timeline could not have been met without opportunities for careful planning and the prior existence of a network of experienced, collaborating trial centers. The means used to accelerate this study timeline were successful and could be used in other urgent situations but the mechanics of collaborative trials must be well rehearsed as a precondition.
Castella, A; Argentero, P A; Lanszweert, A
Despite recommendations, influenza vaccination coverage in health professionals remains low throughout the world. In order to identify reasons for adherence or refusal we conducted a study within our hospital by means of interview questionnaires which were distributed to health care workers to reveal factors influencing acceptance or refusal of vaccination and to get suggestions to improve vaccination coverage. There is good overlap between our results and data obtainable from international literature: the main motivating factor for vaccination is personal protection against influenza, while only a significantly smaller part gave protection of patients as a reason. The main factors for not adhering to vaccination are belief the vaccine is not effective, influenza-related sick leave, fear of adverse effects and lack of availability. These data point out the need for more information concerning the importance of influenza infection within risk groups, the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine. Further, it is suitable to increase availability of the vaccine free of charge.
Rakita, Robert M; Hagar, Beverly A; Crome, Patricia; Lammert, Joyce K
The rate of influenza vaccination among healthcare workers (HCWs) is low, despite a good rationale and strong recommendations for vaccination from many health organizations. To increase influenza vaccination rates by instituting the first mandatory influenza vaccination program for HCWs. A 5-year study (from 2005 to 2010) at Virginia Mason Medical Center, a tertiary care, multispecialty medical center in Seattle, Washington, with approximately 5,000 employees. All HCWs of the medical center were required to receive influenza vaccination. HCWs who were granted an accommodation for medical or religious reasons were required to wear a mask at work during influenza season. The main outcome measure was rate of influenza vaccination among HCWs. In the first year of the program, there were a total of 4,703 HCWs, of whom 4,588 (97.6%) were vaccinated, and influenza vaccination rates of more than 98% were sustained over the subsequent 4 years of our study. Less than 0.7% of HCWs were granted an accommodation for medical or religious reasons and were required to wear a mask at work during influenza season, and less than 0.2% of HCWs refused vaccination and left Virginia Mason Medical Center. A mandatory influenza vaccination program for HCWs is feasible, results in extremely high vaccination rates, and can be sustained over the course of several years.
Gargano, Lisa M; Thacker, Naveen; Choudhury, Panna; Weiss, Paul S; Russ, Rebecca M; Pazol, Karen; Arora, Manisha; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B; Hughes, James M
New vaccine introduction is important to decrease morbidity and mortality in India. The goal of this study was to identify perceptions that are associated with administration of four selected vaccines for prevention of Japanese encephalitis (JE), typhoid fever, influenza and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. A random sample of 785 pediatricians from a national list of Indian Academy of Pediatrics members was selected for a survey to assess perceptions of vaccine effectiveness and safety, and vaccine administration practices. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with selective or routine use. Pediatricians reported administering typhoid (91.6%), influenza (60.1%), HPV (46.0%) and JE (41.9%) vaccines selectively or routinely. Pediatricians who perceived the vaccine to be safe were significantly more likely to report administration of JE (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.3), influenza (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.0 to 9.6) and HPV vaccine (OR 6.2, 95% CI 3.1 to 12.7). Pediatricians who perceived the vaccine to be effective were significantly more likely to report administration of JE (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.5), influenza (OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.5 to 23.1) and HPV vaccine (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.4) CONCLUSION: Understanding the role perceptions play provides an opportunity to design strategies to build support for vaccine use.
Lillie, Patrick J.; Berthoud, Tamara K.; Powell, Timothy J.; Lambe, Teresa; Mullarkey, Caitlin; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Hamill, Matthew; Peng, Yanchun; Blais, Marie-Eve; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Sheehy, Susanne H.; Havelock, Tom; Faust, Saul N.; Williams, Rob Lambkin; Gilbert, Anthony; Oxford, John; Dong, Tao; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Gilbert, Sarah C.
Background. The novel influenza vaccine MVA-NP+M1 is designed to boost cross-reactive T-cell responses to internal antigens of the influenza A virus that are conserved across all subtypes, providing protection against both influenza disease and virus shedding against all influenza A viruses. Following a phase 1 clinical study that demonstrated vaccine safety and immunogenicity, a phase 2a vaccination and influenza challenge study has been conducted in healthy adult volunteers. Methods. Volunteers with no measurable serum antibodies to influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 received either a single vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 or no vaccination. T-cell responses to the vaccine antigens were measured at enrollment and again prior to virus challenge. All volunteers underwent intranasal administration of influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 while in a quarantine unit and were monitored for symptoms of influenza disease and virus shedding. Results. Volunteers had a significantly increased T-cell response to the vaccine antigens following a single dose of the vaccine, with an increase in cytolytic effector molecules. Intranasal influenza challenge was undertaken without safety issues. Two of 11 vaccinees and 5 of 11 control subjects developed laboratory-confirmed influenza (symptoms plus virus shedding). Symptoms of influenza were less pronounced in the vaccinees and there was a significant reduction in the number of days of virus shedding in those vaccinees who developed influenza (mean, 1.09 days in controls, 0.45 days in vaccinees, P = .036). Conclusions. This study provides the first demonstration of clinical efficacy of a T-cell–based influenza vaccine and indicates that further clinical development should be undertaken. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00993083. PMID:22441650
Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J
Influenza infections continue to present a major threat to public health. Traditional modes of influenza vaccine manufacturing are failing to satisfy the global demand because of limited scalability and long production timelines. In contrast, subunit vaccines (SUVs) can be produced in heterologous expression systems in shorter times and at higher quantities. Plants are emerging as a promising platform for SUV production due to time efficiency, scalability, lack of harbored mammalian pathogens and possession of the machinery for eukaryotic post-translational protein modifications. So far, several organizations have utilized plant-based transient expression systems to produce SUVs against influenza, including vaccines based on virus-like particles. Plant-produced influenza SUV candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models and some have shown safety and immunogenicity in clinical trials. Here, the authors review ongoing efforts and challenges to producing influenza SUV candidates in plants and discuss the likelihood of bringing these products to the market.
Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis
Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics of human respiratory disease. Influenza virus infections represent a serious public health and economic problem, which are most effectively prevented through vaccination. However, influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic variation, which requires either the annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines or the rapid generation of vaccines against potential pandemic virus strains. The segmented nature of influenza virus allows for the reassortment between two or more viruses within a co-infected cell, and this characteristic has also been harnessed in the laboratory to generate reassortant viruses for their use as either inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines. With the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques, it is now possible to engineer recombinant influenza viruses entirely from full-length complementary DNA copies of the viral genome by transfection of susceptible cells. These reverse genetics systems have provided investigators with novel and powerful approaches to answer important questions about the biology of influenza viruses, including the function of viral proteins, their interaction with cellular host factors and the mechanisms of influenza virus transmission and pathogenesis. In addition, reverse genetics techniques have allowed the generation of recombinant influenza viruses, providing a powerful technology to develop both inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of state-of-the-art, plasmid-based, influenza reverse genetics approaches and their implementation to provide rapid, convenient, safe and more effective influenza inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:28025504
Kang, Gloria J; Culp, Rachel K; Abbas, Kaja M
The study objective was to identify facilitators and barriers of parental attitudes and beliefs toward school-located influenza vaccination in the United States. In 2009, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded their recommendations for influenza vaccination to include school-aged children. We conducted a systematic review of studies focused on facilitators and barriers of parental attitudes toward school-located influenza vaccination in the United States from 1990 to 2016. We reviewed 11 articles by use of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) framework. Facilitators were free/low cost vaccination; having belief in vaccine efficacy, influenza severity, and susceptibility; belief that vaccination is beneficial, important, and a social norm; perception of school setting advantages; trust; and parental presence. Barriers were cost; concerns regarding vaccine safety, efficacy, equipment sterility, and adverse effects; perception of school setting barriers; negative physician advice of contraindications; distrust in vaccines and school-located vaccination programs; and health information privacy concerns. We identified the facilitators and barriers of parental attitudes and beliefs toward school-located influenza vaccination to assist in the evidence-based design and implementation of influenza vaccination programs targeted for children in the United States and to improve influenza vaccination coverage for population-wide health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, Li Ping; Sam, I-Ching
The study aimed to determine factors influencing the uptake of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in a multiethnic Asian population. Population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and December 2009. Approximately 70% of overall participants indicated willingness to be vaccinated against the 2009 H1N1 influenza. Participants who indicated positive intention to vaccinate against 2009 H1N1 influenza were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. A halal (acceptable to Muslims) vaccine was the main factor that determined Malay participants' decision to accept vaccination, whereas safety of the vaccine was the main factor that influenced vaccination decision for Chinese and Indian participants. The study highlights the challenges in promoting the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Ethnic-sensitive efforts are needed to maximize acceptance of H1N1 vaccines in countries with diverse ethnic communities and religious practices. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Principi, Nicola; Senatore, Laura; Esposito, Susanna
Influenza is a very common disease among infants and young children, with a considerable clinical and socioeconomic impact. A significant number of health authorities presently recommend universal influenza vaccination for the pediatric population, but a large number of European health authorities is still reluctant to include influenza vaccination in their national vaccination programs. The reasons for this reluctance include the fact that the protection offered by the currently available vaccines is considered poor. This review shows that although future research could lead to an increase in the immunogenicity and potential efficacy of influenza vaccines, the available vaccines, even with their limits, assure sufficient protection in most subjects aged ≥ 6 months, thus reducing the total burden of influenza in young children and justifying the recommendation for the universal vaccination of the whole pediatric population. For younger subjects, the vaccination of their mother during pregnancy represents an efficacious strategy. PMID:26090704
Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh
Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam.
