Science.gov

Sample records for information storage

  1. Storage and distribution system for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tokumichi

    1994-06-01

    Recent advances in technologies such as digital signal processing, LSI devices and storage media have led to an explosive growth in multimedia environment. Multimedia information services are expected to provide an information-oriented infrastructure which will integrate visual communication, broadcasting and computer services. International standardizations in video/audio coding accelerate permeation of these services into society. In this paper, from trends of R & D and international standardization in video coding techniques, an outline is given of a storage and distribution system for multimedia information, and a summary of the requirements of digital storage media.

  2. Information storage media and method

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.; Endres, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for storing and retrieving information. More specifically, the present invention is a method for forming predetermined patterns, or data structures, using materials which exhibit enhanced absorption of light at certain wavelengths or, when interrogated with a light having a first wavelength, provide a luminescent response at a second wavelength. These materials may exhibit this response to light inherently, or may be made to exhibit this response by treating the materials with ionizing radiation.

  3. Mass Storage Performance Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop a data warehouse to enable system administrators and their managers to gather information by querying the data logs of the MDSDS. Currently detailed logs capture the activity of the MDSDS internal to the different systems. The elements to be included in the data warehouse are requirements analysis, data cleansing, database design, database population, hardware/software acquisition, data transformation, query and report generation, and data mining.

  4. Nonadiabatic approach to quantum optical information storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsko, A. B.; Rostovtsev, Y. V.; Kocharovskaya, O.; Zibrov, A. S.; Scully, M. O.

    2001-10-01

    We show that there is no need for adiabatic passage in the storage and retrieval of information in the optically thick vapor of Lambda-type atoms. This information can be mapped into and retrieved out of long-lived atomic coherence with nearly perfect efficiency by strong writing and reading pulses with steep rising and falling edges. We elucidate similarities and differences between the ``adiabatic'' and ``instant'' light storage techniques, and conclude that for any switching time, an almost perfect information storage is possible if the group velocity of the signal pulse is much less than the speed of light in the vacuum c and the bandwidth of the signal pulse is much less then the width of the two-photon resonance. The maximum loss of the information appears in the case of instantaneous switching of the writing and reading fields compared with adiabatic switching, and is determined by the ratio of the initial group velocity of the signal pulse in the medium and speed of light in the vacuum c, which can be very small. Quantum restrictions to the storage efficiency are also discussed.

  5. Microcomputers for Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanters, Ben

    1983-01-01

    Report on use of the microcomputer for information storage and retrieval (ISR) notes hardware (floppy disks, keyboard, screen, printer); functions of ISR software; standardization of the operating system; database creation; data entry; indexing; search process; choice of ISR software package; software market and user; training and instruction; and…

  6. Multilevel resistive information storage and retrieval

    DOEpatents

    Lohn, Andrew; Mickel, Patrick R.

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) systems, as well as methods of employing multiple state variables to form degenerate states in such memory systems. The methods herein allow for precise write and read steps to form multiple state variables, and these steps can be performed electrically. Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval.

  7. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  8. 12 CFR 978.5 - Storage of confidential information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage of confidential information. 978.5... OPERATIONS AND AUTHORITIES BANK REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION § 978.5 Storage of confidential information. Each Bank shall: (a) Store all identified confidential information in secure storage areas or...

  9. Storage and retrieval of mass spectral information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohn, M. E.; Humberston, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

    1977-01-01

    Computer handling of mass spectra serves two main purposes: the interpretation of the occasional, problematic mass spectrum, and the identification of the large number of spectra generated in the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of complex natural and synthetic mixtures. Methods available fall into the three categories of library search, artificial intelligence, and learning machine. Optional procedures for coding, abbreviating and filtering a library of spectra minimize time and storage requirements. Newer techniques make increasing use of probability and information theory in accessing files of mass spectral information.

  10. Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Beni

    2013-11-15

    Understanding the limits imposed on information storage capacity of physical systems is a problem of fundamental and practical importance which bridges physics and information science. There is a well-known upper bound on the amount of information that can be stored reliably in a given volume of discrete spin systems which are supported by gapped local Hamiltonians. However, all the previously known systems were far below this theoretical bound, and it remained open whether there exists a gapped spin system that saturates this bound. Here, we present a construction of spin systems which saturate this theoretical limit asymptotically by borrowing an idea from fractal properties arising in the Sierpinski triangle. Our construction provides not only the best classical error-correcting code which is physically realizable as the energy ground space of gapped frustration-free Hamiltonians, but also a new research avenue for correlated spin phases with fractal spin configurations. -- Highlights: •We propose a spin model with fractal ground states and study its coding properties. •We show that the model asymptotically saturates a theoretical limit on information storage capacity. •We discuss its relations to various theoretical physics problems.

  11. 32 CFR 2400.27 - Storage of classification information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of classification information. 2400.27... SECURITY PROGRAM Safeguarding § 2400.27 Storage of classification information. Whenever classified... stored in a locked security container approved for the storage and protection of the appropriate level...

  12. 32 CFR 2400.27 - Storage of classification information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of classification information. 2400.27... SECURITY PROGRAM Safeguarding § 2400.27 Storage of classification information. Whenever classified... stored in a locked security container approved for the storage and protection of the appropriate level...

  13. 32 CFR 2400.27 - Storage of classification information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of classification information. 2400.27... SECURITY PROGRAM Safeguarding § 2400.27 Storage of classification information. Whenever classified... stored in a locked security container approved for the storage and protection of the appropriate level...

  14. IP-based storage of image information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xianglin; Xie, Changsheng; Liu, Zhaobin

    2001-09-01

    With the fast growth of data in multispectral image processing, the traditional storage architecture was challenged. It is currently being replaced by Storage Area Networks (SAN), which makes storage devices externalized from servers. A SAN is a separate network for storage, isolated from the messaging network and optimized for the movement of data between servers and storage devices. Nowadays, most of current SAN use Fibre Channel to move data between servers and storage devices (FC-SAN), but because of the drawbacks of the FC-SAN: for interoperability, lack of skilled professional and management tools, high implementation cost and so on, the development and application of FC-SAN was obstructed. In this paper, we introduce an IP-based Storage Area Networks architecture, which has the good qualities of FC- SAN but overcomes the shortcoming of it. The principle is: use IP technology to move data between servers and storage devices, build a SAN with the IP-based network devices (not the FC-based network device), and through the switch, SAN is attached to the LAN(Local Area Network) through multiple access. Especially, these storage devices are acted as commercial NAS devices and PC.

  15. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996.

  16. Utility of Automatic Classification Systems for Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litofsky, Barry

    Large-scale, on-line information storage and retrieval systems pose numerous problems above those encountered by smaller systems. A step toward the solution of these problems is presented along with several demonstrations of feasibility and advantages. The methodology on which this solution is based is that of a posteriori automatic classification…

  17. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  18. Modeling of information flows in natural gas storage facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbari, Leyla; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul

    2013-09-01

    The paper considers the natural-gas storage valuation based on the information-based pricing framework of Brody-Hughston-Macrina (BHM). As opposed to many studies which the associated filtration is considered pre-specified, this work tries to construct the filtration in terms of the information provided to the market. The value of the storage is given by the sum of the discounted expectations of the cash flows under risk-neutral measure, conditional to the constructed filtration with the Brownian bridge noise term. In order to model the flow of information about the cash flows, we assume the existence of a fixed pricing kernel with liquid, homogenous and incomplete market without arbitrage.

