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Sample records for influenza virus hemagglutinin

  1. Hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) protein of influenza C virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyang; Veit, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Influenza C virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, causes flu-like disease but typically only with mild symptoms. Humans are the main reservoir of the virus, but it also infects pigs and dogs. Very recently, influenza C-like viruses were isolated from pigs and cattle that differ from classical influenza C virus and might constitute a new influenza virus genus. Influenza C virus is unique since it contains only one spike protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein HEF that possesses receptor binding, receptor destroying and membrane fusion activities, thus combining the functions of Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) of influenza A and B viruses. Here we briefly review the epidemiology and pathology of the virus and the morphology of virus particles and their genome. The main focus is on the structure of the HEF protein as well as on its co- and post-translational modification, such as N-glycosylation, disulfide bond formation, S-acylation and proteolytic cleavage into HEF1 and HEF2 subunits. Finally, we describe the functions of HEF: receptor binding, esterase activity and membrane fusion.

  2. Origin and evolution of influenza virus hemagglutinin genes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Nei, Masatoshi

    2002-04-01

    Influenza A, B, and C viruses are the etiological agents of influenza. Hemagglutinin (HA) is the major envelope glycoprotein of influenza A and B viruses, and hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) in influenza C viruses is a protein homologous to HA. Because influenza A virus pandemics in humans appear to occur when new subtypes of HA genes are introduced from aquatic birds that are known to be the natural reservoir of the viruses, an understanding of the origin and evolution of HA genes is of particular importance. We therefore conducted a phylogenetic analysis of HA and HE genes and showed that the influenza A and B virus HA genes diverged much earlier than the divergence between different subtypes of influenza A virus HA genes. The rate of amino acid substitution for A virus HAs from duck, a natural reservoir, was estimated to be 3.19 x 10(-4) per site per year, which was slower than that for human and swine A virus HAs but similar to that for influenza B and C virus HAs (HEs). Using this substitution rate from the duck, we estimated that the divergences between different subtypes of A virus HA genes occurred from several thousand to several hundred years ago. In particular, the earliest divergence time was estimated to be about 2,000 years ago. Also, the A virus HA gene diverged from the B virus HA gene about 4,000 years ago and from the C virus HE gene about 8,000 years ago. These time estimates are much earlier than the previous ones.

  3. Hemagglutinin Stalk Immunity Reduces Influenza Virus Replication and Transmission in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Miller, Matthew S.; Hai, Rong; Ryder, Alex B.; Rose, John K.; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk-based immunity protects ferrets against aerosol-transmitted H1N1 influenza virus infection. Immunization of ferrets by a universal influenza virus vaccine strategy based on viral vectors expressing chimeric hemagglutinin constructs induced stalk-specific antibody responses. Stalk-immunized ferrets were cohoused with H1N1-infected ferrets under conditions that permitted virus transmission. Hemagglutinin stalk-immunized ferrets had lower viral titers and delayed or no virus replication at all following natural exposure to influenza virus. PMID:26719251

  4. Influenza virus hemagglutinin expression is polarized in cells infected with recombinant SV40 viruses carrying cloned hemagglutinin DNA.

    PubMed

    Roth, M G; Compans, R W; Giusti, L; Davis, A R; Nayak, D P; Gething, M J; Sambrook, J

    1983-06-01

    Primary cell cultures of African Green monkey kidney (AGMK) contain polarized epithelial cells in which influenza virus matures predominantly at the apical surfaces above tight junctions. Influenza virus glycoproteins were found to be localized at the same membrane domain from which the virus budded. When polarized primary AGMK cells were infected with recombinant SV40 viruses containing DNA coding for either an influenza virus H1 or H2 subtype hemagglutinin (HA), the HA proteins were preferentially expressed at the apical surface in a manner identical to that observed in influenza virus-infected cells. Thus, cellular mechanisms for sorting membrane glycoproteins recognize some structural feature of the HA glycoprotein itself, and other viral proteins are not necessary for this process.

  5. Hemagglutinin Stalk-Based Universal Vaccine Constructs Protect against Group 2 Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Margine, I.; Hai, R.; Heaton, N. S.; Tan, G. S.; Andrews, S. A.; Runstadler, J. A.; Wilson, P. C.; Albrecht, R. A.; García-Sastre, A.

    2013-01-01

    Current influenza virus vaccines contain H1N1 (phylogenetic group 1 hemagglutinin), H3N2 (phylogenetic group 2 hemagglutinin), and influenza B virus components. These vaccines induce good protection against closely matched strains by predominantly eliciting antibodies against the membrane distal globular head domain of their respective viral hemagglutinins. This domain, however, undergoes rapid antigenic drift, allowing the virus to escape neutralizing antibody responses. The membrane proximal stalk domain of the hemagglutinin is much more conserved compared to the head domain. In recent years, a growing collection of antibodies that neutralize a broad range of influenza virus strains and subtypes by binding to this domain has been isolated. Here, we demonstrate that a vaccination strategy based on the stalk domain of the H3 hemagglutinin (group 2) induces in mice broadly neutralizing anti-stalk antibodies that are highly cross-reactive to heterologous H3, H10, H14, H15, and H7 (derived from the novel Chinese H7N9 virus) hemagglutinins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these antibodies confer broad protection against influenza viruses expressing various group 2 hemagglutinins, including an H7 subtype. Through passive transfer experiments, we show that the protection is mediated mainly by neutralizing antibodies against the stalk domain. Our data suggest that, in mice, a vaccine strategy based on the hemagglutinin stalk domain can protect against viruses expressing divergent group 2 hemagglutinins. PMID:23903831

  6. 78 FR 9355 - Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin From the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin From the Goose/ Guangdong/1... from the public regarding whether highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a... concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from...

  7. Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Trimerization Completes Monomer Folding and Antigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Magadán, Javier G.; Khurana, Surender; Das, Suman R.; Frank, Gregory M.; Stevens, James; Golding, Hana; Bennink, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) remains an important human pathogen largely because of antigenic drift, the rapid emergence of antibody escape mutants that precludes durable vaccination. The most potent neutralizing antibodies interact with cognate epitopes in the globular “head” domain of hemagglutinin (HA), a homotrimeric glycoprotein. The H1 HA possesses five distinct regions defined by a large number of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), i.e., Ca1, Ca2, Cb, Sa, and Sb. Ca1-Ca2 sites require HA trimerization to attain full antigenicity, consistent with their locations on opposite sides of the trimer interface. Here, we show that full antigenicity of Cb and Sa sites also requires HA trimerization, as revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy of IAV-infected cells and biochemically by pulse-chase radiolabeling experiments. Surprisingly, epitope antigenicity acquired by HA trimerization persists following acid triggering of the globular domains dissociation and even after proteolytic release of monomeric heads from acid-treated HA. Thus, the requirement for HA trimerization by trimer-specific MAbs mapping to the Ca, Cb, and Sa sites is not dependent upon the bridging of adjacent monomers in the native HA trimer. Rather, complete antigenicity of HA (and, by inference, immunogenicity) requires a final folding step that accompanies its trimerization. Once this conformational change occurs, HA trimers themselves would not necessarily be required to induce a highly diverse neutralizing response to epitopes in the globular domain. PMID:23824811

  8. Intrinsic temperature sensitivity of influenza C virus hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Takashita, Emi; Muraki, Yasushi; Sugawara, Kanetsu; Asao, Hironobu; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Koji; Tsuji, Takashi; Hongo, Seiji; Ohara, Yoshiro; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Ozawa, Makoto; Matsuzaki, Yoko

    2012-12-01

    Influenza C virus replicates more efficiently at 33°C than at 37°C. To determine whether hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion protein (HEF), a surface glycoprotein of influenza C virus, is a restricting factor for this temperature sensitivity, we analyzed the biological and biochemical properties of HEF at 33°C and 37°C. We found that HEF exhibits intrinsic temperature sensitivities for surface expression and fusion activity.

  9. Construction and Characterization of an Infectious Vaccinia Virus Recombinant That Expresses the Influenza Hemagglutinin Gene and Induces Resistance to Influenza Virus Infection in Hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Murphy, Brian R.; Moss, Bernard

    1983-12-01

    A DNA copy of the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene, derived from influenza virus A/Jap/305/57 (H2N2) was inserted into the genome of vaccinia virus under the control of an early vaccinia virus promoter. Tissue culture cells infected with the purified recombinant virus synthesized influenza hemagglutinin, which was glycosylated and transported to the cell surface where it could be cleaved with trypsin into HA1 and HA2 subunits. Rabbits and hamsters inoculated intradermally with recombinant virus produced circulating antibodies that inhibited hemagglutination by influenza virus. Furthermore, vaccinated hamsters achieved levels of antibody similar to those obtained upon primary infection with influenza virus and were protected against respiratory infection with the A/Jap/305/57 influenza virus.

  10. Intermonomer Interactions in Hemagglutinin Subunits HA1 and HA2 Affecting Hemagglutinin Stability and Influenza Virus Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    DeFeo, Christopher J.; Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Vassell, Russell

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) mediates virus entry by binding to cell surface receptors and fusing the viral and endosomal membranes following uptake by endocytosis. The acidic environment of endosomes triggers a large-scale conformational change in the transmembrane subunit of HA (HA2) involving a loop (B loop)-to-helix transition, which releases the fusion peptide at the HA2 N terminus from an interior pocket within the HA trimer. Subsequent insertion of the fusion peptide into the endosomal membrane initiates fusion. The acid stability of HA is influenced by residues in the fusion peptide, fusion peptide pocket, coiled-coil regions of HA2, and interactions between the surface (HA1) and HA2 subunits, but details are not fully understood and vary among strains. Current evidence suggests that the HA from the circulating pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] is less stable than the HAs from other seasonal influenza virus strains. Here we show that residue 205 in HA1 and residue 399 in the B loop of HA2 (residue 72, HA2 numbering) in different monomers of the trimeric A(H1N1)pdm09 HA are involved in functionally important intermolecular interactions and that a conserved histidine in this pair helps regulate HA stability. An arginine-lysine pair at this location destabilizes HA at acidic pH and mediates fusion at a higher pH, while a glutamate-lysine pair enhances HA stability and requires a lower pH to induce fusion. Our findings identify key residues in HA1 and HA2 that interact to help regulate H1N1 HA stability and virus infectivity. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the principal antigen in inactivated influenza vaccines and the target of protective antibodies. However, the influenza A virus HA is highly variable, necessitating frequent vaccine changes to match circulating strains. Sequence changes in HA affect not only antigenicity but also HA stability, which has important implications for vaccine production, as well

  11. Recombinant Hemagglutinin and Virus-Like Particle Vaccines for H7N9 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Pushko, Peter; Tretyakova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Cases of H7N9 human infection were caused by a novel, avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus that emerged in eastern China in 2013. Clusters of human disease were identified in many cities in China, with mortality rates approaching 30%. Pandemic concerns were raised, as historically, influenza pandemics were caused by introduction of novel influenza A viruses into immunologically naïve human population. Currently, there are no approved human vaccines for H7N9 viruses. Recombinant protein vaccine approaches have advantages in safety and manufacturing. In this review, we focused on evaluation of the expression of recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) proteins as candidate vaccines for H7N9 influenza, with the emphasis on the role of oligomeric and particulate structures in immunogenicity and protection. Challenges in preparation of broadly protective influenza vaccines are discussed, and examples of broadly protective vaccines are presented including rHA stem epitope vaccines, as well as recently introduced experimental multi-HA VLP vaccines. PMID:26523241

  12. Sensitization with vaccinia virus encoding H5N1 hemagglutinin restores immune potential against H5N1 influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Fumihiko; Itoh, Yasushi; Ikejiri, Ai; Kitabatake, Masahiro; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Munekata, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Hayashi, Yukiko; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Nakayama, Misako; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) virus causes elevated mortality compared with seasonal influenza viruses like H1N1 pandemic influenza (H1N1 pdm) virus. We identified a mechanism associated with the severe symptoms seen with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. H5N1 HPAI virus infection induced a decrease of dendritic cell number in the splenic extrafollicular T-cell zone and impaired formation of the outer layers of B-cell follicles, resulting in insufficient levels of antibody production after infection. However, in animals vaccinated with a live recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the H5 hemagglutinin, infection with H5N1 HPAI virus induced parafollicular dendritic cell accumulation and efficient antibody production. These results indicate that a recombinant vaccinia encoding H5 hemagglutinin gene does not impair dendritic cell recruitment and can be a useful vaccine candidate. PMID:27892498

  13. Isolation of novel triple‐reassortant swine H3N2 influenza viruses possessing the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of a seasonal influenza virus in Vietnam in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Long Thanh; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Pham, Vu Phong; Le, Ha Thi Hong; Nguyen, Ha Truc; Le, Vu Tri; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Saito, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Ngo et al. (2012) Isolation of novel triple‐reassortant swine H3N2 influenza viruses possessing the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of a seasonal influenza virus in Vietnam in 2010. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(1), 6–10. Surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in 31 pig farms in northern and southern parts of Vietnam was conducted. Six H3N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from a pig farm in southern Vietnam. They were novel genetic reassortants between a triple–reassortant SIV and a human seasonal H3N2 virus. Their hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were derived from a human virus circulating around 2004–2006 and the remaining genes from a triple‐reassortant SIV that originated in North America. This is the first report describing the isolation of a novel triple‐reassortant SIV in Vietnam. PMID:21668659

  14. Functional expression in primate cells of cloned DNA coding for the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein of influenza virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sveda, M M; Lai, C J

    1981-01-01

    We have used simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA as a vector for expression of functional activity of a cloned influenza viral DNA segment in primate cells. Cloned full-length DNA sequences coding for the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus (Udorn/72/[H3N2]) were inserted into the late region of a viable deletion mutant of SV40, and the hybrid DNA was propagated in the presence of an early SV40 mutant (tsA28) helper. Infection of primate cells with the hybrid virus produced a polypeptide similar in molecular size to the hemagglutinin of influenza virus, as shown by immunoprecipitation and gel electrophoresis. The polypeptide was glycosylated, as shown by incorporation of radioactive sugars. The putative hemagglutinin exhibited functional activity, as shown by agglutination of erythrocytes. In addition, an indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that the hemagglutinin polypeptide of the hybrid virus could be detected on the surface of infected cells. Images PMID:6272305

  15. The Roles of Hemagglutinin Phe-95 in Receptor Binding and Pathogenicity of Influenza B Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Fengyun; Mbawuike, Innocent Nnadi; Kondrashkina, Elena; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Diverged ~4,000 years ago, influenza B virus has several important differences from influenza A virus, including lower receptor-binding affinity and highly restricted host range. Based on our prior structural studies, we hypothesized that a single-residue difference in the receptor-binding site of hemagglutinin (HA), Phe-95 in influenza B virus versus Tyr-98 in influenza A/H1~H15, is possibly a key determinant for the low receptor-binding affinity. Here we demonstrate that the mutation Phe95→Tyr in influenza B virus HA restores all three hydrogen bonds made by Tyr-98 in influenza A/H3 HA and has the potential to enhance receptor binding. However, the full realization of this potential is influenced by the local environment into which the mutation is introduced. The binding and replication of the recombinant viruses correlate well with the receptor-binding capabilities of HA. These results are discussed in relation to the roles of Phe-95 in receptor binding and pathogenicity of influenza B virus. PMID:24503069

  16. The roles of hemagglutinin Phe-95 in receptor binding and pathogenicity of influenza B virus.

    PubMed

    Ni, Fengyun; Mbawuike, Innocent Nnadi; Kondrashkina, Elena; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    Diverged ~4000 years ago, influenza B virus has several important differences from influenza A virus, including lower receptor-binding affinity and highly restricted host range. Based on our prior structural studies, we hypothesized that a single-residue difference in the receptor-binding site of hemagglutinin (HA), Phe-95 in influenza B virus versus Tyr-98 in influenza A/H1-H15, is possibly a key determinant for the low receptor-binding affinity. Here we demonstrate that the mutation Phe95→Tyr in influenza B virus HA restores all three hydrogen bonds made by Tyr-98 in influenza A/H1-15 HA and has the potential to enhance receptor binding. However, the full realization of this potential is influenced by the local environment into which the mutation is introduced. The binding and replication of the recombinant viruses correlate well with the receptor-binding capabilities of HA. These results are discussed in relation to the roles of Phe-95 in receptor binding and pathogenicity of influenza B virus.

  17. Direct role of viral hemagglutinin in B-cell mitogenesis by influenza viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Poumbourios, P; Anders, E M; Scalzo, A A; White, D O; Hampson, A W; Jackson, D C

    1987-01-01

    The mitogenic activity of influenza virus is a function of the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule. Purified HA is mitogenic for murine B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. Furthermore, like the intact virus, HA of the H2 (but not H3) subtype is mitogenic only for B cells expressing the class II major histocompatibility complex glycoprotein I-E. Since virus bearing uncleaved HA is as mitogenic as virus bearing cleaved HA, the membrane fusion activity of the HA molecule is not involved. Images PMID:3491221

  18. Human influenza virus hemagglutinin is expressed in monkey cells using simian virus 40 vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, J R; Nayak, D P; Fareed, G C

    1982-01-01

    We have cloned and expressed the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of a human influenza virus (A/WSN/33) in monkey kidney cells by linking it to deleted simian virus 40 (SV40) genomes that contain the entire early gene region, the origin of replication, and late leader sequences. The HA gene (1775 base pairs long) was originally inserted by the dG . dC tailing technique into the multicopy plasmid of Escherichia coli, pBR322, using cDNA made from viral RNA. The cloned gene was further modified by treatment with nuclease Bal 31 to remove the dG . dC tails and some of the untranslated sequences and recloned in E. coli after addition of BamHI restriction endonuclease linkers. A number of SV40 and HA recombinants (SV--HA) were constructed by inserting recloned HA DNA into the late gene region of SV40. The SV--HA recombinants, when complemented in a lytic infection of monkey cells by the helper function of SV40 early deletion mutants expressed influenza HA as detected by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation of in vivo-labeled proteins using either heterogeneous anti-influenza rabbit antibodies or monoclonal antibodies against HA. Furthermore, the WSN HA expressed by the SV--HA recombinants was also glycosylated and possessed the same molecular weight (approximately 70,000) as the uncleaved HA of WSN virus in monkey cells. Images PMID:6281758

  19. Influenza A virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase act as novel motile machinery

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Tatsuya; Nishimura, Shin I.; Naito, Tadasuke; Saito, Mineki

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are determinants of virus infectivity, transmissibility, pathogenicity, host specificity, and major antigenicity. HA binds to a virus receptor, a sialoglycoprotein or sialoglycolipid, on the host cell and mediates virus attachment to the cell surface. The hydrolytic enzyme NA cleaves sialic acid from viral receptors and accelerates the release of progeny virus from host cells. In this study, we identified a novel function of HA and NA as machinery for viral motility. HAs exchanged binding partner receptors iteratively, generating virus movement on a receptor-coated glass surface instead of a cell surface. The virus movement was also dependent on NA. Virus movement mediated by HA and NA resulted in a three to four-fold increase in virus internalisation by cultured cells. We concluded that cooperation of HA and NA moves IAV particles on a cell surface and enhances virus infection of host cells. PMID:28344335

  20. Avian Influenza Virus H3 Hemagglutinin May Enable High Fitness of Novel Human Virus Reassortants

    PubMed Central

    Kreibich, Anne; Stech, Olga; Hundt, Jana; Ziller, Mario; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Stech, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Reassortment of influenza A virus genes enables antigenic shift resulting in the emergence of pandemic viruses with novel hemagglutinins (HA) acquired from avian strains. Here, we investigated whether historic and contemporary avian strains with different replication capacity in human cells can donate their hemagglutinin to a pandemic human virus. We performed double-infections with two avian H3 strains as HA donors and a human acceptor strain, and determined gene compositions and replication of HA reassortants in mammalian cells. To enforce selection for the avian virus HA, we generated a strictly elastase-dependent HA cleavage site mutant from A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) (Hk68-Ela). This mutant was used for co-infections of human cells with A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63 (H3N8) (DkUkr63) or the more recent A/Mallard/Germany/Wv64-67/05 (H3N2) (MallGer05) in the absence of elastase but presence of trypsin. Among 21 plaques analyzed from each assay, we found 12 HA reassortants with DkUkr63 (4 genotypes) and 14 with MallGer05 (10 genotypes) that replicated in human cells comparable to the parental human virus. Although DkUkr63 replicated in mammalian cells at a reduced level compared to MallGer05 and Hk68, it transmitted its HA to the human virus, indicating that lower replication efficiency of an avian virus in a mammalian host may not constrain the emergence of viable HA reassortants. The finding that HA and HA/NA reassortants replicated efficiently like the human virus suggests that further HA adaptation remains a relevant barrier for emergence of novel HA reassortants. PMID:24265752

  1. New Small Molecule Entry Inhibitors Targeting Hemagglutinin-Mediated Influenza A Virus Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Antanasijevic, Aleksandar; Wang, Minxiu; Li, Bing; Mills, Debra M.; Ames, Jessica A.; Nash, Peter J.; Williams, John D.; Peet, Norton P.; Moir, Donald T.; Prichard, Mark N.; Keith, Kathy A.; Barnard, Dale L.; Caffrey, Michael; Rong, Lijun; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a major public health threat worldwide, and options for antiviral therapy are limited by the emergence of drug-resistant virus strains. The influenza virus glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) plays critical roles in the early stage of virus infection, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, making it a potential target for the development of anti-influenza drugs. Using pseudotype virus-based high-throughput screens, we have identified several new small molecules capable of inhibiting influenza virus entry. We prioritized two novel inhibitors, MBX2329 and MBX2546, with aminoalkyl phenol ether and sulfonamide scaffolds, respectively, that specifically inhibit HA-mediated viral entry. The two compounds (i) are potent (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 0.3 to 5.9 μM); (ii) are selective (50% cytotoxicity concentration [CC50] of >100 μM), with selectivity index (SI) values of >20 to 200 for different influenza virus strains; (iii) inhibit a wide spectrum of influenza A viruses, which includes the 2009 pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1/2009, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/H5N1, and oseltamivir-resistant A/H1N1 strains; (iv) exhibit large volumes of synergy with oseltamivir (36 and 331 μM2 % at 95% confidence); and (v) have chemically tractable structures. Mechanism-of-action studies suggest that both MBX2329 and MBX2546 bind to HA in a nonoverlapping manner. Additional results from HA-mediated hemolysis of chicken red blood cells (cRBCs), competition assays with monoclonal antibody (MAb) C179, and mutational analysis suggest that the compounds bind in the stem region of the HA trimer and inhibit HA-mediated fusion. Therefore, MBX2329 and MBX2546 represent new starting points for chemical optimization and have the potential to provide valuable future therapeutic options and research tools to study the HA-mediated entry process. PMID:24198411

  2. H3N2 Influenza Virus Infection Induces Broadly Reactive Hemagglutinin Stalk Antibodies in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Margine, Irina; Hai, Rong; Albrecht, Randy A.; Obermoser, Gerlinde; Harrod, A. Carson; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, Karolina; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Palese, Peter; Treanor, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies directed against the conserved stalk domain of the viral hemagglutinin have attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, only a limited number of stalk antibodies directed against group 2 influenza hemagglutinins have been isolated so far. Also, little is known about the general level of induction of these antibodies by influenza virus vaccination or infection. To characterize the anti-stalk humoral response in the mouse model as well as in humans, chimeric hemagglutinin constructs previously developed in our group were employed in serological assays. Whereas influenza virus infection induced high titers of stalk-reactive antibodies, immunization with inactivated influenza virus vaccines failed to do so in the mouse model. Analysis of serum samples collected from human individuals who were infected by influenza viruses also revealed the induction of stalk-reactive antibodies. Finally, we show that the hemagglutinin stalk-directed antibodies induced in mice and humans have broad reactivity and neutralizing activity in vitro and in vivo. The results of the study point toward the existence of highly conserved epitopes in the stalk domains of group 2 hemagglutinins, which can be targeted for the development of a universal influenza virus vaccine in humans. PMID:23408625

  3. Inhibition of influenza virus infection and hemagglutinin cleavage by the protease inhibitor HAI-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Chung, Changik; Cyphers, Soreen Y.; Rinaldi, Vera D.; Marcano, Valerie C.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza HA cleavage activation. • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza virus infection. • Comparative analysis of HAI-2 for vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type-1. • Analysis of the activity of HAI-2 in a mouse model of influenza. - Abstract: Influenza virus remains a significant concern to public health, with the continued potential for a high fatality pandemic. Vaccination and antiviral therapeutics are effective measures to circumvent influenza virus infection, however, multiple strains have emerged that are resistant to the antiviral therapeutics currently on the market. With this considered, investigation of alternative antiviral therapeutics is being conducted. One such approach is to inhibit cleavage activation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), which is an essential step in the viral replication cycle that permits viral-endosome fusion. Therefore, targeting trypsin-like, host proteases responsible for HA cleavage in vivo may prove to be an effective therapeutic. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 2 (HAI-2) is naturally expressed in the respiratory tract and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases, some of which have been determined to cleave HA. In this study, we demonstrate that HAI-2 is an effective inhibitor of cleavage of HA from the human-adapted H1 and H3 subtypes. HAI-2 inhibited influenza virus H1N1 infection in cell culture, and HAI-2 administration showed protection in a mouse model of influenza. HAI-2 has the potential to be an effective, alternative antiviral therapeutic for influenza.

  4. Defining Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Antigenic Drift by Sequential Monoclonal Antibody Selection

    PubMed Central

    Das, Suman R.; Hensley, Scott E.; Ince, William L.; Brooke, Christopher B.; Subba, Anju; Delboy, Mark G.; Russ, Gustav; Gibbs, James S.; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Human influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is limited by “antigenic drift,” rapid antibody-driven escape reflecting amino acid substitutions in the globular domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the viral attachment protein. To better understand drift, we used anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal Abs (mAbs) to sequentially select IAV escape mutants. Twelve selection steps, each resulting in a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin globular domain, were required to eliminate antigenicity defined by monoclonal or polyclonal Abs. Sequential mutants grow robustly, showing the structural plasticity of HA, although several hemagglutinin substitutions required an epistatic substitution in the neuraminidase glycoprotein to maximize growth. Selecting escape mutants from parental versus sequential variants with the same mAb revealed distinct escape repertoires, attributed to contextual changes in antigenicity and the mutation landscape. Since each hemagglutinin mutation potentially sculpts future mutation space, drift can follow many stochastic paths, undermining its unpredictability and underscoring the need for drift-insensitive vaccines. PMID:23498956

  5. High-throughput profiling of influenza A virus hemagglutinin gene at single-nucleotide resolution

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Nicholas C.; Young, Arthur P.; Al-Mawsawi, Laith Q.; Olson, C. Anders; Feng, Jun; Qi, Hangfei; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Lu, I.-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Yen; Chin, Robert G.; Luan, Harding H.; Nguyen, Nguyen; Nelson, Stanley F.; Li, Xinmin; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren

    2014-01-01

    Genetic research on influenza virus biology has been informed in large part by nucleotide variants present in seasonal or pandemic samples, or individual mutants generated in the laboratory, leaving a substantial part of the genome uncharacterized. Here, we have developed a single-nucleotide resolution genetic approach to interrogate the fitness effect of point mutations in 98% of the amino acid positions in the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Our HA fitness map provides a reference to identify indispensable regions to aid in drug and vaccine design as targeting these regions will increase the genetic barrier for the emergence of escape mutations. This study offers a new platform for studying genome dynamics, structure-function relationships, virus-host interactions, and can further rational drug and vaccine design. Our approach can also be applied to any virus that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:24820965

  6. Genetic variation of the hemagglutinin of avian influenza virus H9N2.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-feng; Han, Ping; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-05-01

    Avian influenza virus H9N2 has become the dominant subtype of influenza which is endemic in poultry. The hemagglutinin, one of eight protein-coding genes, plays an important role during the early stage of infection. The adaptive evolution and the positively selected sites of the HA (the glycoprotein molecule) of H9N2 subtype viruses were investigated. Investigating 68 hemagglutinin H9N2 avian influenza virus isolates in China and phylogenetic analysis, it was necessary that these isolates were distributed geographically from 1994, and were all derived from the Eurasian lineage. H9N2 avian influenza virus isolates from domestic poultry in China were distinct phylogenetically from those isolated in Hong Kong, including viruses which had infected humans. Seven amino acid substitutions (2T, 3T, 14T, 165D, 197A, 233Q, 380R) were identified in the HA possibly due to positive selection pressure. Apart from the 380R site, the other positively selected sites detected were all located near the receptor-binding site of the HA1 strain. Based on epidemiological and phylogenetics analysis, the H9N2 epidemic in China was divided into three groups: the 1994-1997 group, the 1998-1999 group, and the 2000-2007 group. By investigating these three groups using the maximum likelihood estimation method, there were more positive selective sites in the 1994-1997 and 1998-1999 epidemic group than the 2000-2007 groups. This indicates that those detected selected sites are changed during different epidemic periods and the evolution of H9N2 is currently slow. The antigenic determinant or other key functional amino acid sites should be of concern because their adjacent sites have been under positive selection pressure. The results provide further evidence that the pathogenic changes in the H9N2 subtype are due mainly to re-assortment with other highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

  7. Structure of the uncleaved human H1 hemagglutinin from the extinct 1918 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Stevens, James; Corper, Adam L; Basler, Christopher F; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Palese, Peter; Wilson, Ian A

    2004-03-19

    The 1918 "Spanish" influenza pandemic represents the largest recorded outbreak of any infectious disease. The crystal structure of the uncleaved precursor of the major surface antigen of the extinct 1918 virus was determined at 3.0 angstrom resolution after reassembly of the hemagglutinin gene from viral RNA fragments preserved in 1918 formalin-fixed lung tissues. A narrow avian-like receptor-binding site, two previously unobserved histidine patches, and a less exposed surface loop at the cleavage site that activates viral membrane fusion reveal structural features primarily found in avian viruses, which may have contributed to the extraordinarily high infectivity and mortality rates observed during 1918.

  8. Evolution of the H3 influenza virus hemagglutinin from human and nonhuman hosts.

    PubMed

    Bean, W J; Schell, M; Katz, J; Kawaoka, Y; Naeve, C; Gorman, O; Webster, R G

    1992-02-01

    The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 40 influenza virus hemagglutinin genes of the H3 serotype from mammalian and avian species and 9 genes of the H4 serotype were compared, and their evolutionary relationships were evaluated. From these relationships, the differences in the mutational characteristics of the viral hemagglutinin in different hosts were examined and the RNA sequence changes that occurred during the generation of the progenitor of the 1968 human pandemic strain were examined. Three major lineages were defined: one containing only equine virus isolates; one containing only avian virus isolates; and one containing avian, swine, and human virus isolates. The human pandemic strain of 1968 was derived from an avian virus most similar to those isolated from ducks in Asia, and the transfer of this virus to humans probably occurred in 1965. Since then, the human viruses have diverged from this progenitor, with the accumulation of approximately 7.9 nucleotide and 3.4 amino acid substitutions per year. Reconstruction of the sequence of the hypothetical ancestral strain at the avian-human transition indicated that only 6 amino acids in the mature hemagglutinin molecule were changed during the transition between an avian virus strain and a human pandemic strain. All of these changes are located in regions of the molecule known to affect receptor binding and antigenicity. Unlike the human H3 influenza virus strains, the equine virus isolates have no close relatives in other species and appear to have diverged from the avian viruses much earlier than did the human virus strains. Mutations were estimated to have accumulated in the equine virus lineage at approximately 3.1 nucleotides and 0.8 amino acids per year. Four swine virus isolates in the analysis each appeared to have been introduced into pigs independently, with two derived from human viruses and two from avian viruses. A comparison of the coding and noncoding mutations in the mammalian and avian

  9. Recent H3N2 Influenza Virus Clinical Isolates Rapidly Acquire Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Mutations When Propagated for Antigenic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Benjamin S.; Li, Yang; Hodinka, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to serological testing, influenza viruses are typically propagated in eggs or cell culture. Recent human H3N2 strains bind to cells with low avidity. Here, we isolated nine primary H3N2 viral isolates from respiratory secretions of children. Upon propagation in vitro, five of these isolates acquired hemagglutinin or neuraminidase mutations that increased virus binding to cell surfaces. These mutations can potentially confound serological assays commonly used to identify antigenically novel influenza viruses. PMID:24991002

  10. Subtype-specific structural constraints in the evolution of influenza A virus hemagglutinin genes

    PubMed Central

    Gultyaev, Alexander P.; Spronken, Monique I.; Richard, Mathilde; Schrauwen, Eefje J. A.; Olsthoorn, René C. L.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The influenza A virus genome consists of eight RNA segments. RNA structures within these segments and complementary (cRNA) and protein-coding mRNAs may play a role in virus replication. Here, conserved putative secondary structures that impose significant evolutionary constraints on the gene segment encoding the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) were investigated using available sequence data on tens of thousands of virus strains. Structural constraints were identified by analysis of covariations of nucleotides suggested to be paired by structure prediction algorithms. The significance of covariations was estimated by mutual information calculations and tracing multiple covariation events during virus evolution. Covariation patterns demonstrated that structured domains in HA RNAs were mostly subtype-specific, whereas some structures were conserved in several subtypes. The influence of RNA folding on virus replication was studied by plaque assays of mutant viruses with disrupted structures. The results suggest that over the whole length of the HA segment there are local structured domains which contribute to the virus fitness but individually are not essential for the virus. Existence of subtype-specific structured regions in the segments of the influenza A virus genome is apparently an important factor in virus evolution and reassortment of its genes. PMID:27966593

  11. Globular Head-Displayed Conserved Influenza H1 Hemagglutinin Stalk Epitopes Confer Protection against Heterologous H1N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Klausberger, Miriam; Tscheliessnig, Rupert; Neff, Silke; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Wohlbold, Teddy John; Wilde, Monika; Palmberger, Dieter; Krammer, Florian; Jungbauer, Alois; Grabherr, Reingard

    2016-01-01

    Significant genetic variability in the head region of the influenza A hemagglutinin, the main target of current vaccines, makes it challenging to develop a long-lived seasonal influenza prophylaxis. Vaccines based on the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain might provide broader cross-reactive immunity. However, this region of the hemagglutinin is immunosubdominant to the head region. Peptide-based vaccines have gained much interest as they allow the immune system to focus on relevant but less immunogenic epitopes. We developed a novel influenza A hemagglutinin-based display platform for H1 hemagglutinin stalk peptides that we identified in an epitope mapping assay using human immune sera and synthetic HA peptides. Flow cytometry and competition assays suggest that the identified stalk sequences do not recapitulate the epitopes of already described broadly neutralizing stalk antibodies. Vaccine constructs displaying 25-mer stalk sequences provided up to 75% protection from lethal heterologous virus challenge in BALB/c mice and induced antibody responses against the H1 hemagglutinin. The developed platform based on a vaccine antigen has the potential to be either used as stand-alone or as prime-vaccine in combination with conventional seasonal or pandemic vaccines for the amplification of stalk-based cross-reactive immunity in humans or as platform to evaluate the relevance of viral peptides/epitopes for protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:27088239

  12. Statistical analysis of nucleotide sequences of the hemagglutinin gene of human influenza A viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Ina, Y; Gojobori, T

    1994-01-01

    To examine whether positive selection operates on the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) gene of human influenza A viruses (H1 subtype), 21 nucleotide sequences of the HA1 gene were statistically analyzed. The nucleotide sequences were divided into antigenic and nonantigenic sites. The nucleotide diversities for antigenic and nonantigenic sites of the HA1 gene were computed at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites separately. For nonantigenic sites, the nucleotide diversities were larger at synonymous sites than at nonsynonymous sites. This is consistent with the neutral theory of molecular evolution. For antigenic sites, however, the nucleotide diversities at nonsynonymous sites were larger than those at synonymous sites. These results suggest that positive selection operates on antigenic sites of the HA1 gene of human influenza A viruses (H1 subtype). PMID:8078892

  13. Receptor Binding Profiles of Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Subtypes on Human Cells as a Predictor of Pandemic Potential ▿ ‖

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Holly; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Ren, Junyuan; Loureiro, Silvia; Pickles, Raymond J.; Barclay, Wendy S.; Jones, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    The host adaptation of influenza virus is partly dependent on the sialic acid (SA) isoform bound by the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Avian influenza viruses preferentially bind the α-2,3 SA and human influenza viruses the α-2,6 isoform. Each isoform is predominantly associated with different surface epithelial cell types of the human upper airway. Using recombinant HAs and human tracheal airway epithelial cells in vitro and ex vivo, we show that many avian HA subtypes do not adhere to this canonical view of SA specificity. The propensity of avian viruses to adapt to human receptors may thus be more widespread than previously supposed. PMID:21106732

  14. Protection against multiple subtypes of influenza viruses by virus-like particle vaccines based on a hemagglutinin conserved epitope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoheng; Zheng, Dan; Li, Changgui; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Wenting; Liu, Xueying; Fang, Fang; Chen, Ze

    2015-01-01

    We selected the conserved sequence in the stalk region of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) trimmer, the long alpha helix (LAH), as the vaccine candidate sequence, and inserted it into the major immunodominant region (MIR) of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc), and, by using the E. coli expression system, we prepared a recombinant protein vaccine LAH-HBc in the form of virus-like particles (VLP). Intranasal immunization of mice with this LAH-HBc VLP plus cholera toxin B subunit with 0.2% of cholera toxin (CTB(*)) adjuvant could effectively elicit humoral and cellular immune responses and protect mice against a lethal challenge of homologous influenza viruses (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) (H1N1)). In addition, passage of the immune sera containing specific antibodies to naïve mice rendered them resistant against a lethal homologous challenge. Immunization with LAH-HBc VLP vaccine plus CTB(*) adjuvant could also fully protect mice against a lethal challenge of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus or the avian H9N2 virus and could partially protect mice against a lethal challenge of the avian H5N1 influenza virus. This study demonstrated that the LAH-HBc VLP vaccine based on a conserved sequence of the HA trimmer stalk region is a promising candidate vaccine for developing a universal influenza vaccine against multiple influenza viruses infections.

  15. Circulation of Antibodies Against Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins in the 2014/2015 Epidemic Season in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, D; Szymański, K; Cieślak, K; Brydak, L B

    2017-02-09

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies in the serum of people in different age-groups during the 2014/2015 epidemic influenza season in Poland. A total of 1050 sera were tested. The level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies was determined using the hemagglutinin inhibition test. The results provided information on the incidence of circulating A/California/7/2009(H1N1)pdm09, A/Texas/50/2012(H3N2), and B/Massachusetts/2/2012 viruses. The level of antibodies against influenza differed between age-groups. The protection rate was the highest for the antigen B/Massachusetts/2/2012, with the decreasing order of values in the following age-groups: ≥65 years (76.7 %), 15-25 years (72.7 %), and 0-4 years (62.0 %). The average values of the protection rate in other age-groups were as follows: 43.3 % in 22-64 years, 40% in 5-9 years, and 39.3 % in 45-64 years of age, while the lowest value of 22.7 % was in 10-14 years old subjects. In the 2014/2015 epidemic season in Poland only were 3.6 % of the population vaccinated. That is why the presented results could be interpreted as a response of the immune system of patients after infection caused by influenza virus.

  16. The hemagglutinin structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tianwei; Wang, Gengyan; Li, Anzhang; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Caiming; Zhang, Rongfu; Cai, Qixu; Song, Wenjun; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-09-15

    The interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) and receptors is a kernel in the study of evolution and host adaptation of H1N1 influenza A viruses. The notion that the avian HA is associated with preferential specificity for receptors with Sia{alpha}2,3Gal glycosidic linkage over those with Sia{alpha}2,6Gal linkage is not all consistent with the available data on H1N1 viruses. By x-ray crystallography, the HA structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus, as well as its complexes with the receptor analogs, was determined. The structures revealed no preferential binding of avian receptor analogs over that of the human analog, suggesting that the HA/receptor binding might not be as stringent as is commonly believed in determining the host receptor preference for some subtypes of influenza viruses, such as the H1N1 viruses. The structure also showed difference in glycosylation despite the preservation of related sequences, which may partly contribute to the difference between structures of human and avian origin.

  17. Genetic Predisposition To Acquire a Polybasic Cleavage Site for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Nao, Naganori; Yamagishi, Junya; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Igarashi, Manabu; Manzoor, Rashid; Ohnuma, Aiko; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Furuyama, Wakako; Shigeno, Asako; Kajihara, Masahiro; Kishida, Noriko; Yoshida, Reiko; Takada, Ayato

    2017-02-14

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes evolve from low-pathogenic precursors through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been observed to occur naturally only in these HA subtypes, little is known about the genetic basis for the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site. Here we show that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure, which are frequently found in the viral RNA region encoding amino acids around the cleavage site of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses isolated from waterfowl reservoirs, are important for nucleotide insertions into this RNA region. A reporter assay to detect nontemplated nucleotide insertions and deep-sequencing analysis of viral RNAs revealed that an increased number of adenine residues and enlarged stem-loop structure in the RNA region accelerated the multiple adenine and/or guanine insertions required to create codons for basic amino acids. Interestingly, nucleotide insertions associated with the HA cleavage site motif were not observed principally in the viral RNA of other subtypes tested (H1, H2, H3, and H4). Our findings suggest that the RNA editing-like activity is the key mechanism for nucleotide insertions, providing a clue as to why the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site is restricted to the particular HA subtypes.IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on the antigenicity of the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase. Of the 16 HA subtypes (H1 to -16) maintained in waterfowl reservoirs of influenza A viruses, H5 and H7 viruses often become highly pathogenic through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been known since the 1980s, the genetic basis for nucleotide insertions has remained unclear. This study shows the potential role of the viral RNA secondary structure for

  18. Conservation and variation in the hemagglutinins of Hong Kong subtype influenza viruses during antigenic drift.

    PubMed Central

    Both, G W; Sleigh, M J

    1981-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence was determined for the hemagglutinin gene of the Hong Kong subtype influenza strain A/Bangkok/1/79. The amino acid sequence predicted from these data shows a total of 36 amino acid changes as compared with hemagglutinin for a 1968 Hong Kong strain, 11 more than had occurred in a 1975 strain. The distribution of these changes confirmed that there are conserved and highly variable regions in hemagglutinin as the viral gene evolves during antigenic drift in the Hong Kong subtype. Of the four variable regions found in this study, only two have been seen previously. Correlation of highly variable areas in the hemagglutinins of Hong Kong subtype field strains with sites of amino acid changes in antigenically distinct influenza variants enabled us to predict likely antigenic regions of the protein. The results support and extend similar predictions made recently, based on the three-dimensional arrangement of hemagglutinin from a 1968 influenza strain. Images PMID:6169840

  19. The Ability of Pandemic Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins to Induce Lower Respiratory Pathology is Associated with Decreased Surfactant Protein D Binding

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Kash, John C.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Jagger, Brett W.; Lau, Yuk-Fai; Sheng, Zhong-Mei; Crouch, Erika C.; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic influenza viral infections have been associated with viral pneumonia. Chimeric influenza viruses with the hemagglutinin segment of the 1918, 1957, 1968 or 2009 pandemic influenza viruses in the context of a seasonal H1N1 influenza genome were constructed to analyze the role of hemagglutinin (HA) in pathogenesis and cell tropism in a mouse model. We also explored whether there was an association between the ability of lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) to bind to the HA and the ability of the corresponding chimeric virus to infect bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells of the lower respiratory tract. Viruses expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic viruses were associated with significant pathology in the lower respiratory tract, including acute inflammation, and showed low binding activity for SP-D. In contrast, the virus expressing the HA of a seasonal influenza strain induced only mild disease with little lung pathology in infected mice and exhibited strong in vitro binding to SP-D. PMID:21334038

  20. Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hua; Carney, Paul J.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Guo, Zhu; Chang, Jessie C.; Wentworth, David E.; Gubareva, Larisa V.; Stevens, James; Schultz-Cherry, S.

    2016-04-06

    ABSTRACT

    During 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages. In particular, viruses were found with N1, N2, and N8 neuraminidase vRNAs, and these are collectively referred to as H5Nx viruses. In the United States, more than 48 million domestic birds have been affected. Here we present a detailed structural and biochemical analysis of the surface antigens of H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses in addition to those of a recent human H5N6 virus. Our results with recombinant hemagglutinin reveal that these viruses have a strict avian receptor binding preference, while recombinantly expressed neuraminidases are sensitive to FDA-approved and investigational antivirals. Although H5Nx viruses currently pose a low risk to humans, it is important to maintain surveillance of these circulating viruses and to continually assess future changes that may increase their pandemic potential.

    IMPORTANCEThe H5Nx viruses emerging in North America, Europe, and Asia pose a great public health concern. Here we report a molecular and structural study of the major surface proteins of several H5Nx influenza viruses. Our results improve the understanding of these new viruses and provide important information on their receptor preferences and susceptibilities to antivirals, which are central to pandemic risk assessment.

  1. Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Carney, Paul J.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Guo, Zhu; Chang, Jessie C.; Wentworth, David E.; Gubareva, Larisa V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages. In particular, viruses were found with N1, N2, and N8 neuraminidase vRNAs, and these are collectively referred to as H5Nx viruses. In the United States, more than 48 million domestic birds have been affected. Here we present a detailed structural and biochemical analysis of the surface antigens of H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses in addition to those of a recent human H5N6 virus. Our results with recombinant hemagglutinin reveal that these viruses have a strict avian receptor binding preference, while recombinantly expressed neuraminidases are sensitive to FDA-approved and investigational antivirals. Although H5Nx viruses currently pose a low risk to humans, it is important to maintain surveillance of these circulating viruses and to continually assess future changes that may increase their pandemic potential. IMPORTANCE The H5Nx viruses emerging in North America, Europe, and Asia pose a great public health concern. Here we report a molecular and structural study of the major surface proteins of several H5Nx influenza viruses. Our results improve the understanding of these new viruses and provide important information on their receptor preferences and susceptibilities to antivirals, which are central to pandemic risk assessment. PMID:27053557

  2. The molecular determinants of antibody recognition and antigenic drift in the H3 hemagglutinin of swine influenza A virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A virus (IAV) of the H3 subtype is an important pathogen that affects both humans and swine. The main intervention strategy for preventing infection is vaccination to induce neutralizing antibodies against the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). However, due to antigenic drift, vaccin...

  3. A NON-TRANSMISSIBLE CYTOPATHOGENIC EFFECT OF INFLUENZA VIRUS IN TISSUE CULTURE ACCOMPANIED BY FORMATION OF NON-INFECTIOUS HEMAGGLUTININS

    PubMed Central

    Henle, Gertrude; Girardi, Anthony; Henle, Werner

    1955-01-01

    Various strains of influenza virus produce a cytopathogenic effect in cultures of HeLa cells. The virus could not be passed in series. Virus partially or even completely inactivated with respect to infectivity by exposure to 37°C. or ultraviolet light retained some of its cytopathogenic effect. No evidence has been obtained of an increase in infectious virus in HeLa cultures, but an increase in hemagglutinins and in both viral and soluble complement-fixing antigens became detectable during incubation. These virus materials apparently were not released from these cells prior to their destruction. These results suggested that HeLa cells are capable of supporting an incomplete reproductive cycle of influenza virus. The fact that radioactive phosphorus was readily incorporated into the hemagglutinin supplies strong evidence for this interpretation. PMID:13211925

  4. Roles of the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus in viral entry and development of antiviral therapeutics and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shibo; Li, Runming; Du, Lanying; Liu, Shuwen

    2010-04-01

    Seasonal influenza epidemics and influenza pandemics caused by influenza A virus (IAV) has resulted in millions of deaths in the world. The development of anti-IAV vaccines and therapeutics is urgently needed for prevention and treatment of IAV infection and for controlling future influenza pandemics. Hemagglutinin (HA) of IAV plays a critical role in viral binding, fusion and entry, and contains the major neutralizing epitopes. Therefore, HA is an attractive target for developing anti-IAV drugs and vaccines. Here we have reviewed the recent progress in study of conformational changes of HA during viral fusion process and development of HA-based antiviral therapeutics and vaccines.

  5. What adaptive changes in hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are necessary for emergence of pandemic influenza virus from its avian precursor?

    PubMed

    Gambaryan, A S; Matrosovich, M N

    2015-07-01

    Wild ducks serve as the primary host for numerous and various influenza type A viruses. Occasionally, viruses from this reservoir can be transferred to other host species and cause outbreaks of influenza in fowl, swine, and horses, as well as result in novel human pandemics. Cellular tropism and range of susceptible host species are determined by interaction between virus and receptor molecules on cells. Here we discuss modern data regarding molecular features underlying interactions of influenza viruses with cellular receptors as well as a role for receptor specificity in interspecies transmission. By analyzing the earliest available pandemic influenza viruses (1918, 1957, 1968, 2009), we found that hemagglutinin reconfigured to recognize 2-6 sialic acid-containing receptors in the human upper airway tract together with altered enzymatic activity of neuraminidase necessary for maintaining functional balance with hemagglutinin are responsible for effective spread of influenza viruses in human populations. Resistance to low pH also contributes to this. Thus, a combination of such parameters makes it possible that influenza viruses give rise to novel pandemics.

  6. Broad Protection against Avian Influenza Virus by Using a Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Expressing a Mosaic Hemagglutinin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kamlangdee, Attapon; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Anderson, Tavis K.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A critical failure in our preparedness for an influenza pandemic is the lack of a universal vaccine. Influenza virus strains diverge by 1 to 2% per year, and commercially available vaccines often do not elicit protection from one year to the next, necessitating frequent formulation changes. This represents a major challenge to the development of a cross-protective vaccine that can protect against circulating viral antigenic diversity. We have constructed a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) that expresses an H5N1 mosaic hemagglutinin (H5M) (MVA-H5M). This mosaic was generated in silico using 2,145 field-sourced H5N1 isolates. A single dose of MVA-H5M provided 100% protection in mice against clade 0, 1, and 2 avian influenza viruses and also protected against seasonal H1N1 virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34). It also provided short-term (10 days) and long-term (6 months) protection postvaccination. Both neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were still detected at 5 months postvaccination, suggesting that MVA-H5M provides long-lasting immunity. IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses infect a billion people and cause up to 500,000 deaths every year. A major problem in combating influenza is the lack of broadly effective vaccines. One solution from the field of human immunodeficiency virus vaccinology involves a novel in silico mosaic approach that has been shown to provide broad and robust protection against highly variable viruses. Unlike a consensus algorithm which picks the most frequent residue at each position, the mosaic method chooses the most frequent T-cell epitopes and combines them to form a synthetic antigen. These studies demonstrated that a mosaic influenza virus H5 hemagglutinin expressed by a viral vector can elicit full protection against diverse H5N1 challenges as well as induce broader immunity than a wild-type hemagglutinin. PMID:25210173

  7. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding.

    PubMed

    Memczak, Henry; Lauster, Daniel; Kar, Parimal; Di Lella, Santiago; Volkmer, Rudolf; Knecht, Volker; Herrmann, Andreas; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Bier, Frank F; Stöcklein, Walter F M

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing.

  8. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Parimal; Di Lella, Santiago; Volkmer, Rudolf; Knecht, Volker; Herrmann, Andreas; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Bier, Frank F.; Stöcklein, Walter F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing. PMID:27415624

  9. Glycosylation changes in the globular head of H3N2 influenza hemagglutinin modulate receptor binding without affecting virus virulence

    PubMed Central

    Alymova, Irina V.; York, Ian A.; Air, Gillian M.; Cipollo, John F.; Gulati, Shelly; Baranovich, Tatiana; Kumar, Amrita; Zeng, Hui; Gansebom, Shane; McCullers, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the emergence of human H3N2 influenza A viruses in the pandemic of 1968, these viruses have become established as strains of moderate severity. A decline in virulence has been accompanied by glycan accumulation on the hemagglutinin globular head, and hemagglutinin receptor binding has changed from recognition of a broad spectrum of glycan receptors to a narrower spectrum. The relationship between increased glycosylation, binding changes, and reduction in H3N2 virulence is not clear. We evaluated the effect of hemagglutinin glycosylation on receptor binding and virulence of engineered H3N2 viruses. We demonstrate that low-binding virus is as virulent as higher binding counterparts, suggesting that H3N2 infection does not require either recognition of a wide variety of, or high avidity binding to, receptors. Among the few glycans recognized with low-binding virus, there were two structures that were bound by the vast majority of H3N2 viruses isolated between 1968 and 2012. We suggest that these two structures support physiologically relevant binding of H3N2 hemagglutinin and that this physiologically relevant binding has not changed since the 1968 pandemic. Therefore binding changes did not contribute to reduced severity of seasonal H3N2 viruses. This work will help direct the search for factors enhancing influenza virulence. PMID:27796371

  10. Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus hemagglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Whittle, James R.R.; Zhang, Ruijun; Khurana, Surender; King, Lisa R.; Manischewitz, Jody; Golding, Hana; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Haynes, Barton F.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2011-09-20

    Seasonal antigenic drift of circulating influenza virus leads to a requirement for frequent changes in vaccine composition, because exposure or vaccination elicits human antibodies with limited cross-neutralization of drifted strains. We describe a human monoclonal antibody, CH65, obtained by isolating rearranged heavy- and light-chain genes from sorted single plasma cells, coming from a subject immunized with the 2007 trivalent influenza vaccine. The crystal structure of a complex of the hemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 strain A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 with the Fab of CH65 shows that the tip of the CH65 heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) inserts into the receptor binding pocket on HA1, mimicking in many respects the interaction of the physiological receptor, sialic acid. CH65 neutralizes infectivity of 30 out of 36 H1N1 strains tested. The resistant strains have a single-residue insertion near the rim of the sialic-acid pocket. We conclude that broad neutralization of influenza virus can be achieved by antibodies with contacts that mimic those of the receptor.

  11. Defects in functional expression of an influenza virus hemagglutinin lacking the signal peptide sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Sekikawa, K; Lai, C J

    1983-01-01

    We have investigated the requirement of the signal sequence for expression of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). For this purpose we used a recombinant prepared from a late-region deletion mutant of simian virus 40 (SV40) and cloned influenza HA DNA; the influenza DNA was inserted into the late region of SV40 previously occupied by the deleted sequences coding for SV40 capsid proteins. A simple in-phase deletion was made in the HA DNA, resulting in loss of 11 internal amino acids from the 16 amino acid signal peptide. This deletion HA recombinant was then used to infect African green monkey kidney cells. Mutant HA was not detected on the cell surface but stably accumulated in the cytoplasm at a level similar to that of wild-type HA. NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel analysis of lysates from infected cells showed that mutant HA was not glycosylated. Significantly, the amount of mutant HA synthesized was not affected by tunicamycin. In contrast, wild-type HA was decreased more than 90% by tunicamycin. These findings suggest that mutant polypeptide is synthesized on free polyribosomes rather than on membrane-bound polyribosomes. The mutant HA failed to agglutinate erythrocytes, probably due to a defect directly or indirectly associated with the lack of carbohydrate side chains. Images PMID:6304718

  12. The role of stearate attachment to the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein HEF of influenza C virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyang; Ludwig, Kai; Böttcher, Christoph; Veit, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The only spike of influenza C virus, the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein (HEF) combines receptor binding, receptor hydrolysis and membrane fusion activities. Like other hemagglutinating glycoproteins of influenza viruses HEF is S-acylated, but only with stearic acid at a single cysteine located at the cytosol-facing end of the transmembrane region. Previous studies established the essential role of S-acylation of hemagglutinin for replication of influenza A and B virus by affecting budding and/or membrane fusion, but the function of acylation of HEF was hitherto not investigated. Using reverse genetics we rescued a virus containing non-stearoylated HEF, which was stable during serial passage and showed no competitive fitness defect, but the growth rate of the mutant virus was reduced by one log. Deacylation of HEF does neither affect the kinetics of its plasma membrane transport nor the protein composition of virus particles. Cryo-electron microscopy showed that the shape of viral particles and the hexagonal array of spikes typical for influenza C virus were not influenced by this mutation indicating that virus budding was not disturbed. However, the extent and kinetics of haemolysis were reduced in mutant virus at 37°C, but not at 33°C, the optimal temperature for virus growth, suggesting that non-acylated HEF has a defect in membrane fusion under suboptimal conditions.

  13. Characterization of H5N1 Influenza Virus Variants with Hemagglutinin Mutations Isolated from Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yasuha; Daidoji, Tomo; Kawashita, Norihito; Ibrahim, Madiha S.; El-Gendy, Emad El-Din M.; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Takagi, Tatsuya; Murata, Takeomi; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Nakaya, Takaaki; Suzuki, Yasuo; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A change in viral hemagglutinin (HA) receptor binding specificity from α2,3- to α2,6-linked sialic acid is necessary for highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus subtype H5N1 to become pandemic. However, details of the human-adaptive change in the H5N1 virus remain unknown. Our database search of H5N1 clade 2.2.1 viruses circulating in Egypt identified multiple HA mutations that had been selected in infected patients. Using reverse genetics, we found that increases in both human receptor specificity and the HA pH threshold for membrane fusion were necessary to facilitate replication of the virus variants in human airway epithelia. Furthermore, variants with enhanced replication in human cells had decreased HA stability, apparently to compensate for the changes in viral receptor specificity and membrane fusion activity. Our findings showed that H5N1 viruses could rapidly adapt to growth in the human airway microenvironment by altering their HA properties in infected patients and provided new insights into the human-adaptive mechanisms of AI viruses. PMID:25852160

  14. Molecular requirements for a pandemic influenza virus: An acid-stable hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    Russier, Marion; Yang, Guohua; Rehg, Jerold E; Wong, Sook-San; Mostafa, Heba H; Fabrizio, Thomas P; Barman, Subrata; Krauss, Scott; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Russell, Charles J

    2016-02-09

    Influenza pandemics require that a virus containing a hemagglutinin (HA) surface antigen previously unseen by a majority of the population becomes airborne-transmissible between humans. Although the HA protein is central to the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus, its required molecular properties for sustained transmission between humans are poorly defined. During virus entry, the HA protein binds receptors and is triggered by low pH in the endosome to cause membrane fusion; during egress, HA contributes to virus assembly and morphology. In 2009, a swine influenza virus (pH1N1) jumped to humans and spread globally. Here we link the pandemic potential of pH1N1 to its HA acid stability, or the pH at which this one-time-use nanomachine is either triggered to cause fusion or becomes inactivated in the absence of a target membrane. In surveillance isolates, our data show HA activation pH values decreased during the evolution of H1N1 from precursors in swine (pH 5.5-6.0), to early 2009 human cases (pH 5.5), and then to later human isolates (pH 5.2-5.4). A loss-of-function pH1N1 virus with a destabilizing HA1-Y17H mutation (pH 6.0) was less pathogenic in mice and ferrets, less transmissible by contact, and no longer airborne-transmissible. A ferret-adapted revertant (HA1-H17Y/HA2-R106K) regained airborne transmissibility by stabilizing HA to an activation pH of 5.3, similar to that of human-adapted isolates from late 2009-2014. Overall, these studies reveal that a stable HA (activation pH ≤ 5.5) is necessary for pH1N1 influenza virus pathogenicity and airborne transmissibility in ferrets and is associated with pandemic potential in humans.