Kerr, Stephen; Van Bennekom, Carla M; Mitchell, Allen A
Seasonal influenza vaccine is recommended for all pregnant women because of their increased risk for influenza-associated complications. In addition, receipt of influenza vaccine by women during pregnancy has been shown to protect their infants for several months after birth (1). As part of its case-control surveillance study of medications and birth defects, the Birth Defects Study of the Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University has recorded data on vaccinations received during pregnancy since the 2005-06 influenza vaccination season. Among the 5,318 mothers of infants without major structural birth defects (control newborns) in this population, seasonal influenza vaccination coverage was approximately 20% in the seasons preceding the 2009-10 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza season. During the 2009-10 influenza vaccination season, influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women increased to 33%, and has increased modestly since then, to 41% during the 2013-14 season. Among pregnant women who received influenza vaccine during the 2013-14 season, 80% reported receiving their vaccine in a traditional health care setting, (e.g., the office of their obstetrician or primary care physician or their prenatal clinic) and 20% received it in a work/school, pharmacy/supermarket, or government setting. Incorporating routine administration of seasonal influenza vaccination into the management of pregnant women by their health care providers might increase coverage with this important public health intervention.
Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...
Avian influenza vaccines for poultry are based on hemagglutinin proteins and protection is specific to the vaccine subtype. Over 113 billion doses have been used between 2002 and 2010 for high pathogenicity avian influenza control. No universal vaccines are currently available. The majority of avian...
Steelfisher, Gillian K; Blendon, Robert J; Bekheit, Mark M; Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Williams, Jennifer; Lubell, Keri; Peugh, Jordon; DiSogra, Charles A
We sought to examine motivators and barriers related to monovalent 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccination among pregnant women. We conducted a national poll of pregnant women using a random online sample (237) and opt-in supplement (277). In all, 42% of pregnant women reported getting the vaccine. Vaccination was positively associated with attitudinal factors including believing the vaccine is very safe or benefits the baby, and with provider recommendations. Women in racial/ethnic minority groups, women with less education, and women <35 years were less likely to get the vaccine and had differing views and experiences. Despite H1N1 vaccination rates that are higher than past seasonal influenza rates, barriers like safety concerns may persist in a pandemic. Messaging from providers that encourages women to believe the vaccine is very safe and benefits their baby may be compelling. Messaging and outreach during future pandemics may require customization to increase vaccination among high-risk groups.
Peyre, Marisa; Samaha, Hamid; Makonnen, Yilma Jobre; Saad, Ahmed; Abd-Elnabi, Amira; Galal, Saber; Ettel, Toni; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Lubroth, Juan; Roger, François; Domenech, Joseph
Vaccination of domestic poultry against avian influenza (AI) has been used on a large-scale in South East Asia since 2003 and in Egypt since 2006 to fight H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics. The decision to use mass vaccination against HPAI in Egypt was taken as an emergency measure based on positive impact of such control measures in Vietnam and the People's Republic of China. However, three years on, the impact on disease control of AI vaccination in Egypt has been very limited. Despite the continuous vaccination of poultry against HPAI, poultry outbreaks and human cases are reported regularly. A recent assessment study highlighted substantial weaknesses in the current immunisation programme and its lack of positive impact on the spread of infection or the maintenance of public health safety. The shortcomings of the vaccination strategy may be attributed in part to a lack of sufficient support in terms of funding and communication, the absence of an efficient monitoring system, and inadequate training of field technicians. The difficulties of blanket vaccinations in semi-commercial farms and household poultry sectors are well known, however, improvements in the industrial sector should be possible though better government controls and greater collaboration with the private sector. AI vaccination should be regarded as just one control tool within a broader disease control program integrating surveillance, outbreak investigation, disease management systems, and the rigorous implementation of bio-security measures. If incorrectly implemented, AI vaccination has a limited impact as a disease control measure. Moreover, without strict bio-security precautions undertaken during its application, farm visits to vaccinate poultry could facilitate the spread of the virus and therefore become a risk factor with important implications on the maintenance of the virus and potential risk for human exposure.
Vaughn, David W; Seifert, Harry; Hepburn, Anne; Dewe, Walthere; Li, Ping; Drame, Mamadou; Cohet, Catherine; Innis, Bruce L; Fries, Louis F
Clinical trials have shown that AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 and A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines are highly immunogenic, although with an increased reactogenicity profile relative to non-adjuvanted vaccines in terms of the incidence of common injection site and systemic adverse events (AEs). We evaluated pooled safety data from 22,521 adults who had received an AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 or A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza or control vaccine with the purpose to identify medically-attended AEs (MAEs), including subsets of serious AEs (SAEs), potentially immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs), and AEs of special interest (AESI), and to explore a potential association of these AEs with the administration of an AS03-adjuvanted influenza vaccine. For participants who had received an AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, the relative risks (RRs) for experiencing a MAE or a SAE compared to control group (participants who had received a non-adjuvanted vaccine or saline placebo) were 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9; 1.1) and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9; 1.4), respectively. The overall RRs for experiencing an AESI or a pIMD (AS03-adjuvanted vaccine/control) were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9; 1.6) and 1.7 (95% CI: 0.8; 3.8), respectively. Thirty-8 participants in the AS03-adjuvanted vaccine group had a pIMD reported after vaccine administration, yielding an incidence rate (IR) of 351.9 (95% CI: 249.1; 483.1) per 100,000 person-years. The estimated IRs in the AS03-adjuvanted vaccine group were greater than the literature reported rates for: facial paresis/VIIth nerve paralysis, celiac disease, thrombocytopenia and ulcerative colitis. These results do not support an association between AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 and A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines and the AEs collected in the trials included in the analysis. PMID:25483467
Grande, Antonio Jose; Reid, Hamish; Thomas, Emma E; Nunan, David; Foster, Charles
Influenza is an infectious virus affecting both humans and animals. In humans, symptoms present as fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, headache, muscle and joint pain, and malaise. The epidemiological profile of influenza is influenced by multiple factors, including transmissibility of the virus and the susceptibility of the population. Annually, influenza is estimated to infect 5% to 10% of adults, with higher rates in winter seasons in countries with seasonal variation. Exercise could be an intervention to enhance immune response and limit influenza incidence and its related complications. To assess the efficacy and safety of short and long-term exercise prior to influenza vaccination in enhancing influenza prevention in adults. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 11), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 3 November 2015), Embase (1974 to 3 November 2015), CINAHL (1981 to 3 November 2015), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, 1982 to 3 November 2015), PEDro (1980 to 3 November 2015), SPORTDiscus (1985 to 3 November 2015), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov (November 2015). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of short- and long-term exercise prior to influenza vaccination for the general adult population were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently extracted and checked data from the included trials using a standard form. We used the random-effects model due to differences in the type, duration, intensity and frequency of exercise in the analysis. We included six trials published between 2007 and 2014 that randomised 599 adult participants. Study size ranged from 46 to 158 participants. Participants were aged between 18 years and 80 years; we could not derive gender proportions, as participants' sex was not reported in all studies. One study was available in abstract form only.We did not find a significant
Zuckerman, Arie J
Although concerns about vaccine safety have increased, true adverse reactions associated with hepatitis B vaccines are few, apart from minor symptoms at the site of injection and occasionally systemic reactions. There is no evidence of an association with hepatitis B vaccination and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis and the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Hepatitis B vaccines are safe and essential for the prevention of this important and common infection.
Pérez-Romero, P; Bulnes-Ramos, A; Torre-Cisneros, J; Gavaldá, J; Aydillo, T A; Moreno, A; Montejo, M; Fariñas, M C; Carratalá, J; Muñoz, P; Blanes, M; Fortún, J; Suárez-Benjumea, A; López-Medrano, F; Barranco, J L; Peghin, M; Roca, C; Lara, R; Cordero, E
Preventing influenza infection early after transplantation is essential, given the disease's high mortality. A multicentre prospective cohort study in adult solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) receiving the influenza vaccine during four consecutive influenza seasons (2009-2013) was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccination in SOTR before and 6 months after transplantation. A total of 798 SOTR, 130 of them vaccinated within 6 months of transplantation and 668 of them vaccinated more than 6 months since transplantation. Seroprotection was similar in both groups: 73.1% vs. 76.5% for A/(H1N1)pdm (p 0.49), 67.5% vs. 74.1% for A/H3N2 (p 0.17) and 84.2% vs. 85.2% for influenza B (p 0.80), respectively. Geometric mean titres after vaccination did not differ among groups: 117.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 81.52, 168.83) vs. 87.43 (95% CI 72.87, 104.91) for A/(H1N1)pdm, 120.45 (95% CI 82.17, 176.57) vs. 97.86 (95% CI 81.34, 117.44) for A/H3N2 and 143.32 (95% CI 103.46, 198.53) vs. 145.54 (95% CI 122.35, 174.24) for influenza B, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, time since transplantation was not associated with response to vaccination. No cases of rejection or severe adverse events were detected in patients vaccinated within the first 6 months after transplantation. In conclusion, influenza vaccination within the first 6 months after transplantation is as safe and immunogenic as vaccination thereafter. Thus, administration of the influenza vaccine can be recommended as soon as 1 month after transplantation.