  19. Test OSIRIS (On Line Search Information Retrieval Information Storage).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalther, A. Kenneth

    The OSIRIS system is a prototype information retrieval system having the following components: an automated microfiche file having a capacity of 5000 punch card sized microfiche with a remote control 21 inch TV console for retrieving, magnifying (0-250X), and displaying any of the images on the microfiche; and a remote computer terminal for the…

  20. ERISTAR: Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) have sponsored faculty fellowship programs in systems engineering design for the past several years. During the summer of 1972 four such programs were conducted by NASA, with Auburn University cooperating with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The subject for the Auburn-MSFC design group was ERISTAR, an acronym for Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis and Retrieval, which represents an earth resources information management network of state information centers administered by the respective states and linked to federally administered regional centers and a national center. The considerations for serving the users and the considerations that must be given to processing data from a variety of sources are described. The combination of these elements into a national network is discussed and an implementation plan is proposed for a prototype state information center. The compatibility of the proposed plan with the Department of Interior plan, RALI, is indicated.

  1. Information storage medium and method of recording and retrieving information thereon

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, D. D.; Begej, Stefan

    1986-01-01

    Information storage medium comprising a semiconductor doped with first and second impurities or dopants. Preferably, one of the impurities is introduced by ion implantation. Conductive electrodes are photolithographically formed on the surface of the medium. Information is recorded on the medium by selectively applying a focused laser beam to discrete regions of the medium surface so as to anneal discrete regions of the medium containing lattice defects introduced by the ion-implanted impurity. Information is retrieved from the storage medium by applying a focused laser beam to annealed and non-annealed regions so as to produce a photovoltaic signal at each region.

  2. Carbon storage in Swedish bedrock - current status regarding potential storage areas and geophysical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, B.; Juhojuntti, N. G.

    2010-12-01

    permeability and the location of suitable traps, and some of these issues could be addressed by re-processing and re-interpreting data from selected seismic profiles. Sedimentary bedrock is also present further to the north, under the Bothnian Sea and the Bothnian Bay. It should be noted that some of the large CO2 emitters in northern Sweden are located nearby. There is, however, a lack of borehole data, as there has been little or no hydrocarbon prospecting in these areas. Thus few estimates of porosity and permeability are available. In addition, there are questions regarding the maximum depth of the sedimentary layers, e.g. gravity data indicate that there could be relatively thick sedimentary basins in some areas. Thus there are incentives for attempting to extract more information from the available seismic profiles. Other considered storage areas in Sweden include local occurrences of sedimentary bedrock, mainly on land. Impact craters have also been mentioned as possible storage sites. It should furthermore be pointed out that several countries around Sweden have active CCS-programs, e.g. Denmark and Poland, and that there are possibilities for international collaboration.

  3. Non-Verbal Information Storage in Humans and Developmental Information Processing Channel Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    This study was designed to ascertain the nature of information storage in humans and to determine the channel capacity of Ss at various stages of development. A 3 x 2 x 2 multivariate complete factorial design was employed: the three levels of the first factor (Age) were 5, 8, and 12 years; the two levels of the second factor were Visual and…

  4. Mental Schemas Hamper Memory Storage of Goal-Irrelevant Information

    PubMed Central

    Sweegers, C. C. G.; Coleman, G. A.; van Poppel, E. A. M.; Cox, R.; Talamini, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Mental schemas exert top-down control on information processing, for instance by facilitating the storage of schema-related information. However, given capacity-limits and competition in neural network processing, schemas may additionally exert their effects by suppressing information with low momentary relevance. In particular, when existing schemas suffice to guide goal-directed behavior, this may actually reduce encoding of the redundant sensory input, in favor of gaining efficiency in task performance. The present experiment set out to test this schema-induced shallow encoding hypothesis. Our approach involved a memory task in which faces had to be coupled to homes. For half of the faces the responses could be guided by a pre-learned schema, for the other half of the faces such a schema was not available. Memory storage was compared between schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items. To characterize putative schema effects, memory was assessed both with regard to visual details and contextual aspects of each item. The depth of encoding was also assessed through an objective neural measure: the parietal old/new ERP effect. This ERP effect, observed between 500–800 ms post-stimulus onset, is thought to reflect the extent of recollection: the retrieval of a vivid memory, including various contextual details from the learning episode. We found that schema-congruency induced substantial impairments in item memory and even larger ones in context memory. Furthermore, the parietal old/new ERP effect indicated higher recollection for the schema-incongruent than the schema-congruent memories. The combined findings indicate that, when goals can be achieved using existing schemas, this can hinder the in-depth processing of novel input, impairing the formation of perceptually detailed and contextually rich memory traces. Taking into account both current and previous findings, we suggest that schemas can both positively and negatively bias the processing of sensory

  5. Information storage and retrieval in a single levitating colloidal particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Christopher J.; Celebrano, Michele; Krishnan, Madhavi

    2015-10-01

    The binary switch is a basic component of digital information. From phase-change alloys to nanomechanical beams, molecules and atoms, new strategies for controlled bistability hold great interest for emerging technologies. We present a generic methodology for precise and parallel spatiotemporal control of nanometre-scale matter in a fluid, and demonstrate the ability to attain digital functionalities such as switching, gating and data storage in a single colloid, with further implications for signal amplification and logic operations. This fluid-phase bit can be arrayed at high densities, manipulated by either electrical or optical fields, supports low-energy, high-speed operation and marks a first step toward ‘colloidal information’. The principle generalizes to any system where spatial perturbation of a particle elicits a differential response amenable to readout.

  6. Flexible information storage in MUDR(II) EHR.

    PubMed

    Spidlen, Josef; Hanzlícek, Petr; Ríha, Antonin; Zvárová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    An important research task of the EuroMISE Centre is the applied research in the field of electronic health record (EHR) design including electronic medical guidelines and intelligent systems for data mining and decision support. The research in this field was inspired by several European projects. We have proposed a mathematical meta-description of a flexible information storage model based on the experience gathered in cooperation in those projects. In this model, we use two basic structures called a knowledge base and data files. We describe those two structures using the graph theory concepts. Furthermore, we use logical formulas to express conditions that should be valid. Additionally, we present a description of a global system architecture of a 3-tier EHR application with interfaces based on the latest technologies; predominately on Web Services, SOAP, XML, HTTP, CORBA, etc. According to our experience and test results gained from the MUDR EHR usage, we describe an open universal solution, which can be applied as the EHR kernel of hospital information systems. To realize this approach in a daily practice for health professionals we have started a co-operative project with clinical information systems developers. Within that project we are developing a new system for continual shared health care.

