Krag, P.; Bentzon, M. Weis
This paper describes the international collaborative assay that led to the establishment in 1967 of the International Reference Preparation of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin (Type A) and the studies completed during the following years on the use of the preparation for evaluating the haemagglutinin content of 46 influenza virus vaccines in terms of international units. The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (1967) defined the International Unit as 0,09361 mg of the International Reference Preparation. Altogether 14 laboratories in 12 countries took part in one or both studies, using a total of 24 methods (HA titrations and, in a few cases CCA titrations). Major differences in the HA titres were found between laboratories, while the potencies (the haemagglutinin content values) relative to the International Reference Preparation were free from most of these differences. Haemagglutination titres varied over a range factor up to 50, while the corresponding relative ”potencies” varied with a factor of only 2. The CCA method used in a few laboratories gave results close to the lowest haemagglutination titres and showed relatively small variations between laboratories. The analyses of variance disclosed differences in the variation within laboratories, but for the majority of the laboratories the variation allowed an overall estimate of a standard error. The calculation of haemagglutinin content (in IU) from relative potencies is described. Advice is given on the selection, preparation, and titration of a local reference vaccine with a view to expressing its haemagglutinin content in international units. The test results with 46 local vaccines are also given. The deviations of the relative potencies from the average per vaccine showed a distribution with eight major discrepancies instead of the expected one. The background for these cases is discussed. PMID:5317082
Sakai, Kouji; Ami, Yasushi; Nakajima, Noriko; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Anraku, Masaki; Takayama, Ikuyo; Sangsriratanakul, Natthanan; Komura, Miyuki; Sato, Yuko; Asanuma, Hideki; Takashita, Emi; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takehara, Kazuaki; Tashiro, Masato; Hasegawa, Hideki; Odagiri, Takato; Takeda, Makoto
Influenza A and B viruses show clear differences in their host specificity and pandemic potential. Recent studies have revealed that the host protease TMPRSS2 plays an essential role for proteolytic activation of H1, H3, and H7 subtype strains of influenza A virus (IAV) in vivo. IAV possessing a monobasic cleavage site in the haemagglutinin (HA) protein replicates poorly in TMPRSS2 knockout mice owing to insufficient HA cleavage. In the present study, human isolates of influenza B virus (IBV) strains and a mouse-adapted IBV strain were analysed. The data showed that IBV successfully underwent HA cleavage in TMPRSS2 knockout mice, and that the mouse-adapted strain was fully pathogenic to these mice. The present data demonstrate a clear difference between IAV and IBV in their molecular mechanisms for spreading in vivo. PMID:27389476
Righetto, Irene; Milani, Adelaide; Cattoli, Giovanni; Filippini, Francesco
Genome variation is very high in influenza A viruses. However, viral evolution and spreading is strongly influenced by immunogenic features and capacity to bind host cells, depending in turn on the two major capsidic proteins. Therefore, such viruses are classified based on haemagglutinin and neuraminidase types, e.g. H5N1. Current analyses of viral evolution are based on serological and primary sequence comparison; however, comparative structural analysis of capsidic proteins can provide functional insights on surface regions possibly crucial to antigenicity and cell binding. We performed extensive structural comparison of influenza virus haemagglutinins and of their domains and subregions to investigate type- and/or domain-specific variation. We found that structural closeness and primary sequence similarity are not always tightly related; moreover, type-specific features could be inferred when comparing surface properties of haemagglutinin subregions, monomers and trimers, in terms of electrostatics and hydropathy. Focusing on H5N1, we found that variation at the receptor binding domain surface intriguingly relates to branching of still circulating clades from those ones that are no longer circulating. Evidence from this work suggests that integrating phylogenetic and serological analyses by extensive structural comparison can help in understanding the 'functional evolution' of viral surface determinants. In particular, variation in electrostatic and hydropathy patches can provide molecular evolution markers: intriguing surface charge redistribution characterizing the haemagglutinin receptor binding domains from circulating H5N1 clades 2 and 7 might have contributed to antigenic escape hence to their evolutionary success and spreading.
Kobasa, Darwyn; Takada, Ayato; Shinya, Kyoko; Hatta, Masato; Halfmann, Peter; Theriault, Steven; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Mitamura, Keiko; Sugaya, Norio; Usui, Taichi; Murata, Takeomi; Maeda, Yasuko; Watanabe, Shinji; Suresh, M; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Feldmann, Heinz; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
The 'Spanish' influenza pandemic of 1918-19 was the most devastating outbreak of infectious disease in recorded history. At least 20 million people died from their illness, which was characterized by an unusually severe and rapid clinical course. The complete sequencing of several genes of the 1918 influenza virus has made it possible to study the functions of the proteins encoded by these genes in viruses generated by reverse genetics, a technique that permits the generation of infectious viruses entirely from cloned complementary DNA. Thus, to identify properties of the 1918 pandemic influenza A strain that might be related to its extraordinary virulence, viruses were produced containing the viral haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the 1918 strain. The HA of this strain supports the pathogenicity of a mouse-adapted virus in this animal. Here we demonstrate that the HA of the 1918 virus confers enhanced pathogenicity in mice to recent human viruses that are otherwise non-pathogenic in this host. Moreover, these highly virulent recombinant viruses expressing the 1918 viral HA could infect the entire lung and induce high levels of macrophage-derived chemokines and cytokines, which resulted in infiltration of inflammatory cells and severe haemorrhage, hallmarks of the illness produced during the original pandemic.
García-Barreno, Blanca; Delgado, Teresa; Benito, Sonia; Casas, Inmaculada; Pozo, Francisco; Melero, José A
Alternative methods to the standard haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization tests to probe the antigenic properties of the influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA) were developed in this study. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing reference HAs were used to immunize rabbits from which polyclonal antibodies were obtained. These antibodies were subtype specific but showed limited intra-subtype strain specificity in ELISA. The discriminatory capacity of these antibodies was, however, markedly increased after adsorption to cells infected with heterologous influenza viruses, revealing antigenic differences that were otherwise undistinguishable by standard HI and neutralization tests. Furthermore, the unadsorbed antibodies could be used to select escape mutants of the reference strain, which after sequencing unveiled amino acid changes responsible of the noted antigenic differences. These procedures therefore provide alternative methods for the antigenic characterization of influenza HA and might be useful in studies of HA antigenic evolution.
Castrucci, M R; Campitelli, L; Ruggieri, A; Barigazzi, G; Sidoli, L; Daniels, R; Oxford, J S; Donatelli, I
To investigate the possible mechanism of maintenance of old human influenza A (H3N2) viruses in pigs, the haemagglutinins (HAs) of seven isolates from swine were studied by analysis of nucleotide and deduced primary amino acid sequences, as well as reactivity of the HA molecule to chicken antisera and monoclonal antibodies. The swine HAs were closely similar to the HA of the A/Victoria/3/75 human variant as regards antigenic and molecular characteristics. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the swine HA genes were transmitted from an early human H3 virus to pigs, where they survived with limited mutations over a period of 5 years. The sequence data were also compared with swine H3 sequences to investigate genetic relationships between the H3 genes from swine viruses isolated in different geographical areas. An evolutionary tree, constructed from the nucleotide sequences of viruses isolated from pigs in China and in Italy, illustrated that, depending on the country of their isolation, the HA genes of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses have different origins, e.g. human and avian, and evolved independently in different lineages. The study provides direct support for the hypothesis that pigs might serve as a 'mixing vessel' for the generation of pandemic strains of human influenza viruses.
Pak, C C; Krumbiegel, M; Blumenthal, R
The fusion kinetics with erythrocyte ghosts of two influenza A virus strains, A/Aichi/2/68 (X:31) and A/PR/8/34 (PR/8), were compared and correlated with the kinetics of haemagglutinin (HA) conformational change. Previously it had been shown that X:31 fuses with liposomes or erythrocytes at 4 degrees C, pH 5 after a lag time of 5 to 10 min whereas PR/8 displayed no fusion with liposomes at that temperature. We have confirmed the absence of cold fusion by PR/8 with erythrocyte ghosts. In contrast to X:31, PR/8 could not be committed to fuse at neutral pH and 37 degrees C by a preincubation at low pH and 4 degrees C. To examine whether the lack of commitment and cold fusion were due to a failure of PR/8 HA to undergo conformational changes at low temperature and pH, we analysed susceptibility of HA to proteinase K digestion, liposome binding to the virus, and immunoprecipitations of HA with conformation-specific antibodies. Although there was little binding of PR/8 to liposomes at 4 degrees C and pH 5, we did observe exposure of the fusion peptide. This study reveals a low temperature intermediate in membrane fusion exhibited by the HA of influenza virus strain PR/8, which involves low pH-induced conformational changes including exposure of the fusion peptide with little interaction of HA with the target membrane.
Two enveloped virus families, Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, comprise a large number of dangerous pathogens that enter the host cell via fusion of their envelope with a target cell membrane at acidic or neutral pH. The Class I prototypic glycoproteins responsible for this reaction are the Influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA) protein or paramyxovirus fusion (F) protein. X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy data are available for the HA and F ectodomains in pre- and post-fusion conformations, revealing similar spiky architectures, albeit with clear differences in the details. In contrast, their anchoring segments, which possess a linker region, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail that is specifically modified with long fatty acids (highly conserved in HA and occasional in F), are not resolved. Recent experimental, bioinformatics and molecular modelling data showing the primary, secondary and quaternary organization of the HA and F anchoring segments are summarized in this review. Some amino acid patterns that are crucial for protein thermal stability or lipid membrane order/cholesterol binding are addressed, and new achievements in vaccine practice using HA transmembrane domain chimaeras are discussed. The oligomerization properties of the transmembrane domains are considered in the context of Group-1 and Group-2 antigenic HA subtypes and various genera/subfamilies of paramyxoviruses. A specific focus is the late steps of fusion that are reportedly facilitated by (1) β-sheet-promoting β-branched amino acids (valine and isoleucine) that are enriched in the transmembrane domain of paramyxovirus F or (2) a post-translational modification of C-terminal cysteines with palmitate/stearate (differential S-acylation) that is highly conserved in Influenza virus HA. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Both, G W; Sleigh, M J
The complete nucleotide sequence has been determined for a cloned double-stranded DNA copy of the haemagglutinin gene from the human influenza strain A/NT/60/68/29C, a laboratory-isolated variant of A/NT/60/68, an early strain of the Hong Kong subtype. The gene is 1765 nucleotides long and contains information sufficient to code for a protein of 566 amino acids, which includes a hydrophobic leader peptide (16 residues), HA1 (328), HA2 (221) and an arginine residue which joins the HA subunits. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence for 29C haemagglutinin with protein sequence data available for HA from other influenza strains shows that no potential coding information is lost by processing of the mRNA. A comparison of the amino acid sequences predicted from the gene sequences for 29C and fowl plague virus haemagglutinins, (1) indicates the extent to which changes can occur in the primary sequence of different regions of the protein, while maintaining essential structure and function. Images PMID:6253883
Ledesma, Juan; Pozo, Francisco; Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Navarro, Jose María; Piñeiro, Luis; Montes, Milagros; Pérez Castro, Sonia; Suárez Fernández, Jonathan; García Costa, Juan; Fernández, Mirian; Galán, Juan Carlos; Cuevas, María Teresa; Casas, Inmaculada; Pérez Breña, Pilar
A change of aspartic acid (D) to glycine (G) at position 222 in the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses was described in Norway on November 2009 with considerable frequency in fatal and severe cases. This change was detected in other countries and was related only with severe disease. Other substitutions to glutamic acid (E) or asparagine (N) at position 222 were detected among pandemic viruses but it is unclear what implications might have in terms of severity. To analyse the appearance of amino acid substitutions at position 222 in the HA protein of circulating viruses in Spain and to determine their relationships with the disease symptoms observed. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses detected in respiratory samples of 273 severe and 533 non-severe cases from different Spanish regions were selected for sequencing of a partial segment of HA1 subunit and studied to monitor substitutions at position 222. D222G substitution was only detected in viruses from 14 severe cases (5.12%). D222E was found in viruses from 47 severe (17.21%) and from 52 non-severe cases (9.75%). D222N occurred in viruses from 3 additional severe cases (0.37%). Appearance of D222G and D222E substitution in HA of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses circulating in Spain might be related with severe respiratory disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
García-Barreno, Blanca; Delgado, Teresa; Benito, Sonia; Casas, Inmaculada; Pozo, Francisco; Cuevas, María Teresa; Mas, Vicente; Trento, Alfonsina; Rodriguez-Frandsen, Ariel; Falcón, Ana; Ortín, Juan; Nieto, Amelia; Melero, José A
Murine hybridomas producing neutralizing mAbs specific to the pandemic influenza virus A/California/07/2009 haemagglutinin (HA) were isolated. These antibodies recognized at least two different but overlapping new epitopes that were conserved in the HA of most Spanish pandemic isolates. However, one of these isolates (A/Extremadura/RR6530/2010) lacked reactivity with the mAbs and carried two unique mutations in the HA head (S88Y and K136N) that were required simultaneously to eliminate reactivity with the murine antibodies. This unusual requirement directly illustrates the phenomenon of enhanced antigenic change proposed previously for the accumulation of simultaneous amino acid substitutions at antigenic sites of the influenza A virus HA during virus evolution (Shih et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104 , 6283-6288, 2007). The changes found in the A/Extremadura/RR6530/2010 HA were not found in escape mutants selected in vitro with one of the mAbs, which contained instead nearby single amino acid changes in the HA head. Thus, either single or double point mutations may similarly alter epitopes of the new antigenic site identified in this work in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus HA. Moreover, this site is relevant for the human antibody response, as shown by competition of mAbs and human post-infection sera for virus binding. The results are discussed in the context of the HA antigenic structure and challenges posed for identification of sequence changes with possible antigenic impact during virus surveillance.
Pan, Keyao; Deem, Michael W.
Many viruses evolve rapidly. For example, haemagglutinin (HA) of the H3N2 influenza A virus evolves to escape antibody binding. This evolution of the H3N2 virus means that people who have previously been exposed to an influenza strain may be infected by a newly emerged virus. In this paper, we use Shannon entropy and relative entropy to measure the diversity and selection pressure by an antibody in each amino acid site of H3 HA between the 1992–1993 season and the 2009–2010 season. Shannon entropy and relative entropy are two independent state variables that we use to characterize H3N2 evolution. The entropy method estimates future H3N2 evolution and migration using currently available H3 HA sequences. First, we show that the rate of evolution increases with the virus diversity in the current season. The Shannon entropy of the sequence in the current season predicts relative entropy between sequences in the current season and those in the next season. Second, a global migration pattern of H3N2 is assembled by comparing the relative entropy flows of sequences sampled in China, Japan, the USA and Europe. We verify this entropy method by describing two aspects of historical H3N2 evolution. First, we identify 54 amino acid sites in HA that have evolved in the past to evade the immune system. Second, the entropy method shows that epitopes A and B on the top of HA evolve most vigorously to escape antibody binding. Our work provides a novel entropy-based method to predict and quantify future H3N2 evolution and to describe the evolutionary history of H3N2. PMID:21543352
Background The novel pandemic A (H1N1) pdm09 virus was first identified in Mexico in April 2009 and since then it spread worldwide over a short period of time. Although the virus infection is generally associated with mild disease and a relatively low mortality, it is projected that mutations in specific regions of the viral genome, especially within the receptor binding domain of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein could result in more virulent virus stains, leading to a more severe pathogenicity. Methods To monitor the genetic polymorphisms at position 222 of Haemagglutinin of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses from both outpatients with mild influenza and individuals with severe disease requiring hospitalization, during 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 seasons, a sequence-based genotypic assessment of viral populations to understand the prevalence of D222G mutation. Results The D222G was identified in clinical specimens from 3 out of 42 cases analyzed in Tunisia with severe outcome (7%). Interestingly, in one fatal case out of four viruses taken from fatal cases studied (25%). Also this mutation was found in one mild case out of 8 mild cases studied (0.1%). D222E substitution was found in virus taken from one patient with severe clinical syndrome (2%) out of 42 severe cases analyzed and E374K substitution was found in two severe cases (4%) out of 42 severe cases studied. Conclusions A specific mutation in the viral haemagglutinin (D222G) was found in fatal, severe and mild case. Further virological, clinical and epidemiological investigations are needed to ascertain the role of this and other mutations that may alter the virulence and transmissibility of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1027334947811255 PMID:23902660
Fiebig, Petra; Shehata, Awad A; Liebert, Uwe G
H5-specific monoclonal antibodies may serve as valuable tools for rapid diagnosis of H5N1 avian influenza virus. Therefore, conserved H5-specific sequences of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein were expressed in Pichia pastoris and used for generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The two mAbs, FD6 and HE4, were strongly reactive against native HA protein and exhibited specificity for subtype H5. By epitope mapping linear epitopes of mAbs were identified that are highly conserved among influenza A virus of subtype H5. Additionally no sequence similarities to homologous regions on HA proteins of other influenza A virus subtypes (i.e. H1, H3, H7, H9) were detected by sequence alignment analysis. Both mAbs did not cross react with native or denatured HA proteins of other influenza A virus subtypes. Furthermore, using ELISA and immunofluorescence test mAb FD6 reacted only to the native H5 protein of recently circulating highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses but not to low pathogenic H5N1 isolates. In conclusion, the use of the two mAbs in non-molecular tests like antigen-capture-ELISA appears promising for detecting influenza A H5N1 virus.
Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter
Pigs can be severely harmed by influenza, and represent important reservoir hosts, in which new human pathogens such as the recent pandemic swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus can arise by mutation and reassortment of genome segments. To obtain novel, safe influenza vaccines for pigs, and to investigate the antigen-specific immune response, we modified an established live-virus vaccine against Aujeszky's disease of swine, pseudorabies virus (PrV) strain Bartha (PrV-Ba), to serve as vector for the expression of haemagglutinin (HA) of swine-origin H1N1 virus. To facilitate transgene insertion, the genome of PrV-Ba was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome. HA expression occurred under control of the human or murine cytomegalovirus immediate early promoters (P-HCMV, P-MCMV), but could be substantially enhanced by synthetic introns and adaptation of the codon usage to that of PrV. However, despite abundant expression, the heterologous glycoprotein was not detectably incorporated into mature PrV particles. Replication of HA-expressing PrV in cell culture was only slightly affected compared to that of the parental virus strain. A single immunization of pigs with the PrV vector expressing the codon-optimized HA gene under control of P-MCMV induced high levels of HA-specific antibodies. The vaccinated animals were protected from clinical signs after challenge with a related swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus, and challenge virus shedding was significantly reduced.
Ferreira, João Leandro de Paula; Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Brígido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Oliveira, Maria Isabel de; Paiva, Terezinha Maria de; Santos, Cecília Luiza Simões dos
In this paper, we analysed the haemagglutinin (HA) gene identified by polymerase chain reaction from 90 influenza A H1N1 virus strains that circulated in Brazil from April 2009-June 2010. A World Health Organization sequencing protocol allowed us to identify amino acid mutations in the HA protein at positions S220T (71%), D239G/N/S (20%), Y247H (4.5%), E252K (3.3%), M274V (2.2%), Q310H (26.7%) and E391K (12%). A fatal outcome was associated with the D239G mutation (p < 0.0001). Brazilian HA genetic diversity, in comparison to a reference strain from California, highlights the role of influenza virus surveillance for study of viral evolution, in addition to monitoring the spread of the virus worldwide.
Kaleta, E F; Hönicke, A
The scientific literature of the past century is reviewed on fowl plague (presently termed highly pathogenic avian influenza, HPAI) in pigeons. HPAI viruses cause epidemic disease outbreaks with high rates of losses in many avian species, particularily in chickens and turkeys. Also susceptible to disease are quails, guinea fowl, ducks, geese, ostriches, passerine birds, and birds of prey whereas conflicting reports on the susceptibility of the domestic pigeon exist. Based on literature reports and on own experiments, and applying as criteria for judgements clinically overt forms of disease, virus multiplication plus shedding and seroconversion, it is concluded that domestic pigeons are only partially susceptible to influenza A viruses of the haemagglutinin subtype H7. Infection of pigeons with H7 viruses results only in some of them in signs, virus shedding and seroconversion. Using the same criteria, pigeons appear to be even less susceptible to infection with influenza A viruses of the H5 subtype. Only one of five publications describe in 1/19 pigeons exposed to H5 influenza A virus depression one day before death, and only 2/19 multiplied and excreted virus, and 1/19 developed circulating antibodies. Consequently, pigeons play only a minor role in the epidemiology of H5 influenza viruses. In contrast, following infection with influenza A virus of the subtype H7 clinical signs in pigeons consist of conjunctivitis, tremor, paresis of wings and legs, and wet droppings. H7-infected pigeons multiply and excrete H7 viruses and develop circulating antibodies. Albeit of the status of infection, free-flying domestic pigeons can act as mechanical vectors and vehicles for long-distance transmission of any influenza A virus if plumage or feet were contaminated.
Airborne influenza virus infection of mice can be prevented by gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)). This study demonstrated that ClO(2) abolished the function of the haemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus (H1N1) in a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent manner. The IC(50) during a 2 min reaction with ClO(2) at 25 °C was 13.7 µM, and the half-life time of HA with 100 µM ClO(2) at 25 °C was 19.5 s. Peptides generated from a tryptic digest of ClO(2)-treated virus were analysed by mass spectrometry. An HA fragment, (150)NLLWLTGK(157) was identified in which the tryptophan residue (W153) was 32 mass units greater than expected. The W153 residue of this peptide, which is derived from the central region of the receptor-binding site of HA, is highly conserved. It was shown that W153 was oxidized to N-formylkynurenine in ClO(2)-treated virus. It was concluded that the inactivation of influenza virus by ClO(2) is caused by oxidation of W153 in HA, thereby abolishing its receptor-binding ability.
Henritzi, Dinah; Zhao, Na; Starick, Elke; Simon, Gaelle; Krog, Jesper S; Larsen, Lars Erik; Reid, Scott M; Brown, Ian H; Chiapponi, Chiara; Foni, Emanuela; Wacheck, Silke; Schmid, Peter; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Harder, Timm C
A diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses (IAV) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. The most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from IAV isolated from swine. Swine influenza viruses (SIV) are widespread in European domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. Knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic SIV in Europe is poorly understood. Efficient SIV surveillance programmes depend on sensitive and specific diagnostic methods which allow for cost-effective large-scale analysis. New SIV haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtype- and lineage-specific multiplex real-time RT-PCRs (RT-qPCR) have been developed and validated with reference virus isolates and clinical samples. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed for the combined detection in clinical samples and subtyping of SIV strains currently circulating in Europe that is based on a generic, M-gene-specific influenza A virus RT-qPCR. In a second step, positive samples are examined by tetraplex HA- and triplex NA-specific RT-qPCRs to differentiate the porcine subtypes H1, H3, N1 and N2. Within the HA subtype H1, lineages "av" (European avian-derived), "hu" (European human-derived) and "pdm" (human pandemic A/H1N1, 2009) are distinguished by RT-qPCRs, and within the NA subtype N1, lineage "pdm" is differentiated. An RT-PCR amplicon Sanger sequencing method of small fragments of the HA and NA genes is also proposed to safeguard against failure of multiplex RT-qPCR subtyping. These new multiplex RT-qPCR assays provide adequate tools for sustained SIV monitoring programmes in Europe. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Le Mauff, François; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne; Bardor, Muriel; Berard, Caroline; Doucet, Alain; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Vezina, Louis-Philippe; Driouich, Azeddine; Couture, Manon M-J; Lerouge, Patrice
Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) have been shown to induce a safe and potent immune response through both humoral and cellular responses. They represent promising novel influenza vaccines. Plant-based biotechnology allows for the large-scale production of VLPs of biopharmaceutical interest using different model organisms, including Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Through this platform, influenza VLPs bud from the plasma membrane and accumulate between the membrane and the plant cell wall. To design and optimize efficient production processes, a better understanding of the plant cell wall composition of infiltrated tobacco leaves is a major interest for the plant biotechnology industry. In this study, we have investigated the alteration of the biochemical composition of the cell walls of N. benthamiana leaves subjected to abiotic and biotic stresses induced by the Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation and the resulting high expression levels of influenza VLPs. Results show that abiotic stress due to vacuum infiltration without Agrobacterium did not induce any detectable modification of the leaf cell wall when compared to non infiltrated leaves. In contrast, various chemical changes of the leaf cell wall were observed post-Agrobacterium infiltration. Indeed, Agrobacterium infection induced deposition of callose and lignin, modified the pectin methylesterification and increased both arabinosylation of RG-I side chains and the expression of arabinogalactan proteins. Moreover, these modifications were slightly greater in plants expressing haemagglutinin-based VLP than in plants infiltrated with the Agrobacterium strain containing only the p19 suppressor of silencing.
Kryazhimskiy, Sergey; Bazykin, Georgii A; Plotkin, Joshua; Dushoff, Jonathan
The evolution of haemagglutinin (HA), an important influenza virus antigen, has been the subject of intensive research for more than two decades. Many characteristics of HA's sequence evolution are captured by standard Markov chain substitution models. Such models assign equal fitness to all accessible amino acids at a site. We show, however, that such models strongly underestimate the number of homoplastic amino acid substitutions during the course of HA's evolution, i.e. substitutions that repeatedly give rise to the same amino acid at a site. We develop statistics to detect individual homoplastic events and find that they preferentially occur at positively selected epitopic sites. Our results suggest that the evolution of the influenza A HA, including evolution by positive selection, is strongly affected by the long-term site-specific preferences for individual amino acids. PMID:18647721
Westgeest, Kim B.; de Graaf, Miranda; Fourment, Mathieu; Bestebroer, Theo M.; van Beek, Ruud; Spronken, Monique I. J.; de Jong, Jan C.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Russell, Colin A.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Smith, Derek J.
Each year, influenza viruses cause epidemics by evading pre-existing humoral immunity through mutations in the major glycoproteins: the haemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). In 2004, the antigenic evolution of HA of human influenza A (H3N2) viruses was mapped (Smith et al., Science 305, 371–376, 2004) from its introduction in humans in 1968 until 2003. The current study focused on the genetic evolution of NA and compared it with HA using the dataset of Smith and colleagues, updated to the epidemic of the 2009/2010 season. Phylogenetic trees and genetic maps were constructed to visualize the genetic evolution of NA and HA. The results revealed multiple reassortment events over the years. Overall rates of evolutionary change were lower for NA than for HA1 at the nucleotide level. Selection pressures were estimated, revealing an abundance of negatively selected sites and sparse positively selected sites. The differences found between the evolution of NA and HA1 warrant further analysis of the evolution of NA at the phenotypic level, as has been done previously for HA. PMID:22718569
Chlanda, Petr; Mekhedov, Elena; Waters, Hang; Schwartz, Cindi L.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Ryham, Rolf J.; Cohen, Fredric S.; Blank, Paul S.; Zimmerberg, Joshua
SUMMARY Influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) changes conformation and drives membrane fusion of viral and endosomal membrane at low pH. Membrane fusion proceeds through an intermediate called hemifusion1,2. For viral fusion the hemifusion structures are not determined3. Here, influenza virus-like particles (VLP)4 carrying wild-type (WT) HA or HA hemifusion mutant G1S5 and liposome mixtures were studied at low pH by Volta phase plate (VPP) cryo-electron tomography (cET) which improves signal-to-noise ratio close to focus. We determined two distinct hemifusion structures: a hemifusion diaphragm (HD) and a novel structure termed lipidic junction. Liposomes with lipidic junctions were ruptured with membrane edges stabilized by HA. The rupture frequency and HD diameter were not affected by G1S mutation, but decreased when the cholesterol level in the liposomes was close to physiological concentrations. We propose that HA induces merger between the viral and a target membrane by one of two independent pathways: rupture-insertion pathway leading to lipidic junction and hemifusion-stalk pathway leading to fusion pore. The latter is relevant under the conditions of influenza virus infection of cells. Cholesterol concentration functions as a pathway switch due to its negative spontaneous curvature in the target bilayer as determined by continuum analysis. PMID:27572837
Han, Peng-Fei; Li, Jing; Hu, Yi; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Sen; Yang, Yin-Hui; Li, Yu-Chang; Kang, Xiao-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Qing-Yu; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Jiang, Tao
Live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are now available for the prevention of influenza, with LAIV strains generally derived from serial passage in cultures or by reverse genetics (RG). The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in haemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is responsible for viral binding to the avian-type 2,3-α-linked or human-type 2,6-α-linked sialic acid receptor; however, the virulence determinants in the RBD of H5N1 virus remain largely unknown. In the present study, serial passage of H5N1 virus A/Vietnam/1194/2004 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells resulted in the generation of adapted variants with large-plaque morphology, and genomic sequencing of selected variants revealed two specific amino acid substitutions (K193E and G225E) in the RBD. RG was used to generate H5N1 viruses containing either single or double substitutions in HA. The RG virus containing K193E and G225E mutations (rVN-K193E/G225E) demonstrated large-plaque morphology, enhanced replication and genetic stability after serial passage, without changing the receptor-binding preference. Importantly, in vivo virulence assessment demonstrated that rVN-K193E/G225E was significantly attenuated in mice. Microneutralization and haemagglutination inhibition assays demonstrated that immunization with rVN-K193E/G225E efficiently induced a robust antibody response against WT H5N1 virus in mice. Taken together, our experiments demonstrated that K193E and G225E mutations synergistically attenuated H5N1 virus without enhancing the receptor-binding avidity, and that the RG virus rVN-K193E/G225E represents a potential H5N1 LAIV strategy that deserves further development. These findings identify the RBD as a novel attenuation target for live vaccine development and highlight the complexity of RBD interactions.
Wu, Ying; Cho, MyungSam; Shore, David; Song, Manki; Choi, JungAh; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Bourgeois, Melissa; Almli, Lynn; Yang, Hua; Chen, Li-Mei; Shi, Yi; Qi, Jianxu; Li, An; Yi, Kye Sook; Chang, MinSeok; Bae, Jin Soo; Lee, HyunJoo; Shin, JiYoung; Stevens, James; Hong, SeoungSuh; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Gao, George F.; Chang, Shin Jae; Donis, Ruben O.
Effective annual influenza vaccination requires frequent changes in vaccine composition due to both antigenic shift for different subtype hemagglutinins (HAs) and antigenic drift in a particular HA. Here we present a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody with an unusual binding modality. The antibody, designated CT149, was isolated from convalescent patients infected with pandemic H1N1 in 2009. CT149 is found to neutralize all tested group 2 and some group 1 influenza A viruses by inhibiting low pH-induced, HA-mediated membrane fusion. It promotes killing of infected cells by Fc-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. X-ray crystallographic data reveal that CT149 binds primarily to the fusion domain in HA2, and the light chain is also largely involved in binding. The epitope recognized by this antibody comprises amino-acid residues from two adjacent protomers of HA. This binding characteristic of CT149 will provide more information to support the design of more potent influenza vaccines. PMID:26196962
Background Reassortment between the RNA segments encoding haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), the major antigenic influenza proteins, produces viruses with novel HA and NA subtype combinations and has preceded the emergence of pandemic strains. It has been suggested that productive viral infection requires a balance in the level of functional activity of HA and NA, arising from their closely interacting roles in the viral life cycle, and that this functional balance could be mediated by genetic changes in the HA and NA. Here, we investigate how the selective pressure varies for H7 avian influenza HA on different NA subtype backgrounds. Results By extending Bayesian stochastic mutational mapping methods to calculate the ratio of the rate of non-synonymous change to the rate of synonymous change (dN/dS), we found the average dN/dS across the avian influenza H7 HA1 region to be significantly greater on an N2 NA subtype background than on an N1, N3 or N7 background. Observed differences in evolutionary rates of H7 HA on different NA subtype backgrounds could not be attributed to underlying differences between avian host species or virus pathogenicity. Examination of dN/dS values for each subtype on a site-by-site basis indicated that the elevated dN/dS on the N2 NA background was a result of increased selection, rather than a relaxation of selective constraint. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that reassortment exposes influenza HA to significant changes in selective pressure through genetic interactions with NA. Such epistatic effects might be explicitly accounted for in future models of influenza evolution. PMID:24103105
Brownlee, G G; Fodor, E
In 1982 we characterized the antigenic sites of the haemagglutinin of influenza A/PR/8/34, which is an influenza strain of the H1 subtype that was isolated from humans in 1934, by studying mutants which escaped neutralization by antibody. Four antigenic sites, namely Cb, Sa, Sb and Ca, were found to be located near the tip of the trimeric haemagglutinin spike. Based on the sequence of the haemagglutinin of the 1918 Spanish influenza, we can now specify the extent of divergence of antigenic sites of the haemagglutinin during the antigenic drift of the virus between 1918 and 1934. This divergence was much more extensive (40%) than the divergence (20%) in predicted antigenic sites between the 1918 Spanish influenza and an avian H1 subtype consensus sequence. These results support the hypothesis that the human 1918 pandemic originated from an avian virus of the H1 subtype that crossed the species barrier from birds to humans and adapted to humans, presumably by mutation and/or reassortment, shortly before 1918.
García, M; Crawford, J M; Latimer, J W; Rivera-Cruz, E; Perdue, M L
Molecular changes in the haemagglutinin (HA)-coding regions and proteolytic cleavage sites from multiple H5N2 subtype viruses isolated during a recent outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in central Mexico have been characterized. Eighteen isolates, collected during a 15 month period (October 1993 to January 1995) from six central states, were sequenced. None of the 18 predicted HA1 amino acid sequences were identical and changes were not restricted to a specific region of the sequence. Phylogenetic analyses of the HA1 sequences demonstrated two virus lineages, designated Puebla and Jalisco, with sequence variation as high as 10.5 percent for amino acid and 6.2 percent for nucleotide sequences. During the latter months of the surveillance period, highly pathogenic (HP) strains of AI emerged causing lethal disease in commercial poultry flocks. In each of the HP strains isolated, the HA protein was cleaved in chicken embryo fibroblast cells in the absence of trypsin, and two alterations not found in earlier non-HP isolates were detected. In the HA protein, HP strains all had a glutamic acid --> lysine substitution at amino acid position 324 and an insertion of arginine and lysine as new residues 325 and 326. The insertion appears to be due to a duplication of the nucleotide sequence AAAGAA at nucleotide positions 965-970 of the HA1-coding region. Computer-assisted secondary structure analyses place the target for the insertion in a predicted RNA stem-loop structure. A mechanism is suggested by which the polymerase duplicates the sequence.
Sun, Jian; Jia, Yuan; Li, Ru; Guo, Jianping; Sun, Xiaolin; Liu, Yanying; Li, Yingni; Yao, Haihong; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Jing; Li, Zhanguo
There has been an increase in interest in the use of altered peptides as antigen-specific therapeutic agents in autoimmune diseases. Here we investigated the inhibitory effect and possible mechanism of an altered influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA)-derived peptide in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in DBA/1 mice by immunisation with type II collagen (CII). Altered HA308-317, wild-type HA308-317 or irrelevant peptide was administered intranasally beginning from arthritis onset. Clinical and histological scores were assessed, and cytokine levels in the serum or supernatants from splenocytes were determined. The percentages of Th1 and Th2 cells in response to different peptides were analysed by FACS both in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that intranasal administration of altered HA308-317 peptide significantly ameliorated CIA. The therapeutic effect of altered HA308-317 peptide was associated with a substantial decrease in production of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, anti-CII IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies, and an markedly increase in production of IL-10 and IL-4 in serum or supernatants from splenocytes treated with altered HA308-317 peptide. The percentage of Th2 (CD4(+)IL-4(+)) cells was upregulated significantly by altered HA308-317 peptide with a decreased percentage of Th1 (T helper 1; CD4(+)INF-γ(+)) cells both in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that altered HA308-317 peptide might be a promising candidate for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment.
Ferrara, Francesca; Temperton, Nigel
Recently chimeric influenza haemagglutinins (cHAs) have been generated as potential 'universal' vaccination antigens and as tools to identify HA stalk-directed antibodies via their use as antigens in ELISA, and virus or pseudotype-based neutralization assays. The original methods ,  used for their generation require the amplification of regions of interest (head and stalk) using primers containing SapI sites and subsequent cloning into pDZ plasmid. This requires precise primer design, checking for the absence of SapI sites in the sequence of interest, and multi-segment ligation. As an alternative strategy we have developed and optimized a new protocol for assembling the cHA by exploiting Gibson Assembly. •This method also requires precise primer design, but it is rapid and methodologically simple to perform. We have evaluated that using this method it is possible to construct a cHA encoding DNA in less than a week.•Additional weeks are however necessary to optimize the production of pseudotyped lentiviral particles and to perform neutralization assays using them as surrogate antigens.•In comparison to the original protocols, we have also observed that performing parallel neutralization assays using pseudotypes harbouring the two parental HAs, permits effective delineation between stalk and head antibody responses in the samples tested.
Mutations in haemagglutinin that affect receptor binding and pH stability increase replication of a PR8 influenza virus with H5 HA in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets and may contribute to transmissibility.
Shelton, Holly; Roberts, Kim L; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Barclay, Wendy S
The H5N1 influenza A viruses have circulated widely in the avian population for 10 years with only sporadic infection of humans observed and no sustained human to human transmission. Vaccination against potential pandemic strains is one strategy in planning for future influenza pandemics; however, the success of live attenuated vaccines for H5N1 has been limited, due to poor replication in the human upper respiratory tract (URT). Mutations that increase the ability of H5N1 viruses to replicate in the URT will aid immunogenicity of these vaccines and provide information about humanizing adaptations in H5N1 strains that may signal transmissibility. As well as mediating receptor interactions, the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza facilitates fusion of the viral membrane and genome entry into the host cell; this process is pH dependent. We have shown in this study that the pH at which a panel of avian influenza HA proteins, including H5, mediate fusion is higher than that for human influenza HA proteins, and that mutations in the H5 HA can reduce the pH of fusion. Coupled with receptor switching mutations, increasing the pH stability of the H5 HA resulted in increased viral shedding of H5N1 from the nasal cavity of ferrets and contact transmission to a co-housed animal. Ferret serum antibodies induced by infection with any of the mutated H5 HA viruses neutralized HA pseudotyped lentiviruses bearing homologous or heterologous H5 HAs, suggesting that this strategy to increase nasal replication of a vaccine virus would not compromise vaccine efficacy.
Cui, Xianlan; Zhao, Yan; Shi, Xingming; Li, Qiaoling; Yan, Shuai; Gao, Ming; Wang, Mei; Liu, Changjun; Wang, Yunfeng
Background Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as a vector to express the haemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5 was developed and its protection against lethal Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) challenges was evaluated previously. It is well-known that avirulemt MDV type 1 vaccines are more effective than HVT in prevention of lethal MDV infection. To further increase protective efficacy against HPAIV and lethal MDV, a recombinant MDV type 1 strain 814 was developed to express HA gene of HPAIV H5N1. Methodology/Principal Findings A recombinant MDV-1 strain 814 expressing HA gene of HPAIV H5N1 virus A/goose/Guangdong/3/96 at the US2 site (rMDV-HA) was developed under the control of a human CMV immediate-early promoter. The HA expression in the rMDV-HA was tested by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses, and in vitro and in vivo growth properties of rMDV-HA were also analyzed. Furthermore, we evaluated and compared the protective immunity of rMDV-HA and previously constructed rHVT-HA against HPAIV and lethal MDV. Vaccination of chickens with rMDV-HA induced 80% protection against HPAIV, which was better than the protection rate by rHVT-HA (66.7%). In the animal study with MDV challenge, chickens immunized with rMDV-HA were completely protected against virulent MDV strain J-1 whereas rHVT-HA only induced 80% protection with the same challenge dose. Conclusions/Significance The rMDV-HA vaccine was more effective than rHVT-HA vaccine for protection against lethal MDV and HPAIV challenges. Therefore, avirulent MDV type 1 vaccine is a better vector than HVT for development of a recombinant live virus vaccine against virulent MDV and HPAIV in poultry. PMID:23301062
Mugosa, Boban; Vujosevic, Danijela; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Valli, Maria Beatrice; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Lai, Alessia; Angeletti, Silvia; Scarpa, Fabio; Terzić, Dragica; Vratnica, Zoran
In 2009 an influenza A epidemic caused by a swine origin H1N1strain, unusual in human hosts, has been described. The present research is aimed to perform the first phylogenetic investigation on the influenza virus A (H1N1) strains circulating in Montenegro, from December 1, 2009, when the first case of death due to H1N1 was confirmed, and the epidemic began causing a total of four fatalities. The phylogenetic analysis of the strains circulating showed the absence of a pure Montenegrin cluster, suggesting the occurrence of multiple re-introductions in that population from different areas till as far as the early 2010. The time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for the complete dataset has been dated in early 2008, pre-dating the first Montenegrin identification of H1N1 infection. These data suggest that virus was spreading undetected, may be as a consequence of unidentified infections in returning travelers. Anyhow, the estimated TMRCA of Montenegrin strains is fully consistent to that found in different areas. Compatibly with the time coverage of the study period here analyzed, molecular dynamic of Montenegrin strains follows similar trend as in other countries. J. Med. Virol. 88:1905-1913, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Luczo, Jasmina M.; Stambas, John; Durr, Peter A.; Michalski, Wojtek P.
Summary The emergence of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza has caused a heavy socio‐economic burden through culling of poultry to minimise human and livestock infection. Although human infections with H5N1 have to date been limited, concerns for the pandemic potential of this zoonotic virus have been greatly intensified following experimental evidence of aerosol transmission of H5N1 viruses in a mammalian infection model. In this review, we discuss the dominance of the haemagglutinin cleavage site motif as a pathogenicity determinant, the host‐pathogen molecular interactions driving cleavage activation, reverse genetics manipulations and identification of residues key to haemagglutinin cleavage site functionality and the mechanisms of cell and tissue damage during H5N1 infection. We specifically focus on the disease in chickens, as it is in this species that high pathogenicity frequently evolves and from which transmission to the human population occurs. With >75% of emerging infectious diseases being of zoonotic origin, it is necessary to understand pathogenesis in the primary host to explain spillover events into the human population. © 2015 The Authors. Reviews in Medical Virology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26467906
Kimura, Hirokazu; Saitoh, Mika; Kobayashi, Miho; Ishii, Haruyuki; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Shirabe, Komei; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kuroda, Makoto; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Minakami, Hisanori; Ryo, Akihide; Takeda, Makoto
We studied the molecular evolution of the haemagglutinin (H) gene (full length) in all genotypes (24 genotypes, 297 strains) of measles virus (MeV). The gene’s evolutionary timescale was estimated by the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. We also analysed positive selection sites. The MCMC tree indicated that the MeV H gene diverged from the rinderpest virus (same genus) about 250 years ago and that 24 MeV genotypes formed 3 lineages dating back to a 1915 ancestor (95% highest posterior density [HPD] 1882–1941) with relatively rapid evolution (mean rate: 9.02 × 10−4 substitutions/site/year). The 3 lineages diverged in 1915 (lineage 1, 95% HPD 1882–1941), 1954 (lineage 2, 95% HPD 1937–1969), and 1940 (lineage 3, 95% HPD 1927–1952). These 24 genotypes may have diverged and emerged between the 1940s and 1990s. Selective pressure analysis identified many negative selection sites on the H protein but only a few positive selection sites, suggesting strongly operated structural and/or functional constraint of changes on the H protein. Based on the molecular evolution of H gene, an ancestor MeV of the 24 genotypes emerged about 100 years ago and the structure of H protein has been well conserved. PMID:26130388
Schild, G. C.; Wood, J. M.; Newman, R. W.
Single-radial-diffusion techniques are proposed as possible alternatives to tests based on agglutination of erythrocytes for the assay of the haemagglutinin content of influenza vaccines. Two test procedures (microtest and macrotest) and the use of reference reagents to assay vaccines using these tests are described. The two tests are of similar reproducibility and accuracy but the macrotest is technically simpler to perform and results of assays may be obtained more rapidly. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 3a PMID:816480
Fu, Ying; Zhang, Zhen; Sheehan, Jared; Avnir, Yuval; Ridenour, Callie; Sachnik, Thomas; Sun, Jiusong; Hossain, M. Jaber; Chen, Li-Mei; Zhu, Quan; Donis, Ruben O.; Marasco, Wayne A.
Understanding the natural evolution and structural changes involved in broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) development holds great promise for improving the design of prophylactic influenza vaccines. Here we report an haemagglutinin (HA) stem-directed bnAb, 3I14, isolated from human memory B cells, that utilizes a heavy chain encoded by the IGHV3-30 germline gene. MAb 3I14 binds and neutralizes groups 1 and 2 influenza A viruses and protects mice from lethal challenge. Analysis of VH and VL germline back-mutants reveals binding to H3 and H1 but not H5, which supports the critical role of somatic hypermutation in broadening the bnAb response. Moreover, a single VLD94N mutation improves the affinity of 3I14 to H5 by nearly 10-fold. These data provide evidence that memory B cell evolution can expand the HA subtype specificity. Our results further suggest that establishing an optimized memory B cell pool should be an aim of ‘universal' influenza vaccine strategies. PMID:27619409
... Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) EspaÃ±ol Recommend on Facebook ... circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and B ...
Adamson, Penelope J; Al Kindi, Mahmood A; Wang, Jing J; Colella, Alex D; Chataway, Timothy K; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Gordon, Tom P; Gordon, David L
Analysis of the anti-haemagglutinin serum antibody proteome from six H1N1pdm09 influenza A vaccinated subjects demonstrated restricted IgG1 heavy chain species encoded by IGHV5-51 and IGHV3-7 gene families in 2 subjects and either IGHV5-51 or IGHV3-7 in 4 individuals. All subjects exhibited a dominant IGKV3-20 light chain, however 5 subjects also exhibited IGKV3-11 and IGKV4-1 families. Sequences were closely aligned with the matched germline sequence, with few shared mutations. This study illustrates the feasibility of using a proteomic approach to determine the expressed V region signatures of serum antibodies induced by vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elizalde, Maia; Agüero, Montserrat; Buitrago, Dolores; Yuste, María; Arias, María Luisa; Muñoz, María Jesús; Lelli, Davide; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Moreno-Martin, Ana María; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita
Sixteen haemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have been described to date. Rapid subtype identification of any AIV is of major interest because of the possible serious consequences for the poultry industry and even public health. Molecular techniques currently allow immediate accurate subtype characterisation prior to virus isolation. In this study, a set of fourteen specific real-time RT-PCR methods were developed and evaluated for AIV HA subtyping (H1-H4, H6-H8, H10-H16), H5 and H9 being excluded on the basis of the current validity of the European Union (EU) recommended specific assays. Specific primers and probes sets for each HA-subtype were designed to hybridise the largest isolates range within each single subtype, considering the Eurasian lineage as a major target. The robustness and general application of the 14 HA-subtype methods were verified by the analysis of 110 AIV isolates belonging to all 16 HA-subtypes, performed in different laboratories. The developed real-time RT-PCR assays proved to be highly specific and revealed suitable sensitivity, allowing direct HA-subtyping of clinical material. In summary, this study provides for the first time a panel of molecular tests using specific hydrolysis probes for rapid and complete AIV HA-subtype identification.
Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Antoniukas, Linas
Every year, especially during the cold season, many people catch an acute respiratory disease, namely flu. It is easy to catch this disease; therefore, it spreads very rapidly and often becomes an epidemic or a global pandemic. Airway inflammation and other body ailments, which form in a very short period, torment the patient several weeks. After that, the symptoms of the disease usually disappear as quickly as they emerged. The great epidemics of flu have rather unique characteristics; therefore, it is possible to identify descriptions of such epidemics in historic sources. Already in the 4th century bc, Hippocrates himself wrote about one of them. It is known now that flu epidemics emerge rather frequently, but there are no regular intervals between those events. The epidemics can differ in their consequences, but usually they cause an increased mortality of elderly people. The great flu epidemics of the last century took millions of human lives. In 1918-19, during "The Spanish" pandemic of flu, there were around 40-50 millions of deaths all over the world; "Pandemic of Asia" in 1957 took up to one million lives, etc. Influenza virus can cause various disorders of the respiratory system: from mild inflammations of upper airways to acute pneumonia that finally results in the patient's death. Scientist Richard E. Shope, who investigated swine flu in 1920, had a suspicion that the cause of this disease might be a virus. Already in 1933, scientists from the National Institute for Medical Research in London - Wilson Smith, Sir Christopher Andrewes, and Sir Patrick Laidlaw - for the first time isolated the virus, which caused human flu. Then scientific community started the exhaustive research of influenza virus, and the great interest in this virus and its unique features is still active even today.
... Variant Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) EspaÃ±ol Recommend on Facebook ... disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks of influenza in pigs. ...
Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Neumann, Gabriele
We provide a brief introduction into the genome organization, life cycle, pathogenicity, and host range of influenza A viruses. We also briefly summarize influenza pandemics and currently available measures to control influenza virus outbreaks, including vaccines and antiviral compounds to influenza viruses.
van Kessel, G; Geels, M J; de Weerd, S; Buijs, L J; de Bruijni, M A M; Glansbeek, H L; van den Bosch, J F; Heldens, J G; van den Heuvel, E R
Infection with human influenza virus leads to serious respiratory disease. Vaccination is the most common and effective prophylactic measure to prevent influenza. Influenza vaccine manufacturing and release is controlled by the correct determination of the potency-defining haemagglutinin (HA) content. This determination is historically done by single radial immunodiffusion (SRID), which utilizes a statistical slope-ratio model to estimate the actual HA content. In this paper we describe the development and qualification of a parallel line model for analysis of HA quantification by SRID in cell culture-derived whole virus final monovalent and trivalent influenza vaccines. We evaluated plate layout, sample randomization, and validity of data and statistical model. The parallel line model was shown to be robust and reproducible. The precision studies for HA content demonstrated 3.8-5.0% repeatability and 3.8%-7.9% intermediate precision. Furthermore, system suitability criteria were developed to guarantee long-term stability of this assay in a regulated production environment. SRID is fraught with methodological and logistical difficulties and the determination of the HA content requires the acceptance of new and modern release assays, but until that moment, the described parallel line model represents a significant and robust update for the current global influenza vaccine release assay.
Alexander, D J
Influenza A viruses cause natural infections of humans, some other mammals and birds. Few of the 16 haemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase subtype combinations have been isolated from mammals, but all subtypes have been isolated from birds. In the 20th century, there were four pandemics of influenza as a result of the emergence of antigenically different strains in humans: 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2) and 1977 (H1N1). Influenza A viruses contain eight distinct RNA genes and reassortment of these can occur in mixed infections with different viruses. The 1957 and 1968 pandemic viruses differed from the preceding viruses in humans by the substitution of genes that came from avian viruses, suggesting they arose by genetic reassortment of viruses of human and avian origin. Up to 1995, there had been only three reports of avian influenza viruses infecting humans, in 1959, 1977 and 1981 (all H7N7), but, since 1996, there have been regular reports of natural infections of humans with avian influenza viruses: in England in 1996 (H7N7), Hong Kong 1997 (H5N1), 1999 (H9N2), and 2003 (H5N1), in The Netherlands 2003 (H7N7), Canada 2004 (H7N3), Vietnam 2004 (H5N1) and Thailand 2004 (H5N1). The H5N1 virus is alarming because 51 (64 %) of the 80 people confirmed as infected since 1997 have died.