Robison, Steve G; Dunn, Aaron G; Richards, Deborah L; Leman, Richard F
Before the start of the 2016-2017 influenza season, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices withdrew its recommendation promoting the use of live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs). There was concern that this might lessen the likelihood that those with a previous LAIV would return for an injectable influenza vaccine (IIV) and that child influenza immunization rates would decrease overall. Using Oregon's statewide immunization registry, the ALERT Immunization Information System, child influenza immunization rates were compared across the 2012-2013 through 2016-2017 seasons. Additionally, matched cohorts of children were selected based on receipt of either an LAIV or an IIV during the 2015-2016 season. Differences between the IIV and LAIV cohorts in returning for the IIV in the 2016-2017 season were assessed. Overall, influenza immunization rates for children aged 2 to 17 years were unchanged between the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 seasons. Children aged 3 to 10 with a previous IIV were 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.04) times more likely to return for an IIV in 2016-2017 than those with a previous LAIV, whereas children aged 11 to 17 years with a previous IIV were 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.05 to -1.09) times more likely to return. Withdrawal of the LAIV recommendation was not associated with an overall change in child influenza immunization rates across seasons. Children with a previous (2015-2016) IIV were slightly more likely to return during the 2016-2017 season for influenza immunization than those with a previous LAIV. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Settembre, Ethan C; Dormitzer, Philip R; Rappuoli, Rino
The recent H7N9 influenza outbreak in China highlights the need for influenza vaccine production systems that are robust and can quickly generate substantial quantities of vaccines that target new strains for pandemic and seasonal immunization. Although the influenza vaccine system, a public-private partnership, has been effective in providing vaccines, there are areas for improvement. Technological advances such as mammalian cell culture production and synthetic vaccine seeds provide a means to increase the speed and accuracy of targeting new influenza strains with mass-produced vaccines by dispensing with the need for egg isolation, adaptation, and reassortment of vaccine viruses. New influenza potency assays that no longer require the time-consuming step of generating sheep antisera could further speed vaccine release. Adjuvants that increase the breadth of the elicited immune response and allow dose sparing provide an additional means to increase the number of available vaccine doses. Together these technologies can improve the influenza vaccination system in the near term. In the longer term, disruptive technologies, such as RNA-based flu vaccines and 'universal' flu vaccines, offer a promise of a dramatically improved influenza vaccine system.
Liu, Yan; Wu, Jun-Yu; Wang, Xu; Chen, Jiang-Ting; Xia, Ming; Hu, Wei; Zou, Yong; Yin, Wei-Dong
Influenza viruses cause annual winter epidemics globally and influenza vaccination is most effective way to prevent the disease or severe outcomes from the illness, especially in developing countries. However, the majority of the world’s total production capacity of influenza vaccine is concentrated in several large multinational manufacturers. A safe and effective preventive vaccine for the developing countries is urgent. Anflu®, a Chinese domestic preservative-free, split-virus trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV), was introduced by Sinovac Biotech Ltd. in 2006. Until now, 20.6 million doses worldwide of Anflu® were sold. Since 2003, 13 company-sponsored clinical studies investigating the immunogenicity and safety of Anflu® have been completed, in which 6642 subjects participated and were vaccinated by Anflu®. Anflu® was generally well tolerated in all age groups, and highly immunogenic in healthy adults and elderly and exceeded the licensure criteria in Europe. This review presents and discusses the experience with Anflu® during the past decade. A new Chinese domestic, preservative-free, unadjuvanted, inactivated split-virus trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV), Anflu®, was introduced into human clinical trials in 2003 and then licensed in China in 2006. The vaccine contains 15 µg /0.5 ml hemagglutinin from each of the 3 influenza virus strains (including an H1N1 influenza A virus subtype, an H3N2 influenza A virus subtype, and an influenza B virus) that are expected to be circulating in the up-coming influenza season. The clinical data pertaining to Anflu® will be reviewed and compared with other TIVs available at present. PMID:24104060
Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Balasubramani, G. K.; Schaffer, Mallory; Lieberman, Rhett H.; Eng, Heather; Kyle, Shakala; Wisniewski, Stephen; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Middleton, Donald B.
Objective To determine the effects of symptoms and presence of confirmed influenza on intention to receive an influenza vaccine, specifically in patients recovering from a medically-attended acute (≤ 7 days’ duration) respiratory illness (ARI). Methods During the 2013–2014 influenza season, individuals seeking outpatient care for an ARI that included cough were tested for influenza using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) and completed surveys. Children (6 months–18 years) and adults (≥ 18 years) were grouped by their combined current season’s influenza vaccination status (vaccinated/not vaccinated) and their vaccination intentions for next season (intend/do not intend). Results Forty-one percent (323/786) were unvaccinated at enrollment, of whom nearly half (151/323) intended to be vaccinated next season. When adjusting for demographic, health and other factors, unvaccinated individuals who intended to be vaccinated next season were approximately 1.5 times more likely to have PCR-confirmed influenza compared with vaccinated individuals who intended to be vaccinated next season. Conclusion The combined experience of not being vaccinated against influenza and seeking medical attention for an ARI seemed to influence approximately one-half of unvaccinated participants to consider influenza vaccination for next season. PMID:26018106
Influenza B Yamagata lineage demonstrates that recent viruses belong to genetic groups 2 and 3. • 63% of the viruses belong to group 2 with...the current vaccine strain. • And 37% of the viruses belong to group 3 with the 2012-2013 vaccine strain. Influenza B Victoria HA Phylogenetic...DoD Influenza Surveillance and Vaccine Effectiveness Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC) Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) United
Kadi, Zoher; Atif, Mohamed-Lamine; Brenet, Annie; Izoard, Sylvain; Astagneau, Pascal
To identify barriers against influenza vaccination of health care personnel in Northern France, a cross-sectional study was conducted in health care facilities. A total of 3,213 questionnaires from 67 health care facilities were completed. In multivariate analysis using a logistic model, influenza vaccine coverage in health care personnel was significantly associated with level of knowledge about influenza disease and vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Assessing parents’ knowledge and attitudes towards seasonal influenza vaccination of children before and after a seasonal influenza vaccination effectiveness study in low-income urban and rural Kenya, 2010–2011
Background Influenza vaccine is rarely used in Kenya, and little is known about attitudes towards the vaccine. From June-September 2010, free seasonal influenza vaccine was offered to children between 6 months and 10 years old in two Population-Based Infectious Disease Surveillance (PBIDS) sites. This survey assessed attitudes about influenza, uptake of the vaccine and experiences with childhood influenza vaccination. Methods We administered a questionnaire and held focus group discussions with parents of children of enrollment age in the two sites before and after first year of the vaccine campaign. For pre-vaccination focus group discussions, we randomly selected mothers and fathers who had an eligible child from the PBIDS database to participate. For the post-vaccination focus group discussions we stratified parents whose children were eligible for vaccination into fully vaccinated, partially vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups. Results Overall, 5284 and 5755 people completed pre and post-vaccination questionnaires, respectively, in Kibera and Lwak. From pre-vaccination questionnaire results, among parents who were planning on vaccinating their children, 2219 (77.6%) in Kibera and 1780 (89.6%) in Lwak said the main reason was to protect the children from seasonal influenza. In the pre-vaccination discussions, no parent had heard of the seasonal influenza vaccine. At the end of the vaccine campaign, of 18,652 eligible children, 5,817 (31.2%) were fully vaccinated, 2,073 (11.1%) were partially vaccinated and, 10,762 (57.7%) were not vaccinated. In focus group discussions, parents who declined vaccine were concerned about vaccine safety or believed seasonal influenza illness was not severe enough to warrant vaccination. Parents who declined the vaccine were mainly too busy [251(25%) in Kibera and 95 (10.5%) in Lwak], or their child was away during the vaccination period [199(19.8%) in Kibera; 94(10.4%) in Lwak]. Conclusion If influenza vaccine were to be
Assessing parents' knowledge and attitudes towards seasonal influenza vaccination of children before and after a seasonal influenza vaccination effectiveness study in low-income urban and rural Kenya, 2010-2011.
Oria, Prisca Adhiambo; Arunga, Geoffrey; Lebo, Emmaculate; Wong, Joshua M; Emukule, Gideon; Muthoka, Philip; Otieno, Nancy; Mutonga, David; Breiman, Robert F; Katz, Mark A
Influenza vaccine is rarely used in Kenya, and little is known about attitudes towards the vaccine. From June-September 2010, free seasonal influenza vaccine was offered to children between 6 months and 10 years old in two Population-Based Infectious Disease Surveillance (PBIDS) sites. This survey assessed attitudes about influenza, uptake of the vaccine and experiences with childhood influenza vaccination. We administered a questionnaire and held focus group discussions with parents of children of enrollment age in the two sites before and after first year of the vaccine campaign. For pre-vaccination focus group discussions, we randomly selected mothers and fathers who had an eligible child from the PBIDS database to participate. For the post-vaccination focus group discussions we stratified parents whose children were eligible for vaccination into fully vaccinated, partially vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups. Overall, 5284 and 5755 people completed pre and post-vaccination questionnaires, respectively, in Kibera and Lwak. From pre-vaccination questionnaire results, among parents who were planning on vaccinating their children, 2219 (77.6%) in Kibera and 1780 (89.6%) in Lwak said the main reason was to protect the children from seasonal influenza. In the pre-vaccination discussions, no parent had heard of the seasonal influenza vaccine. At the end of the vaccine campaign, of 18,652 eligible children, 5,817 (31.2%) were fully vaccinated, 2,073 (11.1%) were partially vaccinated and, 10,762 (57.7%) were not vaccinated. In focus group discussions, parents who declined vaccine were concerned about vaccine safety or believed seasonal influenza illness was not severe enough to warrant vaccination. Parents who declined the vaccine were mainly too busy [251(25%) in Kibera and 95 (10.5%) in Lwak], or their child was away during the vaccination period [199(19.8%) in Kibera; 94(10.4%) in Lwak]. If influenza vaccine were to be introduced more broadly in Kenya, effective
Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng
Influenza vaccination is one of the major options to counteract the effects of influenza diseases. Selection of an effective vaccine strain is the key to the success of an effective vaccination program since vaccine protection can only be achieved when the selected influenza vaccine strain matches the antigenic variants causing future outbreaks. Identification of an antigenic variant is the first step to determine whether vaccine strain needs to be updated. Antigenic distance derived from immunological assays, such as hemagglutination inhibition, is commonly used to measure the antigenic closeness between circulating strains and the current influenza vaccine strain. Thus, consensus on an explicit and robust antigenic distance measurement is critical in influenza surveillance. Based on the current seasonal influenza surveillance procedure, we propose and compare three antigenic distance measurements, including Average antigenic distance (A-distance), Mutual antigenic distance (M-distance), and Largest antigenic distance (L-distance). With the assistance of influenza antigenic cartography, our simulation results demonstrated that M-distance is a robust influenza antigenic distance measurement. Experimental results on both simulation and seasonal influenza surveillance data demonstrate that M-distance can be effectively utilized in influenza vaccine strain selection. PMID:22063385
Influenza is one of the most common causes of human morbidity and mortality. Analysis of severe cases of influenza during the influenza season 2012/2013 found that 84 % of patients had at least one risk factor and the cohort of patients had lower influenza vaccine coverage in comparison with the general population. Influenza vaccine reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease and, therefore, should be recommended particularly to patients with chronic conditions who suffer more often from severe influenza. The education of physicians specialists is also desirable.