  7. Common Problems of Documentary Information Transfer, Storage and Retrieval in Industrial Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of management information systems of three manufacturing firms highlights principal characteristics, document types and functions, main information flows, storage and retrieval systems, and common problems (corporate memory failure, records management, management information systems, general management). A literature review and…

  8. Encoding and storage of spatial information in the retrosplenial cortex.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Jayaprakash, Balaji; Wiltgen, Brian; Rogerson, Thomas; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C; Barth, Alison L; Trachtenberg, Joshua T; Silva, Alcino J

    2014-06-10

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is part of a network of interconnected cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic structures harboring spatially modulated neurons. The RSC contains head direction cells and connects to the parahippocampal region and anterior thalamus. Manipulations of the RSC can affect spatial and contextual tasks. A considerable amount of evidence implicates the role of the RSC in spatial navigation, but it is unclear whether this structure actually encodes or stores spatial information. We used a transgenic mouse in which the expression of green fluorescent protein was under the control of the immediate early gene c-fos promoter as well as time-lapse two-photon in vivo imaging to monitor neuronal activation triggered by spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We uncovered a repetitive pattern of cell activation in the RSC consistent with the hypothesis that during spatial learning an experience-dependent memory trace is formed in this structure. In support of this hypothesis, we also report three other observations. First, temporary RSC inactivation disrupts performance in a spatial learning task. Second, we show that overexpressing the transcription factor CREB in the RSC with a viral vector, a manipulation known to enhance memory consolidation in other circuits, results in spatial memory enhancements. Third, silencing the viral CREB-expressing neurons with the allatostatin system occludes the spatial memory enhancement. Taken together, these results indicate that the retrosplenial cortex engages in the formation and storage of memory traces for spatial information.

  9. Weighty data: importance information influences estimated weight of digital information storage devices

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Iris K.; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B). PMID:25620942

  10. Weighty data: importance information influences estimated weight of digital information storage devices.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Iris K; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L

    2014-01-01

    Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B). PMID:25620942

  11. An overview of selected information storage and retrieval issues in computerized document processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Ihebuzor, Valentine U.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid development of computerized information storage and retrieval techniques has introduced the possibility of extending the word processing concept to document processing. A major advantage of computerized document processing is the relief of the tedious task of manual editing and composition usually encountered by traditional publishers through the immense speed and storage capacity of computers. Furthermore, computerized document processing provides an author with centralized control, the lack of which is a handicap of the traditional publishing operation. A survey of some computerized document processing techniques is presented with emphasis on related information storage and retrieval issues. String matching algorithms are considered central to document information storage and retrieval and are also discussed.

  12. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter, while... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY...

  13. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter, while... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY...

  14. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter, while... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY...

  15. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter, while... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY...

  16. 18 CFR 3a.61 - Storage and custody of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage and custody of classified information. 3a.61 Section 3a.61 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Storage and...

  17. 18 CFR 3a.61 - Storage and custody of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Storage and custody of classified information. 3a.61 Section 3a.61 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Storage and...

  18. 18 CFR 3a.61 - Storage and custody of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Storage and custody of classified information. 3a.61 Section 3a.61 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Storage and...

  19. 18 CFR 3a.61 - Storage and custody of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Storage and custody of classified information. 3a.61 Section 3a.61 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Storage and...

  20. 18 CFR 3a.61 - Storage and custody of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage and custody of classified information. 3a.61 Section 3a.61 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Storage and...

  1. CARGO: effective format-free compressed storage of genomic information

    PubMed Central

    Roguski, Łukasz; Ribeca, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The recent super-exponential growth in the amount of sequencing data generated worldwide has put techniques for compressed storage into the focus. Most available solutions, however, are strictly tied to specific bioinformatics formats, sometimes inheriting from them suboptimal design choices; this hinders flexible and effective data sharing. Here, we present CARGO (Compressed ARchiving for GenOmics), a high-level framework to automatically generate software systems optimized for the compressed storage of arbitrary types of large genomic data collections. Straightforward applications of our approach to FASTQ and SAM archives require a few lines of code, produce solutions that match and sometimes outperform specialized format-tailored compressors and scale well to multi-TB datasets. All CARGO software components can be freely downloaded for academic and non-commercial use from http://bio-cargo.sourceforge.net. PMID:27131376

  2. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.25 Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter, while... Information and/or Restricted Data depending upon the matter authorized to be stored in the security...

  3. Changing Patterns of Information Storage and Retrieval in American Libraries and Educational Resource Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didier, Elaine K.

    At most schools and universities, the traditional roles of the library and computing services organizations have begun to converge as the technologies they use to store, transmit, and retrieve information and, in some cases, the information itself, become increasingly similar. Examples of the changing patterns of information storage and retrieval…

  4. Controllable high bandwidth storage of optical information in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Schultz, Justin T.; Murphree, Joseph D.; Hansen, Azure; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    The storage and retrieval of optical information has been of interest for a variety of applications including quantum information processing, quantum networks and quantum memories. Several schemes have been investigated and realized with weak, narrowband pulses, including techniques using EIT in solid state systems and both hot and cold atomic vapors. In contrast, we investigate the storage and manipulation of strong, high bandwidth pulses in a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) of ultracold 87 Rb atoms. As a storage medium for optical pulses, BECs offer long storage times and preserve the coherence properties of the input information, suppressing unwanted thermal decoherence effects. We present numerical simulations of nanosecond pulses addressing a three-level lambda system on the D2 line of 87 Rb. The signal pulse is stored as a localized spin excitation in the condensate and can be moved or retrieved by reapplication of successive control pulses. The relative Rabi frequencies and areas of the pulses and the local atomic density in the condensate determine the storage location and readout of the signal pulse. Extending this scheme to use beams with a variety of spatial modes such as Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian modes offers an expanded alphabet for information storage.

  5. Small Form Factor Information Storage Devices for Mobile Applications in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Pil; Park, No-Cheol; Kim, Chul-Jin

    Recently, the ubiquitous environment in which anybody can reach a lot of information data without any limitations on the place and time has become an important social issue. There are two basic requirements in the field of information storage devices which have to be satisfied; the first is the demand for the improvement of memory capacity to manage the increased data capacity in personal and official purposes. The second is the demand for new development of information storage devices small enough to be applied to mobile multimedia digital electronics, including digital camera, PDA and mobile phones. To summarize, for the sake of mobile applications, it is necessary to develop information storage devices which have simultaneously a large capacity and a small size. Korea possesses the necessary infrastructure for developing such small sized information storage devices. It has a good digital market, major digital companies, and various research institutes. Nowadays, many companies and research institutes including university cooperate together in the research on small sized information storage devices. Thus, it is expected that small form factor optical disk drives will be commercialized in the very near future in Korea.

  6. IS THERE ROOM FOR DURABLE ANALOG INFORMATION STORAGE IN A DIGITAL WORLD

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. STUTZ; L. HERETH

    2000-09-20

    Information technology has completely changed our concept of record keeping--the advent of digital records was a momentous discovery, as significant as the invention of the printing press. Digital records allowed huge amounts of information to be stored in a very small space and to be examined quickly. However, digital documents are much more vulnerable to the passage of time than printed documents, because the media on which they are stored are easily affected by physical phenomena, such as magnetic fields, oxidation, material decay, and by various environmental factors that may erase the information. Even more important, digital information becomes obsolete, because even if future generations maybe able to read it, they may not necessarily be able to interpret it. Over the centuries analog documents have been written on solid materials such as stone, clay and metal plates using tools to inscribe the characters. These archival methods have preserved records for centuries, and even millennia, but suffer from low information density. Modem methods facilitate writing pages on smooth material surfaces at high information densities. This writing can generate from about 25 to 100,000 times the area information density of microfilm and work with either analog or digital storage methods. Information of all types is becoming more dependent on digital records. These records are often created and stored on computer systems by scanning in documents or creating them directly on the system. Often analog information (human viewable information) is forced into binary form (ones and zeros). The necessity for the accurate and accessible storage of these documents is increasing for a number of reasons, including legal and environment issues. This paper will discuss information storage life, methods of information storage, media life considerations, and life cycle costs associated with several methods of storage.