  15. Molecular requirements for a pandemic influenza virus: An acid-stable hemagglutinin protein

    PubMed Central

    Russier, Marion; Yang, Guohua; Rehg, Jerold E.; Wong, Sook-San; Mostafa, Heba H.; Barman, Subrata; Krauss, Scott; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Russell, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza pandemics require that a virus containing a hemagglutinin (HA) surface antigen previously unseen by a majority of the population becomes airborne-transmissible between humans. Although the HA protein is central to the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus, its required molecular properties for sustained transmission between humans are poorly defined. During virus entry, the HA protein binds receptors and is triggered by low pH in the endosome to cause membrane fusion; during egress, HA contributes to virus assembly and morphology. In 2009, a swine influenza virus (pH1N1) jumped to humans and spread globally. Here we link the pandemic potential of pH1N1 to its HA acid stability, or the pH at which this one-time-use nanomachine is either triggered to cause fusion or becomes inactivated in the absence of a target membrane. In surveillance isolates, our data show HA activation pH values decreased during the evolution of H1N1 from precursors in swine (pH 5.5–6.0), to early 2009 human cases (pH 5.5), and then to later human isolates (pH 5.2–5.4). A loss-of-function pH1N1 virus with a destabilizing HA1-Y17H mutation (pH 6.0) was less pathogenic in mice and ferrets, less transmissible by contact, and no longer airborne-transmissible. A ferret-adapted revertant (HA1-H17Y/HA2-R106K) regained airborne transmissibility by stabilizing HA to an activation pH of 5.3, similar to that of human-adapted isolates from late 2009–2014. Overall, these studies reveal that a stable HA (activation pH ≤ 5.5) is necessary for pH1N1 influenza virus pathogenicity and airborne transmissibility in ferrets and is associated with pandemic potential in humans. PMID:26811446

  16. Antibody-forming cell response to virus challenge in mice immunized with DNA encoding the influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Justewicz, D M; Morin, M J; Robinson, H L; Webster, R G

    1995-01-01

    Immunization of mice with DNA encoding the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) affords complete protection against lethal influenza virus infection and the means to investigate the mechanisms of B-cell responsiveness to virus challenge. Using a single-cell enzyme-linked immunospot assay, we sought to determine the localization of HA-specific antibody-forming cells (AFCs) during the development of humoral immunity in mice given HA DNA vaccine by gene gun. At 33 days postvaccination, populations of AFCs were maintained in the spleen and bone marrow. In response to lethal challenge with influenza virus, the AFCs became localized at the site of antigenic challenge, i.e., within the draining lymph nodes of the lung compartment. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)- and IgA-producing AFCs were detected in lymph nodes of the upper and lower respiratory tracts, underscoring their importance in clearing virus from the lungs. Response to challenge required competent CD4+ T cells, without which no AFCs were generated, even those producing IgM. By contrast, in mice vaccinated with an HA-containing subunit vaccine, fewer AFCs were generated in response to challenge, and these animals were less capable of resisting infection. Our findings demonstrate the comparable localization of AFCs in response to challenge in mice vaccinated with either HA DNA or live virus. Moreover, the former strategy generates both IgG- and IgA-producing plasma cells. PMID:7494280

  17. Lemna (duckweed) expressed hemagglutinin from avian influenza H5N1 protects chickens against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last two decades, transgenic plants have been explored as safe and cost effective alternative expression platforms for producing recombinant proteins. In this study, a synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1)...

  18. Host shifts and molecular evolution of H7 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary consequences of host shifts represent a challenge to identify the mechanisms involved in the emergence of influenza A (IA) viruses. In this study we focused on the evolutionary history of H7 IA virus in wild and domestic birds, with a particular emphasis on host shifts consequences on the molecular evolution of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Based on a dataset of 414 HA nucleotide sequences, we performed an extensive phylogeographic analysis in order to identify the overall genetic structure of H7 IA viruses. We then identified host shift events and investigated viral population dynamics in wild and domestic birds, independently. Finally, we estimated changes in nucleotide substitution rates and tested for positive selection in the HA gene. A strong association between the geographic origin and the genetic structure was observed, with four main clades including viruses isolated in North America, South America, Australia and Eurasia-Africa. We identified ten potential events of virus introduction from wild to domestic birds, but little evidence for spillover of viruses from poultry to wild waterbirds. Several sites involved in host specificity (addition of a glycosylation site in the receptor binding domain) and virulence (insertion of amino acids in the cleavage site) were found to be positively selected in HA nucleotide sequences, in genetically unrelated lineages, suggesting parallel evolution for the HA gene of IA viruses in domestic birds. These results highlight that evolutionary consequences of bird host shifts would need to be further studied to understand the ecological and molecular mechanisms involved in the emergence of domestic bird-adapted viruses. PMID:21711553

  19. Epitope mapping of neutralizing monoclonal antibody in avian influenza A H5N1 virus hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Takashi; Kikuchi, Yuji; Kono, Naoko; Itamura, Shigeyuki; Komase, Katsuhiro; Momose, Fumitaka; Morikawa, Yuko

    2012-02-03

    The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses raises concerns about more widespread infection in the human population. Pre-pandemic vaccine for H5N1 clade 1 influenza viruses has been produced from the A/Viet Nam/1194/2004 strain (VN1194), but recent prevalent avian H5N1 viruses have been categorized into the clade 2 strains, which are antigenically distinct from the pre-pandemic vaccine. To understand the antigenicity of H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA), we produced a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb12-1G6) using the pre-pandemic vaccine. Analysis with chimeric and point mutant HAs revealed that mAb12-1G6 bound to the loop (amino acid positions 140-145) corresponding to an antigenic site A in the H3 HA. mAb12-1G6 failed to bind to the mutant VN1194 HA when only 3 residues were substituted with the corresponding residues of the clade 2.1.3.2 A/Indonesia/5/05 strain (amino acid substitutions at positions Q142L, K144S, and S145P), suggesting that these amino acids are critical for binding of mAb12-1G6. Escape mutants of VN1194 selected with mAb12-1G6 carried a S145P mutation. Interestingly, mAb12-1G6 cross-neutralized clade 1 and clade 2.2.1 but not clade 2.1.3.2 or clade 2.3.4 of the H5N1 virus. We discuss the cross-reactivity, based on the amino acid sequence of the epitope.

  20. A simple Pichia pastoris fermentation and downstream processing strategy for making recombinant pandemic Swine Origin Influenza a virus Hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    Athmaram, T N; Singh, Anil Kumar; Saraswat, Shweta; Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Princi; Kameswara Rao, M; Gopalan, N; Rao, P V L

    2013-02-01

    The present Influenza vaccine manufacturing process has posed a clear impediment to initiation of rapid mass vaccination against spreading pandemic influenza. New vaccine strategies are therefore needed that can accelerate the vaccine production. Pichia offers several advantages for rapid and economical bulk production of recombinant proteins and, hence, can be attractive alternative for producing an effective influenza HA based subunit vaccine. The recombinant Pichia harboring the transgene was subjected to fed-batch fermentation at 10 L scale. A simple fermentation and downstream processing strategy is developed for high-yield secretory expression of the recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of pandemic Swine Origin Influenza A virus using Pichia pastoris via fed-batch fermentation. Expression and purification were optimized and the expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot and MALDI-TOF analysis. In this paper, we describe a fed-batch fermentation protocol for the secreted production of Swine Influenza A Hemagglutinin protein in the P. pastoris GS115 strain. We have shown that there is a clear relationship between product yield and specific growth rate. The fed-batch fermentation and downstream processing methods optimized in the present study have immense practical application for high-level production of the recombinant H1N1 HA protein in a cost effective way using P. pastoris.

  1. Antibody recognition of the pandemic H1N1 Influenza virus hemagglutinin receptor binding site.

    PubMed

    Hong, Minsun; Lee, Peter S; Hoffman, Ryan M B; Zhu, Xueyong; Krause, Jens C; Laursen, Nick S; Yoon, Sung-Il; Song, Langzhou; Tussey, Lynda; Crowe, James E; Ward, Andrew B; Wilson, Ian A

    2013-11-01

    Influenza virus is a global health concern due to its unpredictable pandemic potential. This potential threat was realized in 2009 when an H1N1 virus emerged that resembled the 1918 virus in antigenicity but fortunately was not nearly as deadly. 5J8 is a human antibody that potently neutralizes a broad spectrum of H1N1 viruses, including the 1918 and 2009 pandemic viruses. Here, we present the crystal structure of 5J8 Fab in complex with a bacterially expressed and refolded globular head domain from the hemagglutinin (HA) of the A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pandemic virus. 5J8 recognizes a conserved epitope in and around the receptor binding site (RBS), and its HCDR3 closely mimics interactions of the sialic acid receptor. Electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions of 5J8 Fab in complex with an HA trimer from a 1986 H1 strain and with an engineered stabilized HA trimer from the 2009 H1 pandemic virus showed a similar mode of binding. As for other characterized RBS-targeted antibodies, 5J8 uses avidity to extend its breadth and affinity against divergent H1 strains. 5J8 selectively interacts with HA insertion residue 133a, which is conserved in pandemic H1 strains and has precluded binding of other RBS-targeted antibodies. Thus, the RBS of divergent HAs is targeted by 5J8 and adds to the growing arsenal of common recognition motifs for design of therapeutics and vaccines. Moreover, consistent with previous studies, the bacterially expressed H1 HA properly refolds, retaining its antigenic structure, and presents a low-cost and rapid alternative for engineering and manufacturing candidate flu vaccines.

  2. Recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) expressing the influenza A virus hemagglutinin provides immunity in mice to influenza A virus challenge

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, S. Mark; Lin, Yuan; Leser, George P.; Kramer, Kari A.; Haas, Debra L.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Xu, Jie; Kennett, Mary J.; Durbin, Russell K.; Durbin, Joan E.; Tripp, Ralph; Lamb, Robert A.; He, Biao

    2007-01-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5), formerly known as simian virus 5 (SV5), is a non-segmented negative strand RNA virus that offers several advantages as a vaccine vector. PIV5 infects many cell types causing little cytopathic effect, it replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells, and does not have a DNA phase in its life cycle thus avoiding the possibility of introducing foreign genes into the host DNA genome. Importantly, PIV5 can infect humans but it is not associated with any known human illness. PIV5 grows well in tissue culture cells, including Vero cells, which have been approved for vaccine production, and the virus can be obtained easily from the media. To test the feasibility of using PIV5 as a live vaccine vector, the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from influenza A virus strain A/Udorn/72 (H3N2) was inserted into the PIV5 genome as an extra gene between the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene and the large (L) polymerase gene. Recombinant PIV5 containing the HA gene of Udorn (rPIV5-H3) was recovered and it replicated similarly to wild type PIV5, both in vitro and in vivo. The HA protein expressed by rPIV5-H3 infected cells was incorporated into the virions and addition of the HA gene did not increase virus virulence in mice. The efficacy of rPIV5-H3 as a live vaccine was examined in 6-week-old BALB/c mice. The results show that a single dose inoculation provides broad and considerable immunity against influenza A virus infection. PMID:17254623

  3. Acid Stability of the Hemagglutinin Protein Regulates H5N1 Influenza Virus Pathogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, Rebecca M.; Zaraket, Hassan; Reddivari, Muralidhar; Heath, Richard J.; White, Stephen W.; Russell, Charles J.

    2012-12-10

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype continue to threaten agriculture and human health. Here, we use biochemistry and x-ray crystallography to reveal how amino-acid variations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein contribute to the pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza virus in chickens. HA proteins from highly pathogenic (HP) A/chicken/Hong Kong/YU562/2001 and moderately pathogenic (MP) A/goose/Hong Kong/437-10/1999 isolates of H5N1 were found to be expressed and cleaved in similar amounts, and both proteins had similar receptor-binding properties. However, amino-acid variations at positions 104 and 115 in the vestigial esterase sub-domain of the HA1 receptor-binding domain (RBD) were found to modulate the pH of HA activation such that the HP and MP HA proteins are activated for membrane fusion at pH 5.7 and 5.3, respectively. In general, an increase in H5N1 pathogenicity in chickens was found to correlate with an increase in the pH of HA activation for mutant and chimeric HA proteins in the observed range of pH 5.2 to 6.0. We determined a crystal structure of the MP HA protein at 2.50 {angstrom} resolution and two structures of HP HA at 2.95 and 3.10 {angstrom} resolution. Residues 104 and 115 that modulate the acid stability of the HA protein are situated at the N- and C-termini of the 110-helix in the vestigial esterase sub-domain, which interacts with the B loop of the HA2 stalk domain. Interactions between the 110-helix and the stalk domain appear to be important in regulating HA protein acid stability, which in turn modulates influenza virus replication and pathogenesis. Overall, an optimal activation pH of the HA protein is found to be necessary for high pathogenicity by H5N1 influenza virus in avian species.

  4. Acid stability of the hemagglutinin protein regulates H5N1 influenza virus pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Rebecca M; Zaraket, Hassan; Reddivari, Muralidhar; Heath, Richard J; White, Stephen W; Russell, Charles J

    2011-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype continue to threaten agriculture and human health. Here, we use biochemistry and x-ray crystallography to reveal how amino-acid variations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein contribute to the pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza virus in chickens. HA proteins from highly pathogenic (HP) A/chicken/Hong Kong/YU562/2001 and moderately pathogenic (MP) A/goose/Hong Kong/437-10/1999 isolates of H5N1 were found to be expressed and cleaved in similar amounts, and both proteins had similar receptor-binding properties. However, amino-acid variations at positions 104 and 115 in the vestigial esterase sub-domain of the HA1 receptor-binding domain (RBD) were found to modulate the pH of HA activation such that the HP and MP HA proteins are activated for membrane fusion at pH 5.7 and 5.3, respectively. In general, an increase in H5N1 pathogenicity in chickens was found to correlate with an increase in the pH of HA activation for mutant and chimeric HA proteins in the observed range of pH 5.2 to 6.0. We determined a crystal structure of the MP HA protein at 2.50 Å resolution and two structures of HP HA at 2.95 and 3.10 Å resolution. Residues 104 and 115 that modulate the acid stability of the HA protein are situated at the N- and C-termini of the 110-helix in the vestigial esterase sub-domain, which interacts with the B loop of the HA2 stalk domain. Interactions between the 110-helix and the stalk domain appear to be important in regulating HA protein acid stability, which in turn modulates influenza virus replication and pathogenesis. Overall, an optimal activation pH of the HA protein is found to be necessary for high pathogenicity by H5N1 influenza virus in avian species.

  5. Capturing a fusion intermediate of influenza hemagglutinin with a cholesterol-conjugated peptide, a new antiviral strategy for influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelly K; Pessi, Antonello; Gui, Long; Santoprete, Alessia; Talekar, Aparna; Moscona, Anne; Porotto, Matteo

    2011-12-09

    We previously described fusion-inhibitory peptides that are targeted to the cell membrane by cholesterol conjugation and potently inhibit enveloped viruses that fuse at the cell surface, including HIV, parainfluenza, and henipaviruses. However, for viruses that fuse inside of intracellular compartments, fusion-inhibitory peptides have exhibited very low antiviral activity. We propose that for these viruses, too, membrane targeting via cholesterol conjugation may yield potent compounds. Here we compare the activity of fusion-inhibitory peptides derived from the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and show that although the unconjugated peptides are inactive, the cholesterol-conjugated compounds are effective inhibitors of infectivity and membrane fusion. We hypothesize that the cholesterol moiety, by localizing the peptides to the target cell membrane, allows the peptides to follow the virus to the intracellular site of fusion. The cholesterol-conjugated peptides trap HA in a transient intermediate state after fusion is triggered but before completion of the refolding steps that drive the merging of the viral and cellular membranes. These results provide proof of concept for an antiviral strategy that is applicable to intracellularly fusing viruses, including known and emerging viral pathogens.

  6. Capturing a Fusion Intermediate of Influenza Hemagglutinin with a Cholesterol-conjugated Peptide, a New Antiviral Strategy for Influenza Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelly K.; Pessi, Antonello; Gui, Long; Santoprete, Alessia; Talekar, Aparna; Moscona, Anne; Porotto, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    We previously described fusion-inhibitory peptides that are targeted to the cell membrane by cholesterol conjugation and potently inhibit enveloped viruses that fuse at the cell surface, including HIV, parainfluenza, and henipaviruses. However, for viruses that fuse inside of intracellular compartments, fusion-inhibitory peptides have exhibited very low antiviral activity. We propose that for these viruses, too, membrane targeting via cholesterol conjugation may yield potent compounds. Here we compare the activity of fusion-inhibitory peptides derived from the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and show that although the unconjugated peptides are inactive, the cholesterol-conjugated compounds are effective inhibitors of infectivity and membrane fusion. We hypothesize that the cholesterol moiety, by localizing the peptides to the target cell membrane, allows the peptides to follow the virus to the intracellular site of fusion. The cholesterol-conjugated peptides trap HA in a transient intermediate state after fusion is triggered but before completion of the refolding steps that drive the merging of the viral and cellular membranes. These results provide proof of concept for an antiviral strategy that is applicable to intracellularly fusing viruses, including known and emerging viral pathogens. PMID:21994935

  7. Genetic Predisposition To Acquire a Polybasic Cleavage Site for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Nao, Naganori; Yamagishi, Junya; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Igarashi, Manabu; Manzoor, Rashid; Ohnuma, Aiko; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Furuyama, Wakako; Shigeno, Asako; Kajihara, Masahiro; Kishida, Noriko; Yoshida, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes evolve from low-pathogenic precursors through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been observed to occur naturally only in these HA subtypes, little is known about the genetic basis for the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site. Here we show that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure, which are frequently found in the viral RNA region encoding amino acids around the cleavage site of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses isolated from waterfowl reservoirs, are important for nucleotide insertions into this RNA region. A reporter assay to detect nontemplated nucleotide insertions and deep-sequencing analysis of viral RNAs revealed that an increased number of adenine residues and enlarged stem-loop structure in the RNA region accelerated the multiple adenine and/or guanine insertions required to create codons for basic amino acids. Interestingly, nucleotide insertions associated with the HA cleavage site motif were not observed principally in the viral RNA of other subtypes tested (H1, H2, H3, and H4). Our findings suggest that the RNA editing-like activity is the key mechanism for nucleotide insertions, providing a clue as to why the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site is restricted to the particular HA subtypes. PMID:28196963

  8. Binding of Hemagglutinin and Influenza Virus to a Peptide-Conjugated Lipid Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Teruhiko; Shibata, Rabi; Sato, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) plays an important role in the first step of influenza virus (IFV) infection because it initiates the binding of the virus to the sialylgalactose linkages of the receptors on the host cells. We herein demonstrate that a HA-binding peptide immobilized on a solid support is available to bind to HA and IFV. We previously obtained a HA-binding pentapeptide (Ala-Arg-Leu-Pro-Arg), which was identified by phage-display selection against HAs from random peptide libraries. This peptide binds to the receptor-binding site of HA by mimicking sialic acid. A peptide-conjugated lipid (pep-PE) was chemically synthesized from the peptide and a saturated phospholipid. A lipid bilayer composed of pep-PE and an unsaturated phospholipid (DOPC) was immobilized on a mica plate; and the interaction between HA and the pep-PE/DOPC membrane was investigated using atomic force microscopy. The binding of IFV to the pep-PE/DOPC membrane was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time reverse transcription PCR. Our results indicate that peptide-conjugated lipids are a useful molecular device for the detection of HA and IFV. PMID:27092124

  9. Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins with Different N-Glycan Patterns Activate Dendritic Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Chun; Lin, Yu-Li; Spearman, Maureen; Cheng, Pei-Yun; Butler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) N-glycans play important regulatory roles in the control of virus virulence, antigenicity, receptor-binding specificity, and viral escape from the immune response. Considered essential for controlling innate and adaptive immune responses against influenza virus infections, dendritic cells (DCs) trigger proinflammatory and adaptive immune responses in hosts. In this study, we engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines expressing recombinant HA from pandemic H1, H5, and H7 influenza viruses. rH1HA, rH5HA, and rH7HA were obtained as wild-type proteins or in the presence of kifunensine (KIF) or further with endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase-treated KIF (KIF+E) to generate single-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) N-glycans consisting of (i) terminally sialylated complex-type N-glycans, (ii) high-mannose-type N-glycans, and (iii) single-GlcNAc-type N-glycans. Our results show that high-mannose-type and single-GlcNAc-type N-glycans, but not complex-type N-glycans, are capable of inducing more active hIL12 p40, hIL12 p70, and hIL-10 production in human DCs. Significantly higher HLA-DR, CD40, CD83, and CD86 expression levels, as well reduced endocytotic capacity in human DCs, were noted in the high-mannose-type rH1HA and single-GlcNAc-type rH1HA groups than in the complex-type N-glycan rH1HA group. Our data indicate that native avian rHA proteins (H5N1 and H7N9) are more immunostimulatory than human rHA protein (pH1N1). The high-mannose-type or single-GlcNAc-type N-glycans of both avian and human HA types are more stimulatory than the complex-type N-glycans. HA-stimulated DC activation was accomplished partially through a mannose receptor(s). These results provide more understanding of the contribution of glycosylation of viral proteins to the immune responses and may have implications for vaccine development. IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses trigger seasonal epidemics or pandemics with mild-to-severe consequences for human and

  10. Predicting the antigenic structure of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Reiko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

    2010-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus (2009 H1N1) was recently introduced into the human population. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of 2009 H1N1 is derived from "classical swine H1N1" virus, which likely shares a common ancestor with the human H1N1 virus that caused the pandemic in 1918, whose descendant viruses are still circulating in the human population with highly altered antigenicity of HA. However, information on the structural basis to compare the HA antigenicity among 2009 H1N1, the 1918 pandemic, and seasonal human H1N1 viruses has been lacking. By homology modeling of the HA structure, here we show that HAs of 2009 H1N1 and the 1918 pandemic virus share a significant number of amino acid residues in known antigenic sites, suggesting the existence of common epitopes for neutralizing antibodies cross-reactive to both HAs. It was noted that the early human H1N1 viruses isolated in the 1930s-1940s still harbored some of the original epitopes that are also found in 2009 H1N1. Interestingly, while 2009 H1N1 HA lacks the multiple N-glycosylations that have been found to be associated with an antigenic change of the human H1N1 virus during the early epidemic of this virus, 2009 H1N1 HA still retains unique three-codon motifs, some of which became N-glycosylation sites via a single nucleotide mutation in the human H1N1 virus. We thus hypothesize that the 2009 H1N1 HA antigenic sites involving the conserved amino acids will soon be targeted by antibody-mediated selection pressure in humans. Indeed, amino acid substitutions predicted here are occurring in the recent 2009 H1N1 variants. The present study suggests that antibodies elicited by natural infection with the 1918 pandemic or its early descendant viruses play a role in specific immunity against 2009 H1N1, and provides an insight into future likely antigenic changes in the evolutionary process of 2009 H1N1 in the human population.

  11. Predicting the Antigenic Structure of the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Reiko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

    2010-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus (2009 H1N1) was recently introduced into the human population. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of 2009 H1N1 is derived from “classical swine H1N1” virus, which likely shares a common ancestor with the human H1N1 virus that caused the pandemic in 1918, whose descendant viruses are still circulating in the human population with highly altered antigenicity of HA. However, information on the structural basis to compare the HA antigenicity among 2009 H1N1, the 1918 pandemic, and seasonal human H1N1 viruses has been lacking. By homology modeling of the HA structure, here we show that HAs of 2009 H1N1 and the 1918 pandemic virus share a significant number of amino acid residues in known antigenic sites, suggesting the existence of common epitopes for neutralizing antibodies cross-reactive to both HAs. It was noted that the early human H1N1 viruses isolated in the 1930s–1940s still harbored some of the original epitopes that are also found in 2009 H1N1. Interestingly, while 2009 H1N1 HA lacks the multiple N-glycosylations that have been found to be associated with an antigenic change of the human H1N1 virus during the early epidemic of this virus, 2009 H1N1 HA still retains unique three-codon motifs, some of which became N-glycosylation sites via a single nucleotide mutation in the human H1N1 virus. We thus hypothesize that the 2009 H1N1 HA antigenic sites involving the conserved amino acids will soon be targeted by antibody-mediated selection pressure in humans. Indeed, amino acid substitutions predicted here are occurring in the recent 2009 H1N1 variants. The present study suggests that antibodies elicited by natural infection with the 1918 pandemic or its early descendant viruses play a role in specific immunity against 2009 H1N1, and provides an insight into future likely antigenic changes in the evolutionary process of 2009 H1N1 in the human population. PMID:20049332

  12. Expression of the hemagglutinin HA1 subunit of the equine influenza virus using a baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Sguazza, Guillermo H; Fuentealba, Nadia A; Tizzano, Marco A; Galosi, Cecilia M; Pecoraro, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in horses worldwide. Disease prevention is by vaccination with inactivated whole virus vaccines. Most current influenza vaccines are generated in embryonated hens' eggs. Virions are harvested from allantoic fluid and chemically inactivated. Although this system has served well over the years, the use of eggs as the substrate for vaccine production has several well-recognized disadvantages (cost, egg supply, waste disposal and yield in eggs). The aim of this study was to evaluate a baculovirus system as a potential method for producing recombinant equine influenza hemagglutinin to be used as a vaccine. The hemagglutinin ectodomain (HA1 subunit) was cloned and expressed using a baculovirus expression vector. The expression was determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. A high yield, 20μg/ml of viral protein, was obtained from recombinant baculovirus-infected cells. The immune response in BALB/c mice was examined following rHA1 inoculation. Preliminary results show that recombinant hemagglutinin expressed from baculovirus elicits a strong antibody response in mice; therefore it could be used as an antigen for subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  13. Structural Characterization of an Early Fusion Intermediate of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; Wilson, Ian A.

    2011-12-07

    The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza virus mediates viral entry through membrane fusion in the acidic environment of the endosome. Crystal structures of HA in pre- and postfusion states have laid the foundation for proposals for a general fusion mechanism for viral envelope proteins. The large-scale conformational rearrangement of HA at low pH is triggered by a loop-to-helix transition of an interhelical loop (B loop) within the fusion domain and is often referred to as the 'spring-loaded' mechanism. Although the receptor-binding HA1 subunit is believed to act as a 'clamp' to keep the B loop in its metastable prefusion state at neutral pH, the 'pH sensors' that are responsible for the clamp release and the ensuing structural transitions have remained elusive. Here we identify a mutation in the HA2 fusion domain from the influenza virus H2 subtype that stabilizes the HA trimer in a prefusion-like state at and below fusogenic pH. Crystal structures of this putative early intermediate state reveal reorganization of ionic interactions at the HA1-HA2 interface at acidic pH and deformation of the HA1 membrane-distal domain. Along with neutralization of glutamate residues on the B loop, these changes cause a rotation of the B loop and solvent exposure of conserved phenylalanines, which are key residues at the trimer interface of the postfusion structure. Thus, our study reveals the possible initial structural event that leads to release of the B loop from its prefusion conformation, which is aided by unexpected structural changes within the membrane-distal HA1 domain at low pH.

  14. An extract from Taxodium distichum targets hemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-related activities of influenza virus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Chen, Yu-Li; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Ho, Jin-Yuan; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus remains an emerging virus and causes pandemics with high levels of fatality. After screening different plant extracts with potential anti-influenza activity, a water extract of Taxodium distichum stems (TDSWex) showed excellent activity against influenza viruses. The EC50 of TDSWex was 0.051 ± 0.024 mg/mL against influenza virus A/WSN/33. TDSWex had excellent antiviral efficacy against various strains of human influenza A and B viruses, particularly oseltamivir-resistant clinical isolates and a swine-origin influenza strain. We observed that the synthesis of viral RNA and protein were inhibited in the presence of TDSWex. The results of the time-of-addition assay suggested that TDSWex inhibited viral entry and budding. In the hemagglutination inhibition assay, TDSWex inhibited the hemagglutination of red blood cells, implying that the extract targeted hemagglutin-related functions such as viral entry. In the attachment and penetration assay, TDSWex showed antiviral activity with EC50s of 0.045 ± 0.026 and 0.012 ± 0.003 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, TDSWex blocked neuraminidase activity. We conclude that TDSWex has bimodal activities against both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase during viral replication. PMID:27796330

  15. Substitutions near the hemagglutinin receptor-binding site determine the antigenic evolution of influenza A H3N2 viruses in U.S. swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza A virus is an endemic and economically important pathogen in pigs with the zoonotic potential to infect other host species. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is the primary target of protective immune responses and the major component in swine influenza A vaccines. However, as a result ...

  16. Mutations in H5N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin that Confer Binding to Human Tracheal Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Scull, Margaret A.; Ren, Junyuan; Jones, Ian M.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Barclay, Wendy S.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence in 2009 of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus as the first pandemic of the 21st Century is a timely reminder of the international public health impact of influenza viruses, even those associated with mild disease. The widespread distribution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in the avian population has spawned concern that it may give rise to a human influenza pandemic. The mortality rate associated with occasional human infection by H5N1 virus approximates 60%, suggesting that an H5N1 pandemic would be devastating to global health and economy. To date, the H5N1 virus has not acquired the propensity to transmit efficiently between humans. The reasons behind this are unclear, especially given the high mutation rate associated with influenza virus replication. Here we used a panel of recombinant H5 hemagglutinin (HA) variants to demonstrate the potential for H5 HA to bind human airway epithelium, the predominant target tissue for influenza virus infection and spread. While parental H5 HA exhibited limited binding to human tracheal epithelium, introduction of selected mutations converted the binding profile to that of a current human influenza strain HA. Strikingly, these amino-acid changes required multiple simultaneous mutations in the genomes of naturally occurring H5 isolates. Moreover, H5 HAs bearing intermediate sequences failed to bind airway tissues and likely represent mutations that are an evolutionary “dead end.” We conclude that, although genetic changes that adapt H5 to human airways can be demonstrated, they may not readily arise during natural virus replication. This genetic barrier limits the likelihood that current H5 viruses will originate a human pandemic. PMID:19924306

  17. Modification of the Hemagglutinin Cleavage Site Allows Indirect Activation of Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 by Bacterial Staphylokinase

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Longping V.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza H9N2 is considered to be a low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus that commonly infects avian species and can also infect humans. In 1996, the influenza virus, A/chicken/Korea/MS96-CE6/1996/H9N2 (MS96) was isolated from an outbreak in multiple farms in South Korea that resulted in upwards of 30% mortality in infected chickens, with the virus infecting a number of extrapulmonary tissues, indicating internal spread. However, in experimental infections, complete recovery of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens occurred. Such a discrepancy indicated an alternative pathway for MS96 virus to gain virulence in farmed chickens. A key determinant of influenza pathogenesis is the susceptibility of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to proteolytic cleavage/activation. Here, we identified that an amino acid substitution, Ser to Tyr found at the P2 position of the MS96 HA cleavage site optimizes cleavage by the protease plasmin (Pm). Importantly, we identified that certain Staphylococcus sp. are able to cleave and activate MS96 HA by activating plasminogen (Plg) to plasmin by use of a virulence factor, staphylokinase. Overall, these studies provide an in-vitro mechanism for bacterially mediated enhancement of influenza activation, and allow insight into the microbiological mechanisms underlying the avian influenza H9N2 outbreak in Korea in1996. PMID:25841078

  18. Structures and receptor binding of hemagglutinins from human-infecting H7N9 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Qi, Jianxun; Wu, Ying; Song, Hao; Gao, Feng; Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Yanfang; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Chengfeng; Sun, Honglei; Liu, Jinhua; Haywood, Joel; Liu, Wenjun; Gong, Weimin; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong; Wang, Yu; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2013-10-11

    An avian-origin human-infecting influenza (H7N9) virus was recently identified in China. We have evaluated the viral hemagglutinin (HA) receptor-binding properties of two human H7N9 isolates, A/Shanghai/1/2013 (SH-H7N9) (containing the avian-signature residue Gln(226)) and A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) (containing the mammalian-signature residue Leu(226)). We found that SH-H7N9 HA preferentially binds the avian receptor analog, whereas AH-H7N9 HA binds both avian and human receptor analogs. Furthermore, an AH-H7N9 mutant HA (Leu(226) → Gln) was found to exhibit dual receptor-binding property, indicating that other amino acid substitutions contribute to the receptor-binding switch. The structures of SH-H7N9 HA, AH-H7N9 HA, and its mutant in complex with either avian or human receptor analogs show how AH-H7N9 can bind human receptors while still retaining the avian receptor-binding property.

  19. Modification of the Cytoplasmic Domain of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Affects Enlargement of the Fusion Pore

    PubMed Central

    Kozerski, Christine; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Schroth-Diez, Britta; Schmidt, Michael F. G.; Herrmann, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    The fusion activity of chimeras of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) (from A/fpv/Rostock/34; subtype H7) with the transmembrane domain (TM) and/or cytoplasmic tail (CT) either from the nonviral, nonfusogenic T-cell surface protein CD4 or from the fusogenic Sendai virus F-protein was studied. Wild-type or chimeric HA was expressed in CV-1 cells by the transient T7-RNA-polymerase vaccinia virus expression system. Subsequently, the fusion activity of the expression products was monitored with red blood cells or ghosts as target cells. To assess the different steps of fusion, target cells were labeled with the fluorescent membrane label octadecyl rhodamine B-chloride (R18) (membrane fusion) and with the cytoplasmic fluorophores calcein (molecular weight [MW], 623; formation of small aqueous fusion pore) and tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (MW, 10,000; enlargement of fusion pore). All chimeric HA/F-proteins, as well as the chimera with the TM of CD4 and the CT of HA, were able to mediate the different steps of fusion very similarly to wild-type HA. Quite differently, chimeric proteins with the CT of CD4 were strongly impaired in mediating pore enlargement. However, membrane fusion and formation of small pores were similar to those of wild-type HA, indicating that the conformational change of the ectodomain and earlier fusion steps were not inhibited. Various properties of the CT which may affect pore enlargement are considered. We surmise that the hydrophobicity of the sequence adjacent to the transmembrane domain is important for pore dilation. PMID:10906206

  20. Heterologous transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains direct functional chimeric influenza virus hemagglutinins into the endocytic pathway

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Chimeric genes were created by fusing DNA sequences encoding the ectodomain of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) to DNA coding for the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of either the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus or the gC glycoprotein of Herpes simplex virus 1. CV-1 cells infected with SV40 vectors carrying the recombinant genes expressed large amounts of the chimeric proteins, HAG or HAgC on their surfaces. Although the ectodomains of HAG and HAgC differed in their immunological properties from that of HA, the chimeras displayed the biological functions characteristic of the wild-type protein. Both HAG and HAgC bound erythrocytes as efficiently as HA did and, after brief exposure to an acidic environment, induced the fusion of erythrocyte and CV-1 cell membranes. However, the behavior of HAG and HAgC at the cell surface differed from that of HA in several important respects. HAG and HAgC were observed to collect in coated pits whereas wild-type HA was excluded from those structures. In the presence of chloroquine, which inhibits the exit of receptors from endosomes, HAG and HAgC accumulated in intracellular vesicles. By contrast, chloroquine had no effect on the location of wild-type HA. HAG and HAgC labeled at the cell surface exhibited a temperature-dependent acquisition of resistance to extracellular protease at a rate similar to the rates of internalization observed for many cell surface receptors. HA acquired resistance to protease at a rate at least 20- fold slower. We conclude that HAG and HAgC are efficiently routed into the endocytic pathway and HA is not. However, like HA, HAG was degraded slowly, raising the possibility that HAG recycles to the plasma membrane. PMID:3007532

  1. Structural determinants for the membrane insertion of the transmembrane peptide of hemagglutinin from influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Victor, Bruno L; Baptista, António M; Soares, Cláudio M

    2012-11-26

    Membrane fusion is a process involved in a high range of biological functions, going from viral infections to neurotransmitter release. Fusogenic proteins increase the slow rate of fusion by coupling energetically downhill conformational changes of the protein to the kinetically unfavorable fusion of the membrane lipid bilayers. Hemagglutinin is an example of a fusogenic protein, which promotes the fusion of the membrane of the influenza virus with the membrane of the target cell. The N-terminus of the HA2 subunit of this protein contains a fusion domain described to act as a destabilizer of the target membrane bilayers, leading eventually to a full fusion of the two membranes. On the other hand, the C-terminus of the same subunit contains a helical transmembrane domain which was initially described to act as the anchor of the protein to the membrane of the virus. However, in recent years the study of this peptide segment has been gaining more attention since it has also been described to be involved in the membrane fusion process. Yet, the structural characterization of the interaction of such a protein domain with membrane lipids is still very limited. Therefore, in this work, we present a study of this transmembrane peptide domain in the presence of DMPC membrane bilayers, and we evaluate the effect of several mutations, and the effect of peptide oligomerization in this interaction process. Our results allowed us to identify and confirm amino acid residue motifs that seem to regulate the interaction between the segment peptide and membrane bilayers. Besides these sequence requirements, we have also identified length and tilt requirements that ultimately contribute to the hydrophobic matching between the peptide and the membrane. Additionally, we looked at the association of several transmembrane peptide segments and evaluated their direct interaction and stability inside a membrane bilayer. From our results we could conclude that three independent TM peptide

  2. Changes to the dynamic nature of hemagglutinin and the emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sun-Woo; Chen, Noam; Ducatez, Mariette F; McBride, Ryan; Barman, Subrata; Fabrizio, Thomas P; Webster, Robert G; Haliloglu, Turkan; Paulson, James C; Russell, Charles J; Hertz, Tomer; Ben-Tal, Nir; Webby, Richard J

    2015-08-13

    The virologic factors that limit the transmission of swine influenza viruses between humans are unresolved. While it has been shown that acquisition of the neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (M) gene segments from a Eurasian-lineage swine virus was required for airborne transmission of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09), we show here that an arginine to lysine change in the hemagglutinin (HA) was also necessary. This change at position 149 was distal to the receptor binding site but affected virus-receptor affinity and HA dynamics, allowing the virus to replicate more efficiently in nasal turbinate epithelium and subsequently transmit between ferrets. Receptor affinity should be considered as a factor limiting swine virus spread in humans.

  3. Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus H5N1 Protected Mice against Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Mooney, Alaina J.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Gao, Xiudan; Xu, Pei; Place, Ryan J.; Hogan, Robert J.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2013-01-01

    A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to prevent large-scale highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in the human population. The current FDA-approved H5N1 vaccine has serious limitations. A more efficacious H5N1 vaccine is urgently needed. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a paramyxovirus, is not known to cause any illness in humans. PIV5 is an attractive vaccine vector. In our studies, a single dose of a live recombinant PIV5 expressing a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1 (rPIV5-H5) from the H5N1 subtype provided sterilizing immunity against lethal doses of HPAI H5N1 infection in mice. Furthermore, we have examined the effect of insertion of H5N1 HA at different locations within the PIV5 genome on the efficacy of a PIV5-based vaccine. Interestingly, insertion of H5N1 HA between the leader sequence, the de facto promoter of PIV5, and the first viral gene, nucleoprotein (NP), did not lead to a viable virus. Insertion of H5N1 HA between NP and the next gene, V/phosphorprotein (V/P), led to a virus that was defective in growth. We have found that insertion of H5N1 HA at the junction between the small hydrophobic (SH) gene and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene gave the best immunity against HPAI H5N1 challenge: a dose as low as 1,000 PFU was sufficient to protect against lethal HPAI H5N1 challenge in mice. The work suggests that recombinant PIV5 expressing H5N1 HA has great potential as an HPAI H5N1 vaccine. PMID:23077314

  4. In Silico Functional and Structural Characterization of H1N1 Influenza A Viruses Hemagglutinin, 2010-2013, Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moattari, Afagh; Dehghani, Behzad; Khodadad, Nastaran; Tavakoli, Forogh

    2015-06-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) is a major virulence factor of influenza viruses and plays an important role in viral pathogenesis. Analysis of amino acid changes, epitopes' regions, glycosylation and phosphorylation sites have greatly contributed to the development of new generations of vaccine. The hemagglutinins of 10 selected isolates, 8 of 2010 and 2 of 2013 samples were sequenced and analyzed by several bioinformatic softwares and the results were compared with those of 3 vaccine isolates. The study detected several amino acid changes related to altered epitopes' sites, modification sites and physico-chemical properties. The results showed some conserved modification sites in HA structure. This study is the first analytical research on isolates obtained from Shiraz, Iran, and our results can be used to better understand the genetic diversity and antigenic variations in Iranian and Asian H1N1 pathogenic strains.

  5. The Molecular Determinants of Antibody Recognition and Antigenic Drift in the H3 Hemagglutinin of Swine Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Abente, Eugenio J.; Santos, Jefferson; Lewis, Nicola S.; Gauger, Phillip C.; Stratton, Jered; Skepner, Eugene; Rajao, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) of the H3 subtype is an important respiratory pathogen that affects both humans and swine. Vaccination to induce neutralizing antibodies against the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) is the primary method used to control disease. However, due to antigenic drift, vaccine strains must be periodically updated. Six of the 7 positions previously identified in human seasonal H3 (positions 145, 155, 156, 158, 159, 189, and 193) were also indicated in swine H3 antigenic evolution. To experimentally test the effect on virus antigenicity of these 7 positions, substitutions were introduced into the HA of an isogenic swine lineage virus. We tested the antigenic effect of these introduced substitutions by using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) data with monovalent swine antisera and antigenic cartography to evaluate the antigenic phenotype of the mutant viruses. Combinations of substitutions within the antigenic motif caused significant changes in antigenicity. One virus mutant that varied at only two positions relative to the wild type had a >4-fold reduction in HI titers compared to homologous antisera. Potential changes in pathogenesis and transmission of the double mutant were evaluated in pigs. Although the double mutant had virus shedding titers and transmissibility comparable to those of the wild type, it caused a significantly lower percentage of lung lesions. Elucidating the antigenic effects of specific amino acid substitutions at these sites in swine H3 IAV has important implications for understanding IAV evolution within pigs as well as for improved vaccine development and control strategies in swine. IMPORTANCE A key component of influenza virus evolution is antigenic drift mediated by the accumulation of amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, resulting in escape from prior immunity generated by natural infection or vaccination. Understanding which amino acid positions of the HA contribute to the ability

  6. Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Containing Hemagglutinin Confers Protection against 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Jaber; Bourgeois, Melissa; Quan, Fu-Shi; Lipatov, Aleksandr S.; Song, Jae-Min; Chen, Li-Mei; Compans, Richard W.; York, Ian; Kang, Sang-Moo; Donis, Ruben O.

    2011-01-01

    Immunization of the world population before an influenza pandemic such as the 2009 H1N1 virus spreads globally is not possible with current vaccine production platforms. New influenza vaccine technologies, such as virus-like-particles (VLPs), offer a promising alternative. Here, we tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a VLP vaccine containing hemagglutinin (HA) and M1 from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm) in ferrets and compared intramuscular (i.m.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes of immunization. Vaccination of ferrets with VLPs containing the M1 and HA proteins from A/California/04/2009 (H1N1pdm) induced high antibody titers and conferred significant protection against virus challenge. VLP-vaccinated animals lost less weight, shed less virus in nasal washes, and had markedly lower virus titers in all organs tested than naïve controls. A single dose of VLPs, either i.m. or i.n., induced higher levels of antibody than did two doses of commercial split vaccine. Ferrets vaccinated with split vaccine were incompletely protected against challenge; these animals had lower virus titers in olfactory bulbs, tonsils, and intestines, but lost weight and shed virus in nasal washes to a similar extent as naïve controls. Challenge with heterologous A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) virus revealed that the VLPs conferred minimal cross-protection to heterologous infection, as revealed by the lack of reduction in nasal wash and lung virus titers and slightly higher weight loss relative to controls. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the strong immunogenicity and protective efficacy of VLPs compared to the split vaccine and show that i.n. vaccination with VLPs has the potential for highly efficacious vaccination against influenza. PMID:22030367

  7. The Hemagglutinin Stem-Binding Monoclonal Antibody VIS410 Controls Influenza Virus-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baranovich, Tatiana; Jones, Jeremy C.; Russier, Marion; Vogel, Peter; Szretter, Kristy J.; Seiler, Patrick; Trevejo, Jose M.; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Most cases of severe influenza are associated with pulmonary complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and no antiviral drugs of proven value for treating such complications are currently available. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the stem of the influenza virus surface hemagglutinin (HA) is a rapidly developing strategy for the control of viruses of multiple HA subtypes. However, the mechanisms of action of these antibodies are not fully understood, and their ability to mitigate severe complications of influenza has been poorly studied. We evaluated the effect of treatment with VIS410, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the HA stem region, on the development of ARDS in BALB/c mice after infection with influenza A(H7N9) viruses. Prophylactic administration of VIS410 resulted in the complete protection of mice against lethal A(H7N9) virus challenge. A single therapeutic dose of VIS410 given 24 h after virus inoculation resulted in dose-dependent protection of up to 100% of mice inoculated with neuraminidase inhibitor-susceptible or -resistant A(H7N9) viruses. Compared to the outcomes in mock-treated controls, a single administration of VIS410 improved viral clearance from the lungs, reduced virus spread in lungs in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a lower lung injury score, reduced the extent of the alteration in lung vascular permeability and protein accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and improved lung physiologic function. Thus, antibodies targeting the HA stem can reduce the severity of ARDS and show promise as agents for controlling pulmonary complications in influenza. PMID:26787699

  8. Efficacy of parainfluenza virus 5 mutants expressing hemagglutinin from H5N1 influenza A virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Gabbard, Jon D; Mooney, Alaina; Chen, Zhenhai; Tompkins, S Mark; He, Biao

    2013-09-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is a promising viral vector for vaccine development. PIV5 is safe, stable, efficacious, cost-effective to produce and, most interestingly, it overcomes preexisting antivector immunity. We have recently reported that PIV5 expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) from highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 (PIV5-H5) provides sterilizing immunity against lethal doses of HPAI H5N1 infection in mice. It is thought that induction of apoptosis can lead to enhanced antigen presentation. Previously, we have shown that deleting the SH gene and the conserved C terminus of the V gene in PIV5 results in mutant viruses (PIV5ΔSH and PIV5VΔC) that enhance induction of apoptosis. In this study, we inserted the HA gene of H5N1 into PIV5ΔSH (PIV5ΔSH-H5) or PIV5VΔC (PIV5VΔC-H5) and compared their efficacies as vaccine candidates to PIV5-H5. We have found that PIV5ΔSH-H5 induced the highest levels of anti-HA antibodies, the strongest T cell responses, and the best protection against an H5N1 lethal challenge in mice. These results suggest that PIV5ΔSH is a better vaccine vector than wild-type PIV5.

  9. Efficacy of Parainfluenza Virus 5 Mutants Expressing Hemagglutinin from H5N1 Influenza A Virus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Gabbard, Jon D.; Mooney, Alaina; Chen, Zhenhai; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is a promising viral vector for vaccine development. PIV5 is safe, stable, efficacious, cost-effective to produce and, most interestingly, it overcomes preexisting antivector immunity. We have recently reported that PIV5 expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) from highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 (PIV5-H5) provides sterilizing immunity against lethal doses of HPAI H5N1 infection in mice. It is thought that induction of apoptosis can lead to enhanced antigen presentation. Previously, we have shown that deleting the SH gene and the conserved C terminus of the V gene in PIV5 results in mutant viruses (PIV5ΔSH and PIV5VΔC) that enhance induction of apoptosis. In this study, we inserted the HA gene of H5N1 into PIV5ΔSH (PIV5ΔSH-H5) or PIV5VΔC (PIV5VΔC-H5) and compared their efficacies as vaccine candidates to PIV5-H5. We have found that PIV5ΔSH-H5 induced the highest levels of anti-HA antibodies, the strongest T cell responses, and the best protection against an H5N1 lethal challenge in mice. These results suggest that PIV5ΔSH is a better vaccine vector than wild-type PIV5. PMID:23804633

  10. Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Basler, Christopher F.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-03-04

    The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza viruses mediates essential viral functions, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, and is the major viral antigen for antibody neutralization. The 1957 H2N2 subtype (Asian flu) was one of the three great influenza pandemics of the last century and caused 1 million deaths globally from 1957 to 1968. Three crystal structures of 1957 H2 HAs have been determined at 1.60 to 1.75 {angstrom} resolutions to investigate the structural basis for their antigenicity and evolution from avian to human binding specificity that contributed to its introduction into the human population. These structures, which represent the highest resolutions yet recorded for a complete ectodomain of a glycosylated viral surface antigen, along with the results of glycan microarray binding analysis, suggest that a hydrophobicity switch at residue 226 and elongation of receptor-binding sites were both critical for avian H2 HA to acquire human receptor specificity. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in birds and pigs and, therefore, remain a substantial threat for transmission to humans. The H2 HA structure also reveals a highly conserved epitope that could be harnessed in the design of a broader and more universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  11. Human CD4+ T-cell repertoire of responses to influenza A virus hemagglutinin after recent natural infection.

    PubMed Central

    Gelder, C M; Welsh, K I; Faith, A; Lamb, J R; Askonas, B A

    1995-01-01

    The human CD4+ T-cell repertoire of responses to hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus A/Beijing/32/92 was examined 3 to 6 months after natural infection by using a panel of 16-mer peptides overlapping by 11 residues. Short-term CD4+ T-cell lines were derived by using full-length HAs of virus A/Beijing/32/92 from 12 unrelated, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II haplotyped adults with a history of influenza in November and December 1993 and from 6 adults with no history of influenza during the preceding 4 years but who responded to HA. In contrast to recent murine studies, the human CD4+ T-cell repertoire of responses was dominated by the recognition of highly conserved epitopes. The HA2 subunit, widely regarded as nonimmunogenic, induced strong responses in every donor. This resulted in functional cross-reactivity among influenza A viruses. Our study included one pair of unrelated donors expressing identical HLA DRB1 and DQB1 alleles and two pairs of donors sharing low-resolution MHC class II types. These pairs responded to identical peptides; furthermore, clearly identifiable patterns of response were seen in donors sharing single class II haplotypes, irrespective of the presence of other alleles and exposure history. Two conserved regions which induced responses in 17 of 18 donors were identified (residues 295 to 328 and 407 to 442). Possible implications for cross-reactive T-cell vaccines are discussed. PMID:7494256

  12. Mechanism of a decrease in potency for the recombinant influenza A virus hemagglutinin H3 antigen during storage.

    PubMed

    Hickey, John M; Holtz, Kathleen M; Manikwar, Prakash; Joshi, Sangeeta B; McPherson, Clifton E; Buckland, Barry; Srivastava, Indresh K; Middaugh, C Russell; Volkin, David B

    2014-03-01

    The recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA)-based influenza vaccine Flublok® has recently been approved in the United States as an alternative to the traditional egg-derived flu vaccines. Flublok is a purified vaccine with a hemagglutinin content that is threefold higher than standard inactivated influenza vaccines. When rHA derived from an H3N2 influenza virus was expressed, purified, and stored for 1 month, a rapid loss of in vitro potency (∼50%) was observed as measured by the single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay. A comprehensive characterization of the rHA protein antigen was pursued to identify the potential causes and mechanisms of this potency loss. In addition, the biophysical and chemical stability of the rHA in different formulations and storage conditions was evaluated over time. Results demonstrate that the potency loss over time did not correlate with trends in changes to the higher order structure or hydrodynamic size of the rHA. The most likely mechanism for the early loss of potency was disulfide-mediated cross-linking of rHA, as the formation of non-native disulfide-linked multimers over time correlated well with the observed potency loss. Furthermore, a loss of free thiol content, particularly in specific cysteine residues in the antigen's C-terminus, was correlated with potency loss measured by SRID.

  13. Human Monoclonal Antibody 81.39a Effectively Neutralizes Emerging Influenza A Viruses of Group 1 and 2 Hemagglutinins

    PubMed Central

    Marjuki, Henju; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Chai, Ning; Tan, Man-Wah; Newton, Elizabeth M.; Tegeris, John; Erlandson, Karl; Willis, Melissa; Jones, Joyce; Davis, Todd; Stevens, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pandemic threat posed by emerging zoonotic influenza A viruses necessitates development of antiviral agents effective against various antigenic subtypes. Human monoclonal antibody (hMAb) targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) stalk offers a promising approach to control influenza virus infections. Here, we investigated the ability of the hMAb 81.39a to inhibit in vitro replication of human and zoonotic viruses, representing 16 HA subtypes. The majority of viruses were effectively neutralized by 81.39a at a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of <0.01 to 4.9 μg/ml. Among group 2 HA viruses tested, a single A(H7N9) virus was not neutralized at 50 μg/ml; it contained HA2-Asp19Gly, an amino acid position previously associated with resistance to neutralization by the group 2 HA-neutralizing MAb CR8020. Notably, among group 1 HA viruses, H11-H13 and H16 subtypes were not neutralized at 50 μg/ml; they shared the substitution HA2-Asp19Asn/Ala. Conversely, H9 viruses harboring HA2-Asp19Ala were fully susceptible to neutralization. Therefore, amino acid variance at HA2-Asp19 has subtype-specific adverse effects on in vitro neutralization. Mice given a single injection (15 or 45 mg/kg of body weight) at 24 or 48 h after infection with recently emerged A(H5N2), A(H5N8), A(H6N1), or A(H7N9) viruses were protected from mortality and showed drastically reduced lung viral titers. Furthermore, 81.39a protected mice infected with A(H7N9) harboring HA2-Asp19Gly, although the antiviral effect was lessened. A(H1N1)pdm09-infected ferrets receiving a single dose (25 mg/kg) had reduced viral titers and showed less lung tissue injury, despite 24- to 72-h-delayed treatment. Taken together, this study provides experimental evidence for the therapeutic potential of 81.39a against diverse influenza A viruses. IMPORTANCE Zoonotic influenza viruses, such as A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) subtypes, have caused severe disease and deaths in humans, raising public health concerns. Development of novel

  14. Amino Acid Substitutions That Affect Receptor Binding and Stability of the Hemagglutinin of Influenza A/H7N9 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Schrauwen, Eefje J. A.; Burke, David F.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Herfst, Sander; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-binding preference and stability of hemagglutinin have been implicated as crucial determinants of airborne transmission of influenza viruses. Here, amino acid substitutions previously identified to affect these traits were tested in the context of an A/H7N9 virus. Some combinations of substitutions, most notably G219S and K58I, resulted in relatively high affinity for α2,6-linked sialic acid receptor and acid and temperature stability. Thus, the hemagglutinin of the A/H7N9 virus may adopt traits associated with airborne transmission. PMID:26792744

  15. Molecular surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds across the United States: inferences from the hemagglutinin gene.

    PubMed

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Shriner, Susan A; VanDalen, Kaci K; Franklin, Alan B; Anderson, Theodore D; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    A United States interagency avian influenza surveillance plan was initiated in 2006 for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) in wild birds. The plan included a variety of wild bird sampling strategies including the testing of fecal samples from aquatic areas throughout the United States from April 2006 through December 2007. Although HPAIV was not detected through this surveillance effort we were able to obtain 759 fecal samples that were positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). We used 136 DNA sequences obtained from these samples along with samples from a public influenza sequence database for a phylogenetic assessment of hemagglutinin (HA) diversity in the United States. We analyzed sequences from all HA subtypes except H5, H7, H14 and H15 to examine genetic variation, exchange between Eurasia and North America, and geographic distribution of LPAIV in wild birds in the United States. This study confirms intercontinental exchange of some HA subtypes (including a newly documented H9 exchange event), as well as identifies subtypes that do not regularly experience intercontinental gene flow but have been circulating and evolving in North America for at least the past 20 years. These HA subtypes have high levels of genetic diversity with many lineages co-circulating within the wild birds of North America. The surveillance effort that provided these samples demonstrates that such efforts, albeit labor-intensive, provide important information about the ecology of LPAIV circulating in North America.

  16. Neuraminidase stalk length and additional glycosylation of the hemagglutinin influence the virulence of influenza H5N1 viruses for mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following passage of avian influenza H5 and H7 viruses in poultry, the hemagglutinin (HA) can acquire additional glycosylation sites and the neuraminidase (NA) stalk becomes shorter. We investigated whether these features play a role in the pathogenesis of infection in mammalian hosts. From 1996 t...

  17. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on specific pathogen free (SPF) birds immunized with 0.2 ...

  18. A computationally optimized broadly reactive H5 hemagglutinin vaccine provides protection against homologous and heterologous H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its emergence in 1996 in China, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has continuously evolved into different genetic clades that have created challenges to maintaining antigenically relevant H5N1 vaccine seeds. Therefore, a universal (multi-hemagglutinin [HA] subtype) or more c...

  19. Sequence amplification via cell passaging creates spurious signals of positive adaptation in influenza virus H3N2 hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    McWhite, Claire D.; Meyer, Austin G.; Wilke, Claus O.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical influenza A virus isolates are frequently not sequenced directly. Instead, a majority of these isolates (~70% in 2015) are first subjected to passaging for amplification, most commonly in non-human cell culture. Here, we find that this passaging leaves distinct signals of adaptation, which can confound evolutionary analyses of the viral sequences. We find distinct patterns of adaptation to Madin-Darby (MDCK) and monkey cell culture absent from unpassaged hemagglutinin sequences. These patterns also dominate pooled datasets not separated by passaging type, and they increase in proportion to the number of passages performed. By contrast, MDCK-SIAT1 passaged sequences seem mostly (but not entirely) free of passaging adaptations. Contrary to previous studies, we find that using only internal branches of influenza virus phylogenetic trees is insufficient to correct for passaging artifacts. These artifacts can only be safely avoided by excluding passaged sequences entirely from subsequent analysis. We conclude that future influenza virus evolutionary analyses should appropriately control for potentially confounding effects of passaging adaptations. PMID:27713835

  20. Amino Acid 316 of Hemagglutinin and the Neuraminidase Stalk Length Influence Virulence of H9N2 Influenza Virus in Chickens and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yipeng; Tan, Yuanyuan; Wei, Kai; Sun, Honglei; Shi, Yi; Pu, Juan; Yang, Hanchun; Gao, George F.; Yin, Yanbo; Feng, Wenhai; Perez, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    H9N2 influenza viruses with an A316S substitution in hemagglutinin (HA) and a shorter neuraminidase (NA) stalk have become predominant in China. The A316S was shown to increase HA cleavage efficiency when combined with short stalk NA, and the short stalk NA improved NA enzyme activity and release of virus from erythrocytes. Single mutations or combinations of these mutations strengthened the virulence of H9N2 virus in chickens and mice. PMID:23269805

  1. Proteinquakes in the Evolution of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin (A/H1N1) under Opposing Migration and Vaccination Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus contains two highly variable envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Here we show that, while HA evolution is much more complex than NA evolution, it still shows abrupt punctuation changes linked to punctuation changes of NA. HA exhibits proteinquakes, which resemble earthquakes and are related to hydropathic shifting of sialic acid binding regions. HA proteinquakes based on shifting sialic acid interactions are required for optimal balance between the receptor-binding and receptor-destroying activities of HA and NA for efficient virus replication. Our comprehensive results present a historical (1945–2011) panorama of HA evolution over thousands of strains and are consistent with many studies of HA and NA interactions based on a few mutations of a few strains. PMID:25654090

  2. Hemagglutinin protein of Asian strains of human influenza virus A H1N1 binds to sialic acid--a major component of human airway receptors.

    PubMed

    Chua, K H; Chai, H C

    2012-03-16

    Hemagglutinin (HA) protein plays an important role in binding the influenza virus to infected cells and therefore mediates infection. Deposited HA sequences of 86 Asian strains of influenza A (H1N1) viruses during the first outbreak were obtained from the NCBI database and compared. Interaction of the HA protein of influenza A (H1N1) virus with the human sialic acid receptor was also studied using bioinformatics. Overall, not more than three single-point amino acid variants/changes were observed in the HA protein region of influenza A (H1N1) virus from Asian countries when a selected group sequence comparison was made. The bioinformatics study showed that the HA protein of influenza A (H1N1) binds to the sialic acid receptor in human airway receptors, possibly key to air-borne infection in humans.

  3. Avian influenza virus with Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase combination H8N8, isolated in Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the genome sequence of an avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H8N8 isolated in Russia. The genome analysis shows that all genes belong to AIV Eurasian lineages. The PB2 gene was similar to a Mongolian low pathogenic (LP) AIV H7N1 and a Chinese high pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N2....

  4. Origin and evolutionary pathways of the H1 hemagglutinin gene of avian, swine and human influenza viruses: cocirculation of two distinct lineages of swine virus.