Palmore, Tara N; Vandersluis, J Patrick; Morris, Joan; Michelin, Angela; Ruprecht, Lisa M; Schmitt, James M; Henderson, David K
Although influenza vaccination of healthcare workers reduces influenza-like illness and overall mortality among patients, national rates of vaccination for healthcare providers are unacceptably low. We report the implementation of a new mandatory vaccination policy by means of a streamlined electronic enrollment and vaccination tracking system at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center. To evaluate the outcome of a new mandatory staff influenza vaccination program. A new hospital policy endorsed by all the component NIH institutes and the Clinical Center departments mandated that employees who have patient contact either be vaccinated annually against influenza or sign a declination specifying the reason(s) for refusal. Those who fail to comply would be required to appear before the Medical Executive Committee to explain their rationale. We collected in a database the names of all physician and nonphysician staff who had patient contact. When a staff member either was vaccinated or declined vaccination, a simple system of badge scanning and bar-coded data entry captured essential data. The database was continuously updated, and it provided a list of noncompliant employees with whom to follow up. By February 12, 2009, all 2,754 identified patient-care employees either were vaccinated or formally declined vaccination. Among those, 2,424 (88%) were vaccinated either at the NIH or elsewhere, 36 (1.3%) reported medical contraindications, and 294 (10.7%) declined vaccination for other reasons. Among the 294 employees without medical contraindications who declined, the most frequent reason given for declination was concern about side effects. Implementation of a novel vaccination tracking process and a hospital policy requiring influenza vaccination or declination yielded dramatic improvement in healthcare worker vaccination rates and likely will result in increased patient safety in our hospital.
Safety, immunogenicity and persistence of immune response to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) administered in Chinese infants
Li, Yanping; Li, Rong Cheng; Ye, Qiang; Li, Changgui; Liu, You Ping; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Xiaoling; Assudani, Deepak; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mesaros, Narcisa
ABSTRACT We conducted 3 phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2–3–4 (Group A) or 3–4–5 months of age (Group B). In the Primary study (NCT01086423), 984 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2–3–4 (Group A) or 3–4–5 (Group B) months of age, or concomitant DTPa/Hib and poliomyelitis (IPV) vaccination at 2–3–4 months of age (Control group); 825 infants received a booster dose of DTPa/Hib and IPV at 18–24 months of age (Booster study; NCT01449812). In the Pilot study, unsolicited symptoms were more frequent in Group A (16 versus 1 infant; mostly upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia); this observation was attributed to an epidemic outbreak of viral infections. Non-inferiority of 3-dose primary vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib over separately administered DTPa/Hib and IPV was demonstrated for Group A (primary objective). Similar antibody concentrations were observed in all groups, except for anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate and anti-poliovirus types 1–3 which were higher in DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients. Protective antibody levels against all vaccine antigens remained high until booster vaccination. Three-dose vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib had a clinically acceptable safety profile. PMID:27768515
Safety, immunogenicity and persistence of immune response to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) administered in Chinese infants.
Li, Yanping; Li, Rong Cheng; Ye, Qiang; Li, Changgui; Liu, You Ping; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Xiaoling; Assudani, Deepak; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mesaros, Narcisa
We conducted 3 phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 months of age (Group B). In the Primary study (NCT01086423), 984 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 (Group B) months of age, or concomitant DTPa/Hib and poliomyelitis (IPV) vaccination at 2-3-4 months of age (Control group); 825 infants received a booster dose of DTPa/Hib and IPV at 18-24 months of age (Booster study; NCT01449812). In the Pilot study, unsolicited symptoms were more frequent in Group A (16 versus 1 infant; mostly upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia); this observation was attributed to an epidemic outbreak of viral infections. Non-inferiority of 3-dose primary vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib over separately administered DTPa/Hib and IPV was demonstrated for Group A (primary objective). Similar antibody concentrations were observed in all groups, except for anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 which were higher in DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients. Protective antibody levels against all vaccine antigens remained high until booster vaccination. Three-dose vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib had a clinically acceptable safety profile.
Cheng, Allen C; Dwyer, Dominic E; Holmes, Mark; Irving, Lois B; Brown, Simon Ga; Waterer, Grant W; Korman, Tony M; Hunter, Cameron; Hewagama, Saliya; Friedman, Nadia D; Wark, Peter A; Simpson, Graham; Upham, John W; Bowler, Simon D; Senenayake, Sanjaya N; Kotsimbos, Tom C; Kelly, Paul M
The National Influenza Program aims to reduce serious morbidity and mortality from influenza by providing public funding for vaccination to at-risk groups. The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance program that operates at 14 sites in all states and territories in Australia. This report summarises the epidemiology of hospitalisations with confirmed influenza, estimates vaccine coverage and influenza vaccine protection against hospitalisation with influenza during the 2013 influenza season. In this observational study, cases were defined as patients admitted to one of the sentinel hospitals, with influenza confirmed by nucleic acid testing. Controls were patients who had acute respiratory illnesses who were test-negative for influenza. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 1 minus the odds ratio of vaccination in case patients compared with control patients, after adjusting for known confounders. During the period 5 April to 31 October 2012, 631 patients were admitted with confirmed influenza at the 14 FluCAN sentinel hospitals. Of these, 31% were more than 65 years of age, 9.5% were Indigenous Australians, 4.3% were pregnant and 77% had chronic co-morbidities. Influenza B was detected in 30% of patients. Vaccination coverage was estimated at 81% in patients more than 65 years of age but only 49% in patients aged less than 65 years with chronic comorbidities. Vaccination effectiveness against hospitalisation with influenza was estimated at 50% (95% confidence interval: 33%, 63%, P<0.001). We detected a significant number of hospital admissions with confirmed influenza in a national observational study. Vaccine coverage was incomplete in at-risk groups, particularly non-elderly patients with medical comorbidities. Our results suggest that the seasonal influenza vaccine was moderately protective against hospitalisation with influenza in the 2013 season.
Johnson, Casey; Hohenboken, Matthew; Poling, Terry; Jaehnig, Peter; Kanesa-thasan, Niranjan
Background. A/H3N2 variant (H3N2v) influenza may sustain human-to-human transmission, and an available candidate vaccine would be important. Methods. In this phase I, randomized, observer-blind, dose-ranging study, 627 healthy subjects ≥3 years of age were randomized to receive 2 vaccinations with H3N2c cell-culture-derived vaccine doses containing 3.75 µg, 7.5 µg, or 15 µg hemagglutinin antigen of H3N2v with or without MF59 (registered trademark of Novartis AG) adjuvant (an oil-in-water emulsion). This paper reports Day 43 planned interim data. Results. Single MF59-adjuvanted H3N2c doses elicited immune responses in almost all subjects regardless of antigen and adjuvant dose; the Center for Biologics Evaluation Research and Review (CBER) licensure criteria were met for all groups. Subjects with prevaccination hemagglutination inhibition titers <10 and children 3–<9 years achieve CBER criteria only after receiving 2 doses of nonadjuvanted H3N2c vaccine. Highest antibody titers were observed in the 7.5 µg + 0.25 mL MF59 groups in all age cohorts. MF59-adjuvanted H3N2c vaccines showed the highest rates of solicited local and systemic events, predominately mild or moderate. Conclusions. A single dose of H3N2c vaccine may be immunogenic and supports further development of MF59-adjuvanted H3N2c vaccines, especially for pediatric populations. Clinical Trials Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01855945 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01855945). PMID:25538277
Gündüz, Suzan; Yüksel, Nüket Ciğdem; Aktoprak, Hale Bozkurt; Canbal, Metin; Kaya, Mehmet
To better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and demographic factors that influence the rate of influenza vaccination among high socioeconomic status parents. Questionnaire exploring the attitudes of parents to the influenza vaccine, and their knowledge about influenza and its vaccination, was given to parents of children from 1 through 16 years of age attending the Turgut Özal University Hospital after the 2011/12 influenza season. In the present study, 285 mothers and their children participated and 8.8% (n = 25) of children had the influenza vaccination. Between the vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups, there were statistically significantly differences for having received the recommendation of the physician, consulting with the physician, having the influenza vaccine previously, and having a chronic disease. The most common misconceptions of the parents about the vaccine were; there being no need for it, it not being useful, it having no effect, and it being harmful. Parents' knowledge about influenza and the influenza vaccine were not satisfactory. Reliable information from both health care providers during visits and the media about influenza, its severity, and the effectiveness and side effects of its vaccine should be provided.