  7. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  8. 77 FR 26538 - ANR Storage Company; Notice of Informal Settlement Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Storage Company; Notice of Informal Settlement Conference Take notice that an informal settlement conference will be convened in this proceeding commencing at 10:00 a.m....

  9. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared. Part 1. General Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; Hofstede, Marten

    1991-01-01

    Five categories of microcomputer software for information storage and retrieval (ISR) are distinguished and characterized: classical retrieval systems; end-user software; indexing programs; full-text retrieval programs; and personal information managers. In addition, the special retrieval techniques of hypertext and best-matched searching are…

  10. Method of bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric phase PLZT ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Land, Cecil E.

    1990-01-01

    A method for bistable storage of binary optical information includes an antiferroelectric (AFE) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) layer having a stable antiferroelectric first phase and a ferroelectric (FE) second phase obtained by applying a switching electric field across the surface of the device. Optical information is stored by illuminating selected portions of the layer to photoactivate an FE to AFE transition in those portions. Erasure of the stored information is obtained by reapplying the switching field.

  11. Method of bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric phase PLZT ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Land, C.E.

    1990-07-31

    A method for bistable storage of binary optical information includes an antiferroelectric (AFE) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) layer having a stable antiferroelectric first phase and a ferroelectric (FE) second phase obtained by applying a switching electric field across the surface of the device. Optical information is stored by illuminating selected portions of the layer to photoactivate an FE to AFE transition in those portions. Erasure of the stored information is obtained by reapplying the switching field. 8 figs.

  12. Integrated information storage and transfer with a coherent magnetic device.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ning; Banchi, Leonardo; Bayat, Abolfazl; Dong, Guangjiong; Bose, Sougato

    2015-01-01

    Quantum systems are inherently dissipation-less, making them excellent candidates even for classical information processing. We propose to use an array of large-spin quantum magnets for realizing a device which has two modes of operation: memory and data-bus. While the weakly interacting low-energy levels are used as memory to store classical information (bits), the high-energy levels strongly interact with neighboring magnets and mediate the spatial movement of information through quantum dynamics. Despite the fact that memory and data-bus require different features, which are usually prerogative of different physical systems--well isolation for the memory cells, and strong interactions for the transmission--our proposal avoids the notorious complexity of hybrid structures. The proposed mechanism can be realized with different setups. We specifically show that molecular magnets, as the most promising technology, can implement hundreds of operations within their coherence time, while adatoms on surfaces probed by a scanning tunneling microscope is a future possibility. PMID:26347152

  13. Integrated information storage and transfer with a coherent magnetic device

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ning; Banchi, Leonardo; Bayat, Abolfazl; Dong, Guangjiong; Bose, Sougato

    2015-01-01

    Quantum systems are inherently dissipation-less, making them excellent candidates even for classical information processing. We propose to use an array of large-spin quantum magnets for realizing a device which has two modes of operation: memory and data-bus. While the weakly interacting low-energy levels are used as memory to store classical information (bits), the high-energy levels strongly interact with neighboring magnets and mediate the spatial movement of information through quantum dynamics. Despite the fact that memory and data-bus require different features, which are usually prerogative of different physical systems – well isolation for the memory cells, and strong interactions for the transmission – our proposal avoids the notorious complexity of hybrid structures. The proposed mechanism can be realized with different setups. We specifically show that molecular magnets, as the most promising technology, can implement hundreds of operations within their coherence time, while adatoms on surfaces probed by a scanning tunneling microscope is a future possibility. PMID:26347152

  14. Bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric-phase lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.

    1988-11-01

    A recently discovered photostorage effect in antiferroelectric-phase (AFE-phase) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) compositions appears to be particularly applicable to binary optical information storage. The basis for bistable optical information storage is that exposure to near-UV or visible light shifts the electric field threshold of the phase transition between the field-induced ferroelectric (FE) phase and the stable AFE phase in the direction of the initial AFE /yields/ FE phase transition. Properties of this photoactivated shift of the FE /yields/ AFE phase transition, including preliminary photosensitivity measurements and photostorage mechanisms, are presented. Photosensitivity enhancement by ion implantation is also discussed.

  15. Cultural Evolutionary Tipping Points in the Storage and Transmission of Information

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; O’Brien, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Human culture has evolved through a series of major tipping points in information storage and communication. The first was the appearance of language, which enabled communication between brains and allowed humans to specialize in what they do and to participate in complex mating games. The second was information storage outside the brain, most obviously expressed in the “Upper Paleolithic Revolution” – the sudden proliferation of cave art, personal adornment, and ritual in Europe some 35,000–45,000 years ago. More recently, this storage has taken the form of writing, mass media, and now the Internet, which is arguably overwhelming humans’ ability to discern relevant information. The third tipping point was the appearance of technology capable of accumulating and manipulating vast amounts of information outside humans, thus removing them as bottlenecks to a seemingly self-perpetuating process of knowledge explosion. Important components of any discussion of cultural evolutionary tipping points are tempo and mode, given that the rate of change, as well as the kind of change, in information storage and transmission has not been constant over the previous million years. PMID:23267338

  16. Improving information storage by means of segmented magnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, E.; Vogel, E. E.

    2015-08-01

    A set of magnetic nanowires trapped in the membrane used to produce them can be employed to inscribe information in the form of sectors of wires with the same ferromagnetic orientation (Cisternas and Vogel, 2013 [1]). However, such a system relays on the shape anisotropy of each nanowire as the stabilizing mechanism avoiding magnetization reversal. Such stabilization mechanism weakens as the size of the nanowires decrease. In the present paper we introduce a way of using segmented nanowires to produce a self-stabilization mechanism based on the fact that interactions among segments of different layers can contribute with negative energies. Then, for some particular geometries it is possible to make this interaction the most important one producing a more stable system with respect to spontaneous magnetization reversal. Such inscribed ferromagnetic sector will then last longer than other ferromagnetic sectors formed by exclusively repelling elements. We make use of available algebraic expressions to calculate the energy contribution of noncoaxial segments. For the coaxial segments a similar expression is developed here and it is applied to real systems. The total interaction energy for all segments in the system is calculated for different geometrical possibilities. Application to two particular symbols (letters T and O) is fully discussed bringing out general aspects that could be applied to other symbols. Projections of this work are finally mentioned.

  17. Classical Information Storage in an n-Level Quantum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, Péter E.; Weiner, Mihály

    2015-12-01

    A game is played by a team of two—say Alice and Bob—in which the value of a random variable x is revealed to Alice only, who cannot freely communicate with Bob. Instead, she is given a quantum n-level system, respectively a classical n-state system, which she can put in possession of Bob in any state she wishes. We evaluate how successfully they managed to store and recover the value of x by requiring Bob to specify a value z and giving a reward of value f ( x, z) to the team. We show that whatever the probability distribution of x and the reward function f are, when using a quantum n-level system, the maximum expected reward obtainable with the best possible team strategy is equal to that obtainable with the use of a classical n-state system. The proof relies on mixed discriminants of positive matrices and—perhaps surprisingly—an application of the Supply-Demand Theorem for bipartite graphs. As a corollary, we get an infinite set of new, dimension dependent inequalities regarding positive operator valued measures and density operators on complex n-space. As a further corollary, we see that the greatest value, with respect to a given distribution of x, of the mutual information I ( x; z) that is obtainable using an n-level quantum system equals the analogous maximum for a classical n-state system.