    PubMed

    Kanegae, Y; Sugita, S; Shortridge, K F; Yoshioka, Y; Nerome, K

    1994-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the HA1 domain of the H1 hemagglutinin genes of A/duck/Hong Kong/36/76, A/duck/Hong Kong/196/77, A/sw/North Ireland/38, A/sw/Cambridge/39 and A/Yamagata/120/86 viruses were determined, and their evolutionary relationships were compared with those of previously sequenced hemagglutinin (H1) genes from avian, swine and human influenza viruses. A pairwise comparison of the nucleotide sequences revealed that the genes can be segregated into three groups, the avian, swine and human virus groups. With the exception of two swine strains isolated in the 1930s, a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology exists within the group. Two phylogenetic trees constructed from the substitutions at the synonymous site and the third codon position showed that the H1 hemagglutinin genes can be divided into three host-specific lineages. Examination of 21 hemagglutinin genes from the human and swine viruses revealed that two distinct lineages are present in the swine population. The swine strains, sw/North Ireland/38 and sw/Cambridge/39, are clearly on the human lineage, suggesting that they originate from a human A/WSN/33-like variant. However, the classic swine strain, sw/Iowa/15/30, and the contemporary human viruses are not direct descendants of the 1918 human pandemic strain, but did diverge from a common ancestral virus around 1905. Furthermore, previous to this the above mammalian viruses diverged from the lineage containing the avian viruses at about 1880.

  5. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...

  6. Heterosubtypic antiviral activity of hemagglutinin-specific antibodies induced by intranasal immunization with inactivated influenza viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Mieko; Yoshida, Reiko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Kimura, Takashi; Manzoor, Rashid; Ito, Kimihito; Takada, Ayato

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus subtypes are classified on the basis of the antigenicity of their envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA; H1-H17) and neuraminidase. Since HA-specific neutralizing antibodies are predominantly specific for a single HA subtype, the contribution of antibodies to the heterosubtypic immunity is not fully understood. In this study, mice were immunized intranasally or subcutaneously with viruses having the H1, H3, H5, H7, H9, or H13 HA subtype, and cross-reactivities of induced IgG and IgA antibodies to recombinant HAs of the H1-H16 subtypes were analyzed. We found that both subcutaneous and intranasal immunizations induced antibody responses to multiple HAs of different subtypes, whereas IgA was not detected remarkably in mice immunized subcutaneously. Using serum, nasal wash, and trachea-lung wash samples of H9 virus-immunized mice, neutralizing activities of cross-reactive antibodies were then evaluated by plaque-reduction assays. As expected, no heterosubtypic neutralizing activity was detected by a standard neutralization test in which viruses were mixed with antibodies prior to inoculation into cultured cells. Interestingly, however, a remarkable reduction of plaque formation and extracellular release of the H12 virus, which was bound by the H9-induced cross-reactive antibodies, was observed when infected cells were subsequently cultured with the samples containing HA-specific cross-reactive IgA. This heterosubtypic plaque reduction was interfered when the samples were pretreated with anti-mouse IgA polyclonal serum. These results suggest that the majority of HA-specific cross-reactive IgG and IgA antibodies produced by immunization do not block cellular entry of viruses, but cross-reactive IgA may have the potential to inhibit viral egress from infected cells and thus to play a role in heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A viruses.

  7. Heterosubtypic Antiviral Activity of Hemagglutinin-Specific Antibodies Induced by Intranasal Immunization with Inactivated Influenza Viruses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Mieko; Yoshida, Reiko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Kimura, Takashi; Manzoor, Rashid; Ito, Kimihito; Takada, Ayato

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus subtypes are classified on the basis of the antigenicity of their envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA; H1–H17) and neuraminidase. Since HA-specific neutralizing antibodies are predominantly specific for a single HA subtype, the contribution of antibodies to the heterosubtypic immunity is not fully understood. In this study, mice were immunized intranasally or subcutaneously with viruses having the H1, H3, H5, H7, H9, or H13 HA subtype, and cross-reactivities of induced IgG and IgA antibodies to recombinant HAs of the H1–H16 subtypes were analyzed. We found that both subcutaneous and intranasal immunizations induced antibody responses to multiple HAs of different subtypes, whereas IgA was not detected remarkably in mice immunized subcutaneously. Using serum, nasal wash, and trachea-lung wash samples of H9 virus-immunized mice, neutralizing activities of cross-reactive antibodies were then evaluated by plaque-reduction assays. As expected, no heterosubtypic neutralizing activity was detected by a standard neutralization test in which viruses were mixed with antibodies prior to inoculation into cultured cells. Interestingly, however, a remarkable reduction of plaque formation and extracellular release of the H12 virus, which was bound by the H9-induced cross-reactive antibodies, was observed when infected cells were subsequently cultured with the samples containing HA-specific cross-reactive IgA. This heterosubtypic plaque reduction was interfered when the samples were pretreated with anti-mouse IgA polyclonal serum. These results suggest that the majority of HA-specific cross-reactive IgG and IgA antibodies produced by immunization do not block cellular entry of viruses, but cross-reactive IgA may have the potential to inhibit viral egress from infected cells and thus to play a role in heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A viruses. PMID:23977065

  8. [Adaptive evolution of the hemagglutinin genes of the H6N1 avian influenza virus in Taiwan, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Ke; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Ping; Gao, Ji-Guang

    2014-09-01

    In Taiwan, the first human-infecting H6N1 avian influenza virus was isolated in 2013. To better understand the origin, evolutionary relationship and pathogenesis of the H6N1 virus, we studied the adaptive evolution and evolutionary dynamics of the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the H6N1 virus in Taiwan. We felt that such studies woud contribute to the further study and control of the virus. Datasets were gained from the Flu and Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) databases. Then, phylogenetic trees and evolutionary dynamics were reconstructed. The evolutionary rate and characterization of adaptive evolution were analyzed by bioinformatic methods. Results indicated that the HA genes of H6N1 in Taiwan were divided into at least five types, and that the new types that the infected human H6N1 belonged to could be local advantage type at present. Evolutionary dynamics revealed the viral population expanded first at the end of 1971, reduced sharply in 2008, and then increased slightly. Three sites were identified under positive selection, suggesting that various sites might increase the adaptive ability of the virus. Eighty-nine sites were under negative selection, revealing that these sites might play an important role in the replication and epidemiology of the virus. Interestingly, site 329 upstream from the cleavage site was also under negative selection, suggesting that this site might be associated with the virulence of H6N1. These data suggest that the HA genes of the Taiwanese H6N1 virus have been undergoing adaptive evolution, and that an outbreak may occur again. Hence, more attention should be paid to the identified sites, to enable timely monitoring and control of a future epidemic.

  9. Structure of coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase offers insight into corona and influenza virus evolution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qinghong; Langereis, Martijn A; van Vliet, Arno L W; Huizinga, Eric G; de Groot, Raoul J

    2008-07-01

    The hemagglutinin-esterases (HEs) are a family of viral envelope glycoproteins that mediate reversible attachment to O-acetylated sialic acids by acting both as lectins and as receptor-destroying enzymes (RDEs). Related HEs occur in influenza C, toro-, and coronaviruses, apparently as a result of relatively recent lateral gene transfer events. Here, we report the crystal structure of a coronavirus (CoV) HE in complex with its receptor. We show that CoV HE arose from an influenza C-like HE fusion protein (HEF). In the process, HE was transformed from a trimer into a dimer, whereas remnants of the fusion domain were adapted to establish novel monomer-monomer contacts. Whereas the structural design of the RDE-acetylesterase domain remained unaltered, the HE receptor-binding domain underwent remodeling to such extent that the ligand is now bound in opposite orientation. This is surprising, because the architecture of the HEF site was preserved in influenza A HA over a much larger evolutionary distance, a switch in receptor specificity and extensive antigenic variation notwithstanding. Apparently, HA and HEF are under more stringent selective constraints than HE, limiting their exploration of alternative binding-site topologies. We attribute the plasticity of the CoV HE receptor-binding site to evolutionary flexibility conferred by functional redundancy between HE and its companion spike protein S. Our findings offer unique insights into the structural and functional consequences of independent protein evolution after interviral gene exchange and open potential avenues to broad-spectrum antiviral drug design.

  10. Design and Characterization of a Computationally Optimized Broadly Reactive Hemagglutinin Vaccine for H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Donald M.; Darby, Christopher A.; Lefoley, Bradford C.; Crevar, Corey J.; Alefantis, Timothy; Oomen, Raymond; Anderson, Stephen F.; Strugnell, Tod; Cortés-Garcia, Guadalupe; Vogel, Thorsten U.; Parrington, Mark; Kleanthous, Harold

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the challenges of developing influenza A vaccines is the diversity of antigenically distinct isolates. Previously, a novel hemagglutinin (HA) for H5N1 influenza was derived from a methodology termed computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA). This COBRA HA elicited a broad antibody response against H5N1 isolates from different clades. We now report the development and characterization of a COBRA-based vaccine for both seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus isolates. Nine prototype H1N1 COBRA HA proteins were developed and tested in mice using a virus-like particle (VLP) format for the elicitation of broadly reactive, functional antibody responses and protection against viral challenge. These candidates were designed to recognize H1N1 viruses isolated within the last 30 years. In addition, several COBRA candidates were designed based on sequences of H1N1 viruses spanning the past 100 years, including modern pandemic H1N1 isolates. Four of the 9 H1N1 COBRA HA proteins (X1, X3, X6, and P1) had the broadest hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) activity against a panel of 17 H1N1 viruses. These vaccines were used in cocktails or prime-boost combinations. The most effective regimens that both elicited the broadest HAI response and protected mice against a pandemic H1N1 challenge were vaccines that contained the P1 COBRA VLP and either the X3 or X6 COBRA VLP vaccine. These mice had little or no detectable viral replication, comparable to that observed with a matched licensed vaccine. This is the first report describing a COBRA-based HA vaccine strategy that elicits a universal, broadly reactive, protective response against seasonal and pandemic H1N1 isolates. IMPORTANCE Universal influenza vaccine approaches have the potential to be paradigm shifting for the influenza vaccine field, with the goal of replacing the current standard of care with broadly cross-protective vaccines. We have used COBRA technology to develop an HA head

  11. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase containing virus-like particles produced in HEK-293 suspension culture: An effective influenza vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Venereo-Sanchez, Alina; Gilbert, Renald; Simoneau, Melanie; Caron, Antoine; Chahal, Parminder; Chen, Wangxue; Ansorge, Sven; Li, Xuguang; Henry, Olivier; Kamen, Amine

    2016-06-17

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) constitute a promising alternative as influenza vaccine. They are non-replicative particles that mimic the morphology of native viruses which make them more immunogenic than classical subunit vaccines. In this study, we propose HEK-293 cells in suspension culture in serum-free medium as an efficient platform to produce large quantities of VLPs. For this purpose, a stable cell line expressing the main influenza viral antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) (subtype H1N1) under the regulation of a cumate inducible promoter was developed (293HA-NA cells). The production of VLPs was evaluated by transient transfection of plasmids encoding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag or M1 influenza matrix protein. To facilitate the monitoring of VLPs production, Gag was fused to the green fluorescence protein (GFP). The transient transfection of the gag containing plasmid in 293HA-NA cells increased the release of HA and NA seven times more than its counterpart transfected with the M1 encoding plasmid. Consequently, the production of HA-NA containing VLPs using Gag as scaffold was evaluated in a 3-L controlled stirred tank bioreactor. The VLPs secreted in the culture medium were recovered by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose cushion and ultrafiltered by tangential flow filtration. Transmission electron micrographs of final sample revealed the presence of particles with the average typical size (150-200nm) and morphology of HIV-1 immature particles. The concentration of the influenza glycoproteins on the Gag-VLPs was estimated by single radial immunodiffusion and hemagglutination assay for HA and by Dot-Blot for HA and NA. More significantly, intranasal immunization of mice with influenza Gag-VLPs induced strong antigen-specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses and provided full protection against a lethal intranasal challenge with the homologous virus strain. These data suggest that, with further optimization and characterization

  12. Composition of the Hemagglutinin Polybasic Proteolytic Cleavage Motif Mediates Variable Virulence of H7N7 Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwhab, E. M.; Veits, Jutta; Ulrich, Reiner; Kasbohm, Elisa; Teifke, Jens P.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of a polybasic cleavage site (pCS) in the hemagglutinin (HA) is a prerequisite for the shift of low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza virus (AIV) to the highly pathogenic (HP) form in chickens. Whereas presence of a pCS is required for high pathogenicity, less is known about the effect of composition of pCS on virulence of AIV particularly H7N7. Here, we investigated the virulence of four avian H7N7 viruses after insertion of different naturally occurring pCS from two HPAIV H7N7 (designated pCSGE and pCSUK) or from H7N1 (pCSIT). In vitro, the different pCS motifs modulated viral replication and the HA cleavability independent on the HA background. However, in vivo, the level of virulence conferred by the different pCS varied significantly. Within the respective viral backgrounds viruses with pCSIT and pCSGE were more virulent than those coding for pCSUK. The latter showed also the most restricted spread in inoculated birds. Besides the pCS, other gene segments modulated virulence of these H7N7 viruses. Together, the specific composition of the pCS significantly influences virulence of H7N7 viruses. Eurasian LPAIV H7N7 may shift to high pathogenicity after acquisition of “specific” pCS motifs and/or other gene segments from HPAIV. PMID:28004772

  13. Characterization of an H4N2 influenza virus from Quails with a multibasic motif in the hemagglutinin cleavage site.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sook-San; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Zanin, Mark; Song, Min-Suk; Oshansky, Christine; Zaraket, Hassan; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Rubrum, Adam; Seiler, Patrick; Ferguson, Angela; Krauss, Scott; Cardona, Carol; Webby, Richard J; Crossley, Beate

    2014-11-01

    The cleavage motif in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 subtypes of avian influenza viruses is characterized by a peptide insertion or a multibasic cleavage site (MBCS). Here, we isolated an H4N2 virus from quails (Quail/CA12) with two additional arginines in the HA cleavage site, PEKRRTR/G, forming an MBCS-like motif. Quail/CA12 is a reassortant virus with the HA and neuraminidase (NA) gene most similar to a duck-isolated H4N2 virus, PD/CA06 with a monobasic HA cleavage site. Quail/CA12 required exogenous trypsin for efficient growth in culture and caused no clinical illness in infected chickens. Quail/CA12 had high binding preference for α2,6-linked sialic acids and showed higher replication and transmission ability in chickens and quails than PD/CA06. Although the H4N2 virus remained low pathogenic, these data suggests that the acquisition of MBCS in the field is not restricted to H5 or H7 subtypes.

  14. Development of influenza A(H7N9) candidate vaccine viruses with improved hemagglutinin antigen yield in eggs

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, Callie; Johnson, Adam; Winne, Emily; Hossain, Jaber; Mateu-Petit, Guaniri; Balish, Amanda; Santana, Wanda; Kim, Taejoong; Davis, Charles; Cox, Nancy J; Barr, John R; Donis, Ruben O; Villanueva, Julie; Williams, Tracie L; Chen, Li-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Background The emergence of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in poultry causing zoonotic human infections was reported on March 31, 2013. Development of A(H7N9) candidate vaccine viruses (CVV) for pandemic preparedness purposes was initiated without delay. Candidate vaccine viruses were derived by reverse genetics using the internal genes of A/Puerto/Rico/8/34 (PR8). The resulting A(H7N9) CVVs needed improvement because they had titers and antigen yields that were suboptimal for vaccine manufacturing in eggs, especially in a pandemic situation. Methods Two CVVs derived by reverse genetics were serially passaged in embryonated eggs to improve the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen yield. The total viral protein and HA antigen yields of six egg-passaged CVVs were determined by the BCA assay and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) analysis, respectively. CVVs were antigenically characterized by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays with ferret antisera. Results Improvement of total viral protein yield was observed for the six egg-passaged CVVs; HA quantification by IDMS indicated approximately a twofold increase in yield of several egg-passaged viruses as compared to that of the parental CVV. Several different amino acid substitutions were identified in the HA of all viruses after serial passage. However, HI tests indicated that the antigenic properties of two CVVs remained unchanged. Conclusions If influenza A(H7N9) viruses were to acquire sustained human-to-human transmissibility, the improved HA yield of the egg-passaged CVVs generated in this study could expedite vaccine manufacturing for pandemic mitigation. PMID:25962412

  15. Intranasal vaccination with H5, H7 and H9 hemagglutinins co-localized in a virus-like particle protects ferrets from multiple avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Tretyakova, Irina; Pearce, Melissa B; Florese, Ruth; Tumpey, Terrence M; Pushko, Peter

    2013-07-20

    Avian influenza H5, H7 and H9 viruses top the World Health Organization's (WHO) list of subtypes with the greatest pandemic potential. Here we describe a recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) that co-localizes hemagglutinin (HA) proteins derived from H5N1, H7N2, and H9N2 viruses as an experimental vaccine against these viruses. A baculovirus vector was configured to co-express the H5, H7, and H9 genes from A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1), A/New York/107/2003 (H7N2) and A/Hong Kong/33982/2009 (H9N2) viruses, respectively, as well as neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (M1) genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus. Co-expression of these genes in Sf9 cells resulted in production of triple-subtype VLPs containing HA molecules derived from the three influenza viruses. The triple-subtype VLPs exhibited hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities and morphologically resembled influenza virions. Intranasal vaccination of ferrets with the VLPs resulted in induction of serum antibody responses and efficient protection against experimental challenges with H5N1, H7N2, and H9N2 viruses.

  16. Accumulation of amino acid substitutions promotes irreversible structural changes in the hemagglutinin of human influenza AH3 virus during evolution.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Katsuhisa; Nobusawa, Eri; Nagy, Alexander; Nakajima, Setsuko

    2005-05-01

    In order to clarify the effect of an accumulation of amino acid substitutions on the hemadsorption character of the influenza AH3 virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein, we introduced single-point amino acid changes into the HA1 domain of the HA proteins of influenza viruses isolated in 1968 (A/Aichi/2/68) and 1997 (A/Sydney/5/97) by using PCR-based random mutation or site-directed mutagenesis. These substitutions were classified as positive or negative according to their effects on the hemadsorption activity. The rate of positive substitutions was about 50% for both strains. Of 44 amino acid changes that were identical in the two strains with regard to both the substituted amino acids and their positions in the HA1 domain, 22% of the changes that were positive in A/Aichi/2/68 were negative in A/Sydney/5/97 and 27% of the changes that were negative in A/Aichi/2/68 were positive in A/Sydney/5/97. A similar discordance rate was also seen for the antigenic sites. These results suggest that the accumulation of amino acid substitutions in the HA protein during evolution promoted irreversible structural changes and therefore that antigenic changes in the H3HA protein may not be limited.

  17. An Open Receptor-Binding Cavity of Hemagglutinin-Esterase-Fusion Glycoprotein from Newly-Identified Influenza D Virus: Basis for Its Broad Cell Tropism.

    PubMed

    Song, Hao; Qi, Jianxun; Khedri, Zahra; Diaz, Sandra; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause seasonal flu each year and pandemics or epidemic sporadically, posing a major threat to public health. Recently, a new influenza D virus (IDV) was isolated from pigs and cattle. Here, we reveal that the IDV utilizes 9-O-acetylated sialic acids as its receptor for virus entry. Then, we determined the crystal structures of hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein (HEF) of IDV both in its free form and in complex with the receptor and enzymatic substrate analogs. The IDV HEF shows an extremely similar structural fold as the human-infecting influenza C virus (ICV) HEF. However, IDV HEF has an open receptor-binding cavity to accommodate diverse extended glycan moieties. This structural difference provides an explanation for the phenomenon that the IDV has a broad cell tropism. As IDV HEF is structurally and functionally similar to ICV HEF, our findings highlight the potential threat of the virus to public health.

  18. An Open Receptor-Binding Cavity of Hemagglutinin-Esterase-Fusion Glycoprotein from Newly-Identified Influenza D Virus: Basis for Its Broad Cell Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hao; Qi, Jianxun; Khedri, Zahra; Diaz, Sandra; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause seasonal flu each year and pandemics or epidemic sporadically, posing a major threat to public health. Recently, a new influenza D virus (IDV) was isolated from pigs and cattle. Here, we reveal that the IDV utilizes 9-O-acetylated sialic acids as its receptor for virus entry. Then, we determined the crystal structures of hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein (HEF) of IDV both in its free form and in complex with the receptor and enzymatic substrate analogs. The IDV HEF shows an extremely similar structural fold as the human-infecting influenza C virus (ICV) HEF. However, IDV HEF has an open receptor-binding cavity to accommodate diverse extended glycan moieties. This structural difference provides an explanation for the phenomenon that the IDV has a broad cell tropism. As IDV HEF is structurally and functionally similar to ICV HEF, our findings highlight the potential threat of the virus to public health. PMID:26816272

  19. Differential Biphasic Transcriptional Host Response Associated with Coevolution of Hemagglutinin Quasispecies of Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Himanshu; Seidel, Nora; Blaess, Markus F.; Claus, Ralf A.; Linde, Joerg; Slevogt, Hortense; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Guthke, Reinhard; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Severe influenza associated with strong symptoms and lung inflammation can be caused by intra-host evolution of quasispecies with aspartic acid or glycine in hemagglutinin position 222 (HA-222D/G; H1 numbering). To gain insights into the dynamics of host response to this coevolution and to identify key mechanisms contributing to copathogenesis, the lung transcriptional response of BALB/c mice infected with an A(H1N1)pdm09 isolate consisting HA-222D/G quasispecies was analyzed from days 1 to 12 post infection (p.i). At day 2 p.i. 968 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. The DEG number declined to 359 at day 4 and reached 1001 at day 7 p.i. prior to recovery. Interestingly, a biphasic expression profile was shown for the majority of these genes. Cytokine assays confirmed these results on protein level exemplarily for two key inflammatory cytokines, interferon gamma and interleukin 6. Using a reverse engineering strategy, a regulatory network was inferred to hypothetically explain the biphasic pattern for selected DEGs. Known regulatory interactions were extracted by Pathway Studio 9.0 and integrated during network inference. The hypothetic gene regulatory network revealed a positive feedback loop of Ifng, Stat1, and Tlr3 gene signaling that was triggered by the HA-G222 variant and correlated with a clinical symptom score indicating disease severity. PMID:27536272

  20. The hemagglutinin protein of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses overcomes an early block in the replication cycle to promote productive replication in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cline, Troy D; Karlsson, Erik A; Seufzer, Bradley J; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are known to be one of the first lines of defense against influenza virus infection. However, they may also contribute to severe disease caused by the highly pathogenic avian (HPAI) H5N1 influenza viruses. One reason for this may be the ability of certain influenza virus strains to productively replicate in macrophages. However, studies investigating the productive replication of influenza viruses in macrophages have been contradictory, and the results may depend on both the type of macrophages used and the specific viral strain. In this work, we investigated the ability of H1 to H16 viruses to productively replicate in primary murine alveolar macrophages and RAW264.7 macrophages. We show that only a subset of HPAI H5N1 viruses, those that cause high morbidity and mortality in mammals, can productively replicate in macrophages, as measured by the release of newly synthesized virus particles into the cell supernatant. Mechanistically, we found that these H5 strains can overcome a block early in the viral life cycle leading to efficient nuclear entry, viral transcription, translation, and ultimately replication. Studies with reassortant viruses demonstrated that expression of the hemagglutinin gene from an H5N1 virus rescued replication of H1N1 influenza virus in macrophages. This study is the first to characterize H5N1 influenza viruses as the only subtype of influenza virus capable of productive replication in macrophages and establishes the viral gene that is required for this characteristic. The ability to productively replicate in macrophages is unique to H5N1 influenza viruses and may contribute to their increased pathogenesis.

  1. Evidence for N-glycan shielding of antigenic sites during evolution of human influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    2012-04-01

    After the emergence of influenza A viruses in the human population, the number of N-glycosylation sites (NGS) in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA) has increased continuously for several decades. It has been speculated that the addition of NGS to the globular head region of HA has conferred selective advantages to the virus by preventing the binding of antibodies (Ab) to antigenic sites (AS). Here, the effect of N-glycosylation on the binding of Ab to AS in human influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) was examined by inferring natural selection at AS and other sites (NAS) that are located close to and distantly from the NGS in the three-dimensional structure of HA through a comparison of the rates of synonymous (d(S)) and nonsynonymous (d(N)) substitutions. When positions 63, 122, 126, 133, 144, and 246 in the globular head region of HA were non-NGS, the d(N)/d(S) was >1 and positive selection was detected at the AS located near these positions. However, the d(N)/d(S) value decreased and the evidence of positive selection disappeared when these positions became NGS. In contrast, d(N)/d(S) at the AS distantly located from the positions mentioned above and at the NAS of any location were generally <1 and did not decrease when these positions changed from non-NGS to NGS. These results suggest that the attachment of N-glycans to the NGS in the globular head region of HA prevented the binding of Ab to AS in the evolutionary history of human A/H3N2 virus.

  2. Alternative Recognition of the Conserved Stem Epitope in Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin by a VH3-30-Encoded Heterosubtypic Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Wyrzucki, Arkadiusz; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Kohler, Ines; Steck, Marco

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A human monoclonal heterosubtypic antibody, MAb 3.1, with its heavy chain encoded by VH3-30, was isolated using phage display with immobilized hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza virus A/Japan/305/1957(H2N2) as the target. Antibody 3.1 potently neutralizes influenza viruses from the H1a clade (i.e., H1, H2, H5, H6) but has little neutralizing activity against the H1b clade. Its crystal structure in complex with HA from a pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, A/South Carolina/1/1918(H1N1), revealed that like other heterosubtypic anti-influenza virus antibodies, MAb 3.1 contacts a hydrophobic groove in the HA stem, primarily using its heavy chain. However, in contrast to the closely related monoclonal antibody (Mab) FI6 that relies heavily on HCDR3 for binding, MAb 3.1 utilizes residues from HCDR1, HCDR3, and framework region 3 (FR3). Interestingly, HCDR1 of MAb 3.1 adopts an α-helical conformation and engages in hydrophobic interactions with the HA very similar to those of the de novo in silico-designed and affinity-matured synthetic protein HB36.3. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular requirements for binding to the conserved epitope in the stem of the HA protein and, therefore, aid the development of more universal influenza vaccines targeting these epitopes. IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses rapidly evade preexisting immunity by constantly altering the immunodominant neutralizing antibody epitopes (antigenic drift) or by acquiring new envelope serotypes (antigenic shift). As a consequence, the majority of antibodies elicited by immunization or infection protect only against the immunizing or closely related strains. Here, we describe a novel monoclonal antibody that recognizes the conserved heterosubtypic epitope in the stem of influenza A virus hemagglutinin. This antibody, referred to as MAb 3.1, recognizes its epitope in a manner that resembles recognition of a similar epitope by the de novo in silico-designed and affinity-matured synthetic

  3. The Proteolytic Activation of (H3N2) Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Is Facilitated by Different Type II Transmembrane Serine Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Nora; Bergmann, Silke; Kösterke, Nadine; Lambertz, Ruth L. O.; Keppner, Anna; van den Brand, Judith M. A.; Weiß, Siegfried; Hummler, Edith; Hatesuer, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleavage of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) by host cell proteases is necessary for viral activation and infectivity. In humans and mice, members of the type II transmembrane protease family (TTSP), e.g., TMPRSS2, TMPRSS4, and TMPRSS11d (HAT), have been shown to cleave influenza virus HA for viral activation and infectivity in vitro. Recently, we reported that inactivation of a single HA-activating protease gene, Tmprss2, in knockout mice inhibits the spread of H1N1 influenza viruses. However, after infection of Tmprss2 knockout mice with an H3N2 influenza virus, only a slight increase in survival was observed, and mice still lost body weight. In this study, we investigated an additional trypsin-like protease, TMPRSS4. Both TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 are expressed in the same cell types of the mouse lung. Deletion of Tmprss4 alone in knockout mice does not protect them from body weight loss and death upon infection with H3N2 influenza virus. In contrast, Tmprss2−/− Tmprss4−/− double-knockout mice showed a remarkably reduced virus spread and lung pathology, in addition to reduced body weight loss and mortality. Thus, our results identified TMPRSS4 as a second host cell protease that, in addition to TMPRSS2, is able to activate the HA of H3N2 influenza virus in vivo. IMPORTANCE Influenza epidemics and recurring pandemics are responsible for significant global morbidity and mortality. Due to high variability of the virus genome, resistance to available antiviral drugs is frequently observed, and new targets for treatment of influenza are needed. Host cell factors essential for processing of the virus hemagglutinin represent very suitable drug targets because the virus is dependent on these host factors for replication. We reported previously that Tmprss2-deficient mice are protected against H1N1 virus infections, but only marginal protection against H3N2 virus infections was observed. Here we show that deletion of two host protease genes, Tmprss2 and

  4. Computational approach for predicting the conserved B-cell epitopes of hemagglutinin H7 subtype influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangyu; Sun, Qi; Ye, Zhonghua; Hua, Ying; Shao, Na; Du, Yanli; Zhang, Qiwei; Wan, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    An avian-origin influenza H7N9 virus epidemic occurred in China in 2013–2014, in which >422 infected people suffered from pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. H7N9 viruses belong to the H7 subtype of avian-origin influenza viruses (AIV-H7). Hemagglutinin (HA) is a vital membrane protein of AIV that has an important role in host recognition and infection. The epitopes of HA are significant determinants of the regularity of epidemic and viral mutation and recombination mechanisms. The present study aimed to predict the conserved B-cell epitopes of AIV-H7 HA using a bioinformatics approach, including the three most effective epitope prediction softwares available online: Artificial Neural Network based B-cell Epitope Prediction (ABCpred), B-cell Epitope Prediction (BepiPred) and Linear B-cell Epitope Prediction (LBtope). A total of 24 strains of Euro-Asiatic AIV-H7 that had been associated with a serious poultry pandemic or had infected humans in the past 30 years were selected to identify the conserved regions of HA. Sequences were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data databases. Using a combination of software prediction and sequence comparisons, the conserved epitopes of AIV-H7 were predicted and clarified. A total of five conserved epitopes [amino acids (aa) 37–52, 131–142, 215–234, 465–484 and 487–505] with a suitable length, high antigenicity and minimal variation were predicted and confirmed. Each obtained a score of >0.80 in ABCpred, 60% in LBtope and a level of 0.35 in Bepipred. In addition, a representative amino acid change (glutamine235-to-leucine235) in the HA protein of the 2013 AIV-H7N9 was discovered. The strategy adopted in the present study may have profound implications on the rapid diagnosis and control of infectious disease caused by H7N9 viruses, as well as by other virulent viruses, such as the Ebola virus. PMID:27703505

  5. A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the hemagglutinin globular head of H1 and H9 influenza A viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Panthong, Sumolrat; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Phuygun, Siripaporn; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Prachasupap, Apichai; Yasugi, Mayo; Ono, Ken-ichiro; and others

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • A human monoclonal antibody against influenza virus was produced from a volunteer. • The antibody was generated from the PBMCs of the volunteer using the fusion method. • The antibody neutralized heterosubtypically group 1 influenza A viruses (H1 and H9). • The antibody targeted a novel epitope in globular head region of the hemagglutinin. • Sequences of the identified epitope are highly conserved among H1 and H9 subtypes. - Abstract: Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses.

  6. Hemagglutinin glycosylation modulates the pathogenicity and antigenicity of the H5N1 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Sujuan; Jiang, Yi; Huang, Kai; Huang, Jun; Yang, Da; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhu, Yinbiao; Shi, Shaohua; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2015-02-25

    The location and number of glycosylation in HA proteins exhibit large variations among H5 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs). To investigate the effect of glycosylation in the globular head of HA on the pathogenicity and antigenicity of H5N1 AIVs, seven rescued AIVs differing in their glycosylation patterns (144N, 158N and 169N) within the HA globular head of A/Mallard/Huadong/S/2005 were generated using site directed mutagenesis. Results showed that loss of glycosylation 158N was the prerequisite for H5 AIV binding to the α2,6-linked receptor. Only in conjunction with the removal of the 158N glycosylation, the H5 AIVs harboring both 144N and 169N glycosylations obtained an optimal binding preference to the α2,6-linked receptor. Compared with the wild-type virus, growth of viruses lacking glycosylation at either 158N or 169N was significantly reduced both in MDCK and A549 cells, while replication of viruses with additional glycosylation 144N was significantly promoted. Mutant viruses with loss of 158N or 169N glycosylation sites showed increased pathogenicity, systemic spread and pulmonary inflammation in mice compared to the wild-type H5N1 virus. In addition, chicken studies demonstrated that inactivated de-glycosylation 169N mutant induced cross-reaction HI and neutralization antibody against various clades of H5N1 AIVs. Moreover, this type of glycan pattern vaccine virus provided better cross-protection in chickens compared to wild-type vaccine virus. Thus, the glycosylation alteration of HA should be considered in the global surveillance and vaccine design of H5 subtype AIVs.

  7. 1918 Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and the viral RNA polymerase complex enhance viral pathogenicity, but only HA induces aberrant host responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Watanabe, Shinji; Benecke, Arndt G; Katze, Michael G; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-05-01

    The 1918 pandemic influenza virus was the most devastating infectious agent in human history, causing fatal pneumonia and an estimated 20 to 50 million deaths worldwide. Previous studies indicated a prominent role of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene in efficient replication and high virulence of the 1918 virus in mice. It is, however, still unclear whether the high replication ability or the 1918 influenza virus HA gene is required for 1918 virus to exhibit high virulence in mice. Here, we examined the biological properties of reassortant viruses between the 1918 virus and a contemporary human H1N1 virus (A/Kawasaki/173/2001 [K173]) in a mouse model. In addition to the 1918 influenza virus HA, we demonstrated the role of the viral RNA replication complex in efficient replication of viruses in mouse lungs, whereas only the HA gene is responsible for lethality in mice. Global gene expression profiling of infected mouse lungs revealed that the 1918 influenza virus HA was sufficient to induce transcriptional changes similar to those induced by the 1918 virus, despite difference in lymphocyte gene expression. Increased expression of genes associated with the acute-phase response and the protein ubiquitination pathway were enriched during infections with the 1918 and 1918HA/K173 viruses, whereas reassortant viruses bearing the 1918 viral RNA polymerase complex induced transcriptional changes similar to those seen with the K173 virus. Taken together, these data suggest that HA and the viral RNA polymerase complex are critical determinants of Spanish influenza pathogenesis, but only HA, and not the viral RNA polymerase complex and NP, is responsible for extreme host responses observed in mice infected with the 1918 influenza virus.

  8. H1N1 influenza viruses varying widely in hemagglutinin stability transmit efficiently from swine to swine and to ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guohua; Marinova-Petkova, Atanaska; Kaplan, Bryan S.; Webby, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5.1 to 5.9 for H1 viruses and pH 5.3 to 5.8 for H3 viruses. Thus, contemporary swine isolates vary widely in HA stability, having values favored by both avian (pH >5.5) and human and ferret (pH ≤5.5) species. Using an early 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus backbone, we generated three viruses differing by one HA residue that only altered HA stability: WT (pH 5.5), HA1-Y17H (pH 6.0), and HA2-R106K (pH 5.3). All three replicated in pigs and transmitted from pig-to-pig and pig-to-ferret. WT and R106 viruses maintained HA genotype and phenotype after transmission. Y17H (pH 6.0) acquired HA mutations that stabilized the HA protein to pH 5.8 after transmission to pigs and 5.5 after transmission to ferrets. Overall, we found swine support a broad range of HA activation pH for contact transmission and many recent swine H1N1 and H3N2 isolates have stabilized (human-like) HA proteins. This constitutes a heightened pandemic risk and underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts for swine viruses. PMID:28282440

  9. Analyses of Evolutionary Characteristics of the Hemagglutinin-Esterase Gene of Influenza C Virus during a Period of 68 Years Reveals Evolutionary Patterns Different from Influenza A and B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Furuse, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Infections with the influenza C virus causing respiratory symptoms are common, particularly among children. Since isolation and detection of the virus are rarely performed, compared with influenza A and B viruses, the small number of available sequences of the virus makes it difficult to analyze its evolutionary dynamics. Recently, we reported the full genome sequence of 102 strains of the virus. Here, we exploited the data to elucidate the evolutionary characteristics and phylodynamics of the virus compared with influenza A and B viruses. Along with our data, we obtained public sequence data of the hemagglutinin-esterase gene of the virus; the dataset consists of 218 unique sequences of the virus collected from 14 countries between 1947 and 2014. Informatics analyses revealed that (1) multiple lineages have been circulating globally; (2) there have been weak and infrequent selective bottlenecks; (3) the evolutionary rate is low because of weak positive selection and a low capability to induce mutations; and (4) there is no significant positive selection although a few mutations affecting its antigenicity have been induced. The unique evolutionary dynamics of the influenza C virus must be shaped by multiple factors, including virological, immunological, and epidemiological characteristics. PMID:27898037

  10. Analyses of Evolutionary Characteristics of the Hemagglutinin-Esterase Gene of Influenza C Virus during a Period of 68 Years Reveals Evolutionary Patterns Different from Influenza A and B Viruses.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-11-26

    Infections with the influenza C virus causing respiratory symptoms are common, particularly among children. Since isolation and detection of the virus are rarely performed, compared with influenza A and B viruses, the small number of available sequences of the virus makes it difficult to analyze its evolutionary dynamics. Recently, we reported the full genome sequence of 102 strains of the virus. Here, we exploited the data to elucidate the evolutionary characteristics and phylodynamics of the virus compared with influenza A and B viruses. Along with our data, we obtained public sequence data of the hemagglutinin-esterase gene of the virus; the dataset consists of 218 unique sequences of the virus collected from 14 countries between 1947 and 2014. Informatics analyses revealed that (1) multiple lineages have been circulating globally; (2) there have been weak and infrequent selective bottlenecks; (3) the evolutionary rate is low because of weak positive selection and a low capability to induce mutations; and (4) there is no significant positive selection although a few mutations affecting its antigenicity have been induced. The unique evolutionary dynamics of the influenza C virus must be shaped by multiple factors, including virological, immunological, and epidemiological characteristics.

  11. Construction of a recombinant duck enteritis virus vaccine expressing hemagglutinin of H9N2 avian influenza virus and evaluation of its efficacy in ducks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Yang, Chenghuai; Li, Junping; Li, Ling; Cao, Minghui; Li, Qihong; Li, Huijiao

    2017-01-01

    H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) remain a significant burden in the poultry industry and are considered to be one of the most likely causes of any new influenza pandemic in humans. As ducks play an important role in the maintenance of H9 viruses in nature, successful control of the spread of H9 AIVs in ducks will have significant beneficial effects on public health. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) may be a promising candidate viral vector for aquatic poultry vaccination. In this study, we constructed a recombinant DEV, rDEV-∆UL2-HA, inserting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from duck-origin H9N2 AIV into the UL2 gene by homologous recombination. One-step growth analyses showed that the HA gene insertion had no effect on viral replication and suggested that the UL2 gene was nonessential for virus growth in vitro. In vivo tests further showed that the insertion of the HA gene in place of the UL2 gene did not affect the immunogenicity of the virus. Moreover, a single dose of 10(3) TCID50 of rDEV-∆UL2-HA induced solid protection against lethal DEV challenge and completely prevented H9N2 AIV viral shedding. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a DEV-vectored vaccine providing robust protection against both DEV and H9N2 AIV virus infections in ducks.

  12. [Detection of conservative and variable epitopes of the pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin using monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Masalova, O V; Chichev, E V; Fediakina, I T; Mukasheva, E A; Klimova, R R; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Burtseva, E I; Ivanova, V T; Kushch, A A; L'vov, D K

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze the antigenic structure of the hemagglutinin (HA) of the pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and to develop a sandwich ELISA for identification of pandemic strains. Competitive ELISA demonstrated that 6 MAbs against HA of the pandemic influenza A/ IIV-Moscow/01/2009 (H1N1)pdm09 virus identified six epitopes. Binding of MAbs with 22 strains circulating in Russian Federation during 2009-2012 was analyzed in the hemagglutination-inhibition test (HI). The MAbs differed considerably in their ability to decrease the HI activity of these strains. MAb 5F7 identified all examined strains; MAbs 3A3 and 10G2 reacted with the majority of them. A highly sensitive sandwich ELISA was constructed based on these three MAbs that can differentiate the pandemic influenza strains from the seasonal influenza virus. The constancy of the HA epitope that reacts with MAb 5F7 provides its use for identification of the pandemic influenza strains in HI test. MAbs 3D9, 6A3 and 1E7 are directed against the variable HA epitopes, being sensitive to several amino acid changes in Sa, Sb, and Ca2 antigenic sites and in receptor binding site. These MAbs can be used to detect differences in HA structure and to study the antigenic drift of the pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09.

  13. Evolution of human receptor binding affinity of H1N1 hemagglutinins from 1918 to 2009 pandemic influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Nunthaboot, Nadtanet; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Malaisree, Maturos; Kaiyawet, Nopporn; Decha, Panita; Sompornpisut, Pornthep; Poovorawan, Yong; Hannongbua, Supot

    2010-08-23

    The recent outbreak of the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza in humans has focused global attention on this virus, which could potentially have introduced a more dangerous pandemic of influenza flu. In the initial step of the viral attachment, hemagglutinin (HA), a viral glycoprotein surface, is responsible for the binding to the human SIA alpha2,6-linked sialopentasaccharide host cell receptor (hHAR). Dynamical and structural properties, based on molecular dynamics simulations of the four different HAs of Spanish 1918 (H1-1918), swine 1930 (H1-1930), seasonal 2005 (H1-2005), and a novel 2009 (H1-2009) H1N1 bound to the hHAR were compared. In all four HA-hHAR complexes, major interactions with the receptor binding were gained from HA residue Y95 and the conserved HA residues of the 130-loop, 190-helix, and 220-loop. However, introduction of the charged HA residues K145 and E227 in the 2009 HA binding pocket was found to increase the HA-hHAR binding efficiency in comparison to the three previously recognized H1N1 strains. Changing of the noncharged HA G225 residue to a negatively charged D225 provides a larger number of hydrogen-bonding interactions. The increase in hydrophilicity of the receptor binding region is apparently an evolution of the current pandemic flu from the 1918 Spanish, 1930 swine, and 2005 seasonal strains. Detailed analysis could help the understanding of how different HAs effectively attach and bind with the hHAR.

  14. Lateral distribution of the transmembrane domain of influenza virus hemagglutinin revealed by time-resolved fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Silvia; Engel, Stephanie; Krebs, Nils; Plazzo, Anna Pia; De Almeida, Rodrigo F M; Prieto, Manuel; Veit, Michael; Herrmann, Andreas

    2009-06-05

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) has been suggested to be enriched in liquid-ordered lipid domains named rafts, which represent an important step in virus assembly. We employed Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) via fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to study the interaction of the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domain (TMD) of HA with agly co sylphos pha tidyl ino si tol (GPI)-anchored peptide, an established marker for rafts in the exoplasmic leaflet of living mammalian plasma membranes. Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was fused to GPI, whereas the HA sequence was tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) on its exoplasmic site (TMD-HA-YFP), avoiding any interference of fluorescent proteins with the proposed role of the cytoplasmic domain in lateral organization of HA. Constructs were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) for which cholesterol-sensitive lipid nanodomains and their dimension in the plasma membrane have been described (Sharma, P., Varma, R., Sarasij, R. C., Ira, Gousset, K., Krishnamoorthy, G., Rao, M., and Mayor, S. (2004) Cell 116, 577-589). Upon transfection in CHO-K1 cells, TMD-HA-YFP is partially expressed as a dimer. Only dimers are targeted to the plasma membrane. Clustering of TMD-HA-YFP with GPI-CFP was observed and shown to be reduced upon cholesterol depletion, a treatment known to disrupt rafts. No indication for association of TMD-HA-YFP with GPI-CFP was found when palmitoylation, an important determinant of raft targeting, was suppressed. Clustering of TMD-HA-YFP and GPI-CFP was also observed in purified plasma membrane suspensions by homoFRET. We concluded that the pal mit oy lated TMD-HA alone is sufficient to recruit HA to cholesterol-sensitive nanodomains. The corresponding construct of the spike protein E2 of Semliki Forest virus did not partition preferentially in such domains.

  15. Effects of oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) in human sera on results of microneutralization and hemagglutinin-inhibition tests for H5N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yoshinao; Doy, M; Yamato, S; Kawada, Y; Ogata, T

    2008-01-01

    To determine the influence of oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) on the results of microneutralization and hemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) tests in human sera with H5N2 influenza virus, ten volunteers were administered Tamiflu and blood samples were collected. In the microneutralization test, no consistent effects were observed. However, in the HI test, specimens from all volunteers taken at 4 and 7 h after drug administration showed a higher titer as compared to 0 and 24 h after administration when mammalian cells (horse, guinea pig, and human) were used. These results suggest that the administration of Tamiflu may affect the results of HI tests for H5N2 virus.

  16. Protection of pigs against pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus infection by hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-expressing attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinants.

    PubMed

    Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2015-03-02

    Influenza is an important respiratory disease of pigs, and may lead to novel human pathogens like the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (SoIV). Therefore, improved influenza vaccines for pigs are required. Recently, we demonstrated that single intranasal immunization with a hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing pseudorabies virus recombinant of vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) protected pigs from H1N1 SoIV challenge (Klingbeil et al., 2014). Now we investigated enhancement of efficacy by prime-boost vaccination and/or intramuscular administration. Furthermore, a novel PrV-Ba recombinant expressing codon-optimized N1 neuraminidase (NA) was included. In vitro replication of this virus was only slightly affected compared to parental virus. Unlike HA, the abundantly expressed NA was efficiently incorporated into PrV particles. Immunization of pigs with the two PrV recombinants, either singly or in combination, induced B cell proliferation and the expected SoIV-specific antibodies, whose titers increased substantially after boost vaccination. After immunization of animals with either PrV recombinant H1N1 SoIV challenge virus replication was significantly reduced compared to PrV-Ba vaccinated or naïve controls. Protective efficacy of HA-expressing PrV was higher than of NA-expressing PrV, and not significantly enhanced by combination. Despite higher serum antibody titers obtained after intramuscular immunization, transmission of challenge virus to naïve contact animals was only prevented after intranasal prime-boost vaccination with HA-expressing PrV-Ba.

  17. Modulation of cell surface transport and lipid raft localization by the cytoplasmic tail of the influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Silvia; Imkeller, Katharina; Jolmes, Fabian; Veit, Michael; Herrmann, Andreas; Schwarzer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Viral glycoproteins are highly variable in their primary structure, but on the other hand feature a high functional conservation to fulfil their versatile tasks during the pathogenic life cycle. Typically, all protein domains are optimized in that indispensable functions can be assigned to small conserved motifs or even individual amino acids. The cytoplasmic tail of many viral spike proteins, although of particular relevance for the virus biology, is often only insufficiently characterized. Hemagglutinin (HA), the receptor-binding protein of the influenza virus comprises a short cytoplasmic tail of 13 amino acids that exhibits three highly conserved palmitoylation sites. However, the particular importance of these modifications and the tail in general for intracellular trafficking and lateral membrane organization remains elusive. In this study, we generated HA core proteins consisting of transmembrane domain, cytoplasmic tail and a minor part of the ectodomain, tagged with a yellow fluorescent protein. Different mutation and truncation variants of these chimeric proteins were investigated using confocal microscopy, to characterize the role of cytoplasmic tail and palmitoylation for the intracellular trafficking to plasma membrane and Golgi apparatus. In addition, we assessed raft partitioning of the variants by Foerster resonance energy transfer with an established raft marker. We revealed a substantial influence of the cytoplasmic tail length on the intracellular distribution and surface exposure of the proteins. A complete removal of the tail hampers a physiological trafficking of the protein, whereas a partial truncation can be compensated by cytoplasmic palmitoylations. Plasma membrane raft partitioning on the other hand was found to imperatively require palmitoylations, and the cysteine at position 551 turned out to be of most relevance. Our data shed further light on the tight interconnection between cytoplasmic elements and intracellular trafficking and

  18. Crystal structure of the swine-origin A (H1N1)-2009 influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) reveals similar antigenicity to that of the 1918 pandemic virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Qi, Jianxun; Shi, Yi; Li, Qing; Gao, Feng; Sun, Yeping; Lu, Xishan; Lu, Qiong; Vavricka, Christopher J; Liu, Di; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2010-05-01

    Influenza virus is the causative agent of the seasonal and occasional pandemic flu. The current H1N1 influenza pandemic, announced by the WHO in June 2009, is highly contagious and responsible for global economic losses and fatalities. Although the H1N1 gene segments have three origins in terms of host species, the virus has been named swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) due to a predominant swine origin. 2009 S-OIV has been shown to highly resemble the 1918 pandemic virus in many aspects. Hemagglutinin is responsible for the host range and receptor binding of the virus and is therefore a primary indicator for the potential of infection. Primary sequence analysis of the 2009 S-OIV hemagglutinin (HA) reveals its closest relationship to that of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, however, analysis at the structural level is necessary to critically assess the functional significance. In this report, we report the crystal structure of soluble hemagglutinin H1 (09H1) at 2.9 Å, illustrating that the 09H1 is very similar to the 1918 pandemic HA (18H1) in overall structure and the structural modules, including the five defined antiboby (Ab)-binding epitopes. Our results provide an explanation as to why sera from the survivors of the 1918 pandemics can neutralize the 2009 S-OIV, and people born around the 1918 are resistant to the current pandemic, yet younger generations are more susceptible to the 2009 pandemic.

  19. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, William T.; Benton, Donald J.; Gregory, Victoria; Hall, James P. J.; Daniels, Rodney S.; Bedford, Trevor; Haydon, Daniel T.; Hay, Alan J.; McCauley, John W.; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates (1997–2009) and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens. PMID:27057693

  20. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of influenza B viruses circulating in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 2010-2011: evolution and sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ghazanfar; Amer, Haitham M; Almajhdi, Fahad N

    2014-06-01

    Influenza viruses are known as continuing threats to human public health every year worldwide. Evolutionary dynamics of influenza B viruses in humans are in a unique progression having two lineages; B/Yam and B/Vic-like viruses, which are circulating simultaneously worldwide. There is a considerable lack of data on influenza B viruses circulating in Saudi Arabia. During the winter-spring season of 2010-2011, 80 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from hospitalized patients with flu-like symptoms in Riyadh. Screening of samples by one-step RT-PCR identified three (3.8%) influenza B viruses. Sequencing of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes was performed to analyze influenza B viruses circulating in Riyadh as compared to the globally circulating strains. Several common and six unique amino acid substitutions were observed for both HA and NA genes of influenza B Saudi strains. Three unique substitutions (T182A, D196N, and K254R) were identified in HA gene of the B/Yam-like Riyadh strains. In NA gene, a unique common substitution (D53G) was found in all Riyadh strains, while two unique substitutions (L38P, G233R) were recognized only in B/Vic-like Riyadh strains. Riyadh strains were also found to contain N-glycosylation site in HA gene of both B/Vic and B/Yam lineages at positions 197-199 (NET) and 196-198 (NNK/DNK), respectively. The significance of these mutations on the antigenicity of both lineages is discussed herein. The unique changes observed in HA and NA genes of influenza B Riyadh strains support strongly the need for continuous surveillance and monitoring of new evolving strains that might pose threat to the Saudi community.

  1. Propagation and Characterization of Influenza Virus Stocks That Lack High Levels of Defective Viral Genomes and Hemagglutinin Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jia; Chambers, Benjamin S.; Hensley, Scott E.; López, Carolina B.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are responsible for more than 250,000 deaths annually. Influenza virus isolation, propagation, and characterization protocols are critical for completing reproducible basic research studies and for generating vaccine seed stocks. Detailed protocols for the isolation and identification of influenza virus have been recently reported (Eisfeld et al., 2014). However, there are few standardized protocols focused on the propagation and characterization of viral isolates, and as a result, viruses propagated in different conditions in different laboratories often have distinct in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Here, we focus on influenza A virus propagation and characterization in the laboratory taking into consideration the overall quality and composition of the virus stock to achieve consistency in virus yield, virulence, and immunostimulatory activity. PMID:27047455

  2. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-05-29

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells.

  3. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-01-01

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells. PMID:26035023

  4. Mouse lung-adapted mutation of E190G in hemagglutinin from H5N1 influenza virus contributes to attenuation in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Pengfei; Hu, Yi; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Sen; Li, Yuchang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yinhui; Zhu, Qingyu; Jiang, Tao; Li, Jing; Qin, Chengfeng

    2015-11-01

    The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus is one of the greatest influenza pandemic threats since 2003. The association of the receptor binding domain (RBD) with the virulence of influenza virus is rarely addressed, particularly of H5N1 influenza viruses. In this study, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (VN1194, H5N1). The mouse lung-adapted variants were isolated and the mutation of E190G (H3 numbering) in the RBD was recognized. The recombinant virus, rVN-E190G carrying E190G in hemagglutinin (HA) was designed and rescued using reverse genetics techniques. The receptor binding activity, growth curve and pathogenicity in mice of the rVN-E190G were investigated. Results demonstrated that rVN-E190G virus increased the binding avidity to α2,6 SA (sialic acid) and reduced the affinity to α2,3 SA, meanwhile weakened the viral replication in vitro. Moreover, the virulence assessment demonstrated that rVN-E190G was attenuated in mice. These results indicated that the mutation E190G in HA decreases H5N1 viral replication in vitro and significantly attenuates virulence in vivo. These findings identify one of the determinants in RBD which can be associated with H5N1 virulence in mice.

  5. Influenza A H1N1pdm 2009 Virus in Paraguay: Nucleotide Point Mutations in Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes are not Associated with Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Espínola, Emilio E; Amarilla, Alberto A; Martínez, Magaly; Aquino, Víctor H; Russomando, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus is associated with upper respiratory tract infections. The fourth influenza pandemic was declared in 2009. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus circulating in Paraguay. Nasal swabs were collected from 181 patients with flu symptoms managed at the Hospital of the Medical School in Asunción, Paraguay, between August and October 2009. Virus detection was carried out by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes, and phylogenetic analysis. H1N1pdm09 was detected in 14.9% (27/181) of the suspected cases. Analysis of 13 samples showed that these viruses the clustered in a single genetic group. Neither the mutation related to exacerbation of disease (D239G in hemagglutinin) nor that related to antiviral resistance (H275Y in neuraminidase), both detected in neighboring countries, were found. This genetic analysis of H1N1pdm09 will help to understand the spread of the disease. PMID:25328558

  6. A pulmonary influenza virus infection in SCID mice can be cured by treatment with hemagglutinin-specific antibodies that display very low virus-neutralizing activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Mozdzanowska, K; Furchner, M; Washko, G; Mozdzanowski, J; Gerhard, W

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that a pulmonary influenza virus infection in SCID mice can be cured by treatment with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the viral transmembrane protein hemagglutinin (HA) but not for matrix 2. Since both types of MAbs react with infected cells but only the former neutralizes the virus, it appeared that passive MAbs cured by neutralization of progeny virus rather than reaction with infected host cells. To prove this, we selected a set of four HA-specific MAbs, all of the immunoglobulin G2a isotype, which reacted well with native HA expressed on infected cells yet differed greatly (>10,000-fold) in virus neutralization (VN) activity in vitro, apparently because of differences in antibody avidity and accessibility of the respective determinants on the HA of mature virions. Since the VN activities of these MAbs in vitro were differentially enhanced by serum components, we determined their prophylactic activities in vivo and used them as measures of their actual VN activities in vivo. The comparison of therapeutic and prophylactic activities indicated that these MAbs cured the infection to a greater extent by VN activity (which was greatly enhanced in vivo) and to a lesser extent by reaction with infected host cells. Neither complement- nor NK cell-dependent mechanisms were involved in the MAb-mediated virus clearance. PMID:9151823

  7. Glycosylation of the Hemagglutinin Protein of H5N1 Influenza Virus Increases Its Virulence in Mice by Exacerbating the Host Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dongming; Liang, Libin; Wang, Shuai; Nakao, Tomomi; Li, Yanbing; Liu, Liling; Guan, Yuntao; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to circulate in nature and threaten public health. Although several viral determinants and host factors that influence the virulence of HPAI H5N1 viruses in mammals have been identified, the detailed molecular mechanism remains poorly defined and requires further clarification. In our previous studies, we characterized two naturally isolated HPAI H5N1 viruses that had similar viral genomes but differed substantially in their lethality in mice. In this study, we explored the molecular determinants and potential mechanism for this difference in virulence. By using reverse genetics, we found that a single amino acid at position 158 of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein substantially affected the systemic replication and pathogenicity of these H5N1 influenza viruses in mice. We further found that the G158N mutation introduced an N-linked glycosylation at positions 158 to 160 of the HA protein and that this N-linked glycosylation enhanced viral productivity in infected mammalian cells and induced stronger host immune and inflammatory responses to viral infection. These findings further our understanding of the determinants of pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses in mammals. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to evolve in nature and threaten human health. Key mutations in the virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein or reassortment with other pandemic viruses endow HPAI H5N1 viruses with the potential for aerosol transmissibility in mammals. A thorough understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of these viruses will help us to develop more effective control strategies; however, such mechanisms and virulent determinants for H5N1 influenza viruses have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we identified glycosylation at positions 158 to 160 of the HA protein of two naturally occurring H5N1 viruses as an important virulence determinant. This glycosylation event enhanced viral

  8. Conformational changes and fusion activity of influenza virus hemagglutinin of the H2 and H3 subtypes: effects of acid pretreatment.

    PubMed Central

    Puri, A; Booy, F P; Doms, R W; White, J M; Blumenthal, R

    1990-01-01

    Marked differences were observed between the H2 and H3 strains of influenza virus in their sensitivity to pretreatment at low pH. Whereas viral fusion and hemolysis mediated by influenza virus X:31 (H3 subtype) were inactivated by pretreatment of the virus at low pH, influenza virus A/Japan/305/57 (H2 subtype) retained those activities even after a 15-min incubation at pH 5.0 and 37 degrees C. Fusion with erythrocytes was measured by using the octadecylrhodamine-dequenching assay with both intact virions and CV-1 monkey kidney cells expressing hemagglutinin (HA) on the plasma membrane. To study the nature of the differences between the two strains, we examined the effects of low-pH treatment on the conformational change of HA by its susceptibility to protease digestion, exposure of the fusion peptide, and electron microscopy of unstained, frozen, hydrated virus. We found that the respective HA molecules from the two strains assumed different conformational states after exposure to low pH. The relationship between the conformation of HA and its fusogenic activity is discussed in the context of these experiments. Images PMID:2196382

  9. Partial Protection against Porcine Influenza A Virus by a Hemagglutinin-Expressing Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine in the Absence of Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin, Meret E.; Vielle, Nathalie J.; Python, Sylvie; Brechbühl, Daniel; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Zimmer, Gert; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This work was initiated by previous reports demonstrating that mismatched influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines can induce enhanced disease, probably mediated by antibodies. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate if a vaccine inducing opsonizing but not neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a selected heterologous challenge virus would enhance disease or induce protective immune responses in the pig model. To this end, we immunized pigs with either whole inactivated virus (WIV)-vaccine or HA-expressing virus replicon particles (VRP) vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both types of vaccines induced virus neutralizing and opsonizing antibodies against homologous virus as shown by a highly sensitive plasmacytoid dendritic cell-based opsonization assay. Opsonizing antibodies showed a broader reactivity against heterologous IAV compared with neutralizing antibodies. Pigs immunized with HA-recombinant VRP vaccine were partially protected from infection with a mismatched IAV, which was not neutralized but opsonized by the immune sera. The VRP vaccine reduced lung lesions, lung inflammatory cytokine responses, serum IFN-α responses, and viral loads in the airways. Only the VRP vaccine was able to prime IAV-specific IFNγ/TNFα dual secreting CD4+ T cells detectable in the peripheral blood. In summary, this work demonstrates that with the virus pair selected, a WIV vaccine inducing opsonizing antibodies against HA which lack neutralizing activity, is neither protective nor does it induce enhanced disease in pigs. In contrast, VRP-expressing HA is efficacious vaccines in swine as they induced both potent antibodies and T-cell immunity resulting in a broader protective value. PMID:27446083

  10. Protection against avian influenza H9N2 virus challenge by immunization with hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-expressing DNA in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Meizhen; Fang Fang; Chen Yan; Wang Hualin; Chen Quanjiao; Chang Haiyan; Wang Fuyan; Wang Hanzhong; Zhang Ran; Chen Ze . E-mail: chenze2005@263.net

    2006-05-19

    Avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype are widely spread in avian species. The viruses have recently been transmitted to mammalian species, including humans, accelerating the efforts to devise protective strategies against them. In this study, an avian influenza H9N2 virus strain (A/Chicken/Jiangsu/7/2002), isolated in Jiangsu Province, China, was used to infect BALB/c mice for adaptation. After five lung-to-lung passages, the virus was stably proliferated in a large quantity in the murine lung and caused the deaths of mice. In addition, we explored the protection induced by H9N2 virus hemagglutinin (HA)- and neuraminidase (NA)-expressing DNAs in BALB/c mice. Female BALB/c mice aged 6-8 weeks were immunized once or twice at a 3-week interval with HA-DNA and NA-DNA by electroporation, respectively, each at a dose of 3, 10 or 30 {mu}g. The mice were challenged with a lethal dose (40x LD{sub 5}) of influenza H9N2 virus four weeks after immunization once or one week after immunization twice. The protections of DNA vaccines were evaluated by the serum antibody titers, residual lung virus titers, and survival rates of the mice. The result showed that immunization once with not less than 10 {mu}g or twice with 3 {mu}g HA-DNA or NA-DNA provided effective protection against homologous avian influenza H9N2 virus.