O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Schumacher, Pamela; Sussell, Aaron; Birdsey, Jan; Boal, Winifred L; Sweeney, Marie Haring; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Black, Carla L; Santibanez, Tammy A
Influenza illnesses can result in missed days at work and societal costs, but influenza vaccination can reduce the risk of disease. Knowledge of vaccination coverage by industry and occupation can help guide prevention efforts and be useful during influenza pandemic planning. Data from 21 states using the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System industry-occupation module were analyzed. Influenza vaccination coverage was reported by select industry and occupation groups, including health care personnel (HCP) and other occupational groups who may have first priority to receive influenza vaccination during a pandemic (tier 1). The t tests were used to make comparisons between groups. Influenza vaccination coverage varied by industry and occupation, with high coverage among persons in health care industries and occupations. Approximately half of persons classified as tier 1 received influenza vaccination, and vaccination coverage among tier 1 and HCP groups varied widely by state. This report points to the particular industries and occupations where improvement in influenza vaccination coverage is needed. Prior to a pandemic event, more specificity on occupational codes to define exact industries and occupations in each tier group would be beneficial in implementing pandemic influenza vaccination programs and monitoring the success of these programs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wong, Karen K; Cohen, Adam L; Norris, Shane A; Martinson, Neil A; von Mollendorf, Claire; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Madhi, Shabir A; McMorrow, Meredith L; Variava, Ebrahim; Motlhaoleng, Katlego M; Cohen, Cheryl
Understanding knowledge and sentiment toward influenza and vaccination is important for effective health messages and prevention strategies. We aimed to characterize knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding influenza illness and vaccination in two South African communities and explore reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Household primary caregivers in Soweto and Klerksdorp townships were interviewed about knowledge of influenza and intention to receive an influenza vaccine using a structured questionnaire. Factors associated with unwillingness to receive vaccine were explored using multivariable regression. We interviewed representatives of 973 households in Soweto and 1,442 in Klerksdorp. Most respondents in Soweto (692, 71%) and Klerksdorp (1247, 87%) thought weather or cold caused influenza. While most would get a free influenza vaccine, those unwilling to receive vaccine had concerns about efficacy (Soweto: 19%; Klerksdorp: 19%) and safety (Soweto: 17%; Klerksdorp: 10%). In Soweto, females (aRR 2·0, 95% CI 1·3-3·2) and those with higher household income (aRR 1·8, 95% CI 1·2-2·7) were less willing to receive vaccine. In Klerksdorp, more educated respondents (aRR 1·6, 95% CI 1·1-2·4) were less willing to receive vaccine; households reporting an HIV-positive member were more willing to receive vaccine (aRR 0·3, 95% CI 0·1-0·8). Although findings suggest most community participants were amenable to influenza vaccination, knowledge gaps were present. Emphasizing the importance of influenza as a health problem and addressing vaccine safety and efficacy concerns may improve uptake. Populations less amenable to vaccination, including those with higher education and income, may benefit from targeted messaging efforts. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gorska-Ciebiada, Małgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Małgorzata; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy
Both seasonal influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended for elderly diabetics. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination over the previous twelve months, pneumococcal vaccination over a lifetime, and to identify predictors which affect likelihood of vaccination. 219 diabetics elders were detailed questioned 3 months after the end of 2012/2013 influenza season. 26.48% of patients have been vaccinated against influenza in the last year and only 9.13% of patients reported pneumococcal vaccination in the past. The logistic regression analysis revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against influenza were: higher number of anti-hyperglycemic medications, increased number of co-morbidities, higher patients' income, recommendation of vaccination from General Practitioners (GPs) and specialist. Significant predictors of pneumococcal vaccine uptake included increased number of co-morbidities and recommendation of vaccination received from GPs and specialist. The commonest reasons given by those unvaccinated were lack of information about immunization and low perceived benefits of vaccination. Of patients who were not treated with influenza vaccine 86.7% had never received recommendation from specialist and 71.4% had never been advised by GPs. Influenza vaccination was too expensive to 24.85% of patients. The vaccination rate among elderly diabetics in Poland is low. Lack of knowledge and patients' income are the main barriers. Increased awareness of healthcare professionals to educate and encourage vaccination and propagation of free vaccinations to all people at risk may increase the rate of vaccination against influenza and pneumococcal disease.
Ropero-Álvarez, Alba María; Kurtis, Hannah J; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc; Andrus, Jon K
Background Seasonal influenza is a viral disease whose annual epidemics are estimated to cause three to five million cases of severe illness and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Vaccination is the main strategy for primary prevention. Methods To assess the status of influenza vaccination in the Americas, influenza vaccination data reported to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) through 2008 were analyzed. Results Thirty-five countries and territories administered influenza vaccine in their public health sector, compared to 13 countries in 2004. Targeted risk groups varied. Sixteen countries reported coverage among older adults, ranging from 21% to 100%; coverage data were not available for most countries and targeted populations. Some tropical countries used the Northern Hemisphere vaccine formulation and others used the Southern Hemisphere vaccine formulation. In 2008, approximately 166.3 million doses of seasonal influenza vaccine were purchased in the Americas; 30 of 35 countries procured their vaccine through PAHO's Revolving Fund. Conclusion Since 2004 there has been rapid uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine in the Americas. Challenges to fully implement influenza vaccination remain, including difficulties measuring coverage rates, variable vaccine uptake, and limited surveillance and effectiveness data to guide decisions regarding vaccine formulation and timing, especially in tropical countries. PMID:19778430
Sundaram, Maria E; McClure, David L; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Friedrich, Thomas C; Meece, Jennifer K; Belongia, Edward A
The test-negative control study design is the basis for observational studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). Recent studies have suggested that influenza vaccination increases the risk of noninfluenza respiratory virus infection. Such an effect could create bias in VE studies using influenza-negative controls. We investigated the association between influenza infection, vaccination, and detection of other respiratory viruses among children <5 years old and adults ≥50 years old with acute respiratory illness who participated in seasonal studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness. Nasal/nasopharyngeal samples collected from 2004–2005 through 2009–2010 were tested for 19 respiratory virus targets using a multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) platform. Vaccination status was determined using a validated registry. Adjusted odds ratios for influenza and vaccination status were calculated using three different control groups: influenza-negative, other respiratory virus positive, and pan-negative. Influenza was detected in 12% of 2010 children and 20% of 1738 adults. Noninfluenza respiratory viruses were detected in 70% of children and 38% of adults without influenza. The proportion vaccinated did not vary between virus-positive controls and pan-negative controls in children (P = .62) or adults (P = .33). Influenza infection was associated with reduced odds of vaccination, but adjusted odds ratios differed by no more than 0.02 when the analysis used influenza-negative or virus-positive controls. Influenza vaccination was not associated with detection of noninfluenza respiratory viruses. Use of influenza-negative controls did not generate a biased estimate of vaccine effectiveness due to an effect of vaccination on other respiratory virus infections.
Ding, Helen; Black, Carla L; Ball, Sarah; Fink, Rebecca V; Williams, Walter W; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Lu, Peng-Jun; Kahn, Katherine E; D'Angelo, Denise V; Devlin, Rebecca; Greby, Stacie M
Pregnant women and their infants are at increased risk for severe influenza-associated illness (1), and since 2004, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended influenza vaccination for all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season, regardless of the trimester of the pregnancy (2). To assess influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women during the 2016-17 influenza season, CDC analyzed data from an Internet panel survey conducted during March 28-April 7, 2017. Among 1,893 survey respondents pregnant at any time during October 2016-January 2017, 53.6% reported having received influenza vaccination before (16.2%) or during (37.4%) pregnancy, similar to coverage during the preceding four influenza seasons. Also similar to the preceding influenza season, 67.3% of women reported receiving a provider offer for influenza vaccination, 11.9% reported receiving a recommendation but no offer, and 20.7% reported receiving no recommendation; among these women, reported influenza vaccination coverage was 70.5%, 43.7%, and 14.8%, respectively. Among women who received a provider offer for vaccination, vaccination coverage differed by race/ethnicity, education, insurance type, and other sociodemographic factors. Use of evidence-based practices such as provider reminders and standing orders could reduce missed opportunities for vaccination and increase vaccination coverage among pregnant women.
Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Perona, Pamela; Borkowski, Astrid; Fragapane, Elena; Nicolay, Uwe; Clemens, Ralf
An investigational tetravalent vaccine combining pre-pandemic, MF59®-adjuvanted A/H5N1 vaccine with non-adjuvanted, trivalent, seasonal influenza vaccine has been developed, which has the potential to be used for pre-pandemic priming and to improve levels of compliance and coverage. It is important to determine whether the safety and immunogenicity of the combination vaccine is equivalent to that of the two separate vaccines when administered concomitantly. Healthy adults (n = 601) were randomly assigned to three vaccination groups to receive either: (1) tetravalent vaccine and placebo concomitantly (in separate arms) on Day 1, followed by A/H5N1 vaccine on Day 22; (2) A/H5N1 vaccine and placebo concomitantly on Day 1, followed by tetravalent vaccine on Day 22; or (3) A/H5N1 and seasonal vaccines concomitantly on Day 1, followed by A/H5N1 vaccine on Day 22. Antibody responses were measured using single radial hemolysis (SRH), haemagglutination inhibition (HI), and microneutralization (MN) assays on Days 1, 22, and 43. Solicited adverse reactions were recorded for seven days after vaccination. Spontaneous adverse events were recorded throughout the study. The tetravalent vaccine elicited antibody titers equivalent to those for separate A/H5N1 and seasonal vaccines, and sufficient to meet the European licensure criteria against A/H5N1 and all three seasonal strains. Local and systemic reactions were mainly mild to moderate. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. These findings demonstrate that MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines had an acceptable safety profile and could be effectively administered as a tetravalent formulation, supporting the possibility of integrating pre-pandemic priming into seasonal influenza vaccination programs. PMID:24047817
Perlin, Jonathan B; Septimus, Edward J; Cormier, Scott B; Moody, Julia A; Hickok, Jason D; Bracken, Richard M
Patient safety is positively influenced by widespread seasonal influenza vaccination of healthcare workers, but yearly vaccination rates have been unacceptably low. As a result, mandatory vaccination programs have been widely discussed as a means of increasing vaccination rates. In the HCA Inc. healthcare system, the multifaceted Influenza Patient Safety Program was designed to encourage the vaccination of over 160,000 employees across the United States. This program included human resources policies, various patient safety strategies, and a vaccination policy featuring the choice of free seasonal influenza vaccination or wearing a mask. With 100% compliance with the policy, the vaccination rate increased from a mean of 58% to over 90% for three consecutive influenza seasons. As healthcare worker vaccination is part of a larger culture of accountability related to quality and infection prevention, this program was resource intense, required a multidisciplinary approach, and was not without challenges to implementation. Essential components included steadfast leadership support, continuous education and communication efforts, and consistent data collection and feedback. This manuscript describes the approach and processes used in this program as well as lessons learned over three seasons in order to aid other providers in developing patient safety programs that include influenza vaccination for healthcare workers. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.