  18. 8 CFR 103.16 - Collection, use and storage of biometric information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... such information or if requested in accordance with 8 CFR 103.2(b)(9). DHS may collect and store for... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection, use and storage of biometric... REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION BENEFITS; BIOMETRIC REQUIREMENTS; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS Biometric Requirements §...

  19. 8 CFR 103.16 - Collection, use and storage of biometric information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... such information or if requested in accordance with 8 CFR 103.2(b)(9). DHS may collect and store for... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection, use and storage of biometric... REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION BENEFITS; BIOMETRIC REQUIREMENTS; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS Biometric Requirements §...

  20. 8 CFR 103.16 - Collection, use and storage of biometric information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... such information or if requested in accordance with 8 CFR 103.2(b)(9). DHS may collect and store for... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection, use and storage of biometric... REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION BENEFITS; BIOMETRIC REQUIREMENTS; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS Biometric Requirements §...

  1. An Information Storage and Retrieval System for Biological and Geological Data. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Donald F.

    A project is being conducted to test the feasibility of an information storage and retrieval system for museum specimen data, particularly for natural history museums. A pilot data processing system has been developed, with the specimen records from the national collections of birds, marine crustaceans, and rocks used as sample data. The research…

  2. Computer-Based Storage and Retrieval of Geoscience Information: Bibliography 1970-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, C. F., Jr.

    The publication of papers describing activity in computer-based storage and retrieval and geoscience information has continued at a vigorous pace since release of the last bibliography, which covered the period 1946-69 (ED 076 203). A total of 211 references are identified, nearly all of which were published during the three-year period 1970-72…

  3. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  4. Canister Storage Building Receiving Pit Modification Informal Design Verification

    SciTech Connect

    KRIEG, S.A.

    2000-10-09

    The design for modifications to the CSB Cask Receiving pit guides was verified by the informal design verification (meeting) method on August 9, 2000. The invited list of attendees and the meeting attendance sheet are included in attachment 1. The design modifications that were reviewed are documented in ECN 654484 (attachment 2). The requirement that the design is to be verified against is to ''center the transportation cask sufficiently to allow installation of the guide funnel on the cask ({+-} 0.25 inches or less)''. The alternatives considered are detailed in attachment 3. Alternative number 4, ''Modify The Pit Guides'', was determined to be the preferred alternative primarily due to considerations of simplicity, reliability, and low cost. Alternative 1, ''Rotate the impact Absorber 180{sup o}'', was successfully performed but was considered a temporary fix that was not acceptable for a long term operational mode. The requirement to position the receiving crane accurately enough to lower the transportation cask into the pit with the redesigned guides was discussed and considered to be achievable without undue effort from the operator. The tolerance on the OD of the transfer cask was discussed ({+-} 1/8 inch) relative to the clearance with the guides. As-built dimensions for the cask OD will be looked at to verify sufficient clearance exists with the maximum cask OD. The final design thickness of the shims under the guides will be based on the as-built cask OD dimensions and field measurements between the pit guides. The need for a ''plastic'' cover for the guides was discussed and deemed unnecessary. Thermal growth of the cask OD was calculated at 3-5 mils and considered insignificant. The possibility of reducing the OD of the guide funnel was reviewed but this was considered impractical due to the requirement for the MCO to miss the edge of the funnel in case of a MCO drop. One of the transportation casks have the lift trunions installed 3/8 inch off center

  5. Method and apparatus for bistable optical information storage for erasable optical disks

    DOEpatents

    Land, Cecil E.; McKinney, Ira D.

    1990-01-01

    A method and an optical device for bistable storage of optical information, together with reading and erasure of the optical information, using a photoactivated shift in a field dependent phase transition between a metastable or a bias-stabilized ferroelectric (FE) phase and a stable antiferroelectric (AFE) phase in an lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT). An optical disk contains the PLZT. Writing and erasing of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam normal to the disk. Reading of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam at an incidence angle of 15 to 60 degrees to the normal of the disk.

  6. Method and apparatus for bistable optical information storage for erasable optical disks

    DOEpatents

    Land, C.E.; McKinney, I.D.

    1988-05-31

    A method and an optical device for bistable storage of optical information, together with reading and erasure of the optical information, using a photoactivated shift in a field dependent phase transition between a metastable or a bias-stabilized ferroelectric (FE) phase and a stable antiferroelectric (AFE) phase in a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT). An optical disk contains the PLZT. Writing and erasing of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam normal to the disk. Reading of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam at an incidence angle of 15 to 60 degrees to the normal of the disk. 10 figs.

  7. Neural information processing and self-organizing maps as a tool in safeguarding storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Fuyat, C.

    1993-08-01

    Storage facilities for nuclear materials and weapons dismantlement facilities could have a large number of sensors with the potential for generating large amounts of data. Because of the anticipated complexity and diversity of the data, efficient automatic algorithms are necessary to make interpretations and ensure secure and safe operation. New, advanced safeguards systems are needed to process the information gathered from monitors and make interpretations that are in the best interests of the facility or agency. In this paper we present a conceptual design for software to assist with processing these large quantities of data from storage facilities.

  8. Storage Information Management System (SIMS) Spaceflight Hardware Warehousing at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubicko, Richard M.; Bingham, Lindy

    1995-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on site and leased warehouses contain thousands of items of ground support equipment (GSE) and flight hardware including spacecraft, scaffolding, computer racks, stands, holding fixtures, test equipment, spares, etc. The control of these warehouses, and the management, accountability, and control of the items within them, is accomplished by the Logistics Management Division. To facilitate this management and tracking effort, the Logistics and Transportation Management Branch, is developing a system to provide warehouse personnel, property owners, and managers with storage and inventory information. This paper will describe that PC-based system and address how it will improve GSFC warehouse and storage management.

  9. Distributed and Dynamic Storage of Working Memory Stimulus Information in Extrastriate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Kartik K.; Vytlacil, Jason; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The predominant neurobiological model of working memory (WM) posits that stimulus information is stored via stable elevated activity within highly selective neurons. Based on this model, which we refer to as the canonical model, the storage of stimulus information is largely associated with lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC). A growing number of studies describe results that cannot be fully explained by the canonical model, suggesting that it is in need of revision. In the present study, we directly test key elements of the canonical model. We analyzed functional MRI data collected as participants performed a task requiring WM for faces and scenes. Multivariate decoding procedures identified patterns of activity containing information about the items maintained in WM (faces, scenes, or both). While information about WM items was identified in extrastriate visual cortex (EC) and lPFC, only EC exhibited a pattern of results consistent with a sensory representation. Information in both regions persisted even in the absence of elevated activity, suggesting that elevated population activity may not represent the storage of information in WM. Additionally, we observed that WM information was distributed across EC neural populations that exhibited a broad range of selectivity for the WM items rather than restricted to highly selective EC populations. Finally, we determined that activity patterns coding for WM information were not stable, but instead varied over the course of a trial, indicating that the neural code for WM information is dynamic rather than static. Together, these findings challenge the canonical model of WM. PMID:24392897

  10. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 3, Supplemental information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. It is organized into seven parts. Part I - Design Concept describes the selected solution. Part III - Supplemental Information contains calculations for the various disciplines as well as other supporting information and analyses.