  11. Broadly-Reactive Neutralizing and Non-neutralizing Antibodies Directed against the H7 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Reveal Divergent Mechanisms of Protection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gene S; Leon, Paul E; Albrecht, Randy A; Margine, Irina; Hirsh, Ariana; Bahl, Justin; Krammer, Florian

    2016-04-01

    In the early spring of 2013, Chinese health authorities reported several cases of H7N9 influenza virus infections in humans. Since then the virus has established itself at the human-animal interface in Eastern China and continues to cause several hundred infections annually. In order to characterize the antibody response to the H7N9 virus we generated several mouse monoclonal antibodies against the hemagglutinin of the A/Shanghai/1/13 (H7N9) virus. Of particular note are two monoclonal antibodies, 1B2 and 1H5, that show broad reactivity to divergent H7 hemagglutinins. Monoclonal antibody 1B2 binds to viruses of the Eurasian and North American H7 lineages and monoclonal antibody 1H5 reacts broadly to virus isolates of the Eurasian lineage. Interestingly, 1B2 shows broad hemagglutination inhibiting and neutralizing activity, while 1H5 fails to inhibit hemagglutination and demonstrates no neutralizing activity in vitro. However, both monoclonal antibodies were highly protective in an in vivo passive transfer challenge model in mice, even at low doses. Experiments using mutant antibodies that lack the ability for Fc/Fc-receptor and Fc/complement interactions suggest that the protection provided by mAb 1H5 is, at least in part, mediated by the Fc-fragment of the mAb. These findings highlight that a protective response to a pathogen may not only be due to neutralizing antibodies, but can also be the result of highly efficacious non-neutralizing antibodies not readily detected by classical in vitro neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition assays. This is of interest because H7 influenza virus vaccines induce only low hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers while eliciting robust antibody titers as measured by ELISA. Our data suggest that these binding but non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to protection in vivo.

  12. Broadly-Reactive Neutralizing and Non-neutralizing Antibodies Directed against the H7 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Reveal Divergent Mechanisms of Protection

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Randy A.; Margine, Irina; Hirsh, Ariana; Bahl, Justin; Krammer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    In the early spring of 2013, Chinese health authorities reported several cases of H7N9 influenza virus infections in humans. Since then the virus has established itself at the human-animal interface in Eastern China and continues to cause several hundred infections annually. In order to characterize the antibody response to the H7N9 virus we generated several mouse monoclonal antibodies against the hemagglutinin of the A/Shanghai/1/13 (H7N9) virus. Of particular note are two monoclonal antibodies, 1B2 and 1H5, that show broad reactivity to divergent H7 hemagglutinins. Monoclonal antibody 1B2 binds to viruses of the Eurasian and North American H7 lineages and monoclonal antibody 1H5 reacts broadly to virus isolates of the Eurasian lineage. Interestingly, 1B2 shows broad hemagglutination inhibiting and neutralizing activity, while 1H5 fails to inhibit hemagglutination and demonstrates no neutralizing activity in vitro. However, both monoclonal antibodies were highly protective in an in vivo passive transfer challenge model in mice, even at low doses. Experiments using mutant antibodies that lack the ability for Fc/Fc-receptor and Fc/complement interactions suggest that the protection provided by mAb 1H5 is, at least in part, mediated by the Fc-fragment of the mAb. These findings highlight that a protective response to a pathogen may not only be due to neutralizing antibodies, but can also be the result of highly efficacious non-neutralizing antibodies not readily detected by classical in vitro neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition assays. This is of interest because H7 influenza virus vaccines induce only low hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers while eliciting robust antibody titers as measured by ELISA. Our data suggest that these binding but non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to protection in vivo. PMID:27081859

  13. Conserved synthetic peptides from the hemagglutinin of influenza viruses induce broad humoral and T-cell responses in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Argilaguet, Jordi M; Busquets, Núria; Ballester, Maria; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Rivas, Raquel; López-Soria, Sergio; Solanes, David; Majó, Natàlia; Segalés, Joaquim; Veljkovic, Veljko; Rodríguez, Fernando; Darji, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks involving either H5N1 or H1N1 influenza viruses (IV) have recently become an increasing threat to cause potential pandemics. Pigs have an important role in this aspect. As reflected in the 2009 human H1N1 pandemia, they may act as a vehicle for mixing and generating new assortments of viruses potentially pathogenic to animals and humans. Lack of universal vaccines against the highly variable influenza virus forces scientists to continuously design vaccines à la carte, which is an expensive and risky practice overall when dealing with virulent strains. Therefore, we focused our efforts on developing a broadly protective influenza vaccine based on the Informational Spectrum Method (ISM). This theoretical prediction allows the selection of highly conserved peptide sequences from within the hemagglutinin subunit 1 protein (HA1) from either H5 or H1 viruses which are located in the flanking region of the HA binding site and with the potential to elicit broader immune responses than conventional vaccines. Confirming the theoretical predictions, immunization of conventional farm pigs with the synthetic peptides induced humoral responses in every single pig. The fact that the induced antibodies were able to recognize in vitro heterologous influenza viruses such as the pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1), two swine influenza field isolates (SwH1N1 and SwH3N2) and a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian virus, confirm the broad recognition of the antibodies induced. Unexpectedly, all pigs also showed T-cell responses that not only recognized the specific peptides, but also the pH1N1 virus. Finally, a partial effect on the kinetics of virus clearance was observed after the intranasal infection with the pH1N1 virus, setting forth the groundwork for the design of peptide-based vaccines against influenza viruses. Further insights into the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the protection afforded will be necessary to optimize future vaccine formulations.

  14. New Orf Virus (Parapoxvirus) Recombinant Expressing H5 Hemagglutinin Protects Mice against H5N1 and H1N1 Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Jörg; Amann, Ralf; Rziha, Hanns-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated the versatile utility of the Parapoxvirus Orf virus (ORFV) as a vector platform for the development of potent recombinant vaccines. In this study we present the generation of new ORFV recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) or nucleoprotein (NP) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1. Correct foreign gene expression was examined in vitro by immunofluorescence, Western blotting and flow cytometry. The protective potential of both recombinants was evaluated in the mouse challenge model. Despite adequate expression of NP, the recombinant D1701-V-NPh5 completely failed to protect mice from lethal challenge. However, the H5 HA-expressing recombinant D1701-V-HAh5n mediated solid protection in a dose-dependent manner. Two intramuscular (i.m.) injections of the HA-expressing recombinant protected all animals from lethal HPAIV infection without loss of body weight. Notably, the immunized mice resisted cross-clade H5N1 and heterologous H1N1 (strain PR8) influenza virus challenge. In vivo antibody-mediated depletion of CD4-positive and/or CD8-posititve T-cell subpopulations during immunization and/or challenge infection implicated the relevance of CD4-positive T-cells for induction of protective immunity by D1701-V-HAh5n, whereas the absence of CD8-positive T-cells did not significantly influence protection. In summary, this study validates the potential of the ORFV vectored vaccines also to combat HPAIV. PMID:24376753

  15. A Phylogeny-Based Global Nomenclature System and Automated Annotation Tool for H1 Hemagglutinin Genes from Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tavis K; Macken, Catherine A; Lewis, Nicola S; Scheuermann, Richard H; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brown, Ian H; Swenson, Sabrina L; Simon, Gaëlle; Saito, Takehiko; Berhane, Yohannes; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice; Pereda, Ariel; Davis, C Todd; Donis, Ruben O; Webby, Richard J; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAVs) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from nonswine hosts, swine H1 viruses have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based on colloquial context, leading to a proliferation of inconsistent regional naming conventions. In this study, we propose rigorous phylogenetic criteria to establish a globally consistent nomenclature of swine H1 virus hemagglutinin (HA) evolution. These criteria applied to a data set of 7,070 H1 HA sequences led to 28 distinct clades as the basis for the nomenclature. We developed and implemented a web-accessible annotation tool that can assign these biologically informative categories to new sequence data. The annotation tool assigned the combined data set of 7,070 H1 sequences to the correct clade more than 99% of the time. Our analyses indicated that 87% of the swine H1 viruses from 2010 to the present had HAs that belonged to 7 contemporary cocirculating clades. Our nomenclature and web-accessible classification tool provide an accurate method for researchers, diagnosticians, and health officials to assign clade designations to HA sequences. The tool can be updated readily to track evolving nomenclature as new clades emerge, ensuring continued relevance. A common global nomenclature facilitates comparisons of IAVs infecting humans and pigs, within and between regions, and can provide insight into the diversity of swine H1 influenza virus and its impact on vaccine strain selection, diagnostic reagents, and test performance, thereby simplifying communication of such data. IMPORTANCE A fundamental goal in the biological sciences is the definition of groups of organisms based on evolutionary history and the naming of those groups. For influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine, understanding the hemagglutinin (HA) genetic lineage of a circulating strain aids in vaccine

  16. A Phylogeny-Based Global Nomenclature System and Automated Annotation Tool for H1 Hemagglutinin Genes from Swine Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Macken, Catherine A.; Lewis, Nicola S.; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brown, Ian H.; Swenson, Sabrina L.; Simon, Gaëlle; Saito, Takehiko; Berhane, Yohannes; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice; Pereda, Ariel; Davis, C. Todd; Donis, Ruben O.; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAVs) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from nonswine hosts, swine H1 viruses have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based on colloquial context, leading to a proliferation of inconsistent regional naming conventions. In this study, we propose rigorous phylogenetic criteria to establish a globally consistent nomenclature of swine H1 virus hemagglutinin (HA) evolution. These criteria applied to a data set of 7,070 H1 HA sequences led to 28 distinct clades as the basis for the nomenclature. We developed and implemented a web-accessible annotation tool that can assign these biologically informative categories to new sequence data. The annotation tool assigned the combined data set of 7,070 H1 sequences to the correct clade more than 99% of the time. Our analyses indicated that 87% of the swine H1 viruses from 2010 to the present had HAs that belonged to 7 contemporary cocirculating clades. Our nomenclature and web-accessible classification tool provide an accurate method for researchers, diagnosticians, and health officials to assign clade designations to HA sequences. The tool can be updated readily to track evolving nomenclature as new clades emerge, ensuring continued relevance. A common global nomenclature facilitates comparisons of IAVs infecting humans and pigs, within and between regions, and can provide insight into the diversity of swine H1 influenza virus and its impact on vaccine strain selection, diagnostic reagents, and test performance, thereby simplifying communication of such data. IMPORTANCE A fundamental goal in the biological sciences is the definition of groups of organisms based on evolutionary history and the naming of those groups. For influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine, understanding the hemagglutinin (HA) genetic lineage of a circulating strain aids

  17. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease is influenced by hemagglutinin and neuraminidase in whole inactivated influenza virus vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple subtypes and many antigenic variants of influenza A virus (IAV) co-circulate in swine in the USA, complicating effective use of commercial vaccines to control disease and transmission. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines may provide partial protection against IAV with substantial antigen...

  18. An influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) epitope inserted in and expressed from several loci of the infectious bursal disease virus genome induces HA-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Yung-Yi C; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2014-08-01

    The N-terminus of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP5 has been shown to be capable of tolerating the insertion of small epitopes. The objective of the present study was to determine if IBDV genomic sites, including the 5' end of vp5, could carry an influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. HA-expressing IBDVs were generated when the HA epitope was fused to the N-terminus of VP5 (HA5-IBDV) or VP4 (HA4-IBDV) or the C-terminus of VP1 (1HA-IBDV). Viral titers obtained after co-transfection with cDNA from the ha-containing segment and the complementary genomic segment were 1.3 × 10(4), 3.7 × 10(3) and 3.8 × 10(4) pfu/ml for HA5-IBDV, HA4-IBDV and 1HA-IBDV, respectively. The HA tag expression remained stable after 10 passages when the tag gene was inserted into the vp4 and vp1 genes. HA-IBDVs did not cause pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. However, only HA4-IBDV and 1HA-IBDV induced HA-specific antibodies, which were measured by ELISA with a maximum optical density (OD) value of 0.701 and 0.769, respectively, at 24 days after infection. Thus, IBDV can potentially be employed as a bivalent viral vector when the epitope is fused with VP4 or VP1.

  19. Reassortment and modification of hemagglutinin cleavage motif of avian/WSN influenza viruses generated by reverse genetics that correlate with attenuation.

    PubMed

    Lu, J-H; Long, J-X; Jia, L-J; Liu, Y-L; Shao, W-X; Zhang, Y-M; Liu, X-F

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza associated with H9N2 and H5N1 subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has raised great concerns in China. To study this problem, reverse genetics has been employed. Three reassortants, rgH9N2, rgH5N1 and rgH5N2, were prepared and compared. Their hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes originated from Chinese AIV isolates of H9N2 or H5N1 subtype, while the rest of their genes were derived from A/WSN/33(H1N1) virus (WSN). In the H5 HA reassortants, the multibasic cleavage site was converted to a monobasic one. The results demonstrated that the reassortants did not produce CPE on MDCK cells in the absence of trypsin, showed egg-adaptation phenotype and stability of HA and NA during consecutive egg passages, and were not lethal to chickens and mice. However, the rgH5N1 reassortant exhibited a residual virulence in terms of lethality to chick embryos and pathogenesis in chickens. It can be concluded that (i) the genetic modification of H5 HA attenuated the H5 reassortants, (ii) the presence of internal WSN proteins contributed to the attenuated properties of the reassortants independently on H5 HA, and (iii) also the overall genome composition contributed to virulence differences. This report provides further contribution of reverse genetics to the knowledge of virulence of influenza viruses.

  20. Structure-based identification of an inducer of the low-pH conformational change in the influenza virus hemagglutinin: irreversible inhibition of infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, L R; Kuntz, I D; White, J M

    1997-01-01

    Past efforts to employ a structure-based approach to design an inhibitor of the fusion-inducing conformational change in the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) yielded a family of small benzoquinones and hydroquinones. The most potent of these, tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), inhibits both the conformational change in HA from strain X:31 influenza virus and viral infectivity in tissue culture cells with 50% inhibitory concentrations in the micromolar range (D. L. Bodian, R. B. Yamasaki, R. L. Buswell, J. F. Stearns, J. M. White, and I. D. Kuntz, Biochemistry 32:2967-2978, 1993). A new structure-based inhibitor design search was begun which involved (i) the recently refined crystal structure (2.1-A resolution) of the HA ectodomain, (ii) new insights into the conformational change, and (iii) improvements in the molecular docking program, DOCK. As a result, we identified new inhibitors of HA-mediated membrane fusion. Like TBHQ, most of these molecules inhibit the conformational change. One of the new compounds, however, facilitates rather than inhibits the HA conformational change. Nonetheless, the facilitator, diiodofluorescein, inhibits HA-mediated membrane fusion and, irreversibly, infectivity. We further characterized the effects of inhibitors from both searches on the conformational change and membrane fusion activity of HA as well as on viral infectivity. We also isolated and characterized several mutants resistant to each class of inhibitor. The implications of our results for HA-mediated membrane fusion, anti-influenza virus therapy, and structure-based inhibitor design are discussed. PMID:9343241

  1. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a recombinant adenovirus expressing hemagglutinin from the H5N1 subtype of swine influenza virus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunpu; Qiao, Chuanling; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2014-01-01

    The H5N1 influenza viruses infect a range of avian species and have recently been isolated from humans and pigs. In this study we generated a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus (rAd-H5HA-EGFP) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1 A/Swine/Fujian/1/2001 (SW/FJ/1/01) and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in BALB/c mice. The recombinant virus induced high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody at a median tissue culture infective dose of 108 or 107. Compared with mice in the control groups, the mice vaccinated with rAd-H5HA-EGFP did not show apparent weight loss after challenge with either the homologous SW/FJ/1/01 or the heterologous H5N1 A/Chicken/Hunan/77/2005 (CK/HuN/77/05). Replication of the challenge virus was partially or completely inhibited, and viruses were detected at significantly lower numbers in the organs of the vaccinated mice, all of which survived the challenge with CK/HuN/77/05, whereas most of the control mice did not. These results indicate that rAd-H5HA-EGFP can provide effective immune protection from highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses in mice and is therefore a promising new candidate vaccine against H5N1 influenza in animals. PMID:24688173

  2. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin gene of H9N2 influenza viruses from chickens in South China from 2012 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Shen, Han-Qin; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Zeng, Fan-Gui; Liao, Chang-Tao; Zhou, Qing-Feng; Qin, Jian-Ping; Xie, Qing-Mei; Bi, Ying-Zuo; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    As part of our ongoing influenza surveillance program in South China, 19 field strains of H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from dead or diseased chicken flocks in Guangdong province, South China, between 2012 and 2013. Hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these strains were sequenced and analyzed and phylogenic analysis showed that 12 of the 19 isolates belonged to the lineage h9.4.2.5, while the other seven belonged to h9.4.2.6. Specifically, we found that all of the viruses isolated in 2013 belonged to lineage h9.4.2.5. The lineage h9.4.2.5 viruses contained a PSRSSR↓GLF motif at HA cleavage site, while the lineage h9.4.2.6 viruses contained a PARSSR↓GLF at the same position. Most of the isolates in lineage h9.4.2.5 lost one potential glycosylation site at residues 200-202, and had an additional one at residues 295-297 in HA1. Notably, 19 isolates had an amino acid exchange (Q226L) in the receptor binding site, which indicated that the viruses had potential affinity of binding to human like receptor. The present study shows the importance of continuing surveillance of new H9N2 strains to better prepare for the next epidemic or pandemic outbreak of H9N2 AIV infections in chicken flocks.

  3. A novel eight amino acid insertion contributes to the hemagglutinin cleavability and the virulence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N3) virus in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiangjie; Belser, Jessica A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2016-01-15

    In 2012, an avian influenza A H7N3 (A/Mexico/InDRE7218/2012; Mx/7218) virus was responsible for two confirmed cases of human infection and led to the death or culling of more than 22 million chickens in Jalisco, Mexico. Interestingly, this virus acquired an 8-amino acid (aa)-insertion (..PENPK-DRKSRHRR-TR/GLF) near the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site by nonhomologous recombination with host rRNA. It remains unclear which specific residues at the cleavage site contribute to the virulence of H7N3 viruses in mammals. Using loss-of-function approaches, we generated a series of cleavage site mutant viruses by reverse genetics and characterized the viruses in vitro and in vivo. We found that the 8-aa insertion and the arginine at position P4 of the Mx/7218 HA cleavage site are essential for intracellular HA cleavage in 293T cells, but have no effect on the pH of membrane fusion. However, we identified a role for the histidine residue at P5 position in viral fusion pH. In mice, the 8-aa insertion is required for Mx/7218 virus virulence; however, the basic residues upstream of the P4 position are dispensable for virulence. Overall, our study provides the first line of evidence that the insertion in the Mx/7218 virus HA cleavage site confers its intracellular cleavability, and consequently contributes to enhanced virulence in mice. - Highlights: • An avian influenza H7N3 virus acquired a unique 8-amino acid (aa) insertion. • The role of specific basic residues in the HA insertion in viral pathogenesis was determined. • In mice, the 8-aa insertion is required for H7N3 virus virulence. • The R residue at position P4 is essential for HA intracellular cleavage and virus virulence.

  4. Cross-Protective Potential of a Novel Monoclonal Antibody Directed against Antigenic Site B of the Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Reiko; Igarashi, Manabu; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Kishida, Noriko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Ito, Kimihito; Takada, Ayato

    2009-01-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A viruses has been classified into sixteen distinct subtypes (H1–H16) to date. The HA subtypes of influenza A viruses are principally defined as serotypes determined by neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition tests using polyclonal antisera to the respective HA subtypes, which have little cross-reactivity to the other HA subtypes. Thus, it is generally believed that the neutralizing antibodies are not broadly cross-reactive among HA subtypes. In this study, we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to HA, designated MAb S139/1, which showed heterosubtypic cross-reactive neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition of influenza A viruses. This MAb was found to have broad reactivity to many other viruses (H1, H2, H3, H5, H9, and H13 subtypes) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We further found that MAb S139/1 showed neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition activities against particular strains of H1, H2, H3, and H13 subtypes of influenza A viruses. Mutant viruses that escaped neutralization by MAb S139/1 were selected from the A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2), A/Adachi/2/57 (H2N2), and A/WSN/33 (H1N1) strains, and sequence analysis of the HA genes of these escape mutants revealed amino acid substitutions at positions 156, 158, and 193 (H3 numbering). A molecular modeling study showed that these amino acids were located on the globular head of the HA and formed a novel conformational epitope adjacent to the receptor-binding domain of HA. Furthermore, passive immunization of mice with MAb S139/1 provided heterosubtypic protection. These results demonstrate that MAb S139/1 binds to a common antigenic site shared among a variety of HA subtypes and neutralizes viral infectivity in vitro and in vivo by affecting viral attachment to cells. The present study supports the notion that cross-reactive antibodies play some roles in heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus infection, and underscores the potential

  5. Cross-protective potential of a novel monoclonal antibody directed against antigenic site B of the hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Reiko; Igarashi, Manabu; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Kishida, Noriko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Ito, Kimihito; Takada, Ayato

    2009-03-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A viruses has been classified into sixteen distinct subtypes (H1-H16) to date. The HA subtypes of influenza A viruses are principally defined as serotypes determined by neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition tests using polyclonal antisera to the respective HA subtypes, which have little cross-reactivity to the other HA subtypes. Thus, it is generally believed that the neutralizing antibodies are not broadly cross-reactive among HA subtypes. In this study, we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to HA, designated MAb S139/1, which showed heterosubtypic cross-reactive neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition of influenza A viruses. This MAb was found to have broad reactivity to many other viruses (H1, H2, H3, H5, H9, and H13 subtypes) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We further found that MAb S139/1 showed neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition activities against particular strains of H1, H2, H3, and H13 subtypes of influenza A viruses. Mutant viruses that escaped neutralization by MAb S139/1 were selected from the A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2), A/Adachi/2/57 (H2N2), and A/WSN/33 (H1N1) strains, and sequence analysis of the HA genes of these escape mutants revealed amino acid substitutions at positions 156, 158, and 193 (H3 numbering). A molecular modeling study showed that these amino acids were located on the globular head of the HA and formed a novel conformational epitope adjacent to the receptor-binding domain of HA. Furthermore, passive immunization of mice with MAb S139/1 provided heterosubtypic protection. These results demonstrate that MAb S139/1 binds to a common antigenic site shared among a variety of HA subtypes and neutralizes viral infectivity in vitro and in vivo by affecting viral attachment to cells. The present study supports the notion that cross-reactive antibodies play some roles in heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus infection, and underscores the potential

  6. Phylogenetic study-based hemagglutinin (HA) gene of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) detected from backyard chickens in Iran, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri, Syed Ali; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Maghsoudloo, Hossein; Tehrani, Farshad; Khaltabadifarahani, Reza; Abdollahi, Hamed; Fallah, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been diversified into multiple phylogenetic clades over the past decade and are highly genetically variable. In June 2015, one outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in backyard chickens was reported in the Nogardan village of the Mazandaran Province. Tracheal tissues were taken from the dead domestic chickens (n = 10) and processed for RT-PCR. The positive samples (n = 10) were characterized as HPAI H5N1 by sequencing analysis for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the samples revealed that the viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c, and cluster with the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from different avian species in Bulgaria, Romania, and Nigeria in 2015. They were not closely related to other H5N1 isolates detected in previous years in Iran. Our study provides new insights into the evolution and genesis of H5N1 influenza in Iran and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Iran.

  7. Identification of Dominant Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Epitopes on the Hemagglutinin Antigen of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vikram; Yang, Zheng; Hung, Ivan Fan Ngai; Xu, Jianqing; Zheng, Bojian

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) bridges innate and adaptive immunity, and it involves both humoral and cellular immune responses. ADCC has been found to be a main route of immune protection against viral infections in vivo. Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is highly immunogenic and considered the most important target for immune protection. Several potent cross-reactive HA-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been reported, and their conserved neutralizing epitopes have been revealed, but there has been no report so far about ADCC epitopes on HA. Here we identified two dominant ADCC epitopes, designated E1 (amino acids [aa] 92 to 117) and E2 (aa 124 to 159), on HA of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus by epitope mapping of convalescent-phase plasma IgG antibodies from six H1N1-infected human subjects in China that exhibited different levels of ADCC activity. The E1 and E2 ADCC epitopes overlapped with immunodominant epitopes of HA. Depletion of purified patient plasma IgG antibodies with EBY100 yeast cells expressing E1 or E2 decreased the ADCC activity of the IgG antibodies. E1 and E2 sequences were found to be highly conserved in H1N1 strains but less so in other subtypes of influenza A viruses. Our study may aid in designing immunogens that can elicit antibodies with high ADCC activity. Vaccine immunogens designed to include the structural determinants of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies and ADCC epitopes may confer comprehensive immune protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:23487456

  8. Sequence diversity and associated pathogenicity of the hemagglutinin cleavage site of H5N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from chickens in Taiwan during 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    LI, Kuang-Po; CHANG, Poa-Chun; CHENG, Ming-Chu; TAN, Duen-Huey; CHEN, Li-Hsuan; LIU, Yu-Pin; LIN, Yu-Ju; TSAI, Hsiang-Jung; SHIEN, Jui-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The sequence at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site (CS) plays a key role in determining the pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses. Three types of HA CS sequences, QREKR/GL, QRKKR/GL and QRRKR/GL, were previously reported in Taiwanese H5N2 viruses that were isolated from chickens from 2003 to 2013. However, no HA CS sequence was reported for viruses isolated after 2013. This article presents the HA CS sequences and pathogenicity of H5N2 viruses that were isolated from chickens in Taiwan during 2013–2015. Two novel HA CS sequences, QKEKR/GL and KREKREKR/GL, were found in the viruses isolated in 2013 and 2014, and pathogenicity tests showed that the viruses with these novel HA CS sequences are low and high pathogenic viruses, respectively. In contrast, the HA CS sequence QREKR/GL was found in all viruses that were isolated in 2015, and all of these viruses were low pathogenic viruses. After 10 passages in embryonated chicken eggs, a virus strain that was isolated in 2003 evolved into a viral quasispecies that contained at least four distinct types of HA CS sequences. These results highlight the potential of Taiwanese H5N2 viruses to change their pathogenicity and HA CS sequences via mutations. Furthermore, viruses with the HA CS sequence QREKR/GL were more prevalent than others in 2015. These findings are useful for understanding the mechanism of sequence changes at the HA CS and for refining H5N2 virus control measures in Taiwan. PMID:27725416

  9. Identification of viral epitopes recognized on the hemagglutinin protein of the H7N9 avian influenza virus involved with virus neutralization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March of 2013, the first cases of H7N9 influenza were reported in humans in China, and shortly thereafter the virus was confirmed from poultry in live bird markets. Since that time the virus has persisted in both human and avian populations. The genetic composition of these H7N9 influenza virus...

  10. The Hemagglutinin of Bat-Associated Influenza Viruses Is Activated by TMPRSS2 for pH-Dependent Entry into Bat but Not Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Markus; Krüger, Nadine; Zmora, Pawel; Wrensch, Florian; Herrler, Georg; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    New World bats have recently been discovered to harbor influenza A virus (FLUAV)-related viruses, termed bat-associated influenza A-like viruses (batFLUAV). The internal proteins of batFLUAV are functional in mammalian cells. In contrast, no biological functionality could be demonstrated for the surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)-like (HAL) and neuraminidase (NA)-like (NAL), and these proteins need to be replaced by their human counterparts to allow spread of batFLUAV in human cells. Here, we employed rhabdoviral vectors to study the role of HAL and NAL in viral entry. Vectors pseudotyped with batFLUAV-HAL and -NAL were able to enter bat cells but not cells from other mammalian species. Host cell entry was mediated by HAL and was dependent on prior proteolytic activation of HAL and endosomal low pH. In contrast, sialic acids were dispensable for HAL-driven entry. Finally, the type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 was able to activate HAL for cell entry indicating that batFLUAV can utilize human proteases for HAL activation. Collectively, these results identify viral and cellular factors governing host cell entry driven by batFLUAV surface proteins. They suggest that the absence of a functional receptor precludes entry of batFLUAV into human cells while other prerequisites for entry, HAL activation and protonation, are met in target cells of human origin. PMID:27028521

  11. Recombinant H7 hemagglutinin forms subviral particles that protect mice and ferrets from challenge with H7N9 influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Pushko, Peter; Pujanauski, Lindsey M.; Sun, Xiangjie; Pearce, Melissa; Hidajat, Rachmat; Kort, Thomas; Schwartzman, Louis M.; Tretyakova, Irina; Chunqing, Liu; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel avian-origin influenza A H7N9 virus emerged in China in 2013 and continues to cause sporadic human infections with mortality rates approaching 35%. Currently there are no approved human vaccines for H7N9 virus. Recombinant approaches including hemagglutinin (HA) and virus-like particles (VLPs) have resulted in experimental vaccines with advantageous safety and manufacturing characteristics. While high immunogenicity of VLP vaccines has been attributed to the native conformation of HA arranged in the regular repeated patterns within virus-like structures, there is limited data regarding molecular organization of HA within recombinant HA vaccine preparations. In this study, the full-length recombinant H7 protein (rH7) of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) virus was expressed in Sf9 cells. We showed that purified full-length rH7 retained functional ability to agglutinate red blood cells and formed oligomeric pleomorphic subviral particles (SVPs) of ~20 nm in diameter composed of approximately 10 HA0 molecules. No significant quantities of free monomeric HA0 were observed in rH7 preparation by size exclusion chromatography. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rH7 SVPs was confirmed in the mouse and ferret challenge models suggesting that SVPs can be used for vaccination against H7N9 virus. PMID:26207590

  12. The influence of the multi-basic cleavage site of the H5 hemagglutinin on the attenuation, immunogenicity and efficacy of a live attenuated influenza A h5N1 cold-adapted vaccine virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) deltaH5N1 vaccine with a modified hemagglutinin (HA) and intact neuraminidase genes from A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) and the six remaining genome segments from A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) cold-adapted (AA ca) virus was attenuated in chickens, mice and fe...

  13. Hemagglutinin Gene Clade 3C.2a Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses, Alachua County, Florida, USA, 2014–15

    PubMed Central

    Lednicky, John A.; Iovine, Nicole M.; Brew, Joe; Loeb, Julia C.; Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Rand, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A(H3N2) strains isolated during 2014–15 in Alachua County, Florida, USA, belonged to hemagglutinin gene clade 3C.2a. High rates of influenza-like illness and confirmed influenza cases in children were associated with a decrease in estimated vaccine effectiveness. Illnesses were milder than in 2013–14; severe cases were concentrated in elderly patients with underlying diseases. PMID:26692074

  14. Structures of receptor complexes formed by hemagglutinins from the Asian Influenza pandemic of 1957.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junfeng; Stevens, David J; Haire, Lesley F; Walker, Philip A; Coombs, Peter J; Russell, Rupert J; Gamblin, Steven J; Skehel, John J

    2009-10-06

    The viruses that caused the three influenza pandemics of the twentieth century in 1918, 1957, and 1968 had distinct hemagglutinin receptor binding glycoproteins that had evolved the capacity to recognize human cell receptors. We have determined the structure of the H2 hemagglutinin from the second pandemic, the "Asian Influenza" of 1957. We compare it with the 1918 "Spanish Influenza" hemagglutinin, H1, and the 1968 "Hong Kong Influenza" hemagglutinin, H3, and show that despite its close overall structural similarity to H1, and its more distant relationship to H3, the H2 receptor binding site is closely related to that of H3 hemagglutinin. By analyzing hemagglutinins of potential H2 avian precursors of the pandemic virus, we show that the human receptor can be bound by avian hemagglutinins that lack the human-specific mutations of H2 and H3 pandemic viruses, Gln-226Leu, and Gly-228Ser. We show how Gln-226 in the avian H2 receptor binding site, together with Asn-186, form hydrogen bond networks through bound water molecules to mediate binding to human receptor. We show that the human receptor adopts a very similar conformation in both human and avian hemagglutinin-receptor complexes. We also show that Leu-226 in the receptor binding site of human virus hemagglutinins creates a hydrophobic environment near the Sia-1-Gal-2 glycosidic linkage that favors binding of the human receptor and is unfavorable for avian receptor binding. We consider the significance for the development of pandemics, of the existence of avian viruses that can bind to both avian and human receptors.

  15. A peptide-based approach to evaluate the adaptability of influenza A virus to humans based on its hemagglutinin proteolytic cleavage site

    PubMed Central

    Straus, Marco R.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    Cleavage activation of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein by host proteases is a crucial step in the infection process of influenza A viruses (IAV). However, IAV exists in eighteen different HA subtypes in nature and their cleavage sites vary considerably. There is uncertainty regarding which specific proteases activate a given HA in the human respiratory tract. Understanding the relationship between different HA subtypes and human-specific proteases will be valuable in assessing the pandemic potential of circulating viruses. Here we utilized fluorogenic peptides mimicking the HA cleavage motif of representative IAV strains causing disease in humans or of zoonotic/pandemic potential and tested them with a range of proteases known to be present in the human respiratory tract. Our results show that peptides from the H1, H2 and H3 subtypes are cleaved efficiently by a wide range of proteases including trypsin, matriptase, human airway tryptase (HAT), kallikrein-related peptidases 5 (KLK5) and 12 (KLK12) and plasmin. Regarding IAVs currently of concern for human adaptation, cleavage site peptides from H10 viruses showed very limited cleavage by respiratory tract proteases. Peptide mimics from H6 viruses showed broader cleavage by respiratory tract proteases, while H5, H7 and H9 subtypes showed variable cleavage; particularly matriptase appeared to be a key protease capable of activating IAVs. We also tested HA substrate specificity of Factor Xa, a protease required for HA cleavage in chicken embryos and relevant for influenza virus production in eggs. Overall our data provide novel tool allowing the assessment of human adaptation of IAV HA subtypes. PMID:28358853

  16. Development of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) against influenza virus targeting hemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2).

    PubMed

    Li, Tai-Wei; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Tseng, Yen-Tzu; Yang, Yu-Chih; Liu, Wen-Chun; Wang, Sheng-Cyuan; Chou, Mei-Ju; Lin, Yu-Jen; Wang, Yueh; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Wu, Suh-Chin; Chang, Ding-Kwo

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) are widespread in birds and domestic poultry, occasionally causing severe epidemics in humans and posing health threats. Hence, the need to develop a strategy for prophylaxis or therapy, such as a broadly neutralizing antibody against IAV, is urgent. In this study, single-chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display technology was used to select scFv fragments recognizing influenza envelope proteins. The Tomlinson I and J scFv phage display libraries were screened against the recombinant HA2 protein (rHA2) for three rounds. Only the third-round elution sample of the Tomlinson J library showed high binding affinity to rHA2, from which three clones (3JA18, 3JA62, and 3JA78) were chosen for preparative-scale production as soluble antibody by E. coli. The clone 3JA18 was selected for further tests due to its broad affinity for influenza H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1. Simulations of the scFv 3JA18-HA trimer complex revealed that the complementarity-determining region of the variable heavy chain (VH-CDR2) bound the stem region of HA. Neutralization assays using a peptide derived from VH-CDR2 also supported the simulation model. Both the selected antibody and its derived peptide were shown to suppress infection with H5N1 and H1N1 viruses, but not H3N2 viruses. The results also suggested that the scFvs selected from rHA2 could have neutralizing activity by interfering with the function of the HA stem region during virus entry into target cells.

  17. Identification of a Highly Conserved H1 Subtype-Specific Epitope with Diagnostic Potential in the Hemagglutinin Protein of Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Wu, Chao; Gonzalez, Richard; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vernet, Guy; Wang, Jianwei; Hung, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Subtype specificity of influenza A virus (IAV) is determined by its two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). For HA, 16 distinct subtypes (H1–H16) exist, while nine exist for NA. The epidemic strains of H1N1 IAV change frequently and cause annual seasonal epidemics as well as occasional pandemics, such as the notorious 1918 influenza pandemic. The recent introduction of pandemic A/H1N1 IAV (H1N1pdm virus) into humans re-emphasizes the public health concern about H1N1 IAV. Several studies have identified conserved epitopes within specific HA subtypes that can be used for diagnostics. However, immune specific epitopes in H1N1 IAV have not been completely assessed. In this study, linear epitopes on the H1N1pdm viral HA protein were identified by peptide scanning using libraries of overlapping peptides against convalescent sera from H1N1pdm patients. One epitope, P5 (aa 58–72) was found to be immunodominant in patients and to evoke high titer antibodies in mice. Multiple sequence alignments and in silico coverage analysis showed that this epitope is highly conserved in influenza H1 HA [with a coverage of 91.6% (9,860/10,767)] and almost completely absent in other subtypes [with a coverage of 3.3% (792/23,895)]. This previously unidentified linear epitope is located outside the five well-recognized antigenic sites in HA. A peptide ELISA method based on this epitope was developed and showed high correlation (χ2 = 51.81, P<0.01, Pearson correlation coefficient R = 0.741) with a hemagglutination inhibition test. The highly conserved H1 subtype-specific immunodominant epitope may form the basis for developing novel assays for sero-diagnosis and active surveillance against H1N1 IAVs. PMID:21886787

  18. Fine epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies against hemagglutinin of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus using yeast surface display

    PubMed Central

    Han, Thomas; Sui, Jianhua; Bennett, Andrew S.; Liddington, Robert C.; Donis, Ruben O.; Zhu, Quan; Marasco, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses pose a debilitating pandemic threat. Thus, understanding mechanisms of antibody-mediated viral inhibition and neutralization escape is critical. Here, a robust yeast display system for fine epitope mapping of viral surface hemagglutinin (HA)-specific antibodies is demonstrated. The full-length H5 subtype HA (HA0) was expressed on the yeast surface in a correctly folded conformation, determined by binding of a panel of extensively characterized neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). These mAbs target conformationally-dependent epitopes of influenza A HA, which are highly conserved across H5 clades and group 1 serotypes. By separately displaying HA1 and HA2 subunits on yeast, domain mapping of two anti-H5 mAbs, NR2728 and H5-2A, localized their epitopes to HA1. These anti-H5 mAb epitopes were further fine mapped by using a library of yeast-displayed HA1 mutants and selecting for loss of binding without prior knowledge of potential contact residues. By overlaying key mutant residues that impacted binding onto a crystal structure of HA, the NR2728 mAb was found to interact with a fully surface-exposed contiguous patch of residues at the receptor binding site (RBS), giving insight into the mechanism underlying its potent inhibition of virus binding. The non-neutralizing H5-2A mAb was similarly mapped to a highly conserved H5 strain-specific but poorly accessible location on a loop at the trimer HA interface. These data further augment our toolchest for studying HA antigenicity, epitope diversity and accessibility in response to natural and experimental influenza infection and vaccines. PMID:21569761

  19. Influenza virus hemagglutinin spike neck architectures and interaction with model enzymes evaluated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools.

    PubMed

    Serebryakova, Marina V; Kordyukova, Larisa V; Semashko, Tatiana A; Ksenofontov, Alexander L; Rudneva, Irina A; Kropotkina, Ekaterina A; Filippova, Irina Yu; Veit, Michael; Baratova, Lyudmila A

    2011-09-01

    Interactions between model enzymes and the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) homotrimeric spike were addressed. We digested influenza virions (naturally occurring strains and laboratory reassortants) with bromelain or subtilisin Carlsberg and analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the resulting HA2 C-terminal segments. All cleavage sites, together with (minor) sites detected in undigested HAs, were situated in the linker region that connects the transmembrane domain to the ectodomain. In addition to cleavage at highly favorable amino acids, various alternative enzyme preferences were found that strongly depended on the HA subtype/type. We also evaluated the surface electrostatic potentials, binding cleft topographies and spatial dimensions of stem bromelain (homologically modeled) and subtilisin Carlsberg (X-ray resolved). The results show that the enzymes (∼45Å(3)) would hardly fit into the small (∼18-20Å) linker region of the HA-spike. However, the HA membrane proximal ectodomain region was predicted to be intrinsically disordered. We propose that its motions allow steric adjustment of the enzymes' active sites to the neck of the HA spike. The subtype/type-specific architectures in this region also influenced significantly the cleavage preferences of the enzymes.

  20. Fusion activity of influenza virus PR8/34 correlates with a temperature-induced conformational change within the hemagglutinin ectodomain detected by photochemical labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, J.; Zugliani, C. ); Mischler, R. )

    1991-03-05

    Fusion of influenza viruses with membranes is catalyzed by the viral spike protein hemagglutinin (HA). Under mildly acidic conditions ({approximately}pH 5) this protein undergoes a conformational change that triggers the exposure of the fusion peptide, the hydrophobic N-terminal segment of the HA2 polypeptide chain. Insertion of this segment into the target membrane (or viral membrane ) is likely to represent a key step along the fusion pathway, but the details are far from being clear. The photoreactive phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-(11-(4-(3-(trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl)phenyl)(2-{sup 3}H)undecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (({sup 3}H)PTPC/11), inserted into the bilayer of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), allowed the authors to investigate both the interaction of viruses with the vesicles under perfusion conditions and the fusion process itself occurring at elevated temperatures only. Despite the observed binding of viruses to LUVs at pH 5 and 0C, labeling of HA2 was very weak. They have studied also the effect of temperature on the acid-induced (pH 5) interaction of bromelain-solubilized HA (BHA) with vesicles.

  1. Cocirculation of Three Hemagglutinin and Two Neuraminidase Subtypes of Avian Influenza Viruses in Huzhou, China, April 2013: Implication for the Origin of the Novel H7N9 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiankang; Wang, Lili; Liu, Jia; Jin, Meihua; Hao, Fangyuan; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhao; Wen, Dong; Wu, Xiaofang; Liu, Guangtao; Ji, Lei; Xu, Deshun; Zhou, Dongming; Leng, Qibin

    2014-01-01

    We detected three avian influenza hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes (H7, H9, and H5) and two neuraminidase (NA) subtypes (N9 and N2), as well as H7N9-related H9N9 reassortant intermediates, cocirculating among poultry in Huzhou, China, during April 2013. The results of our study reveal not only that Huzhou is one of the geographic origins of the novel H7N9 virus but also that cocirculation poses a potential threat to humans in the future. PMID:24623437

  2. Hemagglutinin Spatial Distribution Shifts in Response to Cholesterol in the Influenza Viral Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Domanska, Marta K.; Dunning, Rebecca A.; Dryden, Kelly A.; Zawada, Katarzyna E.; Yeager, Mark; Kasson, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus delivers its genome to the host cytoplasm via a process of membrane fusion mediated by the viral hemagglutinin protein. Optimal fusion likely requires multiple hemagglutinin trimers, so the spatial distribution of hemagglutinin on the viral envelope may influence fusion mechanism. We have previously shown that moderate depletion of cholesterol from the influenza viral envelope accelerates fusion kinetics even though it decreases fusion efficiency, both in a reversible manner. Here, we use electron cryo-microscopy to measure how the hemagglutinin lateral density in the viral envelope changes with cholesterol extraction. We extract this information by measuring the radial distribution function of electron density in >4000 viral images per sample, assigning hemagglutinin density by comparing images with and without anti-HA Fab bound. On average, hemagglutinin trimers move closer together: we estimate that the typical trimer-trimer spacing reduces from 94 to 84 Å when ∼90% of cholesterol is removed from the viral membrane. Upon restoration of viral envelope cholesterol, this spacing once again expands. This finding can qualitatively explain the observed changes to fusion kinetics: contemporary models from single-virus microscopy are that fusion requires the engagement of several hemagglutinin trimers in close proximity. If removing cholesterol increases the lateral density of hemagglutinin, this should result in an increase in the rate of fusion. PMID:26536268

  3. Hemagglutinin Spatial Distribution Shifts in Response to Cholesterol in the Influenza Viral Envelope.

    PubMed

    Domanska, Marta K; Dunning, Rebecca A; Dryden, Kelly A; Zawada, Katarzyna E; Yeager, Mark; Kasson, Peter M

    2015-11-03

    Influenza virus delivers its genome to the host cytoplasm via a process of membrane fusion mediated by the viral hemagglutinin protein. Optimal fusion likely requires multiple hemagglutinin trimers, so the spatial distribution of hemagglutinin on the viral envelope may influence fusion mechanism. We have previously shown that moderate depletion of cholesterol from the influenza viral envelope accelerates fusion kinetics even though it decreases fusion efficiency, both in a reversible manner. Here, we use electron cryo-microscopy to measure how the hemagglutinin lateral density in the viral envelope changes with cholesterol extraction. We extract this information by measuring the radial distribution function of electron density in >4000 viral images per sample, assigning hemagglutinin density by comparing images with and without anti-HA Fab bound. On average, hemagglutinin trimers move closer together: we estimate that the typical trimer-trimer spacing reduces from 94 to 84 Å when ∼90% of cholesterol is removed from the viral membrane. Upon restoration of viral envelope cholesterol, this spacing once again expands. This finding can qualitatively explain the observed changes to fusion kinetics: contemporary models from single-virus microscopy are that fusion requires the engagement of several hemagglutinin trimers in close proximity. If removing cholesterol increases the lateral density of hemagglutinin, this should result in an increase in the rate of fusion.

  4. Nested polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing analysis of the light-chain and heavy-chain variable regions in the influenza A H1N1 virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody gene.

    PubMed

    Li, H J; Guo, C Y; Sun, J Y; Sun, L J; Zhao, P H; Hu, L; Li, Y; Hu, J

    2014-06-11

    The nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the amplification of the influenza A H1N1 virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody light-chain and heavy-chain genes. Sequence analysis of the obtained genes was then used to identify common cloning methods of the mouse immunoglobulin-kappa (Igκ) light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions. Twenty-two pairs of amplification primers for the mouse Igκ light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions were designed, and 6 mouse anti-human H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions were cloned and sequenced. Comparative analysis was conducted between our results and the mouse Ig sequences published in the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The nested PCR method effectively avoided cloning the pseudogenes of the monoclonal antibody, and the amino acid sequence obtained was consistent with the characteristics of the mouse Ig variable region. A general method of cloning the mouse Ig light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions was established, which provides a basis for further cloning of mouse monoclonal antibody variable gene regions. This study also provides data for further studies of H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin antibody binding sites.

  5. A unique and conserved neutralization epitope in H5N1 influenza viruses identified by an antibody against the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xueyong; Guo, Yong-Hui; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Ya-Di; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Li, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Che, Xiao-Yan; Wilson, Ian A

    2013-12-01

    Despite substantial efforts to control and contain H5N1 influenza viruses, bird flu viruses continue to spread and evolve. Neutralizing antibodies against conserved epitopes on the viral hemagglutinin (HA) could confer immunity to the diverse H5N1 virus strains and provide information for effective vaccine design. Here, we report the characterization of a broadly neutralizing murine monoclonal antibody, H5M9, to most H5N1 clades and subclades that was elicited by immunization with viral HA of A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1), the immediate precursor of the current dominant strains of H5N1 viruses. The crystal structures of the Fab' fragment of H5M9 in complexes with H5 HAs of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 and A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 reveal a conserved epitope in the HA1 vestigial esterase subdomain that is some distance from the receptor binding site and partially overlaps antigenic site C of H3 HA. Further epitope characterization by selection of escape mutants and epitope mapping by flow cytometry analysis of site-directed mutagenesis of HA with a yeast cell surface display identified four residues that are critical for H5M9 binding. D53, Y274, E83a, and N276 are all conserved in H5N1 HAs and are not in H5 epitopes identified by other mouse or human antibodies. Antibody H5M9 is effective in protection of H5N1 virus both prophylactically and therapeutically and appears to neutralize by blocking both virus receptor binding and postattachment steps. Thus, the H5M9 epitope identified here should provide valuable insights into H5N1 vaccine design and improvement, as well as antibody-based therapies for treatment of H5N1 infection.

  6. Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Immortalized Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells Depends upon a Delicate Balance between Hemagglutinin Acid Stability and Endosomal pH.

    PubMed

    Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Yasugi, Mayo; Maruyama, Hisataka; Masuda, Taisuke; Arai, Fumihito; Ohba, Tomoyuki; Honda, Ayae; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nakaya, Takaaki

    2015-04-24

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus, H5N1, is a serious threat to public health worldwide. Both the currently circulating H5N1 and previously circulating AI viruses recognize avian-type receptors; however, only the H5N1 is highly infectious and virulent in humans. The mechanism(s) underlying this difference in infectivity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the difference in infectivity between the current and previously circulating strains. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen to establish a series of clones (SAEC-Ts). These clones were then used to test the infectivity of AI strains. Human SAEC-Ts could be broadly categorized into two different types based on their susceptibility (high or low) to the viruses. SAEC-T clones were poorly susceptible to previously circulating AI but were completely susceptible to the currently circulating H5N1. The hemagglutinin (HA) of the current H5N1 virus showed greater membrane fusion activity at higher pH levels than that of previous AI viruses, resulting in broader cell tropism. Moreover, the endosomal pH was lower in high susceptibility SAEC-T clones than that in low susceptibility SAEC-T clones. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the infectivity of AI viruses, including H5N1, depends upon a delicate balance between the acid sensitivity of the viral HA and the pH within the endosomes of the target cell. Thus, one of the mechanisms underlying H5N1 pathogenesis in humans relies on its ability to fuse efficiently with the endosomes in human airway epithelial cells.

  7. Influenza virus isolation.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Scott; Walker, David; Webster, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The isolation of influenza viruses is important for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in lower animals and humans, for the detection of the infecting agent in surveillance programs, and is an essential element in the development and production of vaccine. Since influenza is caused by a zoonotic virus it is necessary to do surveillance in the reservoir species (aquatic waterfowls), intermediate hosts (quails, pigs), and in affected mammals including humans. Two of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses (H5 and H7) can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) strains for gallinaceous poultry; some HP H5 and H7 strains cause lethal infection of humans. In waterfowls, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are obtained primarily from the cloaca (or feces); in domestic poultry, the virus is more often recovered from the respiratory tract than from cloacal samples; in mammals, the virus is most often isolated from the respiratory tract, and in cases of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from the blood and internal organs of infected birds. Virus isolation procedures are performed by inoculation of clinical specimens into embryonated eggs (primarily chicken eggs) or onto a variety of primary or continuous tissue culture systems. Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type.

  8. A novel hemagglutinin protein produced in bacteria protects chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses by inducing H5 subtype-specific neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Sączyńska, Violetta; Romanik, Agnieszka; Florys, Katarzyna; Cecuda-Adamczewska, Violetta; Kęsik-Brodacka, Małgorzata; Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Monika; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna; Minta, Zenon; Szewczyk, Bogusław; Płucienniczak, Grażyna; Płucienniczak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause a mortality rate of up to 100% in infected chickens and pose a permanent pandemic threat. Attempts to obtain effective vaccines against H5N1 HPAIVs have focused on hemagglutinin (HA), an immunodominant viral antigen capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies. The vast majority of vaccine projects have been performed using eukaryotic expression systems. In contrast, we used a bacterial expression system to produce vaccine HA protein (bacterial HA) according to our own design. The HA protein with the sequence of the H5N1 HPAIV strain was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli, recovered in the form of inclusion bodies and refolded by dilution between two chromatographic purification steps. Antigenicity studies showed that the resulting antigen, referred to as rH5-E. coli, preserves conformational epitopes targeted by antibodies specific for H5-subtype HAs, inhibiting hemagglutination and/or neutralizing influenza viruses in vitro. The proper conformation of this protein and its ability to form functional oligomers were confirmed by a hemagglutination test. Consistent with the biochemical characteristics, prime-boost immunizations with adjuvanted rH5-E. coli protected 100% and 70% of specific pathogen-free, layer-type chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous H5N1 HPAIVs, respectively. The observed protection was related to the positivity in the FluAC H5 test (IDVet) but not to hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers. Due to full protection, the effective contact transmission of the homologous challenge virus did not occur. Survivors from both challenges did not or only transiently shed the viruses, as established by viral RNA detection in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Our results demonstrate that vaccination with rH5-E. coli could confer control of H5N1 HPAIV infection and transmission rates in chicken flocks, accompanied by reduced virus shedding. Moreover, the role of

  9. Antigenically intact hemagglutinin in circulating avian and swine influenza viruses and potential for H3N2 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Tharakaraman, Kannan; Raman, Rahul; Stebbins, Nathan W; Viswanathan, Karthik; Sasisekharan, Viswanathan; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-01-01

    The 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza, though antigenically novel to the population at the time, was antigenically similar to the 1918 H1N1 pandemic influenza, and consequently was considered to be "archived" in the swine species before reemerging in humans. Given that the H3N2 is another subtype that currently circulates in the human population and is high on WHO pandemic preparedness list, we assessed the likelihood of reemergence of H3N2 from a non-human host. Using HA sequence features relevant to immune recognition, receptor binding and transmission we have identified several recent H3 strains in avian and swine that present hallmarks of a reemerging virus. IgG polyclonal raised in rabbit with recent seasonal vaccine H3 fail to recognize these swine H3 strains suggesting that existing vaccines may not be effective in protecting against these strains. Vaccine strategies can mitigate risks associated with a potential H3N2 pandemic in humans.

  10. Synthesis of multivalent sialyllactosamine-carrying glyco-nanoparticles with high affinity to the human influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Makoto; Umemura, Seiichiro; Sugiyama, Naohiro; Kuwano, Natsuki; Koizumi, Ami; Sawada, Tadakazu; Yanase, Michiyo; Takaha, Takeshi; Kadokawa, Jun-Ichi; Usui, Taichi

    2016-11-20

    A series of multivalent sialoglyco-conjugated nanoparticles were efficiently synthesized by using highly-branched α-glucuronic acid-linked cyclic dextrins (GlcA-HBCD) as a backbone. The sialoglycoside-moieties, with varying degrees of substitution, could be incorporated onto the preformed nanoparticles. These synthesized particles, which are highly soluble in aqueous solution, were shown to have a spherical nanostructure with a diameter of approximately 15nm. The interactions of the sialoglyco-nanoparticles (Neu5Acα2,6LacNAc-GlcA-HBCDs) with human influenza virus strain A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) were investigated using a hemagglutination inhibition assay. The sialoglyco-nanoparticle, in which the number of sialic acid substitution is 30, acted as a powerful inhibitor of virus binding activity. We show that both distance and multiplicity of effective ligand-virus formation play important roles in enhancing viral inhibition. Our results indicate that the GlcA-HBCD backbone can be used as a novel spherical nanocluster material for preparing a variety of glyco-nanoparticles to facilitate molecular recognition.

  11. [Accumulation of amino acid substitutions promotes irreversible structural changes in the hemagglutinin of human influenza AH3 virus during evolution].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Katsuhisa; Nobusawa, Eri; Nakajima, Setsuko

    2006-06-01

    During protein evolution the amino acid substitutions accumulate with time. However, the effect of accumulation of the amino acid substitutions to structural changes has not been estimated well. We will propose that the discordance of amino acid substitution on the HA protein of influenza A virus is useful for the assessment of structural changes during evolution. Discordance value can be obtained from the experimental data of tolerance or intolerance by introducing site directed mutagenesis at the homologous positions of two HA proteins holding the same amino acid residues. The value of discordance correlated to the number of amino acid differences among proteins. In the H3HA discordance rate was calculated to be 0.45% per one amino acid change. Furthermore, discordance of amino acid substitutions suggests that tolerable amino acid substitutions in different order have a probability of promoting irreversible divergence of the HA protein to different subtypes.

  12. Development and evaluation of one-step TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays targeting nucleoprotein, matrix, and hemagglutinin genes of equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengchun; Chambers, Thomas M; Boliar, Saikat; Branscum, Adam J; Sturgill, Tracy L; Timoney, Peter J; Reedy, Stephanie E; Tudor, Lynn R; Dubovi, Edward J; Vickers, Mary Lynne; Sells, Stephen; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate new TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays by the use of the minor groove binding probe to detect a wide range of equine influenza virus (EIV) strains comprising both subtypes of the virus (H3N8 and H7N7). A total of eight rRT-PCR assays were developed, targeting the nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M), and hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the two EIV subtypes. None of the eight assays cross-reacted with any of the other known equine respiratory viruses. Three rRT-PCR assays (EqFlu NP, M, and HA3) which can detect strains of the H3N8 subtype were evaluated using nasal swabs received for routine diagnosis and swabs collected from experimentally inoculated horses. All three rRT-PCR assays have greater specificity and sensitivity than virus isolation by egg inoculation (93%, 89%, and 87% sensitivity for EqFlu NP, EqFlu M, and EqFlu HA3 assays, respectively). These assays had analytical sensitivities of >or=10 EIV RNA molecules. Comparison of the sensitivities of rRT-PCR assays targeting the NP and M genes of both subtypes with egg inoculation and the Directigen Flu A test clearly shows that molecular assays provide the highest sensitivity. The EqFlu HA7 assay targeting the H7 HA gene is highly specific for the H7N7 subtype of EIV. It should enable highly reliable surveillance for the H7N7 subtype, which is thought to be extinct or possibly still circulating at a very low level in nature. The assays that we developed provide a fast and reliable means of EIV diagnosis and subtype identification of EIV subtypes.

  13. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Epitopes on the Hemagglutinin Head Region of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Play Detrimental Roles in H1N1-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zi-Wei; Yuan, Shuofeng; Poon, Kwok-Man; Wen, Lei; Yang, Dong; Sun, Zehua; Li, Cun; Hu, Meng; Shuai, Huiping; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Mei-Yun; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Chu, Hin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-01-01

    Engaging the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) for killing of virus-infected cells and secretion of antiviral cytokines and chemokines was incorporated as one of the important features in the design of universal influenza vaccines. However, investigation of the ADCC epitopes on the highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinin (HA) head region has been rarely reported. In this study, we determined the ADCC and antiviral activities of two putative ADCC epitopes, designated E1 and E2, on the HA head of a pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in vitro and in a lethal mouse model. Our data demonstrated that sera from the E1-vaccinated mice could induce high ADCC activities. Importantly, the induction of ADCC response modestly decreased viral load in the lungs of H1N1-infected mice. However, the elevated ADCC significantly increased mouse alveolar damage and mortality than that of the PBS-vaccinated group (P < 0.0001). The phenotype was potentially due to an exaggerated inflammatory cell infiltration triggered by ADCC, as an upregulated release of cytotoxic granules (perforin) was observed in the lung tissue of E1-vaccinated mice after H1N1 influenza virus challenge. Overall, our data suggested that ADCC elicited by certain domains of HA head region might have a detrimental rather than protective effect during influenza virus infection. Thus, future design of universal influenza vaccine shall strike a balance between the induction of protective immunity and potential side effects of ADCC. PMID:28377769

  14. Hydrophobic photolabeling identifies BHA2 as the subunit mediating the interaction of bromelain-solubilized influenza virus hemagglutinin with liposomes at low pH

    SciTech Connect

    Harter, C.; Baechi, T.S.; Semenza, G.; Brunner, J.