Smith, Michael; Peacock, Georgina; Uyeki, Timothy M; Moore, Cynthia
Children with neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders (NNDDs) are at increased risk of complications from influenza. Although the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recognized NNDDs as high-risk conditions for influenza complications since 2005, little is known about influenza vaccination practices in this population. CDC collaborated with Family Voices, a national advocacy group for children with special healthcare needs, to recruit parents of children with chronic medical conditions. Parents were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding influenza vaccination. The primary outcome of interest was parental report of vaccination, or intent to vaccinate, at the time of survey participation. CDC also collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics to recruit primary care and specialty physicians who provide care for high-risk children, specifically those with neurologic conditions. The primary outcome was physician recognition of ACIP high-risk influenza conditions. 2138 surveys were completed by parents of children with high-risk conditions, including 1143 with at least one NNDD. Overall, 50% of children with an NNDD were vaccinated, or their parents planned to have them vaccinated against influenza. Among all 2138 children, in multivariable analysis, the presence of a respiratory condition and prior seasonal influenza vaccination was significantly associated with receipt or planned current season influenza vaccination, but the presence of an NNDD was not. 412 pediatricians completed the provider survey. Cerebral palsy was recognized as a high-risk influenza condition by 74% of physician respondents, but epilepsy (51%) and intellectual disability (46%) were less commonly identified. Our estimates of influenza vaccination in children with NNDDs are comparable to published reports of vaccination in healthy children, which continue to be suboptimal. Education of parents of children with NNDDs and healthcare
Coler, Rhea N; Baldwin, Susan L; Shaverdian, Narek; Bertholet, Sylvie; Reed, Steven J; Raman, Vanitha S; Lu, Xiuhua; DeVos, Joshua; Hancock, Kathy; Katz, Jacqueline M; Vedvick, Thomas S; Duthie, Malcolm S; Clegg, Christopher H; Van Hoeven, Neal; Reed, Steven G
Safe, effective adjuvants that enhance vaccine potency, including induction of neutralizing Abs against a broad range of variant strains, is an important strategy for the development of seasonal influenza vaccines which can provide optimal protection, even during seasons when available vaccines are not well matched to circulating viruses. We investigated the safety and ability of Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE), a synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 agonist formulation, to adjuvant Fluzone® in mice and non-human primates. The GLA-SE adjuvanted Fluzone vaccine caused no adverse reactions, increased the induction of T helper type 1 (T(H)1)-biased cytokines such as IFNγ, TNF and IL-2, and broadened serological responses against drifted A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza variants. These results suggest that synthetic TLR4 adjuvants can enhance the magnitude and quality of protective immunity induced by influenza vaccines.
Shaverdian, Narek; Bertholet, Sylvie; Reed, Steven J.; Raman, Vanitha S.; Lu, Xiuhua; DeVos, Joshua; Hancock, Kathy; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Vedvick, Thomas S.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Clegg, Christopher H.; Van Hoeven, Neal; Reed, Steven G.
Safe, effective adjuvants that enhance vaccine potency, including induction of neutralizing Abs against a broad range of variant strains, is an important strategy for the development of seasonal influenza vaccines which can provide optimal protection, even during seasons when available vaccines are not well matched to circulating viruses. We investigated the safety and ability of Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE), a synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 agonist formulation, to adjuvant Fluzone® in mice and non-human primates. The GLA-SE adjuvanted Fluzone vaccine caused no adverse reactions, increased the induction of T helper type 1 (TH1)-biased cytokines such as IFNγ, TNF and IL-2, and broadened serological responses against drifted A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza variants. These results suggest that synthetic TLR4 adjuvants can enhance the magnitude and quality of protective immunity induced by influenza vaccines. PMID:21060869
Bazhan, Sergei I.
By means of a designed epidemic model, we evaluated the influence of seasonal vaccination coverage as well as a potential universal vaccine with differing efficacy on the aftermath of seasonal and pandemic influenza. The results of the modeling enabled us to conclude that, to control a seasonal influenza epidemic with a reproduction coefficient R0 ≤ 1.5, a 35% vaccination coverage with the current seasonal influenza vaccine formulation is sufficient, provided that other epidemiology measures are regularly implemented. Increasing R0 level of pandemic strains will obviously require stronger intervention. In addition, seasonal influenza vaccines fail to confer protection against antigenically distinct pandemic influenza strains. Therefore, the necessity of a universal influenza vaccine is clear. The model predicts that a potential universal vaccine will be able to provide sufficient reliable (90%) protection against pandemic influenza only if its efficacy is comparable with the effectiveness of modern vaccines against seasonal influenza strains (70%–80%); given that at least 40% of the population has been vaccinated in advance, ill individuals have been isolated (observed), and a quarantine has been introduced. If other antiepidemic measures are absent, a vaccination coverage of at least 80% is required. PMID:27668256
Zhang, Han; Wang, Li; Compans, Richard W.; Wang, Bao-Zhong
Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine. PMID:24784572
VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hib Vaccine ( Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information ... vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease is a serious disease caused by ...
Sasaki, Eita; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Momose, Haruka; Kobiyama, Kouji; Aoshi, Taiki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ishii, Ken J; Mizukami, Takuo; Hamaguchi, Isao
Vaccines are administered to healthy humans, including infants, so the safety and efficacy must be very high. Therefore, evaluating vaccine safety in preclinical and clinical studies, according to World Health Organization guidelines, is crucial for vaccine development and clinical use. A change in the route of administration is considered to alter a vaccine's immunogenicity. Several adjuvants have also been developed and approved for use in vaccines. However, the addition of adjuvants to vaccines may cause unwanted immune responses, including facial nerve paralysis and narcolepsy. Therefore, a more accurate and comprehensive strategy must be used to develope next-generation vaccines for ensuring vaccine safety. Previously, we have developed a system with which to evaluate vaccine safety in rats using a systematic vaccinological approach and 20 marker genes. In this study, we developed a safety evaluation system for nasally administered influenza vaccines and adjuvanted influenza vaccines using these marker genes. Expression of these genes increased dose-dependent manner when mice were intranasally administered the toxicity reference vaccine. When the adjuvant CpG K3 or a CpG-K3-combined influenza vaccine was administered intranasally, marker gene expression increased in a CpG-K3-dose-dependent way. A histopathological analysis indicated that marker gene expression correlated with vaccine- or adjuvant-induced phenotypic changes in the lung and nasal mucosa. We believe that the marker genes expression analyses will be useful in preclinical testing, adjuvant development, and selecting the appropriate dose of adjuvant in nasal administration vaccines.
Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...
Jimenez-Jorge, S; de Mateo, S; Delgado-Sanz, C; Pozo, F; Casas, I; Garcia-Cenoz, M; Castilla, J; Rodriguez, C; Vega, T; Quinones, C; Martinez, E; Vanrell, J M; Gimenez, J; Castrillejo, D; Altzibar, J M; Carril, F; Ramos, J M; Serrano, M C; Martinez, A; Torner, N; Perez, E; Gallardo, V; Larrauri, A
We aimed to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza during three influenza seasons (2010/11 to 2012/2013) in Spain using surveillance data and to compare the results with data obtained by the cycEVA study, the Spanish component of the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness (I-MOVE) network. We used the test-negative case–control design, with data from the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System (SISS) or from the cycEVA study. Cases were laboratory-confirmed influenza patients with the predominant influenza virus of each season, and controls were those testing negative for any influenza virus. We calculated the overall and age-specific adjusted VE. Although the number of patients recorded in the SISS was three times higher than that in the cycEVA study, the quality of information for important variables, i.e. vaccination status and laboratory results, was high in both studies. Overall, the SISS and cycEVA influenza VE estimates were largely similar during the study period. For elderly patients (> 59 years), the SISS estimates were slightly lower than those of cycEVA, and estimates for children (0–14 years) were higher using SISS in two of the three seasons studied. Enhancing the SISS by collecting the date of influenza vaccination and reducing the percentage of patients with incomplete information would optimise the system to provide reliable annual influenza VE estimates to guide influenza vaccination policies.