  11. Training a Constitutional Dynamic Network for Effector Recognition: Storage, Recall, and Erasing of Information.

    PubMed

    Holub, Jan; Vantomme, Ghislaine; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2016-09-14

    Constitutional dynamic libraries (CDLs) of hydrazones, acylhydrazones, and imines undergo reorganization and adaptation in response to chemical effectors (herein metal cations) via component exchange and selection. Such CDLs can be subjected to training by exposition to given effectors and keep memory of the information stored by interaction with a specific metal ion. The long-term storage of the acquired information into the set of constituents of the system allows for fast recognition on subsequent contacts with the same effector(s). Dynamic networks of constituents were designed to adapt orthogonally to different metal cations by up- and down-regulation of specific constituents in the final distribution. The memory may be erased by component exchange between the constituents so as to regenerate the initial (statistical) distribution. The libraries described represent constitutional dynamic systems capable of acting as information storage molecular devices, in which the presence of components linked by reversible covalent bonds in slow exchange and bearing adequate coordination sites allows for the adaptation to different metal ions by constitutional variation. The system thus performs information storage, recall, and erase processes. PMID:27571554

  12. Electron-beam-induced information storage in hydrogenated amorphous silicon devices

    DOEpatents

    Yacobi, B.G.

    1985-03-18

    A method for recording and storing information in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon device, comprising: depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate to form a charge collection device; and generating defects in the hydrogenated amorphous silicon device, wherein the defects act as recombination centers that reduce the lifetime of carriers, thereby reducing charge collection efficiency and thus in the charge collection mode of scanning probe instruments, regions of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon device that contain the defects appear darker in comparison to regions of the device that do not contain the defects, leading to a contrast formation for pattern recognition and information storage.

  13. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  14. Optical Storage Systems for Records and Information Management: Overview, Recommendations and Guidelines for Local Governments. Local Government Records Technical Information Series. Number 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stanley F.

    This publication discusses optical storage, a term encompassing technologies that use laser-produced light to record and store information in digital form. The booklet also discusses how optical storage systems relate to records management, in particular to the management of local government records in New York State. It describes components of…

  15. Research and Development in the Computer and Information Sciences. Volume 2, Processing, Storage, and Output Requirements in Information Processing Systems: A Selective Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mary Elizabeth

    Areas of concern with respect to processing, storage, and output requirements of a generalized information processing system are considered. Special emphasis is placed on multiple-access systems. Problems of system management and control are discussed, including hierarchies of storage levels. Facsimile, digital, and mass random access storage…

  16. A GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolde, Michael; Malte, Schwanebeck; Ehsan, Biniyaz; Rainer, Duttmann

    2015-04-01

    We would like to present the concept and current state of development of a GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The presented information system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt domes and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, powerline arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the process of pre-selecting sites suitable for energy storage. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. While the process of pre-selection itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, so that it can easily be utilized in any web browser. The results are visualized online as interactive 3d graphics. The information system is implemented in the Python programming language in combination with current Web standards, and is build using only free and open source software. It is being developed at Kiel University as part of the ANGUS+ project (lead by Prof. Sebastian Bauer) for the federal state of

  17. An emerging network storage management standard: Media error monitoring and reporting information (MEMRI) - to determine optical tape data integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podio, Fernando; Vollrath, William; Williams, Joel; Kobler, Ben; Crouse, Don

    1998-01-01

    Sophisticated network storage management applications are rapidly evolving to satisfy a market demand for highly reliable data storage systems with large data storage capacities and performance requirements. To preserve a high degree of data integrity, these applications must rely on intelligent data storage devices that can provide reliable indicators of data degradation. Error correction activity generally occurs within storage devices without notification to the host. Early indicators of degradation and media error monitoring 333 and reporting (MEMR) techniques implemented in data storage devices allow network storage management applications to notify system administrators of these events and to take appropriate corrective actions before catastrophic errors occur. Although MEMR techniques have been implemented in data storage devices for many years, until 1996 no MEMR standards existed. In 1996 the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved the only known (world-wide) industry standard specifying MEMR techniques to verify stored data on optical disks. This industry standard was developed under the auspices of the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM). A recently formed AIIM Optical Tape Subcommittee initiated the development of another data integrity standard specifying a set of media error monitoring tools and media error monitoring information (MEMRI) to verify stored data on optical tape media. This paper discusses the need for intelligent storage devices that can provide data integrity metadata, the content of the existing data integrity standard for optical disks, and the content of the MEMRI standard being developed by the AIIM Optical Tape Subcommittee.

  18. Systematic assessment of wellbore integrity for geologic carbon storage projects using regulatory and industry information

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Mark; Sminchak, J.R.

    2015-11-01

    Under this three year project, the condition of legacy oil and gas wells in the Midwest United States was evaluated through analysis of well records, well plugging information, CBL evaluation, sustained casing pressure (SCP) field testing, and analysis of hypothetical CO2 test areas to provide a realistic description of wellbore integrity factors. The research included a state-wide review of oil and gas well records for Ohio and Michigan, along with more detailed testing of wells in Ohio. Results concluded that oil and gas wells are clustered along fields in areas. Well records vary in quality, and there may be wells that have not been identified in records, but there are options for surveying unknown wells. Many of the deep saline formations being considered for CO2 storage have few wells that penetrate the storage zone or confining layers. Research suggests that a variety of well construction and plugging approaches have been used over time in the region. The project concluded that wellbore integrity is an important issue for CO2 storage applications in the Midwest United States. Realistic CO2 storage projects may cover an area in the subsurface with several hundred legacy oil and gas wells. However, closer inspection may often establish that most of the wells do not penetrate the confining layers or storage zone. Therefore, addressing well integrity may be manageable. Field monitoring of SCP also indicated that tested wells provided zonal isolation of the reservoirs they were designed to isolate. Most of these wells appeared to exhibit gas pressure originating from intermediate zones. Based on these results, more flexibility in terms of cementing wells to surface, allowing well testing, and monitoring wells may aid operators in completing CO2 storage project. Several useful products were developed under this project for examining wellbore integrity for CO2 storage applications including, a

  19. Transportable, university-level educational programs in interactive information storage and retrieval systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D.; Roquemore, Leroy

    1984-01-01

    Pursuant to the specifications of a research contract entered into in December, 1983 with NASA, the Computer Science Departments of the University of Southwestern Louisiana and Southern University will be working jointly to address a variety of research and educational issues relating to the use, by non-computer professionals, of some of the largest and most sophiticated interactive information storage and retrieval systems available. Over the projected 6 to 8 year life of the project, in addition to NASA/RECON, the following systems will be examined: Lockheed DIALOG, DOE/RECON, DOD/DTIC, EPA/CSIN, and LLNL/TIS.

  20. Petroleum USTs: RCRA Subtitle 1, Underground Storage Tanks. RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, R.

    1994-01-01

    Underground tanks that contain petroleum or hazardous substances may be subject to the Federal Underground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. These regulations, issued by EPA under authority of Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery (RCRA) [Section 9003 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of 1984 (HSWA)], establish standards for installation, operation, release detection, corrective action, repair, and closure. The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 9007 of RCRA to implement these regulations at DOE facilities with USTs. DOE prepared a guidance document, Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (DOE/EH-231/0041/0191, June 1992), that describes the UST procedural requirements which regulate tanks and piping for both petroleum and hazardous substance USTs as well as USTs containing radioactive material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 USC 2011). This information Brief supplements the UST guidance by responding to critical questions concerning how the regulations apply to petroleum USTs. It is part of a series of information Briefs which address issues pertinent to specific categories of USTs.

  1. Hazardous substance USTs: RCRA Subtitle 1, Underground Storage Tanks. RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    DiCerbo, J.