Litvinova, O M; Grinbaum, E B; Bannikov, A I; Konovalenko, I B; Konovalova, N I; Luzianina, T Ia; Kiselev, O I
The comparison of interepidemic influenza viruses with the pathogens of resultant influenza epidemics has revealed that they belong to the same type (subtype) of influenza virus. A definite correlation has been found between the antigenic specificity of haemagglutinin of epidemic and interepidemic strains. The antigenic structure of the interepidemic viruses and the pathogens of further epidemics of influenza B viruses have been found to be completely identical. The interepidemic A(H1N1) isolates have been shown to be antigenic analogues of the causative agents of influenza A(H1N1) during the previous epidemics. Despite the time and place of their isolation, as well as the etiology of the previous and subsequent epidemics, the interepidemic influenza A(H3N2) viruses have been ascertained to be similar to the reference A/Bangkok/1/79.
Dowdle, W. R.
Current textbooks link influenza pandemics to influenza A virus subtypes H2 (1889-91), H3 (1990), H1 (1918-20), H2 (1957-58) and H3 (1968), a pattern suggesting subtype recycling in humans. Since H1 reappeared in 1977, whatever its origin, some workers feel that H2 is the next pandemic candidate. This report reviews the publications on which the concept of influenza A virus subtype recycling is based and concludes that the data are inconsistent with the purported sequence of events. The three influenza pandemics prior to 1957-58 were linked with subtypes through retrospective studies of sera from the elderly, or through seroarchaeology. The pandemic seroarchaeological model for subtype H1 has been validated by the recent recovery of swine virus RNA fragments from persons who died from influenza in 1918. Application of the model to pre-existing H3 antibody among the elderly links the H3 subtype to the pandemic of 1889-91, not that of 1900 as popularly quoted. Application of the model to pre-existing H2 antibody among the elderly fails to confirm that this subtype caused a pandemic in the late 1800's, a finding which is consistent with age-related excess mortality patterns during the pandemics of 1957 (H2) and 1968 (H3). H2 variants should be included in pandemic planning for a number of reasons, but not because of evidence of recycling. It is not known when the next pandemic will occur or which of the 15 (or more) haemagglutinin subtypes will be involved. Effective global surveillance remains the key to influenza preparedness. PMID:10593030
Landolt, Gabriele A
For decades the horse has been viewed as an isolated or "dead-end" host for influenza A viruses, with equine influenza virus being considered as relatively stable genetically. Although equine influenza viruses are genetically more stable than those of human lineage, they are by no means in evolutionary stasis. Moreover, recent transmission of equine-lineage influenza viruses to dogs also challenges the horse's status as a dead-end host. This article reviews recent developments in the epidemiology and evolution of equine influenza virus. In addition, the clinical presentation of equine influenza infection, diagnostic techniques, and vaccine recommendations are briefly summarized.
He, Biao; Chang, Haiyan; Liu, Zhihua; Huang, Chaoyang; Liu, Xueying; Zheng, Dan; Fang, Fang; Sun, Bing; Chen, Ze
Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza pandemics. Here, we studied the protective effect against heterologous influenza viruses, including A/reassortant/NYMC X-179A (pH1N1), A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004 (H5N1), A/Chicken/Jiangsu/7/2002 (H9N2) and A/Guizhou/54/89×A/PR/8/34 (A/Guizhou-X) (H3N2), in mice first vaccinated with a DNA vaccine of haemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) of A/PR/8/34 (PR8) and then infected with the homologous virus. We showed that PR8 HA or NA vaccination both protected mice against a lethal dose of the homologous virus; PR8 HA or NA DNA vaccination and then PR8 infection in mice offered poor or excellent protection, respectively, against a second, heterologous influenza virus challenge. In addition, before the second heterologous influenza infection, the highest antibody level against nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M1 and M2) proteins was found in the PR8 NA-vaccinated and PR8-infected group. The level of induced cellular immunity against NP and M1 showed a trend consistent with that seen in antibody levels. However, PR8 HA+NA vaccination and then PR8 infection resulted in limited protection against heterologous influenza virus challenge. Results of the present study demonstrated that infection of the homologous influenza virus in mice already immunized with a NA vaccine could provide excellent protection against subsequent infection of a heterologous influenza virus. These findings suggested that NA, a major antigen of influenza virus, could be an important candidate antigen for universal influenza vaccines.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...
Haemagglutinin and neuraminidase characterization of low pathogenic H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses isolated from Northern pintails (Anas acuta) in Japan, with special reference to genomic and biogeographical aspects.
Jahangir, Alam; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Shoham, Dany; Okamura, Masashi; Nakamaura, Masayuki; Takehara, Kazuaki
Pintails constitute an important host of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Genetic, molecular, and antigenic characteristics of H5 and H7 AIVs, which we isolated from northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in Japan, were analyzed and found to be linked to various ecological features, chiefly in terms of gene geography, as shaped by various migratory aquatic host species. Although all the isolates were found to be of low pathogenicity (LP), we explored gene predispositions that may potentially underlie tentative transition to high pathogenicity (HP). Evolutionarily, the HA and NA genes of the isolates affiliated mostly with Eurasian lineage. The viruses closely related to ours were derived from China, Korea, Mongolia, Japan, and Australia. Comprehensive ecophylogenetic evaluations revealed that the pintail populations we sampled might have given rise to or been involved in the emergence of a LPAI H7N6 subtype that caused outbreaks in quail (Coturnix japonica) farms in Japan, as well as of the first H5N9 subtype ever isolated in Asia. The latter strain isolated by us showed, yet, notable affinity to certain North American and Australian strains, thereby signifying apparent intercontinental interfaces accounted for by extensive water-bird flyways. Noticeable conservation of certain antigenic sites within both Eurasian and North American H7 HAs is apparently an outcome of their advantageous survival value, in terms of restricted immunogenicity. Besides, the Japanese-Korean-Siberian regional axis seems to be particularly important for ongoing generation of novel viral strains due to conveyance of certain genes and genomes by migratory ducks, including such that circulate among pigs and human.
Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J.S.; Nidom, Chairul A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Macken, Catherine A.; Fitch, Adam; Imai, Masaki; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that support high yield in cell culture. We also tested mutations in the coding and regulatory regions of the virus, and chimeric haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. A combination of high-yield mutations from these screens led to a PR8 backbone that improved the titres of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine viruses in African green monkey kidney and Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. This PR8 backbone also improves titres in embryonated chicken eggs, a common propagation system for influenza viruses. This PR8 vaccine backbone thus represents an advance in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine development. PMID:26334134
Phan, Hoang T; Pohl, Julia; Floss, Doreen M; Rabenstein, Frank; Veits, Jutta; Le, Binh T; Chu, Ha H; Hause, Gerd; Mettenleiter, Thomas; Conrad, Udo
Reducing the cost of vaccine production is a key priority for veterinary research, and the possibility of heterologously expressing antigen in plants provides a particularly attractive means of achieving this. Here, we report the expression of the avian influenza virus haemagglutinin (AIV HA) in tobacco, both as a monomer and as a trimer in its native and its ELPylated form. We firstly presented evidence to produce stabilized trimers of soluble HA in plants. ELPylation of these trimers does not influence the trimerization. Strong expression enhancement in planta caused by ELPylation was demonstrated for trimerized H5-ELP. ELPylated trimers could be purified by a membrane-based inverse transition cycling procedure with the potential of successful scale-up. The trimeric form of AIV HA was found to enhance the HA-specific immune response compared with the monomeric form. Plant-derived AIV HA trimers elicited potentially neutralizing antibodies interacting with both homologous virus-like particles from plants and heterologous inactivated AIV. ELPylation did not influence the functionality and the antigenicity of the stabilized H5 trimers. These data allow further developments including scale-up of production, purification and virus challenge experiments with the final goal to achieve suitable technologies for efficient avian flu vaccine production.
Lee, Chang-Won; Saif, Yehia M
Avian influenza viruses do not typically replicate efficiently in humans, indicating direct transmission of avian influenza virus to humans is unlikely. However, since 1997, several cases of human infections with different subtypes (H5N1, H7N7, and H9N2) of avian influenza viruses have been identified and raised the pandemic potential of avian influenza virus in humans. Although circumstantial evidence of human to human transmission exists, the novel avian-origin influenza viruses isolated from humans lack the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person. However, the on-going human infection with avian-origin H5N1 viruses increases the likelihood of the generation of human-adapted avian influenza virus with pandemic potential. Thus, a better understanding of the biological and genetic basis of host restriction of influenza viruses is a critical factor in determining whether the introduction of a novel influenza virus into the human population will result in a pandemic. In this article, we review current knowledge of type A influenza virus in which all avian influenza viruses are categorized.
Legastelois, Isabelle; Chevalier, Michel; Bernard, Marie-Clotilde; de Montfort, Aymeric; Fouque, Martine; Pilloud, Alexandra; Serraille, Christelle; Devard, Nicolas; Engel, Olivier; Sodoyer, Régis; Moste, Catherine
Two IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), Y6F5 and Y13F9, were selected during a screening of clones obtained immunising BALB/c mice with purified envelop proteins of the A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2) IVR108 influenza strain. These MAbs recognised avian glycans on the haemagglutinin (HA) of the virus. This broad recognition allowed these MAbs to be used as enzyme-labelled secondary antibody reagents in a strain specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in combination with a capture MAb that recognised and allowed the quantitation of the strain specific HA protein present in an egg-produced influenza vaccine. Advantage was taken of these MAbs to develop a universal ELISA in which the MAbs were used both as capture antibody and as enzyme-labelled secondary antibody to detect and quantify the HA protein of any egg-derived influenza vaccine. These avian-glycan specific IgM MAbs may prove to be particularly useful for determining the HA concentration in monovalent egg-derived pandemic influenza vaccines, in which the HA concentration may be lower than 5μg/ml. The HA detection limit in the ELISA assays developed in this study was 1.9μg/ml, as opposed to the 5μg/ml quantitation limit generally accepted for the standard single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRID) assay, the approved technique for quantifying HA content in influenza vaccines. These ELISAs can also be used to quantify influenza HA formulated with emulsion-based or mineral salt adjuvants that could interfere with HA measurement by the SRID assay.
Wang, Biao; Russell, Margaret L; Brewer, Angela; Newton, Jennifer; Singh, Pardeep; Ward, Brian J; Loeb, Mark
Serum antibodies are often used as correlates of protection for influenza. Three commonly used serological assays for detecting influenza-specific serum antibodies are single radial haemolysis (SRH), haemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN). However, here are limited data on SRH as well as HAI and MN as correlates of protection against influenza in children and adolescents. There are also limited data that compare SRH to HAI and MN. We sought primarily to understand how SRH titres correlate to protection against influenza infection in children and adolescents. We also compare SRH to HAI and MN. Of 732 healthy Hutterite children and adolescents aged between 3 and 15 years were enrolled from Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada, in the 2008-2009 flu season. Blood samples were drawn from participants at baseline and between 3 and 5 weeks post-vaccination. Serum antibodies against seasonal H3N2 influenza were measured by SRH, HAI and MN assays. The estimates of protective efficacy fluctuated when the cut-off SRH values increased. The correlation between HAI and SRH titres was 0.53 (P<.01); between MN and SRH 0.82 (P<.01); and between HAI and MN 0.50 (P<.01). Sixteen per cent of participants had SRH titres below the detection limit, compared to 7% and 34% for the MN and HAI assays. SRH had the worst correlation with protection against seasonal H3N2 in children and adolescents compared to MN and HAI. SRH, HAI and MN titres were significantly correlated with each other. SRH was less sensitive than MN but more sensitive than HAI. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Badham, Matthew D.; Rossman, Jeremy S.
Influenza A virus is a pathogen of global medical importance causing significant health and socio-economic costs every year. Influenza virus is an unusual pathogen in that it is pleomorphic, capable of forming virions ranging in shape from spherical to filamentous. Despite decades of research on the influenza virus, much remains unknown about the formation of filamentous influenza viruses and their role in the viral replication cycle. Here, we discuss what is known about influenza virus assembly and budding, focusing on the viral and host factors that are involved in the determination of viral morphology. Whilst the biological function of the filamentous morphology remains unknown, recent results suggest a role in facilitating viral spread in vivo. We discuss these results and speculate on the consequences of viral morphology during influenza virus infection of the human respiratory tract. PMID:28042529
Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...
Lawrence, Michael C; Borg, Natalie A; Streltsov, Victor A; Pilling, Patricia A; Epa, V Chandana; Varghese, Joseph N; McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L; Colman, Peter M
The three-dimensional structure of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) from a human parainfluenza virus is described at ca 2.0 A resolution, both in native form and in complex with three substrate analogues. In support of earlier work on the structure of the homologous protein from the avian pathogen Newcastle disease virus (NDV), we observe a dimer of beta-propellers and find no evidence for spatially separated sites performing the receptor-binding and neuraminidase functions of the protein. As with the NDV HN, the active site of the HN of parainfluenza viruses is structurally flexible, suggesting that it may be able to switch between a receptor-binding state and a catalytic state. However, in contrast to the NDV structures, we observe no ligand-induced structural changes that extend beyond the active site and modify the dimer interface.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...
Kaleta, E F
The causes of the notifiable fowl plague are high and low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the haemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7 but also other haemagglutinin subtypes If the intravenous pathogenicity index is greater than 1.2. The German fowl plague order (Geflügelpest-Verordnung) differentiates between highly pathogenic influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7, if multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecules are detected by virus isolation, antigen or genome determination and low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7 if either the intravenous pathogenicity index is lower than 1.2 or no basic amino acids are present at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecule. Aspects of diagnosis, control including culling, therapy and vaccination are reviewed. The currently available means and their limitations of a therapy of fowl plague by oral administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (e. g. oseltamivir) are described. Following granted permission, individually marked valuable zoo and pet birds may be vaccinated using licensed inactivated vaccines. Vector vaccines have not been used in Germany so far. Avian influenza A viruses of other haemagglutinin subtypes (H1-H4, H6, H8-H18) may also cause infections and severe disease. These subtypes are not subject to governmental interventions and disease can be prevented by timely use of inactivated vaccines.
Szatraj, Katarzyna; Szczepankowska, Agnieszka K; Sączyńska, Violetta; Florys, Katarzyna; Gromadzka, Beata; Łepek, Krzysztof; Płucienniczak, Grażyna; Szewczyk, Bogusław; Zagórski-Ostoja, Włodzimierz; Bardowski, Jacek
Gram-positive and nonpathogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be promising candidates for the development of new, safe systems of heterologous protein expression. Recombinant LAB has been shown to induce specific local and systemic immune response against selected pathogens, and could be a good alternative to classical attenuated carriers. The main goal of our study was to express the avian influenza haemagglutinin (H5) and chicken interleukin 2 (chIL-2) in Lactococcus lactis. Results of this study were anticipated to lead to construction of lactococcal strain(s) with potential vaccine properties against the avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Expression of the cloned H5 gene, its His-tagged variant and chIL-2 gene, under the control of the ptcB gene promoter was attested by RT-PCR on transcriptional level and Western or dot blot analysis on translational level, demonstrating that system can be an attractive solution for production of heterologous proteins. The results of the preliminary animal trial conducted in mice are a promising step toward development of a vaccine against avian bird flu using Lactococcus lactis cells as antigen carriers.
... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English (US) EspaÃ±ol ... with Avian Influenza A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses ...
Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole
Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Krauss, Scott; Walker, David; Webster, Robert G
The isolation of influenza viruses is important for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in lower animals and humans, for the detection of the infecting agent in surveillance programs, and is an essential element in the development and production of vaccine. Since influenza is caused by a zoonotic virus it is necessary to do surveillance in the reservoir species (aquatic waterfowls), intermediate hosts (quails, pigs), and in affected mammals including humans. Two of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses (H5 and H7) can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) strains for gallinaceous poultry; some HP H5 and H7 strains cause lethal infection of humans. In waterfowls, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are obtained primarily from the cloaca (or feces); in domestic poultry, the virus is more often recovered from the respiratory tract than from cloacal samples; in mammals, the virus is most often isolated from the respiratory tract, and in cases of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from the blood and internal organs of infected birds. Virus isolation procedures are performed by inoculation of clinical specimens into embryonated eggs (primarily chicken eggs) or onto a variety of primary or continuous tissue culture systems. Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type.
Zimmer, Gert; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Halbherr, Stefan J
Pseudotype viruses are useful for studying the envelope proteins of harmful viruses. This work describes the pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. VSV lacking the homotypic glycoprotein (G) gene (VSVΔG) was used to express haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the combination of both. Propagation-competent pseudotype viruses were only obtained when HA and NA were expressed from the same vector genome. Pseudotype viruses containing HA from different H5 clades were neutralized specifically by immune sera directed against the corresponding clade. Fast and sensitive reading of test results was achieved by vector-mediated expression of GFP. Pseudotype viruses expressing a mutant VSV matrix protein showed restricted spread in IFN-competent cells. This pseudotype system will facilitate the detection of neutralizing antibodies against virulent influenza viruses, circumventing the need for high-level biosafety containment. © 2014 The Authors.
Li, Chengjun; Hatta, Masato; Burke, David F; Ping, Jihui; Zhang, Ying; Ozawa, Makoto; Taft, Andrew S; Das, Subash C; Hanson, Anthony P; Song, Jiasheng; Imai, Masaki; Wilker, Peter R; Watanabe, Tokiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Ito, Mutsumi; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Russell, Colin A; James, Sarah L; Skepner, Eugene; Maher, Eileen A; Neumann, Gabriele; Klimov, Alexander I; Kelso, Anne; McCauley, John; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Xu, Xiyan; Wentworth, David E; Katz, Jacqueline M; Cox, Nancy J; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Influenza viruses mutate frequently, necessitating constant updates of vaccine viruses. To establish experimental approaches that may complement the current vaccine strain selection process, we selected antigenic variants from human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus libraries possessing random mutations in the globular head of the haemagglutinin protein (which includes the antigenic sites) by incubating them with human and/or ferret convalescent sera to human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. We also selected antigenic escape variants from human viruses treated with convalescent sera and from mice that had been previously immunized against human influenza viruses. Our pilot studies with past influenza viruses identified escape mutants that were antigenically similar to variants that emerged in nature, establishing the feasibility of our approach. Our studies with contemporary human influenza viruses identified escape mutants before they caused an epidemic in 2014-2015. This approach may aid in the prediction of potential antigenic escape variants and the selection of future vaccine candidates before they become widespread in nature.
Ozawa, Makoto; Taft, Andrew S.; Das, Subash C.; Hanson, Anthony P.; Song, Jiasheng; Imai, Masaki; Wilker, Peter R.; Watanabe, Tokiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Ito, Mutsumi; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Russell, Colin A.; James, Sarah L.; Skepner, Eugene; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kelso, Anne; McCauley, John; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Xu, Xiyan; Wentworth, David E.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Cox, Nancy J.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Influenza viruses mutate frequently, necessitating constant updates of vaccine viruses. To establish experimental approaches that may complement the current vaccine strain selection process, we selected antigenic variants from human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus libraries possessing random mutations in the globular head of the haemagglutinin protein (which includes the antigenic sites) by incubating them with human and/or ferret convalescent sera to human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Further, we selected antigenic escape variants from human viruses treated with convalescent sera and from mice that had been previously immunized against human influenza viruses. Our pilot studies with past influenza viruses identified escape mutants that were antigenically similar to variants that emerged in nature, establishing the feasibility of our approach. Our studies with contemporary human influenza viruses identified escape mutants before they caused an epidemic in 2014–2015. This approach may aid in the prediction of potential antigenic escape variants and the selection of future vaccine candidates before they become widespread in nature. PMID:27572841
Griot, C; Hoop, R
Influenza A viruses, in particular the H5 and H7 subtypes, have caused epizootic diseases in poultry for a long time. Wild aquatic birds and shorebirds form the natural virus reservoir. All influenza virus subtypes and almost all possible haemagglutinin/neuraminidase combinations have been detected in wild birds, whereas relatively few have been detected in humans and other mammals. In 1997, the emerging and spreading of the highly pathogenic strain H5N1 within Asia was supported by lack of hygiene in commercial poultry units and by the existence of live bird markets. During autumn 2005, migratory birds have been accused for spreading the infection along their flyways to Europe including Switzerland. For early detection of introduction to Europe, many countries have initiated surveillance programs for avian influenza in wild birds. Vaccines against influenza A viruses are existing for birds and are widely used to protect domestic fowl in endemic regions of Asia as well as valuable birds in zoos worldwide. Subtype H5N1 could be the progenitor virus of a new pandemic influenza virus. Therefore, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, Paris) as well as the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO, Rome) will need to increase their efforts to assist countries to combat the disease in the field.
Shortridge, K F; Butterfield, W K; Webster, R G; Campbell, C H
The second phase of a 2-year influenza virus surveillance programme of domestic avian species in Hong Kong (up to October 1977) yielded influenza A virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Hong Kong paramyxovirus, as well as unidentified haemagglutinating agents. These viruses were isolated from the trachea or cloaca of apparently healthy domestic ducks, geese, and chickens originating from China and Hong Kong. Twenty-five combinations of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface antigens were identified from the 136 influenza A viruses isolated. Eight of the combinations do not appear to have been previously reported - Hav3Nav2, Hav4Nav2, Hav4Nav4, Hav4Nav5, Hav4Neq1, Hav6Nav4, Hav6Nav6, and Hav9Nav1. The existence of such a diverse pool of influenza virus genetic information may play a role in the emergence of new human pandemic strains.
Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark
Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278
Hungnes, Olav; Dudman, Susanne Gjeruldsen
Influenza virus infection can be prevented and treated with antiviral drugs. The usage of such drugs in Norway has been infrequent, however, they are an important component in our pandemic preparedness planning, as it will probably be difficult to get access to the appropriate vaccine in time before the pandemic reaches the country. The first generation of influenza drugs acquired resistance to a large degree, in contrast to the modern neuraminidase inhibitors that until recently have had minor problems with resistance. This review is based on research found in relevant published literature, together with experience from a virology reference laboratory and participation in a national and international surveillance including susceptibility testing. While resistance has been a longstanding problem with the use of the "old" influenza drugs amantadine and rimantadine, only during the winter 2007/2008 did it become clear, that a certain type of virus acquired widespread resistance against the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Resistance surveillance is crucial for the correct choice of empiric treatment for influenza infection, and will be one of the most important tasks at the National Influenza Centre in certain phases of a pandemic. The current situation with an increasing resistance problem strengthens the need to conduct continuous monitoring of antiviral susceptibility, as well as development of new antiviral drugs and treatment regimes.
Webster, R G; Hinshaw, V S; Bean, W J; Sriram, G
The only direct evidence for transmission of influenza viruses between species comes from studies on swine influenza viruses. Antigenically and genetically identical Hsw1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs and man on the same farm in Wisconsin, U.S.A. The isolation of H3N2 influenza viruses from a wide range of lower animals and birds suggests that influenza viruses of man can spread to the lower orders. Under some conditions the H3N2 viruses can persist for a number of years in some species. The isolation, from aquatic birds, of a large number of influenza A viruses that possess surface proteins antigenically similar to the viruses isolated from man, pigs and horses provides indirect evidence for inter-species transmission. There is now a considerable body of evidence which suggests that influenza viruses of lower animals and birds may play a role in the origin of some of the pandemic strains of influenza A viruses. There is no direct evidence that the influenza viruses in aquatic birds are transmitted to man, but they may serve as a genetic pool from which some genes may be introduced into humans by recombination. Preliminary evidence suggests that the molecular basis of host range and virulence may be related to the RNA segments coding for one of the polymerase proteins (P3) and for the nucleoprotein (NP).
Kang, Hyunkyung; Roh, Hang Sik; Song, Hyemin; Lee, Kwangmoon; Chung, Seung-Tae; Ban, Sang-Ja; Mo, In Pil; An, Beum-Soo; Ahn, Chi-Young
The potency of influenza vaccine is determined based on its hemagglutinin (HA) content. In general, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay has been utilized as the standard method to measure HA content. However, preparation of reagents for SRID such as antigen and antibody takes approximately 2~3 months, which causes delays in the development of influenza vaccine. Therefore, quantification of HA content by other alternative methods is required. In this study, we measured HA contents of H1N1 antigen and H1N1 influenza vaccine by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) methods. The presence of HA1 and HA2 was investigated by silver staining and Western blot assay. In addition, accuracy and repeatability of HA measurement by RP-HPLC were evaluated. Comparison of HA concentration by SRID and RP-HPLC revealed a precise correlation between the two methods. Our results suggest that RP-HPLC assay can replace SRID in the event of a pandemic flu outbreak for rapid vaccine development.
Kang, Hyunkyung; Roh, Hang Sik; Song, Hyemin; Lee, Kwangmoon; Chung, Seung-Tae; Ban, Sang-ja; Mo, In Pil; An, Beum-Soo; Ahn, Chi-Young
The potency of influenza vaccine is determined based on its hemagglutinin (HA) content. In general, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay has been utilized as the standard method to measure HA content. However, preparation of reagents for SRID such as antigen and antibody takes approximately 2~3 months, which causes delays in the development of influenza vaccine. Therefore, quantification of HA content by other alternative methods is required. In this study, we measured HA contents of H1N1 antigen and H1N1 influenza vaccine by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) methods. The presence of HA1 and HA2 was investigated by silver staining and Western blot assay. In addition, accuracy and repeatability of HA measurement by RP-HPLC were evaluated. Comparison of HA concentration by SRID and RP-HPLC revealed a precise correlation between the two methods. Our results suggest that RP-HPLC assay can replace SRID in the event of a pandemic flu outbreak for rapid vaccine development. PMID:27818728
Nakamura, Shigeki; Kohno, Shigeru
The necessity of newly anti-influenza agents is increasing rapidly after the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. In addition to the existing anti-influenza drugs, novel neuraminidase inhibitors such as peramivir (a first intravenous anti-influenza agent) and laninamivir (long acting inhaled anti-influenza agent) can be available. Moreover favipiravir, which shows a novel anti-influenza mechanism acting as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has been developing. These drugs are expected to improve the prognosis of severe cases caused by not only seasonal influenza but pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and H5N1 avian influenza, and also treat oseltamivir-resistant influenza effectively.
Ghendon, Y; Tucková, E; Vonka, V; Klimov, A; Ginzburg, V; Markushin, S
The replication of influenza viruses A/NWS-D, A/WS-MK and their r12 recombinant in human embryo fibroblast (HEF) and human diploid fibroblast (LEP) cell lines was studied. In HEF cells virus NWS-D and recombinant r12 induced synthesis of virus-specific macromolecules and produced infectious virions; virus WS-MK induced synthesis of virus complementary RNA (cRNA), virion RNA (vRNA), protein, RNP and non-infectious virions, but haemagglutinin cleavage was impaired and the virions formed contained uncleaved haemagglutinin. In LEP cells, infectious virions were formed only by virus NWS-D; viruses WS-MK and r12 induced synthesis of virus cRNA, vRNA, proteins and RNP; virus r12 had the haemagglutinin cleaved, whereas in virus WS-MK this process was impaired; neither virus WS-MK nor r12 was capable of forming virions. Analysis of the recombinant r12 genome showed that it had only inherited a single gene from NWS-D, the one coding for neuraminidase, having inherited all others (P1, P2, P3, HA, NP, M, NS) from WS-MK. The data obtained suggested that the inability of virus WS-MK to form infectious virions in HEF cells is due to the character of its neuraminidase, which is incapable of participating in haemagglutinin cleavage. The deficient reproduction of this virus in the other host-cell system (LEP) is apparently associated with some characteristics of another protein (other proteins) of this virus.
Osbjer, K; Berg, M; Sokerya, S; Chheng, K; San, S; Davun, H; Magnusson, U; Olsen, B; Zohari, S
Surveillance of influenza virus in humans and livestock is critical, given the worldwide public health threats and livestock production losses. Livestock farming involving close proximity between humans, pigs and poultry is often practised by smallholders in low-income countries and is considered an important driver of influenza virus evolution. This study determined the prevalence and genetic characteristics of influenza A virus (IAV) in backyard pigs and poultry in Cambodia. A total of 751 animals were tested by matrix gene-based rRT-PCR, and influenza virus was detected in 1.5% of sampled pigs, 1.4% of chickens and 1.0% of ducks, but not in pigeons. Full-length genome sequencing confirmed triple reassortant H3N2 in all IAV-positive pigs and various low pathogenic avian influenza subtypes in poultry. Phylogenetic analysis of the swine influenza viruses revealed that these had haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes originating from human H3N2 viruses previously isolated in South-East Asia. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed that several of the avian influenza subtypes detected were closely related to internal viral genes from highly pathogenic H5N1 and H9N2 formerly sequenced in the region. High sequence homology was likewise found with influenza A viruses circulating in pigs, poultry and wild birds in China and Vietnam, suggesting transboundary introduction and cocirculation of the various influenza subtypes. In conclusion, highly pathogenic subtypes of influenza virus seem rare in backyard poultry, but virus reassortment, involving potentially zoonotic and pandemic subtypes, appears to occur frequently in smallholder pigs and poultry. Increased targeted surveillance and monitoring of influenza circulation on smallholdings would further improve understanding of the transmission dynamics and evolution of influenza viruses in humans, pigs and poultry in the Mekong subregion and could contribute to limit the influenza burden. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Kageyama, T; Fujisaki, S; Takashita, E; Xu, H; Yamada, S; Uchida, Y; Neumann, G; Saito, T; Kawaoka, Y; Tashiro, M
Novel influenza viruses of the H7N9 subtype have infected 33 and killed nine people in China as of 10 April 2013. Their haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase genes probably originated from Eurasian avian influenza viruses; the remaining genes are closely related to avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Several characteristic amino acid changes in HA and the PB2 RNA polymerase subunit probably facilitate binding to human-type receptors and efficient replication in mammals, respectively, highlighting the pandemic potential of the novel viruses.
... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...
Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey
To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256
Shaw, M W; Arden, N H; Maassab, H F
Influenza virus infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality with a worldwide social and economic impact. The past five years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of viral replication, evolution, and antigenic variation. Genetic analyses have clarified relationships between human and animal influenza virus strains, demonstrating the potential for the appearance of new pandemic reassortants as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes are exchanged in an intermediate host. Clinical trials of candidate live attenuated influenza virus vaccines have shown the cold-adapted reassortants to be a promising alternative to the currently available inactivated virus preparations. Modern molecular techniques have allowed serious consideration of new approaches to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines as the functions of the viral genes and proteins are further elucidated. The development of techniques whereby the genes of influenza viruses can be specifically altered to investigate those functions will undoubtedly accelerate the pace at which our knowledge expands. PMID:1310439
Martyna, Agnieszka; Rossman, Jeremy
Influenza A virus belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family. It is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented and negative-sense RNA genome. Influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional major pandemics, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and have a significant financial impact on society. Assembly and budding of new viral particles are a complex and multi-step process involving several host and viral factors. Influenza viruses use lipid raft domains in the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells as sites of budding. Two viral glycoproteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase, concentrate in lipid rafts, causing alterations in membrane curvature and initiation of the budding process. Matrix protein 1 (M1), which forms the inner structure of the virion, is then recruited to the site followed by incorporation of the viral ribonucleoproteins and matrix protein 2 (M2). M1 can alter membrane curvature and progress budding, whereas lipid raft-associated M2 stabilizes the site of budding, allowing for proper assembly of the virion. In the later stages of budding, M2 is localized to the neck of the budding virion at the lipid phase boundary, where it causes negative membrane curvature, leading to scission and virion release.
Zhang, Yuewei; Yu, Ziqiang; Jiang, Fei; Fu, Ping; Shen, Junjun; Wu, Wenxue; Li, Jinxiang
New antiviral therapy for pandemic influenza mediated by the H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) is increasingly in demand not only for the poultry industry but also for public health. Aptamers are confirmed to be promising candidates for treatment and prevention of influenza viral infections. Thus, we studied two DNA aptamers, A9 and B4, selected by capillary electrophoresis-based systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (CE-SELEX) procedure using H9N2 AIV purified haemagglutinin (HA) as target. Both aptamers had whole-virus binding affinity. Also, an enzyme-linked aptamer assay (ELAA) confirmed binding affinity and specificity against other AIV subtypes. Finally, we studied aptamer-inhibitory effects on H9N2 AIV infection in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and quantified viral load in supernatant and in cell with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Our data provide a foundation for future development of innovative anti-influenza drugs.
The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...
Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to 'novel' viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages.
Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763
Zhu, Wenfei; Zhou, Jianfang; Li, Zi; Yang, Lei; Li, Xiyan; Huang, Weijuan; Zou, Sumei; Chen, Wenbing; Wei, Hejiang; Tang, Jing; Liu, Liqi; Dong, Jie; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong
With no or low virulence in poultry, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus has caused severe infections in humans. In the current fifth epidemic wave, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus emerged. The insertion of four amino acids (KRTA) at the haemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site enabled trypsin-independent infectivity of this virus. Although maintaining dual receptor-binding preference, its HA antigenicity was distinct from low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9). The neuraminidase substitution R292K conferred a multidrug resistance phenotype. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.
Stefańska, Ilona; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Brydak, Lidia B; Romanowska, Magdalena
This study was performed to develop real-time PCR (qPCR) for detection of human seasonal and avian influenza viruses in duplex format. First duplex qPCR detects haemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 and HA gene of influenza virus A(H3N2), the second reaction detects neuraminidase (NA) gene of influenza virus A(H3N2) and NA gene of influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H5N1), and the third reaction detects HA gene of influenza A(H5N1) and nonstructural protein gene of influenza B virus. Primers and probes were designed using multiple alignments of target gene sequences of different reference strains. Assays were optimised for identical thermocycling conditions. Their specificity was confirmed by conventional PCR and monoplex qPCR with nucleic acids isolated from different influenza viruses and other respiratory pathogens. Plasmid constructs with a fragment of specific gene were used to assess sensitivity of the assay. The limit of detection ranged from 27 to 96 cDNA copies/reaction. Clinical specimens (n = 107) have been tested using new assays, immunofluorescence and monoplex qRT-PCR. It has been shown that developed assays have been capable of rapid and accurate simultaneous detection and differentiation of influenza viruses. They are more sensitive than immunofluorescence and at least as sensitive as monoplex qRT-PCR.
Makarova, N V; Kaverin, N V; Krauss, S; Senne, D; Webster, R G
Influenza A virus of the H2 subtype caused a serious pandemic in 1957 and may cause similar outbreaks in the future. To assess the evolution and the antigenic relationships of avian influenza H2 viruses, we sequenced the haemagglutinin (HA) genes of H2 isolates from shorebirds, ducks and poultry in North America and derived a phylogenetic tree to establish their interrelationships. This analysis confirmed the divergence of H2 HA into two geographical lineages, American and Eurasian. One group of viruses isolated from shorebirds in North America had HA belonging to the Eurasian lineage, indicating an interregional transmission of the H2 gene. Characterization of HA with a monoclonal antibody panel revealed that the antigenicity of the Delaware strains differed from the other avian strains analysed. The data emphasizes the importance of avian influenza surveillance.
Bragstad, K; Jørgensen, P H; Handberg, K J; Mellergaard, S; Corbet, S; Fomsgaard, A
During the past years increasing incidences of influenza A zoonosis have made it of uppermost importance to possess methods for rapid and precise identification and characterisation of influenza A viruses. We present here a convenient one-step RT-PCR method that will amplify full-length haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) directly from clinical samples and from all known subtypes of influenza A. We applied the method on samples collected in September 2003 from a Danish flock of mallards with general health problems and by this a previously undescribed influenza A subtype combination, H5N7, was identified. The HA gene showed great sequence similarity to the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) A/Chicken/Italy/312/97 (H5N2); however, the cleavage site sequence between HA1 and HA2 had a motif typical for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV). The full-length NA sequence was most closely related to the HPAIV A/Chicken/Netherlands/01/03 (H7N7) that infected chickens and humans in the Netherlands in 2003. Ten persons with direct or indirect contact with the Danish mallard ducks showed signs of influenza-like illness 2-3 days following the killing of the ducks, but no evidence of influence infections was detected. To our knowledge this is the first report of an H5N7 influenza A virus.
Rossman, Jeremy S.; Lamb, Robert A.
Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics, sporadic pandemics and is a significant global heath burden. Influenza virus is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented negative strand RNA genome. Assembly and budding of progeny influenza virions is a complex, multistep process that occurs in lipid raft domains on the apical membrane of infected cells. The viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are targeted to lipid rafts, causing the coalescence and enlargement of the raft domains. This clustering of HA and NA may cause a deformation of the membrane and the initiation of the virus budding event. M1 is then thought to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA where it can then polymerize and form the interior structure of the emerging virion. M1, bound to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA, additionally serves as a docking site for the recruitment of the viral RNPs and may mediate the recruitment of M2 to the site of virus budding. M2 initially stabilizes the site of budding, possibly enabling the polymerization of the matrix protein and the formation of filamentous virions. Subsequently, M2 is able to alter membrane curvature at the neck of the budding virus, causing membrane scission and the release of the progeny virion. This review investigates the latest research on influenza virus budding in an attempt to provide a step-by-step analysis of the assembly and budding processes for influenza viruses. PMID:21237476
Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J
Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection.
Bedford, Trevor; Riley, Steven; Barr, Ian G.; Broor, Shobha; Chadha, Mandeep; Cox, Nancy J.; Daniels, Rodney S.; Gunasekaran, C. Palani; Hurt, Aeron C.; Kelso, Anne; Klimov, Alexander; Lewis, Nicola S.; Li, Xiyan; McCauley, John W.; Odagiri, Takato; Potdar, Varsha; Rambaut, Andrew; Shu, Yuelong; Skepner, Eugene; Smith, Derek J.; Suchard, Marc A.; Tashiro, Masato; Wang, Dayan; Xu, Xiyan; Lemey, Philippe; Russell, Colin A.
Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 (up to 2009), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata viruses differ substantially from those of A/H3N2 viruses, on the basis of analyses of 9,604 haemagglutinin sequences of human seasonal influenza viruses from 2000 to 2012. Whereas genetic variants of A/H3N2 viruses did not persist locally between epidemics and were reseeded from East and Southeast Asia, genetic variants of A/H1N1 and B viruses persisted across several seasons and exhibited complex global dynamics with East and Southeast Asia playing a limited role in disseminating new variants. The less frequent global movement of influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses coincided with slower rates of antigenic evolution, lower ages of infection, and smaller, less frequent epidemics compared to A/H3N2 viruses. Detailed epidemic models support differences in age of infection, combined with the less frequent travel of children, as probable drivers of the differences in the patterns of global circulation, suggesting a complex interaction between virus evolution, epidemiology, and human behaviour.
Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Hailing; Bai, Xue; Martella, Vito; Hu, Bo; Sun, Yangang; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hao; Xu, Shujuan; Shao, Xiqun; Wu, Wei; Yan, Xijun
A total of 16 strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected from vaccinated minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs in four provinces in North-Eastern China between the end of 2011 and 2013. Upon sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene and comparison with wild-type CDV from different species in the same geographical areas, two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 10 CDV strains, which led to amino acid changes at positions 542 (isoleucine to asparagine) and 549 (tyrosine to histidine) of the haemagglutinin protein coding sequence. The change at residue 542 generated a potentially novel N-glycosylation site. Masking of antigenic epitopes by sugar moieties might represent a mechanism for evasion of virus neutralising antibodies and reduced protection by vaccination.
Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco
Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature.
Reid, Ann H; Taubenberger, Jeffery K
Influenza A virus is a major public health threat, killing more than 30,000 per year in the USA alone, sickening millions and inflicting substantial economic costs. Novel influenza virus strains emerge periodically to which humans have little immunity, resulting in devastating pandemics. The 1918 pandemic killed nearly 700,000 Americans and 40 million people worldwide. Pandemics in 1957 and 1968, while much less devastating than 1918, also caused tens of thousands of deaths in the USA. The influenza A virus is capable of enormous genetic variability, both by continuous, gradual mutation and by reassortment of gene segments between viruses. Both the 1957 and 1968 pandemic strains are thought to have originated as reassortants, in which one or both human-adapted viral surface proteins were replaced by proteins from avian influenza virus strains. Analyses of the surface proteins of the 1918 pandemic strain, however, suggest that this strain may have had a different origin. The haemagglutinin gene segment of the virus may have come directly from an avian source different from those currently circulating. Alternatively, the virus, or some of its gene segments, may have evolved in an intermediate host before emerging as a human pathogen. Determining whether pandemic influenza virus strains can emerge via different pathways will affect the scope and focus of surveillance and prevention efforts.
Lakdawala, Seema S; Jayaraman, Akila; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lamirande, Elaine W; Shih, Angela R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Hanson, Christopher T; Vogel, Leatrice; Paskel, Myeisha; Minai, Mahnaz; Moore, Ian; Orandle, Marlene; Das, Suman R; Wentworth, David E; Sasisekharan, Ram; Subbarao, Kanta
Influenza A viruses pose a major public health threat by causing seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics. Their epidemiological success relies on airborne transmission from person to person; however, the viral properties governing airborne transmission of influenza A viruses are complex. Influenza A virus infection is mediated via binding of the viral haemagglutinin (HA) to terminally attached α2,3 or α2,6 sialic acids on cell surface glycoproteins. Human influenza A viruses preferentially bind α2,6-linked sialic acids whereas avian influenza A viruses bind α2,3-linked sialic acids on complex glycans on airway epithelial cells. Historically, influenza A viruses with preferential association with α2,3-linked sialic acids have not been transmitted efficiently by the airborne route in ferrets. Here we observe efficient airborne transmission of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (A/California/07/2009) engineered to preferentially bind α2,3-linked sialic acids. Airborne transmission was associated with rapid selection of virus with a change at a single HA site that conferred binding to long-chain α2,6-linked sialic acids, without loss of α2,3-linked sialic acid binding. The transmissible virus emerged in experimentally infected ferrets within 24 hours after infection and was remarkably enriched in the soft palate, where long-chain α2,6-linked sialic acids predominate on the nasopharyngeal surface. Notably, presence of long-chain α2,6-linked sialic acids is conserved in ferret, pig and human soft palate. Using a loss-of-function approach with this one virus, we demonstrate that the ferret soft palate, a tissue not normally sampled in animal models of influenza, rapidly selects for transmissible influenza A viruses with human receptor (α2,6-linked sialic acids) preference.
Fiset, P.; Depoux, R.
By antibody absorption it was found that strains of influenza virus exhibiting P-Q differences were related according to certain patterns. In the course of this investigation it was also revealed that some viruses possessed masked antigens capable of stimulating antibody production but incapable of combining efficiently with antibody. PMID:14364182
Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America . The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...
Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...
Hackett, C J; Taylor, P M; Askonas, B A
Since inactivated virus preparations are poor inducers of influenza-specific cytotoxic T cells (Tc), studies were undertaken utilizing artificial vesicles (liposomes) as a means of delivering viral and H-2 antigens in a multivalent form and oriented with respect to a lipid bilayer. Liposomes prepared from extracted mouse cell lipids efficiently incorporated influenza-viral proteins and were not toxic in culture. Using polybrene to promote greater contact of liposomes with cells, liposomes prepared from whole virus could effectively stimulate memory Tc from spleens of intranasally infected mice in vitro. H-2 was not required in the liposomes to obtain stimulation, and its presence did not improve responses, which were always lower than in parallel stimulations using virally infected syngeneic cells. Liposomes prepared from purified influenza virion subunits (haemagglutinin, neuraminidase, matrix protein) were only slightly stimulatory in vitro, and were unable to prime mice for significant Tc memory. PMID:6602089
Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu
The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Roberts, Kim L; Shelton, Holly; Scull, Margaret; Pickles, Raymond; Barclay, Wendy S
Influenza virus attaches to host cells by sialic acid (SA). Human influenza viruses show preferential affinity for α2,6-linked SA, whereas avian influenza viruses bind α2,3-linked SA. In this study, mutation of the haemagglutinin receptor-binding site of a human H3N2 influenza A virus to switch binding to α2,3-linked SA did not eliminate infection of ferrets but prevented transmission, even in a co-housed model. The mutant virus was shed from the noses of ferrets directly inoculated with virus in the same amounts and for the same length of time as wild-type virus. Mutant virus infection was localized to the same anatomical regions of the upper respiratory tract of directly inoculated animals. Interestingly, wild-type virus was more readily neutralized than the mutant virus in vitro by ferret nasal washes containing mucus. Moreover after inoculation of equal doses, the mutant virus grew poorly in ex vivo ferret nasal turbinate tissue compared with wild-type virus. The dose of mutant virus required to establish infection in the directly inoculated ferrets was 40-fold higher than for wild-type virus. It was concluded that minimum infectious dose is a predictor of virus transmissibility and it is suggested that, as virus passes from one host to another through stringent environmental conditions, viruses with a preference for α2,3-linked SA are unlikely to inoculate a new mammalian host in sufficient quantities to initiate a productive infection.
Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Ellakany, Hany F; Kawashita, Norihito; Daidoji, Tomo; Takagi, Tatsuya; Yasunaga, Teruo; Nakaya, Takaaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has spread across Eurasia and Africa, and outbreaks are now endemic in several countries, including Indonesia, Vietnam and Egypt. Continuous circulation of H5N1 virus in Egypt, from a single infected source, has led to significant genetic diversification with phylogenetically separable sublineages, providing an opportunity to study the impact of genetic evolution on viral phenotypic variation. In this study, we analysed the phylogeny of H5 haemagglutinin (HA) genes in influenza viruses isolated in Egypt from 2006 to 2011 and investigated the effect of conserved amino acid mutations in the HA genes in each of the sublineages on their antigenicity. The analysis showed that viruses in at least four sublineages still persisted in poultry in Egypt as of 2011. Using reverse genetics to generate HA-reassortment viruses with specific HA mutations, we found antigenic drift in the HA in two influenza virus sublineages, compared with the other currently co-circulating influenza virus sublineages in Egypt. Moreover, the two sublineages with significant antigenic drift were antigenically distinguishable. Our findings suggested that phylogenetically divergent H5N1 viruses, which were not antigenically cross-reactive, were co-circulating in Egypt, indicating that there was a problem in using a single influenza virus strain as seed virus to produce influenza virus vaccine in Egypt and providing data for designing more efficacious control strategies in H5N1-endemic areas.
Brown, I H; Ludwig, S; Olsen, C W; Hannoun, C; Scholtissek, C; Hinshaw, V S; Harris, P A; McCauley, J W; Strong, I; Alexander, D J
H1N1 influenza A viruses isolated from pigs in Europe since 1981 were examined both antigenically and genetically and compared with H1N1 viruses from other sources. H1N1 viruses from pigs and birds could be divided into three groups: avian, classical swine and 'avian-like' swine viruses. Low or no reactivity of 'avian-like' swine viruses in HI tests with monoclonal antibodies raised against classical swine viruses was associated with amino acid substitutions within antigenic sites of the haemagglutinin (HA). Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that classical swine viruses from European pigs are most similar to each other and are closely related to North American swine strains, whilst the 'avian-like' swine viruses cluster with avian viruses. 'Avian-like' viruses introduced into pigs in the UK in 1992 apparently originated directly from strains in pigs in continental Europe at that time. The HA genes of the swine viruses examined had undergone limited variation in antigenic sites and also contained fewer potential glycosylation sites compared to human H1N1 viruses. The HA exhibited antigenic drift which was more marked in 'avian-like' swine viruses than in classical swine strains. Genetic analyses of two recent 'avian-like' swine viruses indicated that all the RNA segments are related most closely to those of avian influenza A viruses.
Vaidya, Sunil R; Dvivedi, Garima M; Jadhav, Santoshkumar M
The reports from the countries where mumps vaccine is given as routine immunization suggest differences in mumps virus neutralizing antibody titres when tested with vaccine and wild type viruses. Such reports are unavailable from countries like India where mumps vaccine is not included in routine immunization. We, therefore, undertook this study to understand the cross-neutralization activity of Indian mumps viruses. By using commercial mumps IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a rapid focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT), a panel of serum samples was tested. The panel consisted of 14 acute and 14 convalescent serum samples collected during a mumps outbreak and 18 archived serum samples. Two wild types (genotypes C and G) and Leningrad-Zagreb vaccine strain (genotype N) were used for the challenge experiments and FRNT titres were determined and further compared. The HN protein sequence of three mumps viruses was analyzed for the presence of key epitopes. All serum samples effectively neutralized mumps virus wild types and a vaccine strain. However, significantly lower FRNT titres were noted to wild types than to vaccine strain (P<0.05). The comparison between EIA and FRNT results revealed 95.6 per cent agreement. No amino acid changes were seen in the epitopes in the Indian wild type strains. All potential N-linked glycosylation sites were observed in Indian strains. Good cross-neutralization activity was observed for three mumps virus strains, however, higher level of FRNT titres was detected for mumps virus vaccine strain compared to Indian wild type isolates.
Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong
Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759
Spackman, Erica; Lee, Scott A
The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from experimentally infected birds. Samples can generally be divided into two types; enriched (e.g. virus stocks) and clinical. Clinical type samples, which may be tissues or swab material, are the most difficult to process due to the complex sample composition and possibly low virus titers. In this chapter two well established procedures for the isolation of AI virus RNA from common clinical specimen types and enriched virus stocks for further molecular applications will be presented.
Vaidya, Sunil R.; Dvivedi, Garima M.; Jadhav, Santoshkumar M.
Background & objectives: The reports from the countries where mumps vaccine is given as routine immunization suggest differences in mumps virus neutralizing antibody titres when tested with vaccine and wild type viruses. Such reports are unavailable from countries like India where mumps vaccine is not included in routine immunization. We, therefore, undertook this study to understand the cross-neutralization activity of Indian mumps viruses. Methods: By using commercial mumps IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a rapid focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT), a panel of serum samples was tested. The panel consisted of 14 acute and 14 convalescent serum samples collected during a mumps outbreak and 18 archived serum samples. Two wild types (genotypes C and G) and Leningrad-Zagreb vaccine strain (genotype N) were used for the challenge experiments and FRNT titres were determined and further compared. The HN protein sequence of three mumps viruses was analyzed for the presence of key epitopes. Results: All serum samples effectively neutralized mumps virus wild types and a vaccine strain. However, significantly lower FRNT titres were noted to wild types than to vaccine strain (P<0.05). The comparison between EIA and FRNT results revealed 95.6 per cent agreement. No amino acid changes were seen in the epitopes in the Indian wild type strains. All potential N-linked glycosylation sites were observed in Indian strains. Interpretation & conclusions: Good cross-neutralization activity was observed for three mumps virus strains, however, higher level of FRNT titres was detected for mumps virus vaccine strain compared to Indian wild type isolates. PMID:26997012
Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.
Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six “internal” influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production. PMID:27930325
Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; Binger, Tabea; Müller, Marcel Alexander; de Bruin, Erwin; van Beek, Janko; Corman, Victor Max; Rasche, Andrea; Drexler, Jan Felix; Sylverken, Augustina; Oppong, Samuel K; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tschapka, Marco; Cottontail, Veronika M; Drosten, Christian; Koopmans, Marion
Bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes--H17N10 and H18N11--in Central and South American fruit bats. The identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza A viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza A virus ecology and possible public health relevance. As molecular testing can be limited by a short time window in which the virus is present, serological testing provides information about past infections and virus spread in populations after the virus has been cleared. This study aimed at screening available sera from 100 free-ranging, frugivorous bats (Eidolon helvum) sampled in 2009/10 in Ghana, for the presence of antibodies against the complete panel of influenza A haemagglutinin (HA) types ranging from H1 to H18 by means of a protein microarray platform. This technique enables simultaneous serological testing against multiple recombinant HA-types in 5 μl of serum. Preliminary results indicate serological evidence against avian influenza subtype H9 in about 30% of the animals screened, with low-level cross-reactivity to phylogenetically closely related subtypes H8 and H12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serological evidence of influenza A viruses other than H17 and H18 in bats. As avian influenza subtype H9 is associated with human infections, the implications of our findings from a public health context remain to be investigated.
Müller, Marcel Alexander; de Bruin, Erwin; van Beek, Janko; Corman, Victor Max; Rasche, Andrea; Drexler, Jan Felix; Sylverken, Augustina; Oppong, Samuel K.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tschapka, Marco; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Drosten, Christian; Koopmans, Marion
Bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes – H17N10 and H18N11 – in Central and South American fruit bats. The identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza A viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza A virus ecology and possible public health relevance. As molecular testing can be limited by a short time window in which the virus is present, serological testing provides information about past infections and virus spread in populations after the virus has been cleared. This study aimed at screening available sera from 100 free-ranging, frugivorous bats (Eidolon helvum) sampled in 2009/10 in Ghana, for the presence of antibodies against the complete panel of influenza A haemagglutinin (HA) types ranging from H1 to H18 by means of a protein microarray platform. This technique enables simultaneous serological testing against multiple recombinant HA-types in 5μl of serum. Preliminary results indicate serological evidence against avian influenza subtype H9 in about 30% of the animals screened, with low-level cross-reactivity to phylogenetically closely related subtypes H8 and H12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serological evidence of influenza A viruses other than H17 and H18 in bats. As avian influenza subtype H9 is associated with human infections, the implications of our findings from a public health context remain to be investigated. PMID:25965069
Hussain, S.; Miller, J. L.; Harvey, D. J.; Gu, Y.; Rosenthal, P. B.; Zitzmann, N.; McCauley, J. W.
Objectives Drugs that target host cell processes can be employed to complement drugs that specifically target viruses, and iminosugar compounds that inhibit host α-glucosidases have been reported to show antiviral activity against multiple viruses. Here the effect and mechanism of two iminosugar α-glucosidase inhibitors, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ) and N-nonyl-deoxynojirimycin (NN-DNJ), on human influenza A viruses was examined. Methods The viruses examined were a recently circulating seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus strain A/Brisbane/10/2007, an older H3N2 strain A/Udorn/307/72, and A/Lviv/N6/2009, a strain representative of the currently circulating pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Results The inhibitors had the strongest effect on Brisbane/10 and NN-DNJ was more potent than NB-DNJ. Both compounds showed antiviral activity in cell culture against three human influenza A viruses in a strain-specific manner. Consistent with its action as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, NN-DNJ treatment resulted in an altered glycan processing of influenza haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), confirmed by MS. NN-DNJ treatment was found to reduce the cell surface expression of the H3 subtype HA. The level of sialidase activity of NA was reduced in infected cells, but the addition of exogenous sialidase to the cells did not complement the NN-DNJ-mediated inhibition of virus replication. Using reassortant viruses, the drug susceptibility profile was determined to correlate with the origin of the HA. Conclusions NN-DNJ inhibits influenza A virus replication in a strain-specific manner that is dependent on the HA. PMID:25223974
Hussain, S; Miller, J L; Harvey, D J; Gu, Y; Rosenthal, P B; Zitzmann, N; McCauley, J W
Drugs that target host cell processes can be employed to complement drugs that specifically target viruses, and iminosugar compounds that inhibit host α-glucosidases have been reported to show antiviral activity against multiple viruses. Here the effect and mechanism of two iminosugar α-glucosidase inhibitors, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ) and N-nonyl-deoxynojirimycin (NN-DNJ), on human influenza A viruses was examined. The viruses examined were a recently circulating seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus strain A/Brisbane/10/2007, an older H3N2 strain A/Udorn/307/72, and A/Lviv/N6/2009, a strain representative of the currently circulating pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The inhibitors had the strongest effect on Brisbane/10 and NN-DNJ was more potent than NB-DNJ. Both compounds showed antiviral activity in cell culture against three human influenza A viruses in a strain-specific manner. Consistent with its action as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, NN-DNJ treatment resulted in an altered glycan processing of influenza haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), confirmed by MS. NN-DNJ treatment was found to reduce the cell surface expression of the H3 subtype HA. The level of sialidase activity of NA was reduced in infected cells, but the addition of exogenous sialidase to the cells did not complement the NN-DNJ-mediated inhibition of virus replication. Using reassortant viruses, the drug susceptibility profile was determined to correlate with the origin of the HA. NN-DNJ inhibits influenza A virus replication in a strain-specific manner that is dependent on the HA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
Mögling, Ramona; Richard, Mathilde J; Vliet, Stefan van der; Beek, Ruud van; Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Spronken, Monique I; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M
Over the last decade, an increasing proportion of circulating human influenza A(H3N2) viruses exhibited haemagglutination activity that was sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors. This change in haemagglutination as compared to older circulating A(H3N2) viruses prompted an investigation of the underlying molecular basis. Recent human influenza A(H3N2) viruses were found to agglutinate turkey erythrocytes in a manner that could be blocked with either oseltamivir or neuraminidase-specific antisera, indicating that agglutination was driven by neuraminidase, with a low or negligible contribution of haemagglutinin. Using representative virus recombinants it was shown that the haemagglutinin of a recent A(H3N2) virus indeed had decreased activity to agglutinate turkey erythrocytes, while its neuraminidase displayed increased haemagglutinating activity. Viruses with chimeric and mutant neuraminidases were used to identify the amino acid substitution histidine to arginine at position 150 flanking the neuraminidase catalytic site as the determinant of this neuraminidase-mediated haemagglutination. An analysis of publicly available neuraminidase gene sequences showed that viruses with histidine at position 150 were rapidly replaced by viruses with arginine at this position between 2005 and 2008, in agreement with the phenotypic data. As a consequence of neuraminidase-mediated haemagglutination of recent A(H3N2) viruses and poor haemagglutination via haemagglutinin, haemagglutination inhibition assays with A(H3N2) antisera are no longer useful to characterize the antigenic properties of the haemagglutinin of these viruses for vaccine strain selection purposes. Continuous monitoring of the evolution of these viruses and potential consequences for vaccine strain selection remains important.
There have been remarkable advances in the molecular diagnosis and characterization of avian influenza virus infections in domestic poultry and free-living birds in the past two decades. Rapid pathotyping became possible with the recognition that the amino acid sequence of the connecting peptide of the haemagglutinin precursor, HA(0), is a major virulence determinant for H5 and H7 subtype viruses. This in turn resulted in nucleic acid sequencing as a relatively routine method for identifying highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates. Subsequent development of diagnostic methods based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time RT-PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and loop-mediated isothermal amplification has made the rapid detection of group A influenza and H5 and H7 subtype viruses possible. Further development of these assay platforms has enabled the specific detection of H5N1 Eurasian subtype viruses and the inference of their HA(0) cleavage sites. Identification of additional virulence determinants of influenza A viruses for birds and mammals will allow the emerging area of microarray technology to further extend our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and pathogenesis.
Welsh, M D; Baird, P M; Guelbenzu-Gonzalo, M P; Hanna, A; Reid, S M; Essen, S; Russell, C; Thomas, S; Barrass, L; McNeilly, F; McKillen, J; Todd, D; Harkin, V; McDowell, S; Choudhury, B; Irvine, R M; Borobia, J; Grant, J; Brown, I H
The initial incursion of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus (pH1N1) into a European pig population is reported. Diagnosis of swine influenza caused by pandemic virus was made during September 2009 following routine submission of samples for differential diagnosis of causative agents of respiratory disease, including influenza A virus. All four pigs (aged six weeks) submitted for investigation from a pig herd of approximately 5000 animals in Northern Ireland, experiencing acute-onset respiratory signs in finishing and growing pigs, were positive by immunofluorescence for influenza A. Follow-up analysis of lung tissue homogenates by real-time RT-PCR confirmed the presence of pH1N1. The virus was subsequently detected on two other premises in Northern Ireland; on one premises, detection followed the pre-export health certification testing of samples from pigs presumed to be subclinically infected as no clinical signs were apparent. None of the premises was linked to another epidemiologically. Sequencing of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes revealed high nucleotide identity (>99.4 per cent) with other pH1N1s isolated from human beings. Genotypic analyses revealed all gene segments to be most closely related to those of contemporary pH1N1 viruses in human beings. It is concluded that all three outbreaks occurred independently, potentially as a result of transmission of the virus from human beings to pigs.
Webster, R G; Bean, W J; Gorman, O T; Chambers, T M; Kawaoka, Y
In this review we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species and study the ecological features that permit the perpetuation of influenza viruses in aquatic avian species. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus RNA segments coding for the spike proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and the internal proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) from a wide range of hosts, geographical regions, and influenza A virus subtypes support the following conclusions. (i) Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating waterfowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known HA and NA subtypes. (ii) Influenza viruses have evolved into a number of host-specific lineages that are exemplified by the NP gene and include equine Prague/56, recent equine strains, classical swine and human strains, H13 gull strains, and all other avian strains. Other genes show similar patterns, but with extensive evidence of genetic reassortment. Geographical as well as host-specific lineages are evident. (iii) All of the influenza A viruses of mammalian sources originated from the avian gene pool, and it is possible that influenza B viruses also arose from the same source. (iv) The different virus lineages are predominantly host specific, but there are periodic exchanges of influenza virus genes or whole viruses between species, giving rise to pandemics of disease in humans, lower animals, and birds. (v) The influenza viruses currently circulating in humans and pigs in North America originated by transmission of all genes from the avian reservoir prior to the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic; some of the genes have subsequently been replaced by others from the influenza gene pool in birds. (vi) The influenza virus gene pool in aquatic birds of the world is probably perpetuated by low-level transmission within that species throughout the year. (vii
Webster, R G; Bean, W J; Gorman, O T; Chambers, T M; Kawaoka, Y
In this review we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species and study the ecological features that permit the perpetuation of influenza viruses in aquatic avian species. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus RNA segments coding for the spike proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and the internal proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) from a wide range of hosts, geographical regions, and influenza A virus subtypes support the following conclusions. (i) Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating waterfowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known HA and NA subtypes. (ii) Influenza viruses have evolved into a number of host-specific lineages that are exemplified by the NP gene and include equine Prague/56, recent equine strains, classical swine and human strains, H13 gull strains, and all other avian strains. Other genes show similar patterns, but with extensive evidence of genetic reassortment. Geographical as well as host-specific lineages are evident. (iii) All of the influenza A viruses of mammalian sources originated from the avian gene pool, and it is possible that influenza B viruses also arose from the same source. (iv) The different virus lineages are predominantly host specific, but there are periodic exchanges of influenza virus genes or whole viruses between species, giving rise to pandemics of disease in humans, lower animals, and birds. (v) The influenza viruses currently circulating in humans and pigs in North America originated by transmission of all genes from the avian reservoir prior to the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic; some of the genes have subsequently been replaced by others from the influenza gene pool in birds. (vi) The influenza virus gene pool in aquatic birds of the world is probably perpetuated by low-level transmission within that species throughout the year. (vii
Bhatt, S.; Lam, T. T.; Lycett, S. J.; Leigh Brown, A. J.; Bowden, T. A.; Holmes, E. C.; Guan, Y.; Wood, J. L. N.; Brown, I. H.; Kellam, P.; Pybus, O. G.; Brown, Ian; Brookes, Sharon; Germundsson, Anna; Cook, Alex; Williamson, Susanna; Essen, Stephen; Garcon, Fanny; Gunn, George; Sanchez, Manuel; Marques, Diogo; Wood, James; Tucker, Dan; McCrone, Ian; Gog, Julia; Saenz, Roberto; Staff, Meg; Murcia, Pablo; Barclay, Wendy; Donnelly, Christl; Elderfield, Ruth A.; Kellam, Paul; Baillie, Greg; Coulter, Eve; Wieland, Barbara; Mastin, Alex; McCauley, John; Brown, Andy Leigh; Lycett, Sam; Woolhouse, Mark; Pybus, Oliver; Bhatt, Samir; Hayward, Andrew; Ishola, David; Archibald, Alan; Freeman, Tom; Charleston, Bryan; LeFevre, Eric; Bailey, Mick; Inman, Charlotte; Stokes, Chris; Chang, Kin Chow; Dunham, Stephen; White, Gavin; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan; Enstone, Joanne
Few questions on infectious disease are more important than understanding how and why avian influenza A viruses successfully emerge in mammalian populations, yet little is known about the rate and nature of the virus’ genetic adaptation in new hosts. Here, we measure, for the first time, the genomic rate of adaptive evolution of swine influenza viruses (SwIV) that originated in birds. By using a curated dataset of more than 24 000 human and swine influenza gene sequences, including 41 newly characterized genomes, we reconstructed the adaptive dynamics of three major SwIV lineages (Eurasian, EA; classical swine, CS; triple reassortant, TR). We found that, following the transfer of the EA lineage from birds to swine in the late 1970s, EA virus genes have undergone substantially faster adaptive evolution than those of the CS lineage, which had circulated among swine for decades. Further, the adaptation rates of the EA lineage antigenic haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were unexpectedly high and similar to those observed in human influenza A. We show that the successful establishment of avian influenza viruses in swine is associated with raised adaptive evolution across the entire genome for many years after zoonosis, reflecting the contribution of multiple mutations to the coordinated optimization of viral fitness in a new environment. This dynamics is replicated independently in the polymerase genes of the TR lineage, which established in swine following separate transmission from non-swine hosts. PMID:23382435
Reid, Ann H; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Fanning, Thomas G
Annual outbreaks of influenza A infection are an ongoing public health threat and novel influenza strains can periodically emerge to which humans have little immunity, resulting in devastating pandemics. The 1918 pandemic killed at least 40 million people worldwide and pandemics in 1957 and 1968 caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. The influenza A virus is capable of enormous genetic variation, both by continuous, gradual mutation and by reassortment of genome segments between viruses. Both the 1957 and 1968 pandemic strains are thought to have originated as reassortants in which one or both human-adapted viral surface proteins were replaced by proteins from avian influenza strains. Analyses of the genes of the 1918 pandemic virus, however, indicate that this strain might have had a different origin. The haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genome segments in particular are unlikely to have come directly from an avian source that is similar to those that are currently being sequenced. Determining whether a pandemic influenza virus can emerge by different mechanisms will affect the scope and focus of surveillance and prevention efforts.
Scott, Simon D.; Kinsley, Rebecca; Temperton, Nigel; Daly, Janet M.
Pseudotyped viruses (PVs) produced by co-transfecting cells with plasmids expressing lentiviral core proteins and viral envelope proteins are potentially powerful tools for studying various aspects of equine influenza virus (EIV) biology. The aim of this study was to optimise production of equine influenza PVs. Co-transfection of the HAT protease to activate the haemagglutinin (HA) yielded a higher titre PV than TMPRSS2 with the HA from A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 (H3N8), whereas for A/equine/Newmarket/79 (H3N8), both proteases resulted in equivalent titres. TMPRSS4 was ineffective with the HA of either strain. There was also an inverse relationship between the amount of protease-expression plasmids and the PV titre obtained. Interestingly, the PV titre obtained by co-transfection of a plasmid encoding the cognate N8 NA was not as high as that generated by the addition of exogenous neuraminidase (NA) from Clostridium perfringens to allow the release of nascent PV particles. Finally, initial characterisation of the reliability of PV neutralisation tests (PVNTs) demonstrated good intra-laboratory repeatability. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that equine influenza PV production can be readily optimised to provide a flexible tool for studying EIV. PMID:27983716
Veeraraghavan, N.; Sreevalsan, T.
A number of techniques have been developed in the past 15 years for the concentration and purification of influenza virus, but there has been no comparative evaluation of their efficacy. In this paper the authors report on such an assessment, carried out with particular reference to the suitability of the various techniques for large-scale production of influenza vaccine, the aim being to recover a relatively pure antigen by simple means and without undue loss in the haemagglutinin and virus contents. The purest product was obtained with two cycles of aluminium phosphate treatment. Next in order came ultracentrifugation with and without methanol precipitation, red cell adsorption, single-cycle aluminium phosphate treatment, and finally the zinc hydroxide method. PMID:13780571
Orsi, Andrea; Ansaldi, Filippo; de Florentiis, Daniela; Ceravolo, Antonella; Parodi, Valentina; Canepa, Paola; Coppelli, Martina; Icardi, Giancarlo; Durando, Paolo
Antigenic drift, the evolutionary mechanism of influenza viruses, results in an increased susceptibility of vaccinated subjects against circulating viruses. New vaccines able to grant a broader and cross-reactive immune response against drifted influenza variants are needed. Several strategies were explored to enhance the immunogenicity of plain vaccines: adjuvants, carriers and intradermal administration of influenza vaccine emerge as a promising options. To evaluate the ability of a MF59™-adjuvanted and intradermal influenza vaccine to elicit an effective antibody response against circulating viruses presenting antigenic patterns different from those of the vaccine strains, we compared antibody responses elicited by “implemented” vaccines and conventional intramuscular trivalent inactivated vaccine against heterologous circulating influenza A viruses. Different studies, simulating different epidemiological pictures produced by the natural antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses, highlighted the superior cross-reactivity of the antibodies elicited by MF59™ and intradermal vaccines, compared with subunit or split vaccine against heterologous viruses. PMID:23295230
Oeffner, F; Klenk, H D; Herrler, G
The surface glycoprotein, HEF, of influenza C virus (C/Johannesburg/1/66) has been shown to undergo a post-translation conformational change that is evident in a dramatic change of electrophoretic mobility. If the corresponding gene is expressed in the absence of other viral proteins, this folding process does not occur at all or only very inefficiently. A chimaeric protein, HEF-HA(Tail), in which the short cytoplasmic tail (Arg-Thr-Lys) of HEF was replaced by the cytoplasmic tail of the haemagglutinin of an influenza A virus (fowl plague virus) was constructed. In contrast to the wild-type protein, the chimaeric protein was detected on the cell surface. No further improvement of the surface expression was observed when both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail were replaced by the corresponding domains of either the influenza A haemagglutinin or gp40, an endogenous protein of MDCK cells. For the HEF-HA(Tail) construct this study shows that a substantial amount of the protein is converted to the 100 kDa mature form that is observed in virus-infected cells. The HEF-HA expressed on the cell surface reacted positively in esterase and haemadsorption assays, indicating that it was present in a biologically active form. The results show that the short cytoplasmic tail of HEF has a negative effect on the folding and surface transport of this protein. How this effect may be prevented during a virus infection is discussed.
Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Although outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild and domestic birds have been posing the threat of a new influenza pandemic for the last decade, the first pandemic of the 21st century came from swine viruses. This fact emphasizes the complexity of influenza viral ecology and the difficulty of predicting influenza viral dynamics. Complete control of influenza viruses seems impossible. However, we must minimize the impact of animal and human influenza outbreaks by learning lessons from past experiences and recognizing the current status. Here, we review the most recent influenza virology data in the veterinary field, including aspects of zoonotic agents and recent studies that assessed the pandemic potential of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. PMID:25387011
Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential.
Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392
Marín, María J; Rashid, Abdul; Rejzek, Martin; Fairhurst, Shirley A; Wharton, Stephen A; Martin, Stephen R; McCauley, John W; Wileman, Thomas; Field, Robert A; Russell, David A
A plasmonic bioassay for the specific detection of human influenza virus has been developed based on gold nanoparticles functionalised with a designed and synthesised thiolated trivalent α2,6-thio-linked sialic acid derivative. The glyconanoparticles consist of the thiolated trivalent α2,6-thio-linked sialic acid derivative and a thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative self-assembled onto the gold surface. Varying ratios of the trivalent α2,6-thio-linked sialic acid ligand and the PEG ligand were used; a ratio of 25:75 was found to be optimum for the detection of human influenza virus X31 (H3N2). In the presence of the influenza virus a solution of the glyconanoparticles aggregate following the binding of the trivalent α2,6-thio-linked sialic acid ligand to the haemagglutinin on the surface of the virus. The aggregation of the glycoparticles with the influenza virus induces a colour change of the solution within 30 min. Non-purified influenza virus in allantoic fluid was successfully detected using the functionalised glyconanoparticles. A comparison between the trivalent and a monovalent α2,6-thio-linked sialic acid functionalised nanoparticles confirmed that more rapid results, with greater sensitivity, were achieved using the trivalent ligand for the detection of the X31 virus. Importantly, the glyconanoparticles were able to discriminate between human (α2,6 binding) and avian (α2,3 binding) RG14 (H5N1) influenza virus highlighting the binding specificity of the trivalent α2,6-thio-linked sialic acid ligand.
Khiabanian, Hossein; Trifonov, Vladimir; Rabadan, Raul
Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1), reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.
Deng, Yi-Mo; Iannello, Pina; Caldwell, Natalie; Jelley, Lauren; Komadina, Naomi; Baas, Chantal; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G
Influenza B viruses belong to two antigenically and genetically distinct lineages which co-circulate in varying proportions in many countries. To develop simple, rapid, accurate and robust methods to detect and differentiate currently circulating B-lineage viruses in respiratory samples and virus isolates. Haemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences from more than 6300 influenza B strains were analysed to identify signature sequences that could be used to distinguish between B-lineages and sublineages. Pyrosequencing and a real time PCR assays were developed to detect the major B-lineages (B/Victoria/2/87 or B/Yamagata/16/88) and pyrosequencing for a unique mutation was used to further differentiate the B/Yamagata viruses into two currently co-circulating subgroups. More than 300 influenza virus-containing samples, including original specimens, cell and egg grown viruses, were tested with a 100% accuracy. Furthermore, when the same PCR primers were used in an rRT-PCR assay, the two lineages could be differentiated by their distinct ranges of melting temperature with an overall accuracy of 99% for 158 samples tested. These new pyrosequencing and rRT-PCR methods have the potential to aid the rapid identification of influenza B-lineages for surveillance purposes and to increase the available data for bi-annual selection of viruses for updating influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tscherne, Donna M.; García-Sastre, Adolfo
Influenza A viruses cause recurrent, seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics with devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. The ability of influenza A viruses to adapt to various hosts and undergo reassortment events ensures constant generation of new strains with unpredictable degrees of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and pandemic potential. Currently, the combination of factors that drives the emergence of pandemic influenza is unclear, making it impossible to foresee the details of a future outbreak. Identification and characterization of influenza A virus virulence determinants may provide insight into genotypic signatures of pathogenicity as well as a more thorough understanding of the factors that give rise to pandemics. PMID:21206092
DE Donno, A; Idolo, A; Quattrocchi, M; Zizza, A; Gabutti, G; Romano, A; Grima, P; Donatelli, I; Guido, M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of influenza virus co-infections in humans and changes in the genetic variability of A(H3N2) virus strains in southern Italy from 1999 to 2009. A partial sequence of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene by human influenza H3N2 strains identified in oropharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness was analysed by DNA sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. During the seasons 1999-2000, 2002-2003, 2004-2005 and 2008-2009, the influenza viruses circulating belonged to subtype H3N2. However, A(H1N1) subtype virus and B type were respectively prevalent during the 2000-2001, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006 seasons. The HA sequences appeared to be closely related to the sequence of the influenza A vaccine strain. Only the 2002-2003 season was characterized by co-circulation of two viral lineages: A/New York/55/01(H3N2)-like virus of the previous season and A/Fujian/411/02(H3N2)-like virus, a new H3 variant. In this study, over the decade analysed, no significant change was seen in the sequences of the HA gene of H3 viruses isolated.
Kamei, Masanori; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toshio; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Inokuchi, Koichi; Mato, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazuo
Cocoa contains biologically active ingredients that have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes an inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection. A cocoa extract (CE) was prepared by treating defatted cocoa powder with boiling water. The extract demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of infection in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with human influenza virus A (H1N1, H3N2), human influenza virus B and avian influenza viruses (H5N1, H5N9). CE inhibited viral adsorption to MDCK cells. Animal experiments showed that CE significantly improved survival in mice after intra-nasal administration of a lethal dose of influenza virus. In human intervention trials, participants were allocated to two groups, one in which the participants ingested cocoa for 3 weeks before and after vaccination against A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza virus and another in which the participants did not ingest cocoa. Neutralizing antibody titers against A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza virus increased significantly in both groups; however, the extent of the increase was not significantly different between the two groups. Although natural killer cell activity was also elevated in both groups, the increase was more substantial in the cocoa intake group. Drinking cocoa activates natural immunity and enhances vaccination-induced immune response, providing stronger protection against influenza virus infection and disease onset. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Moreira, Étori Aguiar; Mena, Ignacio; Giese, Sebastian; Riegger, David; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Zimmer, Gert; Beer, Martin; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Schwemmle, Martin
In 2012 the complete genomic sequence of a new and potentially harmful influenza A-like virus from bats (H17N10) was identified. However, infectious influenza virus was neither isolated from infected bats nor reconstituted, impeding further characterization of this virus. Here we show the generation of an infectious chimeric virus containing six out of the eight bat virus genes, with the remaining two genes encoding the HA and NA proteins of a prototypic influenza A virus. This engineered virus replicates well in a broad range of mammalian cell cultures, human primary airway epithelial cells and mice, but poorly in avian cells and chicken embryos without further adaptation. Importantly, the bat chimeric virus is unable to reassort with other influenza A viruses. Although our data do not exclude the possibility of zoonotic transmission of bat influenza viruses into the human population, they indicate that multiple barriers exist that makes this an unlikely event. PMID:25055345
Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long
Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.
Woodward, Alana; Rash, Adam S; Medcalf, Elizabeth; Bryant, Neil A; Elton, Debra M
Equine influenza is a major cause of respiratory infections in horses and causes widespread epidemics, despite the availability of commercial vaccines. Antigenic drift within the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein is thought to play a part in vaccination breakdown. Here, we carried out a detailed investigation of the 1989 UK outbreak, using reverse genetics and site-directed mutagenesis, to determine the individual contribution of amino acid substitutions within HA. Mutations at positions 159, 189 and 227 all altered antigenicity, as measured by haemagglutination-inhibition assays. We also compared HA sequences for epidemic and vaccine strains from four epidemics and found that at least 8 amino acid differences were present, affecting multiple antigenic sites. Substitutions within antigenic site B and at least one other were associated with each outbreak, we also identified changes in loop regions close to antigenic sites that have not previously been highlighted for human H3 influenza viruses.
The object of this study was to determine whether antigenic groupings exist among influenza B viruses. Altogether, 22 influenza type B strains isolated during the years 1940-68 were examined by reciprocal haemagglutination-inhibition, strain-specific complement-fixation, and serum neutralization tests with sera produced in ferrets and guinea-pigs. It was found that the strain-specific complement-fixation test was superior for separating influenza B viruses into groups whereas the haemagglutination-inhibition and serum neutralization tests were better for demonstrating similarities. The results obtained with these three immunological techniques confirmed that antigenic variation exists among influenza B viruses, although it is not as clearcut as among influenza A viruses. The results were subjected to numerical taxonomic analysis. Dendrograms and minimum-spanning trees were constructed, using methods based on cluster analysis of similarity coefficients. Four main groups of influenza B viruses were established, although they were all interlinked. The results of this study do not justify the separation of influenza B viruses into subtypes similar to those of influenza A viruses. PMID:5317011
Ledesma, Juan; Pozo, Francisco; Reina, Gabriel; Blasco, Miriam; Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Montes, Milagrosa; López-Miragaya, Isabel; Salvador, Carmen; Reina, Jordi; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Egido, Pilar; López Barba, José; Delgado, Concepción; Cuevas, María Teresa; Casas, Inmaculada
Genetic diversity of influenza A(H1N1)2009 viruses has been reported since the pandemic virus emerged in April 2009. Different genetic clades have been identified and defined based on amino acid substitutions found in the haemagglutinin (HA) protein sequences. In Spain, circulating influenza viruses are monitored each season by the regional laboratories enrolled in the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System (SISS). The analysis of the HA gene sequence helps to detect the genetic diversity and viral evolution. To perform an analysis of the genetic diversity of influenza A(H1N1)2009 viruses circulating in Spain during the season 2010-2011 based on analysis of the HA sequence gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the HA1 subunit of the haemagglutinin gene was carried out on 220 influenza A(H1N1)2009 viruses circulating during the season 2010-2011. Six different genetic groups were identified among circulating A(H1N1)2009 viruses, five of them were previously reported during season 2010-2011. A new group, characterized by E172K and K308E changes and a proline at position 83, was observed in 12.27% of the Spanish viruses. Co-circulation of six different genetic groups of influenza A(H1N1)2009 viruses was identified in Spain during the season 2010-2011. Nevertheless, at this stage, none of the groups identified to date have resulted in significant antigenic changes according to data collected by World Health Organization Collaborating Centres for influenza surveillance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Avian influenza virus H9N2 is a panzootic pathogen that affects poultry causing mild to moderate respiratory distress but has been associated with high morbidity and considerable mortality. Interspecies transmission of H9N2 from avian species to mammalian hosts does occur. The virus possesses human virus-like receptor specificity and it can infect humans producing flu-like illness. Methods Recently, mild influenza like symptoms were detected in H5N1 vaccinated flocks. Influenza A subtype H9N2 was isolated from the infected flock. The virus evolution was investigated by sequencing the viral genes to screen the possible virus recombination. The viral amino acid sequences from the isolated H9N2 strains were compared to other related sequences from the flu data base that were used to assess the robustness of the mutation trend. Changes in the species-associated amino acid residues or those that enabled virulence to mammals were allocated. Results Phylogenetic analyses of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes showed that the recently isolated Egyptian strain belonged to the H9N2 sub-lineage that prevails in Israel. The six internal segments of the isolated virus were found to be derived from the same sub-lineage with no new evidence of reassortment. The results demonstrated conserved genetic and biological constitution of H9N2 viruses in the Middle East. The recently isolated H9N2 virus from chicken in Egypt possessed amino acids that could enable the virus to replicate in mammals and caused severe disease in domestic chickens. Conclusion The study highlights the importance of continuous monitoring of the mutations evolved in avian influenza viruses and its impact on virulence to avian species in addition to its importance in the emergence of new strains with the capacity to be a pandemic candidate. PMID:22925485
Wang, D; Yang, L; Gao, R; Zhang, X; Tan, Y; Wu, A; Zhu, W; Zhou, J; Zou, S; Li, Xiyan; Sun, Y; Zhang, Y; Liu, Y; Liu, T; Xiong, Y; Xu, J; Chen, L; Weng, Y; Qi, X; Guo, J; Li, Xiaodan; Dong, J; Huang, W; Zhang, Y; Dong, L; Zhao, X; Liu, L; Lu, J; Lan, Y; Wei, H; Xin, L; Chen, Y; Xu, C; Chen, T; Zhu, Y; Jiang, T; Feng, Z; Yang, W; Wang, Y; Zhu, H; Guan, Y; Gao, G F; Li, D; Han, J; Wang, S; Wu, G; Shu, Y
A novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus causing human infection emerged in February 2013 in China. To elucidate the mechanism of interspecies transmission, we compared the signature amino acids of avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses from human and non-human hosts and analysed the reassortants of 146 influenza A(H7N9) viruses with full genome sequences. We propose a genetic tuning procedure with continuous amino acid substitutions and reassorting that mediates host adaptation and interspecies transmission. When the early influenza A(H7N9) virus, containing ancestor haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes similar to A/Shanghai/05 virus, circulated in waterfowl and transmitted to terrestrial poultry, it acquired an NA stalk deletion at amino acid positions 69 to 73. Then, receptor binding preference was tuned to increase the affinity to human-like receptors through HA G186V and Q226L mutations in terrestrial poultry. Additional mammalian adaptations such as PB2 E627K were selected in humans. The continual reassortation between H7N9 and H9N2 viruses resulted in multiple genotypes for further host adaptation. When we analysed a potential association of mutations and reassortants with clinical outcome, only the PB2 E627K mutation slightly increased the case fatality rate. Genetic tuning may create opportunities for further adaptation of influenza A(H7N9) and its potential to cause a pandemic.
Russo, Mara L; Pontoriero, Andrea V; Benedetti, Estefania; Czech, Andrea; Avaro, Martin; Periolo, Natalia; Campos, Ana M; Savy, Vilma L; Baumeister, Elsa G
This study was conducted as part of the Argentinean Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses Surveillance Network, in the context of the Global Influenza Surveillance carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective was to study the activity and the antigenic and genomic characteristics of circulating viruses for three consecutive seasons (2010, 2011 and 2012) in order to investigate the emergence of influenza viral variants. During the study period, influenza virus circulation was detected from January to December. Influenza A and B, and all current subtypes of human influenza viruses, were present each year. Throughout the 2010 post-pandemic season, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, unexpectedly, almost disappeared. The haemagglutinin (HA) of the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses studied were segregated in a different genetic group to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still antigenically closely related to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses were the predominant strains circulating during the 2011 season, accounting for nearly 76 % of influenza viruses identified. That year, all HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses tested fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clade, but remained antigenically related to A/Perth/16/2009 (reference vaccine recommended for this three-year period). A(H3N2) viruses isolated in 2012 were antigenically closely related to A/Victoria/361/2011, recommended by the WHO as the H3 component for the 2013 Southern Hemisphere formulation. B viruses belonging to the B/Victoria lineage circulated in 2010. A mixed circulation of viral variants of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected in 2012, with the former being predominant. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses remained antigenically closely related to the vaccine virus A/California/7/2009; A(H3N2) viruses continually evolved into new antigenic clusters and both B lineages, B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses, were observed
Blachere, Francoise M; Cao, Gang; Lindsley, William G; Noti, John D; Beezhold, Donald H
Current screening methodologies for detecting infectious airborne influenza virus are limited and lack sensitivity. To increase the sensitivity for detecting infectious influenza virus in an aerosol sample, the viral replication assay was developed. With this assay, influenza virus is first amplified by replication in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells followed by detection with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Spanning a 20-h replication period, matrix gene expression levels from infectious virus were measured at several time points using qPCR and found to exponentially increase. Compared with the traditional culture-based viral plaque assay, the viral replication assay resulted in a 4.6 × 10(5) fold increase in influenza virus detection. Furthermore, viral replication assay results were obtained in half the time of the viral plaque assay. To demonstrate that the viral replication assay is capable of detecting airborne influenza virus, dilute preparations of strain A/WS/33 were loaded into a nebulizer, aerosolized within a calm-air settling chamber and subsequently collected using NIOSH Two-Stage Bioaerosol Samplers. At the most diluted concentration corresponding to a chicken embryo infectious dose 50% endpoint (CEID(50)) of 2.8E+02/ml, the viral replication assay was able to detect infectious influenza virus that was otherwise undetectable by viral plaque assay. The results obtained demonstrate that the viral replication assay is highly sensitive at detecting infectious influenza virus from aerosol samples. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gao, Qinshan; Brydon, Edward W A; Palese, Peter
Influenza viruses are classified into three types: A, B, and C. The genomes of A- and B-type influenza viruses consist of eight RNA segments, whereas influenza C viruses only have seven RNAs. Both A and B influenza viruses contain two major surface glycoproteins: the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). Influenza C viruses have only one major surface glycoprotein, HEF (hemagglutinin-esterase fusion). By using reverse genetics, we generated two seven-segmented chimeric influenza viruses. Each possesses six RNA segments from influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS); the seventh RNA segment encodes either the influenza virus C/Johannesburg/1/66 HEF full-length protein or a chimeric protein HEF-Ecto, which consists of the HEF ectodomain and the HA transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions. To facilitate packaging of the heterologous segment, both the HEF and HEF-Ecto coding regions are flanked by HA packaging sequences. When introduced as an eighth segment with the NA packaging sequences, both viruses are able to stably express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, indicating a potential use for these viruses as vaccine vectors to carry foreign antigens. Finally, we show that incorporation of a GFP RNA segment enhances the growth of seven-segmented viruses, indicating that efficient influenza A viral RNA packaging requires the presence of eight RNA segments. These results support a selective mechanism of viral RNA recruitment to the budding site.
Taubenberger, J K; Reid, A H; Janczewski, T A; Fanning, T G
The Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 caused acute illness in 25-30% of the world's population and resulted in the death of 40 million people. The complete genomic sequence of the 1918 influenza virus will be deduced using fixed and frozen tissues of 1918 influenza victims. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the complete 1918 haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes show them to be the most avian-like of mammalian sequences and support the hypothesis that the pandemic virus contained surface protein-encoding genes derived from an avian influenza strain and that the 1918 virus is very similar to the common ancestor of human and classical swine H1N1 influenza strains. Neither the 1918 HA genes nor the NA genes possessed mutations that are known to increase tissue tropicity, which accounts for the virulence of other influenza strains such as A/WSN/33 or fowl plague viruses. The complete sequence of the nonstructural (NS) gene segment of the 1918 virus was deduced and tested for the hypothesis that the enhanced virulence in 1918 could have been due to type I interferon inhibition by the NS1 protein. The results from these experiments were inconclusive. Sequence analysis of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus is allowing us to test hypotheses as to the origin and virulence of this strain. This information should help to elucidate how pandemic influenza strains emerge and what genetic features contribute to their virulence. PMID:11779381
Taubenberger, J K; Reid, A H; Janczewski, T A; Fanning, T G
The Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 caused acute illness in 25-30% of the world's population and resulted in the death of 40 million people. The complete genomic sequence of the 1918 influenza virus will be deduced using fixed and frozen tissues of 1918 influenza victims. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the complete 1918 haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes show them to be the most avian-like of mammalian sequences and support the hypothesis that the pandemic virus contained surface protein-encoding genes derived from an avian influenza strain and that the 1918 virus is very similar to the common ancestor of human and classical swine H1N1 influenza strains. Neither the 1918 HA genes nor the NA genes possessed mutations that are known to increase tissue tropicity, which accounts for the virulence of other influenza strains such as A/WSN/33 or fowl plague viruses. The complete sequence of the nonstructural (NS) gene segment of the 1918 virus was deduced and tested for the hypothesis that the enhanced virulence in 1918 could have been due to type I interferon inhibition by the NS1 protein. The results from these experiments were inconclusive. Sequence analysis of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus is allowing us to test hypotheses as to the origin and virulence of this strain. This information should help to elucidate how pandemic influenza strains emerge and what genetic features contribute to their virulence.
Lin, Yipu; Gu, Yan; Wharton, Stephen A; Whittaker, Lynne; Gregory, Victoria; Li, Xiaoyan; Metin, Simon; Cattle, Nicholas; Daniels, Rodney S; Hay, Alan J; McCauley, John W
Objectives The identification of antigenic variants and the selection of influenza viruses for vaccine production are based largely on antigenic characterisation of the haemagglutinin (HA) of circulating viruses using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. However, in addition to evolution related to escape from host immunity, variants emerging as a result of propagation in different cell substrates can complicate the interpretation of HI results. The objective was to develop further a micro-neutralisation (MN) assay to complement the HI assay in antigenic characterisation of influenza viruses to assess the emergence of new antigenic variants and reinforce the selection of vaccine viruses. Design and setting A 96-well-plate plaque reduction MN assay based on the measurement of infected cell population using a simple imaging technique. Sample Representative influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A(H3N2) and B viruses isolated between 2004 and 2013 Main outcome measures and results Improvements to the plaque reduction MN assay included selection of the most suitable cell line according to virus type or subtype, and optimisation of experimental design and data quantitation. Comparisons of the results of MN and HI assays showed the importance of complementary data in determining the true antigenic relationships among recent human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and type B viruses. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the improved MN assay has certain advantages over the HI assay: it is not significantly influenced by the cell-selected amino acid substitutions in the neuraminidase (NA) of A(H3N2) viruses, and it is particularly useful for antigenic characterisation of viruses which either grow to low HA titre and/or undergo an abortive infection resulting in an inability to form plaques in cultured cells. PMID:26073976
Tao, Hui; Steel, John; Lowen, Anice C
The segmented nature of the influenza virus genome allows reassortment between coinfecting viruses. This process of genetic exchange vastly increases the diversity of circulating influenza viruses. The importance of reassortment to public health is clear from its role in the emergence of a number of epidemiologically important viruses, including novel pandemic and epidemic strains. To gauge its impact on within-host genomic variation, we tracked reassortment in coinfected guinea pigs over time and given matched or discordant doses of coinfecting viruses. To ensure unbiased detection of reassortants, we used parental viruses of equivalent fitness that differ only by noncoding nucleotide changes. These viruses were based on the isolate A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2). At a dose of 2 × 10(2) PFU, one parental virus was absent from each guinea pig throughout the time course, indicating the presence of a bottleneck. With an intermediate dose of 2 × 10(3) PFU, genomic diversity present in nasal lavage samples increased from 1 to 3 days postinfection (dpi) and then declined by 6 dpi. With a high dose of 2 × 10(6) PFU, however, reassortment levels were high (avg. 59%) at 1 dpi and remained stable. Even late in the course of infection, parental viruses were not eclipsed by reassortants, suggesting that a uniformly high multiplicity of infection was not achieved in vivo. Inoculation with ∼10-fold discordant doses did not reduce reassortment relative to equivalent inputs but markedly changed the spectrum of genotypes produced. Our data reveal the potential for reassortment to contribute to intrahost diversity in mixed influenza virus infection. Influenza virus reassortment is prevalent in nature and is a major contributor to the diversity of influenza viruses circulating in avian, swine, human and other host species. This diversity, in turn, increases the potential for influenza viruses to evade selective pressures or adapt to new host environments. As examples, reassortment
Nayak, Debi P.; Balogun, Rilwan A.; Yamada, Hiroshi; Zhou, Z. Hong; Barman, Subrata
Influenza viruses are enveloped, negative stranded, segmented RNA viruses belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family. Each virion consists of three major subviral components, namely (i) a viral envelope decorated with three transmembrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and M2, (ii) an intermediate layer of matrix protein (M1), and (iii) an innermost helical viral ribonucleocapsid [vRNP] core formed by nucleoprotein (NP) and negative strand viral RNA (vRNA). Since complete virus particles are not found inside the cell, the processes of assembly, morphogenesis, budding and release of progeny virus particles at the plasma membrane of the infected cells are critically important for the production of infectious virions and pathogenesis of influenza viruses as well. Morphogenesis and budding require that all virus components must be brought to the budding site which is the apical plasma membrane in polarized epithelial cells whether in vitro cultured cells or in vivo infected animals. HA and NA forming the outer spikes on the viral envelope possess apical sorting signals and use exocytic pathways and lipid rafts for cell surface transport and apical sorting. NP also has apical determinant(s) and is probably transported to the apical budding site similarly via lipid rafts and/or through cortical actin microfilaments. M1 binds the NP and the exposed RNAs of vRNPs, as well as to the cytoplasmic tails (CT) and transmembrane (TM) domains of HA, NA and M2, and is likely brought to the budding site on the piggy-back of vRNP and transmembrane proteins. Budding processes involve bud initiation, bud growth and bud release. Presence of lipid rafts and assembly of viral components at the budding site can cause asymmetry of lipid bilayers and outward membrane bending leading to bud initiation and bud growth. Bud release requires fusion of the apposing viral and cellular membranes and scission of the virus buds from the infected cellular membrane. The processes involved in
Hoffmann, Bernd; Hoffmann, Donata; Henritzi, Dinah; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C
Rapid and sensitive diagnostic approaches are of the utmost importance for the detection of humans and animals infected by specific influenza virus subtype(s). Cascade-like diagnostics starting with the use of pan-influenza assays and subsequent subtyping devices are normally used. Here, we demonstrated a novel low density array combining 32 TaqMan(®) real-time RT-PCR systems in parallel for the specific detection of the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes of avian and porcine hosts. The sensitivity of the newly developed system was compared with that of the pan-influenza assay, and the specificity of all RT-qPCRs was examined using a broad panel of 404 different influenza A virus isolates representing 45 different subtypes. Furthermore, we analysed the performance of the RT-qPCR assays with diagnostic samples obtained from wild birds and swine. Due to the open format of the array, adaptations to detect newly emerging influenza A virus strains can easily be integrated. The RITA array represents a competitive, fast and sensitive subtyping tool that requires neither new machinery nor additional training of staff in a lab where RT-qPCR is already established.
Shaw, Megan L.; Stone, Kathryn L.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Gulcicek, Erol E.; Palese, Peter
Virions are thought to contain all the essential proteins that govern virus egress from the host cell and initiation of replication in the target cell. It has been known for some time that influenza virions contain nine viral proteins; however, analyses of other enveloped viruses have revealed that proteins from the host cell can also be detected in virions. To address whether the same is true for influenza virus, we used two complementary mass spectrometry approaches to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified influenza virus particles. In addition to the aforementioned nine virus-encoded proteins, we detected the presence of 36 host-encoded proteins. These include both cytoplasmic and membrane-bound proteins that can be grouped into several functional categories, such as cytoskeletal proteins, annexins, glycolytic enzymes, and tetraspanins. Interestingly, a significant number of these have also been reported to be present in virions of other virus families. Protease treatment of virions combined with immunoblot analysis was used to verify the presence of the cellular protein and also to determine whether it is located in the core of the influenza virus particle. Immunogold labeling confirmed the presence of membrane-bound host proteins on the influenza virus envelope. The identification of cellular constituents of influenza virions has important implications for understanding the interactions of influenza virus with its host and brings us a step closer to defining the cellular requirements for influenza virus replication. While not all of the host proteins are necessarily incorporated specifically, those that are and are found to have an essential role represent novel targets for antiviral drugs and for attenuation of viruses for vaccine purposes. PMID:18535660
Beaudoin, A L; Kitikoon, P; Schreiner, P J; Singer, R S; Sasipreeyajan, J; Amonsin, A; Gramer, M R; Pakinsee, S; Bender, J B
Free-grazing ducks (FGD) have been associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks and may be a viral reservoir. In July-August 2010, we assessed influenza exposure of Thai FGD and risk factors thereof. Serum from 6254 ducks was analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to influenza A nucleoprotein (NP), and haemagglutinin H5 protein. Eighty-five per cent (5305 ducks) were seropositive for influenza A. Of the NP-seropositive sera tested with H5 assays (n = 1423), 553 (39%) were H5 ELISA positive and 57 (4%) suspect. Twelve per cent (74 of 610) of H5 ELISA-positive/suspect ducks had H5 titres ≥ 1 : 20 by haemagglutination inhibition. Risk factors for influenza A seropositivity include older age, poultry contact, flock visitors and older purchase age. Study flocks had H5 virus exposure as recently as March 2010, but no HPAI H5N1 outbreaks have been identified in Thailand since 2008, highlighting a need for rigorous FGD surveillance. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Lin, Ta-Jen; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ming-Chung; Horng, Jim-Tong
Rhubarb (Rheum tanguticum; da-huang in Chinese medicine) is a herbal medicine that has been used widely for managing fever and removing toxicity. In this study, we investigated how rhubarb inhibits influenza virus during the early stage of the infectious cycle using different functional assays. A non-toxic ethanolic extract of rhubarb (Rex) inhibited several H1N1 subtypes of influenza A viruses in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells, including strains that are clinically resistant to oseltamivir. Time course analysis of Rex addition showed that viral entry was one of the steps that was inhibited by Rex. We also confirmed that Rex effectively inhibited viral attachment and penetration into the host cells. The inhibition of red blood cell haemolysis and cell–cell fusion by Rex suggests that Rex may block haemagglutinin-mediated fusion (virus–endosome fusion) during the fusion/uncoating step. Rex has the capacity to inhibit influenza viruses by blocking viral endocytosis. Thus, rhubarb might provide an alternative therapeutic approach when resistant viruses become more prevalent. PMID:27302738
Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Gaur, Pratibha; Munjal, Ashok; Lal, Sunil K.
Summary Influenza viruses comprise a major class of human respiratory pathogens, responsible for causing morbidity and mortality worldwide. Influenza A virus, due to its segmented RNA genome, is highly subject to mutation, resulting in rapid formation of variants. During influenza infection, viral proteins interact with host proteins and exploit a variety of cellular pathways for their own benefit. Influenza virus inhibits the synthesis of these cellular proteins and facilitates expression of its own proteins for viral transcription and replication. Infected cell pathways are hijacked by an array of intracellular signaling cascades such as NF-κB signaling, PI3K/Akt pathway, MAPK pathway, PKC/PKR signaling and TLR/RIG-I signaling cascades. This review presents a research update on the subject and discusses the impact of influenza viral infection on these cell signaling pathways. PMID:21629204
Influenza epidemics occur almost annually, sometimes taking on a global scale and turning into pandemics. According to Noble, the first clearly recorded epidemic was one that struck Europe in 1173 to 1174. In Japan the first comprehensive review of epidemic records was made by Fujikawa in the early 20th century, who listed 46 epidemics between 862 and 1868. Of the ten pandemics since the 1700s that have been certified by Beveridge nine have struck Japan as well. The human influenza A virus was discovered in 1933 soon after Shope succeeded in isolating swine influenza A virus in 1931. Since the discovery studies in the influenza have made immense progress and have contributed greatly to not only virology but also immunology and molecular biology.
Fabian, Patricia; McDevitt, James J; DeHaan, Wesley H; Fung, Rita O P; Cowling, Benjamin J; Chan, Kwok Hung; Leung, Gabriel M; Milton, Donald K
Recent studies suggest that humans exhale fine particles during tidal breathing but little is known of their composition, particularly during infection. We conducted a study of influenza infected patients to characterize influenza virus and particle concentrations in their exhaled breath. Patients presenting with influenza-like-illness, confirmed influenza A or B virus by rapid test, and onset within 3 days were recruited at three clinics in Hong Kong, China. We collected exhaled breath from each subject onto Teflon filters and measured exhaled particle concentrations using an optical particle counter. Filters were analyzed for influenza A and B viruses by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Twelve out of thirteen rapid test positive patients provided exhaled breath filter samples (7 subjects infected with influenza B virus and 5 subjects infected with influenza A virus). We detected influenza virus RNA in the exhaled breath of 4 (33%) subjects--three (60%) of the five patients infected with influenza A virus and one (14%) of the seven infected with influenza B virus. Exhaled influenza virus RNA generation rates ranged from <3.2 to 20 influenza virus RNA particles per minute. Over 87% of particles exhaled were under 1 microm in diameter. These findings regarding influenza virus RNA suggest that influenza virus may be contained in fine particles generated during tidal breathing, and add to the body of literature suggesting that fine particle aerosols may play a role in influenza transmission.
Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wu, Kuang-Lun; Chen, Chia-Hsiang
Methamphetamine (meth) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that is among the most widely abused illicit drugs, with an estimated over 35 million users in the world. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic meth abuse is a major factor for increased risk of infections with human immunodeficiency virus and possibly other pathogens, due to its immunosuppressive property. Influenza A virus infections frequently cause epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases among human populations. However, little is known about whether meth has the ability to enhance influenza A virus replication, thus increasing severity of influenza illness in meth abusers. Herein, we investigated the effects of meth on influenza A virus replication in human lung epithelial A549 cells. The cells were exposed to meth and infected with human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus. The viral progenies were titrated by plaque assays, and the expression of viral proteins and cellular proteins involved in interferon responses was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We report the first evidence that meth significantly reduces, rather than increases, virus propagation and the susceptibility to influenza infection in the human lung epithelial cell line, consistent with a decrease in viral protein synthesis. These effects were apparently not caused by meth’s effects on enhancing virus-induced interferon responses in the host cells, reducing viral biological activities, or reducing cell viability. Our results suggest that meth might not be a great risk factor for influenza A virus infection among meth abusers. Although the underlying mechanism responsible for the action of meth on attenuating virus replication requires further investigation, these findings prompt the study to examine whether other structurally similar compounds could be used as anti-influenza agents. PMID:23139774
Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...
Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi
The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.
Snoeck, Chantal J; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T; De Landtsheer, Sébastien; Ottosson, Ulf; Manu, Shiiwua; Hagemeijer, Ward; Mundkur, Taej; Muller, Claude P
To investigate the presence and persistence of avian influenza virus in African birds, we monitored avian influenza in wild and domestic birds in two different regions in Nigeria. We found low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 viruses in three spur-winged geese (Plectropterus gambensis) in the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all of the genes, except the non-structural (NS) genes, of the LPAI H5N2 viruses were more closely related to genes recently found in wild and domestic birds in Europe. The NS genes formed a sister group to South African and Zambian NS genes. This suggested that the Nigerian LPAI H5N2 viruses found in wild birds were reassortants exhibiting an NS gene that circulated for at least 7 years in African birds and is part of the African influenza gene pool, and genes that were more recently introduced into Africa from Eurasia, most probably by intercontinental migratory birds. Interestingly the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes formed a sister branch to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 strains found in the same wild bird species in the same wetland only 1 year earlier. However, they were not the closest known relatives of each other, suggesting that their presence in the wetland resulted from two separate introductions. The presence of LPAI H5N2 in wild birds in the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands, where wild birds and poultry occasionally mix, provides ample opportunity for infection across species boundaries, with the potential risk of generating HPAI viruses after extensive circulation in poultry.
Yoon, Sun-Woo; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G
Wild aquatic bird populations have long been considered the natural reservoir for influenza A viruses with virus transmission from these birds seeding other avian and mammalian hosts. While most evidence still supports this dogma, recent studies in bats have suggested other reservoir species may also exist. Extensive surveillance studies coupled with an enhanced awareness in response to H5N1 and pandemic 2009 H1N1 outbreaks is also revealing a growing list of animals susceptible to infection with influenza A viruses. Although in a relatively stable host-pathogen interaction in aquatic birds, antigenic, and genetic evolution of influenza A viruses often accompanies interspecies transmission as the virus adapts to a new host. The evolutionary changes in the new hosts result from a number of processes including mutation, reassortment, and recombination. Depending on host and virus these changes can be accompanied by disease outbreaks impacting wildlife, veterinary, and public health.
Ottmann, Michèle; Duchamp, Maude Bouscambert; Casalegno, Jean-Sébastien; Frobert, Emilie; Moulès, Vincent; Ferraris, Olivier; Valette, Martine; Escuret, Vanessa; Lina, Bruno
With the recent emergence of the novel A(H1N1) virus in 2009, the efficacy of available drugs, such as neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, is of great concern for good patient care. Influenza viruses are known to be able to acquire resistance. In 2007, A(H1N1) viruses related to A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) (A[H1N1] Brisbane-like virus), which are naturally resistant to oseltamivir, emerged. Resistance to oseltamivir can be acquired either by spontaneous mutation in the NA (H275Y in N1), or by reassortment with a mutated NA. It is therefore crucial to determine the risk of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus acquiring resistance against oseltamivir by reassortment. We estimated the capacity of reassortment between the A(H1N1) 2009 virus and an oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) Brisbane-like virus by in vitro coinfections of influenza-permissive cells. The screening and the analysis of reassortant viruses was performed by specific reverse transcriptase PCRs and by sequencing. Out of 50 analysed reassortant viruses, two harboured the haemagglutinin (HA) segment from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and the mutated NA originated from the A(H1N1) Brisbane-like virus. The replicating capacities of these viruses were measured, showing no difference as compared to the two parental strains, suggesting that acquisition of the mutated NA segment did not impair viral fitness in vitro. Our results suggest that the novel A(H1N1) 2009 virus can acquire by in vitro genetic reassortment the H275Y mutated NA segment conferring resistance to oseltamivir.
Wu, Nai-Huei; Meng, Fandan; Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Herrler, Georg
Bacterial co-infections are a major complication in influenza-virus-induced disease in both humans and animals. Either of the pathogens may induce a host response that affects the infection by the other pathogen. A unique feature in the co-infection by swine influenza viruses (SIV) and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is the direct interaction between the two pathogens. It is mediated by the haemagglutinin of SIV that recognizes the α2,6-linked sialic acid present in the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus suis. In the present study, this interaction was demonstrated for SIV of both H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes as well as for human influenza viruses that recognize α2,6-linked sialic acid. Binding of SIV to Streptococcus suis resulted in co-sedimentation of virus with bacteria during low-speed centrifugation. Viruses bound to bacteria retained infectivity but induced only tiny plaques compared with control virus. Infection of porcine tracheal cells by SIV facilitated adherence of Streptococcus suis, which was evident by co-staining of bacterial and viral antigen. Sialic-acid-dependent binding of Streptococcus suis was already detectable after incubation for 30 min. By contrast, bacterial co-infection had a negative effect on the replication of SIV as indicated by lower virus titres in the supernatant and a delay in the kinetics of virus release.
Sooryanarain, Harini; Elankumaran, Subbiah
The environmental drivers of influenza outbreaks are largely unknown. Despite more than 50 years of research, there are conflicting lines of evidence on the role of the environment in influenza A virus (IAV) survival, stability, and transmissibility. With the increasing and looming threat of pandemic influenza, it is important to understand these factors for early intervention and long-term control strategies. The factors that dictate the severity and spread of influenza would include the virus, natural and acquired hosts, virus-host interactions, environmental persistence, virus stability and transmissibility, and anthropogenic interventions. Virus persistence in different environments is subject to minor variations in temperature, humidity, pH, salinity, air pollution, and solar radiations. Seasonality of influenza is largely dictated by temperature and humidity, with cool-dry conditions enhancing IAV survival and transmissibility in temperate climates in high latitudes, whereas humid-rainy conditions favor outbreaks in low latitudes, as seen in tropical and subtropical zones. In mid-latitudes, semiannual outbreaks result from alternating cool-dry and humid-rainy conditions. The mechanism of virus survival in the cool-dry or humid-rainy conditions is largely determined by the presence of salts and proteins in the respiratory droplets. Social determinants of heath, including health equity, vaccine acceptance, and age-related illness, may play a role in influenza occurrence and spread.
Obadan, Adebimpe O; Kimble, Brian J; Rajao, Daniela; Lager, Kelly; Santos, Jefferson J S; Vincent, Amy; Perez, Daniel R
Influenza A virus is a major pathogen of birds, swine and humans. Strains can jump between species in a process often requiring mutations and reassortment, resulting in outbreaks and, potentially, pandemics. H9N2 avian influenza is predominant in poultry across Asia and occasionally infects humans and swine. Pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) is endemic in humans and swine and has a history of reassortment in pigs. Previous studies have shown the compatibility of H9N2 and H1N1pdm for reassortment in ferrets, a model for human infection and transmission. Here, the effects of ferret adaptation of H9 surface gene segments on the infectivity and transmission in at-risk natural hosts, specifically swine and quail, were analysed. Reassortant H9N1 and H9N2 viruses, carrying seven or six gene segments from H1N1pdm, showed infectivity and transmissibility in swine, unlike the wholly avian H9N2 virus with ferret-adapted surface genes. In quail, only the reassortant H9N2 with the six internal gene segments from the H1N1pdm strain was able to infect and transmit, although less efficiently than the wholly avian H9N2 virus with ferret-adapted surface genes. These results highlight that ferret-adapted mutations on the haemagglutinin of H9 subtype virus do not restrict the ability of the virus to infect swine and quail, and that the ability to transmit in these species depends on the context of the whole virus. As such, this study emphasizes the threat that H9N2 reassortant viruses pose to humans and agricultural species and the importance of the genetic constellation of the virus to its ability to replicate and transmit in natural hosts of influenza.
Obadan, Adebimpe O.; Kimble, Brian J.; Rajao, Daniela; Lager, Kelly; Santos, Jefferson J. S.; Vincent, Amy
Influenza A virus is a major pathogen of birds, swine and humans. Strains can jump between species in a process often requiring mutations and reassortment, resulting in outbreaks and, potentially, pandemics. H9N2 avian influenza is predominant in poultry across Asia and occasionally infects humans and swine. Pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) is endemic in humans and swine and has a history of reassortment in pigs. Previous studies have shown the compatibility of H9N2 and H1N1pdm for reassortment in ferrets, a model for human infection and transmission. Here, the effects of ferret adaptation of H9 surface gene segments on the infectivity and transmission in at-risk natural hosts, specifically swine and quail, were analysed. Reassortant H9N1 and H9N2 viruses, carrying seven or six gene segments from H1N1pdm, showed infectivity and transmissibility in swine, unlike the wholly avian H9N2 virus with ferret-adapted surface genes. In quail, only the reassortant H9N2 with the six internal gene segments from the H1N1pdm strain was able to infect and transmit, although less efficiently than the wholly avian H9N2 virus with ferret-adapted surface genes. These results highlight that ferret-adapted mutations on the haemagglutinin of H9 subtype virus do not restrict the ability of the virus to infect swine and quail, and that the ability to transmit in these species depends on the context of the whole virus. As such, this study emphasizes the threat that H9N2 reassortant viruses pose to humans and agricultural species and the importance of the genetic constellation of the virus to its ability to replicate and transmit in natural hosts of influenza. PMID:25986634
Hovden, A-O; Cox, R J; Haaheim, L R
The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics and the magnitude of the humoral immune response to two different influenza vaccine formulations, whole and split virus vaccines. BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with one or two doses (3 weeks apart) of 7.5, 15 or 30 microg of haemagglutinin of monovalent A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) split or whole virus vaccine. The two vaccine formulations induced similar kinetics of the antibody-secreting cells response; however, differences in the magnitude were observed in the spleen and bone marrow. Vaccination with whole virus vaccine generally elicited a quicker and higher neutralizing antibody response, particularly after the first dose of vaccine. The two vaccine formulations gave different immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass profiles. Split virus vaccine stimulated both IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies suggestive of mixed T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 response, whereas whole virus vaccine induced mainly an IgG2a antibody response, which is indicative of a dominant Th1 response. The increased immunogenicity of whole virus vaccine in a naïve population could reduce the vaccine concentration needed to provide protective immunity.
Chen, Jianzhu; Chen, Steve C-Y; Stern, Patrick; Scott, Benjamin B; Lois, Carlos
The natural reservoirs of influenza viruses are aquatic birds. After adaptation, avian viruses can acquire the ability to infect humans and cause severe disease. Because domestic poultry serves as a key link between the natural reservoir of influenza viruses and epidemics and pandemics in human populations, an effective measure to control influenza would be to eliminate or reduce influenza virus infection in domestic poultry. The development and distribution of influenza-resistant poultry represents a proactive strategy for controlling the origin of influenza epidemics and pandemics in both poultry and human populations. Recent developments in RNA interference and transgenesis in birds should facilitate the development of influenza-resistant poultry.
Kyriakis, C S; Papatsiros, V G; Athanasiou, L V; Valiakos, G; Brown, I H; Simon, G; Van Reeth, K; Tsiodras, S; Spyrou, V; Billinis, C
The introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus in pigs changed the epidemiology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine in Europe and the rest of the world. Previously, three IAV subtypes were found in the European pig population: an avian-like H1N1 and two reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses with human-origin haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins and internal genes of avian decent. These viruses pose antigenically distinct HAs, which allow the retrospective diagnosis of infection in serological investigations. However, cross-reactions between the HA of pH1N1 and the HAs of the other circulating H1 IAVs complicate serological diagnosis. The prevalence of IAVs in Greek swine has been poorly investigated. In this study, we examined and compared haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against previously established IAVs and pH1N1 in 908 swine sera from 88 herds, collected before and after the 2009 pandemic. While we confirmed the historic presence of the three IAVs established in European swine, we also found that 4% of the pig sera examined after 2009 had HI antibodies only against the pH1N1 virus. Our results indicate that pH1N1 is circulating in Greek pigs and stress out the importance of a vigorous virological surveillance programme.
Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 is a major avian pathogen that crosses species barriers and seriously affects humans as well as some mammals. It mutates in an intensified manner and is considered a potential candidate for the possible next pandemic with all the catastrophic consequences. Methods Nasal swabs were collected from donkeys suffered from respiratory distress. The virus was isolated from the pooled nasal swabs in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (SPF-ECE). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing of both haemagglutingin and neuraminidase were performed. H5 seroconversion was screened using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay on 105 donkey serum samples. Results We demonstrated that H5N1 jumped from poultry to another mammalian host; donkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus clustered within the lineage of H5N1 from Egypt, closely related to 2009 isolates. It harboured few genetic changes compared to the closely related viruses from avian and humans. The neuraminidase lacks oseltamivir resistant mutations. Interestingly, HI screening for antibodies to H5 haemagglutinins in donkeys revealed high exposure rate. Conclusions These findings extend the host range of the H5N1 influenza virus, possess implications for influenza virus epidemiology and highlight the need for the systematic surveillance of H5N1 in animals in the vicinity of backyard poultry units especially in endemic areas. PMID:20398268
Li, Jing; Yu, Meng; Zheng, Weinan; Liu, Wenjun
Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1), nucleoprotein (NP), nonstructural protein (NS1), and nuclear export protein (NEP), summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.
Mak, Polly W.Y.; Wong, Chloe K.S.; Li, Olive T.W.; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheung, Chung Lam; Ma, Edward S.; Webby, Richard J.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. Malik
The emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus highlighted the need for enhanced surveillance of swine influenza viruses. We used real-time reverse–transcription PCR–based genotyping and found that this rapid and simple genotyping method may identify reassortants derived from viruses of Eurasian avian-like, triple reassortant-like, and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus lineages. PMID:21470462
Whiley, David M; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Bletchly, Cheryl; Faux, Cassandra E; Harrower, Bruce; Gould, Allan R; Lambert, Stephen B; Nimmo, Graeme R; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P
Accurate and rapid diagnosis of novel influenza A(H1N1) infection is critical for minimising further spread through timely implementation of antiviral treatment and other public health based measures. In this study we developed two TaqMan-based reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods for the detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) virus targeting the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. The assays were validated using 152 clinical respiratory samples, including 61 Influenza A positive samples, collected in Queenland, Australia during the years 2008 to 2009 and a further 12 seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A isolates collected from years 2000 to 2002. A wildtype swine H1N1 isolate was also tested. RNA from an influenza A(H1N1) virus isolate (Auckland, 2009) was used as a positive control. Overall, the results showed that the RT-PCR methods were suitable for sensitive and specific detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) RNA in human samples.
Lin, Yipu; Gu, Yan; Wharton, Stephen A; Whittaker, Lynne; Gregory, Victoria; Li, Xiaoyan; Metin, Simon; Cattle, Nicholas; Daniels, Rodney S; Hay, Alan J; McCauley, John W
The identification of antigenic variants and the selection of influenza viruses for vaccine production are based largely on antigenic characterisation of the haemagglutinin (HA) of circulating viruses using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. However, additional to evolution related to escape from host immunity, variants emerging as a result of propagation in different cell substrates can complicate interpretation of HI results. The objective was to develop further a micro-neutralisation (MN) assay to complement the HI assay in antigenic characterisation of influenza viruses to assess the emergence of new antigenic variants and reinforce the selection of vaccine viruses. A 96-well-plate plaque reduction MN assay based on measurement of the Infected Cell Population (ICP) using a simple imaging technique. Improvements to the plaque reduction MN assay included selection of the most suitable cell line according to virus type or subtype, and optimisation of experimental design and data quantitation. Comparisons of the results of MN and HI assays showed the importance of complementary data in determining the true antigenic relationships among recent human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and type B viruses. Our study demonstrates that the improved MN assay has certain advantages over the HI assay: it is not significantly influenced by the cell-selected amino acid substitutions in the neuraminidase (NA) of A(H3N2) viruses, and it is particularly useful for antigenic characterisation of viruses which either grow to low HA titre and/or undergo an abortive infection resulting in an inability to form plaques in cultured cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Freidl, G S; Meijer, A; de Bruin, E; de Nardi, M; Munoz, O; Capua, I; Breed, A C; Harris, K; Hill, A; Kosmider, R; Banks, J; von Dobschuetz, S; Stark, K; Wieland, B; Stevens, K; van der Werf, S; Enouf, V; van der Meulen, K; Van Reeth, K; Dauphin, G; Koopmans, M
Factors that trigger human infection with animal influenza virus progressing into a pandemic are poorly understood. Within a project developing an evidence-based risk assessment framework for influenza viruses in animals, we conducted a review of the literature for evidence of human infection with animal influenza viruses by diagnostic methods used. The review covering Medline, Embase, SciSearch and CabAbstracts yielded 6,955 articles, of which we retained 89; for influenza A(H5N1) and A(H7N9), the official case counts of t he World Health Organization were used. An additional 30 studies were included by scanning the reference lists. Here, we present the findings for confirmed infections with virological evidence. We found reports of 1,419 naturally infected human cases, of which 648 were associated with avian influenza virus (AIV) A(H5N1), 375 with other AIV subtypes, and 396 with swine influenza virus (SIV). Human cases naturally infected with AIV spanned haemagglutinin subtypes H5, H6, H7, H9 and H10. SIV cases were associated with endemic SIV of H1 and H3 subtype descending from North American and Eurasian SIV lineages and various reassortants thereof. Direct exposure to birds or swine was the most likely source of infection for the cases with available information on exposure.
Wang, Chengmin; Luo, Jing; Wang, Jing; Su, Wen; Gao, Shanshan; Zhang, Min; Xie, Li; Ding, Hua; Liu, Shelan; Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yu; Jia, Yaxiong; He, Hongxuan
Outbreaks of H7N9 avian influenza in humans in 5 provinces and 2 municipalities of China have reawakened concern that avian influenza viruses may again cross species barriers to infect the human population and thereby initiate a new influenza pandemic. Evolutionary analysis shows that human H7N9 influenza viruses originated from the H9N2, H7N3 and H11N9 avian viruses, and that it is as a novel reassortment influenza virus. This article reviews current knowledge on 11 subtypes of influenza A virus from human which can cause human infections.
Sharabi, Sivan; Drori, Yaron; Micheli, Michal; Friedman, Nehemya; Orzitzer, Sara; Bassal, Ravit; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Shohat, Tamar; Mendelson, Ella; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal
While influenza A viruses comprise a heterogeneous group of clinically relevant influenza viruses, influenza B viruses form a more homogeneous cluster, divided mainly into two lineages: Victoria and Yamagata. This divergence has complicated seasonal influenza vaccine design, which traditionally contained two seasonal influenza A virus strains and one influenza B virus strain. We examined the distribution of the two influenza B virus lineages in Israel, between 2011–2014, in hospitalized and in non-hospitalized (community) influenza B virus-infected patients. We showed that influenza B virus infections can lead to hospitalization and demonstrated that during some winter seasons, both influenza B virus lineages circulated simultaneously in Israel. We further show that the influenza B virus Yamagata lineage was dominant, circulating in the county in the last few years of the study period, consistent with the anti-Yamagata influenza B virus antibodies detected in the serum samples of affected individuals residing in Israel in the year 2014. Interestingly, we found that elderly people were particularly vulnerable to Yamagata lineage influenza B virus infections. PMID:27533045
Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...
... Avian Swine Variant Other Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Language: English (US) EspaÃ±ol Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Influenza viruses that normally circulate in pigs are called â ...
Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...
Wang, Lih-Chiann; Pan, Chu-Hsiang; Severinghaus, Lucia Liu; Liu, Lu-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Tsong; Pu, Chang-En; Huang, Dean; Lir, Jihn-Tsair; Chin, Shih-Chien; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Wang, Ching-Ho
Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are two of the most important zoonotic viral diseases of birds throughout the world. These two viruses often have a great impact upon the poultry industry. Both viruses are associated with transmission from wild to domestic birds, and often display similar signs that need to be differentiated. A rapid surveillance among wild and domestic birds is important for early disease detection and intervention, and is the basis for what measures should be taken. The surveillance, thus, should be able to differentiate the diseases and provide a detailed analysis of the virus strains. Here, we described a fast, simultaneous and inexpensive approach to the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) using oligonucleotide microarrays. The NDV pathotypes and the AIV haemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7 were determined at the same time. Different probes on a microarray targeting the same gene were implemented in order to encompass the diversified virus strains or provide multiple confirmations of the genotype. This ensures good sensitivity and specificity among divergent viruses. Twenty-four virus isolates and twenty-four various combinations of the viruses were tested in this study. All viruses were successfully detected and typed. The hybridization results on microarrays were clearly identified with the naked eyes, with no further imaging equipment needed. The results demonstrate that the detection and typing of multiple viruses can be performed simultaneously and easily using oligonucleotide microarrays. The proposed method may provide potential for rapid surveillance and differential diagnosis of these two important zoonoses in both wild and domestic birds.
Antón, A; Marcos, M A; Torner, N; Isanta, R; Camps, M; Martínez, A; Domínguez, A; Jané, M; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Pumarola, T
Most attention is given to seasonal influenza and respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks, but the cumulative burden caused by other respiratory viruses (RV) is not widely considered. The aim of the present study is to describe the circulation of RV in the general population during six consecutive seasons from 2006 to 2012 in Catalonia, Spain. Cell culture, immunofluorescence and PCR-based assays were used for the RV laboratory-confirmation and influenza subtyping. Phylogenetic and molecular characterizations of viral haemagglutinin, partial neuraminidase and matrix 2 proteins were performed from a representative sampling of influenza viruses. A total of 6315 nasopharyngeal samples were collected, of which 64% were laboratory-confirmed, mainly as influenza A viruses and rhinoviruses. Results show the significant burden of viral aetiological agents in acute respiratory infection, particularly in the youngest cases. The study of influenza strains reveals their continuous evolution through either progressive mutations or by segment reassortments. Moreover, the predominant influenza B lineage was different from that included in the recommended vaccine in half of the studied seasons, supporting the formulation and use of a quadrivalent influenza vaccine. Regarding neuraminidase inhibitors resistance, with the exception of the 2007/08 H275Y seasonal A(H1N1) strains, no other circulating influenza strains carrying known resistance genetic markers were found. Moreover, all circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains finally became genetically resistant to adamantanes. A wide knowledge of the seasonality patterns of the RV in the general population is well-appreciated, but it is a challenge due to the unpredictable circulation of RV, highlighting the value of local and global RV surveillance. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tong, Suxiang; Li, Yan; Rivailler, Pierre; Conrardy, Christina; Castillo, Danilo A. Alvarez; Chen, Li-Mei; Recuenco, Sergio; Ellison, James A.; Davis, Charles T.; York, Ian A.; Turmelle, Amy S.; Moran, David; Rogers, Shannon; Shi, Mang; Tao, Ying; Weil, Michael R.; Tang, Kevin; Rowe, Lori A.; Sammons, Scott; Xu, Xiyan; Frace, Michael; Lindblade, Kim A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Anderson, Larry J.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Donis, Ruben O.
Influenza A virus reservoirs in animals have provided novel genetic elements leading to the emergence of global pandemics in humans. Most influenza A viruses circulate in waterfowl, but those that infect mammalian hosts are thought to pose the greatest risk for zoonotic spread to humans and the generation of pandemic or panzootic viruses. We have identified an influenza A virus from little yellow-shouldered bats captured at two locations in Guatemala. It is significantly divergent from known influenza A viruses. The HA of the bat virus was estimated to have diverged at roughly the same time as the known subtypes of HA and was designated as H17. The neuraminidase (NA) gene is highly divergent from all known influenza NAs, and the internal genes from the bat virus diverged from those of known influenza A viruses before the estimated divergence of the known influenza A internal gene lineages. Attempts to propagate this virus in cell cultures and chicken embryos were unsuccessful, suggesting distinct requirements compared with known influenza viruses. Despite its divergence from known influenza A viruses, the bat virus is compatible for genetic exchange with human influenza viruses in human cells, suggesting the potential capability for reassortment and contributions to new pandemic or panzootic influenza A viruses. PMID:22371588
Makarova, Natalia V.; Ozaki, Hiroishi; Kida, Hiroshi; Webster, Robert G.; Perez, Daniel R.
Quail have emerged as a potential intermediate host in the spread of avian influenza A viruses in poultry in Hong Kong. To better understand this possible role, we tested the replication and transmission in quail of influenza A viruses of all 15 HA subtypes. Quail supported the replication of at least 14 subtypes. Influenza A viruses replicated predominantly in the respiratory tract. Transmission experiments suggested that perpetuation of avian influenza viruses in quail requires adaptation. Swine influenza viruses were isolated from the respiratory tract of quail at low levels. There was no evidence of human influenza A or B virus replication. Interestingly, a human–avian recombinant containing the surface glycoprotein genes of a quail virus and the internal genes of a human virus replicated and transmitted readily in quail; therefore, quail could function as amplifiers of influenza virus reassortants that have the potential to infect humans and/or other mammalian species. PMID:12788625
Guo, Hailong; Kumar, Pawan; Malarkannan, Subramaniam
NK cells are important innate immune effectors during influenza virus infection. However, the influenza virus seems able to use several tactics to counter NK cell recognition for immune evasion. In this review, we will summarize and discuss recent advances regarding the understanding of NK cell evasion mechanisms manipulated by the influenza virus to facilitate its rapid replication inside the respiratory epithelial cells.
Fernández del Campo, José Antonio Cabezas
Present data on influenza virus isolated from ducks and chickens, and influenza virus C. Anti-influenza drugs. Within the broad field of Glycopathology and Glycotherapeutics, research on influenza virus types A, B and C from humans and several bird species (particularly migratory birds such as ducks, since they are reservoirs for viruses), as well as the search for improved drugs designed for the prevention or treatment of epidemics/pandemics produced by most of those viruses are issues of relevant interest not only from a scientific point of view but also for repercussions on health and the important economical consequences. The research work begun by the author and collaborators at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Salamanca (Spain) in the middle of the 1970's, developed later in close cooperation with the "(Unité d'Ecologie Virale" of the Pasteur Institute of Paris (Prof. Claude Hannoun and collaborators), has been published in about twenty papers that mainly focus on the theoretic-experimental study of: The sialidase (neuraminidase) activity of human influenza viruses types A and B. The acetylesterase activity of type C virus from humans and dogs. The sialidase activity of type A virus from ducks and pigs, in comparison with that of humans. Certain sialidase inhibitors as useful anti-influenza drugs, especially in the case of possible future influenza pandemics of avian origin.
VON Dobschuetz, S; DE Nardi, M; Harris, K A; Munoz, O; Breed, A C; Wieland, B; Dauphin, G; Lubroth, J; Stärk, K D C
A survey of national animal influenza surveillance programmes was conducted to assess the current capacity to detect influenza viruses with zoonotic potential in animals (i.e. those influenza viruses that can be naturally transmitted between animals and humans) at regional and global levels. Information on 587 animal influenza surveillance system components was collected for 99 countries from Chief Veterinary Officers (CVOs) (n = 94) and published literature. Less than 1% (n = 4) of these components were specifically aimed at detecting influenza viruses with pandemic potential in animals (i.e. those influenza viruses that are capable of causing epidemic spread in human populations over large geographical regions or worldwide), which would have zoonotic potential as a prerequisite. Those countries that sought to detect influenza viruses with pandemic potential searched for such viruses exclusively in domestic pigs. This work shows the global need for increasing surveillance that targets potentially zoonotic influenza viruses in relevant animal species.
herpes simplex virus in college students. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993; 12(4):280–284. Laguna-Torres et al. 12 ª 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses ...parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and...the identification of adenovirus- es, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, PIVs (types 1, 2, and 3), and RSV. The D3 DFA Herpes Simplex Virus
Wang, Min; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Jianxun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianfang; Bi, Yuhai; Wu, Ying; Sun, Honglei; Liu, Jinhua; Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong; Yan, Jinghua; Shu, Yuelong; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F
Since December 2013, at least three cases of human infections with H10N8 avian influenza virus have been reported in China, two of them being fatal. To investigate the epidemic potential of H10N8 viruses, we examined the receptor binding property of the first human isolate, A/Jiangxi-Donghu/346/2013 (JD-H10N8), and determined the structures of its haemagglutinin (HA) in complex with both avian and human receptor analogues. Our results suggest that JD-H10N8 preferentially binds the avian receptor and that residue R137-localized within the receptor-binding site of HA-plays a key role in this preferential binding. Compared with the H7N9 avian influenza viruses, JD-H10N8 did not exhibit the enhanced binding to human receptors observed with the prevalent H7N9 virus isolate Anhui-1, but resembled the receptor binding activity of the early-outbreak H7N9 isolate (Shanghai-1). We conclude that the H10N8 virus is a typical avian influenza virus.
Laursen, Nick S.; Wilson, Ian A.
Despite available antivirals and vaccines, influenza infections continue to be a major cause of mortality worldwide. Vaccination generally induces an effective, but strain-specific antibody response. As the virus continually evolves, new vaccines have to be administered almost annually when a novel strain becomes dominant. Furthermore, the sporadic emerging resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors among circulating strains suggests an urgent need for new therapeutic agents. Recently, several cross-reactive antibodies have been described, which neutralize an unprecedented spectrum of influenza viruses. These broadly neutralizing antibodies generally target conserved functional regions on the major influenza surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). The characterization of their neutralization breadth and epitopes on HA could stimulate the development of new antibody-based antivirals and broader influenza vaccines. PMID:23583287
Zheng, M; Luo, J; Chen, Z
Vaccination is the safest and most effective measure against influenza virus infections. However, traditional influenza vaccines cannot respond effectively to an unforeseen epidemic or pandemic caused by a virus with antigenic drifts or antigenic shifts. Therefore, developing a universal influenza vaccine (UIV) that induces broad-spectrum and long-term immunity has become a major trend in influenza vaccine research and development. This article reviews the development of UIVs based on these conserved influenza virus proteins. The matrix protein (M1, M2) and nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza viruses have highly conserved sequences, and they become the major target antigens of current UIV studies.
Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter
Influenza infection is associated with about 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. The continuous emergence of new influenza virus strains due to mutation and re-assortment complicates the control of the virus and necessitates the permanent development of novel drugs and vaccines. The laboratory-based study of influenza requires a reliable and cost-effective method for the propagation of the virus. Here, a comprehensive protocol is provided for influenza A virus propagation in fertile chicken eggs, which consistently yields high titer viral stocks. In brief, serum pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized chicken eggs are incubated at 37 °C and 55-60% humidity for 10-11 days. Over this period, embryo development can be easily monitored using an egg candler. Virus inoculation is carried out by injection of virus stock into the allantoic cavity using a needle. After 2 days of incubation at 37 °C, the eggs are chilled for at least 4 hr at 4 °C. The eggshell above the air sac and the chorioallantoic membrane are then carefully opened, and the allantoic fluid containing the virus is harvested. The fluid is cleared from debris by centrifugation, aliquoted and transferred to -80 °C for long-term storage. The large amount (5-10 ml of virus-containing fluid per egg) and high virus titer which is usually achieved with this protocol has made the usage of eggs for virus preparation our favorable method, in particular for in vitro studies which require large quantities of virus in which high dosages of the same virus stock are needed.
dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif U; Hay, Alan J; Goldstein, Richard A
Four influenza pandemics have struck the human population during the last 100 years causing substantial morbidity and mortality. The pandemics were caused by the introduction of a new virus into the human population from an avian or swine host or through the mixing of virus segments from an animal host with a human virus to create a new reassortant subtype virus. Understanding which changes have contributed to the adaptation of the virus to the human host is essential in assessing the pandemic potential of current and future animal viruses. Here, we develop a measure of the level of adaptation of a given virus strain to a particular host. We show that adaptation to the human host has been gradual with a timescale of decades and that none of the virus proteins have yet achieved full adaptation to the selective constraints. When the measure is applied to historical data, our results indicate that the 1918 influenza virus had undergone a period of preadaptation prior to the 1918 pandemic. Yet, ancestral reconstruction of the avian virus that founded the classical swine and 1918 human influenza lineages shows no evidence that this virus was exceptionally preadapted to humans. These results indicate that adaptation to humans occurred following the initial host shift from birds to mammals, including a significant amount prior to 1918. The 2009 pandemic virus seems to have undergone preadaptation to human-like selective constraints during its period of circulation in swine. Ancestral reconstruction along the human virus tree indicates that mutations that have increased the adaptation of the virus have occurred preferentially along the trunk of the tree. The method should be helpful in assessing the potential of current viruses to found future epidemics or pandemics.
Emmoth, Eva; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerås, Björn; Ottoson, Jakob
Effective sanitization is important in viral epizootic outbreaks to avoid further spread of the pathogen. This study examined thermal inactivation as a sanitizing treatment for manure inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and bacteriophages MS2 and ϕ6. Rapid inactivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 was achieved at both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (45 and 55°C) temperatures. Similar inactivation rates were observed for bacteriophage ϕ6, while bacteriophage MS2 proved too thermoresistant to be considered a valuable indicator organism for avian influenza virus during thermal treatments. Guidelines for treatment of litter in the event of emergency composting can be formulated based on the inactivation rates obtained in the study. PMID:22389376
Choi, Young-Ki; Pascua, Phillippe Noriel Q; Song, Min-Suk
Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory viral pathogens of pigs that are capable of causing serious global public health concerns in human. Because of their dual susceptibility to mammalian and avian influenza A viruses, pigs are the leading intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission and serve as reservoirs of antigenically divergent human viruses from which zoonotic stains with pandemic potential may arise. Pandemic influenza viruses emerging after the 1918 Spanish flu have originated in asia. Although distinct lineages of North American and European SIVs of the H1N1, H3N2, and HiN2 subtypes have been widely studied, less is known about the porcine viruses that are circulating among pig populations throughout Asia. The current review understanding of Contemporary viruses, human infection with SIVs, and the potential threat of novel pandemic strains are described, Furthermore, to best use the limited resources that are available for comprehensive genetic assessment of influenza, consensus efforts among Asian nations to increase epidemiosurveillance of swine herds is also strongly promoted.
Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming
Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590
Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming
Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection.
Bragstad, K; Jørgensen, P H; Handberg, K J; Fomsgaard, A
In Denmark, in 2003, a previously unknown subtype combination of avian influenza A virus, H5N7 (A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03), was isolated from a flock of 12,000 mallards. The H5N7 subtype combination might be a reassortant between recent European avian influenza A H5, H7, and a third subtype, possibly an H6. The haemagglutinin and the acidic polymerase genes of the virus were closely related to a low-pathogenic Danish H5N2 virus A/Duck/Denmark/65041/04 (H5N2). The neuraminidase gene and the non-structural gene were most similar to the highly pathogenic A/Chicken/Netherlands/1/03 (H7N7) and the human-fatal A/Netherlands/219/03 (H7N7), respectively. The basic polymerase 1 and 2 genes were phylogenetically equidistant to both A/Duck/Denmark/65047/04 (H5N2) and A/Chicken/Netherlands/1/03 (H7N7). The nucleoprotein and matrix gene had highest nucleotide sequence similarity to the H6 subtypes A/Duck/Hong Kong/3096/99 (H6N2) and A/WDk/ST/1737/2000 (H6N8), respectively. All genes of the H5N7 strain were of avian origin, and no further evidence of pathogenicity to humans has been found.
Park, Andrew W; Daly, Janet M; Lewis, Nicola S; Smith, Derek J; Wood, James L N; Grenfell, Bryan T
Influenza virus evades prevailing natural and vaccine-induced immunity by accumulating antigenic change in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Linking amino acid substitutions in haemagglutinin epitopes to epidemiology has been problematic because of the scarcity of data connecting these scales. We use experiments on equine influenza virus to address this issue, quantifying how key parameters of viral establishment and shedding increase the probability of transmission with genetic distance between previously immunizing virus and challenge virus. Qualitatively similar patterns emerge from analyses based on antigenic distance and from a published human influenza study. Combination of the equine data and epidemiological models allows us to calculate the effective reproductive number of transmission as a function of relevant genetic change in the virus, illuminating the probability of influenza epidemics as a function of immunity.
Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Yuan, Jing; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Deng, Wei; Xu, Yanfeng; Yao, Yanfeng; Yu, Pin; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Qin, Chuan
A genetic variant of the H5N1 influenza virus, termed subclade 22.214.171.124, was first identified in Bulgaria in 2010 and has subsequently been found in Vietnam and Laos. Several cases of human infections with this virus have been identified. Thus, it is important to understand the antigenic properties and transmissibility of this variant. Our results showed that, although it is phylogenetically closely related to other previously characterized clade 2.3 viruses, this novel 126.96.36.199 variant exhibited distinct antigenic properties and showed little cross-reactivity to sera raised against other H5N1 viruses. Like other H5N1 viruses, this variant bound preferentially to avian-type receptors, but contained substitutions at positions 190 and 158 of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein that have been postulated to facilitate HA binding to human-type receptors and to enhance viral transmissibility among mammals, respectively. However, this virus did not appear to have acquired the capacity for airborne transmission between ferrets. These findings highlight the challenges in selecting vaccine candidates for H5N1 influenza because these viruses continue to evolve rapidly in the field. It is important to note that some variants have obtained mutations that may gain transmissibility between model animals, and close surveillance of H5N1 viruses in poultry is warranted.
Horimoto, Taisuke; Yamada, Shinya; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
In the spring of 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 virus, whose antigenicity is quite different from those of seasonal human H1N1 strains, emerged in Mexico and readily transmitted and spread among humans, resulting in the first influenza pandemic in the 21st century. Molecular analyses of the pandemic H1N1 2009 viruses indicate low-pathogenic features for humans, although worldwide transmission of the virus and a considerable numbers of lethal cases with acute pneumonia have been observed in the first wave of the current pandemic. Here, we review our current molecular knowledge of transmissibility and pathogenicity of influenza viruses and discuss the future aspects of the pandemic virus.
Pang, Yong Kek; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng
Epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages remained poorly understood in the tropical Southeast Asia region, despite causing seasonal outbreaks worldwide. From 2012–2014, nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from outpatients experiencing acute upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were screened for influenza viruses using a multiplex RT-PCR assay. Among 2,010/3,935 (51.1%) patients infected with at least one respiratory virus, 287 (14.3%) and 183 (9.1%) samples were tested positive for influenza A and B viruses, respectively. Influenza-positive cases correlate significantly with meteorological factors—total amount of rainfall, relative humidity, number of rain days, ground temperature and particulate matter (PM10). Phylogenetic reconstruction of haemagglutinin (HA) gene from 168 influenza B viruses grouped them into Yamagata Clade 3 (65, 38.7%), Yamagata Clade 2 (48, 28.6%) and Victoria Clade 1 (55, 32.7%). With neuraminidase (NA) phylogeny, 30 intra-clade (29 within Yamagata Clade 3, 1 within Victoria Clade 1) and 1 inter-clade (Yamagata Clade 2-HA/Yamagata Clade 3-NA) reassortants were identified. Study of virus temporal dynamics revealed a lineage shift from Victoria to Yamagata (2012–2013), and a clade shift from Yamagata Clade 2 to Clade 3 (2013–2014). Yamagata Clade 3 predominating in 2014 consisted of intra-clade reassortants that were closely related to a recent WHO vaccine candidate strain (B/Phuket/3073/2013), with the reassortment event occurred approximately 2 years ago based on Bayesian molecular clock estimation. Malaysian Victoria Clade 1 viruses carried H274Y substitution in the active site of neuraminidase, which confers resistance to oseltamivir. Statistical analyses on clinical and demographic data showed Yamagata-infected patients were older and more likely to experience headache while Victoria-infected patients were more likely to experience nasal congestion
Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Kim Tien; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Pang, Yong Kek; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng
Epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages remained poorly understood in the tropical Southeast Asia region, despite causing seasonal outbreaks worldwide. From 2012-2014, nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from outpatients experiencing acute upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were screened for influenza viruses using a multiplex RT-PCR assay. Among 2,010/3,935 (51.1%) patients infected with at least one respiratory virus, 287 (14.3%) and 183 (9.1%) samples were tested positive for influenza A and B viruses, respectively. Influenza-positive cases correlate significantly with meteorological factors-total amount of rainfall, relative humidity, number of rain days, ground temperature and particulate matter (PM10). Phylogenetic reconstruction of haemagglutinin (HA) gene from 168 influenza B viruses grouped them into Yamagata Clade 3 (65, 38.7%), Yamagata Clade 2 (48, 28.6%) and Victoria Clade 1 (55, 32.7%). With neuraminidase (NA) phylogeny, 30 intra-clade (29 within Yamagata Clade 3, 1 within Victoria Clade 1) and 1 inter-clade (Yamagata Clade 2-HA/Yamagata Clade 3-NA) reassortants were identified. Study of virus temporal dynamics revealed a lineage shift from Victoria to Yamagata (2012-2013), and a clade shift from Yamagata Clade 2 to Clade 3 (2013-2014). Yamagata Clade 3 predominating in 2014 consisted of intra-clade reassortants that were closely related to a recent WHO vaccine candidate strain (B/Phuket/3073/2013), with the reassortment event occurred approximately 2 years ago based on Bayesian molecular clock estimation. Malaysian Victoria Clade 1 viruses carried H274Y substitution in the active site of neuraminidase, which confers resistance to oseltamivir. Statistical analyses on clinical and demographic data showed Yamagata-infected patients were older and more likely to experience headache while Victoria-infected patients were more likely to experience nasal congestion and sore
Haruyama, Takahiro; Nagata, Kyosuke
We examined the influence of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb) on the infectivity of influenza viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Plaque assays demonstrated that multiplication of influenza viruses after adsorption to host cells was not affected in the agarose overlay containing EGb. However, when the viruses were treated with EGb before exposure to cells, their infectivity was markedly reduced. In contrast, the inhibitory effect was not observed when MDCK cells were treated with EGb before infection with influenza viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition assays revealed that EGb interferes with the interaction between influenza viruses and erythrocytes. The inhibitory effect of EGb was observed against influenza A (H1N1 and H3N2) and influenza B viruses. These results suggest that EGb contains an anti-influenza virus substance(s) that directly affects influenza virus particles and disrupts the function of hemagglutinin in adsorption to host cells. In addition to the finding of the anti-influenza virus activity of EGb, our results demonstrated interesting and important insights into the screening system for anti-influenza virus activity. In general, the plaque assay using drug-containing agarose overlays is one of the most reliable methods for detection of antiviral activity. However, our results showed that EGb had no effects either on the number of plaques or on their sizes in the plaque assay. These findings suggest the existence of inhibitory activities against the influenza virus that were overlooked in past studies.
Zhong, Juying; Cui, Xiaolan; Shi, Yujing; Gao, Yingjie; Cao, Hongxin
To evaluate the effect on influenza virus of Jinchai, a capsule made of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Madin-darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were infected with the FM1 strain of influenza virus A (subtype H1N1) in vitro. They were used to explore how Jinchai affected cell adsorption, cell membrane fusion, transcription and replication of the influenza virus. Hemagglutinin (HA) protein, intracellular pH, and influenza virus protein acid (PA) polymerase subunit were detected with confocal microscopy and real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Jinchai significantly reduced the expression of HA and PA polymerase subunit mRNA in infected MDCK cells. Jinchai also significantly decreased intracellular pH in infected cells. Jinchai had strong anti-influenza activity against the influenza virus. It weakened the ability of the influenza virus to adsorb to cell wall and fuse with cell membranes in the early infection stage, and inhibited the transcription and replication of the virus.
van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs
Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.
DeDiego, Marta L; Anderson, Christopher S; Yang, Hongmei; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Fitzgerald, Theresa; Treanor, John J; Topham, David J
Influenza vaccination does not provide 100% protection from infection, partly due to antigenic drift of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein. Low serum antibody titres increase the risk of infection. To determine whether there were additional correlates of risk, we examined the relationship between human serum immunity and antigenic variation in seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses. Seasonal H3N2 vaccine strains grown in the presence of heterogeneous human or mono-specific ferret antisera selected variants with mutations in the HA antigenic sites. Surprisingly, circulating strains infecting human subjects in the same seasons displayed mutations in the same positions, although only in one case did the change correspond to the same amino acid. Serum antibody titres were lower against both the in vitro selected and clinical isolates compared with the vaccine strains, suggesting that the mutations are relevant to vaccine failure. Antibody titres were also significantly lower in sera from infected subjects than in non-infected subjects, suggesting relatively poor responses to vaccination in the infected subjects. Collectively, the data suggest that risk from influenza infection is a result of poor response to vaccination, as well as encounter with drifted seasonal influenza virus antigenic variants. The results also show that directed selection under human immune pressure could reveal antigenic variants relevant to real-world drifted viruses, helping in annual vaccine re-formulation. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Krammer, Florian; Schinko, Theresa; Palmberger, Dieter; Tauer, Christopher; Messner, Paul; Grabherr, Reingard
Virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of the influenza A virus proteins haemagglutinin (HA) and matrix protein (M1) represent a new alternative approach for vaccine design against influenza virus. Influenza VLPs can be fast and easily produced in sufficient amounts in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. Up to now, influenza VLPs have been produced in the Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf9. We compared VLP production in terms of yield and quality in two insect cell lines, namely Sf9 and the Trichoplusia ni cell line BTI-TN5B1-4 (High Five™). Additionally we compared VLP production with three different HAs and two different M1s from influenza H1 and H3 strains including one swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain. Comparison of the two cell lines showed dramatic differences in baculovirus background as well as in yield and particle density. Taken together, we consider the establishment of the BTI-TN5B1-4 cell line advantageous as production cell line for influenza VLPs. PMID:20300881
Boesteanu, Alina C.; Babu, Nadarajan S.; Wheatley, Margaret; Papazoglou, Elisabeth S.; Katsikis, Peter D.
Current influenza virus vaccines primarily elicit antibodies and can be rendered ineffective by antigenic drift and shift. Vaccines that elicit CD8+ T cell responses targeting less variable proteins may function as universal vaccines that have broad reactivity against different influenza virus strains. To generate such a universal vaccine, we encapsulated live influenza virus in a biopolymer and delivered it to mice subcutaneously. This vaccine was safe, induced potent CD8+ T cell immunity and protected mice against heterosubtypic lethal challenge. Safety of subcutaneous (SQ) vaccination was tested in Rag2−/−γc−/− double knockout mice which we show cannot control intranasal infection. Biopolymer encapsulation of live influenza virus could be used to develop universal CD8+ T cell vaccines against heterosubtypic and pandemic strains. PMID:21034826
Ramos, Irene; Krammer, Florian; Hai, Rong; Aguilera, Domingo; Bernal-Rubio, Dabeiba; Steel, John; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana
The recent human outbreak of H7N9 avian influenza A virus has caused worldwide concerns. Receptor binding specificity is critical for viral pathogenicity, and still not thoroughly studied for this emerging virus. Here, we evaluated the receptor specificity of the haemagglutinin (HA) of two human H7N9 isolates (A/Shanghai/1/13 and A/Anhui/1/13) through a solid-phase binding assay and a flow cytometry-based assay. In addition, we compared it with those from several HAs from human and avian influenza viruses. We observed that the HAs from the novel H7 isolates strongly interacted with α2,3-linked sialic acids. Importantly, they also showed low levels of binding to α2,6-linked sialic acids, but significantly higher than other avian H7s.
Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wu, Kuang-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Ta; Chien, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Mao-Liang; Wang, Yun
Growing evidence has indicated that opioids enhance replication of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus in target cells. However, it is unknown whether opioids can enhance replication of other clinically important viral pathogens. In this study, the interaction of opioid agonists and human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus was examined in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Cells were exposed to morphine, methadone or buprenorphine followed by human H1N1 viral infection. Exposure to methadone differentially enhanced viral propagation, consistent with an increase in virus adsorption, susceptibility to virus infection and viral protein synthesis. In contrast, morphine or buprenorphine did not alter H1N1 replication. Because A549 cells do not express opioid receptors, methadone-enhanced H1N1 replication in human lung cells may not be mediated through these receptors. The interaction of methadone and H1N1 virus was also examined in adult mice. Treatment with methadone significantly increased H1N1 viral replication in lungs. Our data suggest that use of methadone facilitates influenza A viral infection in lungs and might raise concerns regarding the possible consequence of an increased risk of serious influenza A virus infection in people who receive treatment in methadone maintenance programs. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Groth, Marco; Lange, Jeannette; Kanrai, Pumaree; Pleschka, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph; Krumbholz, Andi; Platzer, Matthias; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Zell, Roland
Influenza virus A/whale/Maine/328B/1984 (H13N2) was isolated from a diseased pilot whale. Since only a partial sequence was available, its complete genome was sequenced and compared to the sequences of subtype H13 influenza viruses from shorebirds and various influenza viruses of marine mammals. The data reveal a rare genotype constellation with all gene segments derived of an influenza virus adapted to gulls, terns and waders. In contrast, the phylogenetic trees indicate that the majority of influenza viruses isolated from marine mammals derived from influenza viruses adapted to geese and ducks. We conclude that A/whale/Maine/328B/1984 is the first record of an infection of a marine mammal from a gull-origin influenza virus.
Leyva-Grado, Victor H; Mubareka, Samira; Krammer, Florian; Cárdenas, Washington B; Palese, Peter
To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region.
Influenza A viruses (IAV) infect a variety of hosts, including humans, swine, and various avian species. The annual influenza disease burden in the human population remains significant even with current vaccine usage and much about the pathogenesis and transmission of influenza viruses in human rema...
Influenza infection is a respiratory disease of viral origin that can cause major epidemics in man. The influenza virus infects and damages epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and causes pneumonia. Lung lesions of mice infected with influenza virus resembl...
Influenza infection is a respiratory disease of viral origin that can cause major epidemics in man. The influenza virus infects and damages epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and causes pneumonia. Lung lesions of mice infected with influenza virus resembl...