Van Buynder, Paul G; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily
After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static 'eye-lite' displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web-sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community 'myths' about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Costantino, Claudio; Mazzucco, Walter; Azzolini, Elena; Baldini, Cesare; Bergomi, Margherita; Biafiore, Alessio Daniele; Bianco, Manuela; Borsari, Lucia; Cacciari, Paolo; Cadeddu, Chiara; Camia, Paola; Carluccio, Eugenia; Conti, Andrea; De Waure, Chiara; Di Gregori, Valentina; Fabiani, Leila; Fallico, Roberto; Filisetti, Barbara; Flacco, Maria E; Franco, Elisabetta; Furnari, Roberto; Galis, Veronica; Gallea, Maria R; Gallone, Maria F; Gallone, Serena; Gelatti, Umberto; Gilardi, Francesco; Giuliani, Anna R; Grillo, Orazio C; Lanati, Niccolò; Mascaretti, Silvia; Mattei, Antonella; Micò, Rocco; Morciano, Laura; Nante, Nicola; Napoli, Giuseppe; Nobile, Carmelo Giuseppe; Palladino, Raffaele; Parisi, Salvatore; Passaro, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Rustico, Ennio; Saponari, Anita; Schioppa, Francesco S; Signorelli, Carlo; Siliquini, Roberta; Trabacchi, Valeria; Triassi, Maria; Varetta, Alessia; Ziglio, Andrea; Zoccali, Angela; Vitale, Francesco; Amodio, Emanuele
Although influenza vaccination is recognized to be safe and effective, recent studies have confirmed that immunization coverage among health care workers remain generally low, especially among medical residents (MRs). Aim of the present multicenter study was to investigate attitudes and determinants associated with acceptance of influenza vaccination among Italian MRs. A survey was performed in 2012 on MRs attending post-graduate schools of 18 Italian Universities. Each participant was interviewed via an anonymous, self-administered, web-based questionnaire including questions on attitudes regarding influenza vaccination. A total of 2506 MRs were recruited in the survey and 299 (11.9%) of these stated they had accepted influenza vaccination in 2011-2012 season. Vaccinated MRs were older (P = 0.006), working in clinical settings (P = 0.048), and vaccinated in the 2 previous seasons (P<0.001 in both seasons). Moreover, MRs who had recommended influenza vaccination to their patients were significantly more compliant with influenza vaccination uptake in 2011-2012 season (P<0.001). "To avoid spreading influenza among patients" was recognized as the main reason for accepting vaccination by less than 15% of vaccinated MRs. Italian MRs seem to have a very low compliance with influenza vaccination and they seem to accept influenza vaccination as a habit that is unrelated to professional and ethical responsibility. Otherwise, residents who refuse vaccination in the previous seasons usually maintain their behaviors. Promoting correct attitudes and good practice in order to improve the influenza immunization rates of MRs could represent a decisive goal for increasing immunization coverage among health care workers of the future.
Parrish, Amanda T; Graves, Meredith C; Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Hammerback, Kristen; Allen, Claire L
Restaurant employees represent a substantial portion of the US workforce, interact closely with the public, and are at risk for contracting influenza, yet their influenza vaccination rates and attitudes are unknown. Assess influenza vaccination rates and attitudes among Seattle restaurant employees, to identify factors that could enhance the success of a restaurant-based vaccination program. In 2012, we invited employees of Seattle restaurants to complete an anonymous paper survey assessing participant demographics, previous influenza vaccination status, and personal attitudes toward influenza vaccination (using a 5-point scale). Sit-down, full service restaurants in or near Seattle, Washington, were eligible if they had no previous history of offering worksite influenza vaccinations and had more than 20 employees who were older than 18 years and spoke either English or Spanish. We invited staff in all restaurant positions (servers, bussers, kitchen staff, chefs, managers, etc) to complete the survey, which was available in English and Spanish. Of 428 restaurant employees surveyed, 26% reported receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine in 2011-2012 (response rate = 74%). Across 8 attitude statements, participants were most likely to agree that the vaccine is not too expensive (89%), and least likely to agree that it is relevant for their age group (25%), or normative at their workplace (13%). Vaccinated participants reported significantly more positive attitudes than unvaccinated participants, and Hispanics reported significantly more positive attitudes than non-Hispanic whites. Increasing influenza vaccination rates among restaurant employees could protect a substantial portion of the US workforce, and the public, from influenza. Seattle restaurant employees have low vaccination rates against seasonal influenza. Interventions aimed at increasing vaccination among restaurant employees should highlight the vaccine's relevance and effectiveness for working-age adults.
Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri
The study examined the factors affecting the decision to be vaccinated against influenza among employees in Israel. The research, conducted in 2007/2008, included 616 employees aged 18-65 at various workplaces in Israel, among them companies that offered their employees influenza vaccination. The research questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, and the Health Belief Model principles. The results show that the significant factors affecting vaccination compliance include a vaccination program at workplaces, vaccinations in the past, higher levels of vaccine's perceived benefits, and lower levels of barriers to getting the vaccine. We conclude that vaccine compliance is larger at companies with workplace vaccination programs providing easier accessibility to vaccination.
Simon, Alan E; Ahrens, Katherine A; Akinbami, Lara J
Children with asthma face higher risk of complications from influenza. Trends in influenza vaccination among children with asthma are unknown. We used 2005-2013 National Health Interview Survey data for children 2 to 17 years of age. We assessed, separately for children with and without asthma, any vaccination (received August through May) during each of the 2005-2006 through 2012-2013 influenza seasons and, for the 2010-2011 through 2012-2013 seasons only, early vaccination (received August through October). We used April-July interviews each year (n = 31,668) to assess vaccination during the previous influenza season. Predictive margins from logistic regression with time as the independent and vaccination status as the dependent variable were used to assess time trends. We also estimated the association between several sociodemographic variables and the likelihood of influenza vaccination. From 2005 to 2013, among children with asthma, influenza vaccination receipt increased about 3 percentage points per year (P < .001), reaching 55% in 2012-2013. The percentage of all children with asthma vaccinated by October (early vaccination) was slightly above 30% in 2012-2013. In 2010-2013, adolescents, the uninsured, children of parents with some college education, and those living in the Midwest, South, and West were less likely to be vaccinated. The percentage of children 2 to 17 years of age with asthma receiving influenza vaccination has increased since 2004-2005, reaching approximately 55% in 2012-2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Simon, Alan E.; Ahrens, Katherine A.; Akinbami, Lara J.
Background Children with asthma face higher risk of complications from influenza. Trends in influenza vaccination among children with asthma are unknown. Methods We used 2005–2013 National Health Interview Survey data for children 2 to 17 years of age. We assessed, separately for children with and without asthma, any vaccination (received August through May) during each of the 2005–2006 through 2012–2013 influenza seasons and, for the 2010–2011 through 2012–2013 seasons only, early vaccination (received August through October). We used April–July interviews each year (n = 31,668) to assess vaccination during the previous influenza season. Predictive margins from logistic regression with time as the independent and vaccination status as the dependent variable were used to assess time trends. We also estimated the association between several sociodemographic variables and the likelihood of influenza vaccination. Results From 2005 to 2013, among children with asthma, influenza vaccination receipt increased about 3 percentage points per year (P < .001), reaching 55% in 2012–2013. The percentage of all children with asthma vaccinated by October (early vaccination) was slightly above 30% in 2012–2013. In 2010–2013, adolescents, the uninsured, children of parents with some college education, and those living in the Midwest, South, and West were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The percentage of children 2 to 17 years of age with asthma receiving influenza vaccination has increased since 2004–2005, reaching approximately 55% in 2012–2013. PMID:26518382
Brandt, C; Rabenau, H F; Bornmann, S; Gottschalk, R; Wicker, S
The emergence of the influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus provided a major challenge to health services around the world. However, vaccination rates for the public and for healthcare workers (HCWs) have remained low. We performed a study to review the reasons put forward by HCWs to refuse immunisation with the pandemic vaccine in 2009/10 and characterise attitudes in the influenza season 2010/11 due to the emergence of influenza A(H1N1)2009. A survey among HCWs and medical students in the clinical phase of their studies was conducted, using an anonymous questionnaire, at a German university hospital during an influenza vaccination campaign. 1,366 of 3,900 HCWs (35.0%) were vaccinated in the 2010/11 influenza season. Of the vaccinated HCWs, 1,323 (96.9%) completed the questionnaire in addition to 322 vaccinated medical students. Of the 1,645 vaccinees who completed the questionnaire, 712 had not been vaccinated against the influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus in the 2009/10 season. The main reason put forward was the objection to the AS03 adjuvants (239/712, 33.6%). Of the HCWs and students surveyed, 270 of 1,645 (16.4%) stated that the pandemic had influenced their attitude towards vaccination in general. Many German HCWs remained unconvinced of the safety of the pandemic (adjuvanted) influenza vaccine. For this reason, effective risk communication should focus on educating the public and HCWs about influenza vaccine safety and the benefits of vaccination.
Escorcia, Magdalena; Vázquez, Lourdes; Méndez, Sara T; Rodríguez-Ropón, Andrea; Lucio, Eduardo; Nava, Gerardo M
Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs are constantly undergoing genetic drifts. Recent AIV isolates (2002–2006) show significant molecular drifts when compared with the H5N2 vaccine-strain or other field isolates (1994–2000). This study also demonstrates that molecular drifts in the HA gene lineages follow a yearly trend, suggesting gradually cumulative sequence mutations. These findings might explain the increasing incidence of LP H5N2 AIV isolated from commercial avian farms. These findings support recent concerns about the challenge of AIV antigenic drift and influenza epidemics. PMID:18218105
Escorcia, Magdalena; Vázquez, Lourdes; Méndez, Sara T; Rodríguez-Ropón, Andrea; Lucio, Eduardo; Nava, Gerardo M
Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs are constantly undergoing genetic drifts. Recent AIV isolates (2002-2006) show significant molecular drifts when compared with the H5N2 vaccine-strain or other field isolates (1994-2000). This study also demonstrates that molecular drifts in the HA gene lineages follow a yearly trend, suggesting gradually cumulative sequence mutations. These findings might explain the increasing incidence of LP H5N2 AIV isolated from commercial avian farms. These findings support recent concerns about the challenge of AIV antigenic drift and influenza epidemics.