    1993-05-01

    Underground tanks that contain petroleum or hazardous substances may be subject to the Federal Underground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. These regulations, issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [Section 9003 of the Hazardous an Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA)], established standards for installation, operation, release detection corrective action, repair, and closure. The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 9007 of RCRA t Implement these regulations at DOE facilities with USTs. DOE prepared a guidance document, Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (DOE/EH-231/004/0191, June 1992) that describes the UST procedural requirements which regulate tanks and piping for both petroleum and hazardous substance USTs as well as USTs containing radioactive material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 195 (42 U.S.C. 2011). This Information Brief supplements the UST guidance by responding to critical questions concerning how the regulations apply to hazardous substance USTs. It is a part of a series of Information Briefs which address issues pertinent to specific categories of USTs.

  2. β-Adrenergic Control of Hippocampal Function: Subserving the Choreography of Synaptic Information Storage and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Hagena, Hardy; Hansen, Niels; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) is a key neuromodulator for the regulation of behavioral state and cognition. It supports learning by increasing arousal and vigilance, whereby new experiences are “earmarked” for encoding. Within the hippocampus, experience-dependent information storage occurs by means of synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, novel spatial, contextual, or associative learning drives changes in synaptic strength, reflected by the strengthening of long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). NA acting on β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) is a key determinant as to whether new experiences result in persistent hippocampal synaptic plasticity. This can even dictate the direction of change of synaptic strength. The different hippocampal subfields play different roles in encoding components of a spatial representation through LTP and LTD. Strikingly, the sensitivity of synaptic plasticity in these subfields to β-adrenergic control is very distinct (dentate gyrus > CA3 > CA1). Moreover, NA released from the locus coeruleus that acts on β-AR leads to hippocampal LTD and an enhancement of LTD-related memory processing. We propose that NA acting on hippocampal β-AR, that is graded according to the novelty or saliency of the experience, determines the content and persistency of synaptic information storage in the hippocampal subfields and therefore of spatial memories. PMID:26804338

  3. Electron-beam-induced information storage in hydrogenated amorphous silicon device

    DOEpatents

    Yacobi, Ben G.

    1986-01-01

    A method for recording and storing information in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon device, comprising: depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate to form a charge-collection device; and generating defects in the hydrogenated amorphous silicon device, wherein the defects act as recombination centers that reduce the lifetime of carriers, thereby reducing charge-collection efficiency; and thus in the charge-collection mode of scanning probe instruments, regions of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon device that contain the defects appear darker in comparison to regions of the device that do not contain the defects, leading to a contrast formation for pattern recognition and information storage, in the device, which darkened areas can be restored to their original charge-collection efficiency by heating the hydrogenated amorphous silicon to a temperature of about 100.degree. C. to 250.degree. C. for a sufficient period of time to provide for such restoration.

  4. ERISTAR: Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval administrative report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, R. I.; Obrien, J. F., Jr.; Lueg, R. E.; Cox, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The 1972 Systems Engineering program at Marshall Space Flight Center where 15 participants representing 15 U.S. universities, 1 NASA/MSFC employee, and another specially assigned faculty member, participated in an 11-week program is discussed. The Fellows became acquainted with the philosophy of systems engineering, and as a training exercise, used this approach to produce a conceptional design for an Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval System. The program was conducted in three phases; approximately 3 weeks were devoted to seminars, tours, and other presentations to subject the participants to technical and other aspects of the information management problem. The second phase, 5 weeks in length, consisted of evaluating alternative solutions to problems, effecting initial trade-offs and performing preliminary design studies and analyses. The last 3 weeks were occupied with final trade-off sessions, final design analyses and preparation of a final report and oral presentation.

  5. One of the Methods of Organizing the Information Storage Unit of a System of Data Retrieval and Processing (SPOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askinazi, R. B.; Papina, I. L.

    The paper deals with one method of organizing the storage unit of a descriptor IPS (information retrieval system) of the SPOD type, the information array of which constitutes the totality of uniform documents with ordered disposition of data within each of them. Three categories of data composing the retrieval form of document were defined…

  6. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group ...

  7. The Essential Component in DNA-Based Information Storage System: Robust Error-Tolerating Module.

    PubMed

    Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Yu, Allen Chi-Shing; Li, Jing-Woei; Wong, Ada In-Chun; Loo, Jacky F C; Chan, King Ming; Kong, S K; Yip, Kevin Y; Chan, Ting-Fung

    2014-01-01

    The size of digital data is ever increasing and is expected to grow to 40,000 EB by 2020, yet the estimated global information storage capacity in 2011 is <300 EB, indicating that most of the data are transient. DNA, as a very stable nano-molecule, is an ideal massive storage device for long-term data archive. The two most notable illustrations are from Church et al. and Goldman et al., whose approaches are well-optimized for most sequencing platforms - short synthesized DNA fragments without homopolymer. Here, we suggested improvements on error handling methodology that could enable the integration of DNA-based computational process, e.g., algorithms based on self-assembly of DNA. As a proof of concept, a picture of size 438 bytes was encoded to DNA with low-density parity-check error-correction code. We salvaged a significant portion of sequencing reads with mutations generated during DNA synthesis and sequencing and successfully reconstructed the entire picture. A modular-based programing framework - DNAcodec with an eXtensible Markup Language-based data format was also introduced. Our experiments demonstrated the practicability of long DNA message recovery with high error tolerance, which opens the field to biocomputing and synthetic biology. PMID:25414846

  8. Research on the design of an optical information storage sensing system using a diffractive optical element.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun; Hou, Jianbo; Li, Xiangping; Ma, Jianshe; Gu, Min

    2013-11-08

    This paper introduces a compact optical information storage sensing system. Applications of this system include longitudinal surface plasmon resonance detection of gold nanorods with a single femtosecond laser in three-dimensional space as well as data storage. A diffractive optical element (DOE) is applied in the system to separate the recording-reading beam from the servo beam. This allows us to apply a single laser and one objective lens in a single optical path for the servo beam and the recording-reading beam. The optical system has a linear region of 8 λ, which is compatible with current DVD servo modules. The wavefront error of the optical system is below 0.03 λ(rms). The minimum grating period of the DOE is 13.4 µm, and the depth of the DOE is 1.2 µm, which makes fabrication of it possible. The DOE is also designed to conveniently control the layer-selection process, as there is a linear correlation between the displacement of the DOE and the layer-selection distance. The displacement of DOE is in the range of 0-6.045 mm when the thickness of the layer-selection is 0.3 mm. Experiments were performed and the results have been verified.

  9. The Essential Component in DNA-Based Information Storage System: Robust Error-Tolerating Module.

    PubMed

    Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Yu, Allen Chi-Shing; Li, Jing-Woei; Wong, Ada In-Chun; Loo, Jacky F C; Chan, King Ming; Kong, S K; Yip, Kevin Y; Chan, Ting-Fung

    2014-01-01

    The size of digital data is ever increasing and is expected to grow to 40,000 EB by 2020, yet the estimated global information storage capacity in 2011 is <300 EB, indicating that most of the data are transient. DNA, as a very stable nano-molecule, is an ideal massive storage device for long-term data archive. The two most notable illustrations are from Church et al. and Goldman et al., whose approaches are well-optimized for most sequencing platforms - short synthesized DNA fragments without homopolymer. Here, we suggested improvements on error handling methodology that could enable the integration of DNA-based computational process, e.g., algorithms based on self-assembly of DNA. As a proof of concept, a picture of size 438 bytes was encoded to DNA with low-density parity-check error-correction code. We salvaged a significant portion of sequencing reads with mutations generated during DNA synthesis and sequencing and successfully reconstructed the entire picture. A modular-based programing framework - DNAcodec with an eXtensible Markup Language-based data format was also introduced. Our experiments demonstrated the practicability of long DNA message recovery with high error tolerance, which opens the field to biocomputing and synthetic biology.