Danilenko, D M; Smirnova, T D; Gudkova, T M; Eropkin, M Iu; Kiselev, O I
The proliferation characteristics of influenza viruses of different origin were tested in various human and animal cell cultures. Pandemic H1N1v influenza and swine influenza viruses were shown to have a low infectious activity in virtually all the test lines. In spite of this, the replication of this group of viruses may be detected by de novo NP synthesis. These viruses are able to activate programmed cell death. Moreover, a low inoculative virus dose exerts a stimulating effect on cell proliferation in both suspension and monolayer cell lines.
Ivanova, V. T.; Ivanova, M. V.; Spitsyn, B. V.; Garina, K. O.; Trushakova, S. V.; Manykin, A. A.; Korzhenevsky, A. P.; Burseva, E. I.
The perspectives of the application of modern materials contained nanodiamonds (ND) are considered in this study. The interaction between detonation paniculate ND, soot and influenza A and B viruses, fragments of cDNA were analyzed at the normal conditions. It was shown that these sorbents can interact with the following viruses: reference epidemic strains of influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N1)v, A(H3N2) and B viruses circulated in the word in 2000-2010. The allantoises, concentrated viruses, cDNA can be absorbed by ND sorbents and getting removed from water solutions within 20 min. ND sorbents can be used for the preparation of antivirus filters for water solution and for future diagnostic systems in virology.
Ciejka, Justyna; Milewska, Aleksandra; Wytrwal, Magdalena; Wojarski, Jacek; Golda, Anna; Ochman, Marek; Nowakowska, Maria
Novel sulfonated derivatives of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (NSPAHs) and N-sulfonated chitosan (NSCH) have been synthesized, and their activity against influenza A and B viruses has been studied and compared with that of a series of carrageenans, marine polysaccharides of well-documented anti-influenza activity. NSPAHs were found to be nontoxic and very soluble in water, in contrast to gel-forming and thus generally poorly soluble carrageenans. In vitro and ex vivo studies using susceptible cells (Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells and fully differentiated human airway epithelial cultures) demonstrated the antiviral effectiveness of NSPAHs. The activity of NSPAHs was proportional to the molecular mass of the chain and the degree of substitution of amino groups with sulfonate groups. Mechanistic studies showed that the NSPAHs and carrageenans inhibit influenza A and B virus assembly in the cell. PMID:26729490
Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A.; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F.; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Summary Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited higher pathogenicity in mice and ferrets than an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572
Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited pathogenicity in mice and ferrets higher than that in an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential.
Kuznetsova, Irina; Shurygina, Anna-Polina; Wolf, Brigitte; Wolschek, Markus; Enzmann, Florian; Sansyzbay, Abylay; Khairullin, Berik; Sandybayev, Nurlan; Stukova, Marina; Kiselev, Oleg; Egorov, Andrej; Bergmann, Michael
The development of influenza virus vectors with long insertions of foreign sequences remains difficult due to the small size and instable nature of the virus. Here, we used the influenza virus inherent property of self-optimization to generate a vector stably expressing long transgenes from the NS1 protein ORF. This was achieved by continuous selection of bright fluorescent plaques of a GFP-expressing vector during multiple passages in mouse B16f1 cells. The newly generated vector acquired stability in IFN-competent cell lines and in vivo in murine lungs. Although improved vector fitness was associated with the appearance of four coding mutations in the polymerase (PB2), haemagglutinin and non-structural (NS) segments, the stability of the transgene expression was dependent primarily on the single mutation Q20R in the nuclear export protein (NEP). Importantly, a longer insert, such as a cassette of 1299 nt encoding two Mycobacterium tuberculosis Esat6 and Ag85A proteins, could substitute for the GFP transgene. Thus, the inherent property of the influenza virus to adapt can also be used to adjust a vector backbone to give stable expression of long transgenes.
In order to investigate the function of sialidase during influenza virus multiplication, methods were developed to isolate and purify the enzyme...of sialidases from myxoviruses best characterized the enzyme. This was accomplished by preparing highly specific enzyme antisera. The specific
de Bruin, E; Zhang, X; Ke, C; Sikkema, R; Koopmans, M
The risk of infection with avian influenza viruses for poultry workers is relatively unknown in China, and study results are often biased by the notification of only the severe human cases. Protein microarray was used to detect binding antibodies to 13 different haemagglutinin (HA1-part) antigens of avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N7), A(H7N9) and A(H9N2) viruses, in serum samples from poultry workers and healthy blood donors collected in the course of 3 years in Guangdong Province, China. Significantly higher antibody titre levels were detected in poultry workers when compared to blood donors for the most recent H5 and H9 strains tested. These differences were most pronounced in younger age groups for antigens from older strains, but were observed in all age groups for the recent H5 and H9 antigens. For the H7 strains tested, only poultry workers from two retail live poultry markets had significantly higher antibody titres compared to blood donors.
Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Otte, Martin J; Roland-Holst, David; Inui, Ken; Nguyen, Tung; Zilberman, David
This paper analyses the publicly available data on the distribution and evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 clades, whilst acknowledging the biases resulting from the non-random selection of isolates for gene sequencing. The data indicate molecular heterogeneity in the global distribution of HPAIV H5N1, in particular in different parts of East and Southeast Asia. Analysis of the temporal pattern of haemagglutinin clade data shows a progression from clade 0 (the 'dominant' clade between 1996 and 2002) to clade 1 (2003-2005) and then to clade 2.3.4 (2005 onwards). This process continuously produces variants, depending on the frequency of virus multiplication in the host population, which is influenced by geographical variation in poultry density, poultry production systems and also HPAI risk management measures such as vaccination. Increased multilateral collaboration needs to focus on developing enhanced disease surveillance and control targeted at evolutionary 'hotspots'.
... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People Language: English (US) EspaÃ± ...
Liu, Kun; Yao, Zhidong; Zhang, Liangyan; Li, Junli; Xing, Li; Wang, Xiliang
Influenza epidemics are major health concern worldwide. Vaccination is the major strategy to protect the general population from a pandemic. Currently, most influenza vaccines are manufactured using chicken embroynated eggs, but this manufacturing method has potential limitations, and cell-based vaccines offer a number of advantages over the traditional method. We reported here using the scalable bioreactor to produce pandemic influenza virus vaccine in a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell culture system. In the 7.5-L bioreactor, the cell concentration reached to 3.2 × 10(6) cells/mL and the highest virus titers of 256 HAU/50 μL and 1 × 10(7) TCID50/mL. The HA concentration was found to be 11.2 μg/mL. The vaccines produced by the cell-cultured system induced neutralization antibodies, cross-reactive T-cell responses, and were protective in a mouse model against different lethal influenza virus challenge. These data indicate that microcarrier-based cell-cultured influenza virus vaccine manufacture system in scalable bioreactor could be used to produce effective pandemic influenza virus vaccines.
Wong, Samson S Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Seroepidemiologic and virologic studies since 1889 suggested that human influenza pandemics were caused by H1, H2, and H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses. If not for the 1997 avian A/H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong of China, subtype H2 is the likely candidate for the next pandemic. However, unlike previous poultry outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza due to H5 that were controlled by depopulation with or without vaccination, the presently circulating A/H5N1 genotype Z virus has since been spreading from Southern China to other parts of the world. Migratory birds and, less likely, bird trafficking are believed to be globalizing the avian influenza A/H5N1 epidemic in poultry. More than 200 human cases of avian influenza virus infection due to A/H5, A/H7, and A/H9 subtypes mainly as a result of poultry-to-human transmission have been reported with a > 50% case fatality rate for A/H5N1 infections. A mutant or reassortant virus capable of efficient human-to-human transmission could trigger another influenza pandemic. The recent isolation of this virus in extrapulmonary sites of human diseases suggests that the high fatality of this infection may be more than just the result of a cytokine storm triggered by the pulmonary disease. The emergence of resistance to adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) and recently oseltamivir while H5N1 vaccines are still at the developmental stage of phase I clinical trial are causes for grave concern. Moreover, the to-be pandemic strain may have little cross immunogenicity to the presently tested vaccine strain. The relative importance and usefulness of airborne, droplet, or contact precautions in infection control are still uncertain. Laboratory-acquired avian influenza H7N7 has been reported, and the laboratory strains of human influenza H2N2 could also be the cause of another pandemic. The control of this impending disaster requires more research in addition to national and international preparedness at various levels. The
Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Góngora-Biachi, Renán A; López-Martínez, Irma; Moguel-Rodríguez, William; Pérez-Carrillo, Humberto; Vázquez-Zapata, Víctor; Bastarrachea-Vázquez, Diliana; Canto-Cab, Armando
Influenza virus is the most common cause of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) world wide. In patients with chronic condition, infection by the influenza virus can cause complications such as pneumonia which may have fatal outcome. The aim of this work was to determine the frequency of human influenza virus in outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and in those patients admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Yucatan, Mexico (October 1998-July 1999). Throat swabs were collected from ILI and CAP patients and processed to detect respiratory viruses. All clinical samples were tested for seven respiratory viruses using a rapid indirect immunofluorescence test (IFI). Clinical samples with positive results for influenza virus by IFI were inoculated into chick embryo eggs and/or MDCK cells for viral isolation. All influenza virus isolates were typed using the WHO influenza Kit 1998-1999. A total of 288 clinical samples were collected. Influenza virus type A was diagnosed in 29 clinical samples (10%), no other respiratory viruses were identified. Influenza virus was present with 8.9% (17 out of 189) in ILI patients, whereas with 12.12% (12 out of 99) in CAP patients. Influenza virus was detected from December to July. Six viral isolates were obtained and identified as influenza A (H3N2). Human influenza virus is certainly a cause of ARI and pneumonia in Yucatan, Mexico. The results showed that influenza virus contributes to at least 8.9% of the ARI, and more importantly to 12% of CAP patients. Positive cases were present in a different pattern to temperate zones where the peak of incidence occurs during autumn and winter.
Parker, Lauren; Wharton, Stephen A.; Martin, Stephen R.; Cross, Karen; Lin, Yipu; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Daniels, Rodney S.
Influenza A virus (subtype H3N2) causes seasonal human influenza and is included as a component of influenza vaccines. The majority of vaccine viruses are isolated and propagated in eggs, which commonly results in amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. These substitutions can affect virus receptor-binding and alter virus antigenicity, thereby, obfuscating the choice of egg-propagated viruses for development into candidate vaccine viruses. To evaluate the effects of egg-adaptive substitutions seen in H3N2 vaccine viruses on sialic acid receptor-binding, we carried out quantitative measurement of virus receptor-binding using surface biolayer interferometry with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays to correlate changes in receptor avidity with antigenic properties. Included in these studies was a panel of H3N2 viruses generated by reverse genetics containing substitutions seen in recent egg-propagated vaccine viruses and corresponding cell culture-propagated wild-type viruses. These assays provide a quantitative approach to investigating the importance of individual amino acid substitutions in influenza receptor-binding. Results show that viruses with egg-adaptive HA substitutions R156Q, S219Y, and I226N, have increased binding avidity to α2,3-linked receptor-analogues and decreased binding avidity to α2,6-linked receptor-analogues. No measurable binding was detected for the viruses with amino acid substitution combination 156Q+219Y and receptor-binding increased in viruses where egg-adaptation mutations were introduced into cell culture-propagated virus. Substitutions at positions 156 and 190 appeared to be primarily responsible for low reactivity in HI assays with post-infection ferret antisera raised against 2012–2013 season H3N2 viruses. Egg-adaptive substitutions at position 186 caused substantial differences in binding avidity with an insignificant effect on antigenicity. PMID:26974849
Zhou, Hangyu; Wang, Guangchuan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Song, Zhiyong; Tang, Ruikang
Although the circulation of avian influenza viruses in humans is limited, they can be transmitted from Aves (birds) to humans, representing a great challenge. Herein, we suggest that influenza viruses from Aves might exist in a mineralized state owing to the high calcium concentrations in the avian intestine. Using two typical influenza viruses as examples, we demonstrate that these viruses can self-mineralize in simulated avian intestinal fluid, resulting in egg-like virus-mineral structured composites. The mineralized viruses are more robust, with enhanced infectivity and thermostability. More importantly, the mineral exterior of mineralized viruses can alter their cell internalization, expanding the possible tropisms. The discovery of a mineralized state of influenza viruses highlights the integration of nanomaterials and viruses in the environment, which provides a new understanding of avian influenza infection and its control. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hause, Ben M; Ducatez, Mariette; Collin, Emily A; Ran, Zhiguang; Liu, Runxia; Sheng, Zizhang; Armien, Anibal; Kaplan, Bryan; Chakravarty, Suvobrata; Hoppe, Adam D; Webby, Richard J; Simonson, Randy R; Li, Feng
Of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, only influenza A viruses are thought to exist as multiple subtypes and has non-human maintenance hosts. In April 2011, nasal swabs were collected for virus isolation from pigs exhibiting influenza-like illness. Subsequent electron microscopic, biochemical, and genetic studies identified an orthomyxovirus with seven RNA segments exhibiting approximately 50% overall amino acid identity to human influenza C virus. Based on its genetic organizational similarities to influenza C viruses this virus has been provisionally designated C/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK). Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins found that the divergence between C/OK and human influenza C viruses was similar to that observed between influenza A and B viruses. No cross reactivity was observed between C/OK and human influenza C viruses using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Additionally, screening of pig and human serum samples found that 9.5% and 1.3%, respectively, of individuals had measurable HI antibody titers to C/OK virus. C/OK virus was able to infect both ferrets and pigs and transmit to naive animals by direct contact. Cell culture studies showed that C/OK virus displayed a broader cellular tropism than a human influenza C virus. The observed difference in cellular tropism was further supported by structural analysis showing that hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins between two viruses have conserved enzymatic but divergent receptor-binding sites. These results suggest that C/OK virus represents a new subtype of influenza C viruses that currently circulates in pigs that has not been recognized previously. The presence of multiple subtypes of co-circulating influenza C viruses raises the possibility of reassortment and antigenic shift as mechanisms of influenza C virus evolution.
Hause, Ben M.; Ducatez, Mariette; Collin, Emily A.; Ran, Zhiguang; Liu, Runxia; Sheng, Zizhang; Armien, Anibal; Kaplan, Bryan; Chakravarty, Suvobrata; Hoppe, Adam D.; Webby, Richard J.; Simonson, Randy R.; Li, Feng
Of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, only influenza A viruses are thought to exist as multiple subtypes and has non-human maintenance hosts. In April 2011, nasal swabs were collected for virus isolation from pigs exhibiting influenza-like illness. Subsequent electron microscopic, biochemical, and genetic studies identified an orthomyxovirus with seven RNA segments exhibiting approximately 50% overall amino acid identity to human influenza C virus. Based on its genetic organizational similarities to influenza C viruses this virus has been provisionally designated C/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK). Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins found that the divergence between C/OK and human influenza C viruses was similar to that observed between influenza A and B viruses. No cross reactivity was observed between C/OK and human influenza C viruses using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Additionally, screening of pig and human serum samples found that 9.5% and 1.3%, respectively, of individuals had measurable HI antibody titers to C/OK virus. C/OK virus was able to infect both ferrets and pigs and transmit to naive animals by direct contact. Cell culture studies showed that C/OK virus displayed a broader cellular tropism than a human influenza C virus. The observed difference in cellular tropism was further supported by structural analysis showing that hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins between two viruses have conserved enzymatic but divergent receptor-binding sites. These results suggest that C/OK virus represents a new subtype of influenza C viruses that currently circulates in pigs that has not been recognized previously. The presence of multiple subtypes of co-circulating influenza C viruses raises the possibility of reassortment and antigenic shift as mechanisms of influenza C virus evolution. PMID:23408893
Kalthoff, D; Bogs, J; Harder, T; Grund, C; Pohlmann, A; Beer, M; Hoffmann, B
In 2013, a novel influenza A virus of subtype H7N9 was transmitted from avian sources to humans in China, causing severe illness and substantial mortality. Rapid and sensitive diagnostic approaches are the basis of epidemiological studies and of utmost importance for the detection of infected humans and animals. We developed various quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) assays for (i) the generic detection of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of H7 viruses or the neuraminidase (NA) gene of N9 viruses, and (ii) the specific detection of HA and NA of the novel avian H7N9/2013 virus. The sensitivity of the newly developed assays was compared with previously published PCRs, and the specificity of all RT-qPCRs was examined using a panel of 42 different H7 and 16 different N9 isolates. Furthermore, we analysed the performance of the RT-qPCR assays with dilution series and diagnostic samples obtained from animal experiments. Our study provides a comprehensive set of RT-qPCR assays for the reliable detection of the novel avian H7N9 virus, with high sensitivity and improved and tailored specificity values compared with published assays. Finally, we also present data about the robustness of a duplex assay for the simultaneous detection of HA and NA of the avian influenza H7N9/2013 virus.
To date there is no rapid method to screen for highly pathogenic avian influenza strains that may be indicators of future pandemics. We report here the first development of an oligonucleotide-based spectroscopic assay to rapidly and sensitively detect a N66S mutation in the gene coding for the PB1-F2 protein associated with increased virulence in highly pathogenic pandemic influenza viruses. 5′-Thiolated ssDNA oligonucleotides were employed as probes to capture RNA isolated from six influenza viruses, three having N66S mutations, two without the N66S mutation, and one deletion mutant not encoding the PB1-F2 protein. Hybridization was detected without amplification or labeling using the intrinsic surfaced-enhanced Raman spectrum of the DNA-RNA complex. Multivariate analysis identified target RNA binding from noncomplementary sequences with 100% sensitivity, 100% selectivity, and 100% correct classification in the test data set. These results establish that optical-based diagnostic methods are able to directly identify diagnostic indicators of virulence linked to highly pathogenic pandemic influenza viruses without amplification or labeling. PMID:24937567
Background Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a highly contagious disease of birds and has been one of the major causes of economic losses in the poultry industry. Despite routine vaccination programs, sporadic cases have occasionally occurred in the country and remain a constant threat to commercial poultry. Hence, the present study was aimed to characterize NDV isolates obtained from clinical cases in various locations of Malaysia between 2004 and 2007 based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial F gene and C-terminus extension length of HN gene. Results The coding region of eleven NDV isolates fusion (F) gene and carboxyl terminal region of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene including extensions were amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR and directly sequenced. All the isolates have shown to have non-synonymous to synonymous base substitution rate ranging between 0.081 - 0.264 demonstrating presence of negative selection. Analysis based on F gene showed the characterized isolates possess three different types of protease cleavage site motifs; namely 112RRQKRF117, 112RRRKRF117 and 112GRQGRL117 and appear to show maximum identities with isolates in the region such as cockatoo/14698/90 (Indonesia), Ch/2000 (China), local isolate AF2240 indicating the high similarity of isolates circulating in the South East Asian countries. Meanwhile, one of the isolates resembles commonly used lentogenic vaccine strains. On further characterization of the HN gene, Malaysian isolates had C-terminus extensions of 0, 6 and 11 amino acids. Analysis of the phylogenetic tree revealed that the existence of three genetic groups; namely, genotype II, VII and VIII. Conclusions The study concluded that the occurrence of three types of NDV genotypes and presence of varied carboxyl terminus extension lengths among Malaysian isolates incriminated for sporadic cases. PMID:20691110
Zhao, Jian-Jun; Yan, Xi-Jun; Chai, Xiu-Li; Martella, Vito; Luo, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Gao, Han; Liu, Ying-Xue; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Tao; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Chun-Fei; Wang, Feng-Xue; Shao, Xi-Qun; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Shi-Peng
Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. Genetic/antigenic heterogeneity has been observed among the various CDV strains, notably in the haemagglutinin (H) gene, that appears as a good target to gather epidemiological information. Based on sequence analysis of the H gene, wild-type CDV strains cluster into distinct geographic lineages (genotypes), irrespective of the species of isolation. The sequence of the H gene of 28 CDV strains detected from both vaccinated and non-vaccinated breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks from different geographical areas of China during the years 2004-2008 was determined. All the CDV strains but two (strains HL and HLJ2) were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (96.2-99.7% at the amino acid [aa] level) and to other Asia-1 strains (96.1-99.5% aa) previously detected in China. The CDV strains HL and HLJ2 were both collected from foxes in Heilongjiang province in 2005. Strain HL resembled CDVs of the Arctic genotype (GR88-like) and displayed high aa identity (98.0%) to the Chinese canine strain Liu. By converse, strain HLJ2 was barely related to CDVs of the Asia-2 genotype (88.7-90.3% aa identity), and could represent a novel CDV genotype, tentatively proposed as Asia-3. These results suggest that at least three different CDV genotypes, distantly related (81.8-91.6% aa identity) to the vaccine strains, Onderstepoort-like (America-1 genotype), are currently circulating in breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China, and that the genotype Asia-1 is predominant. Whether the diversity between wild-type CDVs and the vaccine strains may affect, to some extent, the efficacy of the vaccines deserves further investigations.
Ferreira, Laura; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel; Marcos, Fernando; Shnyrov, Valery L; Villar, Enrique
Mutations were generated in residues at the putative catalytic site of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus Clone 30 strain (Arg498, Glu258, Tyr262, Tyr317 and Ser418) and their effects on its three associated activities were studied. Expression of the mutant proteins at the surface of HeLa cells was similar to that of the wild-type. Sialidase, receptor-binding and fusion-promotion activities were affected to different degrees for all mutants studied. Mutant Arg498Lys lost most of its sialidase activity, although it retained most of the receptor-binding activity, suggesting that, for the former activity, besides the presence of a basic residue, the proximity to the substrate molecule is also important, as Lys is shorter than Arg. Proximity also seems to be important in substrate recognition, since Tyr262Phe retained most of its sialidase activity while Tyr262Ser lost most of it. Also, Ser418Ala displayed most of the wild-type sialidase activity. However, a kinetic and thermodynamic study of the sialidase activity of the Tyr262Ser and Ser418Ala mutants was performed and revealed that the hydroxyl group of these residues also plays an important role in catalysis, since such activity was much less effective than that of the wild-type and these mutations modified their activation energy for sialidase catalysis. The discrepancy of the modifications in sialidase and receptor-binding activities in the mutants analysed does not account for the topological coincidence of the two sites. These results also suggest that the globular head of HN protein may play a role in fusion-promotion activity.
Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Kash, John C.
Newly emerging or `re-emerging' viral diseases continue to pose significant global public health threats. Prototypic are influenza viruses that are major causes of human respiratory infections and mortality. Influenza viruses can cause zoonotic infections and adapt to humans leading to sustained transmission and emergence of novel viruses. Mechanisms by which viruses evolve in one host, cause zoonotic infection and adapt to a new host species remain unelucidated. Here we review evolution of influenza A viruses in their reservoir hosts and discuss genetic changes associated with introduction of novel viruses into humans leading to pandemics and the establishment of seasonal viruses. PMID:20542248
Sriwilaijaroen, Nongluk; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Takashita, Emi; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Kanie, Osamu; Suzuki, Yasuo
The purpose of this study was to develop a new compound to overcome influenza epidemics and pandemics as well as drug resistance. We synthesized a new compound carrying: (i) Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6SLN) for targeting immutable haemagglutinins (HAs) unless switched from human-type receptor preference; (ii) an acyl chain (lipo) for locking the compound with the viral HA via hydrophobic interactions; and (iii) a flexible poly-α-L-glutamic acid (PGA) for enhancing the compound solubility and for coating the viral surface, precluding accessibility of the PGA-coated virus to the negatively charged sialic acid on the host cell surface. 6SLN-lipo PGA appears to subvert binding of pandemic H1 and seasonal H3 HAs to receptors, as assessed by using guinea pig erythrocytes, which is critical for virus entry into host cells for multiplication. It shows high potency with IC50 values in the range of 300-500 nM against multiplication of both influenza pandemic H1N1/2009 and seasonal H3N2/2004 viruses in cell culture. It acts in synergism with either of the two FDA-approved neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) clinical drugs, zanamivir (Relenza(®)) and oseltamivir carboxylate (active form of Tamiflu(®)), and it has the potential to aid NAI drugs to achieve complete clearance of the virus from the culture. 6SLN-lipo PGA is a new potential candidate drug for influenza control and is an attractive candidate for use in combination with an NAI drug for minimized toxicity, delayed development of resistance, prevention and treatment with the potential for eradication of human influenza. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wang, Q; Ju, L; Liu, P; Zhou, J; Lv, X; Li, L; Shen, H; Su, H; Jiang, L; Jiang, Q
We report the serological evidence of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 infection in an occupational poultry-exposed population and a general population. A serological survey of an occupational poultry-exposed population and a general population was conducted using a haemagglutinin-inhibiting (HI) assay in Shanghai, China, from January 2008 to December 2010. Evidence of higher anti-H9 antibodies was found in serum samples collected from poultry workers. During this period, 239 H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 9297 tracheal and cloacal paired specimens collected from the poultry in live poultry markets. In addition, a total of 733 influenza viruses were isolated from 1569 nasal and throat swabs collected from patients with influenza-like symptoms in a sentinel hospital, which include H3N2, H1N1, pandemic H1N1 and B, but no H9N2 virus was detected. These findings highlight the need for long-term surveillance of avian influenza viruses in occupational poultry-exposed workers. © 2014 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Wang, Q; Ju, L; Liu, P; Zhou, J; Lv, X; Li, L; Shen, H; Su, H; Jiang, L; Jiang, Q
We report the serological evidence of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 infection in an occupational poultry-exposed population and a general population. A serological survey of an occupational poultry-exposed population and a general population was conducted using a haemagglutinin-inhibiting (HI) assay in Shanghai, China, from January 2008 to December 2010. Evidence of higher anti-H9 antibodies was found in serum samples collected from poultry workers. During this period, 239 H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 9297 tracheal and cloacal paired specimens collected from the poultry in live poultry markets. In addition, a total of 733 influenza viruses were isolated from 1569 nasal and throat swabs collected from patients with influenza-like symptoms in a sentinel hospital, which include H3N2, H1N1, pandemic H1N1 and B, but no H9N2 virus was detected. These findings highlight the need for long-term surveillance of avian influenza viruses in occupational poultry-exposed workers. PMID:24803167
Bragstad, Karoline; Nielsen, Lars P; Fomsgaard, Anders
Background Knowledge about the complete genome constellation of seasonal influenza A viruses from different countries is valuable for monitoring and understanding of the evolution and migration of strains. Few complete genome sequences of influenza A viruses from Europe are publicly available at the present time and there have been few longitudinal genome studies of human influenza A viruses. We have studied the evolution of circulating human H3N2, H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A viruses from 1999 to 2006, we analysed 234 Danish human influenza A viruses and characterised 24 complete genomes. Results H3N2 was the prevalent strain in Denmark during the study period, but H1N1 dominated the 2000–2001 season. H1N2 viruses were first observed in Denmark in 2002–2003. After years of little genetic change in the H1N1 viruses the 2005–2006 season presented H1N1 of greater variability than before. This indicates that H1N1 viruses are evolving and that H1N1 soon is likely to be the prevalent strain again. Generally, the influenza A haemagglutinin (HA) of H3N2 viruses formed seasonal phylogenetic clusters. Different lineages co-circulating within the same season were also observed. The evolution has been stochastic, influenced by small "jumps" in genetic distance rather than constant drift, especially with the introduction of the Fujian-like viruses in 2002–2003. Also evolutionary stasis-periods were observed which might indicate well fit viruses. The evolution of H3N2 viruses have also been influenced by gene reassortments between lineages from different seasons. None of the influenza genes were influenced by strong positive selection pressure. The antigenic site B in H3N2 HA was the preferred site for genetic change during the study period probably because the site A has been masked by glycosylations. Substitutions at CTL-epitopes in the genes coding for the neuraminidase (NA), polymerase acidic protein (PA), matrix protein 1 (M1), non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and
Krumbholz, Andi; Lange, Jeannette; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Groth, Marco; Platzer, Matthias; Kanrai, Pumaree; Pleschka, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph; Büttner, Mathias; Dürrwald, Ralf; Zell, Roland
The avian-like swine influenza viruses emerged in 1979 in Belgium and Germany. Thereafter, they spread through many European swine-producing countries, replaced the circulating classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses, and became endemic. Serological and subsequent molecular data indicated an avian source, but details remained obscure due to a lack of relevant avian influenza virus sequence data. Here, the origin of the European avian-like swine influenza viruses was analysed using a collection of 16 European swine H1N1 influenza viruses sampled in 1979-1981 in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and France, as well as several contemporaneous avian influenza viruses of various serotypes. The phylogenetic trees suggested a triple reassortant with a unique genotype constellation. Time-resolved maximum clade credibility trees indicated times to the most recent common ancestors of 34-46 years (before 2008) depending on the RNA segment and the method of tree inference. © 2014 The Authors.
Pica, Natalie; Chou, Yi-Ying; Bouvier, Nicole M; Palese, Peter
Epidemic influenza is typically caused by infection with viruses of the A and B types and can result in substantial morbidity and mortality during a given season. Here we demonstrate that influenza B viruses can replicate in the upper respiratory tract of the guinea pig and that viruses of the two main lineages can be transmitted with 100% efficiency between inoculated and naïve animals in both contact and noncontact models. Our results also indicate that, like in the case for influenza A virus, transmission of influenza B viruses is enhanced at colder temperatures, providing an explanation for the seasonality of influenza epidemics in temperate climates. We therefore present, for the first time, a small animal model with which to study the underlying mechanisms of influenza B virus transmission.
Finlaison, Deborah S.; Crispe, Ellie; Hurt, Aeron C.
During the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, respiratory disease in dogs in close contact with infected horses was noted; influenza (H3N8) virus infection was confirmed. Nucleotide sequence of the virus from dogs was identical to that from horses. No evidence of dog-to-dog transmission or virus persistence in dogs was found. PMID:20350392
Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Sashika, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health. PMID:21470469
Horimoto, Taisuke; Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Sashika, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are devices that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are devices that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are devices that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are devices that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are devices that...
The emergence of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscores the importance of understanding how influenza A viruses evolve in swine on a global scale. To reveal the frequency, patterns and drivers of the spread of swine influenza virus globally, we conducted the largest phylogenetic analysis of swin...
Gu, H; Qi, X; Li, X; Jiang, H; Wang, Y; Liu, F; Lu, S; Yang, Y; Liu, F
The main objective of our study is to develop a reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP)-based system for rapid and specific detection of H3 swine influenza virus (SIV). The system, H3 RT-LAMP, contained a set of six novel primers that targeted eight distinct regions of the viral haemagglutinin (HA) gene that are highly conserved among H3 influenza A viruses but not between H3 and other subtypes. H3 RT-LAMP accurately and specifically detected H3 SIV of different isolates from culture and from swine lung samples. The system is at least 10-fold more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR assay and even comparable to the real-time RT-PCR method, with the detection limit of about one plaque-forming unit per reaction. Of 27 swine lung samples tested, 11 samples were positive in reactions with the RT-LAMP and real-time RT-PCR methods, while only 7 were positive with the conventional RT-PCR assay. Importantly, the assay can be completed within 45 min and is faster than the conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR approaches. Our results provide the first direct evidence that RT-LAMP is highly specific and sensitive for detecting H3 SIV. These results suggest that LAMP offers a promising alternative tool for rapid, inexpensive and specific diagnosis of influenza virus infection of swine and other animals in frontline settings.
Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Although outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild and domestic birds have been posing the threat of a new influenza pandemic for the past decade, the first pandemic of the twenty-first century came from swine viruses. This fact emphasizes the complexity of influenza viral ecology and the difficulty of predicting influenza viral dynamics. Complete control of influenza viruses seems impossible. However, we must minimize the impact of animal and human influenza outbreaks by learning lessons from past experiences and recognizing the current status. Here, we review the most recent influenza virology data in the veterinary field, including aspects of zoonotic agents and recent studies that assess the pandemic potential of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.
Thangavel, Rajagowthamee R.; Bouvier, Nicole M.
In humans, infection with an influenza A or B virus manifests typically as an acute and self-limited upper respiratory tract illness characterized by fever, cough, sore throat, and malaise. However, influenza can present along a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from sub-clinical or even asymptomatic infection to a severe primary viral pneumonia requiring advanced medical supportive care. Disease severity depends upon the virulence of the influenza virus strain and the immune competence and previous influenza exposures of the patient. Animal models are used in influenza research not only to elucidate the viral and host factors that affect influenza disease outcomes in and spread among susceptible hosts, but also to evaluate interventions designed to prevent or reduce influenza morbidity and mortality in man. This review will focus on the three animal models currently used most frequently in influenza virus research -- mice, ferrets, and guinea pigs -- and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:24709389
Epand, Richard M; Epand, Raquel F
The X-31 strain of influenza virus was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), CD and SDS/PAGE analysis as a function of both temperature and pH. A bromelain-treated virus was also studied by these methods. The major transition observed in the intact virus was a result of the denaturation of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein. At pH 7.4, this transition was similar in the intact virus and the isolated HA, but was absent in the bromelain-treated virus. However, at pH 5 the denaturation temperature and enthalpy were both higher for HA in the virus than in the isolated protein, indicating that HA interacts with other molecular components in the intact virus. The transition observed by DSC occurs at a higher temperature than does the thermal transition observed by CD. The temperature of the CD transition coincides with the temperature at which the fusogenicity of the virus increases, and probably corresponds to the formation of an extended coiled-coil conformation. Analysis by SDS/PAGE at neutral pH under non-reducing conditions demonstrates a selective loss of the HA protein trimer, resulting in the formation of aggregates in the range of temperatures of 55 to 70 degrees C. In contrast, at acidic pH, the HA protein is largely in the monomeric form at 25 degrees C, and there is little change with temperature. There is thus a weakening of the quaternary structure of HA at acidic pH prior to heating. At the temperature at which the virus exhibits an increased fusogenicity at neutral pH, there is a loss of secondary structure and a beginning of a destabilization of the trimeric form of HA. This temperature is lower than that required for the major endothermic peak observed in DSC experiments. The results demonstrate that there is no kinetically trapped high-energy form of HA at neutral pH. PMID:11994048
Feizi, Neda; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Romani, Bizhan; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Bamdad, Taravat; Feizi, Amir; Jazaeri, Ehsan Ollah; Targhi, Hadiseh Shokouhi; Saleh, Maryam; Jamali, Abbas; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Nargesabad, Reza Nasrollahi; Abdoli, Asghar
Autophagy plays a key role in host defence responses against microbial infections by promoting degradation of pathogens and participating in acquired immunity. The interaction between autophagy and viruses is complex, and this pathway is hijacked by several viruses. Influenza virus (IV) interferes with autophagy through its replication and increases the accumulation of autophagosomes by blocking lysosome fusion. Thus, autophagy could be an effective area for antiviral research. In this study, we evaluated the effect of autophagy on IV replication. Two cell lines were transfected with Beclin-1 expression plasmid before (prophylactic approach) and after (therapeutic approach) IV inoculation.Results/Key findings. Beclin-1 overexpression in the cells infected by virus induced autophagy to 26 %. The log10haemagglutinin titre and TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose giving 50 % infection) of replicating virus were measured at 24 and 48 h post-infection. In the prophylactic approach, the virus titre was enhanced significantly at 24 h post-infection (P≤0.01), but it was not significantly different from the control at 48 h post-infection. In contrast, the therapeutic approach of autophagy induction inhibited the virus replication at 24 and 48 h post-infection. Additionally, we showed that inhibition of autophagy using 3-methyladenine reduced viral replication. This study revealed that the virus (H1N1) titre was controlled in a time-dependent manner following autophagy induction in host cells. Manipulation of autophagy during the IV life cycle can be targeted both for antiviral aims and for increasing viral yield for virus production.
Woma, Timothy Y; van Vuuren, Moritz; Bosman, Ana-Mari; Quan, Melvyn; Oosthuizen, Marinda
There are no reports of CDV isolations in southern Africa, and although CDV is said to have geographically distinct lineages, molecular information of African strains has not yet been documented. Viruses isolated in cell cultures were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the complete H gene was sequenced and phylogenetically analysed with other strains from GenBank. Phylogenetic comparisons of the complete H gene of CDV isolates from different parts of the world (available in GenBank) with wild-type South African isolates revealed nine clades. All South African isolates form a separate African clade of their own and thus are clearly separated from the American, European, Asian, Arctic and vaccine virus clades. It is likely that only the 'African lineage' of CDV may be circulating in South Africa currently, and the viruses isolated from dogs vaccinated against CDV are not the result of reversion to virulence of vaccine strains, but infection with wild-type strains.
Predominance of influenza A(H3N2) virus genetic subclade 3C.2a1 during an early 2016/17 influenza season in Europe - Contribution of surveillance data from World Health Organization (WHO) European Region to the WHO vaccine composition consultation for northern hemisphere 2017/18.
Melidou, Angeliki; Broberg, Eeva
During the European 2016/17 influenza season, A(H3N2) viruses have predominated and the majority clustered in genetic subclade 3C.2a1. Genetic analyses showed that circulating viruses have undergone considerable genetic diversification of the haemagglutinin gene from the current vaccine virus A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (clade 3C.2a), but the antigenic data that is limited by the challenges with the antigenic characterisation of currently circulating A(H3N2) viruses, showed no clear evidence of antigenic change. The recommended A(H3N2) vaccine component for the northern hemisphere 2017/18 influenza season remained unchanged. However, early and mid-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates were suggestive of reduced VE against A(H3N2) viruses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Samy, Ramar Perumal; Lim, Lina H K
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a serious global health problem worldwide due to frequent and severe outbreaks. IAV causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population, due to the ineffectiveness of the vaccine and the alteration of T cell immunity with ageing. The cellular and molecular link between ageing and virus infection is unclear and it is possible that damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) may play a role in the raised severity and susceptibility of virus infections in the elderly. DAMPs which are released from damaged cells following activation, injury or cell death can activate the immune response through the stimulation of the inflammasome through several types of receptors found on the plasma membrane, inside endosomes after endocytosis as well as in the cytosol. In this review, the detriment in the immune system during ageing and the links between influenza virus infection and ageing will be discussed. In addition, the role of DAMPs such as HMGB1 and S100/Annexin in ageing, and the enhanced morbidity and mortality to severe influenza infection in ageing will be highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Loeffelholz, Michael J
Although influenza A viruses of avian origin have long been responsible for influenza pandemics, including the "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918, human infections caused by avian subtypes of influenza A virus, most notably H5N1, have emerged since the 1990s (H5N1 in 1997; H9N2 in 1999; and H7N7 in 2003). The wide geographic distribution of influenza A H5N1 in avian species, and the number and severity of human infections are unprecedented. Together with the ongoing genetic evolution of this virus, these features make influenza A H5N1 a likely candidate for a future influenza pandemic. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of human infections caused by influenza A H5N1 virus.
Hurt, Aeron C; Lowther, Sue; Middleton, Deborah; Barr, Ian G
Using an in vivo ferret model, we investigated the development of resistance to oseltamivir and zanamivir for two different influenza A(H5N1) viruses (A/Vietnam/1203/2004, haemagglutinin phylogenetic clade 1, and A/Chicken/Laos/26/2006, haemagglutinin phylogenetic clade 2.3) by treating the animals with doses equivalent either to the recommended human treatment dose or a range of sub-optimal drug doses. No resistance was observed in oseltamivir-treated ferrets, but analysis of nasal washes from zanamivir-treated ferrets infected with influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 revealed one viral isolate (from a ferret receiving the highest dose of zanamivir, 1.0mg/kg twice daily) with a zanamivir IC(50) that was 350-fold higher than the other isolates tested. The same virus also demonstrated a 26-fold increase in oseltamivir IC(50). The isolate with reduced susceptibility was taken from a ferret 8 days post-infection that was being treated with the recommended human zanamivir dose. Sequence analysis of the resistant virus revealed a glutamine (Q) to leucine (L) mutation at residue 136 of the neuraminidase. This is the first report of this mutation being associated with neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility and one of the few reported mutations that confer zanamivir resistance, and as such should be closely monitored in influenza A(H5N1) and other N1 viruses in the future. Further animal studies and human clinical trials are necessary to optimize neuraminidase inhibitor dosing strategies for the treatment of influenza A(H5N1) infections.
Chua, Tze-Hoong; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Fang, H. E.; Chow, Chun-Kin; Ma, Siu-Kit; Sia, Sin-Fun; Ng, Iris H. Y.; Fenwick, Stanley G.; James, Cassandra M.; Chua, Sin Bin; Chew, Siang Thai; Kwang, Jimmy; Peiris, J. S. M.; Ellis, Trevor M.
The protective efficacy of a subunit avian influenza virus H5 vaccine based on recombinant baculovirus expressed H5 haemagglutinin antigen and an inactivated H5N2 avian influenza vaccine combined with a marker antigen (tetanus toxoid) was compared with commercially available inactivated H5N2 avian influenza vaccine in young ducks. Antibody responses, morbidity, mortality, and virus shedding were evaluated after challenge with a Vietnamese clade 1 H5N1 HPAI virus [A/VN/1203/04 (H5N1)] that was known to cause a high mortality rate in ducks. All three vaccines, administered with water-in-oil adjuvant, provided significant protection and dramatically reduced the duration and titer of virus shedding in the vaccinated challenged ducks compared with unvaccinated controls. The H5 subunit vaccine was shown to provide equivalent protection to the other two vaccines despite the H5 antibody responses in subunit vaccinated ducks being significantly lower prior to challenge. Ducks vaccinated with the H5N2 marker vaccine consistently produced antitetanus toxoid antibody. The two novel vaccines have attributes that would enhance H5N1 avian influenza surveillance and control by vaccination in small scale and village poultry systems. PMID:23074648
Daniels, P U; Edwardson, J M
We have investigated the effects of the carboxylic ionophores monensin and nigericin on the intracellular processing and transport of the influenza-virus envelope proteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase in Madin-Darby-canine-kidney-cell monolayers. In the presence of either ionophore, haemagglutinin acquires resistance to the enzyme endoglycosidase H more slowly than it does in untreated cells. In addition, the ionophores cause a block in oligosaccharide-processing events that are believed to occur normally in the trans elements of the Golgi complex. This block is not overcome even at long chase times. Finally, the ionophores cause a substantial slowing of the delivery of both haemagglutinin and neuraminidase to the plasma membrane. We conclude that the ionophores cause delays in the intracellular transport of these proteins both early and late in the pathway, that is, before and after passage through the trans-Golgi, and perturb the processing functions of this compartment. The possible significance of these observations with regard to the intracellular transport of newly synthesized plasma-membrane proteins in epithelial cells is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 6. PMID:3421918
Daniels, P U; Edwardson, J M
We have investigated the effects of the carboxylic ionophores monensin and nigericin on the intracellular processing and transport of the influenza-virus envelope proteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase in Madin-Darby-canine-kidney-cell monolayers. In the presence of either ionophore, haemagglutinin acquires resistance to the enzyme endoglycosidase H more slowly than it does in untreated cells. In addition, the ionophores cause a block in oligosaccharide-processing events that are believed to occur normally in the trans elements of the Golgi complex. This block is not overcome even at long chase times. Finally, the ionophores cause a substantial slowing of the delivery of both haemagglutinin and neuraminidase to the plasma membrane. We conclude that the ionophores cause delays in the intracellular transport of these proteins both early and late in the pathway, that is, before and after passage through the trans-Golgi, and perturb the processing functions of this compartment. The possible significance of these observations with regard to the intracellular transport of newly synthesized plasma-membrane proteins in epithelial cells is discussed.
Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins of influenza A virus demonstrates that their respective most recent common ancestors (MRCAs) both existed approximately 1000years ago. Most of the bifurcations within the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase phylogenetic trees occurred within a time window that can be dated with 95% confidence to the years 1411-1932 of the Common Era (AD) for haemagglutinin and 1366-1874 AD for neuraminidase. This subtype diversification episode is temporally congruent with the "Little Ice Age", a period of climatic cooling over the northern hemisphere. Furthermore, Bayesian probability mean ages for the bifurcation points within the haemagglutinin tree indicate two bursts of diversification from 1672 to 1715 AD and from 1825 to 1868 AD. The first of these follows in the wake of the coldest epoch in the Little Ice Age, and the second overlaps a later cooling episode. Since climate change is known to affect migration patterns in the reservoir host of influenza A, the aquatic wildfowl, and allopatric cladogenesis following population disruption is well supported in the evolutionary literature, a mechanism is proposed linking the Little Ice Age to influenza subtype diversification via ecological disruption of the wildfowl annual cycle. The suggestion that past climate change has impacted on influenza evolution implies that current global warming may cause a further burst of influenza subtype diversification with possible serious epidemiological consequences becoming apparent in the 22nd and 23rd centuries. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suarez, David L
Vaccination for both low pathogenicity avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used by countries that have become endemic for avian influenza virus, but stamping-out policies are still common for countries with recently introduced disease. Stamping-out policies of euthanatizing infected and at-risk flocks has been an effective control tool, but it comes at a high social and economic cost. Efforts to identify alternative ways to respond to outbreaks without widespread stamping out has become a goal for organizations like the World Organisation for Animal Health. A major issue with vaccination for avian influenza is trade considerations because countries that vaccinate are often considered to be endemic for the disease and they typically lose their export markets. Primarily as a tool to promote trade, the concept of DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) has been considered for avian influenza, but the goal for trade is to differentiate vaccinated and not-infected from vaccinated and infected animals because trading partners are unwilling to accept infected birds. Several different strategies have been investigated for a DIVA strategy, but each has advantages and disadvantages. A review of current knowledge on the research and implementation of the DIVA strategy will be discussed with possible ways to implement this strategy in the field. The increased desire for a workable DIVA strategy may lead to one of these ideas moving from the experimental to the practical.
Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron Am; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, Js Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L
Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans.
Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Peng, Cheng; Yu, Jian-Min; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Hou, Guang-Yu; Liu, Shuo; Li, Jin-Ping; Chen, Ji-Ming
Bovine influenza virus was first identified in the USA in 2013, and the virus represents a potential novel type of influenza viruses. However, the distribution and evolution of the virus remain unknown. We conducted a pilot survey of bovine influenza virus in China, and identified three bovine influenza viruses which are highly homogenous to the ones identified in the USA, suggesting that the bovine influenza virus likely circulates widely and evolves slowly in the world.
Background Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (H) genes from eight canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from seven raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the partial hemagglutinin gene sequences showed close clustering for geographic lineages, clearly distinct from vaccine strains and other wild-type foreign CDV strains, all the CDV strains were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (91.5-99.8% nt and 94.4-99.8% aa). The giant panda and raccoon dogs all were 549Y on the HA protein in this study, irrespective of the host species. Conclusions These findings enhance our knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Chinese CDV isolates, and may facilitate the development of effective strategies for monitoring and controlling CDV for wild canids and non-cainds in China. PMID:23566727
Popescu, Corneliu P; Florescu, Simin A; Lupulescu, Emilia; Zaharia, Mihaela; Tardei, Gratiela; Lazar, Mihaela; Ceausu, Emanoil; Ruta, Simona M
We characterized influenza B virus-related neurologic manifestations in an unusually high number of hospitalized adults at a tertiary care facility in Romania during the 2014-15 influenza epidemic season. Of 32 patients with a confirmed laboratory diagnosis of influenza B virus infection, neurologic complications developed in 7 adults (median age 31 years). These complications were clinically diagnosed as confirmed encephalitis (4 patients), possible encephalitis (2 patients), and cerebellar ataxia (1 patient). Two of the patients died. Virus sequencing identified influenza virus B (Yam)-lineage clade 3, which is representative of the B/Phuket/3073/2013 strain, in 4 patients. None of the patients had been vaccinated against influenza. These results suggest that influenza B virus can cause a severe clinical course and should be considered as an etiologic factor for encephalitis.
This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801
Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Yuk, Huijoon; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Bokyu; Song, Daesub
This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health.
Baillie, G.; Coulter, E.; Bhatt, S.; Kellam, P.; McCauley, J. W.; Wood, J. L. N.; Brown, I. H.; Pybus, O. G.; Leigh Brown, A. J.
Swine have often been considered as a mixing vessel for different influenza strains. In order to assess their role in more detail, we undertook a retrospective sequencing study to detect and characterize the reassortants present in European swine and to estimate the rate of reassortment between H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes with Eurasian (avian-like) internal protein-coding segments. We analysed 69 newly obtained whole genome sequences of subtypes H1N1–H3N2 from swine influenza viruses sampled between 1982 and 2008, using Illumina and 454 platforms. Analyses of these genomes, together with previously published genomes, revealed a large monophyletic clade of Eurasian swine-lineage polymerase segments containing H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes. We subsequently examined reassortments between the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments and estimated the reassortment rates between lineages using a recently developed evolutionary analysis method. High rates of reassortment between H1N2 and H1N1 Eurasian swine lineages were detected in European strains, with an average of one reassortment every 2–3 years. This rapid reassortment results from co-circulating lineages in swine, and in consequence we should expect further reassortments between currently circulating swine strains and the recent swine-origin H1N1v pandemic strain. PMID:22971819
Li, Zhiping; Li, Jinsong; Zhang, Yandong; Li, Lin; Ma, Limin; Li, Dan; Gao, Feng; Xia, Zhiping
Avian H5N1 influenza viruses present a challenge in the laboratory environment, as they are difficult to collect from the air due to their small size and relatively low concentration. In an effort to generate effective methods of H5N1 air removal and ensure the safety of laboratory personnel, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of aerosolized H5N1 produced by laboratory manipulations during research studies. Normal laboratory procedures used to process the influenza virus were carried out independently and the amount of virus polluting the on-site atmosphere was measured. In particular, zootomy, grinding, centrifugation, pipetting, magnetic stirring, egg inoculation, and experimental zoogenetic infection were performed. In addition, common accidents associated with each process were simulated, including breaking glass containers, syringe injection of influenza virus solution, and rupturing of centrifuge tubes. A micro-cluster sampling ambient air pollution collection device was used to collect air samples. The collected viruses were tested for activity by measuring their ability to induce hemagglutination with chicken red blood cells and to propagate in chicken embryos after direct inoculation, the latter being detected by reverse-transcription PCR and HA test. The results showed that the air samples from the normal centrifugal group and the negative-control group were negative, while all other groups were positive for H5N1. Our findings suggest that there are numerous sources of aerosols in laboratory operations involving H5N1. Thus, laboratory personnel should be aware of the exposure risk that accompanies routine procedures involved in H5N1 processing and take proactive measures to prevent accidental infection and decrease the risk of virus aerosol leakage beyond the laboratory.
Haque, M E; Giasuddin, M; Chowdhury, E H; Islam, M R
In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 was first detected in February 2007. Since then the virus has become entrenched in poultry farms of Bangladesh. There have so far been seven human cases of H5N1 HPAI infection in Bangladesh with one death. The objective of the present study was to investigate the molecular evolution of H5N1 HPAI viruses during 2007 to 2012. Partial or complete nucleotide sequences of all eight gene segments of two chicken isolates, five gene segments of a duck isolate and the haemagglutinin gene segment of 18 isolates from Bangladesh were established in the present study and subjected to molecular analysis. In addition, full-length sequences of different gene segments of other Bangladeshi H5N1 isolates available in GenBank were included in the analysis. The analysis revealed that the first introduction of clade 2.2 virus in Bangladesh in 2007 was followed by the introduction of clade 188.8.131.52 and 2.3.4 viruses in 2011. However, only clade 184.108.40.206 viruses could be isolated in 2012, indicating progressive replacement of clade 2.2 and 2.3.4 viruses. There has been an event of segment re-assortment between H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in Bangladesh, where H5N1 virus acquired the PB1 gene from a H9N2 virus. Point mutations have accumulated in Bangladeshi isolates over the last 5 years with potential modification of receptor binding site and antigenic sites. Extensive and continuous molecular epidemiological studies are necessary to monitor the evolution of circulating avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh.