    1988-03-22

    To investigate the molecular basis of the low-pH-mediated interaction of the bromelain-solubilized ectodomain of influenza virus hemagglutinin (BHA) with membranes, we have photolabeled BHA in the presence of liposomes with the two carbene-generating, membrane-directed reagents 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)diazirine ((/sup 125/I)TID) and a new analogue of a phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(11-(4-(3-(trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl)phenyl)(2-/sup 3/H) undecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ((/sup 3/H)-PTPC/11). With the latter reagent, BHA was labeled in a strictly pH-dependent manner, i.e., at pH 5 only, whereas with (/sup 125/I)TID, labeling was seen also at pH 7. In all experiments, the label was selectively incorporated into the BHA2 polypeptide, demonstrating that the interaction of BHA with membranes is mediated through this subunit, possibly via its hydrophobic N-terminal segment. Similar experiments with a number of other water-soluble proteins (ovalbumin, carbonic anhydrase, alpha-lactalbumin, trypsin, and soybean trypsin inhibitor) indicate that the ability to interact with liposomes at low pH is not a property specific for BHA but is observed with other, perhaps most, proteins.

  15. Targeting antigens to Dec-205 on dendritic cells induces a higher immune response in chickens: Hemagglutinin of avian influenza virus example.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Zúñiga, David; Pedraza-Escalona, Martha; Espino-Solís, Gerardo Pavel; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Díaz-Salinas, Marco Aurelio; López, Susana; Possani, Lourival Domingos

    2017-04-01

    It is widely known that targeting a variety of antigens to the DEC-205 receptor on dendritic cells (DCs) significantly potentiate immunity. This communication reports the development of a new murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the chicken DEC-205, using as immunogen the carbohydrate recognition domain-2 (CRD-2) heterologously expressed. This mAb recognizes a protein band of 250kDa by immunoprecipitation analysis and shows strong cross-reactivity with human and pig DEC-205. Furthermore, the hemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza H5N2 virus was cloned and expressed using insect cell-baculovirus expression system. We chemically conjugated the anti-chicken DEC-205 antibody with the highly purified HA to direct the antigen to the dendritic cells and evaluate the immune response elicited in vivo by this conjugate. A single dose of chemical conjugate was sufficient to elicit a strong immune response in chickens as early as fourteen days after priming. In addition, the conjugate induced an earlier and higher response compared to unconjugated HA. These results suggest that the strategy described here has potential to be used in the future design and development of successful vaccines against different chicken infectious diseases with direct impact in biotechnology and veterinary fields.

  16. Screening of Random Peptide Library of Hemagglutinin from Pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Virus Reveals Unexpected Antigenically Important Regions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanghui; Han, Lu; Lin, Zhanglin

    2011-01-01

    The antigenic structure of the membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA) from the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus was dissected with a high-throughput screening method using complex antisera. The approach involves generating yeast cell libraries displaying a pool of random peptides of controllable lengths on the cell surface, followed by one round of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) against antisera from mouse, goat and human, respectively. The amino acid residue frequency appearing in the antigenic peptides at both the primary sequence and structural level was determined and used to identify “hot spots” or antigenically important regions. Unexpectedly, different antigenic structures were seen for different antisera. Moreover, five antigenic regions were identified, of which all but one are located in the conserved HA stem region that is responsible for membrane fusion. Our findings are corroborated by several recent studies on cross-neutralizing H1 subtype antibodies that recognize the HA stem region. The antigenic peptides identified may provide clues for creating peptide vaccines with better accessibility to memory B cells and better induction of cross-neutralizing antibodies than the whole HA protein. The scheme used in this study enables a direct mapping of the antigenic regions of viral proteins recognized by antisera, and may be useful for dissecting the antigenic structures of other viral proteins. PMID:21437206

  17. Binding of the hemagglutinin from human or equine influenza H3 viruses to the receptor is altered by substitutions at residue 193.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, R; Naffakh, N; Manuguerra, J-C; van der Werf, S

    2004-08-01

    Interactions of the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses with sialic acids (SA) are important for host range restriction. Most human H3s have a Ser193, while avian and equine H3s usually have an Asn or a Lys, respectively. To investigate the role of residue 193 in the recognition of SA, substitutions were introduced by mutagenesis within a human H3 and an equine H3. Hemadsorption assays performed on COS-1 cells expressing wt or mutated HAs, showed that a K193S substitution in the context of an equine H3 decreased its ability to bind several animal erythrocytes. Using de- and then alpha2,3 or alpha2,6 re-sialylated chicken erythrocytes we showed that for both human and equine H3s, substitution of a Serine by positively-charged Arginine or Lysine at position 193 increased binding to its preferred receptor, SAalpha2,6Gal and SAalpha2,3Gal, respectively. Moreover, when combined with the L194I substitution, the S193R substitution induced binding of the human H3 to NeuAcalpha2,3Gal.

  18. Manipulation of neuraminidase packaging signals and hemagglutinin residues improves the growth of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) influenza vaccine virus yield in eggs.

    PubMed

    Barman, Subrata; Krylov, Petr S; Turner, Jasmine C; Franks, John; Webster, Robert G; Husain, Matloob; Webby, Richard J

    2017-03-07

    In 2013, a novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus causing severe lower respiratory tract disease in humans emerged in China, with continued sporadic cases. An effective vaccine is needed for this virus in case it acquires transmissibility among humans; however, PR8-based A/Anhui/1/2013 (Anhui/1, H7N9), a WHO-recommended H7N9 candidate vaccine virus (CVV) for vaccine production, does not replicate well in chicken eggs, posing an obstacle to egg-based vaccine production. To address this issue, we explored the possibility that PR8's hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) packaging signals mediate improvement of Anhui/1 CVV yield in eggs. We constructed chimeric HA and NA genes having the coding region of Anhui/1 HA and NA flanked by the 5' and 3' packaging signals of PR8's HA and NA, respectively. The growth of CVVs containing the chimeric HA was not affected, but that of those containing the chimeric NA gene grew in embryonated chicken eggs with a more than 2-fold higher titer than that of WT CVV. Upon 6 passages in eggs further yield increase was achieved although this was not associated with any changes in the chimeric NA gene. The HA of the passaged CVV, did, however, exhibit egg-adaptive mutations and one of them (HA-G218E) improved CVV growth in eggs without significantly changing antigenicity. The HA-G218E substitution and a chimeric NA, thus, combine to provide an Anhui/1 CVV with properties more favorable for vaccine manufacture.

  19. Many variable region genes are utilized in the antibody response of BALB/c mice to the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Caton, A J; Stark, S E; Kavaler, J; Staudt, L M; Schwartz, D; Gerhard, W

    1991-09-01

    We have examined how many different H chain variable (VH) and kappa-chain variable (Vk) germ-line genes are used in the antibody response to the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin (PR8 HA), and have assessed how the expression of individual VH and/or Vk genes contributes to the generation of specificity for the HA. A panel of 51 hybridoma antibodies that recognize two antigenic regions on the HA were compared for the sequence of their Ig H and L chain V regions. The hybridomas were obtained from 28 individual BALB/c mice that had been immunized with PR8 under a variety of primary and secondary response immunization protocols. The degree and pattern of sequence similarity suggests that 29 different VH genes drawn from seven different VH gene families, and 25 different Vk genes drawn from 12 different Vk gene families were used in this panel. Based on current estimates of the total numbers of VH and Vk genes in the mouse, this suggests that between 2.5 and 10% of the entire VH and Vk germ-line repertoires were used by these hybridomas. Despite this extensive diversity, some V genes were repetitively identified among these hybridomas, and were most often expressed in the context of specific VH/Vk combinations. Because antibodies that used identical VH/Vk combinations also usually displayed similar reactivity patterns with a panel of mutant viruses, this indicates that VH/Vk pairing can be important in establishing the specificity of antibodies for the HA.

  20. Avian influenza virus hemagglutinins H2, H4, H8, and H14 support a highly pathogenic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Veits, Jutta; Weber, Siegfried; Stech, Olga; Breithaupt, Angele; Gräber, Marcus; Gohrbandt, Sandra; Bogs, Jessica; Hundt, Jana; Teifke, Jens P.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Stech, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    High-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) evolve from low-pathogenic precursors specifying the HA serotypes H5 or H7 by acquisition of a polybasic HA cleavage site. As the reason for this serotype restriction has remained unclear, we aimed to distinguish between compatibility of a polybasic cleavage site with H5/H7 HA only and unique predisposition of these two serotypes for insertion mutations. To this end, we introduced a polybasic cleavage site into the HA of several low-pathogenic avian strains with serotypes H1, H2, H3, H4, H6, H8, H10, H11, H14, or H15, and rescued HA reassortants after cotransfection with the genes from either a low-pathogenic H9N2 or high-pathogenic H5N1 strain. Oculonasal inoculation with those reassortants resulted in varying pathogenicity in chicken. Recombinants containing the engineered H2, H4, H8, or H14 in the HPAIV background were lethal and exhibited i.v. pathogenicity indices of 2.79, 2.37, 2.85, and 2.61, respectively, equivalent to naturally occurring H5 or H7 HPAIV. Moreover, the H2, H4, and H8 reassortants were transmitted to some contact chickens. The H2 reassortant gained two mutations in the M2 proton channel gate region, which is affected in some HPAIVs of various origins. Taken together, in the presence of a polybasic HA cleavage site, non-H5/H7 HA can support a highly pathogenic phenotype in the appropriate viral background, indicating requirement for further adaptation. Therefore, the restriction of natural HPAIV to serotypes H5 and H7 is likely a result of their unique predisposition for acquisition of a polybasic HA cleavage site. PMID:22308331

  1. New aspects of influenza viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, M W; Arden, N H; Maassab, H F

    1992-01-01

    Influenza virus infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality with a worldwide social and economic impact. The past five years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of viral replication, evolution, and antigenic variation. Genetic analyses have clarified relationships between human and animal influenza virus strains, demonstrating the potential for the appearance of new pandemic reassortants as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes are exchanged in an intermediate host. Clinical trials of candidate live attenuated influenza virus vaccines have shown the cold-adapted reassortants to be a promising alternative to the currently available inactivated virus preparations. Modern molecular techniques have allowed serious consideration of new approaches to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines as the functions of the viral genes and proteins are further elucidated. The development of techniques whereby the genes of influenza viruses can be specifically altered to investigate those functions will undoubtedly accelerate the pace at which our knowledge expands. PMID:1310439

  2. Effects of the Q223R mutation in the hemagglutinin (HA) of egg-adapted pandemic 2009 (H1N1) influenza A virus on virus growth and binding of HA to human- and avian-type cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Suptawiwat, O; Jeamtua, W; Boonarkart, Ch; Kongchanagul, A; Puthawathana, P; Auewarakul, P

    2013-01-01

    The 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) and its initial reassortant vaccine strains did not grow well in embryonated eggs. The glutamine to arginine mutation at the amino acid position 223 (Q223R) of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene is the major mutation previously found in egg-adapted 2009 H1N1 strains and shown to enhance viral growth in embryonated eggs. However, the effect of this mutation on the receptor-binding preference had not been directly demonstrated. In this study, the Q223R mutation was shown to change the viral HA binding preference from the human-type receptor, α2,6-linked sialic acid, to the avian-type receptor, α2,3-linked sialic acid; and to enhance the viral growth in embryonated eggs but not in cell culture.

  3. 77 FR 63783 - Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin from the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... transmissibility of genetically modified H5N1 viruses among ferrets, together with the fact that the level of... HPAI H5 subtype viruses are regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and...

  4. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  5. Transmission of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-05-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to 'novel' viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages.

  6. Addition of N-glycosylation sites on the globular head of the H5 hemagglutinin induces the escape of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses from vaccine-induced immunity.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Pierre-Louis; Lorin, Valérie; Jouvion, Grégory; Da Costa, Bruno; Escriou, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses remain endemic in poultry in several countries and still constitute a pandemic threat. Since the early 20th century, we experienced four influenza A pandemics. H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 viruses that respectively emerged during 1968 and 2009 pandemics are still responsible for seasonal epidemics. These viruses evolve regularly by substitutions in antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin (HA), which prevent neutralization by antibodies directed against previous strains (antigenic drift). For seasonal H3N2 viruses, an addition of N-glycosylation sites (glycosites) on H3 contributed to this drift. Here, we questioned whether additional glycosites on H5 could induce an escape of H5N1 virus from neutralization, as it was observed for seasonal H3N2 viruses. Seven H5N1 mutants were produced by adding glycosites on H5. The most glycosylated virus escaped from neutralizing antibodies, in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a single additional glycosite was responsible for this escape.

  7. The T160A hemagglutinin substitution affects not only receptor binding property but also transmissibility of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 avian influenza virus in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Min; Li, Qunhui; Gao, Ruyi; He, Dongchang; Xu, Yunpeng; Xu, Haixu; Xu, Lijun; Wang, Xiaoquan; Hu, Jiao; Liu, Xiaowen; Hu, Shunlin; Peng, Daxin; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan

    2017-02-06

    We generated and characterized site-directed HA mutants on the genetic backbone of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 virus preferentially binding to α-2,3 receptors in order to identify the key determinants in hemagglutinin rendering the dual affinity to both α-2,3 (avian-type) and α-2,6 (human-type) linked sialic acid receptors of the current clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX subtype avian influenza reassortants. The results show that the T160A substitution resulted in the loss of a glycosylation site at 158N and led not only to enhanced binding specificity for human-type receptors but also transmissibility among guinea pigs, which could be considered as an important molecular marker for assessing pandemic potential of H5 subtype avian influenza isolates.

  8. Effects of specific amino acid changes on the antigenicity of hemagglutinin molecules of avian influenza isolates from Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acid (aa) changes between the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of a vaccine avian influenza virus and more recent field isolates were detected following prolonged vaccination of Mexican poultry. Using site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics (rg), viruses containing identical backbones but d...

  9. Influenza M2 envelope protein augments avian influenza hemagglutinin pseudotyping of lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    McKay, T; Patel, M; Pickles, R J; Johnson, L G; Olsen, J C

    2006-04-01

    Lentivirus-based gene transfer has the potential to efficiently deliver DNA-based therapies into non-dividing epithelial cells of the airway for the treatment of lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. However, significant barriers both to lung-specific gene transfer and to production of lentivirus vectors must be overcome before these vectors can be routinely used for applications to the lung. In this study, we investigated whether the ability to produce lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with fowl plague virus hemagglutinin (HA) could be improved by co-expression of influenza virus M2 in vector-producing cells. We found that M2 expression led to a 10-30-fold increase in production of HA-pseudotyped lentivirus vectors based upon equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Experiments using the M2 inhibitor amantadine and a drug-resistant mutant of M2 established that the ion channel activity of M2 was important for M2-dependent augmentation of vector production. Furthermore, the neuraminidase activity necessary for particle release from producer cells could also be incorporated into producer cells by co-expression of influenza NA cDNA. Lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with influenza envelope proteins were able to efficiently transduce via the apical membrane of polarized mouse tracheal cultures in vitro as well as mouse tracheal epithelia in vivo.

  10. Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Sun, Xiangjie; Chung, Changik; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2012-12-05

    A critical feature of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) is the efficient intracellular cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. H7N7 viruses also exist in equine species, and a unique feature of the equine H7N7 HA is the presence of an eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site. Here, we show that three histidine residues within the unique insertion of the equine H7N7 HA are essential for intracellular cleavage. An asparagine residue within the insertion-derived glycosylation site was also found to be essential for intracellular cleavage. The presence of the histidine residues also appear to be involved in triggering fusion, since mutation of the histidine residues resulted in a destabilizing effect. Importantly, the addition of a tetrabasic site and the eleven amino acid insertion conferred efficient intracellular cleavage to the HA of an H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Our studies show that acquisition of the eleven amino acid insertion offers an alternative mechanism for intracellular cleavage of influenza HA.

  11. Aureonitol, a Fungi-Derived Tetrahydrofuran, Inhibits Influenza Replication by Targeting Its Surface Glycoprotein Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Sacramento, Carolina Q.; Marttorelli, Andressa; Fintelman-Rodrigues, Natalia; de Freitas, Caroline S.; de Melo, Gabrielle R.; Rocha, Marco E. N.; Kaiser, Carlos R.; Rodrigues, Katia F.; da Costa, Gisela L.; Alves, Cristiane M.; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo; Barbosa, Jussara P.; Souza, Thiago Moreno L.

    2015-01-01

    The influenza virus causes acute respiratory infections, leading to high morbidity and mortality in groups of patients at higher risk. Antiviral drugs represent the first line of defense against influenza, both for seasonal infections and pandemic outbreaks. Two main classes of drugs against influenza are in clinical use: M2-channel blockers and neuraminidase inhibitors. Nevertheless, because influenza strains that are resistant to these antivirals have been described, the search for novel compounds with different mechanisms of action is necessary. Here, we investigated the anti-influenza activity of a fungi-derived natural product, aureonitol. This compound inhibited influenza A and B virus replication. This compound was more effective against influenza A(H3N2), with an EC50 of 100 nM. Aureonitol cytoxicity was also very low, with a CC50 value of 1426 μM. Aureonitol inhibited influenza hemagglutination and, consequently, significantly impaired virus adsorption. Molecular modeling studies revealed that aureonitol docked in the sialic acid binding site of hemagglutinin, forming hydrogen bonds with highly conserved residues. Altogether, our results indicate that the chemical structure of aureonitol is promising for future anti-influenza drug design. PMID:26462111

  12. Aureonitol, a Fungi-Derived Tetrahydrofuran, Inhibits Influenza Replication by Targeting Its Surface Glycoprotein Hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Sacramento, Carolina Q; Marttorelli, Andressa; Fintelman-Rodrigues, Natalia; de Freitas, Caroline S; de Melo, Gabrielle R; Rocha, Marco E N; Kaiser, Carlos R; Rodrigues, Katia F; da Costa, Gisela L; Alves, Cristiane M; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo; Barbosa, Jussara P; Souza, Thiago Moreno L

    2015-01-01

    The influenza virus causes acute respiratory infections, leading to high morbidity and mortality in groups of patients at higher risk. Antiviral drugs represent the first line of defense against influenza, both for seasonal infections and pandemic outbreaks. Two main classes of drugs against influenza are in clinical use: M2-channel blockers and neuraminidase inhibitors. Nevertheless, because influenza strains that are resistant to these antivirals have been described, the search for novel compounds with different mechanisms of action is necessary. Here, we investigated the anti-influenza activity of a fungi-derived natural product, aureonitol. This compound inhibited influenza A and B virus replication. This compound was more effective against influenza A(H3N2), with an EC50 of 100 nM. Aureonitol cytoxicity was also very low, with a CC50 value of 1426 μM. Aureonitol inhibited influenza hemagglutination and, consequently, significantly impaired virus adsorption. Molecular modeling studies revealed that aureonitol docked in the sialic acid binding site of hemagglutinin, forming hydrogen bonds with highly conserved residues. Altogether, our results indicate that the chemical structure of aureonitol is promising for future anti-influenza drug design.

  13. Antigenic drift in H5N1 avian influenza virus in poultry is driven by mutations in major antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin molecule analogous to those for human influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Cattoli, Giovanni; Milani, Adelaide; Temperton, Nigel; Zecchin, Bianca; Buratin, Alessandra; Molesti, Eleonora; Aly, Mona Meherez; Arafa, Abdel; Capua, Ilaria

    2011-09-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus has been endemic in poultry in Egypt since 2008, notwithstanding the implementation of mass vaccination and culling of infected birds. Extensive circulation of the virus has resulted in a progressive genetic evolution and an antigenic drift. In poultry, the occurrence of antigenic drift in avian influenza viruses is less well documented and the mechanisms remain to be clarified. To test the hypothesis that H5N1 antigenic drift is driven by mechanisms similar to type A influenza viruses in humans, we generated reassortant viruses, by reverse genetics, that harbored molecular changes identified in genetically divergent viruses circulating in the vaccinated population. Parental and reassortant phenotype viruses were antigenically analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and microneutralization (MN) assay. The results of the study indicate that the antigenic drift of H5N1 in poultry is driven by multiple mutations primarily occurring in major antigenic sites at the receptor binding subdomain, similarly to what has been described for human influenza H1 and H3 subtype viruses.

  14. A seven-segmented influenza A virus expressing the influenza C virus glycoprotein HEF.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qinshan; Brydon, Edward W A; Palese, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Influenza viruses are classified into three types: A, B, and C. The genomes of A- and B-type influenza viruses consist of eight RNA segments, whereas influenza C viruses only have seven RNAs. Both A and B influenza viruses contain two major surface glycoproteins: the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). Influenza C viruses have only one major surface glycoprotein, HEF (hemagglutinin-esterase fusion). By using reverse genetics, we generated two seven-segmented chimeric influenza viruses. Each possesses six RNA segments from influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS); the seventh RNA segment encodes either the influenza virus C/Johannesburg/1/66 HEF full-length protein or a chimeric protein HEF-Ecto, which consists of the HEF ectodomain and the HA transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions. To facilitate packaging of the heterologous segment, both the HEF and HEF-Ecto coding regions are flanked by HA packaging sequences. When introduced as an eighth segment with the NA packaging sequences, both viruses are able to stably express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, indicating a potential use for these viruses as vaccine vectors to carry foreign antigens. Finally, we show that incorporation of a GFP RNA segment enhances the growth of seven-segmented viruses, indicating that efficient influenza A viral RNA packaging requires the presence of eight RNA segments. These results support a selective mechanism of viral RNA recruitment to the budding site.

  15. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    PubMed

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  16. Vaccine protection of turkeys against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus with a recombinant HVT expressing the hemagglutinin gene of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in commercial poultry are a constant threat to animal health and food supplies. While vaccination can enhance protection and reduce the spread of disease, there is considerable evidence that the level of immunity required for protection varies...

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of the effects of single (S221P) and double (S221P and K216E) mutations in the hemagglutinin protein of influenza A H5N1 virus: a study on host receptor specificity.

    PubMed

    Behera, Abhisek Kumar; Chandra, Ishwar; Cherian, Sarah S

    2016-09-01

    Avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 circulating in animals continue to pose threats to human health. The binding preference of the viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA) to sialosaccharides of receptors is an important area for understanding mutations in the receptor binding site that could be the cause for avian-to-human transmission. In the present work, we studied the effect of two receptor binding site mutations, S221P singly and in combination with another mutation K216E in the HA protein of influenza A H5N1 viruses. Docking of sialic acid ligands corresponding to both avian and human receptors and molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes for wild and mutant strains of H5N1 viruses were carried out. The H5N1 strain possessing the S221P mutation indicated decreased binding to α2,3-linked sialic acids (avian receptor, SAα2,3Gal) when compared to the binding of the wild-type strain that did not possess the HA-221 mutation. The binding to α2,6-linked sialic acids (human receptor, SAα2,6Gal) was found to be comparable, indicating that the mutant strain shows limited dual receptor specificity. On the other hand, the S221P mutation in synergism with the K216E mutation in the binding site, resulted in increased binding affinity for SAα2,6Gal when compared to SAα2,3Gal, indicative of enhanced binding to human receptors. The in-depth study of the molecular interactions in the docked complexes could explain how co-occurring mutations in the HA viral protein can aid in providing fitness advantage to the virus, in the context of host receptor specificity in emerging variants of H5N1 influenza viruses.

  18. Universal antibodies and their applications to the quantitative determination of virtually all subtypes of the influenza A viral hemagglutinins.

    PubMed

    Chun, Stella; Li, Changgui; Van Domselaar, Gary; Wang, Junzhi; Farnsworth, Aaron; Cui, Xiaoyu; Rode, Harold; Cyr, Terry D; He, Runtao; Li, Xuguang

    2008-11-11

    The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved sequence in the hemagglutinins of all 16 subtypes of influenza A and two genetic lineages of influenza B viruses. Here, peptides selected by bioinformatics approach were modified and conjugated to overcome serious technical hurdles such as the high hydrophobicity and weak immunogenicity of the viral fusion peptides. Antibodies generated against fusion peptides demonstrated remarkable specificity against the viral sequences and robustness of quantitatively analyzing the viral hemagglutinins even under stringent conditions. As quantitatively revealed by antibody-binding experiments, the fusion peptides of diverse hemagglutinins are exposed to the same degree upon unfolding at neutral pH to the physiologically fusogenic state. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantitative determination of virtually all influenza vaccines using a single universal antibody.

  19. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Newsletters Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks of influenza in pigs. ...

  20. Amino Acids in Hemagglutinin Antigenic Site B Determine Antigenic and Receptor Binding Differences between A(H3N2)v and Ancestral Seasonal H3N2 Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoquan; Ilyushina, Natalia A; Lugovtsev, Vladimir Y; Bovin, Nicolai V; Couzens, Laura K; Gao, Jin; Donnelly, Raymond P; Eichelberger, Maryna C; Wan, Hongquan

    2017-01-15

    Influenza A H3N2 variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses, which have caused human infections in the United States in recent years, originated from human seasonal H3N2 viruses that were introduced into North American swine in the mid-1990s, but they are antigenically distinct from both the ancestral and current circulating H3N2 strains. A reference A(H3N2)v virus, A/Minnesota/11/2010 (MN/10), and a seasonal H3N2 strain, A/Beijing/32/1992 (BJ/92), were chosen to determine the molecular basis for the antigenic difference between A(H3N2)v and the ancestral viruses. Viruses containing wild-type and mutant MN/10 or BJ/92 hemagglutinins (HAs) were constructed and probed for reactivity with ferret antisera against MN/10 and BJ/92 in hemagglutination inhibition assays. Among the amino acids that differ between the MN/10 and BJ/92 HAs, those in antigenic site A had little impact on the antigenic phenotype. Within antigenic site B, mutations at residues 156, 158, 189, and 193 of MN/10 HA to those in BJ/92 switched the MN/10 antigenic phenotype to that of BJ/92. Mutations at residues 156, 157, 158, 189, and 193 of BJ/92 HA to amino acids present in MN/10 were necessary for BJ/92 to become antigenically similar to MN/10. The HA amino acid substitutions responsible for switching the antigenic phenotype also impacted HA binding to sialyl receptors that are usually present in the human respiratory tract. Our study demonstrates that antigenic site B residues play a critical role in determining both the unique antigenic phenotype and receptor specificity of A(H3N2)v viruses, a finding that may facilitate future surveillance and risk assessment of novel influenza viruses.

  1. [Influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Antoniukas, Linas

    2007-01-01

    Every year, especially during the cold season, many people catch an acute respiratory disease, namely flu. It is easy to catch this disease; therefore, it spreads very rapidly and often becomes an epidemic or a global pandemic. Airway inflammation and other body ailments, which form in a very short period, torment the patient several weeks. After that, the symptoms of the disease usually disappear as quickly as they emerged. The great epidemics of flu have rather unique characteristics; therefore, it is possible to identify descriptions of such epidemics in historic sources. Already in the 4th century bc, Hippocrates himself wrote about one of them. It is known now that flu epidemics emerge rather frequently, but there are no regular intervals between those events. The epidemics can differ in their consequences, but usually they cause an increased mortality of elderly people. The great flu epidemics of the last century took millions of human lives. In 1918-19, during "The Spanish" pandemic of flu, there were around 40-50 millions of deaths all over the world; "Pandemic of Asia" in 1957 took up to one million lives, etc. Influenza virus can cause various disorders of the respiratory system: from mild inflammations of upper airways to acute pneumonia that finally results in the patient's death. Scientist Richard E. Shope, who investigated swine flu in 1920, had a suspicion that the cause of this disease might be a virus. Already in 1933, scientists from the National Institute for Medical Research in London - Wilson Smith, Sir Christopher Andrewes, and Sir Patrick Laidlaw - for the first time isolated the virus, which caused human flu. Then scientific community started the exhaustive research of influenza virus, and the great interest in this virus and its unique features is still active even today.

  2. Seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine protects against 1918 Spanish influenza virus in ferrets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influenza H1N1 pandemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical disasters in human history. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the 1918 virus and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, the latter now a component of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV),...

  3. Thiazolides, a New Class of Anti-influenza Molecules Targeting Viral Hemagglutinin at the Post-translational Level*

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Jean François; La Frazia, Simone; Chiappa, Lucia; Ciucci, Alessandra; Santoro, M. Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of highly contagious influenza A virus strains, such as the new H1N1 swine influenza, represents a serious threat to global human health. Efforts to control emerging influenza strains focus on surveillance and early diagnosis, as well as development of effective vaccines and novel antiviral drugs. Herein we document the anti-influenza activity of the anti-infective drug nitazoxanide and its active circulating-metabolite tizoxanide and describe a class of second generation thiazolides effective against influenza A virus. Thiazolides inhibit the replication of H1N1 and different other strains of influenza A virus by a novel mechanism: they act at post-translational level by selectively blocking the maturation of the viral hemagglutinin at a stage preceding resistance to endoglycosidase H digestion, thus impairing hemagglutinin intracellular trafficking and insertion into the host plasma membrane, a key step for correct assembly and exit of the virus from the host cell. Targeting the maturation of the viral glycoprotein offers the opportunity to disrupt the production of infectious viral particles attacking the pathogen at a level different from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. The results indicate that thiazolides may represent a new class of antiviral drugs effective against influenza A infection. PMID:19638339

  4. Association between Hemagglutinin Stem-Reactive Antibodies and Influenza A/H1N1 Virus Infection during the 2009 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Le Nguyen Minh; Mai, Le Quynh; Bryant, Juliet E.; Thai, Pham Quang; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Yen, Nguyen Thi Thu; Duong, Tran Nhu; Thoang, Dang Dinh; Horby, Peter; Werheim, Heiman F. L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The discovery of influenza virus broadly neutralizing (BrN) antibodies prompted efforts to develop universal vaccines. Influenza virus stem-reactive (SR) broadly neutralizing antibodies have been detected by screening antibody phage display libraries. However, studies of SR BrN antibodies in human serum, and their association with natural infection, are limited. To address this, pre- and postpandemic sera from a prospective community cohort study in Vietnam were assessed for antibodies that inhibit SR BrN monoclonal antibody (MAb) (C179) binding to H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (H1N1pdm09). Of 270 households, 33 with at least one confirmed H1N1pdm09 illness or at least two seroconverters were included. The included households comprised 71 infected and 41 noninfected participants. Sera were tested as 2-fold dilutions between 1:5 and 1:40. Fifty percent C179 inhibition (IC50) titers did not exceed 10, although both IC50 titers and percent C179 inhibition by sera diluted 1:5 or 1:10 correlated with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) titers (all P < 0.001). Thirteen (12%) participants had detectable prepandemic IC50 titers, but only one reached a titer of 10. This proportion increased to 44% after the pandemic, when 39 participants had a titer of 10, and 67% of infected compared to 44% of noninfected had detectable IC50 titers (P < 0.001). The low levels of SR antibodies in prepandemic sera were not associated with subsequent H1N1pdm09 infection (P = 0.241), and the higher levels induced by H1N1pdm09 infection returned to prepandemic levels within 2 years. The findings indicate that natural infection induces only low titers of SR antibodies that are not sustained. IMPORTANCE Universal influenza vaccines could have substantial health and economic benefits. The focus of universal vaccine research has been to induce antibodies that prevent infection by diverse influenza virus strains. These so-called broadly neutralizing antibodies are

  5. Evolution of the hemagglutinin expressed by human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses circulating between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wedde, Marianne; Biere, Barbara; Wolff, Thorsten; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the evolution of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses circulating in Germany between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014. The phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of both subtypes revealed similar evolution of the HA variants that were also seen worldwide with minor exceptions. The analysis showed seven distinct HA clades for A(H1N1)pdm09 and six HA clades for A(H3N2) viruses. Herald strains of both subtypes appeared sporadically since 2008-2009. Regarding A(H1N1)pdm09, herald strains of HA clade 3 and 4 were detected late in the 2009-2010 season. With respect to A(H3N2), we found herald strains of HA clade 3, 4 and 7 between 2009 and 2012. Those herald strains were predominantly seen for minor and not for major HA clades. Generally, amino acid substitutions were most frequently found in the globular domain, including substitutions near the antigenic sites or the receptor binding site. Differences between both influenza A subtypes were seen with respect to the position of the indicated substitutions in the HA. For A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, we found more substitutions in the stem region than in the antigenic sites. In contrast, in A(H3N2) viruses most changes were identified in the major antigenic sites and five changes of potential glycosylation sites were identified in the head of the HA monomer. Interestingly, we found in seasons with less influenza activity a relatively high increase of substitutions in the head of the HA in both subtypes. This might be explained by the fact that mutations under negative selection are subsequently compensated by secondary mutations to restore important functions e.g. receptor binding properties. A better knowledge of basic evolution strategies of influenza viruses will contribute to the refinement of predictive mathematical models for identifying novel antigenic drift variants.

  6. Recombinant Hemagglutinin of Avian Influenza Virus H5 Expressed in the Chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Evaluation of Its Immunogenicity in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Huerta, Inkar; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Téllez, Guillermo; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Brieba, Luis G; Esquivel-Ramos, Elizabeth; Beltrán-López, Josué I; Velazquez, Gilberto; Fernandez-Siurob, Isidro

    2016-12-01

    Globally, avian influenza (AI) is a serious problem in poultry farming. Despite vaccination, the prevalence of AI in México highlights the need for new approaches to control AI and to reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. Recombinant proteins from avian influenza virus (AIV) have been expressed in different organisms, such as plants. The present study investigated the feasibility of designing and expressing the HA protein of AIV in the transplastomic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel approach for AIV control and taking advantage of culture conditions, its reproductive range, and safe use in consideration of the generally regarded as safe food ingredient regulatory classification. The results showed that the HA protein of AIV in C. reinhardtii presents antigenic activity by western blot test and through its application in chickens, demonstrating its feasibility as a recombinant antigen against AIV.

  7. Equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Gabriele A

    2014-12-01

    For decades the horse has been viewed as an isolated or "dead-end" host for influenza A viruses, with equine influenza virus being considered as relatively stable genetically. Although equine influenza viruses are genetically more stable than those of human lineage, they are by no means in evolutionary stasis. Moreover, recent transmission of equine-lineage influenza viruses to dogs also challenges the horse's status as a dead-end host. This article reviews recent developments in the epidemiology and evolution of equine influenza virus. In addition, the clinical presentation of equine influenza infection, diagnostic techniques, and vaccine recommendations are briefly summarized.

  8. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  9. Glycosylation on Hemagglutinin Affects the Virulence and Pathogenicity of Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza A Virus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongtao; Bradley, Konrad C.; Cao, Jiyue; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin; Zhou, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    The two glycosylation sites (Asn142 and Asn177) were observed in the HA of most human seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses, while none in pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A (pH1N1) viruses. We investigated the effect of the two glycosylation sites on viral virulence and pathogenicity in mice using recombinant pH1N1. The H1N1/144 and H1N1/177 mutants which gained potential glycosylation sites Asn142 and Asn177 on HA respectively were generated from A/Mexico/4486/2009(H1N1) by site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics, the same as the H1N1/144+177 gained both glycosylation sites Asn142 and Asn177. The biological characteristics and antigenicity of the mutants were compared with wild-type pH1N1. The virulence and pathogenicity of recombinants were also detected in mice. Our results showed that HA antigenicity and viral affinity for receptor may change with introduction of the glycosylation sites. Compared with wild-type pH1N1, the mutant H1N1/177 displayed an equivalent virus titer in chicken embryos and mice, and increased virulence and pathogenicity in mice. The H1N1/144 displayed the highest virus titer in mice lung. However, the H1N1/144+177 displayed the most serious alveolar inflammation and pathogenicity in infected mice. The introduction of the glycosylation sites Asn144 and Asn177 resulted in the enhancement on virulence and pathogenicity of pH1N1 in mice, and was also associated with the change of HA antigenicity and the viral affinity for receptor. PMID:23637827

  10. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-06-11

    Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited pathogenicity in mice and ferrets higher than that in an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential.

  11. Selective Pressure to Increase Charge in Immunodominant Epitopes of the H3 Hemagglutinin Influenza Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Keyao; Long, Jinxue; Sun, Haoxin; Tobin, Gregory J.; Nara, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary speed and the consequent immune escape of H3N2 influenza A virus make it an interesting evolutionary system. Charged amino acid residues are often significant contributors to the free energy of binding for protein–protein interactions, including antibody–antigen binding and ligand–receptor binding. We used Markov chain theory and maximum likelihood estimation to model the evolution of the number of charged amino acids on the dominant epitope in the hemagglutinin protein of circulating H3N2 virus strains. The number of charged amino acids increased in the dominant epitope B of the H3N2 virus since introduction in humans in 1968. When epitope A became dominant in 1989, the number of charged amino acids increased in epitope A and decreased in epitope B. Interestingly, the number of charged residues in the dominant epitope of the dominant circulating strain is never fewer than that in the vaccine strain. We propose these results indicate selective pressure for charged amino acids that increase the affinity of the virus epitope for water and decrease the affinity for host antibodies. The standard PAM model of generic protein evolution is unable to capture these trends. The reduced alphabet Markov model (RAMM) model we introduce captures the increased selective pressure for charged amino acids in the dominant epitope of hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza (R2 > 0.98 between 1968 and 1988). The RAMM model calibrated to historical H3N2 influenza virus evolution in humans fit well to the H3N2/Wyoming virus evolution data from Guinea pig animal model studies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9405-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21086120

  12. A new approach to an influenza live vaccine: modification of the cleavage site of hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Stech, J; Garn, H; Wegmann, M; Wagner, R; Klenk, H-D

    2005-06-01

    A promising approach to reduce the impact of influenza is the use of an attenuated, live virus as a vaccine. Using reverse genetics, we generated a mutant of strain A/WSN/33 with a modified cleavage site within its hemagglutinin, which depends on proteolytic activation by elastase. Unlike the wild-type, which requires trypsin, this mutant is strictly dependent on elastase. Both viruses grow equally well in cell culture. In contrast to the lethal wild-type virus, the mutant is entirely attenuated in mice. At a dose of 10(5) plaque-forming units, it induced complete protection against lethal challenge. This approach allows the conversion of any epidemic strain into a genetically homologous attenuated virus.

  13. Characterization of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from wild birds possessing atypical hemagglutinin polybasic cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Usui, Tatsufumi; Soda, Kosuke; Tomioka, Yukiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Yabuta, Toshiyo; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    Since 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been distributed worldwide. These viruses, which were reported to be highly virulent in chickens by intravenous inoculation, have a consensus HPAI motif PLRERRRKR at the HA cleavage site. However, two-clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 viruses which we isolated from wild migratory birds in late 2014 in Japan possessed atypical HA cleavage sequences. A swan isolate, Tottori/C6, had a novel polybasic cleavage sequence, PLGERRRKR, and another isolate from a dead mandarin duck, Gifu/01, had a heterogeneous mixture of consensus PLRERRRKR and variant PLRERRRRKR sequences. The polybasic HA cleavage site is the prime virulence determinant of AIVs. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of these H5N8 isolates in chickens by intravenous inoculation. When 10(6) EID50 of these viruses were intravenously inoculated into chickens, the mean death time associated with Tottori/C6 was substantially longer (>6.1 days) than that associated with Gifu/01 (2.5 days). These viruses had comparable abilities to replicate in tissue culture cells in the presence and absence of exogenous trypsin, but the growth of Tottori/C6 was hampered. These results indicate that the novel cleavage motif of Tottori/C6 did not directly affect the infectivity of the virus, but Tottori/C6 caused attenuated pathogenicity in chickens because of hampered replication efficiency. It is important to test for the emergence of diversified HPAIVs, because introduction of HPAIVs with a lower virulence like Tottori/C6 might hinder early detection of affected birds in poultry farms.

  14. Genetic and antigenic characterization of H1 influenza viruses from United States swine from 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine play an important role in the evolution of influenza A viruses. Prior to the introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus from humans into pigs, four phylogenetic clusters of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H1 influenza viruses could be found in U.S. swine. Viruses from the classical H1N1 sw...

  15. Molecular analysis of hemagglutinin-1 fragment of avian influenza H5N1 viruses isolated from chicken farms in Indonesia from 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Mahardika, Gusti N; Jonas, Melina; Murwijati, Theresia; Fitria, Nur; Suartha, I Nyoman; Suartini, I Gusti A A; Wibawan, I Wayan Teguh

    2016-04-15

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1 (AIV-H5N1) has been circulating in Indonesia since 2003. To understand the genetic diversity of these viruses, and to predict vaccine efficacy, the hemaglutinin-1 (HA-1) fragment of viruses isolated from chicken farms in Indonesia from 2008 to 2010 was sequenced and analyzed. The effects of these molecular changes were investigated in challenge experiments and HI assays of homologous and heterologous strains. Molecular analysis showed that these AIV-H5N1 isolates had evolved into three distinct sub-lineages from an ancestor circulating since 2003. Although no significant positive selection of residues was detected, 12 negatively selected sites were identified (p<0.05). Moreover, four sites showed evidence of significant episodic diversifying selection. The findings indicated complete protectivity and high HI titers with homologous strains, compared with protectivity ranging from 40 to 100% and lower HI titers with heterologous strains resulting from polymorphisms at antigenic sites. Our findings provide valuable insight into the molecular evolution of AIV and have important implications for vaccine efficacy and future vaccination strategies.

  16. Computational design of protein interactions: designing proteins that neutralize influenza by inhibiting its hemagglutinin surface protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleishman, Sarel

    2012-02-01

    Molecular recognition underlies all life processes. Design of interactions not seen in nature is a test of our understanding of molecular recognition and could unlock the vast potential of subtle control over molecular interaction networks, allowing the design of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for basic and applied research. We developed the first general method for designing protein interactions. The method starts by computing a region of high affinity interactions between dismembered amino acid residues and the target surface and then identifying proteins that can harbor these residues. Designs are tested experimentally for binding the target surface and successful ones are affinity matured using yeast cell surface display. Applied to the conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin we designed two unrelated proteins that, following affinity maturation, bound hemagglutinin at subnanomolar dissociation constants. Co-crystal structures of hemagglutinin bound to the two designed binders were within 1Angstrom RMSd of their models, validating the accuracy of the design strategy. One of the designed proteins inhibits the conformational changes that underlie hemagglutinin's cell-invasion functions and blocks virus infectivity in cell culture, suggesting that such proteins may in future serve as diagnostics and antivirals against a wide range of pathogenic influenza strains. We have used this method to obtain experimentally validated binders of several other target proteins, demonstrating the generality of the approach. We discuss the combination of modeling and high-throughput characterization of design variants which has been key to the success of this approach, as well as how we have used the data obtained in this project to enhance our understanding of molecular recognition. References: Science 332:816 JMB, in press Protein Sci 20:753

  17. Avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Won; Saif, Yehia M

    2009-07-01

    Avian influenza viruses do not typically replicate efficiently in humans, indicating direct transmission of avian influenza virus to humans is unlikely. However, since 1997, several cases of human infections with different subtypes (H5N1, H7N7, and H9N2) of avian influenza viruses have been identified and raised the pandemic potential of avian influenza virus in humans. Although circumstantial evidence of human to human transmission exists, the novel avian-origin influenza viruses isolated from humans lack the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person. However, the on-going human infection with avian-origin H5N1 viruses increases the likelihood of the generation of human-adapted avian influenza virus with pandemic potential. Thus, a better understanding of the biological and genetic basis of host restriction of influenza viruses is a critical factor in determining whether the introduction of a novel influenza virus into the human population will result in a pandemic. In this article, we review current knowledge of type A influenza virus in which all avian influenza viruses are categorized.

  18. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, Anwar M.; Van Domselaar, Gary; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D.; Sui, Jianhua; He, Runtao; Marasco, Wayne A.; Li, Xuguang

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  19. Closed and Semiclosed Interhelical Structures in Membrane vs Closed and Open Structures in Detergent for the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Fusion Peptide and Correlation of Hydrophobic Surface Area with Fusion Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ujjayini; Xie, Li; Jia, Lihui; Liang, Shuang; Weliky, David P

    2015-06-24

    The ∼25 N-terminal "HAfp" residues of the HA2 subunit of the influenza virus hemagglutinin protein are critical for fusion between the viral and endosomal membranes at low pH. Earlier studies of HAfp in detergent support (1) N-helix/turn/C-helix structure at pH 5 with open interhelical geometry and N-helix/turn/C-coil structure at pH 7; or (2) N-helix/turn/C-helix at both pHs with closed interhelical geometry. These different structures led to very different models of HAfp membrane location and different models of catalysis of membrane fusion by HAfp. In this study, the interhelical geometry of membrane-associated HAfp is probed by solid-state NMR. The data are well-fitted to a population mixture of closed and semiclosed structures. The two structures have similar interhelical geometries and are planar with hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces. The different structures of HAfp in detergent vs membrane could be due to the differences in interaction with the curved micelle vs flat membrane with better geometric matching between the closed and semiclosed structures and the membrane. The higher fusogenicity of longer sequences and low pH is correlated with hydrophobic surface area and consequent increased membrane perturbation.

  20. SYBR green-based real-time reverse transcription-PCR for typing and subtyping of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of avian influenza viruses and comparison to standard serological subtyping tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsukamoto, K.; Javier, P.C.; Shishido, M.; Noguchi, D.; Pearce, J.; Kang, H.-M.; Jeong, O.M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Nakanishi, K.; Ashizawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) infections of wild birds and poultry worldwide emphasize the need for global surveillance of wild birds. To support the future surveillance activities, we developed a SYBR green-based, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for detecting nucleoprotein (NP) genes and subtyping 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes simultaneously. Primers were improved by focusing on Eurasian or North American lineage genes; the number of mixed-base positions per primer was set to five or fewer, and the concentration of each primer set was optimized empirically. Also, 30 cycles of amplification of 1:10 dilutions of cDNAs from cultured viruses effectively reduced minor cross- or nonspecific reactions. Under these conditions, 346 HA and 345 NA genes of 349 AIVs were detected, with average sensitivities of NP, HA, and NA genes of 10 1.5, 10 2.3, and 10 3.1 50% egg infective doses, respectively. Utility of rRT-PCR for subtyping AIVs was compared with that of current standard serological tests by using 104 recent migratory duck virus isolates. As a result, all HA genes and 99% of the NA genes were genetically subtyped, while only 45% of HA genes and 74% of NA genes were serologically subtyped. Additionally, direct subtyping of AIVs in fecal samples was possible by 40 cycles of amplification: approximately 70% of HA and NA genes of NP gene-positive samples were successfully subtyped. This validation study indicates that rRT-PCR with optimized primers and reaction conditions is a powerful tool for subtyping varied AIVs in clinical and cultured samples. Copyright ?? 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Serial passage in ducks of a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from a chicken reveals a high mutation rate in the hemagglutinin that is likely due to selection in the host.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Callie; Williams, Susan M; Jones, Les; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A; Mundt, Egbert

    2015-10-01

    A comparative study of the ability of three low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) isolates to be transmitted from duck to duck was performed. Pekin ducks were inoculated with two LPAIV isolates from chickens (A/Ck/PA/13609/93 [H5N2], H5N2-Ck; A/Ck/TX/167280-4/02 [H5N3], H5N3-Ck) and one isolate from a wild bird (A/Mute Swan/ MI/451072/06 [H5N1], H5N1-WB). During the establishment of the passage model, only two viruses (H5N1, H5N2) were able to be transmitted from duck to duck. Transmission of these isolates was dependent on the inoculation dose and route of infection. Analysis of swab samples taken from ducks revealed that the wild-bird isolate, H5N1-WB, was primarily shed via the cloacal route. The chicken isolate, H5N2-Ck, was isolated from cloacal as well as oro-pharyngeal swabs. Analysis of the amino acid sequences of the viral surface glycoproteins showed that the hemagglutinin (HA) of the H5N2-Ck isolate was under a stronger evolutionary pressure than the HA of the H5N1-WB isolate, as indicated by the presence of a larger number of amino acid changes observed during passage. The neuraminidase (NA) of both viruses showed either no (in the case of H5N1-WB) or very few amino acid changes.

  2. Comparative analysis of influenza A(H3N2) virus hemagglutinin specific IgG subclass and IgA responses in children and adults after influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Alessandro; Tete, Sarah M; Mohn, Kristin G-I; Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Gianchecchi, Elena; Montomoli, Emanuele; Brokstad, Karl A; Cox, Rebecca J

    2017-01-03

    Two different influenza vaccines are generally used in many countries; trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3) and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3). Studies comparing the antibody response to IIV3 and LAIV3 commonly investigate the seroprotective response by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. However, there is limited data regarding comparative analysis of IgG subclass and IgA responses induced by LAIV3 and IIV3. Fifteen children <5years received 2 doses of LAIV3 while 14 children aged 10-17years received one dose. In addition, 15 adults were vaccinated with either intranasal LAIV3 or intramuscular IIV3. We analyzed the H3N2 humoral responses by HI assay and the hemagglutinin (HA) specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgA1 responses by ELISA. Furthermore, we investigated the avidity of induced IgG antibodies. Pre-existing seroprotective HI antibodies were present in adults (73%) previously vaccinated with IIV3. Vaccination resulted in a significant increase in HI titers in all groups, except LAIV3 vaccinated adults. Furthermore, a negative correlation between age and HI titers in LAIV3 vaccinated subjects was observed post-vaccination. LAIV3 in children and IIV3 in adults induced HA-specific IgG1, low IgG3 but no IgG2 or IgG4. Moreover, significant IgA1 responses were only induced in children. Interestingly, IIV3 and LAIV3 induced IgG antibodies with comparable and significantly augmented avidity post-vaccination in children and adults. Our results suggest that age and/or exposure history play a significant role in determining the antibody response. Clinical trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01003288 and NCT01866540.

  3. Filamentous Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Badham, Matthew D.; Rossman, Jeremy S.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a pathogen of global medical importance causing significant health and socio-economic costs every year. Influenza virus is an unusual pathogen in that it is pleomorphic, capable of forming virions ranging in shape from spherical to filamentous. Despite decades of research on the influenza virus, much remains unknown about the formation of filamentous influenza viruses and their role in the viral replication cycle. Here, we discuss what is known about influenza virus assembly and budding, focusing on the viral and host factors that are involved in the determination of viral morphology. Whilst the biological function of the filamentous morphology remains unknown, recent results suggest a role in facilitating viral spread in vivo. We discuss these results and speculate on the consequences of viral morphology during influenza virus infection of the human respiratory tract. PMID:28042529

  4. Discovering neutralizing antibodies targeting the stem epitope of H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin with synthetic phage-displayed antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chao-Ping; Chen, Ing-Chien; Yu, Chung-Ming; Peng, Hung-Pin; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Ma, Shiou-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Ching; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Yang, An-Suei

    2015-10-12

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies developed from the IGHV1-69 germline gene are known to bind to the stem region of hemagglutinin in diverse influenza viruses but the sequence determinants for the antigen recognition, including neutralization potency and binding affinity, are not clearly understood. Such understanding could inform designs of synthetic antibody libraries targeting the stem epitope on hemagglutinin, leading to artificially designed antibodies that are functionally advantageous over antibodies from natural antibody repertoires. In this work, the sequence space of the complementarity determining regions of a broadly neutralizing antibody (F10) targeting the stem epitope on the hemagglutinin of a strain of H1N1 influenza virus was systematically explored; the elucidated antibody-hemagglutinin recognition principles were used to design a phage-displayed antibody library, which was then used to discover neutralizing antibodies against another strain of H1N1 virus. More than 1000 functional antibody candidates were selected from the antibody library and were shown to neutralize the corresponding strain of influenza virus with up to 7 folds higher potency comparing with the parent F10 antibody. The antibody library could be used to discover functionally effective antibodies against other H1N1 influenza viruses, supporting the notion that target-specific antibody libraries can be designed and constructed with systematic sequence-function information.

  5. 3DFlu: database of sequence and structural variability of the influenza hemagglutinin at population scale

    PubMed Central

    Mazzocco, Giovanni; Lazniewski, Michal; Migdał, Piotr; Szczepińska, Teresa; Radomski, Jan P.; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    The influenza virus type A (IVA) is an important pathogen which is able to cause annual epidemics and even pandemics. This fact is the consequence of the antigenic shifts and drifts capabilities of IVA, caused by the high mutation rate and the reassortment capabilities of the virus. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein constitutes the main IVA antigen and has a crucial role in the infection mechanism, being responsible for the recognition of host-specific sialic acid derivatives. Despite the relative abundance of HA sequence and serological studies, comparative structure-based analysis of HA are less investigated. The 3DFlu database contains well annotated HA representatives: 1192 models and 263 crystallographic structures. The relations between these proteins are defined using different metrics and are visualized as a network in the provided web interface. Moreover structural and sequence comparison of the proteins can be explored. Metadata information (e.g. protein identifier, IVA strain, year and location of infection) can enhance the exploration of the presented data. With our database researchers gain a useful tool for the exploration of high quality HA models, viewing and comparing changes in the HA viral subtypes at several information levels (sequence, structure, ESP). The complete and integrated view of those relations might be useful to determine the efficiency of transmission, pathogenicity and for the investigation of evolutionary tendencies of the influenza virus. Database URL: http://nucleus3d.cent.uw.edu.pl/influenza PMID:27694207

  6. Adjuvant-Free Immunization with Hemagglutinin-Fc Fusion Proteins as an Approach to Influenza Vaccines ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Silvia; Ren, Junyuan; Phapugrangkul, Pongsathon; Colaco, Camilo A.; Bailey, Christopher R.; Shelton, Holly; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel J.; Barclay, Wendy S.; Jones, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    The hemagglutinins (HAs) of human H1 and H3 influenza viruses and avian H5 influenza virus were produced as recombinant fusion proteins with the human immunoglobulin Fc domain. Recombinant HA-human immunoglobulin Fc domain (HA-HuFc) proteins were secreted from baculovirus-infected insect cells as glycosylated oligomer HAs of the anticipated molecular mass, agglutinated red blood cells, were purified on protein A, and were used to immunize mice in the absence of adjuvant. Immunogenicity was demonstrated for all subtypes, with the serum samples demonstrating subtype-specific hemagglutination inhibition, epitope specificity similar to that seen with virus infection, and neutralization. HuFc-tagged HAs are potential candidates for gene-to-vaccine approaches to influenza vaccination. PMID:21191017

  7. Functional balance of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities accompanies the emergence of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Zhu, Xueyong; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M; Yu, Wenli; Paulson, James C; Wilson, Ian A

    2012-09-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic is the first human pandemic in decades and was of swine origin. Although swine are believed to be an intermediate host in the emergence of new human influenza viruses, there is still little known about the host barriers that keep swine influenza viruses from entering the human population. We surveyed swine progenitors and human viruses from the 2009 pandemic and measured the activities of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are the two viral surface proteins that interact with host glycan receptors. A functional balance of these two activities (HA binding and NA cleavage) is found in human viruses but not in the swine progenitors. The human 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus exhibited both low HA avidity for glycan receptors as a result of mutations near the receptor binding site and weak NA enzymatic activity. Thus, a functional match between the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase appears to be necessary for efficient transmission between humans and may be an indicator of the pandemic potential of zoonotic viruses.

  8. Efficacy of Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccines Against the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species. Although its hemagglutinin gene is related to North Ameri...

  9. Efficacy of Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccines Against 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species (1). Although its hemagglutinin gene is relat...

  10. An Influenza A/H1N1/2009 Hemagglutinin Vaccine Produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Yáñez, José M.; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Mendoza-Ochoa, Gonzalo I.; García-Echauri, Sergio A.; López-Pacheco, Felipe; Bulnes-Abundis, David; Salgado-Gallegos, Johari; Lara-Mayorga, Itzel M.; Webb-Vargas, Yenny; León-Angel, Felipe O.; Rivero-Aranda, Ramón E.; Oropeza-Almazán, Yuriana; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Zertuche-Guerra, Manuel I.; DuBois, Rebecca M.; White, Stephen W.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Russell, Charles J.; Alvarez, Mario M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The A/H1N1/2009 influenza pandemic made evident the need for faster and higher-yield methods for the production of influenza vaccines. Platforms based on virus culture in mammalian or insect cells are currently under investigation. Alternatively, expression of fragments of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein in prokaryotic systems can potentially be the most efficacious strategy for the manufacture of large quantities of influenza vaccine in a short period of time. Despite experimental evidence on the immunogenic potential of HA protein constructs expressed in bacteria, it is still generally accepted that glycosylation should be a requirement for vaccine efficacy. Methodology/Principal Findings We expressed the globular HA receptor binding domain, referred to here as HA63–286-RBD, of the influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus in Escherichia coli using a simple, robust and scalable process. The recombinant protein was refolded and purified from the insoluble fraction of the cellular lysate as a single species. Recombinant HA63–286-RBD appears to be properly folded, as shown by analytical ultracentrifugation and bio-recognition assays. It binds specifically to serum antibodies from influenza A/H1N1/2009 patients and was found to be immunogenic, to be capable of triggering the production of neutralizing antibodies, and to have protective activity in the ferret model. Conclusions/Significance Projections based on our production/purification data indicate that this strategy could yield up to half a billion doses of vaccine per month in a medium-scale pharmaceutical production facility equipped for bacterial culture. Also, our findings demonstrate that glycosylation is not a mandatory requirement for influenza vaccine efficacy. PMID:20661476

  11. In the Shadow of Hemagglutinin: A Growing Interest in Influenza Viral Neuraminidase and Its Role as a Vaccine Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Wohlbold, Teddy John; Krammer, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of vaccine prophylaxis and antiviral therapeutics, the influenza virus continues to have a significant, annual impact on the morbidity and mortality of human beings, highlighting the continued need for research in the field. Current vaccine strategies predominantly focus on raising a humoral response against hemagglutinin (HA)—the more abundant, immunodominant glycoprotein on the surface of the influenza virus. In fact, anti-HA antibodies are often neutralizing, and are used routinely to assess vaccine immunogenicity. Neuraminidase (NA), the other major glycoprotein on the surface of the influenza virus, has historically served as the target for antiviral drug therapy and is much less studied in the context of humoral immunity. Yet, the quest to discern the exact importance of NA-based protection is decades old. Also, while antibodies against the NA glycoprotein fail to prevent infection of the influenza virus, anti-NA immunity has been shown to lessen the severity of disease, decrease viral lung titers in animal models, and reduce viral shedding. Growing evidence is intimating the possible gains of including the NA antigen in vaccine design, such as expanded strain coverage and increased overall immunogenicity of the vaccine. After giving a tour of general influenza virology, this review aims to discuss the influenza A virus neuraminidase while focusing on both the historical and present literature on the use of NA as a possible vaccine antigen. PMID:24960271

  12. Generation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Avian Influenza H5N1 Hemagglutinin Protein.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ankita; Mallajosyula, V Vamsee Aditya; Mishra, Nripendra Nath; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has in the past breached the species barrier from infected domestic poultry to humans in close contact. Although human-to-human transmission has previously not been reported, HPAI H5N1 virus has pandemic potential owing to gain of function mutation(s) and/or genetic reassortment with human influenza A viruses. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been used for diagnosis as well as specific therapeutic candidates in several disease conditions including viral infections in humans. In this study, we describe the preliminary characterization of four murine MAbs developed against recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) protein of avian H5N1 A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 virus that are either highly specific or broadly reactive against HA from other H5N1 subtype viruses, such as A/Hong Kong/213/03, A/Common magpie/Hong Kong/2256/2006, and A/Barheaded goose/Quinghai/14/2008. The antibody binding is specific to H5N1 HAs, as none of the antibodies bound H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, or B/Brisbane/60/2008 HAs. Out of the four MAbs, one of them (MA-7) also reacted weakly with the rHA protein of H7N9 A/Anhui/1/2013. All four MAbs bound H5 HA (A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005) with high affinity with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) ranging between 0.05 and 10.30 nM. One of the MAbs (MA-1) also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (HI titer; 31.25 μg/mL) against the homologous A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 H5N1 virus. These antibodies may be useful in developing diagnostic tools for detection of influenza H5N1 virus infection.