Frey, Sharon; Vesikari, Timo; Szymczakiewicz-Multanowska, Agnieszka; Lattanzi, Maria; Izu, Allen; Groth, Nicola; Holmes, Sandra
More efficient methods are needed to manufacture influenza vaccines. This trial compared the efficacy of cell culture-derived influenza vaccine (CCIV) and egg-derived trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) with placebo against laboratory-confirmed influenza illness in healthy adults in the United States, Finland, and Poland during the 2007-2008 influenza season. A total of 11,404 study participants aged 18-49 years were randomized equally to receive CCIV (Optaflu; n = 3828), TIV (Agrippal; n = 3676), or placebo (n = 3900). Each participant was observed during a 6-month study surveillance period. Nasal and throat swabs for virus isolation and characterization were collected from all patients with influenza-like illness. Vaccine immunogenicity was evaluated in a subset of 1045 participants. Efficacy of CCIV and TIV against vaccine-like (83.8% [1-sided 97.5% confidence interval [CI] lower limit, 61.0%] and 78.4% [1-sided 97.5% CI lower limit, 52.1%], respectively) and all circulating influenza virus strains (69.5% [1-sided 97.5% CI lower limit, 55.0%] and 63.0% [1-sided 97.5% lower limit, 46.7%], respectively) exceeded the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research efficacy criteria. Immunogenicity of both vaccines exceeded the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research licensing criteria. Both vaccines were well tolerated, with similar safety profiles. Most solicited reactions were mild to moderate in severity and transient. No vaccination-related serious adverse events were reported; no withdrawals resulted from vaccine-related adverse events. Both CCIV and TIV were effective in preventing influenza caused by vaccine-like and by all circulating influenza virus strains, were well tolerated, and had good safety profiles. Both vaccines can be considered for annual influenza vaccination campaigns. NCT00630331.
Background Recent studies have suggested that vaccination with seasonal influenza vaccine resulted in an apparent higher risk of infection with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009. A simple mathematical model incorporating strain competition and a hypothesised temporary strain-transcending immunity is constructed to investigate this observation. The model assumes that seasonal vaccine has no effect on the risk of infection with pandemic influenza. Results Results of the model over a range of reproduction numbers and effective vaccination coverage confirm this apparent increased risk in the Northern, but not the Southern, hemisphere. This is due to unvaccinated individuals being more likely to be infected with seasonal influenza (if it is circulating) and developing hypothesised temporary immunity to the pandemic strain. Because vaccinated individuals are less likely to have been infected with seasonal influenza, they are less likely to have developed the hypothesised temporary immunity and are therefore more likely to be infected with pandemic influenza. If the reproduction number for pandemic influenza is increased, as it is for children, an increase in the apparent risk of seasonal vaccination is observed. The maximum apparent risk effect is found when seasonal vaccination coverage is in the range 20-40%. Conclusions Only when pandemic influenza is recently preceded by seasonal influenza circulation is there a modelled increased risk of pandemic influenza infection associated with prior receipt of seasonal vaccine. PMID:21356130
Farrukh, Muhammad Junaid; Ming, Long Chiau; Zaidi, Syed Tabish Razi; Khan, Tahir Mehmood
Influenza vaccination is strongly recommended by World Health Organisation on a yearly basis. The rate of immunization in Pakistan is suboptimal. High cost, traditional norms, customs and low levels of education in Pakistan are preventing people from getting vaccinated. It is timely to include influenza vaccination in the expanded programme on immunization (EPI), which is a disease prevention programme aiming to eradicate preventable diseases through subsidized or free immunization. The Ministry of National Health Services, Regulation and Coordination, Government of Pakistan should launch a national influenza vaccine policy in view of this current situation and oversee its implementation. Healthcare professionals should promote influenza vaccination and focus on high risk groups such as the elderly, pregnant women and children. Convincing and educating family members regarding immunization of pregnant women and follow-up with parents regarding a second influenza shot for their children will further improve vaccination rates in Pakistan.
Hoft, Daniel F; Belshe, Robert B
Influenza remains a major problem causing significant morbidity and mortality annually and periodic pandemics with the potential for 10-100 fold increased mortality. Conventional vaccines can be highly effective if generated each year to match currently circulating viruses. Ongoing research focuses on producing cross-protective vaccines that induce T cell and/ or antibody responses specific for highly conserved viral epitopes. The Saint Louis University Center for Vaccine Development (SLUCVD) is highly engaged in multiple efforts to generate universally relevant influenza vaccines.
Grohskopf, Lisa A; Sokolow, Leslie Z; Broder, Karen R; Olsen, Sonja J; Karron, Ruth A; Jernigan, Daniel B; Bresee, Joseph S
This report updates the 2015-16 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines (Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Olsen SJ, Bresee JS, Broder KR, Karron RA. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015-16 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64:818-25). Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. For the 2016-17 influenza season, inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) will be available in both trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent (IIV4) formulations. Recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV) will be available in a trivalent formulation (RIV3). In light of concerns regarding low effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 seasons, for the 2016-17 season, ACIP makes the interim recommendation that live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) should not be used. Vaccine virus strains included in the 2016-17 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will be an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus, an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (Victoria lineage). Quadrivalent vaccines will include an additional influenza B virus strain, a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (Yamagata lineage).Recommendations for use of different vaccine types and specific populations are discussed. A licensed, age-appropriate vaccine should be used. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended product is otherwise appropriate. This information is intended for vaccination providers, immunization program personnel, and public health personnel. Information in this report reflects discussions during public meetings of ACIP held on October 21, 2015; February 24, 2016; and June 22, 2016
Kliner, Merav; Keenan, Alex; Sinclair, David; Ghebrehewet, Sam; Garner, Paul
Background The UK Department of Health recommends annual influenza vaccination for healthcare workers, but uptake remains low. For staff, there is uncertainty about the rationale for vaccination and evidence underpinning the recommendation. Objectives To clarify the rationale, and evidence base, for influenza vaccination of healthcare workers from the occupational health, employer and patient safety perspectives. Design Systematic appraisal of published systematic reviews. Results The quality of the 11 included reviews was variable; some included exactly the same trials but made conflicting recommendations. 3 reviews assessed vaccine effects in healthcare workers and found 1 trial reporting a vaccine efficacy (VE) of 88%. 6 reviews assessed vaccine effects in healthy adults, and VE was consistent with a median of 62% (95% CI 56 to 67). 2 reviews assessed effects on working days lost in healthcare workers (3 trials), and 3 reported effects in healthy adults (4 trials). The meta-analyses presented by the most recent reviews do not reach standard levels of statistical significance, but may be misleading as individual trials suggest benefit with wide variation in size of effect. The 2013 Cochrane review reported absolute effects close to 0 for laboratory-confirmed influenza, and hospitalisation for patients, but excluded data on clinically suspected influenza and all-cause mortality, which had shown potentially important effects in previous editions. A more recent systematic review reports these effects as a 42% reduction in clinically suspected influenza (95% CI 27 to 54) and a 29% reduction in all-cause mortality (95% CI 15 to 41). Conclusions The evidence for employer and patient safety benefits of influenza vaccination is not straightforward and has been interpreted differently by different systematic review authors. Future uptake of influenza vaccination among healthcare workers may benefit from a fully transparent guideline process by a panel representing all
Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Panatto, Donatella
Influenza viruses are adept in human populations. Indeed, they have the capacity to evade the immune system through mechanisms of mutations (antigenic drift) and major variations in surface protein expression (antigenic shift). When a major change occurs, the risk of a human pandemic arises. Three influenza pandemics occurred during the 20th century, the most serious being the Spanish influenza. The last pandemic of the past century occurred in 1968, and the responsible virus infected an estimated 1-3 million people throughout the world. The first pandemic of the present century occurred in 2009 and was sustained by a H1N1 strain (A/California/07/09). In 1997, a novel avian influenza virus, H5N1, first infected humans in China. Since its emergence, the H5N1 virus has spread from Asia to Europe and Africa, resulting in the infection of millions of poultry and wild birds. So far, 522 human cases and 322 deaths have been reported by the WHO. Many studies have therefore been performed to obtain efficacious and safe H5N1 vaccines. One of these is Aflunov(®). Aflunov is a prepandemic monovalent A/H5N1 influenza vaccine adjuvanted with MF59 produced by Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics. In nonclinical studies conducted in rabbits, Aflunov proved to be well-tolerated, did not cause maternal or embryo-fetal toxicity, was not teratogenic, and had no effects on postnatal development. In clinical studies, Aflunov proved safe and well-tolerated in infants, children, adolescents, adults and the elderly. In the same subjects, the vaccine elicited robust immunogenicity against both homologous (A/Vietnam/1194/2004 clade 1) and heterologous viral strains (for instance, A/Indonesia/05/2005 or A/Turkey/15/2006) and induced immunologic memory. Thus, in 2010, the CHMP issued a positive opinion on Aflunov and in January 2011 Aflunov was given marketing authorization. This vaccine could be very useful in the event of adaptation of the H5N1 virus to humans, which could cause a new
Duffy, Jonathan; Weintraub, Eric; Vellozzi, Claudia; DeStefano, Frank
To assess the occurrence of narcolepsy after influenza vaccines used in the United States that contained the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain. A population-based cohort study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink with an annual population of more than 8.5 million people. All persons younger than 30 years who received a 2009 pandemic or a 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine were identified. Their medical visit history was searched for a first-ever occurrence of an ICD-9 narcolepsy diagnosis code through the end of 2011. Chart review was done to confirm the diagnosis and determine the date of symptom onset. Cases were patients who met the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 2nd edition, narcolepsy diagnostic criteria. We compared the observed number of cases after vaccination to the number expected to occur by chance alone. The number vaccinated with 2009 pandemic vaccine was 650,995 and with 2010-2011 seasonal vaccine was 870,530. Among these patients, 70 had a first-ever narcolepsy diagnosis code after vaccination, of which 16 had a chart-confirmed incident diagnosis of narcolepsy. None had their symptom onset during the 180 days after receipt of a 2009 pandemic vaccine compared with 6.52 expected, and 2 had onset after a 2010-2011 seasonal vaccine compared with 8.83 expected. Influenza vaccines contai