Bawa, Bhupinder; Wang, Wei; Shabman, Reed S.; Duff, Michael; Lee, Jinhwa; Lang, Yuekun; Cao, Nan; Nagy, Abdou; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Richt, Juergen A.; Wentworth, David E.; Ma, Wenjun
Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses. PMID:25275541
Zhou, Bin; Ma, Jingjiao; Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Wang, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Duff, Michael; Lee, Jinhwa; Lang, Yuekun; Cao, Nan; Nagy, Abdou; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Richt, Juergen A; Wentworth, David E; Ma, Wenjun
Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses.
Wirotesangthong, Mali; Nagai, Takayuki; Yamada, Haruki; Amnuoypol, Surattana; Mungmee, Chutichot
Ethanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants were screened for influenza virus NA inhibition and in vitro antiviral activities using MDCK cells in an MTT assay. The vaccine proteins of influenza virus A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), mouse-adapted influenza virus A/Guizhou/54/89 (A/G)(H3N2) and mouse-adapted influenza virus B/Ibaraki/2/85 (B/I) were used in the NA inhibition assay, and mouse-adapted influenza viruses A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/G and B/I were used in the in vitro antiviral assay. The results of the in vitro antiviral assay indicated that the A/G virus was the most susceptible and an extract of the leaf of CS possessed the highest in vitro anti-A/G virus activity (41.98%). Therefore, the A/G virus and the CS extract were selected for studying in vivo anti-influenza virus activity. BALB/c mice were treated with CS extract (100 mg/kg per day, 5 times) orally from 4 hr before to 4 days after infection. CS extract elicited significant production of anti-influenza virus IgG(1) antibody in BAW and increased mouse weight compared to oseltamivir (0.1 mg/kg per day) on day 19 or water on days 17-19 of infection. Moreover, CS extract produced a higher anti-influenza virus IgA antibody level in BAW compared to oseltamivir, and a tendency towards an increase in anti-influenza virus IgA compared to water was shown. The results suggest that CS extract has a protective effect against influenza virus infection.
Limsuwat, Nattavatchara; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Auewarakul, Prasert
It was shown previously that human saliva has higher antiviral activity against human influenza viruses than against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and that the major anti-influenza activity was associated with sialic-acid-containing molecules. To further characterize the differential susceptibility to saliva among influenza viruses, seasonal influenza A and B virus, pandemic H1N1 virus, and 15 subtypes of avian influenza virus were tested for their susceptibility to human and chicken saliva. Human saliva showed higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers against seasonal influenza A virus and the pandemic H1N1 viruses than against influenza B virus and most avian influenza viruses, except for H9N2 and H12N9 avian influenza viruses, which showed high HI and NT titers. To understand the nature of sialic-acid-containing anti-influenza factors in human saliva, α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid was measured in human saliva samples using a lectin binding and dot blot assay. α2,6-linked sialic acid was found to be more abundant than α2,3-linked sialic acid, and a seasonal H1N1 influenza virus bound more efficiently to human saliva than an H5N1 virus in a dot blot analysis. These data indicated that human saliva contains the sialic acid type corresponding to the binding preference of seasonal influenza viruses.
Fonseca, Wendy; Ozawa, Makoto; Hatta, Masato; Orozco, Esther; Martínez, Máximo B; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Infections with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) rank high among the most common human respiratory diseases worldwide. Previously, we developed a replication-incompetent influenza virus by replacing the coding sequence of the PB2 gene, which encodes one of the viral RNA polymerase subunits, with that of a reporter gene. Here, we generated a PB2-knockout recombinant influenza virus expressing the F protein of RSV (PB2-RSVF virus) and tested its potential as a bivalent vaccine. In mice intranasally immunized with the PB2-RSVF virus, we detected high levels of antibodies against influenza virus, but not RSV. PB2-RSVF virus-immunized mice were protected from a lethal challenge with influenza virus but experienced severe body weight loss when challenged with RSV, indicating that PB2-RSVF vaccination enhanced RSV-associated disease. These results highlight one of the difficulties of developing an effective bivalent vaccine against influenza virus and RSV infections. PMID:24292020
Lee, Sangmoo; Kim, Jin Il; Heo, Jun; Lee, Ilseob; Park, Sehee; Hwang, Min-Woong; Bae, Joon-Yong; Park, Mee Sook; Park, Hyoung Jin; Park, Man-Seong
Herbal medicine has been used in the orient for thousands of years to treat large and small ailments, including microbial infections. Although there are treatments for influenza virus infection, there is no treatment for drug-resistant viruses. It is time that we explored and exploited the multi-component nature of herbal extracts as multi-drug combination therapies. Here, we present data on the anti-influenza virus effect of a medicinal mushroom, Phellinus igniarius. The P. igniarius water extract was effective against influenza A and B viruses, including 2009 pandemic H1N1, human H3N2, avian H9N2, and oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses. Virological assays revealed that the extract may interfere with one or more early events in the influenza virus replication cycle, including viral attachment to the target cell. Therefore, our results provide new insights into the use of P. igniarius as an anti-influenza medicine.
Rudneva, Irina A; Ilyushina, Natalia A; Timofeeva, Tatiana A; Webster, Robert G; Kaverin, Nikolai V
Antigenic mapping of the haemagglutinin (HA) molecule of H5 and H9 influenza viruses by selecting escape mutants with monoclonal anti-HA antibodies and subjecting the selected viruses to immunological analysis and sequencing has previously been performed. The viruses used as wild-type strains were mouse-adapted variants of the original H5 and H9 isolates. Phenotypic characterization of the escape mutants revealed that the amino acid change in HA that conferred resistance to a monoclonal antibody was sometimes associated with additional effects, including decreased virulence for mice. In the present study, the low-virulence H5 and H9 escape mutants were readapted to mice. Analysis of the readapted variants revealed that the reacquisition of virulence was not necessarily achieved by reacquisition of the wild-type HA gene sequence, but was also associated either with the removal of a glycosylation site (the one acquired previously by the escape mutant) without the exact restoration of the initial wild-type amino acid sequence, or, for an H5 escape mutant that had no newly acquired glycosylation sites, with an additional amino acid change in a remote part of the HA molecule. The data suggest that such 'compensating' mutations, removing the damaging effects of antibody-selected amino acid changes, may be important in the course of influenza virus evolution.
Neumann, Gabriele; Chen, Hualan; Gao, George F; Shu, Yuelong; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
All known subtypes of influenza A viruses are maintained in wild waterfowl, the natural reservoir of these viruses. Influenza A viruses are isolated from a variety of animal species with varying morbidity and mortality rates. More importantly, influenza A viruses cause respiratory disease in humans with potentially fatal outcome. Local or global outbreaks in humans are typically characterized by excess hospitalizations and deaths. In 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype emerged in Hong Kong that transmitted to humans, resulting in the first documented cases of human death by avian influenza virus infection. A new outbreak started in July 2003 in poultry in Vietnam, Indonesia, and Thailand, and highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses have since spread throughout Asia and into Europe and Africa. These viruses continue to infect humans with a high mortality rate and cause worldwide concern of a looming pandemic. Moreover, H5N1 virus outbreaks have had devastating effects on the poultry industries throughout Asia. Since H5N1 virus outbreaks appear to originate from Southern China, we here examine H5N1 influenza viruses in China, with an emphasis on their biological properties. PMID:19884910
Jakab, G.J.; Bassett, D.J. )
Oxidant exposure following chemically induced lung injury exacerbates the tendency to develop pulmonary fibrosis. Influenza virus pneumonitis causes severe acute lung damage that, upon resolution, is followed by a persistent alveolitis and parenchymal changes characterized by patchy interstitial pneumonia and collagen deposition in the affected areas. To determine whether oxidant exposure exacerbates the virus-induced alveolitis and residual lung damage, mice were infected by aerosol inhalation with influenza A virus and continuously exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone or ambient air. Noninfected control mice were exposed to either ambient air or ozone. On various days during the first month after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed and their lungs assessed for acute injury (lung lavage albumin, total and differential cell counts, wet/dry ratios, and morphometry). At 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed for total and differential lavage cell counts, lung hydroxyproline content, and morphometric analysis. Ozone exposure did not alter the proliferation of virus in the lungs as quantitated by infectious virus titers of lung homogenates at 1, 4, 7, 10, and 15 days after virus infection but mitigated the virus-induced acute lung injury by approximately 50%. After Day 30 a shift in the character of the pulmonary lesions was observed in that continuous exposure to ozone potentiated the postinfluenzal alveolitis and structural changes in the lung parenchyma. Additional studies suggest that the mechanism for the enhanced postinfluenzal lung damage may be related to the oxidant impairing the repair process of the acute influenzal lung damage. These data demonstrate that ozone exposure mitigates acute virus-induced lung injury and potentiates residual lung damage.
Taubenberger, Jeffery K
The "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-19 caused acute illness in 25-30 percent of the world's population and resulted in the death of up to an estimated 40 million people. Using fixed and frozen lung tissue of 1918 influenza victims, the complete genomic sequence of the 1918 influenza virus has been deduced. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the completed 1918 influenza virus genes shows them to be the most avian-like among the mammalian-adapted viruses. This finding supports the hypotheses that (1) the pandemic virus contains genes derived from avian-like influenza virus strains and that (2) the 1918 virus is the common ancestor of human and classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses. The relationship of the 1918 virus with avian influenza viruses is further supported by recent work in which the 1918 hemagglutinin (HA) protein crystal structure was resolved. Neither the 1918 hemagglutinin (HA) nor the neuraminidase (NA) genes possess mutations known to increase tissue tropicity that account for the virulence of other influenza virus strains like A/WSN/33 or the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 or H7 viruses. Using reverse genetics approaches, influenza virus constructs containing the 1918 HA and NA on a modern human influenza virus background were lethal in mice. The complete 1918 virus was even more virulent in mice. The genotypic basis of this virulence has not yet been elucidated. The complete sequence of the non-structural (NS) gene segment of the 1918 virus was deduced and also tested for the hypothesis that enhanced virulence in 1918 could have been due to type I interferon inhibition by the NS1 protein. Results from these experiments suggest that in human cells the 1918 NS1 is a very effective interferon antagonist, but the 1918 NS1 gene does not have the amino acid change that correlates with virulence in the H5N1 virus strains identified in 1997 in Hong Kong. Sequence analysis of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus is allowing us to test hypotheses
Tumpey, Terrence M; Basler, Christopher F; Aguilar, Patricia V; Zeng, Hui; Solórzano, Alicia; Swayne, David E; Cox, Nancy J; Katz, Jacqueline M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo
The pandemic influenza virus of 1918-1919 killed an estimated 20 to 50 million people worldwide. With the recent availability of the complete 1918 influenza virus coding sequence, we used reverse genetics to generate an influenza virus bearing all eight gene segments of the pandemic virus to study the properties associated with its extraordinary virulence. In stark contrast to contemporary human influenza H1N1 viruses, the 1918 pandemic virus had the ability to replicate in the absence of trypsin, caused death in mice and embryonated chicken eggs, and displayed a high-growth phenotype in human bronchial epithelial cells. Moreover, the coordinated expression of the 1918 virus genes most certainly confers the unique high-virulence phenotype observed with this pandemic virus.
Qiao, Chuanling; Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Shen, Huigang; Qi, Wenbao; Chen, Ying; Mok, Chris Ka Pun; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Jürgen A; Ma, Wenjun
Both H9N2 avian influenza and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses (pH1N1) are able to infect humans and swine, which has raised concerns that novel reassortant H9 viruses with pH1N1 genes might be generated in these hosts by reassortment. Although previous studies have demonstrated that reassortant H9 viruses with pH1N1 genes show increased virulence in mice and transmissibility in ferrets, the virulence and transmissibility of reassortant H9 viruses in natural hosts such as chickens and swine remain unknown. This study generated two reassortant H9 viruses (H9N2/CA09 and H9N1/CA09) in the background of the pH1N1 A/California/04/2009 (CA09) virus by replacing either both the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes or only the HA gene with the respective genes from the A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/1997 (H9N2) virus and evaluated their replication, pathogenicity and transmission in chickens and pigs compared with the parental viruses. Chickens that were infected with the parental H9N2 and reassortant H9 viruses seroconverted. The parental H9N2 and reassortant H9N2/CA09 viruses were transmitted to sentinel chickens, but H9N1/CA09 virus was not. The parental H9N2 replicated poorly and was not transmitted in pigs, whereas both H9N2/CA09 and H9N1/CA09 viruses replicated and were transmitted efficiently in pigs, similar to the pH1N1 virus. These results demonstrated that reassortant H9 viruses with pH1N1 genes show enhanced replication and transmissibility in pigs compared with the parental H9N2 virus, indicating that they may pose a threat for humans if such reassortants arise in swine.
Burnham, Andrew J.; Baranovich, Tatiana; Govorkova, Elena A.
Many aspects of the biology and epidemiology of influenza B viruses are far less studied than for influenza A viruses, and one of these aspects is effectiveness and resistance to the clinically available antiviral drugs, the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs). Acute respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of death in children and adults, and influenza is among the few respiratory infections that can be prevented and treated by vaccination and antiviral treatment. Recent data has suggested that influenza B virus infections are of specific concern to pediatric patients because of the increased risk of severe disease. Treatment of influenza B is a challenging task for the following reasons: NAIs (e.g., oseltamivir and zanamivir) are the only FDA-approved class of antivirals available for treatment;the data suggest that oseltamivir is less effective than zanamivir in pediatric patients;zanamivir is not prescribed to patients younger than 7;influenza B viruses are less susceptible than influenza A viruses to NAIs in vitro;although the level of resistance to NAIs is low, the number of different molecular markers of resistance is higher than for influenza A viruses, and they are not well defined;the relationship between levels of NAI phenotypic resistance and known molecular markers, frequency of emergence, transmissibility, and fitness of NAI-resistant variants are not well established. This review presents current knowledge of the effectiveness of NAIs for influenza B virus and antiviral resistance in clinical, surveillance, and experimental studies. PMID:24013000
Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Iannello, Pina; Jelley, Lauren; Lau, Hilda; Barr, Ian G
Full genome sequencing of influenza A viruses (IAV), including those that arise from annual influenza epidemics, is undertaken to determine if reassorting has occurred or if other pathogenic traits are present. Traditionally IAV sequencing has been biased toward the major surface glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase, while the internal genes are often ignored. Despite the development of next generation sequencing (NGS), many laboratories are still reliant on conventional Sanger sequencing to sequence IAV. To develop a minimal and robust set of primers for Sanger sequencing of the full genome of IAV currently circulating in humans. A set of 13 primer pairs was designed that enabled amplification of the six internal genes of multiple human IAV subtypes including the recent avian influenza A(H7N9) virus from China. Specific primers were designed to amplify the HA and NA genes of each IAV subtype of interest. Each of the primers also incorporated a binding site at its 5'-end for either a forward or reverse M13 primer, such that only two M13 primers were required for all subsequent sequencing reactions. This minimal set of primers was suitable for sequencing the six internal genes of all currently circulating human seasonal influenza A subtypes as well as the avian A(H7N9) viruses that have infected humans in China. This streamlined Sanger sequencing protocol could be used to generate full genome sequence data more rapidly and easily than existing influenza genome sequencing protocols. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lebarbenchon, Camille; Pedersen, Janice C; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Ramey, Andrew M; Dugan, Vivien G; Halpin, Rebecca A; Ferro, Pamela J; Lupiani, Blanca; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Poulson, Rebecca L; Smeltzer, Martin; Cardona, Carol J; Tompkins, S Mark; Wentworth, David E; Stallknecht, David E; Brown, Justin D
Introductions of H7 influenza A virus (IAV) from wild birds into poultry have been documented worldwide, resulting in varying degrees of morbidity and mortality. H7 IAV infection in domestic poultry has served as a source of human infection and disease. We report the detection of H7N9 subtype IAVs in Minnesota (MN) turkey farms during 2009 and 2011. The full genome was sequenced from eight isolates as well as the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments of H7 and N9 virus subtypes for 108 isolates from North American wild birds between 1986 and 2012. Through maximum-likelihood and coalescent phylogenetic analyses, we identified the recent H7 and N9 IAV ancestors of the turkey-origin H7N9 IAVs, estimated the time and geographical origin of the ancestral viruses, and determined the relatedness between the 2009 and 2011 turkey-origin H7N9 IAVs. Analyses supported that the 2009 and 2011 viruses were distantly related genetically, suggesting that the two outbreaks arose from independent introduction events from wild birds. Our findings further supported that the 2011 MN turkey-origin H7N9 virus was closely related to H7N9 IAVs isolated in poultry in Nebraska during the same year. Although the precise origin of the wild-bird donor of the turkey-origin H7N9 IAVs could not be determined, our findings suggested that, for both the NA and HA gene segments, the MN turkey-origin H7N9 viruses were related to viruses circulating in wild birds between 2006 and 2011 in the Mississippi Flyway.
Yang, Jianmei; Lee, Jinhwa; Ma, Jingjiao; Lang, Yuekun; Nietfeld, Jerome; Li, Yuhao; Duff, Michael; Li, Yonghai; Yang, Yuju; Liu, Haixia; Zhou, Bin; Wentworth, David E; Richt, Juergen A; Li, Zejun; Ma, Wenjun
In our previous studies the reassortant virus containing only the PR8 H1N1 matrix (M) gene in the background of the modified bat influenza Bat09:mH1mN1 virus could be generated. However, whether M genes from other origins can be rescued in the background of the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus and whether the resulting novel reassortant virus is virulent remain unknown. Herein, two reassortant viruses were generated in the background of the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus containing either a North American or a Eurasian swine influenza virus M gene. These two reassortant viruses and the reassortant virus with PR8 M as well as the control Bat09:mH1mN1 virus replicated efficiently in cultured cells, while the reassortant virus with PR8 M grew to a higher titer than the other three viruses in tested cells. Mouse studies showed that reassortant viruses with either North American or Eurasian swine influenza virus M genes did not enhance virulence, whereas the reassortant virus with PR8 M gene displayed higher pathogenicity when compared to the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus. This is most likely due to the fact that the PR8 H1N1 virus is a mouse-adapted virus. Furthermore, reassortment potential between the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus and an H3N2 swine influenza virus (A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998) was investigated using co-infection of MDCK cells, but no reassortant viruses were detected. Taken together, our results indicate that the modified bat influenza virus is most likely incapable of reassortment with influenza A viruses with in vitro co-infection experiments, although reassortant viruses with different M genes can be generated by reverse genetics.
Florescu, Simin A.; Lupulescu, Emilia; Zaharia, Mihaela; Tardei, Gratiela; Lazar, Mihaela; Ceausu, Emanoil; Ruta, Simona M.
We characterized influenza B virus–related neurologic manifestations in an unusually high number of hospitalized adults at a tertiary care facility in Romania during the 2014–15 influenza epidemic season. Of 32 patients with a confirmed laboratory diagnosis of influenza B virus infection, neurologic complications developed in 7 adults (median age 31 years). These complications were clinically diagnosed as confirmed encephalitis (4 patients), possible encephalitis (2 patients), and cerebellar ataxia (1 patient). Two of the patients died. Virus sequencing identified influenza virus B (Yam)-lineage clade 3, which is representative of the B/Phuket/3073/2013 strain, in 4 patients. None of the patients had been vaccinated against influenza. These results suggest that influenza B virus can cause a severe clinical course and should be considered as an etiologic factor for encephalitis. PMID:28322689
Tong, Suxiang; Zhu, Xueyong; Li, Yan; Shi, Mang; Zhang, Jing; Bourgeois, Melissa; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xianfeng; Recuenco, Sergio; Gomez, Jorge; Chen, Li-Mei; Johnson, Adam; Tao, Ying; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Carney, Paul J.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Chang, Jessie; Guo, Zhu; Davis, Charles T.; Paulson, James C.; Stevens, James; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wilson, Ian A.; Donis, Ruben O.
Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris) from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses. PMID:24130481
Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled wit...
Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic suggesting the Spanish flu virus caused swine influenza. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of swine to the Spanish flu virus. A plasmid-derived 1918 pandemic H1N1 (1918/rec) influe...
Zhao, Yaqin; Ling, Fangfang; Xiao, Kun; Li, Qian; Li, Bin; Lu, Chunni; Qi, Wenbao; Zeng, Zhenling; Liao, Ming; Liu, Yahong; Chen, Weisan
Fatal influenza outcomes result from a combination of rapid virus replication and collateral lung tissue damage caused by exaggerated pro-inflammatory host immune cell responses. There are few therapeutic agents that target both biological processes for the attenuation of influenza-induced lung pathology. We show that Saikosaponin A, a bioactive triterpene saponin with previouslyestablished anti-inflammatory effects, demonstrates both in vitro and in vivo anti-viral activity against influenza A virus infections. Saikosaponin A attenuated the replication of three different influenza A virus strains, including a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain, in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. This anti-viral activity occurred through both downregulation of NF-κB signaling and caspase 3-dependent virus ribonucleoprotein nuclear export as demonstrated by NF-κB subunit p65 and influenza virus nucleoprotein nuclear translocation studies in influenza virus infected A549 cells. Critically, Saikosaponin A also attenuated viral replication, aberrant pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lung histopathology in the widely established H1N1 PR8 model of influenza A virus lethality in C57BL/6 mice. Flow cytometry studies of mouse bronchoalveolar lavage cells revealed that SSa exerted immunomodulatory effects through a selective attenuation of lung neutrophil and monocyte recruitment during the early peak of the innate immune response to PR8 infection. Altogether, our results indicate that Saikosaponin A possesses novel therapeutic potential for the treatment of pathological influenza virus infections. PMID:26637810
Dodman, Tim; Caron, Alexandre; Balança, Gilles; Desvaux, Stephanie; Goutard, Flavie; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lamarque, François; Hagemeijer, Ward; Monicat, François
We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa. PMID:17553284
Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...
Three poultry farms affected by the 2015 influenza outbreak had groundwater supplies test positive for the influenza matrix gene. One well was H5-positive, matching the outbreak virus HA gene. Virus transport to underlying aquifers was corroborated by finding poultry-specific parvovirus DNA in seven...
The influenza H1N1 pandemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical disasters in human history. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the 1918 virus and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, the latter now a component of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV),...
Makau, J N; Watanabe, K; Kobayashi, N
Influenza virus infection is a major public health problem that leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of resistance to the currently available anti-influenza agents has necessitated the development of new drugs with novel targets. Studying known ethno-medicinal plants is a promising approach for the discovery of new antiviral compounds. Alchemilla mollis is used in traditional medicine in Europe for different indications, including minimizing the symptoms of a sore throat. In this study, we found that A. mollis extract has anti-influenza activity, and investigated the mechanism underlying its inhibition of influenza virus replication. Plaque assays demonstrated that treatment of cells with A. mollis extract prior to infection did not inhibit influenza virus infection. However, plaque formation was markedly reduced when infected cells were overlaid with an agarose gel containing A. mollis extract. In addition, exposure of the virus to A. mollis extract prior to infection and treatment of cells during virus infection significantly suppressed plaque formation. Influenza virus-induced hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells was inhibited by A. mollis extract treatment. The inhibitory effect was observed against influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H3N2, and H5N2. These findings suggest that A. mollis extract has virucidal or neutralizing activity against influenza virus particles. Furthermore, inhibitory effect of zanamivir synergistically increased after combination with A. mollis extract. Our results suggest that A. mollis extract has the potential to be developed as an antiinfluenza agent.
Shriner, Susan A; VanDalen, Kaci K; Mooers, Nicole L; Ellis, Jeremy W; Sullivan, Heather J; Root, J Jeffrey; Pelzel, Angela M; Franklin, Alan B
Avian influenza viruses are known to productively infect a number of mammal species, several of which are commonly found on or near poultry and gamebird farms. While control of rodent species is often used to limit avian influenza virus transmission within and among outbreak sites, few studies have investigated the potential role of these species in outbreak dynamics. We trapped and sampled synanthropic mammals on a gamebird farm in Idaho, USA that had recently experienced a low pathogenic avian influenza outbreak. Six of six house mice (Mus musculus) caught on the outbreak farm were presumptively positive for antibodies to type A influenza. Consequently, we experimentally infected groups of naïve wild-caught house mice with five different low pathogenic avian influenza viruses that included three viruses derived from wild birds and two viruses derived from chickens. Virus replication was efficient in house mice inoculated with viruses derived from wild birds and more moderate for chicken-derived viruses. Mean titers (EID(50) equivalents/mL) across all lung samples from seven days of sampling (three mice/day) ranged from 10(3.89) (H3N6) to 10(5.06) (H4N6) for the wild bird viruses and 10(2.08) (H6N2) to 10(2.85) (H4N8) for the chicken-derived viruses. Interestingly, multiple regression models indicated differential replication between sexes, with significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of avian influenza RNA found in females compared with males. Avian influenza viruses replicated efficiently in wild-caught house mice without adaptation, indicating mice may be a risk pathway for movement of avian influenza viruses on poultry and gamebird farms. Differential virus replication between males and females warrants further investigation to determine the generality of this result in avian influenza disease dynamics.
Shriner, Susan A.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Mooers, Nicole L.; Ellis, Jeremy W.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Root, J. Jeffrey; Pelzel, Angela M.; Franklin, Alan B.
Background Avian influenza viruses are known to productively infect a number of mammal species, several of which are commonly found on or near poultry and gamebird farms. While control of rodent species is often used to limit avian influenza virus transmission within and among outbreak sites, few studies have investigated the potential role of these species in outbreak dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We trapped and sampled synanthropic mammals on a gamebird farm in Idaho, USA that had recently experienced a low pathogenic avian influenza outbreak. Six of six house mice (Mus musculus) caught on the outbreak farm were presumptively positive for antibodies to type A influenza. Consequently, we experimentally infected groups of naïve wild-caught house mice with five different low pathogenic avian influenza viruses that included three viruses derived from wild birds and two viruses derived from chickens. Virus replication was efficient in house mice inoculated with viruses derived from wild birds and more moderate for chicken-derived viruses. Mean titers (EID50 equivalents/mL) across all lung samples from seven days of sampling (three mice/day) ranged from 103.89 (H3N6) to 105.06 (H4N6) for the wild bird viruses and 102.08 (H6N2) to 102.85 (H4N8) for the chicken-derived viruses. Interestingly, multiple regression models indicated differential replication between sexes, with significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of avian influenza RNA found in females compared with males. Conclusions/Significance Avian influenza viruses replicated efficiently in wild-caught house mice without adaptation, indicating mice may be a risk pathway for movement of avian influenza viruses on poultry and gamebird farms. Differential virus replication between males and females warrants further investigation to determine the generality of this result in avian influenza disease dynamics. PMID:22720076
Moncorgé, Olivier; Long, Jason S.; Cauldwell, Anna V.; Zhou, Hongbo; Lycett, Samantha J.
Reassortant influenza viruses with combinations of avian, human, and/or swine genomic segments have been detected frequently in pigs. As a consequence, pigs have been accused of being a “mixing vessel” for influenza viruses. This implies that pig cells support transcription and replication of avian influenza viruses, in contrast to human cells, in which most avian influenza virus polymerases display limited activity. Although influenza virus polymerase activity has been studied in human and avian cells for many years by use of a minigenome assay, similar investigations in pig cells have not been reported. We developed the first minigenome assay for pig cells and compared the activities of polymerases of avian or human influenza virus origin in pig, human, and avian cells. We also investigated in pig cells the consequences of some known mammalian host range determinants that enhance influenza virus polymerase activity in human cells, such as PB2 mutations E627K, D701N, G590S/Q591R, and T271A. The two typical avian influenza virus polymerases used in this study were poorly active in pig cells, similar to what is seen in human cells, and mutations that adapt the avian influenza virus polymerase for human cells also increased activity in pig cells. In contrast, a different pattern was observed in avian cells. Finally, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 polymerase activity was tested because this subtype has been reported to replicate only poorly in pigs. H5N1 polymerase was active in swine cells, suggesting that other barriers restrict these viruses from becoming endemic in pigs. PMID:23077313
Causey, Douglas; Edwards, Scott V
Avian influenza A virus (an orthomyxovirus) is a zoonotic pathogen with a natural reservoir entirely in birds. The influenza virus genome is an 8-segment single-stranded RNA with high potential for in situ recombination. Two segments code for the hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) antigens used for host-cell entry. At present, 16 H and 9 N subtypes are known, for a total of 144 possible different influenza subtypes, each with potentially different host susceptibility. With >10,000 species of birds found in nearly every terrestrial and aquatic habitat, there are few places on earth where birds cannot be found. The avian immune system differs from that of humans in several important features, including asynchronous B and T lymphocyte systems and a polymorphic multigene immune complex, but little is known about the immunogenetics of pathogenic response. Postbreeding dispersal and migration and a naturally high degree of environmental vagility mean that wild birds have the potential to be vectors that transmit highly pathogenic variants great distances from the original sources of infection.
Cobey, Sarah; Hensley, Scott E
Antibody responses to influenza viruses are critical for protection, but the ways in which repeated viral exposures shape antibody evolution and effectiveness over time remain controversial. Early observations demonstrated that viral exposure history has a profound effect on the specificity and magnitude of antibody responses to a new viral strain, a phenomenon called 'original antigenic sin.' Although 'sin' might suppress some aspects of the immune response, so far there is little indication that hosts with pre-existing immunity are more susceptible to viral infections compared to naïve hosts. However, the tendency of the immune response to focus on previously recognized conserved epitopes when encountering new viral strains can create an opportunity cost when mutations arise in these conserved epitopes. Hosts with different exposure histories may continue to experience distinct patterns of infection over time, which may influence influenza viruses' continued antigenic evolution. Understanding the dynamics of B cell competition that underlie the development of antibody responses might help explain the low effectiveness of current influenza vaccines and lead to better vaccination strategies.
Samson, Mélanie; Pizzorno, Andrés; Abed, Yacine; Boivin, Guy
In addition to immunization programs, antiviral agents can play a major role for the control of seasonal influenza epidemics and may also provide prophylactic and therapeutic benefits during an eventual pandemic. The purpose of this article is to review the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and clinical indications of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) with an emphasis on the emergence of antiviral drug resistance. There are two approved NAIs compounds in US: inhaled zanamivir and oral oseltamivir, which have been commercially available since 1999-2000. In addition, two other NAIs, peramivir (an intravenous cyclopentane derivative) and laninamivir (a long-acting NAI administered by a single nasal inhalation) have been approved in certain countries and are under clinical evaluations in others. As for other antivirals, the development and dissemination of drug resistance is a significant threat to the clinical utility of NAIs. The emergence and worldwide spread of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1) viruses during the 2007-2009 seasons emphasize the need for continuous monitoring of antiviral drug susceptibilities. Further research priorities should include a better understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to existing antivirals, the development of novel compounds which target viral or host proteins and the evaluation of combination therapies for improved treatment of severe influenza infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Treatment of influenza: targeting the virus or the host."
Gilbert, Marius; Martin, Vincent; Cappelle, Julien; Hosseini, Parviez; Njabo, Kevin Y.; Abdel Aziz, Soad; Xiao, Xiangming; Daszak, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.
The 1957 and 1968 influenza pandemics, each of which killed ≈1 million persons, arose through reassortment events. Influenza virus in humans and domestic animals could reassort and cause another pandemic. To identify geographic areas where agricultural production systems are conducive to reassortment, we fitted multivariate regression models to surveillance data on influenza A virus subtype H5N1 among poultry in China and Egypt and subtype H3N2 among humans. We then applied the models across Asia and Egypt to predict where subtype H3N2 from humans and subtype H5N1 from birds overlap; this overlap serves as a proxy for co-infection and in vivo reassortment. For Asia, we refined the prioritization by identifying areas that also have high swine density. Potential geographic foci of reassortment include the northern plains of India, coastal and central provinces of China, the western Korean Peninsula and southwestern Japan in Asia, and the Nile Delta in Egypt. PMID:23628436
van Riel, Debby; van de Bildt, Marco W.G; Osterhaus, Albert; Kuiken, Thijs
Patterns of virus attachment to the respiratory tract of 4 marine mammal species were determined for avian and human influenza viruses. Attachment of avian influenza A viruses (H4N5) and (H7N7) and human influenza B viruses to trachea and bronchi of harbor seals is consistent with reported influenza outbreaks in this species. PMID:22516350
Katz, Jaqueline M.; York, Ian A.
Mice are widely used for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunology because of their low cost, the wide availability of mouse-specific reagents, and the large number of mouse strains available, including knockout and transgenic strains. However, mice do not fully recapitulate the signs of influenza infection of humans: transmission of influenza between mice is much less efficient than in humans, and influenza viruses often require adaptation before they are able to efficiently replicate in mice. In the process of mouse adaptation, influenza viruses acquire mutations that enhance their ability to attach to mouse cells, replicate within the cells, and suppress immunity, among other functions. Many such mouse-adaptive mutations have been identified, covering all 8 genomic segments of the virus. Identification and analysis of these mutations have provided insight into the molecular determinants of influenza virulence and pathogenesis, not only in mice but also in humans and other species. In particular, several mouse-adaptive mutations of avian influenza viruses have proved to be general mammalian-adaptive changes that are potential markers of pre-pandemic viruses. As well as evaluating influenza pathogenesis, mice have also been used as models for evaluation of novel vaccines and anti-viral therapies. Mice can be a useful animal model for studying influenza biology as long as differences between human and mice infections are taken into account. PMID:25038937
Nie, Shuping; Roth, Richard B; Stiles, Jeffrey; Mikhlina, Albina; Lu, Xuedong; Tang, Yi-Wei; Babady, N Esther
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of influenza is important for infection control, as well as for patient management. Alere i Influenza A&B is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification-based integrated system for detection and differentiation of influenza virus A and influenza virus B. The performance of the Alere i Influenza A&B was screened using frozen nasopharyngeal-swab specimens collected in viral transport medium (VTM) that were originally tested fresh with the FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP) assay during the 2012-2013 influenza outbreak. In total, 360 VTM specimens were selected for Alere i Influenza A&B testing: 40 influenza virus A H1N1-2009 (influenza virus A-1), 40 influenza virus A H3N2 (influenza virus A-3), 37 influenza virus A "equivocal" or "no subtype detected" (influenza virus A-u), 41 influenza virus B, and 202 influenza virus-negative specimens, as initially determined by the FilmArray RP assay. The Alere assay showed sensitivities of 87.2%, 92.5%, 25.0%, and 97.4% for influenza virus A-1, influenza virus A-3, influenza virus A-u, and influenza virus B, respectively, after discordant resolution by Prodesse ProFLU+ PCR. The specificities were 100% for both influenza virus A and influenza virus B. In general, the Alere i Influenza A&B provided good sensitivity, although the assay did show poorer sensitivity with samples determined to have low influenza virus A titers by Prodesse ProFlu+ PCR (a mean real-time PCR threshold cycle [CT] value of 31.9 ± 2.0), which included the majority of the samples called influenza virus A "equivocal" or "no subtype detected" by a single BioFire FilmArray RP test. The integrated, rapid, and simple characteristics of the Alere i Influenza A&B assay make it a potential candidate for point-of-care testing, with a test turnaround time of less than 15 min. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Holmes, Edward C; Joseph, Udayan; Fourment, Mathieu; Su, Yvonne C F; Halpin, Rebecca; Lee, Raphael T C; Deng, Yi-Mo; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Fedorova, Nadia B; Zhou, Bin; Spirason, Natalie; Kühnert, Denise; Bošková, Veronika; Stadler, Tanja; Costa, Anna-Maria; Dwyer, Dominic E; Huang, Q Sue; Jennings, Lance C; Rawlinson, William; Sullivan, Sheena G; Hurt, Aeron C; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Wentworth, David E; Smith, Gavin J D; Barr, Ian G
A complex interplay of viral, host, and ecological factors shapes the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. Although considerable attention has been paid to influenza A viruses, a lack of equivalent data means that an integrated evolutionary and epidemiological framework has until now not been available for influenza B viruses, despite their significant disease burden. Through the analysis of over 900 full genomes from an epidemiological collection of more than 26,000 strains from Australia and New Zealand, we reveal fundamental differences in the phylodynamics of the two co-circulating lineages of influenza B virus (Victoria and Yamagata), showing that their individual dynamics are determined by a complex relationship between virus transmission, age of infection, and receptor binding preference. In sum, this work identifies new factors that are important determinants of influenza B evolution and epidemiology.
Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Holmes, Edward C; Joseph, Udayan; Fourment, Mathieu; Su, Yvonne CF; Halpin, Rebecca; Lee, Raphael TC; Deng, Yi-Mo; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Fedorova, Nadia B; Zhou, Bin; Spirason, Natalie; Kühnert, Denise; Bošková, Veronika; Stadler, Tanja; Costa, Anna-Maria; Dwyer, Dominic E; Huang, Q Sue; Jennings, Lance C; Rawlinson, William; Sullivan, Sheena G; Hurt, Aeron C; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Wentworth, David E; Smith, Gavin JD; Barr, Ian G
A complex interplay of viral, host, and ecological factors shapes the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. Although considerable attention has been paid to influenza A viruses, a lack of equivalent data means that an integrated evolutionary and epidemiological framework has until now not been available for influenza B viruses, despite their significant disease burden. Through the analysis of over 900 full genomes from an epidemiological collection of more than 26,000 strains from Australia and New Zealand, we reveal fundamental differences in the phylodynamics of the two co-circulating lineages of influenza B virus (Victoria and Yamagata), showing that their individual dynamics are determined by a complex relationship between virus transmission, age of infection, and receptor binding preference. In sum, this work identifies new factors that are important determinants of influenza B evolution and epidemiology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05055.001 PMID:25594904
Lee, Jong Seok; Hwang, Hye Suk; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kwon, Young-Man; Kim, Min-Chul; Kang, Sang-Moo
Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8) probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.
Lee, Jong Seok; Hwang, Hye Suk; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kwon, Young-Man; Kim, Min-Chul; Kang, Sang-Moo
Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8) probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions. PMID:24473234
Olivier, Alicia K.; Genova, Suzanne; Epperson, William B.; Smith, David R.; Schneider, Liesel; Barton, Kathleen; McCuan, Katlin; Webby, Richard J.
ABSTRACT Cattle have been proposed as the natural reservoir of a novel member of the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, which has been tentatively classified as influenza D virus (IDV). Although isolated from sick animals, it is unclear whether IDV causes any clinical disease in cattle. To address this aspect of Koch's postulates, three dairy calves (treatment animals) held in individual pens were inoculated intranasally with IDV strain D/bovine/Mississippi/C00046N/2014. At 1 day postinoculation, a seronegative calf (contact animal) was added to each of the treatment animal pens. The cattle in both treatment and contact groups seroconverted, and virus was detected in their respiratory tracts. Histologically, there was a significant increase in neutrophil tracking in tracheal epithelia of the treatment calves compared to control animals. While infected and contact animals demonstrated various symptoms of respiratory tract infection, they were mild, and the calves in the treatment group did not differ from the controls in terms of heart rate, respiratory rate, or rectal temperature. To mimic zoonotic transmission, two ferrets were exposed to a plastic toy fomite soaked with infected nasal discharge from the treatment calves. These ferrets did not shed the virus or seroconvert. In summary, this study demonstrates that IDV causes a mild respiratory disease upon experimental infection of cattle and can be transmitted effectively among cattle by in-pen contact, but not from cattle to ferrets through fomite exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that cattle are a natural reservoir for the virus. IMPORTANCE A novel influenza virus, tentatively classified as influenza D virus (IDV), was identified in swine, cattle, sheep, and goats. Among these hosts, cattle have been proposed as the natural reservoir. In this study, we show that cattle experimentally infected with IDV can shed virus and transmit it to other cattle through direct contact, but not to ferrets through
Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory conducts research on many areas related to AI including pathogenesis and transmission studies, use of vaccination, virus ...
Eisfeld, Amie J.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
SUMMARY Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause epidemics and pandemics that result in considerable financial burden and loss of human life. To manage annual IAV epidemics and prepare for future pandemics, improved understanding of how IAVs emerge, transmit, cause disease, and acquire pandemic potential is urgently needed. Fundamental techniques essential for procuring such knowledge are IAV isolation and culture from experimental and surveillance samples. Here, we present a detailed protocol for IAV sample collection and processing, amplification in chicken eggs and mammalian cells, and identification from samples containing unknown pathogens. This protocol is robust, and allows for generation of virus cultures that can be used for downstream analyses. Once experimental or surveillance samples are obtained, virus cultures can be generated and the presence of IAV can be verified in 3–5 days. Increased time-frames may be required for less experienced laboratory personnel, or when large numbers of samples will be processed. PMID:25321410
Tran, Anh T; Cortens, John P; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Coombs, Kevin M
Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication.
Onodera, Hiroyuki; Urayama, Takeru; Hirota, Kazue; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Takahashi, Kazuo; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Yunoki, Mikihiro
Influenza viruses A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B are known seasonal viruses that undergo annual mutation. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains anti-seasonal influenza virus globulins. Although the virus-neutralizing (VN) titer is an indicator of protective antibodies, changes in this titer over extended time periods have yet to be examined. In this study, variations in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and VN titers against seasonal influenza viruses in IVIG lots over extended time periods were examined. In addition, the importance of monitoring the reactivity of IVIG against seasonal influenza viruses with varying antigenicity was evaluated. A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B influenza virus strains and IVIG lots manufactured from 1999 to 2014 were examined. The HI titer was measured by standard methods. The VN titer was measured using a micro-focus method. IVIG exhibited significant HI and VN titers against all investigated strains. Our results suggest that the donor population maintains both specific and cross-reactive antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses, except in cases of pandemic viruses, despite major antigen changes. The titers against seasonal influenza vaccine strains, including past strains, were stable over short time periods but increased slowly over time. PMID:28331286
Tran, Anh T.; Cortens, John P.; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A.
Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication. PMID:23135712
Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.
Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results Most ruddy turnstones had pre‐existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A‐specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts. PMID:22498031
Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Nei, Masatoshi
Influenza A, B, and C viruses are the etiological agents of influenza. Hemagglutinin (HA) is the major envelope glycoprotein of influenza A and B viruses, and hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) in influenza C viruses is a protein homologous to HA. Because influenza A virus pandemics in humans appear to occur when new subtypes of HA genes are introduced from aquatic birds that are known to be the natural reservoir of the viruses, an understanding of the origin and evolution of HA genes is of particular importance. We therefore conducted a phylogenetic analysis of HA and HE genes and showed that the influenza A and B virus HA genes diverged much earlier than the divergence between different subtypes of influenza A virus HA genes. The rate of amino acid substitution for A virus HAs from duck, a natural reservoir, was estimated to be 3.19 x 10(-4) per site per year, which was slower than that for human and swine A virus HAs but similar to that for influenza B and C virus HAs (HEs). Using this substitution rate from the duck, we estimated that the divergences between different subtypes of A virus HA genes occurred from several thousand to several hundred years ago. In particular, the earliest divergence time was estimated to be about 2,000 years ago. Also, the A virus HA gene diverged from the B virus HA gene about 4,000 years ago and from the C virus HE gene about 8,000 years ago. These time estimates are much earlier than the previous ones.
Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans. PMID:11148006
Horimoto, T; Kawaoka, Y
Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans.
Visher, Elisa; Whitefield, Shawn E; McCrone, John T; Fitzsimmons, William; Lauring, Adam S
A virus' mutational robustness is described in terms of the strength and distribution of the mutational fitness effects, or MFE. The distribution of MFE is central to many questions in evolutionary theory and is a key parameter in models of molecular evolution. Here we define the mutational fitness effects in influenza A virus by generating 128 viruses, each with a single nucleotide mutation. In contrast to mutational scanning approaches, this strategy allowed us to unambiguously assign fitness values to individual mutations. The presence of each desired mutation and the absence of additional mutations were verified by next generation sequencing of each stock. A mutation was considered lethal only after we failed to rescue virus in three independent transfections. We measured the fitness of each viable mutant relative to the wild type by quantitative RT-PCR following direct competition on A549 cells. We found that 31.6% of the mutations in the genome-wide dataset were lethal and that the lethal fraction did not differ appreciably between the HA- and NA-encoding segments and the rest of the genome. Of the viable mutants, the fitness mean and standard deviation were 0.80 and 0.22 in the genome-wide dataset and best modeled as a beta distribution. The fitness impact of mutation was marginally lower in the segments coding for HA and NA (0.88 ± 0.16) than in the other 6 segments (0.78 ± 0.24), and their respective beta distributions had slightly different shape parameters. The results for influenza A virus are remarkably similar to our own analysis of CirSeq-derived fitness values from poliovirus and previously published data from other small, single stranded DNA and RNA viruses. These data suggest that genome size, and not nucleic acid type or mode of replication, is the main determinant of viral mutational fitness effects.
Boianelli, Alessandro; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Ebensen, Thomas; Schulze, Kai; Wilk, Esther; Sharma, Niharika; Stegemann-Koniszewski, Sabine; Bruder, Dunja; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Guzmán, Carlos A.; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection represents a global threat causing seasonal outbreaks and pandemics. Additionally, secondary bacterial infections, caused mainly by Streptococcus pneumoniae, are one of the main complications and responsible for the enhanced morbidity and mortality associated with IAV infections. In spite of the significant advances in our knowledge of IAV infections, holistic comprehension of the interplay between IAV and the host immune response (IR) remains largely fragmented. During the last decade, mathematical modeling has been instrumental to explain and quantify IAV dynamics. In this paper, we review not only the state of the art of mathematical models of IAV infection but also the methodologies exploited for parameter estimation. We focus on the adaptive IR control of IAV infection and the possible mechanisms that could promote a secondary bacterial coinfection. To exemplify IAV dynamics and identifiability issues, a mathematical model to explain the interactions between adaptive IR and IAV infection is considered. Furthermore, in this paper we propose a roadmap for future influenza research. The development of a mathematical modeling framework with a secondary bacterial coinfection, immunosenescence, host genetic factors and responsiveness to vaccination will be pivotal to advance IAV infection understanding and treatment optimization. PMID:26473911
Baker, Steven F.; Nogales, Aitor; Finch, Courtney; Tuffy, Kevin M.; Domm, William; Perez, Daniel R.; Topham, David J.
ABSTRACT Influenza A and B viruses cocirculate in humans and together cause disease and seasonal epidemics. These two types of influenza viruses are evolutionarily divergent, and exchange of genetic segments inside coinfected cells occurs frequently within types but never between influenza A and B viruses. Possible mechanisms inhibiting the intertypic reassortment of genetic segments could be due to incompatible protein functions of segment homologs, a lack of processing of heterotypic segments by influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, an inhibitory effect of viral proteins on heterotypic virus function, or an inability to specifically incorporate heterotypic segments into budding virions. Here, we demonstrate that the full-length hemagglutinin (HA) of prototype influenza B viruses can complement the function of multiple influenza A viruses. We show that viral noncoding regions were sufficient to drive gene expression for either type A or B influenza virus with its cognate or heterotypic polymerase. The native influenza B virus HA segment could not be incorporated into influenza A virus virions. However, by adding the influenza A virus packaging signals to full-length influenza B virus glycoproteins, we rescued influenza A viruses that possessed HA, NA, or both HA and NA of influenza B virus. Furthermore, we show that, similar to single-cycle infectious influenza A virus, influenza B virus cannot incorporate heterotypic transgenes due to packaging signal incompatibilities. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the lack of influenza A and B virus reassortants can be attributed at least in part to incompatibilities in the virus-specific packaging signals required for effective segment incorporation into nascent virions. IMPORTANCE Reassortment of influenza A or B viruses provides an evolutionary strategy leading to unique genotypes, which can spawn influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. However, the mechanism preventing intertypic reassortment or
He, Wen; Wang, Wei; Han, Huamin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ge; Gao, Bin
Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most effective means for controlling infection and thereby reducing morbidity and mortality is vaccination with a three inactivated influenza virus strains mixture, or by intranasal administration of a group of three different live attenuated influenza vaccine strains. Comparing to the inactivated vaccine, the attenuated live viruses allow better elicitation of a long-lasting and broader immune (humoral and cellular) response that represents a naturally occurring transient infection. The cold-adapted (ca) influenza A/AA/6/60 (H2N2) (AA ca) virus is the backbone for the live attenuated trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine licensed in the United States. Similarly, the influenza A components of live-attenuated vaccines used in Russia have been prepared as reassortants of the cold-adapted (ca) H2N2 viruses, A/Leningrad/134/17/57-ca (Len/17) and A/Leningrad/134/47/57-ca (Len/47) along with virulent epidemic strains. However, the mechanism of temperature-sensitive attenuation is largely elusive. To understand how modification at genetic level of influenza virus would result in attenuation of human influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1,A/PR8), we investigated the involvement of key mutations in the PB1 and/or PB2 genes in attenuation of influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. We have demonstrated that a few of residues in PB1 and PB2 are critical for the phenotypes of live attenuated, temperature sensitive influenza viruses by minigenome assay and real-time PCR. The information of these mutation loci could be used for elucidation of mechanism of temperature-sensitive attenuation and as a new strategy for influenza vaccine development.
Trebbien, R; Andersen, B; Rønn, J; McCauley, J; Fischer, T Kølsen
Although the ESwab kit (Copan, Brescia, Italy) is intended for sampling bacteria for culture, this kit is increasingly also used for virus sampling. The effect of ESwab medium on influenza virus detection by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or virus propagation in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell culture was investigated. The ESwab medium was suitable for viral RNA detection but not for viral propagation due to cytotoxicity. Sampling influenza viruses with ESwab challenges influenza surveillance by strongly limiting the possibility of antigenic characterisation.
Woodward, Alana L; Rash, Adam S; Blinman, Donna; Bowman, Samantha; Chambers, Thomas M; Daly, Janet M; Damiani, Armando; Joseph, Sunitha; Lewis, Nicola; McCauley, John W; Medcalf, Liz; Mumford, Jenny; Newton, J Richard; Tiwari, Ashish; Bryant, Neil A; Elton, Debra M
Equine influenza viruses are a major cause of respiratory disease in horses worldwide and undergo antigenic drift. Several outbreaks of equine influenza occurred worldwide during 2010-2012, including in vaccinated animals, highlighting the importance of surveillance and virus characterisation. Virus isolates were characterised from more than 20 outbreaks over a 3-year period, including strains from the UK, Dubai, Germany and the USA. The haemagglutinin-1 (HA1) sequence of all isolates was determined and compared with OIE-recommended vaccine strains. Viruses from Florida clades 1 and 2 showed continued divergence from each other compared with 2009 isolates. The antigenic inter-relationships among viruses were determined using a haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay with ferret antisera and visualised using antigenic cartography. All European isolates belonged to Florida clade 2, all those from the USA belonged to Florida clade 1. Two subpopulations of clade 2 viruses were isolated, with either substitution A144V or I179V. Isolates from Dubai, obtained from horses shipped from Uruguay, belonged to Florida clade 1 and were similar to viruses isolated in the USA the previous year. The neuraminidase (NA) sequence of representative strains from 2007 and 2009 to 2012 was also determined and compared with that of earlier isolates dating back to 1963. Multiple changes were observed at the amino acid level and clear distinctions could be made between viruses belonging to Florida clade 1 and clade 2.