  13. Structural Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Receptor Specificity from the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-02-13

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion. The HA receptor-binding specificity is a key determinant for the host range and transmissibility of influenza viruses. In human pandemics of the 20th century, the HA normally has acquired specificity for human-like receptors before widespread infection. Crystal structures of the H1 HA from the 2009 human pandemic (A/California/04/2009 [CA04]) in complex with human and avian receptor analogs reveal conserved recognition of the terminal sialic acid of the glycan ligands. However, favorable interactions beyond the sialic acid are found only for {alpha}2-6-linked glycans and are mediated by Asp190 and Asp225, which hydrogen bond with Gal-2 and GlcNAc-3. For {alpha}2-3-linked glycan receptors, no specific interactions beyond the terminal sialic acid are observed. Our structural and glycan microarray analyses, in the context of other high-resolution HA structures with {alpha}2-6- and {alpha}2-3-linked glycans, now elucidate the structural basis of receptor-binding specificity for H1 HAs in human and avian viruses and provide a structural explanation for the preference for {alpha}2-6 siaylated glycan receptors for the 2009 pandemic swine flu virus.

  14. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  15. Characterization of Influenza Vaccine Hemagglutinin Complexes by Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Image Analyses Reveals Structural Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, Dustin M.; Gallagher, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus afflicts millions of people worldwide on an annual basis. There is an ever-present risk that animal viruses will cross the species barrier to cause epidemics and pandemics resulting in great morbidity and mortality. Zoonosis outbreaks, such as the H7N9 outbreak, underscore the need to better understand the molecular organization of viral immunogens, such as recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) proteins, used in influenza virus subunit vaccines in order to optimize vaccine efficacy. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis, we show that recombinant H7 HA in vaccines formed macromolecular complexes consisting of variable numbers of HA subunits (range, 6 to 8). In addition, HA complexes were distributed across at least four distinct structural classes (polymorphisms). Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and molecular modeling indicated that HA was in the prefusion state and suggested that the oligomerization and the structural polymorphisms observed were due to hydrophobic interactions involving the transmembrane regions. These experiments suggest that characterization of the molecular structures of influenza virus HA complexes used in subunit vaccines will lead to better understanding of the differences in vaccine efficacy and to the optimization of subunit vaccines to prevent influenza virus infection. PMID:27074939

  16. Influenza vaccines: from whole virus preparations to recombinant protein technology.

    PubMed

    Huber, Victor C

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against influenza represents our most effective form of prevention. Historical approaches toward vaccine creation and production have yielded highly effective vaccines that are safe and immunogenic. Despite their effectiveness, these historical approaches do not allow for the incorporation of changes into the vaccine in a timely manner. In 2013, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that induces immunity toward the influenza virus hemagglutinin was approved for use in the USA. This vaccine represents the first approved vaccine formulation that does not require an influenza virus intermediate for production. This review presents a brief history of influenza vaccines, with insight into the potential future application of vaccines generated using recombinant technology.

  17. Genome Stability of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Based on Analysis of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes.

    PubMed

    Espínola, Emilio E

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus (H1N1), which arose in 2009, constituted the fourth pandemic after the cases of 1918, 1957, and 1968. This new variant was formed by a triple reassortment, with genomic segments from swine, avian, and human influenza origins. The objective of this study was to analyze sequences of hemagglutinin (n=2038) and neuraminidase (n=1273) genes, in order to assess the extent of diversity among circulating 2009-2010 strains, estimate if these genes evolved through positive, negative, or neutral selection models of evolution during the pandemic phase, and analyze the worldwide percentage of detection of important amino acid mutations that could enhance the viral performance, such as transmissibility or resistance to drugs. A continuous surveillance by public health authorities will be critical to monitor the appearance of new influenza variants, especially in animal reservoirs such as swine and birds, in order to prevent the potential animal-human transmission of viruses with pandemic potential.

  18. Enhancement of the safety of live influenza vaccine by attenuating mutations from cold-adapted hemagglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yoon Jae; Jang, Yo Han; Kim, Paul; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Young Jae; Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Kyusik; Seong, Baik Lin

    2016-04-15

    In our previous study, X-31ca-based H5N1 LAIVs, in particular, became more virulent in mice than the X-31ca MDV, possibly by the introduction of the surface antigens of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, implying that additional attenuation is needed in this cases to increase the safety level of the vaccine. In this report we suggest an approach to further increase the safety of LAIV through additional cold-adapted mutations in the hemagglutinin. The cold-adaptation of X-31 virus resulted in four amino acid mutations in the HA. We generated a panel of 7:1 reassortant viruses each carrying the hemagglutinins with individual single amino acid mutations. We examined their phenotypes and found a major attenuating mutation, N81K. This attenuation marker conferred additional temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotype to the LAIV. Our data indicate that the cold-adapted mutation in the HA confers additional attenuation to the LAIV strain, without compromising its productivity and immune response. - Highlights: • Cold-adaptation process induced four amino acid mutations in the HA of X-31 virus. • The four mutations in the HA also contributed to attenuation of the X-31ca virus • N81K mutation was the most significant marker for the attenuation of X-31ca virus. • Introduction of N81K mutation into H3N2 LAIV further attenuated the vaccine. • This approach provides a useful guideline for enhancing the safety of the LAIVs.

  19. Avian influenza virus isolates from wild birds replicate and cause disease in a mouse model of infection.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Elizabeth A; Jones, Cheryl A; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Tompkins, S Mark

    2010-04-10

    The direct transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses to humans in Eurasia and subsequent disease has sparked research efforts leading to better understanding of HPAI virus transmission and pathogenicity in mammals. There has been minimal focus on examining the capacity of circulating low pathogenic wild bird avian influenza viruses to infect mammals. We have utilized a mouse model for influenza virus infection to examine 28 North American wild bird avian influenza virus isolates that include the hemagglutinin subtypes H2, H3, H4, H6, H7, and H11. We demonstrate that many wild bird avian influenza viruses of several different hemagglutinin types replicate in this mouse model without adaptation and induce histopathologic lesions similar to other influenza virus infections but cause minimal morbidity. These findings demonstrate the potential of wild avian influenza viruses to directly infect mice without prior adaptation and support their potential role in emergence of pandemic influenza.

  20. Immunobiological properties of influenza A (H7N9) hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Changsom, Don; Lerdsamran, Hatairat; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Masamae, Wanibtisam; Noisumdaeng, Pirom; Jongkaewwattana, Anan; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2016-10-01

    Recombinant vaccinia viruses harboring the complete hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) genes from the influenza A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) virus were constructed (rVac-H7 HA and rVac-N9 NA viruses). The HA and NA proteins were expressed in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane of thymidine-kinase-negative (TK(-)) cells infected with these recombinant viruses. Only one form of the HA protein was expressed in infected TK(-) cells, with a molecular weight (MW) of 75 kDa, but three forms were found when the culture medium was supplemented with trypsin (MWs of 75, 50 and 27 kDa), which was similar to what was found in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with reverse genetic (rg) influenza viruses carrying HA genes of H7N9 virus origin. One form of hyperglycosylated NA protein with a MW of 75 kDa was produced in rVac-N9-NA-virus-infected TK(-) or MDCK cells. The MW decreased to 55 kDa after deglycosylation. The hyperglycosylated recombinant NA protein demonstrated sialidase activity in a fetuin-based neuraminidase assay. The rVac-H7 HA and rVac-N9 NA viruses elicited significantly higher anti-HA and anti-NA antibody titers in BALB/c mice that were immunized once than in ICR mice. The anti-HA and anti-NA antibodies showed activity against homosubtypic HA or NA, but not against heterosubtypic HA or NA, as determined by hemagglutination-inhibition and microneutralization assays for anti-HA antibodies and neuraminidase-inhibition and replication-inhibition assays for anti-NA antibodies. Taken together, our data demonstrated immunobiological properties of recombinant HA and NA proteins that might be useful for vaccine development.

  1. Computational Design of Proteins Targeting the Conserved Stem Region of Influenza Hemagglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Fleishman, Sarel J.; Whitehead, Timothy A.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Corn, Jacob E.; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Wilson, Ian A.; Baker, David

    2011-09-28

    We describe a general computational method for designing proteins that bind a surface patch of interest on a target macromolecule. Favorable interactions between disembodied amino acid residues and the target surface are identified and used to anchor de novo designed interfaces. The method was used to design proteins that bind a conserved surface patch on the stem of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) from the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus. After affinity maturation, two of the designed proteins, HB36 and HB80, bind H1 and H5 HAs with low nanomolar affinity. Further, HB80 inhibits the HA fusogenic conformational changes induced at low pH. The crystal structure of HB36 in complex with 1918/H1 HA revealed that the actual binding interface is nearly identical to that in the computational design model. Such designed binding proteins may be useful for both diagnostics and therapeutics.

  2. Influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) Stem Region Mutations That Stabilize or Destabilize the Structure of Multiple HA Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Byrd-Leotis, Lauren; Galloway, Summer E.; Agbogu, Evangeline

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses enter host cells through endosomes, where acidification induces irreversible conformational changes of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) that drive the membrane fusion process. The prefusion conformation of the HA is metastable, and the pH of fusion can vary significantly among HA strains and subtypes. Furthermore, an accumulating body of evidence implicates HA stability properties as partial determinants of influenza host range, transmission phenotype, and pathogenic potential. Although previous studies have identified HA mutations that can affect HA stability, these have been limited to a small selection of HA strains and subtypes. Here we report a mutational analysis of HA stability utilizing a panel of expressed HAs representing a broad range of HA subtypes and strains, including avian representatives across the phylogenetic spectrum and several human strains. We focused on two highly conserved residues in the HA stem region: HA2 position 58, located at the membrane distal tip of the short helix of the hairpin loop structure, and HA2 position 112, located in the long helix in proximity to the fusion peptide. We demonstrate that a K58I mutation confers an acid-stable phenotype for nearly all HAs examined, whereas a D112G mutation consistently leads to elevated fusion pH. The results enhance our understanding of HA stability across multiple subtypes and provide an additional tool for risk assessment for circulating strains that may have other hallmarks of human adaptation. Furthermore, the K58I mutants, in particular, may be of interest for potential use in the development of vaccines with improved stability profiles. IMPORTANCE The influenza A hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA) mediates the receptor binding and membrane fusion functions that are essential for virus entry into host cells. While receptor binding has long been recognized for its role in host species specificity and transmission, membrane fusion and associated properties of HA

  3. [A compact microarray for sub-typing of influenza A virus].

    PubMed

    Riabinin, V A; Kostina, E V; Siniakov, A N

    2013-01-01

    A universal oligonucleotide hybridazation microchip 6 x 5 spot (4 x 4 mm) for influenza A virus subtyping was suggested, functioning on a principle one spot--one subtype. This microchip with additional printing quality control is a prototype of a biosensor for detection of influenza A virus and typing of 15 subtypes of hemagglutinin and 9 subtypes of neuraminidase.

  4. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend ... with Avian Influenza A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses ...

  5. Order and disorder control the functional rearrangement of influenza hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xingcheng; Eddy, Nathanial R; Noel, Jeffrey K; Whitford, Paul C; Wang, Qinghua; Ma, Jianpeng; Onuchic, José N

    2014-08-19

    Influenza hemagglutinin (HA), a homotrimeric glycoprotein crucial for membrane fusion, undergoes a large-scale structural rearrangement during viral invasion. X-ray crystallography has shown that the pre- and postfusion configurations of HA2, the membrane-fusion subunit of HA, have disparate secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures, where some regions are displaced by more than 100 Å. To explore structural dynamics during the conformational transition, we studied simulations of a minimally frustrated model based on energy landscape theory. The model combines structural information from both the pre- and postfusion crystallographic configurations of HA2. Rather than a downhill drive toward formation of the central coiled-coil, we discovered an order-disorder transition early in the conformational change as the mechanism for the release of the fusion peptides from their burial sites in the prefusion crystal structure. This disorder quickly leads to a metastable intermediate with a broken threefold symmetry. Finally, kinetic competition between the formation of the extended coiled-coil and C-terminal melting results in two routes from this intermediate to the postfusion structure. Our study reiterates the roles that cracking and disorder can play in functional molecular motions, in contrast to the downhill mechanical interpretations of the "spring-loaded" model proposed for the HA2 conformational transition.

  6. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  7. Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-06

    Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus I-Chueh Huang1*, Charles C. Bailey1, Jessica...identified viral restriction factors that inhibit infection mediated by the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Here we show that IFITM...Becker MM, et al. (2011) Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus. PLoS Pathog 7(1

  8. Isolation of a novel swine influenza virus from Oklahoma in 2011 which is distantly related to human influenza C viruses.

    PubMed

    Hause, Ben M; Ducatez, Mariette; Collin, Emily A; Ran, Zhiguang; Liu, Runxia; Sheng, Zizhang; Armien, Anibal; Kaplan, Bryan; Chakravarty, Suvobrata; Hoppe, Adam D; Webby, Richard J; Simonson, Randy R; Li, Feng

    2013-02-01

    Of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, only influenza A viruses are thought to exist as multiple subtypes and has non-human maintenance hosts. In April 2011, nasal swabs were collected for virus isolation from pigs exhibiting influenza-like illness. Subsequent electron microscopic, biochemical, and genetic studies identified an orthomyxovirus with seven RNA segments exhibiting approximately 50% overall amino acid identity to human influenza C virus. Based on its genetic organizational similarities to influenza C viruses this virus has been provisionally designated C/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK). Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins found that the divergence between C/OK and human influenza C viruses was similar to that observed between influenza A and B viruses. No cross reactivity was observed between C/OK and human influenza C viruses using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Additionally, screening of pig and human serum samples found that 9.5% and 1.3%, respectively, of individuals had measurable HI antibody titers to C/OK virus. C/OK virus was able to infect both ferrets and pigs and transmit to naive animals by direct contact. Cell culture studies showed that C/OK virus displayed a broader cellular tropism than a human influenza C virus. The observed difference in cellular tropism was further supported by structural analysis showing that hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins between two viruses have conserved enzymatic but divergent receptor-binding sites. These results suggest that C/OK virus represents a new subtype of influenza C viruses that currently circulates in pigs that has not been recognized previously. The presence of multiple subtypes of co-circulating influenza C viruses raises the possibility of reassortment and antigenic shift as mechanisms of influenza C virus evolution.

  9. The origin and virulence of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2006-03-01

    The "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-19 caused acute illness in 25-30 percent of the world's population and resulted in the death of up to an estimated 40 million people. Using fixed and frozen lung tissue of 1918 influenza victims, the complete genomic sequence of the 1918 influenza virus has been deduced. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the completed 1918 influenza virus genes shows them to be the most avian-like among the mammalian-adapted viruses. This finding supports the hypotheses that (1) the pandemic virus contains genes derived from avian-like influenza virus strains and that (2) the 1918 virus is the common ancestor of human and classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses. The relationship of the 1918 virus with avian influenza viruses is further supported by recent work in which the 1918 hemagglutinin (HA) protein crystal structure was resolved. Neither the 1918 hemagglutinin (HA) nor the neuraminidase (NA) genes possess mutations known to increase tissue tropicity that account for the virulence of other influenza virus strains like A/WSN/33 or the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 or H7 viruses. Using reverse genetics approaches, influenza virus constructs containing the 1918 HA and NA on a modern human influenza virus background were lethal in mice. The complete 1918 virus was even more virulent in mice. The genotypic basis of this virulence has not yet been elucidated. The complete sequence of the non-structural (NS) gene segment of the 1918 virus was deduced and also tested for the hypothesis that enhanced virulence in 1918 could have been due to type I interferon inhibition by the NS1 protein. Results from these experiments suggest that in human cells the 1918 NS1 is a very effective interferon antagonist, but the 1918 NS1 gene does not have the amino acid change that correlates with virulence in the H5N1 virus strains identified in 1997 in Hong Kong. Sequence analysis of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus is allowing us to test hypotheses

  10. Multisegment one-step RT-PCR fluorescent labeling of influenza A virus genome for use in diagnostic microarray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasin, A. V.; Sandybaev, N. T.; Plotnikova, M. A.; Klotchenko, S. A.; Chervyakova, O. V.; Strochkov, V. M.; Taylakova, E. T.; Elpaeva, E. A.; Komissarov, A. B.; Egorov, V. V.; Koshemetov, J. K.; Kiselev, O. I.; Mamadaliev, S. M.

    2011-04-01

    Microarray technology is one of the most challenging methods of influenza A virus subtyping, which is based on the antigenic properties of viral surface glycoproteins - hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. On the example of biochip for detection of influenza A/H5N1 virus we showed the possibility of using multisegment RTPCR method for amplification of fluorescently labeled cDNA of all possible influenza A virus subtypes with a single pair of primers in influenza diagnostic microarrays.

  11. The BALB/c secondary response to the Sb site of influenza virus hemagglutinin. Nonrandom silent mutation and unequal numbers of VH and Vk mutations.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S; Rickert, R; Wloch, M K; Staudt, L; Gerhard, W; Weigert, M

    1990-10-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequences of the expressed VH and Vk genes from 13 secondary (2 degrees) hemagglutinin (HA) (Sb) specific hybridomas derived from a single mouse. These antibodies share an Id, H37-68 (68Id) that dominates the 2 degrees HA(Sb) response in this mouse, but is rare or absent from 2 degrees responses of other mice. We find that these antibodies derive from five clones. The H chains of these antibodies are encoded by a single VH gene joined to a variety of DH and JH genes. The length of complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3 and sequence of the D-J junction are restricted, suggesting selection on CDR3 of the H chain. The L chains are more diverse. In the presented examples, they are encoded by the Vk21C and Vk21E genes and a Vk9 gene, and are joined to Jk1, 2, or 4. Each antibody is extensively mutated. The nature and distribution of the mutations suggests that 68Id-producing cells have been selected by Ag, although there are differences regarding the domain (VH, Vk, or both) in which mutations were selected. The implications of these findings on the idiosyncratic nature of the 68Id antibody response to HA(Sb) are discussed. There are two unusual characteristics regarding somatic mutation in these hybridomas. Whereas the expressed VH and Vk21 genes appear to have accumulated mutations at a high rate (1 to 1.5 x 10(-3)/base pairs/division, the expressed Vk9 genes appear to have accumulated mutations at a 5 to 15-fold lower rate than the expressed VH genes in the same cells. There is also a surprisingly high number of parallel silent somatic mutations in the VH genes, of which all but one are clustered to a 28-bp region in framework region 2 and CDR 2-encoding segments. The probability that this could have occurred by a random mutational process is essentially zero.

  12. Plant-based rapid production of recombinant subunit hemagglutinin vaccines targeting H1N1 and H5N1 influenza.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Yoko; Chichester, Jessica A; Jones, Mark; Manceva, Slobodanka D; Damon, Emily; Mett, Vadim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Bi, Hong; Farrance, Christine; Shamloul, Moneim; Kushnir, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a novel H1N1 swine influenza virus was isolated from infected humans in Mexico and the United States, and rapidly spread around the world. Another virus, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype, identified by the World Health Organization as a potential pandemic threat in 1997, continues to be a significant risk. While vaccination is the preferred strategy for the prevention and control of influenza infections, the traditional egg-based approach to producing influenza vaccines does not provide sufficient capacity and adequate speed to satisfy global needs to combat newly emerging strains, seasonal or potentially pandemic. Significant efforts are underway to develop and implement new cell substrates with improved efficiency for influenza vaccine development and manufacturing. In recent years, plants have been used to produce recombinant proteins including subunit vaccines and antibodies. The main advantages of using plant systems for the production of vaccine antigens against influenza are their independence from pathogenic viruses, and cost and time efficiency. Here, we describe the large-scale production of recombinant hemagglutinin proteins from A/California/04/09 (H1N1) and A/Indonesia/05/05 (H5N1) strains of influenza virus in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and their immunogenicity (serum hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing antibodies), and safety in animal models. These results support the testing of these candidate vaccines in human volunteers and also the utility of our plant expression system for large-scale recombinant influenza vaccine production.

  13. Antigenic map of hemagglutinin (H) 1 proteins of 2010-2011 swine influenza viruses (SIV) in the U.S. swine population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before 2003, the H1 genes of North American SIV isolates were characterized into 3 phylogenetic clusters, H1-alpha, -beta and -gamma (1). The introduction of human-like H1 viruses into the swine population around 2003-05 generated the fourth and fifth H1 clusters, H1-delta1 and -delta2 (2). An incre...

  14. Comparison of Serum Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Inhibition Antibodies After 2010–2011 Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccination in Healthcare Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Laguio-Vila, Maryrose R.; Thompson, Mark G.; Reynolds, Sue; Spencer, Sarah M.; Gaglani, Manjusha; Naleway, Allison; Ball, Sarah; Bozeman, Sam; Baker, Steven; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Levine, Min; Katz, Jackie; Fry, Alicia M.; Treanor, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Most inactivated influenza vaccines contain purified and standardized hemagglutinin (HA) and residual neuraminidase (NA) antigens. Vaccine-associated HA antibody responses (hemagglutination inhibition [HAI]) are well described, but less is known about the immune response to the NA. Methods. Serum of 1349 healthcare personnel (HCP) electing or declining the 2010–2011 trivalent-inactivated influenza vaccine ([IIV3], containing A/California/7/2009 p(H1N1), A/Perth/16/2009 [H3N2], B/Brisbane/60/2008 strains) were tested for NA-inhibiting (NAI) antibody by a modified lectin-based assay using pseudotyped N1 and N2 influenza A viruses with an irrelevant (H5) HA. Neuraminidase-inhibiting and HAI antibody titers were evaluated approximately 30 days after vaccination and end-of-season for those with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed influenza infection. Results. In 916 HCP (68%) receiving IIV3, a 2-fold increase in N1 and N2 NAI antibody occurred in 63.7% and 47.3%, respectively. Smaller responses occurred in HCP age >50 years and those without prior 2009–2010 IIV3 nor monovalent A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccinations. Forty-four PCR-confirmed influenza infections were observed, primarily affecting those with lower pre-exposure HAI and NAI antibodies. Higher pre-NAI titers correlated with shorter duration of illness for A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections. Conclusions. Trivalent-inactivated influenza vaccine is modestly immunogenic for N1 and N2 antigens in HCP. Vaccines eliciting robust NA immune responses may improve efficacy and reduce influenza-associated morbidity. PMID:25884004

  15. Characterization of low pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low pathogenic H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 ...

  16. Simultaneous detection of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of novel influenza A (H7N9) by duplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wu, Tao; Qi, Xian; Ge, Yiyue; Guo, Xiling; Wu, Bin; Yu, Huiyan; Zhu, Yefei; Shi, Zhiyang; Wang, Hua; Cui, Lunbiao; Zhou, Minghao

    2013-12-01

    A novel reassortant influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged recently in China. In this study, a duplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of H7N9 influenza viruses. The sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 10 RNA copies per reaction for both HA and NA genes. No cross-reactivity was observed with other influenza virus subtypes or respiratory tract viruses. One hundred and forty-six clinical and environmental specimens were tested and compared with reference methods and were found to be consistent. The assay is suitable for large-scale screening due to short turnaround times and high specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility.

  17. Intra- and interhost evolutionary dynamics of equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Pablo R; Baillie, Gregory J; Daly, Janet; Elton, Debra; Jervis, Carley; Mumford, Jennifer A; Newton, Richard; Parrish, Colin R; Hoelzer, Karin; Dougan, Gordon; Parkhill, Julian; Lennard, Nicola; Ormond, Doug; Moule, Sharon; Whitwham, Andrew; McCauley, John W; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Holmes, Edward C; Grenfell, Bryan T; Wood, James L N

    2010-07-01

    Determining the evolutionary basis of cross-species transmission and immune evasion is key to understanding the mechanisms that control the emergence of either new viruses or novel antigenic variants with pandemic potential. The hemagglutinin glycoprotein of influenza A viruses is a critical host range determinant and a major target of neutralizing antibodies. Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a significant pathogen of the horse that causes periodical outbreaks of disease even in populations with high vaccination coverage. EIV has also jumped the species barrier and emerged as a novel respiratory pathogen in dogs, canine influenza virus. We studied the dynamics of equine influenza virus evolution in horses at the intrahost level and how this evolutionary process is affected by interhost transmission in a natural setting. To this end, we performed clonal sequencing of the hemagglutinin 1 gene derived from individual animals at different times postinfection. Our results show that despite the population consensus sequence remaining invariant, genetically distinct subpopulations persist during the course of infection and are also transmitted, with some variants likely to change antigenicity. We also detected a natural case of mixed infection in an animal infected during an outbreak of equine influenza, raising the possibility of reassortment between different strains of virus. In sum, our data suggest that transmission bottlenecks may not be as narrow as originally perceived and that the genetic diversity required to adapt to new host species may be partially present in the donor host and potentially transmitted to the recipient host.

  18. Baculovirus vector as an avian influenza vaccine: hemagglutinin expression and presentation augment the vaccine immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Tsai, Ching-Ping; Hung, Chang-Lin; Lo, Kai-Wei; Hwang, Yung; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2013-03-10

    Baculovirus simultaneously displaying and expressing the avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) protein can induce potent anti-HA humoral and cellular immune responses. Based on the hypothesis that improving the antigen expression and presentation can further boost the AIV vaccine efficacies, we first constructed a baculoviral vector (Bac-HAW) with HA gene fused with the woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) near its 3' end and expressed under the control of the hybrid CAG promoter. The WPRE fusion improved the HA expression and augmented the humoral and Th1 cellular immune responses after intramuscular administration into BALB/c mice. With Bac-HAW as the backbone, we next constructed Bac-HAMW which harbored the HA gene flanked with the signal sequence (MHCIss) and trafficking domain (MITD) of MHC class I molecule. In comparison with Bac-HAW, Bac-HAMW ameliorated the HA peptide presentation, significantly elevated the HA-specific humoral response (total IgG, IgG2a and hemagglutination inhibition titers) and favorably boosted the Th1 and IFN-γ(+)/CD8(+) T cell responses without extraneous adjuvants. These data collectively confirmed that enhancement of antigen expression and presentation by combining the WPRE and MHCIss/MITD fusion can potentiate the immunogenicity of the baculovirus-based vaccine, and implicates the potential of Bac-HAMW as an appealing AIV vaccine.

  19. Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of H1 Influenza Viruses from United States Swine Prior to the Emergence of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine play a role for the evolution of influenza A viruses. Prior to the introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus from humans into pigs, four phylogenetic clusters of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H1 influenza viruses could be found in U.S. swine. Viruses from the classical H1N1 swine lineage...

  20. Antigenic and genetic variation in the hemagglutinins of H1N1 and H3N2 human influenza a viruses in the Shanghai area from 2005 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-wei; Ju, Li-wen; Yang, Ji-xing; Lv, Xi-hong; Jiang, Lu-fang; Zhao, Nai-qing; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2011-07-01

    Continued rapid evolution of the influenza A virus is responsible for annual epidemics and occasional pandemics in the Shanghai area. In the present study, the representative strains of A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza viruses isolated in the Shanghai area from 2005 to 2008 were antigenically and genetically characterized. The antigenic cartography method was carried out to visualize the hemagglutination-inhibition data. Antigenic differences were detected between circulating A/H1N1 strains isolated from 2005 to 2006 and the epidemic A/H1N1 strains isolated in 2008, which were found to be associated with the amino acid substitution K140E in HA1. The present vaccine strain A/Brisbane/59/2007 is considered to be capable of providing sufficient immunity against most of the circulating A/H1N1 viruses isolated in 2008 from the Shanghai population. The study showed that there were significant antigenic differences between the epidemic A/H3N2 strains isolated in 2007 and 2008, suggesting that antigenic drift had occurred in the A/H3N2 strains isolated in 2008. The P194L mutation was thought to be responsible for the antigenic evolution of influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated from Shanghai in 2008. Evidence of antigenic drift suggests that the influenza A/H3N2 vaccine component needs to be updated.

  1. Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus Isolated from Pigs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Baioni, Laura; Luppi, Andrea; Moreno, Ana; Castellan, Alberto; Foni, Emanuela

    2013-10-03

    In this study, the full-genome sequence of a novel reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) is reported. The isolate has a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, but it carries the seven genome segments of the avian-origin H1N1 SIV currently circulating in European pig farms.

  2. Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus Isolated from Pigs in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Baioni, Laura; Luppi, Andrea; Moreno, Ana; Castellan, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the full-genome sequence of a novel reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) is reported. The isolate has a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, but it carries the seven genome segments of the avian-origin H1N1 SIV currently circulating in European pig farms. PMID:24092781

  3. Intranasal immunization with influenza antigens conjugated with cholera toxin subunit B stimulates broad spectrum immunity against influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Junwei; Arévalo, Maria T; Chen, Yanping; Posadas, Olivia; Smith, Jacob A; Zeng, Mingtao

    2014-01-01

    Frequent mutation of influenza viruses keep vaccinated and non-vaccinated populations vulnerable to new infections, causing serious burdens to public health and the economy. Vaccination with universal influenza vaccines would be the best way to effectively protect people from infection caused by mismatched or unforeseen influenza viruses. Presently, there is no FDA approved universal influenza vaccine. In this study, we expressed and purified a fusion protein comprising of influenza matrix 2 protein ectodomain peptides, a centralized influenza hemagglutinin stem region, and cholera toxin subunit B. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with this novel artificial antigen resulted in potent humoral immune responses, including induction of specific IgA and IgG, and broad protection against infection by multiple influenza viruses. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that when used as a mucosal antigen, cholera toxin subunit B improved antigen-stimulated T cell and memory B cell responses.

  4. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  5. Influenza viruses: transmission between species.

    PubMed

    Webster, R G; Hinshaw, V S; Bean, W J; Sriram, G

    1980-02-25

    The only direct evidence for transmission of influenza viruses between species comes from studies on swine influenza viruses. Antigenically and genetically identical Hsw1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs and man on the same farm in Wisconsin, U.S.A. The isolation of H3N2 influenza viruses from a wide range of lower animals and birds suggests that influenza viruses of man can spread to the lower orders. Under some conditions the H3N2 viruses can persist for a number of years in some species. The isolation, from aquatic birds, of a large number of influenza A viruses that possess surface proteins antigenically similar to the viruses isolated from man, pigs and horses provides indirect evidence for inter-species transmission. There is now a considerable body of evidence which suggests that influenza viruses of lower animals and birds may play a role in the origin of some of the pandemic strains of influenza A viruses. There is no direct evidence that the influenza viruses in aquatic birds are transmitted to man, but they may serve as a genetic pool from which some genes may be introduced into humans by recombination. Preliminary evidence suggests that the molecular basis of host range and virulence may be related to the RNA segments coding for one of the polymerase proteins (P3) and for the nucleoprotein (NP).

  6. The Influenza Hemagglutinin Fusion Domain Is an Amphipathic Helical Hairpin That Functions by Inducing Membrane Curvature*

    PubMed Central

    Smrt, Sean T.; Draney, Adrian W.; Lorieau, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    The highly conserved N-terminal 23 residues of the hemagglutinin glycoprotein, known as the fusion peptide domain (HAfp23), is vital to the membrane fusion and infection mechanism of the influenza virus. HAfp23 has a helical hairpin structure consisting of two tightly packed amphiphilic helices that rest on the membrane surface. We demonstrate that HAfp23 is a new class of amphipathic helix that functions by leveraging the negative curvature induced by two tightly packed helices on membranes. The helical hairpin structure has an inverted wedge shape characteristic of negative curvature lipids, with a bulky hydrophobic region and a relatively small hydrophilic head region. The F3G mutation reduces this inverted wedge shape by reducing the volume of its hydrophobic base. We show that despite maintaining identical backbone structures and dynamics as the wild type HAfp23, the F3G mutant has an attenuated fusion activity that is correlated to its reduced ability to induce negative membrane curvature. The inverted wedge shape of HAfp23 is likely to play a crucial role in the initial stages of membrane fusion by stabilizing negative curvature in the fusion stalk. PMID:25398882

  7. Viva la Revolución: Rethinking Influenza A Virus Antigenic Drift

    PubMed Central

    Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid antigenic evolution of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin has precluded developing vaccines that provide durable protection. The yearly costs of influenza (circa $1011 in the USA alone) easily justify investments in better understanding the interaction of influenza with antibodies and other inducible elements of the immune system that potentially limit or circumvent antigenic variation. Here, I summarize exciting new findings that offer the possibility of a quantum improvement in vaccine efficacy, focusing on studies clearly documenting robust neutralizing antibody responses to the conserved stem region of the hemagglutinin. PMID:22034587

  8. Influenza a virus entry: implications in virulence and future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rumschlag-Booms, Emily; Rong, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses have broad host tropism, being able to infect a range of hosts from wild fowl to swine to humans. This broad tropism makes highly pathogenic influenza A strains, such as H5N1, potentially dangerous to humans if they gain the ability to jump from an animal reservoir to humans. How influenza A viruses are able to jump the species barrier is incompletely understood due to the complex genetic nature of the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin, which mediates entry, combined with the virus's ability to use various receptor linkages. Current therapeutics against influenza A include those that target the uncoating process after entry as well as those that prevent viral budding. While there are therapeutics in development that target entry, currently there are none clinically available. We review here the genetics of influenza A viruses that contribute to entry tropism, how these genetic alterations may contribute to receptor usage and species tropism, as well as how novel therapeutics can be developed that target the major surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin.

  9. Serologic evidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in northern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Zhu-Nan; Ip, Hon S.; Frost, Jessica F.; White, C. LeAnn; Murray, Michael J.; Carney, Paul J.; Sun, Xiang-Jie; Stevens, James; Levine, Min Z.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Sporadic epizootics of pneumonia among marine mammals have been associated with multiple animal-origin influenza A virus subtypes (1–6); seals are the only known nonhuman host for influenza B viruses (7). Recently, we reported serologic evidence of influenza A virus infection in free-ranging northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) captured off the coast of Washington, USA, in August 2011 (8). To investigate further which influenza A virus subtype infected these otters, we tested serum samples from these otters by ELISA for antibody-binding activity against 12 recombinant hemagglutinins (rHAs) from 7 influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and 2 lineages of influenza B virus (Technical Appendix Table 1). Estimated ages for the otters were 2–19 years (Technical Appendix Table 2); we also tested archived serum samples from sea otters of similar ages collected from a study conducted during 2001–2002 along the Washington coast (9).

  10. Technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) influenza vaccine manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Buckland, Barry; Boulanger, Robert; Fino, Mireli; Srivastava, Indresh; Holtz, Kathy; Khramtsov, Nikolai; McPherson, Clifton; Meghrous, Jamal; Kubera, Paul; Cox, Manon M J

    2014-09-22

    Multiple different hemagglutinin (HA) protein antigens have been reproducibly manufactured at the 650L scale by Protein Sciences Corporation (PSC) based on an insect cell culture with baculovirus infection. Significantly, these HA protein antigens were produced by the same Universal Manufacturing process as described in the biological license application (BLA) for the first recombinant influenza vaccine approved by the FDA (Flublok). The technology is uniquely designed so that a change in vaccine composition can be readily accommodated from one HA protein antigen to another one. Here we present a vaccine candidate to combat the recently emerged H7N9 virus as an example starting with the genetic sequence for the required HA, creation of the baculovirus and ending with purified protein antigen (or vaccine component) at the 10L scale accomplished within 38 days under GMP conditions. The same process performance is being achieved at the 2L, 10L, 100L, 650L and 2500L scale. An illustration is given of how the technology was transferred from the benchmark 650L scale facility to a retrofitted microbial facility at the 2500L scale within 100 days which includes the time for facility engineering changes. The successful development, technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok process has major implications for being ready to make vaccine rapidly on a worldwide scale as a defense against pandemic influenza. The technology described does not have the same vulnerability to mutations in the egg adapted strain, and resulting loss in vaccine efficacy, faced by egg based manufacture.

  11. Phylogenetic and biological characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (Vietnam 2005) in chickens and ducks virus research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) virus hemagglutinin (HA) genes shows a common origin, but the virus has evolved into at least three major clades (clades 0, 1, and 2) over the last 11 years. Previous reports of Vietnam viruses have documented predominantly clade 1 viruses. Unexpectedly,...

  12. Bat-derived influenza-like viruses H17N10 and H18N11.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Wu, Yan; Tefsen, Boris; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F

    2014-04-01

    Shorebirds and waterfowls are believed to be the reservoir hosts for influenza viruses, whereas swine putatively act as mixing vessels. The recent identification of two influenza-like virus genomes (designated H17N10 and H18N11) from bats has challenged this notion. A crucial question concerns the role bats might play in influenza virus ecology. Structural and functional studies of the two major surface envelope proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), demonstrate that neither has canonical HA or NA functions found in influenza viruses. However, putative functional modules and domains in other encoded proteins are conserved, and the N-terminal domain of the H17N10 polymerase subunit PA has a classical structure and function. Therefore, potential genomic reassortments of such influenza-like viruses with canonical influenza viruses cannot be excluded at this point and should be assessed.

  13. The hemagglutinin of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 is mutating towards stability

    PubMed Central

    Castelán-Vega, Juan A; Magaña-Hernández, Anastasia; Jiménez-Alberto, Alicia; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    The last influenza A pandemic provided an excellent opportunity to study the adaptation of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus to the human host. Particularly, due to the availability of sequences taken from isolates since the beginning of the pandemic until date, we could monitor amino acid changes that occurred in the hemagglutinin (HA) as the virus spread worldwide and became the dominant H1N1 strain. HA is crucial to viral infection because it binds to sialidated cell-receptors and mediates fusion of cell and viral membranes; because antibodies that bind to HA may block virus entry to the cell, this protein is subjected to high selective pressure. Multiple alignment analysis of sequences of the HA from isolates taken since 2009 to date allowed us to find amino acid changes that were positively selected as the pandemic progressed. We found nine changes that became prevalent: HA1 subunits D104N, K166Q, S188T, S206T, A259T, and K285E; and HA2 subunits E47K, S124N, and E172K. Most of these changes were located in areas involved in inter- and intrachain interactions, while only two (K166Q and S188T) were located in known antigenic sites. We conclude that selective pressure on HA was aimed to improve its functionality and hence virus fitness, rather than at avoidance of immune recognition. PMID:25328411

  14. [Anti-influenza virus agent].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shigeki; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The necessity of newly anti-influenza agents is increasing rapidly after the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. In addition to the existing anti-influenza drugs, novel neuraminidase inhibitors such as peramivir (a first intravenous anti-influenza agent) and laninamivir (long acting inhaled anti-influenza agent) can be available. Moreover favipiravir, which shows a novel anti-influenza mechanism acting as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has been developing. These drugs are expected to improve the prognosis of severe cases caused by not only seasonal influenza but pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and H5N1 avian influenza, and also treat oseltamivir-resistant influenza effectively.

  15. Characterization of Potent Fusion Inhibitors of Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rowse, Michael; Qiu, Shihong; Tsao, Jun; Xian, Tongmei; Khawaja, Sarah; Yamauchi, Yohei; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Guoxin; Luo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    New inhibitors of influenza viruses are needed to combat the potential emergence of novel human influenza viruses. We have identified a class of small molecules that inhibit replication of influenza virus at picomolar concentrations in plaque reduction assays. The compound also inhibits replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. Time of addition and dilution experiments with influenza virus indicated that an early time point of infection was blocked and that inhibitor 136 tightly bound to virions. Using fluorescently labeled influenza virus, inhibition of viral fusion to cellular membranes by blocked lipid mixing was established as the mechanism of action for this class of inhibitors. Stabilization of the neutral pH form of hemagglutinin (HA) was ruled out by trypsin digestion studies in vitro and with conformation specific HA antibodies within cells. Direct visualization of 136 treated influenza virions at pH 7.5 or acidified to pH 5.0 showed that virions remain intact and that glycoproteins become disorganized as expected when HA undergoes a conformational change. This suggests that exposure of the fusion peptide at low pH is not inhibited but lipid mixing is inhibited, a different mechanism than previously reported fusion inhibitors. We hypothesize that this new class of inhibitors intercalate into the virus envelope altering the structure of the viral envelope required for fusion to cellular membranes. PMID:25803288

  16. Sialylneolacto-N-tetraose c (LSTc)-bearing liposomal decoys capture influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Gabriel L; Weirich, Kim L; Viswanathan, Karthik; Li, Jing; Shriver, Zachary H; Ashour, Joseph; Ploegh, Hidde L; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A; Fygenson, Deborah K; Finberg, Robert W; Comolli, James C; Wang, Jennifer P

    2013-03-22

    Influenza is a severe disease in humans and animals with few effective therapies available. All strains of influenza virus are prone to developing drug resistance due to the high mutation rate in the viral genome. A therapeutic agent that targets a highly conserved region of the virus could bypass resistance and also be effective against multiple strains of influenza. Influenza uses many individually weak ligand binding interactions for a high avidity multivalent attachment to sialic acid-bearing cells. Polymerized sialic acid analogs can form multivalent interactions with influenza but are not ideal therapeutics due to solubility and toxicity issues. We used liposomes as a novel means for delivery of the glycan sialylneolacto-N-tetraose c (LSTc). LSTc-bearing decoy liposomes form multivalent, polymer-like interactions with influenza virus. Decoy liposomes competitively bind influenza virus in hemagglutination inhibition assays and inhibit infection of target cells in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition is specific for influenza virus, as inhibition of Sendai virus and respiratory syncytial virus is not observed. In contrast, monovalent LSTc does not bind influenza virus or inhibit infectivity. LSTc decoy liposomes prevent the spread of influenza virus during multiple rounds of replication in vitro and extend survival of mice challenged with a lethal dose of virus. LSTc decoy liposomes co-localize with fluorescently tagged influenza virus, whereas control liposomes do not. Considering the conservation of the hemagglutinin binding pocket and the ability of decoy liposomes to form high avidity interactions with influenza hemagglutinin, our decoy liposomes have potential as a new therapeutic agent against emerging influenza strains.

  17. Sialylneolacto-N-tetraose c (LSTc)-bearing Liposomal Decoys Capture Influenza A Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Gabriel L.; Weirich, Kim L.; Viswanathan, Karthik; Li, Jing; Shriver, Zachary H.; Ashour, Joseph; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A.; Fygenson, Deborah K.; Finberg, Robert W.; Comolli, James C.; Wang, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a severe disease in humans and animals with few effective therapies available. All strains of influenza virus are prone to developing drug resistance due to the high mutation rate in the viral genome. A therapeutic agent that targets a highly conserved region of the virus could bypass resistance and also be effective against multiple strains of influenza. Influenza uses many individually weak ligand binding interactions for a high avidity multivalent attachment to sialic acid-bearing cells. Polymerized sialic acid analogs can form multivalent interactions with influenza but are not ideal therapeutics due to solubility and toxicity issues. We used liposomes as a novel means for delivery of the glycan sialylneolacto-N-tetraose c (LSTc). LSTc-bearing decoy liposomes form multivalent, polymer-like interactions with influenza virus. Decoy liposomes competitively bind influenza virus in hemagglutination inhibition assays and inhibit infection of target cells in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition is specific for influenza virus, as inhibition of Sendai virus and respiratory syncytial virus is not observed. In contrast, monovalent LSTc does not bind influenza virus or inhibit infectivity. LSTc decoy liposomes prevent the spread of influenza virus during multiple rounds of replication in vitro and extend survival of mice challenged with a lethal dose of virus. LSTc decoy liposomes co-localize with fluorescently tagged influenza virus, whereas control liposomes do not. Considering the conservation of the hemagglutinin binding pocket and the ability of decoy liposomes to form high avidity interactions with influenza hemagglutinin, our decoy liposomes have potential as a new therapeutic agent against emerging influenza strains. PMID:23362274

  18. NP, PB1 and PB2 viral genes contribute to altered replication of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virulence determinant for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses is considered multigenic, although the best characterized virulence factor is the hemagglutinin cleavage site. The capability of influenza viruses to reassort gene segments is one potential way for new viruses to emerge with di...

  19. Human-Like H1 (Delta-Cluster) Swine Influenza Virus (SIV) Can Efficiently Replicate, Transmit, Cause Lung Pathology and Induce Humoral Immune Responses in the Swine Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Genomic characterization of recently identified H1 influenza A viruses demonstrated the viruses were triple reassortants with an internal gene constellation similar to contemporary U.S. swine influenza virus (SIV) but hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) most similar to human seas...

  20. Preferential recognition of avian-like receptors in human influenza A H7N9 viruses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; de Vries, Robert P; Zhu, Xueyong; Nycholat, Corwin M; McBride, Ryan; Yu, Wenli; Paulson, James C; Wilson, Ian A

    2013-12-06

    The 2013 outbreak of avian-origin H7N9 influenza in eastern China has raised concerns about its ability to transmit in the human population. The hemagglutinin glycoprotein of most human H7N9 viruses carries Leu(226), a residue linked to adaptation of H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic viruses to human receptors. However, glycan array analysis of the H7 hemagglutinin reveals negligible binding to humanlike α2-6-linked receptors and strong preference for a subset of avian-like α2-3-linked glycans recognized by all avian H7 viruses. Crystal structures of H7N9 hemagglutinin and six hemagglutinin-glycan complexes have elucidated the structural basis for preferential recognition of avian-like receptors. These findings suggest that the current human H7N9 viruses are poorly adapted for efficient human-to-human transmission.

  1. Vaccine efficacy of live-attenuated virus, whole inactivated virus and alphavirus vectored subunit vaccines against antigenically distinct H3N2 swine influenza A viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important pathogen in swine, and the main intervention strategy is vaccination to induce neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA). Three major antigenic clusters, cyan, red, and green, were identified among H3N2 viruses circulating in pigs in ...

  2. ANTIGENIC AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF INFLUENZA B VIRUSES IN 2012 FROM SLUMS, DHAKA, BANGLADESH.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Sultana, Nazneen; Ahmed, Firoz; Rahman, M Majibur; Rahman, Sabita Rezwana

    2015-07-01

    Nasal and throat swab samples were collected from 400 subjects with influenza-like illness during June to September, 2012 from two heavily crowded slums, Rayerbazar and Hazaribagh, situated southeast of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Forty-one samples were positive for influenza B virus using quantitative RT-PCR, but no influenza A virus was detected. Antigenic characterization revealed that the influenza B viruses were of Yamagata and Victoria lineages, which was confirmed from genetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes. Co-circulation of influenza B viruses of both Yamagata and Victoria lineages in the slums of Dhaka indicates that introduction of a tetravalent vaccine formulation that includes both of these influenza B virus lineages would be more effective in this population.

  3. Oligonucleotide microarray for subtyping of influenza A viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotchenko, S. A.; Vasin, A. V.; Sandybaev, N. T.; Plotnikova, M. A.; Chervyakova, O. V.; Smirnova, E. A.; Kushnareva, E. V.; Strochkov, V. M.; Taylakova, E. T.; Egorov, V. V.; Koshemetov, J. K.; Kiselev, O. I.; Sansyzbay, A. R.

    2012-02-01

    Influenza is one of the most widespread respiratory viral diseases, infecting humans, horses, pigs, poultry and some other animal populations. Influenza A viruses (IAV) are classified into subtypes on the basis of the surface hemagglutinin (H1 to H16) and neuraminidase (N1 to N9) glycoproteins. The correct determination of IAV subtype is necessary for clinical and epidemiological studies. In this article we propose an oligonucleotide microarray for subtyping of IAV using universal one-step multisegment RT-PCR fluorescent labeling of viral gene segments. It showed to be an advanced approach for fast detection and identification of IAV.

  4. Matriptase Proteolytically Activates Influenza Virus and Promotes Multicycle Replication in the Human Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Alexandre; Gravel, Émilie; Cloutier, Alexandre; Marois, Isabelle; Colombo, Éloïc; Désilets, Antoine; Verreault, Catherine; Leduc, Richard; Marsault, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses do not encode any proteases and must rely on host proteases for the proteolytic activation of their surface hemagglutinin proteins in order to fuse with the infected host cells. Recent progress in the understanding of human proteases responsible for influenza virus hemagglutinin activation has led to the identification of members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 and human airway trypsin-like protease; however, none has proved to be the sole enzyme responsible for hemagglutinin cleavage. In this study, we identify and characterize matriptase as an influenza virus-activating protease capable of supporting multicycle viral replication in the human respiratory epithelium. Using confocal microscopy, we found matriptase to colocalize with hemagglutinin at the apical surface of human epithelial cells and within endosomes, and we showed that the soluble form of the protease was able to specifically cleave hemagglutinins from H1 virus, but not from H2 and H3 viruses, in a broad pH range. We showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of matriptase in human bronchial epithelial cells significantly blocked influenza virus replication in these cells. Lastly, we provide a selective, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of matriptase that significantly reduces viral replication (by 1.5 log) of H1N1 influenza virus, including the 2009 pandemic virus. Our study establishes a three-pronged model for the action of matriptase: activation of incoming viruses in the extracellular space in its shed form, upon viral attachment or exit in its membrane-bound and/or shed forms at the apical surface of epithelial cells, and within endosomes by its membrane-bound form where viral fusion takes place. PMID:23365447

  5. Matriptase proteolytically activates influenza virus and promotes multicycle replication in the human airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Alexandre; Gravel, Émilie; Cloutier, Alexandre; Marois, Isabelle; Colombo, Éloïc; Désilets, Antoine; Verreault, Catherine; Leduc, Richard; Marsault, Éric; Richter, Martin V

    2013-04-01

    Influenza viruses do not encode any proteases and must rely on host proteases for the proteolytic activation of their surface hemagglutinin proteins in order to fuse with the infected host cells. Recent progress in the understanding of human proteases responsible for influenza virus hemagglutinin activation has led to the identification of members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 and human airway trypsin-like protease; however, none has proved to be the sole enzyme responsible for hemagglutinin cleavage. In this study, we identify and characterize matriptase as an influenza virus-activating protease capable of supporting multicycle viral replication in the human respiratory epithelium. Using confocal microscopy, we found matriptase to colocalize with hemagglutinin at the apical surface of human epithelial cells and within endosomes, and we showed that the soluble form of the protease was able to specifically cleave hemagglutinins from H1 virus, but not from H2 and H3 viruses, in a broad pH range. We showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of matriptase in human bronchial epithelial cells significantly blocked influenza virus replication in these cells. Lastly, we provide a selective, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of matriptase that significantly reduces viral replication (by 1.5 log) of H1N1 influenza virus, including the 2009 pandemic virus. Our study establishes a three-pronged model for the action of matriptase: activation of incoming viruses in the extracellular space in its shed form, upon viral attachment or exit in its membrane-bound and/or shed forms at the apical surface of epithelial cells, and within endosomes by its membrane-bound form where viral fusion takes place.

  6. Airway protease/antiprotease imbalance in atopic asthmatics contributes to increased influenza A virus cleavage and replication

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthmatics are more susceptible to influenza infections, yet mechanisms mediating this enhanced susceptibility are unknown. Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein binds to sialic add residues on the host cells. HA requires cleavage to allow fusion of the viral HA with host ce...

  7. Role of position 627 of PB2 and the multibasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin in the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Schat, Karel A; Bingham, John; Butler, Jeff M; Chen, Li-Mei; Lowther, Sue; Crowley, Tamsyn M; Moore, Robert J; Donis, Ruben O; Lowenthal, John W

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have caused major disease outbreaks in domestic and free-living birds with transmission to humans resulting in 59% mortality amongst 564 cases. The mutation of the amino acid at position 627 of the viral polymerase basic-2 protein (PB2) from glutamic acid (E) in avian isolates to lysine (K) in human isolates is frequently found, but it is not known if this change affects the fitness and pathogenicity of the virus in birds. We show here that horizontal transmission of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1 (VN/1203) virus in chickens and ducks was not affected by the change of K to E at PB2-627. All chickens died between 21 to 48 hours post infection (pi), while 70% of the ducks survived infection. Virus replication was detected in chickens within 12 hours pi and reached peak titers in spleen, lung and brain between 18 to 24 hours for both viruses. Viral antigen in chickens was predominantly in the endothelium, while in ducks it was present in multiple cell types, including neurons, myocardium, skeletal muscle and connective tissues. Virus replicated to a high titer in chicken thrombocytes and caused upregulation of TLR3 and several cell adhesion molecules, which may explain the rapid virus dissemination and location of viral antigen in endothelium. Virus replication in ducks reached peak values between 2 and 4 days pi in spleen, lung and brain tissues and in contrast to infection in chickens, thrombocytes were not involved. In addition, infection of chickens with low pathogenic VN/1203 caused neuropathology, with E at position PB2-627 causing significantly higher infection rates than K, indicating that it enhances virulence in chickens.

  8. Fusion peptide from influenza hemagglutinin increases membrane surface order: an electron-spin resonance study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mingtao; Freed, Jack H

    2009-06-17

    A spin-labeling study of interactions of a fusion peptide from the hemagglutinin of the influenza virus, wt20, and a fusion-inactive mutant DeltaG1 with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatdylcholine bilayers was performed. We found that upon binding of wt20, the ordering of headgroups and the ordering of acyl chains near the headgroup increased significantly, in a manner consistent with a cooperative phenomenon. However, changes in the order at the end of the acyl chains were negligible. The ordering effect of wt20 on the headgroup was much stronger at pH 5 than at pH 7. No effect of DeltaG1 binding on the order of bilayers was evident. We also found that 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxyl phosphatidylcholine, a membrane-fusion inhibitor, decreased the ordering of DMPC headgroups, whereas arachidonic acid, a membrane-fusion promoter, increased the ordering of DMPC headgroups. These results suggest that increases in headgroup ordering may be important for membrane fusion. We propose that upon binding of wt20, which is known to affect only the outer leaflet of the bilayer, this outer leaflet becomes more ordered, and thus more solid-like. Then the coupling between the hardened outer leaflet and the softer inner leaflet generates bending stresses in the bilayer, which tend to increase the negative curvature of the bilayer. We suggest that the increased ordering in the headgroup region enhances dipolar interactions and lowers electrostatic energy, which may provide an energy source for membrane fusion. Possible roles of bending stresses in promoting membrane fusion are discussed.

  9. Detection of nonhemagglutinating influenza a(h3) viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in quantitative influenza virus culture.

    PubMed

    van Baalen, C A; Els, C; Sprong, L; van Beek, R; van der Vries, E; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2014-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of novel antiviral drugs against influenza virus in clinical trials, it is necessary to quantify infectious virus titers in respiratory tract samples from patients. Typically, this is achieved by inoculating virus-susceptible cells with serial dilutions of clinical specimens and detecting the production of progeny virus by hemagglutination, since influenza viruses generally have the capacity to bind and agglutinate erythrocytes of various species through their hemagglutinin (HA). This readout method is no longer adequate, since an increasing number of currently circulating influenza A virus H3 subtype (A[H3]) viruses display a reduced capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes. Here, we report the magnitude of this problem by analyzing the frequency of HA-deficient A(H3) viruses detected in The Netherlands from 1999 to 2012. Furthermore, we report the development and validation of an alternative method for monitoring the production of progeny influenza virus in quantitative virus cultures, which is independent of the capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes. This method is based on the detection of viral nucleoprotein (NP) in virus culture plates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and it produced results similar to those of the hemagglutination assay using strains with good HA activity, including A/Brisbane/059/07 (H1N1), A/Victoria/210/09 (H3N2), other seasonal A(H1N1), A(H1N1)pdm09, and the majority of A(H3) virus strains isolated in 2009. In contrast, many A(H3) viruses that have circulated since 2010 failed to display HA activity, and infectious virus titers were determined only by detecting NP. The virus culture ELISA described here will enable efficacy testing of new antiviral compounds in clinical trials during seasons in which nonhemagglutinating influenza A viruses circulate.

  10. Influenza A (H15N4) virus isolation in Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Sivay, Mariya V; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y; Sharshov, Kirill A; Govorkova, Elena A; Shestopalov, Aleksander M; Webby, Richard J

    2013-03-01

    The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events.

  11. The impact of H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine antigenic variation on virus infectious dose in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus is wide-spread in the areas of Asia and Middle East. Selection of effective vaccines that provide effective protection mainly depends on the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin protein (HA), between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how the ant...

  12. Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Newsletters Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... influence which viruses are selected for use in vaccine production? The influenza viruses in the seasonal flu ...

  13. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  14. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Ducks represent an important reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses and are partly responsible for the worldwide dissemination of AI. Due to the ability of some low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of the hemagglutinin H7 subtype to mutate into a highly pathogenic form o...

  15. Antibody Recognition of a Highly Conserved Influenza Virus Epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Bhabha, Gira; Elsliger, Marc-André; Friesen, Robert H.E.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Throsby, Mark; Goudsmit, Jaap; Wilson, Ian A.; Scripps; Crucell

    2009-05-21

    Influenza virus presents an important and persistent threat to public health worldwide, and current vaccines provide immunity to viral isolates similar to the vaccine strain. High-affinity antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide immunity to the diverse influenza subtypes and protection against future pandemic viruses. Cocrystal structures were determined at 2.2 and 2.7 angstrom resolutions for broadly neutralizing human antibody CR6261 Fab in complexes with the major surface antigen (hemagglutinin, HA) from viruses responsible for the 1918 H1N1 influenza pandemic and a recent lethal case of H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to other structurally characterized influenza antibodies, CR6261 recognizes a highly conserved helical region in the membrane-proximal stem of HA1 and HA2. The antibody neutralizes the virus by blocking conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. The CR6261 epitope identified here should accelerate the design and implementation of improved vaccines that can elicit CR6261-like antibodies, as well as antibody-based therapies for the treatment of influenza.

  16. Molecular Dynamics Analysis of Antibody Recognition and Escape by Human H1N1 Influenza Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Ieong, Pek; Amaro, Rommie E.; Li, Wilfred W.

    2015-01-01

    The antibody immunoglobulin (Ig) 2D1 is effective against the 1918 hemagglutinin (HA) and also known to cross-neutralize the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza HA through a similar epitope. However, the detailed mechanism of neutralization remains unclear. We conducted molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the interactions between Ig-2D1 and the HAs from the 1918 pandemic flu (A/South Carolina/1/1918, 18HA), the 2009 pandemic flu (A/California/04/2009, 09HA), a 2009 pandemic flu mutant (A/California/04/2009, 09HA_mut), and the 2006 seasonal flu (A/Solomon Islands/3/2006, 06HA). MM-PBSA analyses suggest the approximate free energy of binding (ΔG) between Ig-2D1 and 18HA is −74.4 kcal/mol. In comparison with 18HA, 09HA and 06HA bind Ig-2D1 ∼6 kcal/mol (ΔΔG) weaker, and the 09HA_mut bind Ig-2D1 only half as strong. We also analyzed the contributions of individual epitope residues using the free-energy decomposition method. Two important salt bridges are found between the HAs and Ig-2D1. In 09HA, a serine-to-asparagine mutation coincided with a salt bridge destabilization, hydrogen bond losses, and a water pocket formation between 09HA and Ig-2D1. In 09HA_mut, a lysine-to-glutamic-acid mutation leads to the loss of both salt bridges and destabilizes interactions with Ig-2D1. Even though 06HA has a similar ΔG to 09HA, it is not recognized by Ig-2D1 in vivo. Because 06HA contains two potential glycosylation sites that could mask the epitope, our results suggest that Ig-2D1 may be active against 06HA only in the absence of glycosylation. Overall, our simulation results are in good agreement with observations from biological experiments and offer novel mechanistic insights, to our knowledge, into the immune escape of the influenza virus. PMID:26039171

  17. Initial genetic characterization of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Taubenberger, J K; Reid, A H; Krafft, A E; Bijwaard, K E; Fanning, T G

    1997-03-21

    The "Spanish" influenza pandemic killed at least 20 million people in 1918-1919, making it the worst infectious pandemic in history. Understanding the origins of the 1918 virus and the basis for its exceptional virulence may aid in the prediction of future influenza pandemics. RNA from a victim of the 1918 pandemic was isolated from a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, lung tissue sample. Nine fragments of viral RNA were sequenced from the coding regions of hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, nucleoprotein, matrix protein 1, and matrix protein 2. The sequences are consistent with a novel H1N1 influenza A virus that belongs to the subgroup of strains that infect humans and swine, not the avian subgroup.