Tombari, Wafa; ElBehi, Imen; Amouna, Faten; Ghram, Abdeljelil
Studies carried out on cell permissivity are of great interest to understand virus replication and pathogenicity. We described the results of a comparative analysis of replication efficiency of two naturally occurring influenza A H9N2 variants isolated from poultry and wild birds, differing by only two substitutions Q226L and T384N, in the receptor-binding site of haemagglutinin and the 380 loop region of NA proteins, respectively. Considering the overall growth of both viruses, lung cultures ensured the most efficient growth of TUN12L226N384 strain with titres up to 10(9) TCID50/ml whereas small intestine culture was highly susceptible to the TUN51Q226T384 virus reaching a titre of 10(6) TCID50/ml. The lowest replication was shown in liver cells. The addition of trypsin was essential for the replication of either virus in primary fibroblasts, but it had a marginal positive effect on virus replication in the four other culture types with maximum titres of 10(8) TCID50/ml. This means that in chicken, the proteolytic activation of the H9N2 viruses with the cleavage motif RSSR may be mediated by other endoproteases than trypsin. Further investigations should concentrate on the production of the appropriate set of viruses by a reverse genetics approach and the examination of cellular protease expression in chicken tissues. This would lead to a more complete understanding of the tropism of low-pathogenic Influenza A viruses.
Trock, Susan C; Burke, Stephen A; Cox, Nancy J
Although predicting which influenza virus subtype will cause the next pandemic is not yet possible, public health authorities must continually assess the pandemic risk associated with animal influenza viruses, particularly those that have caused infections in humans, and determine what resources should be dedicated to mitigating that risk. To accomplish this goal, a risk assessment framework was created in collaboration with an international group of influenza experts. Compared with the previously used approach, this framework, named the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool, provides a systematic and transparent approach for assessing and comparing threats posed primarily by avian and swine influenza viruses. This tool will be useful to the international influenza community and will remain flexible and responsive to changing information.
Vemula, Sai Vikram; Zhao, Jiangqin; Liu, Jikun; Wang, Xue; Biswas, Santanu; Hewlett, Indira
Despite significant advancement in vaccine and virus research, influenza continues to be a major public health concern. Each year in the United States of America, influenza viruses are responsible for seasonal epidemics resulting in over 200,000 hospitalizations and 30,000–50,000 deaths. Accurate and early diagnosis of influenza viral infections are critical for rapid initiation of antiviral therapy to reduce influenza related morbidity and mortality both during seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Several different approaches are currently available for diagnosis of influenza infections in humans. These include viral isolation in cell culture, immunofluorescence assays, nucleic acid amplification tests, immunochromatography-based rapid diagnostic tests, etc. Newer diagnostic approaches are being developed to overcome the limitations associated with some of the conventional detection methods. This review discusses diagnostic approaches currently available for detection of influenza viruses in humans. PMID:27077877
Janke, B H
Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 "Spanish flu" human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Influenza viruses infect epithelial cells lining the surface of the respiratory tract, inducing prominent necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and variable interstitial pneumonia. Cell death is due to direct virus infection and to insult directed by leukocytes and cytokines of the innate immune system. The most virulent viruses consistently express the following characteristics of infection: (1) higher or more prolonged virus replication, (2) excessive cytokine induction, and (3) replication in the lower respiratory tract. Nearly all the viral proteins contribute to virulence. Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian viruses, which often results in gene reassortment between these viruses and endemic swine viruses. The receptors on the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract are major determinants of infection by influenza viruses from other hosts. The polymerases, especially PB2, also influence cross-species infection. Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus. Testing of oral fluids from pigs for virus and antibody is a recent development that allows efficient sampling of large numbers of animals.
Nolte, K B; Alakija, P; Oty, G; Shaw, M W; Subbarao, K; Guarner, J; Shieh, W J; Dawson, J E; Morken, T; Cox, N J; Zaki, S R
Influenza virus typically causes a febrile respiratory illness, but it can present with a variety of other clinical manifestations. We report a fatal case of myocarditis associated with influenza A infection. A previously healthy 11-year-old girl had malaise and fever for approximately 1 week before a sudden, witnessed fatal collapse at home. Autopsy revealed a pericardial effusion, a mixed lymphocytic and neutrophilic myocarditis, a mild lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, focal bronchial/bronchiolar mucosal necrosis, and histologic changes consistent with asthma. Infection with influenza A (H3N2) was confirmed by virus isolation from a postmortem nasopharyngeal swab. Attempts to isolate virus from heart and lung tissue were unsuccessful. Immunohistochemical tests directed against influenza A antigens and in situ hybridization for influenza A genetic material demonstrated positive staining in bronchial epithelial cells, whereas heart sections were negative. Sudden death is a rare complication of influenza and may be caused by myocarditis. Forensic pathologists should be aware that postmortem nasopharyngeal swabs for viral culture and immunohistochemical or in situ hybridization procedures on lung tissue might be necessary to achieve a diagnosis. Because neither culturable virus nor influenza viral antigen could be identified in heart tissue, the pathogenesis of influenza myocarditis in this case is unlikely to be the result of direct infection of myocardium by the virus. The risk factors for developing myocarditis during an influenza infection are unknown.
Kalter, Seymour S.; Smolin, Harold J.; McElhaney, Jane M.; Tepperman, Jay
Treatment with testosterone increases proliferation of influenza virus as well as protein anabolism. A relative lack of testosterone caused by castration is associated with a diminished rate of virus growth. When protein catabolism is increased by ACTH or cortisone, the rate of virus proliferation decreases. These results suggest the existence of a correlation between alterations of protein metabolism and virus proliferation. PMID:14832400
Ghedin, Elodie; Fitch, Adam; Boyne, Alex; Griesemer, Sara; DePasse, Jay; Bera, Jayati; Zhang, Xu; Halpin, Rebecca A; Smit, Marita; Jennings, Lance; St George, Kirsten; Holmes, Edward C; Spiro, David J
The emergence of viral infections with potentially devastating consequences for human health is highly dependent on their underlying evolutionary dynamics. One likely scenario for an avian influenza virus, such as A/H5N1, to evolve to one capable of human-to-human transmission is through the acquisition of genetic material from the A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 subtypes already circulating in human populations. This would require that viruses of both subtypes coinfect the same cells, generating a mixed infection, and then reassort. Determining the nature and frequency of mixed infection with influenza virus is therefore central to understanding the emergence of pandemic, antigenic, and drug-resistant strains. To better understand the potential for such events, we explored patterns of intrahost genetic diversity in recently circulating strains of human influenza virus. By analyzing multiple viral genome sequences sampled from individual influenza patients we reveal a high level of mixed infection, including diverse lineages of the same influenza virus subtype, drug-resistant and -sensitive strains, those that are likely to differ in antigenicity, and even viruses of different influenza virus types (A and B). These results reveal that individuals can harbor influenza viruses that differ in major phenotypic properties, including those that are antigenically distinct and those that differ in their sensitivity to antiviral agents.
Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.
Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.
Wang, Lih-Chiann; Huang, Dean; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Wang, Ching-Ho
The H5 avian influenza virus subtype has huge impact on the poultry industry. Rapid diagnosis and accurate identification of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus is essential, especially during H5 outbreaks and surveillance. To this end, a novel and rapid strategy for H5 virus molecular pathotyping is presented. The specific hemagglutinin gene of the H5 virus and the basic amino acid number of the motif at the hemagglutinin precursor protein cleavage site were detected using oligonucleotide microarray. Highly pathogenic and low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in Taiwan were differentiated using 13 microarray probes with the naked eye. The detection limit reached 3.4 viral RNA copies, 1000 times more sensitive than reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Thus, the oligonucleotide microarray would provide an alternative H5 pathogenicity determination using the naked eye for laboratories lacking facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
MacMahon, Kathleen L; Delaney, Lisa J; Kullman, Greg; Gibbins, John D; Decker, John; Kiefer, Max J
Emerging zoonotic diseases are of increasing regional and global importance. Preventing occupational exposure to zoonotic diseases protects workers as well as their families, communities, and the public health. Workers can be protected from zoonotic diseases most effectively by preventing and controlling diseases in animals, reducing workplace exposures, and educating workers. Certain avian influenza viruses are potential zoonotic disease agents that may be transmitted from infected birds to humans. Poultry workers are at risk of becoming infected with these viruses if they are exposed to infected birds or virus-contaminated materials or environments. Critical components of worker protection include educating employers and training poultry workers about occupational exposure to avian influenza viruses. Other recommendations for protecting poultry workers include the use of good hygiene and work practices, personal protective clothing and equipment, vaccination for seasonal influenza viruses, antiviral medication, and medical surveillance. Current recommendations for protecting poultry workers from exposure to avian influenza viruses are summarized in this article.
Nidom, Chairul A.; Takano, Ryo; Yamada, Shinya; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Daulay, Syafril; Aswadi, Didi; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Shinya, Kyoko; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Muramoto, Yukiko
Pigs have long been considered potential intermediate hosts in which avian influenza viruses can adapt to humans. To determine whether this potential exists for pigs in Indonesia, we conducted surveillance during 2005–2009. We found that 52 pigs in 4 provinces were infected during 2005–2007 but not 2008–2009. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses had been introduced into the pig population in Indonesia on at least 3 occasions. One isolate had acquired the ability to recognize a human-type receptor. No infected pig had influenza-like symptoms, indicating that influenza A (H5N1) viruses can replicate undetected for prolonged periods, facilitating avian virus adaptation to mammalian hosts. Our data suggest that pigs are at risk for infection during outbreaks of influenza virus A (H5N1) and can serve as intermediate hosts in which this avian virus can adapt to mammals. PMID:20875275
Air, Gillian M
A vaccine formulation that would be effective against all strains of influenza virus has long been a goal of vaccine developers, but antibodies after infection or vaccination were seen to be strain specific and there was little evidence of cross-reactive antibodies that neutralized across subtypes. Recently a number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. This review describes the different classes of broadly neutralizing antibodies and discusses the potential of their therapeutic use or for design of immunogens that induce a high proportion of broadly neutralizing antibodies.
Adeola, O A; Olugasa, B O; Emikpe, B O
Since the first detection of human H3N2 influenza virus in Taiwanese pigs in 1970, infection of pigs with wholly human viruses has been known to occur in other parts of the world. These viruses, referred to as human-like H3N2 viruses, have been known to cause clinical and subclinical infections of swine populations. Due to the paucity and complete unavailability of information on transmission of influenza viruses from other species, especially humans, to swine in Nigeria and Ghana, respectively, this study was designed to investigate the presence and prevalence of a human strain of influenza A (H3N2) in swine populations at three locations in two cities within these two West African countries in January and February, 2014. Using stratified random technique, nasal swab specimens were collected from seventy-five (75) pigs at two locations in Ibadan, Nigeria and from fifty (50) pigs in Kumasi, Ghana. These specimens were tested directly by a sensitive Quantitative Solid Phase Antigen-detection Sandwich ELISA using anti-A/Brisbane/10/2007 haemagglutinin monoclonal antibody. Influenza virus A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2) was detected among pigs at the three study locations, with an aggregate prevalence of 4.0% for the two locations in Ibadan, Nigeria and also 4.0% for Kumasi, Ghana. Transmission of influenza viruses from other species to swine portends serious sinister prospects for genetic reassortment and evolvement of novel viruses. We therefore recommend that further studies should be carried out to investigate the presence of other circulating human and avian influenza viruses in swine populations in West Africa and also determine the extent of genetic reassortment of strains circulating among these pigs. This would provide an early warning system for detection of novel influenza viruses, which could have pandemic potentials.
Crowe, James E
The human antibody repertoire has an exceptionally large capacity to recognize new or changing antigens through combinatorial and junctional diversity established at the time of V(D)J recombination and through somatic hypermutation. Influenza viruses exhibit a relentless capacity to escape the human antibody response by altering the amino acids of their surface proteins in hypervariable domains that exhibit a high level of structural plasticity. Both parties in this high-stakes game of shape shifting drive structural evolution of their functional proteins (the B cell receptor/antibody on one side and the viral hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins on the other) using error-prone polymerase systems. It is likely that most of the genetic mutations that occur in these systems are deleterious, resulting in the failure of the B cell or virus with mutations to propagate in the immune repertoire or viral quasispecies. A subset of mutations is tolerated in functional surface proteins that enter the B cell or virus progeny pool. In both cases, selection occurs in the population of mutated and unmutated species. In cases where the functional avidity of the B cell receptor is increased significantly, that clone may be selected for preferential expansion. In contrast, an influenza virus that "escapes" the inhibitory effect of secreted antibodies may represent a high proportion of the progeny virus in that host. The recent paper by O'Donnell et al. [C. D. O'Donnell et al., mBio 3(3):e00120-12, 2012] identifies a mechanism for antibody resistance that does not require escape from binding but rather achieves a greater efficiency in replication.
McCrone, John T.; Lauring, Adam S.
A virus’ mutational robustness is described in terms of the strength and distribution of the mutational fitness effects, or MFE. The distribution of MFE is central to many questions in evolutionary theory and is a key parameter in models of molecular evolution. Here we define the mutational fitness effects in influenza A virus by generating 128 viruses, each with a single nucleotide mutation. In contrast to mutational scanning approaches, this strategy allowed us to unambiguously assign fitness values to individual mutations. The presence of each desired mutation and the absence of additional mutations were verified by next generation sequencing of each stock. A mutation was considered lethal only after we failed to rescue virus in three independent transfections. We measured the fitness of each viable mutant relative to the wild type by quantitative RT-PCR following direct competition on A549 cells. We found that 31.6% of the mutations in the genome-wide dataset were lethal and that the lethal fraction did not differ appreciably between the HA- and NA-encoding segments and the rest of the genome. Of the viable mutants, the fitness mean and standard deviation were 0.80 and 0.22 in the genome-wide dataset and best modeled as a beta distribution. The fitness impact of mutation was marginally lower in the segments coding for HA and NA (0.88 ± 0.16) than in the other 6 segments (0.78 ± 0.24), and their respective beta distributions had slightly different shape parameters. The results for influenza A virus are remarkably similar to our own analysis of CirSeq-derived fitness values from poliovirus and previously published data from other small, single stranded DNA and RNA viruses. These data suggest that genome size, and not nucleic acid type or mode of replication, is the main determinant of viral mutational fitness effects. PMID:27571422
Tang, Julian W; Shetty, Nandini; Lam, Tommy T Y; Hon, K L Ellis
Influenza viruses continue to cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics in humans. In recent years, the threat of a possible influenza pandemic arising from the avian influenza A(H5N1) virus has prompted the development of comprehensive pandemic preparedness programs in many countries. The recent emergence of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus from the Americas in early 2009, although surprising in its geographic and zoonotic origins, has tested these preparedness programs and revealed areas in which further work is necessary. Nevertheless, the plethora of epidemiologic, diagnostic, mathematical and phylogenetic modeling, and investigative methodologies developed since the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak of 2003 and the subsequent sporadic human cases of avian influenza have been applied effectively and rapidly to the emergence of this novel pandemic virus. This article summarizes some of the findings from such investigations, including recommendations for the management of patients infected with this newly emerged pathogen.
Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.
Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.
Dundon, William G.; Capua, Ilaria
The Non-Structural 1 (NS1) protein is a multifactorial protein of type A influenza viruses that plays an important role in the virulence of the virus. A large amount of what we know about this protein has been obtained from studies using human influenza isolates and, consequently, the human NS1 protein. The current global interest in avian influenza, however, has highlighted a number of sequence and functional differences between the human and avian NS1. This review discusses these differences in addition to describing potential uses of NS1 in the management and control of avian influenza outbreaks. PMID:21994582
Huber, Victor C
Vaccination against influenza represents our most effective form of prevention. Historical approaches toward vaccine creation and production have yielded highly effective vaccines that are safe and immunogenic. Despite their effectiveness, these historical approaches do not allow for the incorporation of changes into the vaccine in a timely manner. In 2013, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that induces immunity toward the influenza virus hemagglutinin was approved for use in the USA. This vaccine represents the first approved vaccine formulation that does not require an influenza virus intermediate for production. This review presents a brief history of influenza vaccines, with insight into the potential future application of vaccines generated using recombinant technology.
Widjaja, Linda; Krauss, Scott L; Webby, Richard J; Xie, Tao; Webster, Robert G
Wild aquatic birds are the primary reservoir of influenza A viruses, but little is known about the viruses' gene pool in wild birds. Therefore, we investigated the ecology and emergence of influenza viruses by conducting phylogenetic analysis of 70 matrix (M) genes of influenza viruses isolated from shorebirds and gulls in the Delaware Bay region and from ducks in Alberta, Canada, during >18 years of surveillance. In our analysis, we included 61 published M genes of isolates from various hosts. We showed that M genes of Canadian duck viruses and those of shorebird and gull viruses in the Delaware Bay shared ancestors with the M genes of North American poultry viruses. We found that North American and Eurasian avian-like lineages are divided into sublineages, indicating that multiple branches of virus evolution may be maintained in wild aquatic birds. The presence of non-H13 gull viruses in the gull-like lineage and of H13 gull viruses in other avian lineages suggested that gulls' M genes do not preferentially associate with the H13 subtype or segregate into a distinct lineage. Some North American avian influenza viruses contained M genes closely related to those of Eurasian avian viruses. Therefore, there may be interregional mixing of the two clades. Reassortment of shorebird M and HA genes was evident, but there was no correlation among the HA or NA subtype, M gene sequence, and isolation time. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that influenza viruses in wild waterfowl contain distinguishable lineages of M genes.
Jadhao, Samadhan J; Achenbach, Jenna; Swayne, David E; Donis, Ruben; Cox, Nancy; Matsuoka, Yumiko
Avian-to-human transmission of the high pathogenicity (HP) H7N7 subtype avian influenza viruses in the Netherlands during 2003 caused zoonotic infections in 89 people, including a case of acute fatal respiratory distress syndrome. Public health emergency preparedness against H7N7 avian influenza viruses with pandemic potential includes the development of vaccine candidate viruses. In order to develop a high growth reassortant vaccine candidate virus, low pathogenicity (LP) A/mallard/Netherlands/12/2000 (H7N3) and A/mallard/Netherlands/2/2000 (H10N7) strains were selected as donors of the H7 haemagglutinin and N7 neuraminidase genes, respectively. The donor viruses exhibited high amino acid sequence homology with the surface glycoproteins of A/Netherlands/219/03 H7N7 virus (NL219), an isolate recovered from the fatal human case. Adhering to the seasonal influenza vaccine licensure regulations, we generated a H7N7/PR8 reassortant containing desired surface glycoprotein genes from the mallard viruses and internal genes of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 human vaccine strain (H1N1). Antigenic analysis revealed that the vaccine candidate virus confers broad antigenic cross-reactivity against contemporary Eurasian and the North American H7 subtype human isolates. Mice immunized with formalin inactivated (FI) H7N7/PR8 whole virus vaccine with or without aluminum hydroxide adjuvant conferred clinical protection from mortality and reduced pulmonary replication of the NL219 challenge virus. The FI H7N7/PR8 whole virus vaccine also afforded cross-protection in mice at the pulmonary level against antigenically distinct North American LP A/Canada/444/04 (H7N3) human isolate. The vaccine candidate virus satisfied the agricultural safety requirements for chickens, proved safe in mice, and has entered in phase-I human clinical trial in the United States.
Wang, Mingyang; Veit, Michael
Influenza C virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, causes flu-like disease but typically only with mild symptoms. Humans are the main reservoir of the virus, but it also infects pigs and dogs. Very recently, influenza C-like viruses were isolated from pigs and cattle that differ from classical influenza C virus and might constitute a new influenza virus genus. Influenza C virus is unique since it contains only one spike protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein HEF that possesses receptor binding, receptor destroying and membrane fusion activities, thus combining the functions of Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) of influenza A and B viruses. Here we briefly review the epidemiology and pathology of the virus and the morphology of virus particles and their genome. The main focus is on the structure of the HEF protein as well as on its co- and post-translational modification, such as N-glycosylation, disulfide bond formation, S-acylation and proteolytic cleavage into HEF1 and HEF2 subunits. Finally, we describe the functions of HEF: receptor binding, esterase activity and membrane fusion.
Szymański, K; Cieślak, K; Kowalczyk, D; Brydak, L B
Concerning viral infection of the respiratory system, a single virus can cause a variety of clinical symptoms and the same set of symptoms can be caused by different viruses. Moreover, infection is often caused by a combination of viruses acting at the same time. The present study demonstrates, using multiplex RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR, that in the 2015/2016 influenza season, co-infections were confirmed in patients aged 1 month to 90 years. We found 73 co-infections involving influenza viruses, 17 involving influenza viruses and influenza-like viruses, and six involving influenza-like viruses. The first type of co-infections above mentioned was the most common, amounting to 51 cases, with type A and B viruses occurring simultaneously. There also were four cases of co-infections with influenza virus A/H1N1/pdm09 and A/H1N1/ subtypes and two cases with A/H1N1/pdm09 and A/H3N2/ subtypes. The 2015/2016 epidemic season was characterized by a higher number of confirmed co-infections compared with the previous seasons. Infections by more than one respiratory virus were most often found in children and in individuals aged over 65.
Lindsay, LeAnn L; Kelly, Terra R; Plancarte, Magdalena; Schobel, Seth; Lin, Xudong; Dugan, Vivien G; Wentworth, David E; Boyce, Walter M
A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes) were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture.
Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Kelly, Terra R.; Plancarte, Magdalena; Schobel, Seth; Lin, Xudong; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Boyce, Walter M.
A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes) were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture. PMID:23921843
Ždanov, V. M.; Antonova, I. V.
An epidemic wave of influenza associated with the A2/Hong Kong/68 virus reached the USSR in the second 10-day period of December 1968. During the first quarter of 1969 the epidemic involved almost all cities of the Soviet Union. The intensities of the rise and of the fall of the 1969 epidemic wave were less pronounced than those of the 1965 influenza A2 epidemic, but were more extended. In most towns the epidemic lasted 50-80 days whereas in 1965 the epidemic in towns lasted 25-30 days. The influenza caused by A2/Hong Kong/68 was characterized by an unusual age-group distribution. Children under 7 years of age made up only one-quarter of the total influenza cases during the peak of the epidemic wave in most communities. The clinical course of the disease was, in the main, of average severity, there being no significant differences in symptoms compared with influenza caused by virus A2. Analysing the influenza epidemics associated with influenza A2 virus during recent years one may note peculiar features of the A2 Hong Kong/68 influenza epidemic. On the one hand, these are apparently connected with the shifts in antigenic character of the virus, and, on the other hand, with the timely arrangements undertaken by public health services to prepare for the influenza epidemic, i.e., the carrying out of prophy actic and anti-epidemic measures. PMID:5309442
Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Morens, David M.
ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses (IAV) are significant pathogens able to repeatedly switch hosts to infect multiple avian and mammalian species, including humans. The unpredictability of IAV evolution and interspecies movement creates continual public health challenges, such as the emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus from swine, as well as pandemic threats from the ongoing H5N1 and the recent H7N9 epizootics. In the last decade there has been increased concern about the “dual use” nature of microbiology, and a set of guidelines covering “dual use research of concern” includes seven categories of potentially problematic scientific experiments. In this Perspective, we consider how in nature IAV continually undergo “dual use experiments” as a matter of evolution and selection, and we conclude that studying these properties of IAV is critical for mitigating and preventing future epidemics and pandemics. PMID:23860766
Rashid, H; Shafi, S; Booy, R; El Bashir, H; Ali, K; Zambon, Mc; Memish, Za; Ellis, J; Coen, Pg; Haworth, E
Viral respiratory infections including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been reported during the Hajj among international pilgrims. To help establish the burden of these infections at the Hajj, we set up a study to confirm these diagnoses in symptomatic British pilgrims who attended the 2005 Hajj. UK pilgrims with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were invited to participate; after taking medical history, nasal swabs were collected for point-of-care testing (PoCT) of influenza and for subsequent PCR analysis for influenza and RSV. Of the 205 patients recruited, 37 (18%) were positive for either influenza or RSV. Influenza A (H3) accounted for 54% (20/37) of the virus-positive samples, followed by RSV 24% (9/37), influenza B 19% (7/37), and influenza A (H1) 3% (1/37). Of the influenza-positive cases, 29% (8/28) had recently had a flu immunisation. Influenza was more common in those who gave a history of contact with a pilgrim with a respiratory illness than those who did not (17 versus 9%). The overall rate of RSV was 4% (9/202). This study confirms that influenza and RSV cause acute respiratory infections in British Hajj pilgrims. Continuing surveillance and a programme of interventions to contain the spread of infection are needed at the Hajj, particularly when the world is preparing for an influenza pandemic.
Rashid, H; Shafi, S; Booy, R; El Bashir, H; Ali, K; Zambon, MC; Memish, ZA; Ellis, J; Coen, PG; Haworth, E
Viral respiratory infections including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been reported during the Hajj among international pilgrims. To help establish the burden of these infections at the Hajj, we set up a study to confirm these diagnoses in symptomatic British pilgrims who attended the 2005 Hajj. UK pilgrims with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were invited to participate; after taking medical history, nasal swabs were collected for point-of-care testing (PoCT) of influenza and for subsequent PCR analysis for influenza and RSV. Of the 205 patients recruited, 37 (18%) were positive for either influenza or RSV. Influenza A (H3) accounted for 54% (20/37) of the virus-positive samples, followed by RSV 24% (9/37), influenza B 19% (7/37), and influenza A (H1) 3% (1/37). Of the influenza-positive cases, 29% (8/28) had recently had a flu immunisation. Influenza was more common in those who gave a history of contact with a pilgrim with a respiratory illness than those who did not (17 versus 9%). The overall rate of RSV was 4% (9/202). This study confirms that influenza and RSV cause acute respiratory infections in British Hajj pilgrims. Continuing surveillance and a programme of interventions to contain the spread of infection are needed at the Hajj, particularly when the world is preparing for an influenza pandemic. PMID:22460211
Pu, Xiuying; Ren, Jing; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Lu; Yu, Shuang; Li, Xiaoyue; Li, Haibing
Objective: In the present study, the antiviral effects of polyphylla saponin I isolated from Parispolyphylla on influenza A virus are investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Column chromatography and reversed phase liquid chromatography separation technology were used to extract and purify polyphylla saponin I. The purity of polyphylla saponin I was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and analyses of cytopathic effects were performed to examine the antiviral activity of polyphylla saponin I upon MDCK cells infected with influenza A virus. Model mice were made by intranasal inoculation of influenza a virus. Mice infected with influenza A virus were orally administered polyphylla saponin I and oseltamivir twice a day for 5 days to study their antiviral efficacy in vivo. Results: Polyphylla saponin I had no cytotoxicity on MDCK cells at the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Polyphylla saponin I (6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 μg/mL) and oseltamivir (40 μg/mL) had remarkable inactivation effects on influenza A virus, prevention effects on influenza A virus adsorption on MDCK cells, and inhibitory effects on the reproduction of influenza A virus in MDCK cells. In addition, polyphylla saponin I (5 and 10 mg/kg), and oseltamivir (3 mg/kg) significantly reduced viral hemagglutination titer, improved the pathologic histology of lung tissues, and decreased the mortality of mice infected with influenza A virus. Polyphylla saponin I (5 and 10 mg/kg) prolonged the survival time of mice from 8.5±0.3 days to 13.2±0.5 days, with the prolonged life rates being 49.4% and 55.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Polyphylla saponin I has antiviral activity on influenza A virus both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26770521
Cheung, Peter Pak-Hang; Rogozin, Igor B.; Choy, Ka-Tim; Ng, Hoi Yee
The error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and external selective pressures are the driving forces for RNA viral diversity. When confounded by selective pressures, it is difficult to assess if influenza A viruses (IAV) that have a wide host range possess comparable or distinct spontaneous mutational frequency in their RdRPs. We used in-depth bioinformatics analyses to assess the spontaneous mutational frequencies of two RdRPs derived from human seasonal (A/Wuhan/359/95; Wuhan) and H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04; VN1203) viruses using the mini-genome system with a common firefly luciferase reporter serving as the template. High-fidelity reverse transcriptase was applied to generate high-quality mutational spectra which allowed us to assess and compare the mutational frequencies and mutable motifs along a target sequence of the two RdRPs of two different subtypes. We observed correlated mutational spectra (τ correlation P < 0.0001), comparable mutational frequencies (H3N2:5.8 ± 0.9; H5N1:6.0 ± 0.5), and discovered a highly mutable motif “(A)AAG” for both Wuhan and VN1203 RdRPs. Results were then confirmed with two recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) viruses that possess RdRP derived from Wuhan or VN1203 (RG-PR8×WuhanPB2, PB1, PA, NP and RG-PR8×VN1203PB2, PB1, PA, NP). Applying novel bioinformatics analysis on influenza mutational spectra, we provide a platform for a comprehensive analysis of the spontaneous mutation spectra for an RNA virus. PMID:25404565
Kong, Weili; Wang, Feibing; Dong, Bin; Ou, Changbo; Meng, Demei; Liu, Jinhua; Fan, Zhen-Chuan
Influenza A virus (IAV) is characterized by eight single-stranded, negative sense RNA segments, which allows for gene reassortment among different IAV subtypes when they co-infect a single host cell simultaneously. Genetic reassortment is an important way to favor the evolution of influenza virus. Novel reassortant virus may pose a pandemic among humans. In history, three human pandemic influenza viruses were caused by genetic reassortment between avian, human and swine influenza viruses. Since 2009, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pdm/09 H1N1) influenza virus composed of two swine influenza virus genes highlighted the genetic reassortment again. Due to wide host species and high transmission of the pdm/09 H1N1 influenza virus, many different avian, human or swine influenza virus subtypes may reassert with it to generate novel reassortant viruses, which may result in a next pandemic among humans. So, it is necessary to understand the potential threat of current reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses to public health. This study summarized the status of the reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses of different species origins in natural and experimental conditions. The aim of this summarization is to facilitate us to further understand the potential threats of novel reassortant influenza viruses to public health and to make effective prevention and control strategies for these pathogens.
Khan, Amjad; Mushtaq, Muhammad Hassan; Ahmad, Mansur Ud Din; Nazir, Jawad; Farooqi, Shahid Hussain; Khan, Asghar
A widespread epidemic of equine influenza (EI) occurred in nonvaccinated equine population across multiple districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan during 2015-2016. An epidemiological surveillance study was conducted from Oct 2015 to April 2016 to investigate the outbreak. EI virus strains were isolated in embryonated eggs from suspected equines swab samples and were subjected to genome sequencing using M13 tagged segment specific primers. Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences were concluded using Geneious. Haemagglutinin (HA), Neuraminidase (NA), Matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the isolated viruses were aligned with those of OIE recommended, FC-1, FC-2, and contemporary isolates of influenza A viruses from other species. HA and NA genes amino acid sequences were very similar to Tennessee/14 and Malaysia/15 of FC-1 and clustered with the contemporary isolates recently reported in the USA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were mostly identical (with 99.6% and 97.4% nucleotide homology) to, and were reassortants containing chicken/Pakistan/14 (H7N3) and Canine/Beijing/10 (H3N2) like M and NP genes. Genetic analysis indicated that A/equine/Pakistan/16 viruses were most probably the result of several re-assortments between the co-circulating avian and equine viruses, and were genetically unlike the other equine viruses due to the presence of H7N3 or H3N2 like M and NP genes. Epidemiological data analysis indicated the potential chance of mixed, and management such as mixed farming system by keeping equine, canine and backyard poultry together in confined premises as the greater risk factors responsible for the re-assortments. Other factors might have contributed to the spread of the epidemic, including low awareness level, poor control of equine movements, and absence of border control disease strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
He, Cheng-Qiang; Han, Guan-Zhu; Wang, Dong; Liu, Wei; Li, Guo-Rong; Liu, Xi-Ping; Ding, Nai-Zheng
Dynamic gene mutation and the reassortment of genes have been considered as the key factors responsible for influenza A virus virulence and host tropism change. This study reports several significant evidence demonstrating that homologous recombination also takes place between influenza A viruses in human and swine lineages. Moreover, in a mosaic descended from swine H1N1 subtype and human H2N2, we found that its minor putative parent might be a derivative from the human cold-adapted vaccine lineage, which suggests that live vaccine is capable of playing a role in genetic change of influenza A virus via recombination with circulating viruses. These results would be important for knowing the molecular mechanism of mammal influenza A virus heredity and evolution.
Grant, Emma J; Chen, Li; Quiñones-Parra, Sergio; Pang, Ken; Kedzierska, Katherine; Chen, Weisan
Influenza infection remains a global threat to human health. Influenza viruses are normally controlled by antibodies specific for the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Standard influenza vaccines are aimed at inducing these antibodies, but they must be administered annually and can be rendered ineffective since different strains circulate from year to year and vary considerably in their individual HA and NA profiles. Influenza-specific T cells have been shown to be protective in animal models and typically recognize the more conserved internal influenza proteins. Improving our understanding of influenza-specific T-cell responses, including immunodominance, specific epitope sequences, strain-related epitope variation, host/virus interaction, and the balance between immunity versus immunopathology, will be important to improve future T-cell-based vaccines, which promise broader strain coverage and longer-lasting protection than current standard vaccines.
Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Shunsaku; Takano, Maiko; Agarikuchi, Takashi; Sato, Tsubasa; Matsuda, Yukino; Minami, Akira; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Toshihiro; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Thomson, Robin; von Itzstein, Mark; Suzuki, Takashi
Influenza virus is rich in variation and mutations. It would be very convenient for virus detection and isolation to histochemically detect viral infection regardless of variation and mutations. Here, we established a histochemical imaging assay for influenza virus sialidase activity in living cells by using a new fluorescent sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac). The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay histochemically visualized influenza virus-infected cells regardless of viral hosts and subtypes. Influenza virus neuraminidase-expressed cells, viral focus formation, and virus-infected locations in mice lung tissues were easily, rapidly, and sensitively detected by the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay. Histochemical visualization with the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is extremely useful for detection of influenza viruses without the need for fixation or a specific antibody. This novel assay should greatly improve the efficiency of detection, titration, and isolation of influenza viruses and might contribute to research on viral sialidase. PMID:24786761
Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Shunsaku; Takano, Maiko; Agarikuchi, Takashi; Sato, Tsubasa; Matsuda, Yukino; Minami, Akira; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Toshihiro; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Thomson, Robin; von Itzstein, Mark; Suzuki, Takashi
Influenza virus is rich in variation and mutations. It would be very convenient for virus detection and isolation to histochemically detect viral infection regardless of variation and mutations. Here, we established a histochemical imaging assay for influenza virus sialidase activity in living cells by using a new fluorescent sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac). The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay histochemically visualized influenza virus-infected cells regardless of viral hosts and subtypes. Influenza virus neuraminidase-expressed cells, viral focus formation, and virus-infected locations in mice lung tissues were easily, rapidly, and sensitively detected by the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay. Histochemical visualization with the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is extremely useful for detection of influenza viruses without the need for fixation or a specific antibody. This novel assay should greatly improve the efficiency of detection, titration, and isolation of influenza viruses and might contribute to research on viral sialidase.
Bouvier, Nicole M.; Lowen, Anice C.
Influenza virus infection of humans results in a respiratory disease that ranges in severity from sub-clinical infection to primary viral pneumonia that can result in death. The clinical effects of infection vary with the exposure history, age and immune status of the host, and also the virulence of the influenza strain. In humans, the virus is transmitted through either aerosol or contact-based transfer of infectious respiratory secretions. As is evidenced by most zoonotic influenza virus infections, not all strains that can infect humans are able to transmit from person-to-person. Animal models of influenza are essential to research efforts aimed at understanding the viral and host factors that contribute to the disease and transmission outcomes of influenza virus infection in humans. These models furthermore allow the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in the population through amelioration of the virulence or transmissibility of influenza viruses. Mice, ferrets, guinea pigs, cotton rats, hamsters and macaques have all been used to study influenza viruses and therapeutics targeting them. Each model presents unique advantages and disadvantages, which will be discussed herein. PMID:21442033
Bragstad, K; Jørgensen, P H; Handberg, K J; Fomsgaard, A
We full genome characterised the newly discovered avian influenza virus H5N7 subtype combination isolated from a stock of Danish game ducks to investigate the composition of the genome and possible features of high pathogenicity. It was found that the haemagglutinin and the acidic polymerase genes were closely related to a low pathogenic H5 strain (A/Duck/Denmark/65047/04 H5N2). The neuraminidase and the non-structural genes were closely related to the highly pathogenic H7N7 strains from The Netherlands 2003. The basic polymerase genes 1 and 2 were shared between the Danish H5N7 and H5N2 and the H7N7 from The Netherlands. The nucleoprotein and the matrix genes were closely related to H6 strains. Thus, the new H5N7 subtype share genes with H5, H7 and H6 subtypes and possesses internal genes originating from highly pathogenic strains. The findings emphasize the need for surveillance presumed low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses.
Okada, Jun; Ohshima, Nobuko; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Iba, Yoshitaka; Ota, Sayuri; Takase, Wakana; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Asano, Yoshizo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu
Through extensive isolation of neutralizing mAbs against H3N2 influenza viruses representing the in vivo repertoire in a human donor, we examined the relationships between antigenic drift of influenza virus and protective antibodies generated in an infected individual. The majority of mAbs isolated from a donor born in 1960 were divided into three major groups with distinct strain specificity: 1968–1973, 1977–1993 and 1997–2003. In the present study, we developed a new method that allowed us to comprehensively determine the location of epitopes recognized by many mAbs. Original haemagglutinins (HAs) of several strains and chimaeric variants, in which one of the seven sites (A, B1, B2, C1, C2, D or E) was replaced by some other strain-derived sequence, were artificially expressed on the cell surface. The binding activity of mAbs to the HAs was examined by flow cytometry. By using this method, we determined the location of epitopes recognized by 98 different mAbs. Clones that neutralize the 1968–1973 strains bind to site B2/D, A or A/B1. While sites C, E and B were recognized by clones that neutralized the 1977–1993 strains, the majority of these clones bind to site C. Clones that neutralize the 1997–2003 strains bind to site B, A/B1, A/B2 or E/C2. PMID:21068214
Russell, Colin A; Jones, Terry C; Barr, Ian G; Cox, Nancy J; Garten, Rebecca J; Gregory, Vicky; Gust, Ian D; Hampson, Alan W; Hay, Alan J; Hurt, Aeron C; de Jong, Jan C; Kelso, Anne; Klimov, Alexander I; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Komadina, Naomi; Lapedes, Alan S; Lin, Yi P; Mosterin, Ana; Obuchi, Masatsugu; Odagiri, Takato; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Shaw, Michael W; Skepner, Eugene; Stohr, Klaus; Tashiro, Masato; Fouchier, Ron A M; Smith, Derek J
Annual influenza epidemics in humans affect 5-15% of the population, causing an estimated half million deaths worldwide per year [Stohr K. Influenza-WHO cares. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2002;2(9):517]. The virus can infect this proportion of people year after year because the virus has an extensive capacity to evolve and thus evade the immune response. For example, since the influenza A(H3N2) subtype entered the human population in 1968 the A(H3N2) component of the influenza vaccine has had to be updated almost 30 times to track the evolution of the viruses and remain effective. The World Health Organization Global Influenza Surveillance Network (WHO GISN) tracks and analyzes the evolution and epidemiology of influenza viruses for the primary purpose of vaccine strain selection and to improve the strain selection process through studies aimed at better understanding virus evolution and epidemiology. Here we give an overview of the strain selection process and outline recent investigations into the global migration of seasonal influenza viruses.
Ganzinger, U; Bachmayer, H; Liehl, E; Martindale, J J; Hamilton, F; Kuwert, E K
A live cold-recombinant influenza B virus vaccine (RB77) was given intranasally in a placebo-controlled, double blind study to volunteers in dosages of 10(7.9) EID50/ml, 10(7.25) EID50/ml, 10(5.7) EID50/ml. The tolerability, safety, and immunogenicity of the vaccine were investigated. No revertant virus was found in nasal swabs taken after immunisation. Local reactions were mild and showed a significant increase over the placebo only in the highest dose group. Systemic reactions were not different from the placebo. A significant increase in haemagglutinin inhibition titre was found in the highest dose group against the immunising strain (RB77) and the two wild strains B/TEC and B/Sing.
Gibbs, M J; Armstrong, J S; Gibbs, A J
Published analyses of the sequences of three genes from the 1918 Spanish influenza virus have cast doubt on the theory that it came from birds immediately before the pandemic. They showed that the virus was of the H1N1 subtype lineage but more closely related to mammal-infecting strains than any known bird-infecting strain. They provided no evidence that the virus originated by gene reassortment nor that the virus was the direct ancestor of the two lineages of H1N1 viruses currently found in mammals; one that mostly infects human beings, the other pigs. The unusual virulence of the virus and why it produced a pandemic have remained unsolved. We have reanalysed the sequences of the three 1918 genes and found conflicting patterns of relatedness in all three. Various tests showed that the patterns in its haemagglutinin (HA) gene were produced by true recombination between two different parental HA H1 subtype genes, but that the conflicting patterns in its neuraminidase and non-structural-nuclear export proteins genes resulted from selection. The recombination event that produced the 1918 HA gene probably coincided with the start of the pandemic, and may have triggered it. PMID:11779383
Watanabe, Tokiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Avian influenza viruses rarely infect humans, but the recently emerged avian H7N9 influenza viruses have caused sporadic infections in humans in China, resulting in 440 confirmed cases with 122 fatalities as of May 16, 2014. In addition, epidemiologic surveys suggest that there have been asymptomatic or mild human infections with H7N9 viruses. These viruses replicate efficiently in mammals, show limited transmissibility in ferrets and guinea pigs, and possess mammalian-adapting amino acid changes that likely contribute to their ability to infect mammals. Here, we summarize the characteristic features of the novel H7N9 viruses and assess their pandemic potential. PMID:25264312
Brockwell-Staats, Christy; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J
The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread has been declared a pandemic strain. Here we review influenza infections in swine since 1918 and the introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses of North America and Eurasia. These introductions often result in viruses of increased fitness for pigs that occasionally transmit to humans. The novel virus affecting humans is derived from a North American swine influenza virus that has acquired two gene segments [Neuraminidase (NA) and Matrix (M)] from the European swine lineages. This reassortant appears to have increased fitness in humans. The potential for increased virulence in humans and of further reassortment between the novel H1N1 influenza virus and oseltamivir resistant seasonal H1N1 or with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza stresses the need for urgent pandemic planning.
Mooney, Alaina J; Tompkins, S Mark
Influenza A viruses continue to emerge and re-emerge, causing outbreaks, epidemics and occasionally pandemics. While the influenza vaccines licensed for public use are generally effective against seasonal influenza, issues arise with production, immunogenicity, and efficacy in the case of vaccines against pandemic and emerging influenza viruses, and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in particular. Thus, there is need of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. This review discusses advances in alternative influenza vaccines, touching briefly on licensed vaccines and vaccine antigens; then reviewing recombinant subunit vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines and DNA vaccines, with the main focus on virus-vectored vaccine approaches. PMID:23440999
Bragstad, Karoline; Jørgensen, Poul H; Handberg, Kurt; Hammer, Anne S; Kabell, Susanne; Fomsgaard, Anders
Background Since 2005 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza A H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to Africa and Europe infecting poultry, humans and wild birds. HP H5N1 virus was isolated in Denmark for the first time in March 2006. A total of 44 wild birds were found positive for the HP H5N1 infection. In addition, one case was reported in a backyard poultry flock. Results Full-genome characterisation of nine isolates revealed that the Danish H5N1 viruses were highly similar to German H5N1 isolates in all genes from the same time period. The haemagglutinin gene grouped phylogenetically in H5 clade 2 subclade 2 and closest relatives besides the German isolates were isolates from Croatia in 2005, Nigeria and Niger in 2006 and isolates from Astrakhan in Russia 2006. The German and Danish isolates shared unique substitutions in the NA, PB1 and NS2 proteins. Conclusion The first case of HP H5N1 infection of wild and domestic birds in Denmark was experienced in March 2006. This is the first full genome characterisation of HP H5N1 avian influenza A virus in the Nordic countries. The Danish viruses from this time period have their origin from the wild bird strains from Qinghai in 2005. These viruses may have been introduced to the Northern Europe through unusual migration due to the cold weather in Eastern Europe at that time. PMID:17498292
Wendel, Isabel; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Klenk, Hans Dieter
The major natural hosts of influenza A viruses are wild aquatic birds. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted to mammalian and other avian species, including humans. Due to the high mutation rate and reassortment of the viral genome, the viruses may undergo adaptation to humans and then give rise to a pandemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Barman, Subrata; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Hasan, M Kamrul; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Franks, John; Turner, Jasmine; Seiler, Patrick; Walker, David; Friedman, Kimberly; Kercher, Lisa; Begum, Sajeda; Akhtar, Sharmin; Datta, Ashis Kumar; Krauss, Scott; Kayali, Ghazi; McKenzie, Pamela; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) clade 220.127.116.11 virus emerged in 2016 and spread to Russia, Europe, and Africa. Our analysis of viruses from domestic ducks at Tanguar haor, Bangladesh, showed genetic similarities with other viruses from wild birds in central Asia, suggesting their potential role in the genesis of A(H5N8).
Influenza A viruses (IAV) of the Orthomyxoviridae virus family cause one of the most important viral respiratory diseases in pigs. Repeated outbreaks and rapid spread of both genetically and antigenically distinct IAVs represent considerable challenges for animal production, and since these viruses...
Hall, Jeffrey S; Dusek, Robert J; Spackman, Erica
The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus' propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.
Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...
Swine influenza is an acute respiratory disease of pigs that is characterized by fever followed by lethargy, anorexia, and serous nasal discharge. The disease progresses rapidly and may be complicated when associated with other respiratory pathogens. Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most preval...
Liu, M; Guan, Y; Peiris, M; He, S; Webby, R J; Perez, D; Webster, R G
There is increasing evidence that stable lineages of influenza viruses are being established in chickens. H9N2 viruses are established in chickens in Eurasia, and there are increasing reports of H3N2, H6N1, and H6N2 influenza viruses in chickens both in Asia and North America. Surveillance in a live poultry market in Nanchang, South Central China, reveals that influenza viruses were isolated form 1% of fecal samples taken from healthy poultry over the course of 16 months. The highest isolation rates were from chickens (1.3%) and ducks (1.2%), followed by quail (0.8%), then pigeon (0.5%). H3N6, H9N2, H2N9, and H4N6 viruses were isolated from multiple samples, while single isolates of H1N1, H3N2, and H3N3 viruses were made. Representatives of each virus subtype were experimentally inoculated into both quail and chickens. All the viruses replicated in the trachea of quail, but efficient replication in chickens was confined to 25% of the tested isolates. In quail, these viruses were shed primarily by the aerosol route, raising the possibility that quail may be the "route modulator" that changes the route of transmission of influenza viruses from fecal-oral to aerosol transmission. Thus, quail may play an important role in the natural history of influenza viruses. The pros and cons of the use of inactivated and recombinant fowl pox-influenza vaccines to control the spread of avian influenza are also evaluated.
The Influenza Research Database (IRD) is a U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Bioinformatics Resource Center dedicated to providing bioinformatics support for influenza virus research. IRD facilitates the research and development of vaccines, diagnostics, an...
Rowse, Michael; Qiu, Shihong; Tsao, Jun; Xian, Tongmei; Khawaja, Sarah; Yamauchi, Yohei; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Guoxin; Luo, Ming
New inhibitors of influenza viruses are needed to combat the potential emergence of novel human influenza viruses. We have identified a class of small molecules that inhibit replication of influenza virus at picomolar concentrations in plaque reduction assays. The compound also inhibits replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. Time of addition and dilution experiments with influenza virus indicated that an early time point of infection was blocked and that inhibitor 136 tightly bound to virions. Using fluorescently labeled influenza virus, inhibition of viral fusion to cellular membranes by blocked lipid mixing was established as the mechanism of action for this class of inhibitors. Stabilization of the neutral pH form of hemagglutinin (HA) was ruled out by trypsin digestion studies in vitro and with conformation specific HA antibodies within cells. Direct visualization of 136 treated influenza virions at pH 7.5 or acidified to pH 5.0 showed that virions remain intact and that glycoproteins become disorganized as expected when HA undergoes a conformational change. This suggests that exposure of the fusion peptide at low pH is not inhibited but lipid mixing is inhibited, a different mechanism than previously reported fusion inhibitors. We hypothesize that this new class of inhibitors intercalate into the virus envelope altering the structure of the viral envelope required for fusion to cellular membranes. PMID:25803288
Cowling, Benjamin J.; Ip, Dennis K. M.; Fang, Vicky J.; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Olsen, Sonja J.; Levy, Jens; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Simmerman, J. Mark
Introduction While influenza A and B viruses can be transmitted via respiratory droplets, the importance of small droplet nuclei “aerosols” in transmission is controversial. Methods and Findings In Hong Kong and Bangkok, in 2008–11, subjects were recruited from outpatient clinics if they had recent onset of acute respiratory illness and none of their household contacts were ill. Following a positive rapid influenza diagnostic test result, subjects were randomly allocated to one of three household-based interventions: hand hygiene, hand hygiene plus face masks, and a control group. Index cases plus their household contacts were followed for 7–10 days to identify secondary infections by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing of respiratory specimens. Index cases with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza B were included in the present analyses. We used a mathematical model to make inferences on the modes of transmission, facilitated by apparent differences in clinical presentation of secondary infections resulting from aerosol transmission. We estimated that approximately 37% and 26% of influenza B virus transmission was via the aerosol mode in households in Hong Kong and Bangkok, respectively. In the fitted model, influenza B virus infections were associated with a 56%–72% risk of fever plus cough if infected via aerosol route, and a 23%–31% risk of fever plus cough if infected via the other two modes of transmission. Conclusions Aerosol transmission may be an important mode of spread of influenza B virus. The point estimates of aerosol transmission were slightly lower for influenza B virus compared to previously published estimates for influenza A virus in both Hong Kong and Bangkok. Caution should be taken in interpreting these findings because of the multiple assumptions inherent in the model, including that there is limited biological evidence to date supporting a difference in the clinical features of influenza B virus infection by
Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Daszak, Peter; Kilpatrick, A. Marm
Influenza A virus infections result in ~500,000 human deaths per year and many more sub-lethal infections. Wild birds are recognized as the ancestral host of influenza A viruses, and avian viruses have contributed genetic material to most human viruses, including subtypes H5N1 and H1N1. Thus, influenza virus transmission in wild and domestic animals and humans is intimately connected. Here we review how anthropogenic change, including human population growth, land use, climate change, globalization of trade, agricultural intensification, and changes in vaccine technology may alter the evolution and transmission of influenza viruses. Evidence suggests that viral transmission in domestic poultry, spillover to other domestic animals, wild birds and humans, and the potential for subsequent pandemic spread, are all increasing. We highlight four areas in need of research: drivers of viral subtype dynamics; ecological and evolutionary determinants of transmissibility and virulence in birds and humans; the impact of changing land use and climate on hosts, viruses, and transmission; and the impact of influenza viruses on wild bird hosts, including their ability to migrate while shedding virus. PMID:20536820
Watanabe, Tokiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Influenza viruses cause epidemics and pandemics. Like all other viruses, influenza viruses rely on the host cellular machinery to support their life cycle. Accordingly, identification of host functions that participate in viral replication steps is of great interest to understand the mechanisms of the virus life cycle as well as to find new targets for the development of antiviral compounds. Multiple laboratories have used various approaches to explore host factors involvement in the influenza virus replication cycle. One of the most powerful approaches is an RNAi-based genome-wide screen, which has thrown new light on the search for host factors involved in virus replication. In this review, we examine the cellular genes identified to date as important for influenza virus replication in genome-wide screens, assess pathways that were repeatedly identified in these studies, and discuss how these pathways might be involved in the individual steps of influenza virus replication, ultimately leading to a comprehensive understanding of the virus life cycle. PMID:20542247
Short, Kirsty R.; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J. B.; Reperant, Leslie A.; Richard, Mathilde; Kuiken, Thijs
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is an important cause of respiratory disease in humans. The original reservoirs of IAV are wild waterfowl and shorebirds, where virus infection causes limited, if any, disease. Both in humans and in wild waterbirds, epithelial cells are the main target of infection. However, influenza virus can spread from wild bird species to terrestrial poultry. Here, the virus can evolve into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Part of this evolution involves increased viral tropism for endothelial cells. HPAI virus infections not only cause severe disease in chickens and other terrestrial poultry species but can also spread to humans and back to wild bird populations. Here, we review the role of the endothelium in the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in wild birds, terrestrial poultry and humans with a particular focus on HPAI viruses. We demonstrate that whilst the endothelium is an important target of virus infection in terrestrial poultry and some wild bird species, in humans the endothelium is more important in controlling the local inflammatory milieu. Thus, the endothelium plays an important, but species-specific, role in the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection. PMID:25520707
Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Gomaa, Mokhtar M.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Shehata, Mahmoud M.; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.
Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed. PMID:24655395
Bergmann, M; García-Sastre, A; Palese, P
Several mechanisms, including a high mutation rate and reassortment of genes, have been found to be responsible for the variability of influenza A viruses. RNA recombination would be another mechanism leading to genetic variation; however, recombination has only rarely been reported to occur in influenza viruses. During ribonucleoprotein transfection experiments designed to generate viable influenza viruses from in vitro-synthesized RNA, we discovered several viruses which must have originated from recombination events. The ribonucleoprotein transfection system may enhance the formation of viruses which result from jumping of the viral polymerase between RNAs or from ligation of different viral RNAs. Five different recombinant viruses are described. Two of these, REC1 and REC2, contain a neuraminidase (NA) gene whose defective polyadenylation signal has been repaired via intergenic recombination; 124 and 95 nucleotides have been added, respectively. Another virus, REC5, must have originated by multiple recombination events since it contains a mosaic gene with sequences derived from the NA gene of influenza A/WSN/33 virus and the matrix, polymerase protein PB1, and NA genes of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. Images PMID:1279208
Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A
Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.
Roth, Bernhard; Mohr, Hannah; Enders, Martin; Garten, Wolfgang; Gregersen, Jens-Peter
This paper summarizes results obtained by multiplex PCR screening of human clinical samples for respiratory viruses and corresponding data obtained after passaging of virus-positive samples in MDCK 33016PF cells. Using the ResPlexII v2.0 (Qiagen) multiplex PCR, 393 positive results were obtained in 468 clinical samples collected during an influenza season in Germany. The overall distribution of positive results was influenza A 42.0%, influenza B 38.7%, adenovirus 1.5%, bocavirus 0.5%, coronavirus 3.3%, enterovirus 5.6%, metapneumovirus 1.0%, parainfluenza virus 0.8%, rhinovirus 4.1%, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) 2.5%. Double infections of influenza virus together with another virus were found for adenovirus B and E, bocavirus, coronavirus, enterovirus and for rhinovirus. These other viruses were rapidly lost upon passages in MDCK 33016PF cells and under conditions as applied to influenza virus passaging. Clinical samples, in which no influenza virus but other viruses were found, were also subject to passages in MDCK 33016PF cells. Using lower inoculum dilutions than those normally applied for preparations containing influenza virus (total dilution of the original sample of ∼10(4)), the positive results for the different viruses turned negative already after 2 or 3 passages in MDCK 33016PF cells. These results demonstrate that, under practical conditions as applied to grow influenza viruses, contaminating viruses can be effectively removed by passages in MDCK cells. In combination with their superior isolation efficiency, MDCK cells appear highly suitable to be used as an alternative to embryonated eggs to isolate and propagate influenza vaccine candidate viruses.
Mukherjee, Anupam; Nayak, Mukti Kant; Dutta, Shanta; Panda, Samiran; Satpathi, Biswa Ranjan; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta
In 2015, the swine derived A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic strain outbreak became widespread throughout the different states of India. The reported cases and deaths in 2015 surpassed the previous years with more than 39000 laboratory confirmed cases and a death toll of more than 2500 people. There are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from Asian countries. In this study, we describe the full genome analysis of influenza 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from West Bengal between January through December 2015. The phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin sequence revealed clustering with globally circulating strains of genogroup 6B. This was further confirmed by the constructed concatenated tree using all eight complete gene segments of Kolkata A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates with the other strains from different timeline and lineages. A study from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2015 reported novel mutations T200A and D225N in haemagglutinin gene of a 2014 Indian strain (A/India/6427/2014). However, in all the pandemic strains of 2014–2015 reported from India, so far including A(H1N1)pdm09 strains from Kolkata, D225N mutation was not observed, though the T200A mutation was found to be conserved. Neuraminidase gene of the analyzed strains did not show any oseltamivir resistant mutation H275Y suggesting continuation of Tamiflu® as drug of choice. The amino acid sequences of the all gene segments from 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates identified several new mutations compared to the 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 strains, which may have contributed towards enhanced virulence, compared to 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 strains. PMID:27997573
Murcia, Pablo R; Baillie, Gregory J; Stack, J Conrad; Jervis, Carley; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A; Daly, Janet; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T; Holmes, Edward C; Wood, James L N
Influenza A viruses are characterized by their ability to evade host immunity, even in vaccinated individuals. To determine how prior immunity shapes viral diversity in vivo, we studied the intra- and interhost evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Although the level and structure of genetic diversity were similar to those in naïve horses, intrahost bottlenecks may be more stringent in vaccinated animals, and mutations shared among horses often fall close to putative antigenic sites.
Imai, Masaki; Watanabe, Tokiko; Hatta, Masato; Das, Subash C; Ozawa, Makoto; Shinya, Kyoko; Zhong, Gongxun; Hanson, Anthony; Katsura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Shinji; Li, Chengjun; Kawakami, Eiryo; Yamada, Shinya; Kiso, Maki; Suzuki, Yasuo; Maher, Eileen A; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses occasionally infect humans, but currently do not transmit efficiently among humans. The viral haemagglutinin (HA) protein is a known host-range determinant as it mediates virus binding to host-specific cellular receptors. Here we assess the molecular changes in HA that would allow a virus possessing subtype H5 HA to be transmissible among mammals. We identified a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus-comprising H5 HA (from an H5N1 virus) with four mutations and the remaining seven gene segments from a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus-that was capable of droplet transmission in a ferret model. The transmissible H5 reassortant virus preferentially recognized human-type receptors, replicated efficiently in ferrets, caused lung lesions and weight loss, but was not highly pathogenic and did not cause mortality. These results indicate that H5 HA can convert to an HA that supports efficient viral transmission in mammals; however, we do not know whether the four mutations in the H5 HA identified here would render a wholly avian H5N1 virus transmissible. The genetic origin of the remaining seven viral gene segments may also critically contribute to transmissibility in mammals. Nevertheless, as H5N1 viruses continue to evolve and infect humans, receptor-binding variants of H5N1 viruses with pandemic potential, including avian-human reassortant viruses as tested here, may emerge. Our findings emphasize the need to prepare for potential pandemics caused by influenza viruses possessing H5 HA, and will help individuals conducting surveillance in regions with circulating H5N1 viruses to recognize key residues that predict the pandemic potential of isolates, which will inform the development, production and distribution of effective countermeasures.
Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are endemic diseases in pork producing countries around the world. The emergence of the pandemic 2009 human H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1) raised questions about the occurrence of this virus in Brazilian swine populations. During a 2009-2010 swine influenza virus r...
Salem, Elias; Cook, Elizabeth A.J.; Lbacha, Hicham Ait; Oliva, Justine; Awoume, Félix; Aplogan, Gilbert L.; Hymann, Emmanuel Couacy; Muloi, Dishon; Deem, Sharon L.; Alali, Said; Zouagui, Zaid; Fèvre, Eric M.; Meyer, Gilles
Influenza D virus has been identified in America, Europe, and Asia. We detected influenza D virus antibodies in cattle and small ruminants from North (Morocco) and West (Togo and Benin) Africa. Dromedary camels in Kenya harbored influenza C or D virus antibodies, indicating a potential new host for these viruses. PMID:28820371
Salem, Elias; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Lbacha, Hicham Ait; Oliva, Justine; Awoume, Félix; Aplogan, Gilbert L; Hymann, Emmanuel Couacy; Muloi, Dishon; Deem, Sharon L; Alali, Said; Zouagui, Zaid; Fèvre, Eric M; Meyer, Gilles; Ducatez, Mariette F
Influenza D virus has been identified in America, Europe, and Asia. We detected influenza D virus antibodies in cattle and small ruminants from North (Morocco) and West (Togo and Benin) Africa. Dromedary camels in Kenya harbored influenza C or D virus antibodies, indicating a potential new host for these viruses.
Zohari, Siamak; Gyarmati, Péter; Ejdersund, Anneli; Berglöf, Ulla; Thorén, Peter; Ehrenberg, Maria; Czifra, György; Belák, Sándor; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Berg, Mikael
Background Although the important role of the non-structural 1 (NS) gene of influenza A in virulence of the virus is well established, our knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene pool of influenza A viruses in their natural reservoirs in Europe is incomplete. In this study we determined the subtypes and prevalence of influenza A viruses present in mallards in Northern Europe and further analysed the NS gene of these isolates in order to obtain a more detailed knowledge about the genetic variation of NS gene of influenza A virus in their natural hosts. Results A total number of 45 influenza A viruses of different subtypes were studied. Eleven haemagglutinin- and nine neuraminidase subtypes in twelve combinations were found among the isolated viruses. Each NS gene reported here consisted of 890 nucleotides; there were no deletions or insertions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly shows that two distinct gene pools, corresponding to both NS allele A and B, were present at the same time in the same geographic location in the mallard populations in Northern Europe. A comparison of nucleotide sequences of isolated viruses revealed a substantial number of silent mutations, which results in high degree of homology in amino acid sequences. The degree of variation within the alleles is very low. In our study allele A viruses displays a maximum of 5% amino acid divergence while allele B viruses display only 2% amino acid divergence. All the viruses isolated from mallards in Northern Europe possessed the typical avian ESEV amino acid sequence at the C-terminal end of the NS1 protein. Conclusion Our finding indicates the existence of a large reservoir of different influenza A viruses in mallards population in Northern Europe. Although our phylogenetic analysis clearly shows that two distinct gene pools, corresponding to both NS allele A and B, were present in the mallards populations in Northern Europe, allele B viruses appear to be less common in natural host species
Petitjean, Michel; Vanet, Anne
For over 400 years, due to the reassortment of their segmented genomes, influenza viruses evolve extremely quickly and cause devastating epidemics. This reassortment arises because two flu viruses can infect the same cell and therefore the new virions' genomes will be composed of segment reassortments of the two parental strains. A treatment developed against parents could then be ineffective if the virions' genomes are different enough from their parent's genomes. It is therefore essential to simulate such reassortment phenomena to assess the risk of apparition of new flu strain. So we decided to upgrade the forward simulator VIRAPOPS, containing already the necessary options to handle non-segmented viral populations. This new version can mimic single or successive reassortments, in birds, humans and/or swines. Other options such as the ability to treat populations of positive or negative sense viral RNAs, were also added. Finally, we propose output options giving statistics of the results. In this paper we present a new version of VIRAPOPS which now manages the viral segment reassortments and the negative sense single strain RNA viruses, these two issues being the cause of serious public health problems.
Background For over 400 years, due to the reassortment of their segmented genomes, influenza viruses evolve extremely quickly and cause devastating epidemics. This reassortment arises because two flu viruses can infect the same cell and therefore the new virions’ genomes will be composed of segment reassortments of the two parental strains. A treatment developed against parents could then be ineffective if the virions’ genomes are different enough from their parent’s genomes. It is therefore essential to simulate such reassortment phenomena to assess the risk of apparition of new flu strain. Findings So we decided to upgrade the forward simulator VIRAPOPS, containing already the necessary options to handle non-segmented viral populations. This new version can mimic single or successive reassortments, in birds, humans and/or swines. Other options such as the ability to treat populations of positive or negative sense viral RNAs, were also added. Finally, we propose output options giving statistics of the results. Conclusion In this paper we present a new version of VIRAPOPS which now manages the viral segment reassortments and the negative sense single strain RNA viruses, these two issues being the cause of serious public health problems. PMID:25183993
van Baalen, C A; Els, C; Sprong, L; van Beek, R; van der Vries, E; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rimmelzwaan, G F
To assess the efficacy of novel antiviral drugs against influenza virus in clinical trials, it is necessary to quantify infectious virus titers in respiratory tract samples from patients. Typically, this is achieved by inoculating virus-susceptible cells with serial dilutions of clinical specimens and detecting the production of progeny virus by hemagglutination, since influenza viruses generally have the capacity to bind and agglutinate erythrocytes of various species through their hemagglutinin (HA). This readout method is no longer adequate, since an increasing number of currently circulating influenza A virus H3 subtype (A[H3]) viruses display a reduced capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes. Here, we report the magnitude of this problem by analyzing the frequency of HA-deficient A(H3) viruses detected in The Netherlands from 1999 to 2012. Furthermore, we report the development and validation of an alternative method for monitoring the production of progeny influenza virus in quantitative virus cultures, which is independent of the capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes. This method is based on the detection of viral nucleoprotein (NP) in virus culture plates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and it produced results similar to those of the hemagglutination assay using strains with good HA activity, including A/Brisbane/059/07 (H1N1), A/Victoria/210/09 (H3N2), other seasonal A(H1N1), A(H1N1)pdm09, and the majority of A(H3) virus strains isolated in 2009. In contrast, many A(H3) viruses that have circulated since 2010 failed to display HA activity, and infectious virus titers were determined only by detecting NP. The virus culture ELISA described here will enable efficacy testing of new antiviral compounds in clinical trials during seasons in which nonhemagglutinating influenza A viruses circulate.
Brancato, Virginia; Peduto, Antonella; Wharton, Stephen; Martin, Stephen; More, Vijaykumar; Di Mola, Antonia; Massa, Antonio; Perfetto, Brunella; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Schiraldi, Chiara; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; de Rosa, Mario; Filosa, Rosanna; Hay, Alan
The fusion of virus and endosome membranes is an essential early stage in influenza virus infection. The low pH-induced conformational change which promotes the fusogenic activity of the haemagglutinin (HA) is thus an attractive target as an antiviral strategy. The anti-influenza drug Arbidol is representative of a class of antivirals which inhibits HA-mediated membrane fusion by increasing the acid stability of the HA. In this study two series of indole derivatives structurally related to Arbidol were designed and synthesized to further probe the foundation of its antiviral activity and develop the basis for a structure-activity relationship (SAR). Ethyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1-methyl-2-(phenysulphanylmethyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (15) was identified as one of the most potent inhibitors and more potent than Arbidol against certain subtypes of influenza A viruses. In particular, 15 exhibited a much greater affinity and preference for binding group 2 than group 1 HAs, and exerted a greater stabilising effect, in contrast to Arbidol. The results provide the basis for more detailed SAR studies of Arbidol binding to HA; however, the greater affinity for binding HA was not reflected in a comparable increase in antiviral activity of 15, apparently reflecting the complex nature of the antiviral activity of Arbidol and its derivatives. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Root, J Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T; Sullivan, Heather J; Blitvich, Bradley J; McLean, Robert G; Franklin, Alan B
An investigation was performed to describe the responses of naturally acquired antibodies to influenza A virus in raccoons (Procyon lotor) over time. Seven wild raccoons, some of which had been exposed to multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, were held in captivity for 279 days, and serum samples were collected on 10 occasions during this interval. Serum samples from 9 of 10 bleeding occasions were tested using an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of antibodies to influenza A virus. Although titer declines were noted in most animals over time, all animals maintained detectable antibodies for the duration of the study. These data indicate that naturally acquired antibodies to influenza A virus can remain detectable in raccoons for many months, with the actual duration presumably being much longer because all animals had been exposed to influenza A virus before this study commenced. This information is important to surveillance programs because the duration of naturally acquired antibodies to influenza A virus in wildlife populations is largely unknown.
Weng, Ding; Qi, Hangfei; Wu, Ting-Ting; Yan, Ming; Sun, Ren; Lu, Yunfeng
Influenza A viruses, the pathogens responsible for the recent swine flu outbreak and many historical pandemics, remain a threat to the public health. We report herein the fabrication of self-disinfecting surfaces from photoactive building nanocrystals, which can inactivate influenza viruses rapidly, spontaneously and continuously under visible light illumination.Influenza A viruses, the pathogens responsible for the recent swine flu outbreak and many historical pandemics, remain a threat to the public health. We report herein the fabrication of self-disinfecting surfaces from photoactive building nanocrystals, which can inactivate influenza viruses rapidly, spontaneously and continuously under visible light illumination. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD, UV-Vis absorbance, TEM, AFM of as-prepared nanocrystals and as-fabricated self-disinfecting surfaces, disinfection of influenza A virus by TiO2 (P25) with UV irradiation as reference control, photoinactivation of influenza A virus envelope proteins and photoinactivation of trypsin. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30388d
Shoemaker, Jason E; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Eisfeld, Amie J; Zhao, Dongming; Kawakami, Eiryo; Sakabe, Saori; Maemura, Tadashi; Gorai, Takeo; Katsura, Hiroaki; Muramoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Watanabe, Tokiko; Fuji, Ken; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Influenza viruses present major challenges to public health, evident by the 2009 influenza pandemic. Highly pathogenic influenza virus infections generally coincide with early, high levels of inflammatory cytokines that some studies have suggested may be regulated in a strain-dependent manner. However, a comprehensive characterization of the complex dynamics of the inflammatory response induced by virulent influenza strains is lacking. Here, we applied gene co-expression and nonlinear regression analysis to time-course, microarray data developed from influenza-infected mouse lung to create mathematical models of the host inflammatory response. We found that the dynamics of inflammation-associated gene expression are regulated by an ultrasensitive-like mechanism in which low levels of virus induce minimal gene expression but expression is strongly induced once a threshold virus titer is exceeded. Cytokine assays confirmed that the production of several key inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, exhibit ultrasensitive behavior. A systematic exploration of the pathways regulating the inflammatory-associated gene response suggests that the molecular origins of this ultrasensitive response mechanism lie within the branch of the Toll-like receptor pathway that regulates STAT1 phosphorylation. This study provides the first evidence of an ultrasensitive mechanism regulating influenza virus-induced inflammation in whole lungs and provides insight into how different virus strains can induce distinct temporal inflammation response profiles. The approach developed here should facilitate the construction of gene regulatory models of other infectious diseases.
Gramer, Marie R.; Vincent, Amy L.; Holmes, Edward C.
To determine the extent to which influenza viruses jump between human and swine hosts, we undertook a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of pandemic A/H1N1/09 (H1N1pdm09) influenza virus genome sequence data. From this, we identified at least 49 human-to-swine transmission events that occurred globally during 2009–2011, thereby highlighting the ability of the H1N1pdm09 virus to transmit repeatedly from humans to swine, even following adaptive evolution in humans. Similarly, we identified at least 23 separate introductions of human seasonal (non-pandemic) H1 and H3 influenza viruses into swine globally since 1990. Overall, these results reveal the frequency with which swine are exposed to human influenza viruses, indicate that humans make a substantial contribution to the genetic diversity of influenza viruses in swine, and emphasize the need to improve biosecurity measures at the human–swine interface, including influenza vaccination of swine workers. PMID:22791604
Garcia-Robles, Inmaculada; Akarsu, Hatice; Mueller, Christoph W.; Ruigrok, Rob W.H.; Baudin, Florence . E-mail: email@example.com
During influenza virus infection, transcription and replication of the viral RNA take place in the cell nucleus. Directly after entry in the nucleus the viral ribonucleoproteins (RNPs, the viral subunits containing vRNA, nucleoprotein and the viral polymerase) are tightly associated with the nuclear matrix. Here, we have analysed the binding of RNPs, M1 and NS2/NEP proteins to purified nucleosomes, reconstituted histone octamers and purified single histones. RNPs and M1 both bind to the chromatin components but at two different sites, RNP to the histone tails and M1 to the globular domain of the histone octamer. NS2/NEP did not bind to nucleosomes at all. The possible consequences of these findings for nuclear release of newly made RNPs and for other processes during the infection cycle are discussed.
Background There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV). In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks) as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds) seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their falconry birds as well as prey birds. Findings During 2 hunting seasons (2006/2007 and 2007/2008) falconers took tracheal and cloacal swabs from 1080 prey birds that were captured by their falconry birds (n = 54) in Germany. AIV-RNA of subtypes H6, H9, or H13 was detected in swabs of 4.1% of gulls (n = 74) and 3.8% of ducks (n = 53) using RT-PCR. The remaining 953 sampled prey birds and all falconry birds were negative. Blood samples of the falconry birds tested negative for AIV specific antibodies. Serum samples from all 43 falconers reacted positive in influenza A virus-specific ELISA, but remained negative using microneutralisation test against subtypes H5 and H7 and haemagglutination inhibition test against subtypes H6, H9 and H13. Conclusion Although we were able to detect AIV-RNA in samples from prey birds, the corresponding falconry birds and falconers did not become infected. Currently falconers do not seem to carry a high risk for getting infected with AIV through handling their falconry birds and their prey. PMID:21513552
Hurt, Aeron C; Holien, Jessica K; Parker, Michael; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G
The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir are marketed for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza and have been stockpiled by many countries for use in a pandemic. Although recent surveillance has identified a striking increase in the frequency of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Europe, the United States, Oceania, and South Africa, to date there have been no reports of significant zanamivir resistance among influenza A (H1N1) viruses or any other human influenza viruses. We investigated the frequency of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistance in circulating seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Australasia and Southeast Asia. Analysis of 391 influenza A (H1N1) viruses isolated between 2006 and early 2008 from Australasia and Southeast Asia revealed nine viruses (2.3%) that demonstrated markedly reduced zanamivir susceptibility and contained a previously undescribed Gln136Lys (Q136K) neuraminidase mutation. The mutation had no effect on oseltamivir susceptibility but caused approximately a 300-fold and a 70-fold reduction in zanamivir and peramivir susceptibility, respectively. The role of the Q136K mutation in conferring zanamivir resistance was confirmed using reverse genetics. Interestingly, the mutation was not detected in the primary clinical specimens from which these mutant isolates were grown, suggesting that the resistant viruses either occurred in very low proportions in the primary clinical specimens or arose during MDCK cell culture passage. Compared to susceptible influenza A (H1N1) viruses, the Q136K mutant strains displayed greater viral fitness than the wild-type virus in MDCK cells but equivalent infectivity and transmissibility in a ferret model.
Barba, Marta; Daly, Janet M.
Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies. PMID:27589809
Yasui, Hisako; Kiyoshima, Junko; Hori, Tetuji; Shida, Kan
Mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064 and immunized orally with influenza virus were more strongly protected against influenza virus infection of the lower respiratory tract than ones immunized with influenza virus only. The number of mice with enhanced anti-influenza virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum upon oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 and oral immunization with influenza virus was significantly greater than that upon oral immunization with influenza virus only. These findings demonstrated that the oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 increased anti-influenza virus IgG antibodies in serum and protected against influenza virus infection. The oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 may enhance antigen-specific IgG against various pathogenic antigens taken orally and induce protection against various virus infections. PMID:10066652
Smith, Claire M.; Scott, Paul D.; O’Callaghan, Christopher; Easton, Andrew J.; Dimmock, Nigel J.
Defective interfering (DI) viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8) was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1); it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral. PMID:27556481
Smith, Claire M; Scott, Paul D; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Easton, Andrew J; Dimmock, Nigel J
Defective interfering (DI) viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8) was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1); it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral.
Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Pascual, Mercedes
Since its emergence in 1968, influenza A (H3N2) has evolved extensively in genotype and antigenic phenotype. However, despite strong pressure to evolve away from human immunity and to diversify in antigenic phenotype, H3N2 influenza shows paradoxically limited genetic and antigenic diversity present at any one time. Here, we propose a simple model of antigenic evolution in the influenza virus that accounts for this apparent discrepancy. In this model, antigenic phenotype is represented by a N-dimensional vector, and virus mutations perturb phenotype within this continuous Euclidean space. We implement this model in a large-scale individual-based simulation, and in doing so, we find a remarkable correspondence between model behavior and observed influenza dynamics. This model displays rapid evolution but low standing diversity and simultaneously accounts for the epidemiological, genetic, antigenic, and geographical patterns displayed by the virus. We find that evolution away from existing human immunity results in rapid population turnover in the influenza virus and that this population turnover occurs primarily along a single antigenic axis. Selective dynamics induce a canalized evolutionary trajectory, in which the evolutionary fate of the influenza population is surprisingly repeatable. In the model, the influenza population shows a 1- to 2-year timescale of repeatability, suggesting a window in which evolutionary dynamics could be, in theory, predictable.
Background Since its emergence in 1968, influenza A (H3N2) has evolved extensively in genotype and antigenic phenotype. However, despite strong pressure to evolve away from human immunity and to diversify in antigenic phenotype, H3N2 influenza shows paradoxically limited genetic and antigenic diversity present at any one time. Here, we propose a simple model of antigenic evolution in the influenza virus that accounts for this apparent discrepancy. Results In this model, antigenic phenotype is represented by a N-dimensional vector, and virus mutations perturb phenotype within this continuous Euclidean space. We implement this model in a large-scale individual-based simulation, and in doing so, we find a remarkable correspondence between model behavior and observed influenza dynamics. This model displays rapid evolution but low standing diversity and simultaneously accounts for the epidemiological, genetic, antigenic, and geographical patterns displayed by the virus. We find that evolution away from existing human immunity results in rapid population turnover in the influenza virus and that this population turnover occurs primarily along a single antigenic axis. Conclusions Selective dynamics induce a canalized evolutionary trajectory, in which the evolutionary fate of the influenza population is surprisingly repeatable. In the model, the influenza population shows a 1- to 2-year timescale of repeatability, suggesting a window in which evolutionary dynamics could be, in theory, predictable. PMID:22546494
Smith, Amber M; McCullers, Jonathan A
Influenza is often complicated by bacterial pathogens that colonize the nasopharynx and invade the middle ear and/or lung epithelium. Incidence and pathogenicity of influenza-bacterial coinfections are multifactorial processes that involve various pathogenic virulence factors and host responses with distinct site- and strain-specific differences. Animal models and kinetic models have improved our understanding of how influenza viruses interact with their bacterial co-pathogens and the accompanying immune responses. Data from these models indicate that considerable alterations in epithelial surfaces and aberrant immune responses lead to severe inflammation, a key driver of bacterial acquisition and infection severity following influenza. However, further experimental and analytical studies are essential to determining the full mechanistic spectrum of different viral and bacterial strains and species and to finding new ways to prevent and treat influenza-associated bacterial coinfections. Here, we review recent advances regarding transmission and disease potential of influenza-associated bacterial infections and discuss the current gaps in knowledge.
Smith, Geoffrey L.; Murphy, Brian R.; Moss, Bernard
A DNA copy of the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene, derived from influenza virus A/Jap/305/57 (H2N2) was inserted into the genome of vaccinia virus under the control of an early vaccinia virus promoter. Tissue culture cells infected with the purified recombinant virus synthesized influenza hemagglutinin, which was glycosylated and transported to the cell surface where it could be cleaved with trypsin into HA1 and HA2 subunits. Rabbits and hamsters inoculated intradermally with recombinant virus produced circulating antibodies that inhibited hemagglutination by influenza virus. Furthermore, vaccinated hamsters achieved levels of antibody similar to those obtained upon primary infection with influenza virus and were protected against respiratory infection with the A/Jap/305/57 influenza virus.
Rash, Adam; Morton, Rachel; Woodward, Alana; Maes, Olivia; McCauley, John; Bryant, Neil; Elton, Debra
Equine influenza viruses (EIV) are a major cause of acute respiratory disease in horses worldwide and occasionally also affect vaccinated animals. Like other influenza A viruses, they undergo antigenic drift, highlighting the importance of both surveillance and virus characterisation in order for vaccine strains to be kept up to date. The aim of the work reported here was to monitor the genetic and antigenic changes occurring in EIV circulating in the UK from 2013 to 2015 and to identify any evidence of vaccine breakdown in the field. Virus isolation, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing were performed on EIV-positive nasopharyngeal swab samples submitted to the Diagnostic Laboratory Services at the Animal Health Trust (AHT). Phylogenetic analyses were completed for the haemagglutinin-1 (HA1) and neuraminidase (NA) genes using PhyML and amino acid sequences compared against the current World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-recommended Florida clade 2 vaccine strain. Substitutions between the new isolates and the vaccine strain were mapped onto the three-dimensional structure protein structures using PyMol. Antigenic analyses were carried out by haemagglutination inhibition assay using a panel of post-infection ferret antisera. Sixty-nine outbreaks of equine influenza in the UK were reported by the AHT between January 2013 and December 2015. Forty-seven viruses were successfully isolated in eggs from 41 of the outbreaks. Only three cases of vaccine breakdown were identified and in each case the vaccine used contained a virus antigen not currently recommended for equine influenza vaccines. Nucleotide sequencing of the HA and NA genes revealed that all of the viruses belonged to the Florida clade 2 sub-lineage of H3N8 EIV. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses showed that the two sub-populations, previously identified within clade 2, continued to circulate and had accrued further amino acid substitutions. Antigenic characterisation
Rash, Adam; Morton, Rachel; Woodward, Alana; Maes, Olivia; McCauley, John; Bryant, Neil; Elton, Debra
Equine influenza viruses (EIV) are a major cause of acute respiratory disease in horses worldwide and occasionally also affect vaccinated animals. Like other influenza A viruses, they undergo antigenic drift, highlighting the importance of both surveillance and virus characterisation in order for vaccine strains to be kept up to date. The aim of the work reported here was to monitor the genetic and antigenic changes occurring in EIV circulating in the UK from 2013 to 2015 and to identify any evidence of vaccine breakdown in the field. Virus isolation, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing were performed on EIV-positive nasopharyngeal swab samples submitted to the Diagnostic Laboratory Services at the Animal Health Trust (AHT). Phylogenetic analyses were completed for the haemagglutinin-1 (HA1) and neuraminidase (NA) genes using PhyML and amino acid sequences compared against the current World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-recommended Florida clade 2 vaccine strain. Substitutions between the new isolates and the vaccine strain were mapped onto the three-dimensional structure protein structures using PyMol. Antigenic analyses were carried out by haemagglutination inhibition assay using a panel of post-infection ferret antisera. Sixty-nine outbreaks of equine influenza in the UK were reported by the AHT between January 2013 and December 2015. Forty-seven viruses were successfully isolated in eggs from 41 of the outbreaks. Only three cases of vaccine breakdown were identified and in each case the vaccine used contained a virus antigen not currently recommended for equine influenza vaccines. Nucleotide sequencing of the HA and NA genes revealed that all of the viruses belonged to the Florida clade 2 sub-lineage of H3N8 EIV. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses showed that the two sub-populations, previously identified within clade 2, continued to circulate and had accrued further amino acid substitutions. Antigenic characterisation
Döller, G; Schuy, W; Tjhen, K Y; Stekeler, B; Gerth, H J
We developed a direct enzyme immunoassay [EIA; Enzygnost Influenza A(Ag) and Enzygnost Influenza B(Ag)] for the direct detection of influenza A and B virus antigens in nasopharyngeal secretion specimens (NPS). The test is performed without sonification of specimens, and results are obtained within 4 h. A direct comparison between direct EIA and quantitation of virus shedding for influenza A and B virus antigen detection was carried out. A total of 210 NPS and 98 nasopharyngeal wash specimens (NPW) were investigated. We isolated influenza A viruses from 79 (37.6%) of 210 NPS; of these 79 cell-culture-positive NPS, 70 (88.6%) were also positive by direct EIA. Of 29 (13.8%) NPS from which influenza B virus was isolated, 24 (82.8%) NPS were positive by direct EIA. Virus shedding was determined quantitatively in 48 NPS from patients with influenza A and in 24 NPS from patients with influenza B. Only a crude correlation between optical density values and virus concentrations was observed. Detection of influenza virus antigens in NPS by direct EIA showed sensitivities of 89.7% for influenza A virus and 87.9% for influenza B virus and specificities of 99.3% for influenza A virus and 100% for influenza B virus. With direct EIA, all NPW were negative for influenza A virus, although virus was isolated from 21 (21.4%) NPW. Of 15 NPW from which influenza B virus was isolated, 7 showed positive results in direct EIA. In addition, direct EIA is suitable for detecting influenza A and B viruses in cell cultures before the appearance of any cytopathic effects and can be used as a cell culture confirmation test. PMID:1572972
Feare, Chris J.; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel
Understanding of ecologic factors favoring emergence and maintenance of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is limited. Although low pathogenic avian influenza viruses persist and evolve in wild populations, HPAI viruses evolve in domestic birds and cause economically serious epizootics that only occasionally infect wild populations. We propose that evolutionary ecology considerations can explain this apparent paradox. Host structure and transmission possibilities differ considerably between wild and domestic birds and are likely to be major determinants of virulence. Because viral fitness is highly dependent on host survival and dispersal in nature, virulent forms are unlikely to persist in wild populations if they kill hosts quickly or affect predation risk or migratory performance. Interhost transmission in water has evolved in low pathogenic influenza viruses in wild waterfowl populations. However, oropharyngeal shedding and transmission by aerosols appear more efficient for HPAI viruses among domestic birds. PMID:20587174
Kiseleva, I V; Larionova, N V; Isakova, I N; Rudenko, L G
The stability of cold adaptation, temperature-sensitivity, and marker mutations that are typical of attenuated influenza A and B viruses--master donor strains and their based reassortant vaccine strains was studied. After 5 sequential passages in chick embryos (CE) at resolving temperatures of 32 and 37 degrees C, the master donor strains and vaccine viruses retained their adaptability and temperature sensitive phenotype. Passage at the temperatures maximally permissible for viral reproduction (39 and 38 degrees C for influenza A and B viruses, respectively, aborted infection just during the second passage. After a series of passages at all study temperatures), there was neither loss or nor substitution of the marker mutations typical of the cold-adapted and temperature-sensitive phenotype of attenuated viruses. The study supports the high genetic stability of attenuated cold-adapted influenza A and B viruses during CE passage not only at the optimum, but also at elevated incubation temperatures.
Bouvier, Nicole M.
Animal models are used to simulate, under experimental conditions, the complex interactions among host, virus, and environment that affect the person-to-person spread of influenza viruses. The three species that have been most frequently employed, both past and present, as influenza virus transmission models -- ferrets, mice, and guinea pigs -- have each provided unique insights into the factors governing the efficiency with which these viruses pass from an infected host to a susceptible one. This review will highlight a few of these noteworthy discoveries, with a particular focus on the historical contexts in which each model was developed and the advantages and disadvantages of each species with regard to the study of influenza virus transmission among mammals. PMID:26126082
Mohr, Peter G; Deng, Yi-Mo; McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L
The neuraminidases (NAs) of MDCK passaged human influenza A(H3N2) strains isolated since 2005 are reported to have dual functions of cleavage of sialic acid and receptor binding. NA agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) can be inhibited by neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), thus distinguishing it from haemagglutinin (HA) binding. We wanted to know if viruses prior to 2005 can demonstrate this property. Pairs of influenza A(H3N2) isolates ranging from 1993-2008 passaged in parallel only in eggs or in MDCK cells were tested for inhibition of haemagglutination by various NAIs. Only viruses isolated since 1994 and cultured in MDCK cells bound chicken RBCs solely through their NA. NAI inhibition of agglutination of turkey RBCs was seen for some, but not all of these same MDCK grown viruses. Efficacy of inhibition of enzyme activity and haemagglutination differed between NAIs. For many viruses lower concentrations of oseltamivir could inhibit agglutination compared to zanamivir, although they could both inhibit enzyme activity at comparable concentrations. An E119V mutation reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir and 4-aminoDANA for both the enzyme assay and inhibition of agglutination. Sequence analysis of the NAs and HAs of some paired viruses revealed mutations in the haemagglutinin of all egg passaged viruses. For many of the paired egg and MDCK cultured viruses we found no differences in their NA sequences by Sanger sequencing. However, deep sequencing of MDCK grown isolates revealed low levels of variant populations with mutations at either D151 or T148 in the NA, suggesting mutations at either site may be able to confer this property. The NA active site of MDCK cultured human influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated since 1994 can express dual enzyme and receptor binding functions. Binding correlated with either D151 or T148 mutations. The catalytic and receptor binding sites do not appear to be structurally identical since relative concentrations of the NAIs to inhibit
Nelson, Martha I; Wentworth, David E; Das, Suman R; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Killian, Mary L; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Slemons, Richard D; Bowman, Andrew S
The role of exhibition swine in influenza A virus transmission was recently demonstrated by >300 infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant viruses among individuals who attended agricultural fairs. Through active influenza A virus surveillance in US exhibition swine and whole-genome sequencing of 380 isolates, we demonstrate that exhibition swine are actively involved in the evolution of influenza A viruses, including zoonotic strains. First, frequent introduction of influenza A viruses from commercial swine populations provides new genetic diversity in exhibition pigs each year locally. Second, genomic reassortment between viruses cocirculating in exhibition swine increases viral diversity. Third, viral migration between exhibition swine in neighboring states demonstrates that movements of exhibition pigs contributes to the spread of genetic diversity. The unexpected frequency of viral exchange between commercial and exhibition swine raises questions about the understudied interface between these populations. Overall, the complexity of viral evolution in exhibition swine indicates that novel viruses are likely to continually reemerge, presenting threats to humans.
Shope, Richard E.
The experiments described confirm the earlier observation of Smith, Andrewes, and Laidlaw that the swine influenza virus is pathogenic for ferrets when administered intranasally. A disease that is clinically more severe and pathologically more extensive than that described by the above workers is obtained if inoculation with the virus is performed under ether anesthesia. Animals infected in this way show at autopsy an edematous type of pneumonia of lobar distribution which may terminate fatally. The virus maintains its pathogenicity for ferrets when stored in 50 per cent glycerol at refrigerator temperature for as long as 75 days. After serial passage through 16 ferrets the virus is still capable of inducing swine influenza when mixed with H. influenzae suis and administered intranasally to swine. Ferret passage causes no apparent attenuation of the virus for swine. Serum from pigs recovered from swine influenza is capable of neutralizing the ferret-passaged virus for either swine or ferrets. Likewise serum from recovered ferrets neutralizes the swine influenza virus for either ferrets or swine. PMID:19870285
Nelson, Martha I.; Wentworth, David E.; Das, Suman R.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Killian, Mary L.; Nolting, Jacqueline M.; Slemons, Richard D.; Bowman, Andrew S.
The role of exhibition swine in influenza A virus transmission was recently demonstrated by >300 infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant viruses among individuals who attended agricultural fairs. Through active influenza A virus surveillance in US exhibition swine and whole-genome sequencing of 380 isolates, we demonstrate that exhibition swine are actively involved in the evolution of influenza A viruses, including zoonotic strains. First, frequent introduction of influenza A viruses from commercial swine populations provides new genetic diversity in exhibition pigs each year locally. Second, genomic reassortment between viruses cocirculating in exhibition swine increases viral diversity. Third, viral migration between exhibition swine in neighboring states demonstrates that movements of exhibition pigs contributes to the spread of genetic diversity. The unexpected frequency of viral exchange between commercial and exhibition swine raises questions about the understudied interface between these populations. Overall, the complexity of viral evolution in exhibition swine indicates that novel viruses are likely to continually reemerge, presenting threats to humans. PMID:26243317
Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, JS Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L
Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12217.001 PMID:27113719
Lindstrom, Stephen; Garten, Rebecca; Balish, Amanda; Shu, Bo; Emery, Shannon; Berman, LaShondra; Barnes, Nathelia; Sleeman, Katrina; Gubareva, Larisa; Villanueva, Julie
During July–December 2011, a variant virus, influenza A(H3N2)v, caused 12 human cases of influenza. The virus contained genes originating from swine, avian, and human viruses, including the M gene from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Influenza A(H3N2)v viruses were antigenically distinct from seasonal influenza viruses and similar to proposed vaccine virus A/Minnesota/11/2010. PMID:22516540
Le, Thi Thanh; Pham, Thu Hang; Pham, Thi Hien; Nguyen, Le Khanh Hang; Hoang, Vu Mai Phuong; Tran, Thu Huong; Nguyen, Vu Son; Ngo, Huong Giang
Introduction Influenza B viruses circulate throughout Viet Nam, and their activities vary by region. There have been two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses co-circulating in the past 20 years; however, only one lineage is selected as a component of contemporary trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines. To improve the understanding of circulating influenza B lineages and influenza vaccine mismatches, we report the virus lineages circulating in northern Viet Nam over an eight-year period (2007–2014). Methods Lineages of 331 influenza B viruses were characterized by haemagglutination inhibition assay against standard reference ferret (Yamagata) and sheep (Victoria) antisera. Sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene was performed in 64 selected influenza B isolates. Results The proportion of influenza B lineages changed by year. The Yamagata lineage predominated in 2007, 2008 and 2012; the Victoria lineage predominated in 2009–2014 except 2012. The two lineages showed continuous evolution over time. The Northern Hemisphere’s influenza vaccine components were mismatched with the predominant circulating viruses in 2007, 2009 and 2014. Discussion The seasonality of influenza B activity is more variable in tropical and subtropical regions than in temperate zones. Our data showed a common co-circulation of both influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, and it was difficult to predict which one was the predominant lineage. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing both lineages may improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccine programmes in the future. PMID:26798557
Le, Thi Thanh; Pham, Thu Hang; Pham, Thi Hien; Nguyen, Le Khanh Hang; Nguyen, Co Thach; Hoang, Vu Mai Phuong; Tran, Thu Huong; Nguyen, Vu Son; Ngo, Huong Giang; Le, Quynh Mai
Influenza B viruses circulate throughout Viet Nam, and their activities vary by region. There have been two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses co-circulating in the past 20 years; however, only one lineage is selected as a component of contemporary trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines. To improve the understanding of circulating influenza B lineages and influenza vaccine mismatches, we report the virus lineages circulating in northern Viet Nam over an eight-year period (2007-2014). Lineages of 331 influenza B viruses were characterized by haemagglutination inhibition assay against standard reference ferret (Yamagata) and sheep (Victoria) antisera. Sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene was performed in 64 selected influenza B isolates. The proportion of influenza B lineages changed by year. The Yamagata lineage predominated in 2007, 2008 and 2012; the Victoria lineage predominated in 2009-2014 except 2012. The two lineages showed continuous evolution over time. The Northern Hemisphere's influenza vaccine components were mismatched with the predominant circulating viruses in 2007, 2009 and 2014. The seasonality of influenza B activity is more variable in tropical and subtropical regions than in temperate zones. Our data showed a common co-circulation of both influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, and it was difficult to predict which one was the predominant lineage. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing both lineages may improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccine programmes in the future.
Oliveira, B C E P D; Liberto, M I M; Barth, O M; Cabral, M C
In order to obtain a better understanding of the functional mechanisms involved in the fusogenesis of enveloped viruses, the influenza A (X31) and the yellow fever (17DD) virus particles were used to construct a chimeric structure based on their distinct pH requirements for fusion, and the distinct malleability of their nucleocapsids. The malleable nucleocapsid of the influenza A virus particle is characterized by a pleomorphic configuration when observed by electron microscopy. A heat inactivated preparation of X31 virus was used as a lectin to interact with the sialic acid domains present in the 17DD virus envelope. The E spikes of 17DD virus were induced to promote fusion of both envelopes, creating a double genome enveloped structure, the chimeric yellow fever-influenza A virus particle. These chimeric viral particles, originally denominated 'partículas virais quiméricas' (PVQ), were characterized by their infectious capacity for different biological systems. Cell inoculation with PVQ resulted in viral products that showed similar characteristics to those obtained after 17DD virus infections. Our findings open new opportunities towards the understanding of both virus particles and aspects of cellular physiologic quality control. The yellow fever-influenza A chimeric particles, by means of their hybrid composition, should be a valuable tool in the study of cell biology and the function of viral components.
Effective primary isolation of wild-type canine distemper virus in MDCK, MV1 Lu and Vero cells without nucleotide sequence changes within the entire haemagglutinin protein gene and in subgenomic sections of the fusion and phospho protein genes.
Lednicky, John A; Meehan, Thomas P; Kinsel, Michael J; Dubach, Jean; Hungerford, Laura L; Sarich, Nicolene A; Witecki, Kelley E; Braid, Michael D; Pedrak, Casandra; Houde, Christiane M
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an important pathogen of many carnivores. We are developing a field-based model of morbillivirus virulence and pathogenesis through a study of distemper in naturally infected free-ranging raccoons. The isolation of CDV from raccoon tissues is essential for this work. CDV has often been isolated from animals only after co-cultivation of infected tissues with peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from specific pathogen-free dogs or similar methods. We explored the utility and consequences of a simpler and cheaper alternative: CDV isolation in Vero, MDCK, and MV1 Lu cells. Virus growth was detected first in MDCK cells, whereas viral cytopathic effects were most obvious in Vero cells. CDV growth in MV1 Lu cells was relatively protracted and occurred without the formation of cytopathic effects. In primary CDV isolates, the entire nucleotide sequence of the receptor binding haemagglutinin (H) gene, and subgenomic fusion (F) and phospho (P) protein gene sequences corresponding to nt 5399-5733 and 2132-2563 of CDV reference strain Onderstepoort, respectively, were identical to those in matched infected tissues. Virus isolation confirmed the presence of CDV in instances where RT-PCR failed to detect CDV in infected tissues. Different viral phenotypes and genotypes were detected. The conservation of H gene sequences in primary CDV isolates suggests that MDCK, MV1 Lu, and Vero cells express proper receptors for wild-type CDV.
Introduction. The emergence of the pandemic 2009 human H1N1 influenza A virus raised many questions about the implications for this virus in swine (1). One such question is, does prior exposure to influenza virus confer any protection against the new virus? This report describes a study to evaluate ...
... and Resources References Medical Office Telephone Evaluation Infection Control Prevention Strategies for Seasonal Influenza in Healthcare Settings Interim Guidance for Influenza Outbreak Management in Long-Term Care Facilities Settings Where High- ...
Bodewes, Rogier; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Bunskoek, Paulien E.; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Smits, Saskia L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Kuiken, Thijs
Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset. PMID:24551217
Murcia, Pablo R.; Holmes, Edward C.
Influenza A virus (IAV) infections in hosts outside the main aquatic bird reservoirs occur periodically. Although most such cross-species transmission events result in limited onward transmission in the new host, sustained influenza outbreaks have occurred in poultry and in a number of mammalian species, including humans, pigs, horses, seals, and mink. Recently, two distinct strains of IAV have emerged in domestic dogs, with each circulating widely for several years. Here, we briefly outline what is known about the role of intermediate hosts in influenza emergence, summarize our knowledge of the new canine influenza viruses (CIVs) and how they provide key new information on the process of host adaptation, and assess the risk these viruses pose to human populations. PMID:25540375
Parrish, Colin R; Murcia, Pablo R; Holmes, Edward C
Influenza A virus (IAV) infections in hosts outside the main aquatic bird reservoirs occur periodically. Although most such cross-species transmission events result in limited onward transmission in the new host, sustained influenza outbreaks have occurred in poultry and in a number of mammalian species, including humans, pigs, horses, seals, and mink. Recently, two distinct strains of IAV have emerged in domestic dogs, with each circulating widely for several years. Here, we briefly outline what is known about the role of intermediate hosts in influenza emergence, summarize our knowledge of the new canine influenza viruses (CIVs) and how they provide key new information on the process of host adaptation, and assess the risk these viruses pose to human populations.
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine. PMID:24568545
Herbert, Rebecca; Baron, Jana; Batten, Carrie; Baron, Michael; Taylor, Geraldine
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine.
Sexton, Amy; De Rose, Robert; Reece, Jeanette C; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Loh, Liyen; Moffat, Jessica M; Laurie, Karen; Hurt, Aeron; Doherty, Peter C; Turner, Stephen J; Kent, Stephen J; Stambas, John
There is an urgent need for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines that induce robust mucosal immunity. Influenza A viruses (both H1N1 and H3N2) were engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) CD8 T-cell epitopes and evaluated following administration to the respiratory tracts of 11 pigtail macaques. Influenza virus was readily detected from respiratory tract secretions, although the infections were asymptomatic. Animals seroconverted to influenza virus and generated CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses to influenza virus proteins. SIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses bearing the mucosal homing marker beta7 integrin were induced by vaccination of naïve animals. Further, SIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses could be boosted by recombinant influenza virus-SIV vaccination of animals with already-established SIV infection. Sequential vaccination with influenza virus-SIV recombinants of different subtypes (H1N1 followed by H3N2 or vice versa) produced only a limited boost in immunity, probably reflecting T-cell immunity to conserved internal proteins of influenza A virus. SIV challenge of macaques vaccinated with an influenza virus expressing a single SIV CD8 T cell resulted in a large anamnestic recall CD8 T-cell response, but immune escape rapidly ensued and there was no impact on chronic SIV viremia. Although our results suggest that influenza virus-HIV vaccines hold promise for the induction of mucosal immunity to HIV, broader antigen cover will be needed to limit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape.
Yang, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chung-Teng; Yang, Shiu-Ju; Leu, Chia-Hsing; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wu, Chao-Liang; Shiau, Ai-Li
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses to defend against pathogens. It also participates in the process of influenza infection by affecting viral clearance and immune cell responses. However, whether IL-6 impacts lung repair in influenza pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of IL-6 in acute influenza infection in mice. IL-6-deficient mice infected with influenza