  18. A vesicular stomatitis pseudovirus expressing the surface glycoproteins of influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Cheresiz, S V; Kononova, A A; Razumova, Yu V; Dubich, T S; Chepurnov, A A; Kushch, A A; Davey, R; Pokrovsky, A G

    2014-10-01

    Pseudotyped viruses bearing the glycoprotein(s) of a donor virus over the nucleocapsid core of a surrogate virus are widely used as safe substitutes for infectious virus in virology studies. Retroviral particles pseudotyped with influenza A virus glycoproteins have been used recently for the study of influenza hemagglutinin and neuraminidase-dependent processes. Here, we report the development of vesicular-stomatitis-virus-based pseudotypes bearing the glycoproteins of influenza A virus. We show that pseudotypes bearing the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of H5N1 influenza A virus mimic the wild-type virus in neutralization assays and sensitivity to entry inhibitors. We demonstrate the requirement of NA for the infectivity of pseudotypes and show that viruses obtained with different NA proteins are significantly different in their transduction activities. Inhibition studies with oseltamivir carboxylate show that neuraminidase activity is required for pseudovirus production, but not for the infection of target cells with H5N1-VSV pseudovirus. The HA-NA-VSV pseudoviruses have high transduction titers and better stability than the previously reported retroviral pseudotypes and can replace live influenza virus in the development of neutralization assays, screening of potential antivirals, and the study of different HA/NA reassortants.

  19. Phylogenetic evidence against evolutionary stasis and natural abiotic reservoirs of influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Worobey, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Zhang et al. (G. Zhang, D. Shoham, D. Gilichinsky, S. Davydov, J. D. Castello, and S. O. Rogers, J. Virol. 80:12229-12235, 2006) have claimed to have recovered influenza A virus RNA from Siberian lake ice, postulating that ice might represent an important abiotic reservoir for the persistence and reemergence of this medically important pathogen. A rigorous phylogenetic analysis of these influenza A virus hemagglutinin gene sequences, however, indicates that they originated from a laboratory reference strain derived from the earliest human influenza A virus isolate, WS/33. Contrary to Zhang et al.'s assertions that the Siberian "ice viruses" are most closely related either to avian influenza virus or to human influenza virus strains from Asia from the 1960s (Zhang et al., J. Virol. 81:2538 [erratum], 2007), they are clearly contaminants from the WS/33 positive control used in their laboratory. There is thus no credible evidence that environmental ice acts as a biologically relevant reservoir for influenza viruses. Several additional cases with findings that seem at odds with the biology of influenza virus, including modern-looking avian influenza virus RNA sequences from an archival goose specimen collected in 1917 (T. G. Fanning, R. D. Slemons, A. H. Reid, T. A. Janczewski, J. Dean, and J. K. Taubenberger, J. Virol. 76:7860-7862, 2002), can also be explained by laboratory contamination or other experimental errors. Many putative examples of evolutionary stasis in influenza A virus appear to be due to laboratory artifacts.

  20. Defining the antibody cross-reactome directed against the influenza virus surface glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Choi, Angela; Hirsh, Ariana; Margine, Irina; Iida, Sayaka; Barrera, Aldo; Ferres, Marcela; Albrecht, Randy A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Bouvier, Nicole M; Ito, Kimihito; Medina, Rafael A; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Infection with influenza virus induces antibodies to the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, and these responses can be broadly protective. To assess the breadth and magnitude of antibody responses, we sequentially infected mice, guinea pigs and ferrets with divergent H1N1 or H3N2 subtypes of influenza virus. We measured antibody responses by ELISA of an extensive panel of recombinant glycoproteins representing the viral diversity in nature. Guinea pigs developed high titers of broadly cross-reactive antibodies; mice and ferrets exhibited narrower humoral responses. Then, we compared antibody responses after infection of humans with influenza virus H1N1 or H3N2 and found markedly broad responses and cogent evidence for 'original antigenic sin'. This work will inform the design of universal vaccines against influenza virus and can guide pandemic-preparedness efforts directed against emerging influenza viruses.

  1. An Immunosensor Based on Antibody Binding Fragments Attached to Gold Nanoparticles for the Detection of Peptides Derived from Avian Influenza Hemagglutinin H5

    PubMed Central

    Jarocka, Urszula; Sawicka, Róża; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka; Zagórski-Ostoja, Włodzimierz; Radecki, Jerzy; Radecka, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the development of an immunosensor for detection of peptides derived from avian influenza hemagglutinin H5. Its preparation consists of successive gold electrode modification steps: (i) modification with 1,6-hexanedithiol and gold colloidal nanoparticles; (ii) immobilization of antibody-binding fragments (Fab') of anti-hemagglutinin H5 monoclonal antibodies Mab 6-9-1 via S-Au covalent bonds; and (iii) covering the remaining free space on the electrode surfaces with bovine serum albumin. The interactions between Fab' fragments and hemagglutinin (HA) variants have been explored with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− as an electroactive marker. The immunosensor was able to recognize three different His-tagged variants of recombinant hemagglutinin from H5N1 viruses: H1 subunit (17–340 residues) of A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006, the long HA (17–530 residues) A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/12/2005 and H1 subunit (1–345 residues) of A/Vietnam/1194/2004. The strongest response has been observed for the long variant with detection limit of 2.2 pg/mL and dynamic range from 4.0 to 20.0 pg/mL. PMID:25157550

  2. Analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses by antigenic cartography and correlation to protection by vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H7 hemagglutinin subtype one of the most common subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry world wide and since it has the potential to become highly pathogenic it is among the priority subtypes for vaccination. Selection of the optimal vaccine seed strains may now be aided by antigenic...

  3. The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed the genetic diversity of avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes sampled from 14 bird species in four locations across North America. This revealed 29 combinations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes, with 26% of isolates showin...

  4. Failure of a recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine containing an avian influenza hemagglutinin gene to provide consistent protection against influenza in chickens preimmunized with a fowl pox vaccine.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Kinney, N

    2000-01-01

    Vaccines against mildly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) have been used in turkeys within the United States as part of a comprehensive control strategy. Recently, AI vaccines have been used in control programs against highly pathogenic (HP) AI of chickens in Pakistan and Mexico. A recombinant fowl pox-AI hemagglutinin subtype (H) 5 gene insert vaccine has been shown to protect specific-pathogen-free chickens from HP H5 AI virus (AIV) challenge and has been licensed by the USDA for emergency use. The ability of the recombinant fowl pox vaccine to protect chickens preimmunized against fowl pox is unknown. In the current study, broiler breeders (BB) and white leghorn (WL) pullets vaccinated with a control fowl poxvirus vaccine (FP-C) and/or a recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine containing an H5 hemagglutinin gene insert (FP-HA) were challenged with a HP H5N2 AIV isolated from chickens in Mexico. When used alone, the FP-HA vaccine protected BB and WL chickens from lethal challenge, but when given as a secondary vaccine after a primary FP-C immunization, protection against a HP AIV challenge was inconsistent. Both vaccines protected against virulent fowl pox challenge. This lack of consistent protection against HPAI may limit use to chickens without previous fowl pox vaccinations. In addition, prior exposure to field fowl poxvirus could be expected to limit protection induced by this vaccine.

  5. Avian influenza: mixed infections and missing viruses.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, LeAnn L; Kelly, Terra R; Plancarte, Magdalena; Schobel, Seth; Lin, Xudong; Dugan, Vivien G; Wentworth, David E; Boyce, Walter M

    2013-08-05

    A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes) were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture.

  6. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-08-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance.

  7. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  8. Peptide Sharing Between Influenza A H1N1 Hemagglutinin and Human Axon Guidance Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kanduc, Darja

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest that maternal microbial infections may cause fetal neurodevelopmental disorders, potentially increasing susceptibility to heavy psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, autism, pervasive developmental disorders, bipolar disorders, psychosis, epilepsy, language and speech disorders, and cognitive impairment in adult offspring. However, the molecular pathomechanisms underlying such a relationship are not clear. Here we analyze the potential role of the maternal immune response to viral infection in determining fetal brain injuries that increase the risk of neurological disorders in the adult. We use influenza infection as a disease model and human axon guidance pathway, a key process in the formation of neural network during midgestation, as a potential fetal target of immune insults. Specifically, we examined influenza A H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA), an antigenic viral protein, for amino acid sequence similarity to a random library of 188 axon guidance proteins. We obtain the results that (1) contrary to any theoretical expectations, 45 viral pentapeptide matches are distributed throughout a subset of 36 guidance molecules; (2) in 24 guidance proteins, the peptide sharing with HA antigen involves already experimentally validated influenza HA epitopes; and (3) most of the axon guidance vs HA peptide overlap is conserved among influenza A viral strains and subsets. Taken together, our data indicate that immune cross-reactivity between influenza HA and axon guidance molecules is possible and may well represent a pathologic mechanism capable of determining neurodevelopmental disruption in the fetus. PMID:23378012

  9. Changes in the hemagglutinin of H5N1 viruses during human infection--influence on receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Crusat, Martin; Liu, Junfeng; Palma, Angelina S; Childs, Robert A; Liu, Yan; Wharton, Stephen A; Lin, Yi Pu; Coombs, Peter J; Martin, Stephen R; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Chen, Zi; Stevens, David J; Hien, Vo Minh; Thanh, Tran Tan; Nhu, Le Nguyen Truc; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Ha, Do Quang; van Doorn, H Rogier; Hien, Tran Tinh; Conradt, Harald S; Kiso, Makoto; Gamblin, Steve J; Chai, Wengang; Skehel, John J; Hay, Alan J; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D; Feizi, Ten

    2013-12-01

    As avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and Africa, global concerns of an imminent pandemic persist. Recent experimental studies suggest that efficient transmission between humans of current H5N1 viruses only requires a few genetic changes. An essential step is alteration of the virus hemagglutinin from preferential binding to avian receptors for the recognition of human receptors present in the upper airway. We have identified receptor-binding changes which emerged during H5N1 infection of humans, due to single amino acid substitutions, Ala134Val and Ile151Phe, in the hemagglutinin. Detailed biological, receptor-binding, and structural analyses revealed reduced binding of the mutated viruses to avian-like receptors, but without commensurate increased binding to the human-like receptors investigated, possibly reflecting a receptor-binding phenotype intermediate in adaptation to more human-like characteristics. These observations emphasize that evolution in nature of avian H5N1 viruses to efficient binding of human receptors is a complex multistep process.

  10. Structures of Receptor Complexes of a North American H7N2 Influenza Hemagglutinin with a Loop Deletion in the Receptor Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hua; Chen, Li-Mei; Carney, Paul J.; Donis, Ruben O.; Stevens, James

    2012-02-21

    Human infections with subtype H7 avian influenza viruses have been reported as early as 1979. In 1996, a genetically stable 24-nucleotide deletion emerged in North American H7 influenza virus hemagglutinins, resulting in an eight amino acid deletion in the receptor-binding site. The continuous circulation of these viruses in live bird markets, as well as its documented ability to infect humans, raises the question of how these viruses achieve structural stability and functionality. Here we report a detailed molecular analysis of the receptor binding site of the North American lineage subtype H7N2 virus A/New York/107/2003 (NY107), including complexes with an avian receptor analog (3'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine, 3'SLN) and two human receptor analogs (6'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine, 6'SLN; sialyllacto-N-tetraose b, LSTb). Structural results suggest a novel mechanism by which residues Arg220 and Arg229 (H3 numbering) are used to compensate for the deletion of the 220-loop and form interactions with the receptor analogs. Glycan microarray results reveal that NY107 maintains an avian-type ({alpha}2-3) receptor binding profile, with only moderate binding to human-type ({alpha}2-6) receptor. Thus despite its dramatically altered receptor binding site, this HA maintains functionality and confirms a need for continued influenza virus surveillance of avian and other animal reservoirs to define their zoonotic potential.

  11. The hemagglutinin of canine distemper virus determines tropism and cytopathogenicity.

    PubMed

    von Messling, V; Zimmer, G; Herrler, G; Haas, L; Cattaneo, R

    2001-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) and measles virus (MV) cause severe illnesses in their respective hosts. The viruses display a characteristic cytopathic effect by forming syncytia in susceptible cells. For CDV, the proficiency of syncytium formation varies among different strains and correlates with the degree of viral attenuation. In this study, we examined the determinants for the differential fusogenicity of the wild-type CDV isolate 5804Han89 (CDV(5804)), the small- and large-plaque-forming variants of the CDV vaccine strain Onderstepoort (CDV(OS) and CDV(OL), respectively), and the MV vaccine strain Edmonston B (MV(Edm)). The cotransfection of different combinations of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) genes in Vero cells indicated that the H protein is the main determinant of fusion efficiency. To verify the significance of this observation in the viral context, a reverse genetic system to generate recombinant CDVs was established. This system is based on a plasmid containing the full-length antigenomic sequence of CDV(OS). The coding regions of the H proteins of all CDV strains and MV(Edm) were introduced into the CDV and MV genetic backgrounds, and recombinant viruses rCDV-H(5804), rCDV-H(OL), rCDV-H(Edm), rMV-H(5804), rMV-H(OL), and rMV-H(OS) were recovered. Thus, the H proteins of the two morbilliviruses are interchangeable and fully functional in a heterologous complex. This is in contrast with the glycoproteins of other members of the family Paramyxoviridae, which do not function efficiently with heterologous partners. The fusogenicity, growth characteristics, and tropism of the recombinant viruses were examined and compared with those of the parental strains. All these characteristics were found to be predominantly mediated by the H protein regardless of the viral backbone used.

  12. A replication-incompetent influenza virus bearing the HN glycoprotein of human parainfluenza virus as a bivalent vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Kiso, Maki; Uraki, Ryuta; Ichiko, Yurie; Takimoto, Toru; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-16

    Influenza virus and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) are major etiologic agents of acute respiratory illness in young children. Inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines are approved in several countries, yet no vaccine is licensed for HPIV. We previously showed that a replication-incompetent PB2-knockout (PB2-KO) virus that possesses a reporter gene in the coding region of the PB2 segment can serve as a platform for a bivalent vaccine. To develop a bivalent vaccine against influenza and parainfluenza virus, here, we generated a PB2-KO virus possessing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of HPIV type 3 (HPIV3), a major surface antigen of HPIV, in its PB2 segment. We confirmed that this virus replicated only in PB2-expressing cells and expressed HN. We then examined the efficacy of this virus as a bivalent vaccine in a hamster model. High levels of virus-specific IgG antibodies in sera and IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids against both influenza virus and HPIV3 were detected from hamsters immunized with this virus. The neutralizing capability of these serum antibodies was also confirmed. Moreover, the immunized hamsters were completely protected from virus challenge with influenza virus or HPIV3. These results indicate that PB2-KO virus expressing the HN of HPIV3 has the potential to be a novel bivalent vaccine against influenza and human parainfluenza viruses.

  13. Influenza virus resistance to human neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Crowe, James E

    2012-01-01

    The human antibody repertoire has an exceptionally large capacity to recognize new or changing antigens through combinatorial and junctional diversity established at the time of V(D)J recombination and through somatic hypermutation. Influenza viruses exhibit a relentless capacity to escape the human antibody response by altering the amino acids of their surface proteins in hypervariable domains that exhibit a high level of structural plasticity. Both parties in this high-stakes game of shape shifting drive structural evolution of their functional proteins (the B cell receptor/antibody on one side and the viral hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins on the other) using error-prone polymerase systems. It is likely that most of the genetic mutations that occur in these systems are deleterious, resulting in the failure of the B cell or virus with mutations to propagate in the immune repertoire or viral quasispecies. A subset of mutations is tolerated in functional surface proteins that enter the B cell or virus progeny pool. In both cases, selection occurs in the population of mutated and unmutated species. In cases where the functional avidity of the B cell receptor is increased significantly, that clone may be selected for preferential expansion. In contrast, an influenza virus that "escapes" the inhibitory effect of secreted antibodies may represent a high proportion of the progeny virus in that host. The recent paper by O'Donnell et al. [C. D. O'Donnell et al., mBio 3(3):e00120-12, 2012] identifies a mechanism for antibody resistance that does not require escape from binding but rather achieves a greater efficiency in replication.

  14. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection.

  15. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  16. Structural basis of preexisting immunity to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C; Krause, Jens C; Hai, Rong; Crowe, James E; Wilson, Ian A

    2010-04-16

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  17. Identification of Novel Fusion Inhibitors of Influenza A Virus by Chemical Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kin Kui; Cheung, Nam Nam; Yang, Fang; Dai, Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Zhiwei; Sze, Kong Hung; Chen, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A previous screening of more than 50,000 compounds led to the identification of a pool of bioactive small molecules with inhibitory effect on the influenza A virus. One of these compounds, now widely known as nucleozin, is a small molecule that targets the influenza A virus nucleoprotein. Here we identify and characterize two structurally different novel fusion inhibitors of the influenza A virus group 1 hemagglutinin (HA), FA-583 and FA-617, with low nanomolar activities. Escape mutants that are highly resistant to each of these compounds were generated, and both were found to carry mutations localized in close proximity to the B-loop of the hemagglutinin 2 protein, which plays a crucial role in the virion-host cell fusion process. Recombinant virus, generated through reverse genetics, confirmed the resistance phenotype. In addition, the proposed binding pockets predicted by molecular docking studies are in accordance with the resistance-bearing mutation sites. We show through mechanistic studies that FA-583 and FA-617 act as fusion inhibitors by prohibiting the low-pH-induced conformational change of hemagglutinin. Our study has offered concrete biological and mechanistic explorations for the strategic development of novel fusion inhibitors of influenza A viruses. IMPORTANCE Here we report two structurally distinctive novel fusion inhibitors of influenza A virus that act by interfering with the structural change of HA at acidic pH, a process necessary for successful entry of the virus. Mutational and molecular docking studies have identified their binding pockets situated in close proximity to the B-loop region of hemagglutinin 2. The reduced sensitivity of FA-583- or FA-617-associated mutants to another compound suggests a close proximity and even partial overlap of their binding sites on hemagglutinin. Amino acid sequence alignments and crystal structure analyses of group 1 and group 2 hemagglutinins have shed light on the possible binding mode of

  18. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature.

  19. Recombination in the hemagglutinin gene of the 1918 "Spanish flu".

    PubMed

    Gibbs, M J; Armstrong, J S; Gibbs, A J

    2001-09-07

    When gene sequences from the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic were first compared with those of related viruses, they yielded few clues about its origins and virulence. Our reanalysis indicates that the hemagglutinin gene, a key virulence determinant, originated by recombination. The "globular domain" of the 1918 hemagglutinin protein was encoded by a part of a gene derived from a swine-lineage influenza, whereas the "stalk" was encoded by parts derived from a human-lineage influenza. Phylogenetic analyses showed that this recombination, which probably changed the virulence of the virus, occurred at the start of, or immediately before, the pandemic and thus may have triggered it.

  20. Whole-Genome Characterization of a Novel Human Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Variant, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Born, Priscila Silva; Matos, Aline Rocha; Motta, Fernando Couto; Caetano, Braulia Costa; Debur, Maria do Carmo; Riediger, Irina Nastassja; Brown, David; Siqueira, Marilda M.

    2017-01-01

    We report the characterization of a novel reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus not previously reported in humans. Recovered from a a pig farm worker in southeast Brazil who had influenza-like illness, this virus is a triple reassortant containing gene segments from subtypes H1N2 (hemagglutinin), H3N2 (neuraminidase), and pandemic H1N1 (remaining genes). PMID:27983507

  1. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  2. Serological behaviour of influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fiset, P.; Depoux, R.

    1954-01-01

    By antibody absorption it was found that strains of influenza virus exhibiting P-Q differences were related according to certain patterns. In the course of this investigation it was also revealed that some viruses possessed masked antigens capable of stimulating antibody production but incapable of combining efficiently with antibody. PMID:14364182

  3. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Christian K.; Rahbek, Stine H.; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O.; Jakobsen, Martin R.; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K.; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K.; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G.; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L.; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV. PMID:26893169

  4. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Holm, Christian K; Rahbek, Stine H; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-02-19

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV.

  5. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  6. Perspective of Use of Antiviral Peptides against Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Skalickova, Sylvie; Heger, Zbynek; Krejcova, Ludmila; Pekarik, Vladimir; Bastl, Karel; Janda, Jozef; Kostolansky, Frantisek; Vareckova, Eva; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The threat of a worldwide influenza pandemic has greatly increased over the past decade with the emergence of highly virulent avian influenza strains. The increased frequency of drug-resistant influenza strains against currently available antiviral drugs requires urgent development of new strategies for antiviral therapy, too. The research in the field of therapeutic peptides began to develop extensively in the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the mechanisms of action for several peptides and their antiviral prospect received large attention due to the global threat posed by viruses. Here, we discussed the therapeutic properties of peptides used in influenza treatment. Peptides with antiviral activity against influenza can be divided into three main groups. First, entry blocker peptides such as a Flupep that interact with influenza hemagglutinin, block its binding to host cells and prevent viral fusion. Second, several peptides display virucidal activity, disrupting viral envelopes, e.g., Melittin. Finally, a third set of peptides interacts with the viral polymerase complex and act as viral replication inhibitors such as PB1 derived peptides. Here, we present a review of the current literature describing the antiviral activity, mechanism and future therapeutic potential of these influenza antiviral peptides. PMID:26492266

  7. Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Protein Epitopes: The Basis of Antigenic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Maino; Bürckert, Jean-Philippe; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Maenaka, Katsumi; Muller, Claude P.; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Globally eliminating measles using available vaccines is biologically feasible because the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) protein is antigenically stable. The H protein is responsible for receptor binding, and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. The immunodominant epitope, known as the hemagglutinating and noose epitope, is located near the receptor-binding site (RBS). The RBS also contains an immunodominant epitope. Loss of receptor binding correlates with an escape from the neutralization by antibodies that target the epitope at RBS. Another neutralizing epitope is located near RBS and is shielded by an N-linked sugar in certain genotype strains. However, human sera from vaccinees and measles patients neutralized all MV strains with similar efficiencies, regardless of the N-linked sugar modification or mutations at these epitopes. Two other major epitopes exist at a distance from RBS. One has an unstructured flexible domain with a linear neutralizing epitope. When MV-H forms a tetramer (dimer of dimers), these epitopes may form the dimer-dimer interface, and one of the two epitopes may also interact with the F protein. The neutralization mechanisms of antibodies that recognize these epitopes may involve inhibiting the H-F interaction or blocking the fusion cascade after MV-H binds to its receptors. PMID:27490564

  8. Production and use of a hemagglutinin for detecting antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, P R; Artsob, H; Karabatsos, N; Calisher, C H

    1987-08-01

    A procedure was developed for producing a hemagglutinin for the California serogroup (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) virus Jamestown Canyon, a human pathogen. Serum samples from humans putatively infected with this virus or with La Crosse virus were tested by hemagglutination inhibition. Each antigen detected antibody to the respective virus, with little cross-reactivity. These results suggest that both antigens should be used when the hemagglutination inhibition test is applied to the diagnosis of human infections with California serogroup viruses in North America.

  9. Full-Length Trimeric Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin II Membrane Fusion Protein and Shorter Constructs Lacking the Fusion Peptide or Transmembrane Domain: Hyperthermostability of the Full-Length Protein and the Soluble Ectodomain and Fusion Peptide Make Significant Contributions to Fusion of Membrane Vesicles†

    PubMed Central

    Ratnayake, Punsisi U.; Ekanayaka, E. A. Prabodha; Komanduru, Sweta S.; Weliky, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus is a Class I enveloped virus which is initially endocytosed into a host respiratory epithelial cell. Subsequent reduction of the pH to the 5–6 range triggers a structural change of the viral hemagglutinin II (HA2) protein, fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes, and release of the viral nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. HA2 contains fusion peptide (FP), soluble ectodomain (SE), transmembrane (TM), and intraviral domains with respective lengths of ~25, ~160, ~25, and ~10 residues. The present work provides a straightforward protocol for producing and purifying mg quantities of full-length HA2 from expression in bacteria. Biophysical and structural comparisons are made between full-length HA2 and shorter constructs including SHA2 ≡ SE, FHA2 ≡ FP + SE, and SHA2-TM ≡ SE + TM constructs. The constructs are helical in detergent at pH 7.4 and the dominant trimer species. The proteins are highly thermostable in decylmaltoside detergent with Tm > 90 °C for HA2 with stabilization provided by the SE, FP, and TM domains. The proteins are likely in a trimer-of-hairpins structure, the final protein state during fusion. All constructs induce fusion of negatively-charged vesicles at pH 5.0 with much less fusion at pH 7.4. Attractive protein/vesicle electrostatics play a role in fusion, as the proteins are positively-charged at pH 5.0 and negatively-charged at pH 7.4 and the pH-dependence of fusion is reversed for positively-charged vesicles. Comparison of fusion between constructs supports significant contributions to fusion from the SE and the FP with little effect from the TM. PMID:26297995

  10. Inhibition of influenza A virus infection by ginsenosides

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Alberto J.; Kelvin, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause mild to severe respiratory infections in humans. Due to efficient means of transmission, the viruses infect human population on a large scale. Apart from vaccines, antiviral drugs are used to control infection; neuraminidase inhibitors are thought to be the first choice of treatment, particularly for severe cases. Rapidly evolving and emerging influenza viruses with increased frequency of viral resistance to these drugs stress the need to explore novel antiviral compounds. In this study, we investigated antiviral activity of ginseng extract and ginsenosides, the ginseng-derived triterpene and saponin compounds, against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that treatment of mice with ginsenosides protected the animals from lethal 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection and lowered viral titers in animal lungs. Mechanistic studies revealed that ginsenosides interact with viral hemagglutinin protein and prevent the attachment of virus with α 2–3’ sialic acid receptors present on host cell surfaces. The interference in the viral attachment process subsequently minimizes viral entry into the cells and decreases the severity of the viral infection. We also describe that sugar moieties present in ginsenosides are indispensible for their attachment with viral HA protein. On the basis of our observations, we can say that ginsenosides are promising candidates for the development of antiviral drugs for influenza viruses. PMID:28187149

  11. Comparative Glycomics Analysis of Influenza Hemagglutinin (H5N1) Produced in Vaccine Relevant Cell Platforms

    PubMed Central

    An, Yanming; Rininger, Joseph A.; Jarvis, Donald L.; Jing, Xianghong; Ye, Zhiping; Aumiller, Jared J.; Eichelberger, Maryna; Cipollo, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) is the major antigen in influenza vaccines and glycosylation is known to influence its antigenicity. Embryonated hen eggs are traditionally used for influenza vaccine production, but vaccines produced in mammalian and insect cells were recently licensed. This raises the concern that vaccines produced with different cell systems might not be equivalent due to differences in their glycosylation patterns. Thus, we developed an analytical method to monitor vaccine glycosylation through a combination of nanoLC/MSE and quantitative MALDI-TOF MS permethylation profiling. We then used this method to examine glycosylation of HA’s from two different influenza H5N1 strains produced in five different platforms, including hen eggs, three different insect cell lines (High Five™, expresSF+® and glycoengineered expresSF+), and a human cell line (HEK293). Our results demonstrated that (1) sequon utilization is not necessarily equivalent in different cell types, (2) there are quantitative and qualitative differences in the overall N-glycosylation patterns and structures produced by different cell types, (3) ~20% of the N-glycans on the HAs produced by High Five™ cells are core α1,3-fucosylated structures, which may be allergenic in humans, and (4) our method can be used to monitor differences in glycosylation during the cellular glycoengineering stages of vaccine development. PMID:23848607

  12. Seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine protects against 1918 Spanish influenza virus infection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Melissa B; Belser, Jessica A; Gustin, Kortney M; Pappas, Claudia; Houser, Katherine V; Sun, Xiangjie; Maines, Taronna R; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2012-07-01

    The influenza virus H1N1 pandemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical catastrophes in human history. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the 1918 virus and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus [A(H1N1)pdm09], the latter now a component of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV), share cross-reactive antigenic determinants. In this study, we demonstrate that immunization with the 2010-2011 seasonal TIV induces neutralizing antibodies that cross-react with the reconstructed 1918 pandemic virus in ferrets. TIV-immunized ferrets subsequently challenged with the 1918 virus displayed significant reductions in fever, weight loss, and virus shedding compared to these parameters in nonimmune control ferrets. Seasonal TIV was also effective in protecting against the lung infection and severe lung pathology associated with 1918 virus infection. Our data demonstrate that prior immunization with contemporary TIV provides cross-protection against the 1918 virus in ferrets. These findings suggest that exposure to A(H1N1)pdm09 through immunization may provide protection against the reconstructed 1918 virus which, as a select agent, is considered to pose both biosafety and biosecurity threats.

  13. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses.

  14. Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA): a target for antivirals and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jagadesh, Anitha; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2016-08-01

    Influenza, the most common infectious disease, poses a great threat to human health because of its highly contagious nature and fast transmissibility, often leading to high morbidity and mortality. Effective vaccination strategies may aid in the prevention and control of recurring epidemics and pandemics associated with this infectious disease. However, antigenic shifts and drifts are major concerns with influenza virus, requiring effective global monitoring and updating of vaccines. Current vaccines are standardized primarily based on the amount of hemagglutinin, a major surface antigen, which chiefly constitutes these preparations along with the varying amounts of neuraminidase (NA). Anti-influenza drugs targeting the active site of NA have been in use for more than a decade now. However, NA has not been approved as an effective antigenic component of the influenza vaccine because of standardization issues. Although some studies have suggested that NA antibodies are able to reduce the severity of the disease and induce a long-term and cross-protective immunity, a few major scientific issues need to be addressed prior to launching NA-based vaccines. Interestingly, an increasing number of studies have shown NA to be a promising target for future influenza vaccines. This review is an attempt to consolidate studies that reflect the strength of NA as a suitable vaccine target. The studies discussed in this article highlight NA as a potential influenza vaccine candidate and support taking the process of developing NA vaccines to the next stage.

  15. Migration and persistence of human influenza A viruses, Vietnam, 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter; Boni, Maciej F

    2013-11-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001-2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year.

  16. Human monoclonal antibodies derived from a patient infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus broadly cross-neutralize group 1 influenza viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yang; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Du, Anariwa; and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Influenza infection can elicit heterosubtypic antibodies to group 1 influenza virus. • Three human monoclonal antibodies were generated from an H1N1-infected patient. • The antibodies predominantly recognized α-helical stem of viral hemagglutinin (HA). • The antibodies inhibited HA structural activation during the fusion process. • The antibodies are potential candidates for future antibody therapy to influenza. - Abstract: Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to human public health because of their ability to evolve rapidly through genetic drift and reassortment. Three human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) were generated in this study, 1H11, 2H5 and 5G2, and they cross-neutralize a diverse range of group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H5N1 and H9N2. The three HuMAbs were prepared by fusing peripheral blood lymphocytes from an H1N1pdm-infected patient with a newly developed fusion partner cell line, SPYMEG. All the HuMAbs had little hemagglutination inhibition activity but had strong membrane-fusion inhibition activity against influenza viruses. A protease digestion assay showed the HuMAbs targeted commonly a short α-helix region in the stalk of the hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Ile45Phe and Glu47Gly double substitutions in the α-helix region made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAbs. These two amino acid residues are highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. The HuMAbs reported here may be potential candidates for the development of therapeutic antibodies against group 1 influenza viruses.

  17. Preparation and immunogenicity of influenza virus-like particles using nitrocellulose membrane filtration

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Nitrocellulose membrane–based filtration system (NCFS) is widely used for protein concentration. In this study, we applied NCFS for production of virus-like particle (VLP) as a vaccine candidate and evaluated yield property and immunogenicity. Materials and Methods Influenza VLPs were generated by baculovirus-insect cell protein expression system. NCFS and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation were used for purification of VLP. Immunogenicity of VLP was evaluated by animal experiment. Results Influenza VLPs expressing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins derived from highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N8) were effectively produced and purified by NCFS. HA activity of VLP which correlated with antigenicity was well conserved during multiple purification steps. This NCFS based purified VLPs induced influenza virus–specific antibody responses. Conclusion Our results indicate that the influenza VLP vaccine could be prepared by NCFS without loss of immunogenicity and elicit antigen-specific immune responses. PMID:28168175

  18. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Lee, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from experimentally infected birds. Samples can generally be divided into two types; enriched (e.g. virus stocks) and clinical. Clinical type samples, which may be tissues or swab material, are the most difficult to process due to the complex sample composition and possibly low virus titers. In this chapter two well established procedures for the isolation of AI virus RNA from common clinical specimen types and enriched virus stocks for further molecular applications will be presented.

  19. Influenza C virus esterase: analysis of catalytic site, inhibition, and possible function

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasak, R.; Muster, T.; Lauro, A.M.; Powers, J.C.; Palese, P.

    1989-05-01

    The active site serine of the acetylesterase of influenza C virus was localized to amino acid 71 of the hemagglutinin-esterase protein by affinity labeling with /sup 3/H-labeled diisopropylfluorophosphate. This serine and the adjacent amino acids (Phe-Gly-Asp-Ser) are part of a consensus sequence motif found in serine hydrolases. Since comparative analysis failed to reveal esterase sequence similarities with other serine hydrolases, the authors suggest that this viral enzyme is a serine hydrolase constituting a new family of serine esterases. Furthermore, they found that the influenza C virus esterase was inhibited by isocoumarin derivatives, with 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin being the most potent inhibitor. Addition of this compound prevented elution of influenza C virus from erythrocytes and inhibited virus infectivity, possibly through inhibition of virus entry into cells.

  20. NS1 gene truncations partially attenuate H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The polybasic amino acid sequence in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of H5 and H7 avian influenza (AI) viruses determines the high pathogenicity (HP) phenotype in chickens. The NS1 protein plays an important role in blocking the induction of antiviral defenses and other regulatory functions and thus...

  1. Cold adaptation improves the growth of seasonal influenza B vaccine viruses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsuh; Schoofs, Peter; Anderson, David A; Tannock, Gregory A; Rockman, Steven P

    2014-05-01

    Gene reassortment has proved useful in improving yields of influenza A antigens of egg-based inactivated vaccines, but similar approaches have been difficult with influenza B antigens. Current regulations for influenza vaccine seed viruses limit the number of egg passages and as a result resultant yields from influenza B vaccine seed viruses are frequently inconsistent. Therefore, reliable approaches to enhance yields of influenza B vaccine seed viruses are required for efficient vaccine manufacture. In the present study three stable cold-adapted (ca) mutants, caF, caM and caB derived from seasonal epidemic strains, B/Florida/4/2006, B/Malaysia/2506/2004 and B/Brisbane/60/2008 were prepared, which produced high hemagglutinin antigen yields and also increased viral yields of reassortants possessing the desired 6:2 gene constellation. The results demonstrate that consistent improvements in yields of influenza B viruses can be obtained by cold adaptation following extended passage. Taken together, the three ca viruses were shown to have potential as donor viruses for the preparation of high-yielding influenza B vaccine viruses by reassortment.

  2. Human parainfluenza type 3 virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mRNA and limited amino acid sequence of the purified protein.

    PubMed Central

    Elango, N; Coligan, J E; Jambou, R C; Venkatesan, S

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of mRNA for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of human parainfluenza type 3 virus obtained from the corresponding cDNA clone had a single long open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 64,254 daltons consisting of 572 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence was confirmed by limited N-terminal amino acid microsequencing of CNBr cleavage fragments of native HN that was purified by immunoprecipitation. The HN protein is moderately hydrophobic and has four potential sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) of N-glycosylation in the C-terminal half of the molecule. It is devoid of both the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal membrane anchorage domain characteristic of the hemagglutinin of influenza virus and the fusion (F0) protein of the paramyxoviruses. Instead, it has a single prominent hydrophobic region capable of membrane insertion beginning at 32 residues from the N terminus. This N-terminal membrane insertion is similar to that of influenza virus neuraminidase and the recently reported structures of HN proteins of Sendai virus and simian virus 5. Images PMID:3003381

  3. Simultaneous detection of influenza viruses A and B using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    van Elden, L J; Nijhuis, M; Schipper, P; Schuurman, R; van Loon, A M

    2001-01-01

    Since influenza viruses can cause severe illness, timely diagnosis is important for an adequate intervention. The available rapid detection methods either lack sensitivity or require complex laboratory manipulation. This study describes a rapid, sensitive detection method that can be easily applied to routine diagnosis. This method simultaneously detects influenza viruses A and B in specimens of patients with respiratory infections using a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay. Primers and probes were selected from highly conserved regions of the matrix protein gene of influenza virus A and the hemagglutinin gene segment of influenza virus B. The applicability of this multiplex PCR was evaluated with 27 influenza virus A and 9 influenza virus B reference strains and isolates. In addition, the specificity of the assay was assessed using eight reference strains of other respiratory viruses (parainfluenza viruses 1 to 3, respiratory syncytial virus Long strain, rhinoviruses 1A and 14, and coronaviruses OC43 and 229E) and 30 combined nose and throat swabs from asymptomatic subjects. Electron microscopy-counted stocks of influenza viruses A and B were used to develop a quantitative PCR format. Thirteen copies of viral RNA were detected for influenza virus A, and 11 copies were detected for influenza virus B, equaling 0.02 and 0.006 50% tissue culture infective doses, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of the multiplex TaqMan-based PCR was determined by testing 98 clinical samples. This real-time PCR technique was found to be more sensitive than the combination of conventional viral culturing and shell vial culturing.

  4. Reassortant Eurasian Avian-Like Influenza A(H1N1) Virus from a Severely Ill Child, Hunan Province, China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenfei; Zhang, Hong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhong, Lili; Yang, Lei; Guo, Junfeng; Xie, Yiran; Li, Fangcai; Deng, Zhihong; Feng, Hong; Huang, Yiwei; Hu, Shixiong; Xu, Xin; Zou, Xiaohui; Li, Xiaodan; Bai, Tian; Chen, Yongkun; Li, Zi

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus was isolated from a boy in China who had severe pneumonia. The virus was a genetic reassortant of Eurasian avian-like influenza A(H1N1) (EA-H1N1) virus. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix genes of the reassortant virus were highly similar to genes in EA-H1N1 swine influenza viruses, the polybasic 1 and 2, polymerase acidic, and nucleoprotein genes originated from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, and the nonstructural protein gene derived from classical swine influenza A(H1N1) (CS H1N1) virus. In a mouse model, the reassortant virus, termed influenza A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) virus, showed higher infectivity and virulence than another human EA-H1N1 isolate, influenza A/Jiangsu/1/2011(H1N1) virus. In the respiratory tract of mice, virus replication by influenza A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) virus was substantially higher than that by influenza A/Jiangsu/1/2011(H1N1) virus. Human-to-human transmission of influenza A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) virus has not been detected; however, given the circulation of novel EA-H1N1 viruses in pigs, enhanced surveillance should be instituted among swine and humans. PMID:27767007

  5. Influenza A virus recycling revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Dowdle, W. R.

    1999-01-01

    Current textbooks link influenza pandemics to influenza A virus subtypes H2 (1889-91), H3 (1990), H1 (1918-20), H2 (1957-58) and H3 (1968), a pattern suggesting subtype recycling in humans. Since H1 reappeared in 1977, whatever its origin, some workers feel that H2 is the next pandemic candidate. This report reviews the publications on which the concept of influenza A virus subtype recycling is based and concludes that the data are inconsistent with the purported sequence of events. The three influenza pandemics prior to 1957-58 were linked with subtypes through retrospective studies of sera from the elderly, or through seroarchaeology. The pandemic seroarchaeological model for subtype H1 has been validated by the recent recovery of swine virus RNA fragments from persons who died from influenza in 1918. Application of the model to pre-existing H3 antibody among the elderly links the H3 subtype to the pandemic of 1889-91, not that of 1900 as popularly quoted. Application of the model to pre-existing H2 antibody among the elderly fails to confirm that this subtype caused a pandemic in the late 1800's, a finding which is consistent with age-related excess mortality patterns during the pandemics of 1957 (H2) and 1968 (H3). H2 variants should be included in pandemic planning for a number of reasons, but not because of evidence of recycling. It is not known when the next pandemic will occur or which of the 15 (or more) haemagglutinin subtypes will be involved. Effective global surveillance remains the key to influenza preparedness. PMID:10593030

  6. Simultaneous quantification of the viral antigens hemagglutinin and neuraminidase in influenza vaccines by LC-MSE.

    PubMed

    Creskey, Marybeth C; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi; Girard, Michel; Lorbetskie, Barry; Gravel, Caroline; Farnsworth, Aaron; Li, Xuguang; Smith, Daryl G S; Cyr, Terry D

    2012-07-06

    Current methods for quality control of inactivated influenza vaccines prior to regulatory approval include determining the hemagglutinin (HA) content by single radial immunodiffusion (SRID), verifying neuraminidase (NA) enzymatic activity, and demonstrating that the levels of the contaminant protein ovalbumin are below a set threshold of 1 μg/dose. The SRID assays require the availability of strain-specific reference HA antigens and antibodies, the production of which is a potential rate-limiting step in vaccine development and release, particularly during a pandemic. Immune responses induced by neuraminidase also contribute to protection from infection; however, the amounts of NA antigen in influenza vaccines are currently not quantified or standardized. Here, we report a method for vaccine analysis that yields simultaneous quantification of HA and NA levels much more rapidly than conventional HA quantification techniques, while providing additional valuable information on the total protein content. Enzymatically digested vaccine proteins were analyzed by LC-MS(E), a mass spectrometric technology that allows absolute quantification of analytes, including the HA and NA antigens, other structural influenza proteins and chicken egg proteins associated with the manufacturing process. This method has potential application for increasing the accuracy of reference antigen standards and for validating label claims for HA content in formulated vaccines. It can also be used to monitor NA and chicken egg protein content in order to monitor manufacturing consistency. While this is a useful methodology with potential for broad application, we also discuss herein some of the inherent limitations of this approach and the care and caution that must be taken in its use as a tool for absolute protein quantification. The variations in HA, NA and chicken egg protein concentrations in the vaccines analyzed in this study are indicative of the challenges associated with the current

  7. Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, R G; Bean, W J; Gorman, O T; Chambers, T M; Kawaoka, Y

    1992-01-01

    In this review we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species and study the ecological features that permit the perpetuation of influenza viruses in aquatic avian species. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus RNA segments coding for the spike proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and the internal proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) from a wide range of hosts, geographical regions, and influenza A virus subtypes support the following conclusions. (i) Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating waterfowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known HA and NA subtypes. (ii) Influenza viruses have evolved into a number of host-specific lineages that are exemplified by the NP gene and include equine Prague/56, recent equine strains, classical swine and human strains, H13 gull strains, and all other avian strains. Other genes show similar patterns, but with extensive evidence of genetic reassortment. Geographical as well as host-specific lineages are evident. (iii) All of the influenza A viruses of mammalian sources originated from the avian gene pool, and it is possible that influenza B viruses also arose from the same source. (iv) The different virus lineages are predominantly host specific, but there are periodic exchanges of influenza virus genes or whole viruses between species, giving rise to pandemics of disease in humans, lower animals, and birds. (v) The influenza viruses currently circulating in humans and pigs in North America originated by transmission of all genes from the avian reservoir prior to the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic; some of the genes have subsequently been replaced by others from the influenza gene pool in birds. (vi) The influenza virus gene pool in aquatic birds of the world is probably perpetuated by low-level transmission within that species throughout the year. (vii

  8. Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Webster, R G; Bean, W J; Gorman, O T; Chambers, T M; Kawaoka, Y

    1992-03-01

    In this review we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species and study the ecological features that permit the perpetuation of influenza viruses in aquatic avian species. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus RNA segments coding for the spike proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and the internal proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) from a wide range of hosts, geographical regions, and influenza A virus subtypes support the following conclusions. (i) Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating waterfowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known HA and NA subtypes. (ii) Influenza viruses have evolved into a number of host-specific lineages that are exemplified by the NP gene and include equine Prague/56, recent equine strains, classical swine and human strains, H13 gull strains, and all other avian strains. Other genes show similar patterns, but with extensive evidence of genetic reassortment. Geographical as well as host-specific lineages are evident. (iii) All of the influenza A viruses of mammalian sources originated from the avian gene pool, and it is possible that influenza B viruses also arose from the same source. (iv) The different virus lineages are predominantly host specific, but there are periodic exchanges of influenza virus genes or whole viruses between species, giving rise to pandemics of disease in humans, lower animals, and birds. (v) The influenza viruses currently circulating in humans and pigs in North America originated by transmission of all genes from the avian reservoir prior to the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic; some of the genes have subsequently been replaced by others from the influenza gene pool in birds. (vi) The influenza virus gene pool in aquatic birds of the world is probably perpetuated by low-level transmission within that species throughout the year. (vii

  9. Preparation of Quadri-Subtype Influenza Virus-Like Particles Using Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus Gag Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Hamilton, Garrett; Horn, Noah; Nickols, Brian; Prather, Raphael O.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Pushko, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza VLPs comprised of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M1) proteins have been previously used for immunological and virological studies. Here we demonstrated that influenza VLPs can be made in Sf9 cells by using the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag (Bgag) protein in place of M1. We showed that Bgag can be used to prepare VLPs for several influenza subtypes including H1N1 and H10N8. Furthermore, by using Bgag, we prepared quadri-subtype VLPs, which co-expressed within the VLP the four HA subtypes derived from avian-origin H5N1, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N8 viruses. VLPs showed hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities and reacted with specific antisera. The content and co-localization of each HA subtype within the quadri-subtype VLP were evaluated. Electron microscopy showed that Bgag-based VLPs resembled influenza virions with the diameter of 150-200 nm. This is the first report of quadri-subtype design for influenza VLP and the use of Bgag for influenza VLP preparation. PMID:26529299

  10. A novel activation mechanism of avian influenza virus H9N2 by furin.

    PubMed

    Tse, Longping V; Hamilton, Alice M; Friling, Tamar; Whittaker, Gary R

    2014-02-01

    Avian influenza virus H9N2 is prevalent in waterfowl and has become endemic in poultry in Asia and the Middle East. H9N2 influenza viruses have served as a reservoir of internal genes for other avian influenza viruses that infect humans, and several cases of human infection by H9N2 influenza viruses have indicated its pandemic potential. Fortunately, an extensive surveillance program enables close monitoring of H9N2 influenza viruses worldwide and has generated a large repository of virus sequences and phylogenetic information. Despite the large quantity of sequences in different databases, very little is known about specific virus isolates and their pathogenesis. Here, we characterize a low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus, A/chicken/Israel/810/2001 (H9N2) (Israel810), which is representative of influenza virus strains that have caused severe morbidity and mortality in poultry farms. We show that under certain circumstances the Israel810 hemagglutinin (HA) can be activated by furin, a hallmark of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. We demonstrate that Israel810 HA can be cleaved in cells with high levels of furin expression and that a mutation that eliminates a glycosylation site in HA(1) allows the Israel810 HA to gain universal cleavage in cell culture. Pseudoparticles generated from Israel810 HA, or the glycosylation mutant, transduce cells efficiently. In contrast, introduction of a polybasic cleavage site into Israel810 HA leads to pseudoviruses that are compromised for transduction. Our data indicate a mechanism for an H9N2 evolutionary pathway that may allow it to gain virulence in a distinct manner from H5 and H7 influenza viruses.

  11. Spatial dynamics of human-origin H1 influenza A virus in North American swine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C; Gramer, Marie

    2011-06-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003-2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens.

  12. Influenza Research Database: An integrated bioinformatics resource for influenza virus research

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Aevermann, Brian D.; Anderson, Tavis K.; Burke, David F.; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Gu, Zhiping; He, Sherry; Kumar, Sanjeev; Larsen, Christopher N.; Lee, Alexandra J.; Li, Xiaomei; Macken, Catherine; Mahaffey, Colin; Pickett, Brett E.; Reardon, Brian; Smith, Thomas; Stewart, Lucy; Suloway, Christian; Sun, Guangyu; Tong, Lei; Vincent, Amy L.; Walters, Bryan; Zaremba, Sam; Zhao, Hongtao; Zhou, Liwei; Zmasek, Christian; Klem, Edward B.; Scheuermann, Richard H.

    2017-01-01

    The Influenza Research Database (IRD) is a U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Bioinformatics Resource Center dedicated to providing bioinformatics support for influenza virus research. IRD facilitates the research and development of vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics against influenza virus by providing a comprehensive collection of influenza-related data integrated from various sources, a growing suite of analysis and visualization tools for data mining and hypothesis generation, personal workbench spaces for data storage and sharing, and active user community support. Here, we describe the recent improvements in IRD including the use of cloud and high performance computing resources, analysis and visualization of user-provided sequence data with associated metadata, predictions of novel variant proteins, annotations of phenotype-associated sequence markers and their predicted phenotypic effects, hemagglutinin (HA) clade classifications, an automated tool for HA subtype numbering conversion, linkouts to disease event data and the addition of host factor and antiviral drug components. All data and tools are freely available without restriction from the IRD website at https://www.fludb.org. PMID:27679478

  13. Macaque Proteome Response to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and 1918 Reassortant Influenza Virus Infections▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joseph N.; Palermo, Robert E.; Baskin, Carole R.; Gritsenko, Marina; Sabourin, Patrick J.; Long, James P.; Sabourin, Carol L.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Albrecht, Randy; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    The host proteome response and molecular mechanisms that drive disease in vivo during infection by a human isolate of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) and 1918 pandemic influenza virus remain poorly understood. This study presents a comprehensive characterization of the proteome response in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) lung tissue over 7 days of infection with HPAI (the most virulent), a reassortant virus containing 1918 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface proteins (intermediate virulence), or a human seasonal strain (least virulent). A high-sensitivity two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy strategy and functional network analysis were implemented to gain insight into response pathways activated in macaques during influenza virus infection. A macaque protein database was assembled and used in the identification of 35,239 unique peptide sequences corresponding to approximately 4,259 proteins. Quantitative analysis identified an increase in expression of 400 proteins during viral infection. The abundance levels of a subset of these 400 proteins produced strong correlations with disease progression observed in the macaques, distinguishing a “core” response to viral infection from a “high” response specific to severe disease. Proteome expression profiles revealed distinct temporal response kinetics between viral strains, with HPAI inducing the most rapid response. While proteins involved in the immune response, metabolism, and transport were increased rapidly in the lung by HPAI, the other viruses produced a delayed response, characterized by an increase in proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, RNA processing, and translation. Proteomic results were integrated with previous genomic and pathological analysis to characterize the dynamic nature of the influenza virus infection process. PMID:20844032

  14. Age at vaccination and timing of infection do not alter vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease in influenza A virus infected pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used in the swine industry to reduce clinical disease against homologous influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In pigs experimentally challenged with antigenically distinct heterologous IAV of the same hemagglutinin subtype, WIV vaccinates have been sho...

  15. The origins of new pandemic viruses: the acquisition of new host ranges by canine parvovirus and influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Colin R; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    Transfer of viruses between hosts to create a new self-sustaining epidemic is rare; however, those new viruses can cause severe outbreaks. Examples of such viruses include three pandemic human influenza A viruses and canine parvovirus in dogs. In each case one virus made the original transfer and spread worldwide, and then further adaptation resulted in the emergence of variants worldwide. For the influenza viruses several changes were required for growth and spread between humans, and the emergence of human H2N2 and H3N2 strains in 1957 and 1968 involved the acquisition of three or two new genomic segments, respectively. Adaptation to humans involved several viral genes including the hemagglutinin, the neuraminidase, and the replication proteins. The canine adaptation of the parvoviruses involved capsid protein changes altering the recognition of the host transferrin receptors, allowing canine transferrin receptor binding and its use as a receptor for cell infection.

  16. Molecular hybridization with DNA-probes as a laboratory diagnostic test for influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Pljusnin, A Z; Rozhkova, S A; Nolandt, O V; Bryantseva, E A; Kuznetsov, O K; Noskov, F S

    1987-01-01

    The possibilities of using DNA-copies of different influenza A virus genes cloned with recombinant bacterial plasmids for the detection of virus-specific RNA by molecular dot-hybridization were analyzed. High specificity of RNA identification has been demonstrated and it has been shown expedient to use DNA-probes with high-conservative virus genes (polymerase, nucleoprotein, or matrix) for the detection of influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H2N2, H3N2) and probes with corresponding hemagglutinin genes for the differentiation of the subtypes H3N2 and H1N1. The results of nasopharyngeal specimens testing proved the effectiveness of molecular dot-hybridization in epidemiological studies of influenza outbreaks, especially of mixed etiology.

  17. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Mehle, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

  18. Unusual influenza A viruses in bats.

    PubMed

    Mehle, Andrew

    2014-09-17

    Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential.

  19. Preparation of quadri-subtype influenza virus-like particles using bovine immunodeficiency virus gag protein

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Hamilton, Garrett; Horn, Noah; Nickols, Brian; Prather, Raphael O.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Pushko, Peter

    2016-01-15

    Influenza VLPs comprised of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M1) proteins have been previously used for immunological and virological studies. Here we demonstrated that influenza VLPs can be made in Sf9 cells by using the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag (Bgag) protein in place of M1. We showed that Bgag can be used to prepare VLPs for several influenza subtypes including H1N1 and H10N8. Furthermore, by using Bgag, we prepared quadri-subtype VLPs, which co-expressed within the VLP the four HA subtypes derived from avian-origin H5N1, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N8 viruses. VLPs showed hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities and reacted with specific antisera. The content and co-localization of each HA subtype within the quadri-subtype VLP were evaluated. Electron microscopy showed that Bgag-based VLPs resembled influenza virions with the diameter of 150–200 nm. This is the first report of quadri-subtype design for influenza VLP and the use of Bgag for influenza VLP preparation. - Highlights: • BIV gag protein was configured as influenza VLP core component. • Recombinant influenza VLPs were prepared in Sf9 cells using baculovirus expression system. • Single- and quadri-subtype VLPs were prepared by using BIV gag as a VLP core. • Co-localization of H5, H7, H9, and H10 HA was confirmed within quadri-subtype VLP. • Content of HA subtypes within quadri-subtype VLP was determined. • Potential advantages of quadri-subtype VLPs as influenza vaccine are discussed.

  20. Influenza virus neuraminidase contributes to the dextran sulfate-dependent suppressive replication of some influenza A virus strains.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Moriishi, Eiko; Haredy, Ahmad M; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Mori, Yasuko; Yamanishi, Koichi; Okamoto, Shigefumi

    2012-12-01

    Dextran sulfate (DS), a negatively charged, sulfated polysaccharide, suppresses the replication of an influenza A virus strain, and this suppression is associated with inhibition of the hemagglutinin (HA)-dependent fusion activity. However, it remains unknown whether the replication of all or just some influenza A virus strains is suppressed by DS, or whether HA is the only target for the replication suppression. In the present study, we found that DS inhibited the replication of some, but not all influenza A virus strains. The suppression in the DS-sensitive strains was dose-dependent and neutralized by diethylaminoethyl-dextran (DD), which has a positive charge. The suppression by DS was observed not only at the initial stage of viral infection, which includes viral attachment and entry, but also at the late stage, which includes virus assembly and release from infected cells. Electron microscopy revealed that the DS induced viral aggregation at the cell surface. The neuraminidase (NA) activity of the strains whose viral replication was inhibited at the late stage was also more suppressed by DS than that of the strains whose replication was not inhibited, and this inhibition of NA activity was also neutralized by adding positively charged DD. Furthermore, we found that replacing the NA gene of a strain in which viral replication was inhibited by DS at the late stage with the NA gene from a strain in which viral replication was not inhibited, eliminated the DS-dependent suppression. These results suggest that the influenza virus NA contributes to the DS-suppressible virus release from infected cells at the late stage, and the suppression may involve the inhibition of NA activity by DS's negative charge.

  1. Reassortment patterns in Swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Khiabanian, Hossein; Trifonov, Vladimir; Rabadan, Raul

    2009-10-07

    Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1), reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.

  2. Recombinant IgA is sufficient to prevent influenza virus transmission in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Christopher W; Rahmat, Saad; Krause, Jens C; Eggink, Dirk; Albrecht, Randy A; Goff, Peter H; Krammer, Florian; Duty, J Andrew; Bouvier, Nicole M; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Palese, Peter

    2013-07-01

    A serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer of 40 or greater is thought to be associated with reduced influenza virus pathogenesis in humans and is often used as a correlate of protection in influenza vaccine studies. We have previously demonstrated that intramuscular vaccination of guinea pigs with inactivated influenza virus generates HAI titers greater than 300 but does not protect vaccinated animals from becoming infected with influenza virus by transmission from an infected cage mate. Only guinea pigs intranasally inoculated with a live influenza virus or a live attenuated virus vaccine, prior to challenge, were protected from transmission (A. C. Lowen et al., J. Virol. 83:2803-2818, 2009.). Because the serum HAI titer is mostly determined by IgG content, these results led us to speculate that prevention of viral transmission may require IgA antibodies or cellular immune responses. To evaluate this hypothesis, guinea pigs and ferrets were administered a potent, neutralizing mouse IgG monoclonal antibody, 30D1 (Ms 30D1 IgG), against the A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) virus hemagglutinin and exposed to respiratory droplets from animals infected with this virus. Even though HAI titers were greater than 160 1 day postadministration, Ms 30D1 IgG did not prevent airborne transmission to passively immunized recipient animals. In contrast, intramuscular administration of recombinant 30D1 IgA (Ms 30D1 IgA) prevented transmission to 88% of recipient guinea pigs, and Ms 30D1 IgA was detected in animal nasal washes. Ms 30D1 IgG administered intranasally also prevented transmission, suggesting the importance of mucosal immunity in preventing influenza virus transmission. Collectively, our data indicate that IgG antibodies may prevent pathogenesis associated with influenza virus infection but do not protect from virus infection by airborne transmission, while IgA antibodies are more important for preventing transmission of influenza viruses.

  3. Selective Bottlenecks Shape Evolutionary Pathways Taken during Mammalian Adaptation of a 1918-like Avian Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Moncla, Louise H; Zhong, Gongxun; Nelson, Chase W; Dinis, Jorge M; Mutschler, James; Hughes, Austin L; Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Friedrich, Thomas C

    2016-02-10

    Avian influenza virus reassortants resembling the 1918 human pandemic virus can become transmissible among mammals by acquiring mutations in hemagglutinin (HA) and polymerase. Using the ferret model, we trace the evolutionary pathway by which an avian-like virus evolves the capacity for mammalian replication and airborne transmission. During initial infection, within-host HA diversity increased drastically. Then, airborne transmission fixed two polymerase mutations that do not confer a detectable replication advantage. In later transmissions, selection fixed advantageous HA1 variants. Transmission initially involved a "loose" bottleneck, which became strongly selective after additional HA mutations emerged. The stringency and evolutionary forces governing between-host bottlenecks may therefore change throughout host adaptation. Mutations occurred in multiple combinations in transmitted viruses, suggesting that mammalian transmissibility can evolve through multiple genetic pathways despite phenotypic constraints. Our data provide a glimpse into avian influenza virus adaptation in mammals, with broad implications for surveillance on potentially zoonotic viruses.

  4. Influenza viruses from avian and porcine sources and their possible role in the origin of human pandemic strains.

    PubMed

    Webster, R G; Hinshaw, V S; Bean, W J; Turner, B; Shortridge, K F

    Studies on influenza viruses from feral ducks trapped in Canada in August 1976, gave a 26% isolation rate from cloacal samples of juvenile birds. Several different influenza A viruses were isolated, some of which possessed novel hemagglutinin and/or neuraminidase antigens. Influenza A viruses isolated from the rectum of feral ducks replicate in the upper respiratory tract and also in the intestinal tract of feral and domestic ducks. Representative human influenza viruses of the H0N1, H3N2 and Hsw1 N1 subtypes replicate in the upper respiratory tract of ducks but not in the intestinal tract. The A/Hong Kong/68 [H3N2] influenza virus that has not been isolated from man for several years was recently isolated from pigs originating from The People's Republic of China. A/Victoria/3/75-like influenza viruses that are currently circulating in man were also isolated from pigs. Both the A/Hong Kong/68 and the A/Victoria/75-like viruses transmitted readily from pig to pig in experimental studies. The susceptibility of ducks and pigs to infection with human influenza viruses suggests that these animals may play an important role in the ecology of influenza A viruses.

  5. Influenza A Virus Polymerase Is a Site for Adaptive Changes during Experimental Evolution in Bat Cells

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Daniel S.; Yú, Shuǐqìng; Caì, Yíngyún; Dinis, Jorge M.; Müller, Marcel A.; Jordan, Ingo; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The recent identification of highly divergent influenza A viruses in bats revealed a new, geographically dispersed viral reservoir. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of host-restricted viral tropism and the potential for transmission of viruses between humans and bats, we exposed a panel of cell lines from bats of diverse species to a prototypical human-origin influenza A virus. All of the tested bat cell lines were susceptible to influenza A virus infection. Experimental evolution of human and avian-like viruses in bat cells resulted in efficient replication and created highly cytopathic variants. Deep sequencing of adapted human influenza A virus revealed a mutation in the PA polymerase subunit not previously described, M285K. Recombinant virus with the PA M285K mutation completely phenocopied the adapted virus. Adaptation of an avian virus-like virus resulted in the canonical PB2 E627K mutation that is required for efficient replication in other mammals. None of the adaptive mutations occurred in the gene for viral hemagglutinin, a gene that frequently acquires changes to recognize host-specific variations in sialic acid receptors. We showed that human influenza A virus uses canonical sialic acid receptors to infect bat cells, even though bat influenza A viruses do not appear to use these receptors for virus entry. Our results demonstrate that bats are unique hosts that select for both a novel mutation and a well-known adaptive mutation in the viral polymerase to support replication. IMPORTANCE Bats constitute well-known reservoirs for viruses that may be transferred into human populations, sometimes with fatal consequences. Influenza A viruses have recently been identified in bats, dramatically expanding the known host range of this virus. Here we investigated the replication of human influenza A virus in bat cell lines and the barriers that the virus faces in this new host. Human influenza A and B viruses infected cells from geographically and

  6. Multiple Natural Substitutions in Avian Influenza A Virus PB2 Facilitate Efficient Replication in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mänz, Benjamin; de Graaf, Miranda; Mögling, Ramona; Richard, Mathilde; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A strong restriction of the avian influenza A virus polymerase in mammalian cells generally limits viral host-range switching. Although substitutions like E627K in the PB2 polymerase subunit can facilitate polymerase activity to allow replication in mammals, many human H5N1 and H7N9 viruses lack this adaptive substitution. Here, several previously unknown, naturally occurring, adaptive substitutions in PB2 were identified by bioinformatics, and their enhancing activity was verified using in vitro assays. Adaptive substitutions enhanced polymerase activity and virus replication in mammalian cells for avian H5N1 and H7N9 viruses but not for a partially human-adapted H5N1 virus. Adaptive substitutions toward basic amino acids were frequent and were mostly clustered in a putative RNA exit channel in a polymerase crystal structure. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated divergent dependency of influenza viruses on adaptive substitutions. The novel adaptive substitutions found in this study increase basic understanding of influenza virus host adaptation and will help in surveillance efforts. IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses from birds jump the species barrier into humans relatively frequently. Such influenza virus zoonoses may pose public health risks if the virus adapts to humans and becomes a pandemic threat. Relatively few amino acid substitutions—most notably in the receptor binding site of hemagglutinin and at positions 591 and 627 in the polymerase protein PB2—have been identified in pandemic influenza virus strains as determinants of host adaptation, to facilitate efficient virus replication and transmission in humans. Here, we show that substantial numbers of amino acid substitutions are functionally compensating for the lack of the above-mentioned mutations in PB2 and could facilitate influenza virus emergence in humans. PMID:27076644

  7. Genetic evolution of H9 subtype influenza viruses from live poultry markets in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Fei-Fei; Zhou, Jin-Ping; Liu, Jian; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Wei-Yi; Sheng, Li-Ping; Xu, Feng; Ju, Hou-Bing; Sun, Quan-Yun; Liu, Pei-Hong

    2009-10-01

    H9N2 influenza viruses have become established and maintain long-term endemicity in poultry. The complete genomes of seven avian H9N2 influenza viruses were characterized. These seven influenza virus isolates were obtained from live poultry markets in Shanghai, China, in 2002 and from 2006 to 2008. Genetic analysis revealed that all seven isolates had an RSSR motif at the cleavage site of hemagglutinin (HA), indicating low pathogenicity in chickens. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the seven avian H9N2 viruses belonged to the lineage represented by Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (H9N2), a virus belonging to the Chicken/Beijing/1/94-like (H9N2) lineage, and that they are all quadruple reassortants consisting of genes from different lineages. The six internal genes of the isolates possessed H5N1-like sequences, indicating that they were reassortants of H9 and H5 viruses. All of the viruses had nonstructural (as well as HA and neuraminidase) genes derived from the Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97-like virus lineage but also had other genes of mixed avian virus origin, including genes similar to those of H5N1 viruses (Gs/GD-like). The infected chickens showed no signs of disease. These results show the genetic and biological diversity of H9N2 viruses in Shanghai and support their potential role as pandemic influenza agents.

  8. Mucosal vaccination with a codon-optimized hemagglutinin gene expressed by attenuated Salmonella elicits a protective immune response in chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Liljebjelke, Karen A; Petkov, Daniel I; Kapczynski, Darrell R

    2010-06-17

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical protection from challenge conferred by two attenuated Salmonella enteria serovar typhimurium vaccine strains expressing the hemagglutinin (HA1) gene from a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005), under control of the anaerobically inducible nir15 promoter. Two-week-old White Leghorn chickens were immunized by oral gavage with one milliliter doses of >109 Salmonella colony-forming units once weekly for 4 weeks prior to challenge. Expression of recombinant protein was confirmed via Western blot. Serum and mucosal gavage samples were collected prior to, and following immunization and antibodies against avian influenza HA were confirmed by Western blot and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. Chickens were challenged with homologous (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005), or heterologous (A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95) HPAI virus strains. Chickens immunized with attenuated Salmonella strains containing plasmid expression vector (pTETnir15HA) demonstrated a statistically significant increase in survival compared to control groups. Results provide evidence of effectiveness of attenuated Salmonella strains for delivery of recombinant avian influenza HA antigens and induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses protective against lethal challenge with HPAI.

  9. Study on the Dynamics of Influenza Hemagglutinin Based on Energy Landscape Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xingcheng; Eddy, Nathanial; Noel, Jeffrey; Whitford, Paul; Ma, Jianpeng; Onuchic, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA2), a homotrimeric influenza surface protein crucial for membrane fusion, undergoes an drastic structural rearrangement during viral invasion of the host. X-ray crystallography shows that the pre- and post-fusion configurations have largely disparate secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. Simulations allow us to explore the time-dependent high resolution structural information and function of HA2 dynamics. Here we use an approach based on energy landscape theory that combines the native information from both the starting and end points. Our simulation shows two key events in the conformational transition of HA2: The extension of its fusion peptides away from the viral membrane and the melting of its globular C-terminal portion. The similar timescale and a kinetic competition between these two events lead to two main pathways and generic kinetic intermediates during this transition. Through considering the biological context of HA, we test perturbations of the baseline model that are useful in understanding the robustness of our predictions and how they translate into the function of HA. The all-atom explicit solvent simulation is performed and convince the cracking phenomenon at the start of this protein dynamics. Center for Theoretical Biological Physics.

  10. Influenza bivalent vaccine comprising recombinant H3 hemagglutinin (HA) and H1 HA containing replaced H3 hemagglutinin transmembrane domain exhibited improved heterosubtypic protection immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiliang; Xue, Chunyi; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Kang; Wang, Yang; Wei, Ying; Liu, George Dacai; Cao, Yongchang

    2015-07-31

    Influenza caused by infection of influenza viruses is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human. Vaccination is the main defense against influenza virus, but current influenza trivalent or quatrivalent vaccines (TIV/QIV) would lose their effectiveness when vaccine strains are mismatched with circulating strains. Our early study showed that recombinant influenza Hx-TM HA proteins containing H3 HA transmembrane domain(TM) had improved immunogenicity and heterosubtypic protection over corresponding wild-type Hx-WT HA proteins. In present study, bivalent vaccines containing H3-WT+Hx-TM were investigated for their immune responses and heterosubtypic protection immunities. The data showed that the bivalent vaccines containing H3-WT and H5-TM or H1-TM had improved immune responses and heterosubtypic protection over the bivalent vaccines containing H3-WT and H5-WT or H1-WT respectively. These results demonstrated that the improved immune responses and heterosubtypic protection of Hx-TM HA proteins could be translated into bivalent vaccines, suggesting a feasible strategy of improving the immune responses and heterosubtypic protection of influenza multivalent vaccines such as TIV and QIV.

  11. Erythrocyte binding preference of 16 subtypes of low pathogenic avian influenza and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses.

    PubMed

    Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Lerdsamran, Hatairat; Pooruk, Phisanu; Webster, Robert G; Louisirirotchanakul, Suda; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Nateerom, Kannika; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2010-12-15

    All 16 subtypes of avian influenza viruses of low pathogenicity (LPAIV) as well as their hemagglutinin (H) antigens, and four 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus isolates were assayed for hemagglutinating activity against 5 erythrocyte species: goose, guinea pig, human group O, chicken and horse. Of all viruses and antigens assayed, the highest hemagglutination (HA) titers were obtained with goose and guinea pig erythrocytes. Hemagglutinating activity of replicating LPAIV and LPAIV antigens decreased, in order, with chicken and human group O; meanwhile, horse erythrocytes yielded lowest or no HA titer. Moreover, the 2009 pandemic viruses did not agglutinate both horse and chicken erythrocytes. Our study concluded that goose and guinea pig erythrocytes are the best in HA assay for all subtypes of influenza viruses.

  12. Swine Influenza Virus (H1N2) Characterization and Transmission in Ferrets, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Vasquez, Nicolás; Karlsson, Erik A.; Jimenez-Bluhm, Pedro; Meliopoulos, Victoria; Kaplan, Bryan; Marvin, Shauna; Cortez, Valerie; Freiden, Pamela; Beck, Melinda A.

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in vivo and transmitted in ferrets by respiratory droplet. Antigenically, it was distinct from other swine viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition analysis suggested that antibody titers to the swine Chilean H1N2 virus were decreased in persons born after 1990. Further studies are needed to characterize the potential risk to humans, as well as the ecology of influenza in swine in South America. PMID:28098524

  13. Subtype identification of the novel A H1N1 and other human influenza A viruses using an oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaoping; Li, Yongqiang; Sun, Honghe; Wu, Weili; Liu, Hong; Lin, Fang; Qing, Chenfeng; Chang, Guohui; Zhu, Qingyu; Chen, Weijun; Yang, Yinhui

    2010-01-01

    A novel strain of influenza A (H1N1) virus was isolated in Mexico and the US in March and April 2009. This novel virus spread to many countries and regions in a few months, and WHO raised the level of pandemic alert from phase 5 to phase 6 on June 11, 2009. The accurate identification of H1N1 virus and other human seasonal influenza A viruses is very important for further treatment and control of their infections. In this study, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray to subtype human H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1 influenza viruses, which could distinguish the novel H1N1 from human seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses and swine H1N1 influenza viruses. The microarray utilizes a panel of primers for multiplex PCR amplification of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (MP) genes of human influenza A viruses. The 59-mer oligonucleotides were designed to distinguish different subtypes of human influenza A viruses. With this microarray, we accurately identified and correctly subtyped the reference virus strains. Moreover, we confirmed 4 out of 39 clinical throat swab specimens from suspected cases of novel H1N1.

  14. In vitro Anti-viral Activity of Psoraleae Semen Water Extract against Influenza A Viruses.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang-Gi; Jin, Young-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Oh, Tae Woo; Yim, Nam-Hui; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes respiratory infections and poses health risks to humans and animals; its effects are complicated by increasing resistance to existing anti-influenza viral agents. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches against influenza virus infection are required. Psoraleae semen has been widely used in traditional medicine in Korea, Taiwan, China, and Japan for treating and preventing various diseases. In this study, we examined the anti-viral activities and mechanism of action of the water extract of Psoraleae semen (WPS) using RAW 264.7 and MDCK cells. We found that pre- and post-treatment with 100 μg/mL WPS markedly inhibited influenza A virus replication as assessed using a green fluorescent protein reporter virus, reduced viral protein expression (NS-1, PA, HA, PB-1, M1, and M2), and inhibited NA and HA activities. Mechanism studies revealed that WPS induced type I interferon cytokine secretion and subsequent stimulation of an anti-viral state in RAW 264.7 cells. Further, WPS exerted inhibitory effects on neuraminidase in influenza virus strains H1N1 and H3N2. Meanwhile, WPS exhibited inhibitory effects on hemagglutination in H3N2 but not in H1N1. Based on these results, WPS serves as an immunomodulator and inhibitor of influenza hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Our results suggest that WPS is a promising source of novel anti-influenza drug candidates.

  15. In vitro Anti-viral Activity of Psoraleae Semen Water Extract against Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang-gi; Jin, Young-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Oh, Tae Woo; Yim, Nam-Hui; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes respiratory infections and poses health risks to humans and animals; its effects are complicated by increasing resistance to existing anti-influenza viral agents. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches against influenza virus infection are required. Psoraleae semen has been widely used in traditional medicine in Korea, Taiwan, China, and Japan for treating and preventing various diseases. In this study, we examined the anti-viral activities and mechanism of action of the water extract of Psoraleae semen (WPS) using RAW 264.7 and MDCK cells. We found that pre- and post-treatment with 100 μg/mL WPS markedly inhibited influenza A virus replication as assessed using a green fluorescent protein reporter virus, reduced viral protein expression (NS-1, PA, HA, PB-1, M1, and M2), and inhibited NA and HA activities. Mechanism studies revealed that WPS induced type I interferon cytokine secretion and subsequent stimulation of an anti-viral state in RAW 264.7 cells. Further, WPS exerted inhibitory effects on neuraminidase in influenza virus strains H1N1 and H3N2. Meanwhile, WPS exhibited inhibitory effects on hemagglutination in H3N2 but not in H1N1. Based on these results, WPS serves as an immunomodulator and inhibitor of influenza hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Our results suggest that WPS is a promising source of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. PMID:27965579

  16. Standard trivalent influenza virus protein vaccination does not prime antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in macaques.

    PubMed

    Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Amarasena, Thakshila H; Laurie, Karen L; Tan, Hyon-Xhi; Butler, Jeff; Parsons, Matthew S; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Petravic, Janka; Davenport, Miles P; Hurt, Aeron C; Reading, Patrick C; Kent, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    Yearly vaccination with the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) is recommended, since current vaccines induce little cross neutralization to divergent influenza strains. Whether the TIV can induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses that can cross-recognize divergent influenza virus strains is unknown. We immunized 6 influenza-naive pigtail macaques twice with the 2011-2012 season TIV and then challenged the macaques, along with 12 control macaques, serially with H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. We measured ADCC responses in plasma to a panel of H1 and H3 hemagglutinin (HA) proteins and influenza virus-specific CD8 T cell (CTL) responses using a sensitive major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tetramer reagent. The TIV was weakly immunogenic and, although binding antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), did not induce detectable influenza virus-specific ADCC or CTL responses. The H1N1 challenge elicited robust ADCC to both homologous and heterologous H1 HA proteins, but not influenza virus HA proteins from different subtypes (H2 to H7). There was no anamnestic influenza virus-specific ADCC or CTL response in vaccinated animals. The subsequent H3N2 challenge did not induce or boost ADCC either to H1 HA proteins or to divergent H3 proteins but did boost CTL responses. ADCC or CTL responses were not induced by TIV vaccination in influenza-naive macaques. There was a marked difference in the ability of infection compared to that of vaccination to induce cross-reactive ADCC and CTL responses. Improved vaccination strategies are needed to induce broad-based ADCC immunity to influenza.

  17. Changes of Influenza a (H5) Viruses by Means of Entropic Chaos Degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Keiko; Ohya, Masanori

    2009-02-01

    To understand how influenza A H5 viruses change and how we can classify the viruses, we applied the entropic chaos degree introduced in information dynamics to the course of sequence changes in hemagglutinin (HA1) protein of all H5 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of HA1 amino acid sequences of H5 viruses revealed that the HPAI H5N1 viruses appeared after A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 were different from the cluster made of the LPAI H5 viruses, the HPAI H5N2 and H5N9 viruses and the HPAI H5N1 viruses before 1996. Moreover, the characteristics of the HA1 sequences of H5 viruses are discussed in this paper.

  18. Full-genome analysis of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus from a human, North America, 2013.

    PubMed

    Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tellier, Raymond; Wong, Sallene; Li, Yan; Bastien, Nathalie; Tang, Julian W; Drews, Steven J; Jang, Yunho; Davis, C Todd; Fonseca, Kevin; Tipples, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Full-genome analysis was conducted on the first isolate of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus from a human in North America. The virus has a hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.3.2.1c and is a reassortant with an H9N2 subtype lineage polymerase basic 2 gene. No mutations conferring resistance to adamantanes or neuraminidase inhibitors were found.

  19. Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N2 Influenza A Virus Isolated from Pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Candice; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Muterle Varela, Ana Paula; Mengue Scheffer, Camila; Wendlant, Adrieli; Quoos Mayer, Fabiana; Lopes de Almeida, Laura; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2014-12-18

    In this study, the full-genome sequence of a reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus is reported. The isolate has the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from human lineage (H1-δ cluster and N2), and the internal genes (polymerase basic 1 [PB1], polymerase basic 2 [PB2], polymerase acidic [PA], nucleoprotein [NP], matrix [M], and nonstructural [NS]) are derived from human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus.

  20. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses and a Newcastle disease virus from wild birds in Barbados: 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Kirk O; Lavoie, Marc C; Kim, L Mia; Afonso, Claudio L; Suarez, David L

    2007-09-01

    Zoonotic transmission of an H5N1 avian influenza A virus to humans in 2003-present has generated increased public health and scientific interest in the prevalence and variability of influenza A viruses in wild birds and their potential threat to human health. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are regarded as the primordial reservoir of all influenza A viral subtypes and have been repeatedly implicated in avian influenza outbreaks in domestic poultry and swine. All of the 16 hemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase influenza subtypes have been isolated from wild birds, but waterfowl of the order Anseriformes are the most commonly infected. Using 9-to-11-day-old embryonating chicken egg culture, virus isolation attempts were conducted on 168 cloacal swabs from various resident, imported, and migratory bird species in Barbados during the months of July to October of 2003 and 2004. Hemagglutination assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to screen all allantoic fluids for the presence of hemagglutinating agents and influenza A virus. Hemagglutination positive-influenza negative samples were also tested for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is also found in waterfowl. Two influenza A viruses and one NDV were isolated from Anseriformes (40/168), with isolation rates of 5.0% (2/40) and 2.5% (1/40), respectively, for influenza A and NDV. Sequence analysis of the influenza A virus isolates showed them to be H4N3 viruses that clustered with other North American avian influenza viruses. This is the first report of the presence of influenza A virus and NDV in wild birds in the English-speaking Caribbean.

  1. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  2. A hemagglutinin quantification method for development of an influenza pandemic vaccine using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hang Sik; Song, Hye Min; Yun, Bo Reum; Kang, Hyun Kyung; Choi, Keum Suk; Park, Yun Ju; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Seung Hee; Mo, In Pil; An, Beum-Soo; Ahn, Chi Young

    2015-04-01

    Single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay requires a reference antigen and an antibody to the hemagglutinin (HA) of an influenza vaccine. As it takes 2‑3 months to develop the reference antigen, vaccine development is delayed in cases of an influenza pandemic. In the present study, the measurement of the HA content of influenza vaccines was assessed using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE‑HPLC) for the rapid development of a pandemic vaccine. When the 2009 H1N1 reference antigen, pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine and 2010 seasonal influenza vaccines were analyzed by SE‑HPLC, the HA of the reference antigen and vaccines was specifically separated. The presence and specificity of HA were evidenced with immunoprecipitation and ELISA assays. For the influenza vaccines, the chromatogram pattern and retention time of HA were similar among the antigen types (2009 H1N1, 2010 H3N2 and 2010 B). In addition, when SE‑HPLC was applied, the ratio of HA chromatogram to peak area revealed a significant correlation with HA concentration for the reference antigen and vaccine. The result of the HA content calculation based on SE‑HPLC exhibited 99.91‑100% similarity, compared with that of SRID. These findings suggest that the measurement of peak area ratio/HA content using SE‑HPLC may be a substitute for SRID and rapidly measure HA content to enable faster development of a vaccine during an influenza pandemic.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 influenza viruses in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Erika; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Huovilainen, Anita

    2014-08-27

    Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild bird populations throughout the world. Avian influenza viruses are characterized by their efficient ability to reassort and adapt, which enables them to cross the species barrier and enhances their zoonotic potential. Influenza viruses of the H9N2 subtype appear endemic among poultry in Eurasia. They usually exist as low-pathogenic strains and circulate between wild bird populations, poultry and birds sold at live bird markets. Direct transmission of H9N2 viruses, with receptor specificities similar to human influenza strains, to pigs and humans has been reported on several occasions. H9N2 virus was first encountered in Finland in 2009, during routine screening of hunted wild waterfowl. The next year, H9N2 influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds on four occasions, including once from a farmed mallard. We have investigated the relationship between the reared and wild bird isolates by sequencing the hemagglutinin and the neuraminidase genes of the Finnish H9N2 viruses. Nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses indicate that H9N2 was transmitted from wild birds to reared birds in 2010, and that highly identical strains have been circulating in Europe during the last few years.

  4. Antigenic relationship between influenza B viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Chakraverty, Pratima

    1971-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether antigenic groupings exist among influenza B viruses. Altogether, 22 influenza type B strains isolated during the years 1940-68 were examined by reciprocal haemagglutination-inhibition, strain-specific complement-fixation, and serum neutralization tests with sera produced in ferrets and guinea-pigs. It was found that the strain-specific complement-fixation test was superior for separating influenza B viruses into groups whereas the haemagglutination-inhibition and serum neutralization tests were better for demonstrating similarities. The results obtained with these three immunological techniques confirmed that antigenic variation exists among influenza B viruses, although it is not as clearcut as among influenza A viruses. The results were subjected to numerical taxonomic analysis. Dendrograms and minimum-spanning trees were constructed, using methods based on cluster analysis of similarity coefficients. Four main groups of influenza B viruses were established, although they were all interlinked. The results of this study do not justify the separation of influenza B viruses into subtypes similar to those of influenza A viruses. PMID:5317011

  5. Rapid detection and differentiation of swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009) from other seasonal influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiangqin; Wang, Xue; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Zhang, Panhe; Tang, Wei; Ye, Zhiping; Eichelberger, Maryna; Hewlett, Indira

    2012-11-09

    We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP)-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2). In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009). Multiple specific capture and intermediate oligonucleotides were designed for the matrix (M), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H1N1/2009 virus. The H1N1/2009 microarrays were printed in the same format as those of the seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 for the HA, NA, and M genes. Viral RNA was tested using capture-target-intermediate oligonucleotide hybridization and gold NP-mediated silver staining. The signal from the 4 capture-target-intermediates of the HA and NA genes was specific for H1N1/2009 virus and showed no cross hybridization with viral RNA from other influenza strains H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1. All of the 3 M gene captures showed strong affinity with H1N1/2009 viral RNA, with 2 out of the 3 M gene captures showing cross hybridization with the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 samples tested. The current assay was able to detect H1N1/2009 and distinguish it from other influenza A viruses. This new method may be useful for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A viruses and can be rapidly modified to detect other emerging influenza strains in public health settings.

  6. Molecular characterization of influenza B virus outbreak on a cruise ship in Brazil 2012.

    PubMed

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Silva, Daniela Bernardes Borges da; Silva, Kátia Corrêa Oliveira; Pinho, Margarete Aparecida Benega; Curti, Suely Pires; Paiva, Terezinha Maria de; Santos, Cecília Luiza Simões

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, an outbreak of respiratory illness occurred on the cruise ship MSC Armonia in Brazil. A 31-year-old female crew member was hospitalized with respiratory failure and subsequently died. To study the etiology of the respiratory illness, tissue taken at necropsy from the deceased woman and respiratory specimens from thirteen passengers and crew members with respiratory symptoms were analyzed. Influenza real-time RT-PCR assays were performed, and the full-length hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza-positive samples was sequenced. Influenza B virus was detected in samples from seven of the individuals, suggesting that it was the cause of this respiratory illness outbreak. The sequence analysis of the HA gene indicated that the virus was closely related to the B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus, Victoria lineage, a virus contained in the 2011-12 influenza vaccine for the Southern Hemisphere. Since the recommended composition of the influenza vaccine for use during the 2013 season changed, an intensive surveillance of viruses circulating worldwide is crucial. Molecular analysis is an important tool to characterize the pathogen responsible for an outbreak such as this. In addition, laboratory disease surveillance contributes to the control measures for vaccine-preventable influenza.

  7. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF INFLUENZA B VIRUS OUTBREAK ON A CRUISE SHIP IN BRAZIL 2012

    PubMed Central

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; da Silva, Daniela Bernardes Borges; Silva, Kátia Corrêa Oliveira; Pinho, Margarete Aparecida Benega; Curti, Suely Pires; de Paiva, Terezinha Maria; Santos, Cecília Luiza Simões

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, an outbreak of respiratory illness occurred on the cruise ship MSC Armonia in Brazil. A 31-year-old female crew member was hospitalized with respiratory failure and subsequently died. To study the etiology of the respiratory illness, tissue taken at necropsy from the deceased woman and respiratory specimens from thirteen passengers and crew members with respiratory symptoms were analyzed. Influenza real-time RT-PCR assays were performed, and the full-length hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza-positive samples was sequenced. Influenza B virus was detected in samples from seven of the individuals, suggesting that it was the cause of this respiratory illness outbreak. The sequence analysis of the HA gene indicated that the virus was closely related to the B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus, Victoria lineage, a virus contained in the 2011-12 influenza vaccine for the Southern Hemisphere. Since the recommended composition of the influenza vaccine for use during the 2013 season changed, an intensive surveillance of viruses circulating worldwide is crucial. Molecular analysis is an important tool to characterize the pathogen responsible for an outbreak such as this. In addition, laboratory disease surveillance contributes to the control measures for vaccine-preventable influenza. PMID:24878994

  8. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles. PMID:27275830

  9. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-06

    Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  10. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for differentiating the Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus from swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Uchida, Yuko; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Tsuda, Tomoyuki; Saito, Takehiko

    2010-12-01

    Since the Pandemic H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) influenza virus emerged in human in 2009, H1N1pdm, classical swine H1, Eurasian avian-like H1, human-like H1 and human-like H3 swine influenza viruses have circulated in pig populations, and avian H9N2 viruses have been isolated in pigs as well. In this study, TaqMan single-step real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assays targeting the hemagglutinin gene were developed to differentiate H1N1pdm from other genetic lineages of the H1 subtype and other subtypes of influenza viruses circulating in human and pig populations for veterinary use. H1N1pdm rtRT-PCR detected H1N1pdm RNA and did not cross-react with classical swine H1, Eurasian avian-like H1, human-like H1, human-like H3 swine and avian H9 influenza viruses RNA. Classical swine H1, Eurasian avian-like H1, human-like H1 and H3 and avian H9 rtRT-PCR were reacted exclusively with viral RNA of their respective lineages and subtypes. The results demonstrate that these assays are useful for the diagnosis of the H1N1pdm virus in both human- and animal-health-related fields.

  11. A novel immunochromatographic system for easy-to-use detection of group 1 avian influenza viruses with acquired human-type receptor binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yohei; Ito, Tetsuo; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Arai, Yasuha; Hotta, Kozue; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Mai, Le Quynh; Soda, Kosuke; Yamaoka, Masaoki; Poetranto, Emmanuel Djoko; Wulandari, Laksmi; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Daidoji, Tomo; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Sriwilaijaroen, Nongluk; Nakaya, Takaaki; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Suzuki, Takashi; Ito, Toshihiro; Hotta, Hak; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Hayashi, Tsukasa; Morita, Kouichi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2015-03-15

    A switch of viral hemagglutinin receptor binding specificity from bird-type α2,3- to human-type α2,6-linked sialic acid is necessary for an avian influenza virus to become a pandemic virus. In this study, an easy-to-use strip test to detect receptor binding specificity of influenza virus was developed. A biotinylated anti-hemagglutinin antibody that bound a broad range of group 1 influenza A viruses and latex-conjugated α2,3 (blue) and α2,6 (red) sialylglycopolymers were used in an immunochromatographic strip test, with avidin and lectin immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane at test and control lines, respectively. Accumulation of a sialylglycopolymer-virus-antibody complex at the test line was visualized by eye. The strip test could be completed in 30min and did not require special equipment or skills, thereby avoiding some disadvantages of current methods for analyzing receptor binding specificity of influenza virus. The strip test could detect the receptor binding specificity of a wide range of influenza viruses, as well as small increases in the binding affinity of variant H5N1 viruses to α2,6 sialylglycans at viral titers >128 hemagglutination units. The strip test results were in agreement with those of ELISA virus binding assays, with correlations >0.95. In conclusion, the immunochromatographic strip test developed in this study should be useful for monitoring potential changes in the receptor binding specificity of group 1 influenza A viruses in the field.

  12. Classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses confer cross protection from swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice and ferrets.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji-Young; Chen, Grace L; Santos, Celia; Lamirande, Elaine W; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Subbarao, Kanta

    2010-12-05

    The hemagglutinin of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus is a derivative of and is antigenically related to classical swine but not to seasonal human H1N1 viruses. We compared the A/California/7/2009 (CA/7/09) virus recommended by the WHO as the reference virus for vaccine development, with two classical swine influenza viruses A/swine/Iowa/31 (sw/IA/31) and A/New Jersey/8/1976 (NJ/76) to establish the extent of immunologic cross-reactivity and cross-protection in animal models. Primary infection with 2009 pandemic or NJ/76 viruses elicited antibodies against the CA/7/09 virus and provided complete protection from challenge with this virus in ferrets; the response in mice was variable and conferred partial protection. Although ferrets infected with sw/IA/31 virus developed low titers of cross-neutralizing antibody, they were protected from pulmonary replication of the CA/7/09 virus. The data suggest that prior exposure to antigenically related H1N1 viruses of swine-origin provide some protective immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus.

  13. Characterization of a new avian-like influenza A virus from horses in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Wang, M; Kawaoka, Y; Gorman, O; Ito, T; Saito, T; Webster, R G

    1992-05-01

    In March 1989 a severe outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in horses in the Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces of Northeast China that caused up to 20% mortality in some herds. An influenza virus of the H3N8 subtype was isolated from the infected animals and was antigenically and molecularly distinguishable from the equine 2 (H3N8) viruses currently circulating in the world. The reference strain A/Equine/Jilin/1/89 (H3N8) was most closely related to avian H3N8 influenza viruses. Sequence comparisons of the entire hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), and NS genes along with partial sequences of the three polymerase (PB1, PB2, PA) genes suggest that six of the eight gene segments (PA, HA, NP, NA, M, NS) are closely related to avian influenza viruses. Since direct sequence analysis can only provide a crude measure of relationship, phylogenetic analysis was done on the sequence information. Phylogenetic analyses of the entire HA, NP, M, and NS genes and of partial sequences of PB1, PB2, and PA indicated that these genes are of recent avian origin. The NP gene segment is closely related to the gene segment found in the newly described H14 subtype isolated from ducks in the USSR. The A/Equine/Jilin/1/89 (H3N8) influenza virus failed to replicate in ducks, but did replicate and cause disease in mice on initial inoculation and on subsequent passaging caused 100% mortality. In ferrets, the virus caused severe influenza symptoms. A second outbreak of influenza in horses in Northeast China occurred in April 1990 in the Heilongjiang province with 48% morbidity and no mortality. The viruses isolated from this outbreak were antigenically indistinguishable from those in the 1989 outbreak and it is probable that the reduced mortality was due to the immune status of of the horses in the region. No influenza was detected in horses in Northern China in the spring, summer, or fall of 1991 and no influenza has been detected in horses in adjacent

  14. Deep Sequencing Reveals Potential Antigenic Variants at Low Frequencies in Influenza A Virus-Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dinis, Jorge M.; Florek, Nicholas W.; Fatola, Omolayo O.; Moncla, Louise H.; Mutschler, James P.; Charlier, Olivia K.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Belongia, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza vaccines must be frequently reformulated to account for antigenic changes in the viral envelope protein, hemagglutinin (HA). The rapid evolution of influenza virus under immune pressure is likely enhanced by the virus's genetic diversity within a host, although antigenic change has rarely been investigated on the level of individual infected humans. We used deep sequencing to characterize the between- and within-host genetic diversity of influenza viruses in a cohort of patients that included individuals who were vaccinated and then infected in the same season. We characterized influenza HA segments from the predominant circulating influenza A subtypes during the 2012-2013 (H3N2) and 2013-2014 (pandemic H1N1; H1N1pdm) flu seasons. We found that HA consensus sequences were similar in nonvaccinated and vaccinated subjects. In both groups, purifying selection was the dominant force shaping HA genetic diversity. Interestingly, viruses from multiple individuals harbored low-frequency mutations encoding amino acid substitutions in HA antigenic sites at or near the receptor-binding domain. These mutations included two substitutions in H1N1pdm viruses, G158K and N159K, which were recently found to confer escape from virus-specific antibodies. These findings raise the possibility that influenza antigenic diversity can be generated within individual human hosts but may not become fixed in the viral population even when they would be expected to have a strong fitness advantage. Understanding constraints on influenza antigenic evolution within individual hosts may elucidate potential future pathways of antigenic evolution at the population level. IMPORTANCE Influenza vaccines must be frequently reformulated due to the virus's rapid evolution rate. We know that influenza viruses exist within each infected host as a “swarm” of genetically distinct viruses, but the role of this within-host diversity in the antigenic evolution of influenza has been unclear

  15. Heterosubtypic Antibodies to Influenza A Virus Have Limited Activity against Cell-Bound Virus but Are Not Impaired by Strain-Specific Serum Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wyrzucki, Arkadiusz; Bianchi, Matteo; Kohler, Ines; Steck, Marco

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of influenza virus-specific antibodies elicited by vaccination or natural infection are effective only against the eliciting or closely related viruses. Rare stem-specific heterosubtypic monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) can neutralize multiple strains and subtypes by preventing hemagglutinin (HA)-mediated fusion of the viral membrane with the endosomal membrane. The epitopes recognized by these hMAbs are therefore considered promising targets for the development of pan-influenza virus vaccines. Here, we report the isolation of a novel human HA stem-reactive monoclonal antibody, hMAb 1.12, with exceptionally broad neutralizing activity encompassing viruses from 15 distinct HA subtypes. Using MAb 1.12 and two other monoclonal antibodies, we demonstrate that neutralization by hMAbs is virtually irreversible but becomes severely impaired following virus attachment to cells. In contrast, no interference by human anti-influenza virus serum antibodies was found, indicating that apically binding antibodies do not impair access to the membrane-proximal heterosubtypic epitopes. Our findings therefore encourage development of new vaccine concepts aiming at the induction of stem-specific heterosubtypic antibodies, as we provide support for their effectiveness in individuals previously exposed to influenza virus. IMPORTANCE The influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) can easily accommodate changes in its antigenic structures to escape preexisting immunity. This variability restricts the breadth and long-term efficacy of influenza vaccines. Only a few heterosubtypic antibodies (hMAbs), i.e., antibodies that can neutralize more than one subtype of influenza A virus, have been identified. The molecular interactions between these heterosubtypic antibodies and hemagglutinin are well characterized, yet little is known about the functional properties of these antibodies. Using a new, extraordinarily broad hMAb, we show that virus neutralization by hMAbs is virtually

  16. Emergence of HA mutants during influenza virus pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Manríquez, Maria Eugenia Vázquez; Makino, Akiko; Tanaka, Motoko; Abe, Yasuhisa; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Morioka, Ichiro; Arakawa, Soichi; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Kentaro; Takasaki, Jin; Manabe, Toshie; Nakaya, Takaaki; Nakamura, Shota; Iglesias, Anjarath Lorena Higuera; Rossales, Rosa Maria Rivera; Mirabal, Erika Pena; Ito, Tateki; Kitazawa, Toshio; Oka, Teruaki; Yamashita, Makoto; Kudo, Koichiro; Shinya, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the number of viral pneumonia cases showed a marked increase in comparison with seasonal influenza viruses. Mutations at amino acid 222 (D222G mutations) in the virus hemagglutinin (HA) molecule, known to alter the receptor-recognition properties of the virus, were detected in a number of the more severely-affected patients in the early phases of the pandemic. To understand the background for the emergence of the mutant amino acid D222G in human lungs, we conducted histological examinations on lung specimens of patients from Mexico who had succumbed in the pandemic. Prominent regenerative and hyperplastic changes in the alveolar type II pneumocytes, which express avian-type sialoglycan receptors in the respiratory tract of severely affected individuals, were observed in the Mexican patients. An infection model utilizing guinea pigs, which was chosen in order to best simulate the sialic acid distribution of severe pneumonia in human patients, demonstrated an increase of D222G mutants and a delay in the diminution of mutants in the lower respiratory tract in comparison to the upper respiratory tract. Our data suggests that the predominance of avian-type sialoglycan receptors in the pneumonic lungs may contribute to the emergence of viral HA mutants. This data comprehensively illustrates the mechanisms for the emergence of mutants in the clinical samples.

  17. Progress of small molecular inhibitors in the development of anti-influenza virus agents

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoai; Wu, Xiuli; Sun, Qizheng; Zhang, Chunhui; Yang, Shengyong; Li, Lin; Jia, Zhiyun

    2017-01-01

    The influenza pandemic is a major threat to human health, and highly aggressive strains such as H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 have emphasized the need for therapeutic strategies to combat these pathogens. Influenza anti-viral agents, especially active small molecular inhibitors play important roles in controlling pandemics while vaccines are developed. Currently, only a few drugs, which function as influenza neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel protein inhibitors, are approved in clinical. However, the acquired resistance against current anti-influenza drugs and the emerging mutations of influenza virus itself remain the major challenging unmet medical needs for influenza treatment. It is highly desirable to identify novel anti-influenza agents. This paper reviews the progress of small molecular inhibitors act as antiviral agents, which include hemagglutinin (HA) inhibitors, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors, NA inhibitors and M2 ion channel protein inhibitors etc. Moreover, we also summarize new, recently reported potential targets and discuss strategies for the development of new anti-influenza virus drugs. PMID:28382157

  18. Prediction of biological functions on glycosylation site migrations in human influenza H1N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shisheng; Wang, Qinzhe; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Wentian; Li, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation alteration is typically employed by various viruses for escaping immune pressures from their hosts. Our previous work had shown that not only the increase of glycosylation sites (glycosites) numbers, but also glycosite migration might be involved in the evolution of human seasonal influenza H1N1 viruses. More importantly, glycosite migration was likely a more effectively alteration way for the host adaption of human influenza H1N1 viruses. In this study, we provided more bioinformatics and statistic evidences for further predicting the significant biological functions of glycosite migration in the host adaptation of human influenza H1N1 viruses, by employing homology modeling and in silico protein glycosylation of representative HA and NA proteins as well as amino acid variability analysis at antigenic sites of HA and NA. The results showed that glycosite migrations in human influenza viruses have at least five possible functions: to more effectively mask the antigenic sites, to more effectively protect the enzymatic cleavage sites of neuraminidase (NA), to stabilize the polymeric structures, to regulate the receptor binding and catalytic activities and to balance the binding activity of hemagglutinin (HA) with the release activity of NA. The information here can provide some constructive suggestions for the function research related to protein glycosylation of influenza viruses, although these predictions still need to be supported by experimental data.

  19. Infection of influenza virus neuraminidase-vaccinated mice with homologous influenza virus leads to strong protection against heterologous influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    He, Biao; Chang, Haiyan; Liu, Zhihua; Huang, Chaoyang; Liu, Xueying; Zheng, Dan; Fang, Fang; Sun, Bing; Chen, Ze

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza pandemics. Here, we studied the protective effect against heterologous influenza viruses, including A/reassortant/NYMC X-179A (pH1N1), A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004 (H5N1), A/Chicken/Jiangsu/7/2002 (H9N2) and A/Guizhou/54/89×A/PR/8/34 (A/Guizhou-X) (H3N2), in mice first vaccinated with a DNA vaccine of haemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) of A/PR/8/34 (PR8) and then infected with the homologous virus. We showed that PR8 HA or NA vaccination both protected mice against a lethal dose of the homologous virus; PR8 HA or NA DNA vaccination and then PR8 infection in mice offered poor or excellent protection, respectively, against a second, heterologous influenza virus challenge. In addition, before the second heterologous influenza infection, the highest antibody level against nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M1 and M2) proteins was found in the PR8 NA-vaccinated and PR8-infected group. The level of induced cellular immunity against NP and M1 showed a trend consistent with that seen in antibody levels. However, PR8 HA+NA vaccination and then PR8 infection resulted in limited protection against heterologous influenza virus challenge. Results of the present study demonstrated that infection of the homologous influenza virus in mice already immunized with a NA vaccine could provide excellent protection against subsequent infection of a heterologous influenza virus. These findings suggested that NA, a major antigen of influenza virus, could be an important candidate antigen for universal influenza vaccines.

  20. Prediction, dynamics, and visualization of antigenic phenotypes of seasonal influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Neher, Richard A; Bedford, Trevor; Daniels, Rodney S; Russell, Colin A; Shraiman, Boris I

    2016-03-22

    Human seasonal influenza viruses evolve rapidly, enabling the virus population to evade immunity and reinfect previously infected individuals. Antigenic properties are largely determined by the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), and amino acid substitutions at exposed epitope sites in HA mediate loss of recognition by antibodies. Here, we show that antigenic differences measured through serological assay data are well described by a sum of antigenic changes along the path connecting viruses in a phylogenetic tree. This mapping onto the tree allows prediction of antigenicity from HA sequence data alone. The mapping can further be used to make predictions about the makeup of the future A(H3N2) seasonal influenza virus population, and we compare predictions between models with serological and sequence data. To make timely model output readily available, we developed a web browser-based application that visualizes antigenic data on a continuously updated phylogeny.

  1. Prediction, dynamics, and visualization of antigenic phenotypes of seasonal influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Richard A.; Bedford, Trevor; Daniels, Rodney S.; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2016-01-01

    Human seasonal influenza viruses evolve rapidly, enabling the virus population to evade immunity and reinfect previously infected individuals. Antigenic properties are largely determined by the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), and amino acid substitutions at exposed epitope sites in HA mediate loss of recognition by antibodies. Here, we show that antigenic differences measured through serological assay data are well described by a sum of antigenic changes along the path connecting viruses in a phylogenetic tree. This mapping onto the tree allows prediction of antigenicity from HA sequence data alone. The mapping can further be used to make predictions about the makeup of the future A(H3N2) seasonal influenza virus population, and we compare predictions between models with serological and sequence data. To make timely model output readily available, we developed a web browser-based application that visualizes antigenic data on a continuously updated phylogeny. PMID:26951657

  2. Avian and Human Seasonal Influenza Hemagglutinin Proteins Elicit CD4 T Cell Responses That Are Comparable in Epitope Abundance and Diversity.

    PubMed

    DiPiazza, Anthony; Richards, Katherine; Poulton, Nicholas; Sant, Andrea J

    2017-03-01

    Avian influenza viruses remain a significant concern due to their pandemic potential. Vaccine trials have suggested that humans respond poorly to avian influenza vaccines relative to seasonal vaccines. It is important to understand, first, if there is a general deficiency in the ability of avian hemagglutinin (HA) proteins to generate immune responses and, if so, what underlies this defect. This question is of particular interest because it has been suggested that in humans, the poor immunogenicity of H7 vaccines may be due to a paucity of CD4 T cell epitopes. Because of the generally high levels of cross-reactive CD4 T cells in humans, it is not possible to compare the inherent immunogenicities of avian and seasonal HA proteins in an unbiased manner. Here, we empirically examine the epitope diversity and abundance of CD4 T cells elicited by seasonal and avian HA proteins. HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4 transgenic mice were vaccinated with purified HA proteins, and CD4 T cells to specific epitopes were identified and quantified. These studies revealed that the diversity and abundance of CD4 T cells specific for HA do not segregate on the basis of whether the HA was derived from human seasonal or avian influenza viruses. Therefore, we conclude that failure in responses to avian vaccines in humans is likely due to a lack of cross-reactive CD4 T cell memory perhaps coupled with competition with or suppression of naive, HA-specific CD4 T cells by memory CD4 T cells specific for more highly conserved proteins.

  3. Human monoclonal antibodies derived from a patient infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus broadly cross-neutralize group 1 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Inoue, Yuji; Yasugi, Mayo; Yamashita, Akifumi; Ramadhany, Ririn; Arai, Yasuha; Du, Anariwa; Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Daidoji, Tomo; Nakaya, Takaaki; Ono, Ken-ichiro; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Yohei

    2014-07-18

    Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to human public health because of their ability to evolve rapidly through genetic drift and reassortment. Three human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) were generated in this study, 1H11, 2H5 and 5G2, and they cross-neutralize a diverse range of group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H5N1 and H9N2. The three HuMAbs were prepared by fusing peripheral blood lymphocytes from an H1N1pdm-infected patient with a newly developed fusion partner cell line, SPYMEG. All the HuMAbs had little hemagglutination inhibition activity but had strong membrane-fusion inhibition activity against influenza viruses. A protease digestion assay showed the HuMAbs targeted commonly a short α-helix region in the stalk of the hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Ile45Phe and Glu47Gly double substitutions in the α-helix region made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAbs. These two amino acid residues are highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. The HuMAbs reported here may be potential candidates for the development of therapeutic antibodies against group 1 influenza viruses.

  4. Glycosylation of Residue 141 of Subtype H7 Influenza A Hemagglutinin (HA) Affects HA-Pseudovirus Infectivity and Sensitivity to Site A Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Vassell, Russell; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P.; Weiss, Carol D.; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Human infections with H7 subtype influenza virus have been reported, including an H7N7 outbreak in Netherlands in 2003 and H7N9 infections in China in 2013. Previously, we reported murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize the antigenic site A of H7 hemagglutinin (HA). To better understand protective immunity of H7 vaccines and vaccine candidate selection, we used these mAbs to assess the antigenic relatedness among two H7 HA isolated from past human infections and determine residues that affect susceptibility to neutralization. We found that these mAbs neutralize pseudoviruses bearing HA of A/Shanghai/02/2013(H7N9), but not A/Netherlands/219/2003(H7N7). Glycosylation of the asparagine residue at position 141 (N141) (N133, H3 HA numbering) in the HA of A/Netherlands/219/2003 HA is responsible for this resistance, and it affects the infectivity of HA-pseudoviruses. The presence of threonine at position 143 (T135, H3 HA numbering) in the HA of A/Netherlands/219/2003, rather than an alanine found in the HA of A/Shanghai/02/2013(H7N9), accounts for these differences. These results demonstrate a key role for glycosylation of residue N141 in affecting H7 influenza HA-mediated entry and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies, which have implications for candidate vaccine design. PMID:26862918

  5. Different activities of the reovirus FAST proteins and influenza hemagglutinin in cell-cell fusion assays and in response to membrane curvature agents

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, Eileen K.; Barry, Chris; Ciechonska, Marta; Duncan, Roy

    2010-02-05

    The reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins evolved to induce cell-cell, rather than virus-cell, membrane fusion. It is unclear whether the FAST protein fusion reaction proceeds in the same manner as the enveloped virus fusion proteins. We now show that fluorescence-based cell-cell and cell-RBC hemifusion assays are unsuited for detecting lipid mixing in the absence of content mixing during FAST protein-mediated membrane fusion. Furthermore, membrane curvature agents that inhibit hemifusion or promote pore formation mediated by influenza hemagglutinin had no effect on p14-induced cell-cell fusion, even under conditions of limiting p14 concentrations. Standard assays used to detect fusion intermediates induced by enveloped virus fusion proteins are therefore not applicable to the FAST proteins. These results suggest the possibility that the nature of the fusion intermediates or the mechanisms used to transit through the various stages of the fusion reaction may differ between these distinct classes of viral fusogens.

  6. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Pollett, Simon; Nelson, Martha I; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C; Bausch, Daniel G

    2015-08-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source-sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010-2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains.

  7. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha I.; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source–sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010–2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains. PMID:26196599

  8. Characterization of co-circulating swine influenza A viruses in North America and the identification of a novel H1 genetic clade with antigenic significance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple genetically and antigenically distinct hemagglutinin genes of the H1 and H3 influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes co-circulate in North American swine. This diversity has evolved by repeated transmission of IAVs from humans to swine and subsequent antigenic drift in swine. To understand the evol...

  9. Analytical validation of a real-time RT-PCR test for Pan-American lineage H7 subtype avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid detection of avian influenza virus and identification of the H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes some of which are associated with high pathogenicity in poultry is critical for clinical diagnosis and wild bird monitoring programs. A real-time RT-PCR test for identification of the H7 subtype in N...

  10. Efficacy of novel hemagglutinin-neuraminidase inhibitors BCX 2798 and BCX 2855 against human parainfluenza viruses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Alymova, Irina V; Taylor, Garry; Takimoto, Toru; Lin, Tsu-Hsing; Chand, Pooran; Babu, Y Sudhakara; Li, Chenghong; Xiong, Xiaoping; Portner, Allen

    2004-05-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses are important respiratory tract pathogens, especially of children. However, no vaccines or specific therapies for infections caused by these viruses are currently available. In the present study we characterized the efficacy of the novel parainfluenza virus inhibitors BCX 2798 and BCX 2855, which were designed based on the three-dimensional structure of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein. The compounds were highly effective in inhibiting hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) activities and the growth of hPIV-1, hPIV-2, and hPIV-3 in LLC-MK(2) cells. The concentrations required to reduce the activity to 50% of that of a control ranged from 0.1 to 6.0 micro M in HA inhibition assays and from 0.02 to 20 micro M in NA inhibition assays. The concentrations required to inhibit virus replication to 50% of the level of the control ranged from 0.7 to 11.5 micro M. BCX 2798 and BCX 2855 were inactive against influenza virus HA and NA and bacterial NA. In mice infected with a recombinant Sendai virus whose HN gene was replaced with that of hPIV-1 [rSV(hHN)], intranasal administration of BCX 2798 (10 mg/kg per day) and of BCX 2855 (50 mg/kg per day) 4 h before the start of infection resulted in a significant reduction in titers of virus in the lungs and protection from death. Treatment beginning 24 h after the start of infection did not prevent death. Together, our results indicate that BCX 2798 and BCX 2855 are effective inhibitors of parainfluenza virus HN and may limit parainfluenza virus infections in humans.

  11. Avian influenza viruses and human health.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D J

    2006-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause natural infections of humans, some other mammals and birds. Few of the 16 haemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase subtype combinations have been isolated from mammals, but all subtypes have been isolated from birds. In the 20th century, there were four pandemics of influenza as a result of the emergence of antigenically different strains in humans: 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2) and 1977 (H1N1). Influenza A viruses contain eight distinct RNA genes and reassortment of these can occur in mixed infections with different viruses. The 1957 and 1968 pandemic viruses differed from the preceding viruses in humans by the substitution of genes that came from avian viruses, suggesting they arose by genetic reassortment of viruses of human and avian origin. Up to 1995, there had been only three reports of avian influenza viruses infecting humans, in 1959, 1977 and 1981 (all H7N7), but, since 1996, there have been regular reports of natural infections of humans with avian influenza viruses: in England in 1996 (H7N7), Hong Kong 1997 (H5N1), 1999 (H9N2), and 2003 (H5N1), in The Netherlands 2003 (H7N7), Canada 2004 (H7N3), Vietnam 2004 (H5N1) and Thailand 2004 (H5N1). The H5N1 virus is alarming because 51 (64 %) of the 80 people confirmed as infected since 1997 have died.

  12. Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus, Northwestern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zohari, Siamak; Krog, Jesper S.; Hall, Matthew D.; Harder, Timm C.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; Spronken, Monique I.; Larsen, Lars E.; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Puff, Christina; Seehusen, Frauke; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Härkönen, Tero; Smits, Saskia L.; Herfst, Sander; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Koopmans, Marion P.; Kuiken, Thijs

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses are major pathogens for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, and these viruses occasionally cross the species barrier. In spring 2014, increased mortality of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), associated with infection with an influenza A(H10N7) virus, was reported in Sweden and Denmark. Within a few months, this virus spread to seals of the coastal waters of Germany and the Netherlands, causing the death of thousands of animals. Genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of this seal influenza A(H10N7) virus revealed that it was most closely related to various avian influenza A(H10N7) viruses. The collection of samples from infected seals during the course of the outbreak provided a unique opportunity to follow the adaptation of the avian virus to its new seal host. Sequence data for samples collected from 41 different seals from four different countries between April 2014 and January 2015 were obtained by Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing to describe the molecular epidemiology of the seal influenza A(H10N7) virus. The majority of sequence variation occurred in the HA gene, and some mutations corresponded to amino acid changes not found in H10 viruses isolated from Eurasian birds. Also, sequence variation in the HA gene was greater at the beginning than at the end of the epidemic, when a number of the mutations observed earlier had been fixed. These results imply that when an avian influenza virus jumps the species barrier from birds to seals, amino acid changes in HA may occur rapidly and are important for virus adaptation to its new mammalian host. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses are major pathogens for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. In addition to the continuous circulation of influenza A viruses among various host species, cross-species transmission of influenza A viruses occurs occasionally. Wild waterfowl and shorebirds are the main reservoir for most influenza A virus subtypes

  13. Construction of Multilevel Structure for Avian Influenza Virus System Based on Granular Computing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng-Meng; Tang, Xu-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the genetic structure of influenza viruses attracts the attention in the field of molecular ecology and medical genetics, whose epidemics cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The rapid variations in RNA strand and changes of protein structure of the virus result in low-accuracy subtyping identification and make it difficult to develop effective drugs and vaccine. This paper constructs the evolutionary structure of avian influenza virus system considering both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase protein fragments. An optimization model was established to determine the rational granularity of the virus system for exploring the intrinsic relationship among the subtypes based on the fuzzy hierarchical evaluation index. Thus, an algorithm was presented to extract the rational structure. Furthermore, to reduce the systematic and computational complexity, the granular signatures of virus system were identified based on the coarse-grained idea and then its performance was evaluated through a designed classifier. The results showed that the obtained virus signatures could approximate and reflect the whole avian influenza virus system, indicating that the proposed method could identify the effective virus signatures. Once a new molecular virus is detected, it is efficient to identify the homologous virus hierarchically. PMID:28191464

  14. Distinct Patterns of B-Cell Activation and Priming by Natural Influenza Virus Infection Versus Inactivated Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao-Song; Holmes, Tyson H.; Sanyal, Mrinmoy; Albrecht, Randy A.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Davis, Mark M.; Greenberg, Harry B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The human B-cell response to natural influenza virus infection has not been extensively investigated at the polyclonal level. Methods. The overall B-cell response of patients acutely infected with the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) was analyzed by determining the reactivity of plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAbs) to influenza proteins. Recipients of inactivated influenza vaccine containing the same A(H1N1)pdm09 strain were studied for comparison. Results. During acute infection, robust plasmablast responses to the infecting virus were detected, characterized by a greater PPAb reactivity to the conserved influenza virus nuclear protein and to heterovariant and heterosubtypic hemagglutinins, in comparison to responses to the inactivated A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. In A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccinees, the presence of baseline serum neutralizing antibodies against A(H1N1)pdm09, suggesting previous exposure to natural A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, did not affect the plasmablast response to vaccination, whereas repeated immunization with inactivated A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine resulted in significantly reduced vaccine-specific and cross-reactive PPAb responses. Conclusions. Natural A(H1N1)pdm09 infection and inactivated A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination result in very distinct patterns of B-cell activation and priming. These differences are likely to be associated with differences in protective immunity, especially cross-protection against heterovariant and heterosubtypic influenza virus strains. PMID:25336731

  15. [History of influenza epidemics and discovery of influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, K

    1997-10-01

    Influenza epidemics occur almost annually, sometimes taking on a global scale and turning into pandemics. According to Noble, the first clearly recorded epidemic was one that struck Europe in 1173 to 1174. In Japan the first comprehensive review of epidemic records was made by Fujikawa in the early 20th century, who listed 46 epidemics between 862 and 1868. Of the ten pandemics since the 1700s that have been certified by Beveridge nine have struck Japan as well. The human influenza A virus was discovered in 1933 soon after Shope succeeded in isolating swine influenza A virus in 1931. Since the discovery studies in the influenza have made immense progress and have contributed greatly to not only virology but also immunology and molecular biology.

  16. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  17. Methamphetamine Reduces Human Influenza A Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wu, Kuang-Lun; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that is among the most widely abused illicit drugs, with an estimated over 35 million users in the world. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic meth abuse is a major factor for increased risk of infections with human immunodeficiency virus and possibly other pathogens, due to its immunosuppressive property. Influenza A virus infections frequently cause epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases among human populations. However, little is known about whether meth has the ability to enhance influenza A virus replication, thus increasing severity of influenza illness in meth abusers. Herein, we investigated the effects of meth on influenza A virus replication in human lung epithelial A549 cells. The cells were exposed to meth and infected with human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus. The viral progenies were titrated by plaque assays, and the expression of viral proteins and cellular proteins involved in interferon responses was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We report the first evidence that meth significantly reduces, rather than increases, virus propagation and the susceptibility to influenza infection in the human lung epithelial cell line, consistent with a decrease in viral protein synthesis. These effects were apparently not caused by meth’s effects on enhancing virus-induced interferon responses in the host cells, reducing viral biological activities, or reducing cell viability. Our results suggest that meth might not be a great risk factor for influenza A virus infection among meth abusers. Although the underlying mechanism responsible for the action of meth on attenuating virus replication requires further investigation, these findings prompt the study to examine whether other structurally similar compounds could be used as anti-influenza agents. PMID:23139774

  18. The influenza A virus PB2, PA, NP, and M segments play a pivotal role during genome packaging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qinshan; Chou, Yi-Ying; Doğanay, Sultan; Vafabakhsh, Reza; Ha, Taekjip; Palese, Peter

    2012-07-01

    The genomes of influenza A viruses consist of eight negative-strand RNA segments. Recent studies suggest that influenza viruses are able to specifically package their segmented genomes into the progeny virions. Segment-specific packaging signals of influenza virus RNAs (vRNAs) are located in the 5' and 3' noncoding regions, as well as in the terminal regions, of the open reading frames. How these packaging signals function during genome packaging remains unclear. Previously, we generated a 7-segmented virus in which the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments of the influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus were replaced by a chimeric influenza C virus hemagglutinin/esterase/fusion (HEF) segment carrying the HA packaging sequences. The robust growth of the HEF virus suggested that the NA segment is not required for the packaging of other segments. In this study, in order to determine the roles of the other seven segments during influenza A virus genome assembly, we continued to use this HEF virus as a tool and analyzed the effects of replacing the packaging sequences of other segments with those of the NA segment. Our results showed that deleting the packaging signals of the PB1, HA, or NS segment had no effect on the growth of the HEF virus, while growth was greatly impaired when the packaging sequence of the PB2, PA, nucleoprotein (NP), or matrix (M) segment was removed. These results indicate that the PB2, PA, NP, and M segments play a more important role than the remaining four vRNAs during the genome-packaging process.

  19. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  20. Gene dependent level of protection induced by fowlpox recombinant expressing the hemagglutinin H7, the matrix M1, and/or the neuraminidase N1 avian influenza subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fowlpox recombinant (rFP) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) from A/turkey/Ireland/1378/83 [H5N8] was previously shown to induce protection against a wide panel of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 subtypes strains. The goal of the presented work was to evaluate if similar broad protecti...