  10. Layered Double Hydroxide Minerals as Possible Prebiotic Information Storage and Transfer Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwell, H. Chris; Coveney, Peter V.

    2006-02-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties when considering the origin of life on Earth is the identification of an emergent system that not only replicated, but also had the capacity to undergo discrete mutation in such a way that following generations might inherit and pass on the mutation. We speculate that the layered double hydroxide (LDH) minerals are plausible candidates for a proto-RNA molecule. We describe a hypothetical LDH-like system which, when intercalated with certain anions, forms crystals with a high degree of internal order giving rise to novel information storage structures in which replication fidelity is maintained, a concept we use to propose an explanation for interstratification in terephthalate LDHs. The external surfaces of these hypothetical crystals provide active sites whose structure and chemistry is dictated by the internal information content of the LDH. Depending on the LDH polytype, the opposing external surfaces of a crystal may give rise to reactive sites that are either complementary or mirror images of each other, and so may be chiral. We also examine similarities between these proposed “proto-RNA” structures and the DNA that encodes the hereditary information in life today, concluding with a hypothetical scenario wherein these proto-RNA molecules predated the putative RNA-world.

  11. Parametric Grid Information in the DOE Knowledge Base: Data Preparation, Storage, and Access

    SciTech Connect

    HIPP,JAMES R.; MOORE,SUSAN G.; MYERS,STEPHEN C.; SCHULTZ,CRAIG A.; SHEPHERD,ELLEN; YOUNG,CHRISTOPHER J.

    1999-10-01

    The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base provides an efficient, robust way to store and access interpolatable information which is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use a new approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation (NNI). The method involves three basic steps: data preparation (DP), data storage (DS), and data access (DA). The goal of data preparation is to process a set of raw data points to produce a sufficient basis for accurate NNI of value and error estimates in the Data Access step. This basis includes a set of nodes and their connectedness, collectively known as a tessellation, and the corresponding values and errors that map to each node, which we call surfaces. In many cases, the raw data point distribution is not sufficiently dense to guarantee accurate error estimates from the NNI, so the original data set must be densified using a newly developed interpolation technique known as Modified Bayesian Kriging. Once appropriate kriging parameters have been determined by variogram analysis, the optimum basis for NNI is determined in a process they call mesh refinement, which involves iterative kriging, new node insertion, and Delauny triangle smoothing. The process terminates when an NNI basis has been calculated which will fir the kriged values within a specified tolerance. In the data storage step, the tessellations and surfaces are stored in the Knowledge Base, currently in a binary flatfile format but perhaps in the future in a spatially-indexed database. Finally, in the data access step, a client application makes a request for an interpolated value, which triggers a data fetch from the Knowledge Base through the libKBI interface, a walking triangle search for the containing triangle, and finally the NNI interpolation.

  12. Establishing the Framework for Land Data Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakumura, C.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Yang, Z. L.; Save, H.; McCullough, C.

    2015-12-01

    Assimilation of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission into current land surface models can correct model deficiencies due to errors in the model structure, atmospheric forcing datasets, parameters, etc. However, the assimilation process is complicated by spatial and temporal resolution discrepancies between the model and observational datasets, characterization of the error in each, and limitations of the algorithms used to calculate and update the model state. This study aims to establish a framework for hydrological data assimilation with GRACE. GRACE is an independent and accurate but coarse resolution terrestrial water storage dataset. While the models cannot attain the accuracy of GRACE, they are effective in interpretation and downscaling of the product and providing continuity over space and time. Accurate assimilation of GRACE TWS into LSMs thus will take the best characteristics of each and create a combined product that outperforms each individual source. More specifically, this framework entails a comprehensive analysis of the deficiencies and potential improvements of the satellite data products, the assimilation procedures and error characterization, and assimilation effectiveness. A daily sliding window mascon GRACE TWS product, presented previously, was developed to reduce smoothing in time and space during assimilation into the Community Land Model 4.0. The Ensemble Kalman Filter assimilation algorithms are analyzed and adapted for use with the new products, GRACE error information, and model characteristics. Additional assimilation tools such as Gaspari-Cohn localization and ensemble inflation are implemented and tuned for the model and observation properties. Analysis of the observational data, model data, sensitivity and effectiveness of the assimilation routines, and the assimilated results is done through regional comparison with independent in-situ datasets and external model

  13. Parametric Grid Information in the DOE Knowledge Base: Data Preparation, Storage and Access.

    SciTech Connect

    Hipp, J. R.; Young, C. J.; Moore, S. G.; Shepherd, E. R.; Schultz, C. A.; Myers, S. C.

    1999-10-01

    The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base provides an efficient, robust way to store and access interpolatable information which is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use a new approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation (NNI). The method involves three basic steps: data preparation (DP), data storage (DS), and data access (DA). The goal of data preparation is to process a set of raw data points to produce a sufficient basis for accurate NNI of value and error estimates in the Data Access step. This basis includes a set of nodes and their connectedness, collectively known as a tessellation, and the corresponding values and errors that map to each node, which we call surfaces. In many cases, the raw data point distribution is not sufficiently dense to guarantee accurate error estimates from the NNI, so the original data set must be densified using a newly developed interpolation technique known as Modified Bayesian Kriging. Once appropriate kriging parameters have been determined by variogram analysis, the optimum basis for NNI is determined in a process we call mesh refinement, which involves iterative kriging, new node insertion, and Delauny triangle smoothing. The process terminates when an NNI basis has been calculated which will fit the kriged values within a specified tolerance. In the data storage step, the tessellations and surfaces are stored in the Knowledge Base, currently in a binary flatfile format but perhaps in the future in a spatially-indexed database. Finally, in the data access step, a client application makes a request for an interpolated value, which triggers a data fetch from the Knowledge Base through the libKBI interface, a walking triangle search for the containing triangle, and finally the NNI interpolation.

  14. Internal reference frames for representation and storage of visual information: the role of gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Joseph; Lipshits, Mark; Zaoui, Mohamed; Berthoz, Alain; Gurfinkel, Victor

    2001-08-01

    Experimental studies of visual mechanisms suggest that the CNS represents image information with respect to preferred horizontal and vertical axes, as shown by a phenomenon known as the "oblique effect". In the current study we used this effect to evaluate the influence of gravity on the representation and storage of visual orientation information. Subjects performed a psychophysical task in which a visually-presented stimulus line was aligned with the remembered orientation of a reference stimulus line presented moments before. The experiments were made on 5 cosmonauts during orbital space flight and additionally on 13 subjects in conditions of normal gravity with a tilting chair. Data were analyzed with respect to response variability and timing. On earth, these measurements for this task show a distinct preference for horizontally and vertically oriented stimuli when the body and gravitational axes were aligned. This preference was markedly decreased or disappeared when the body axis was tilted with respect to gravity; this effect was not connected with ocular counter-rolling nor could we find a preference of any other intermediate axis between the gravity and body aligned axes. On the other hand, the preference for vertical and horizontal axes was maintained for tests performed in microgravity over the course of a 6 month flight, starting from flight day 6. We concluded that subjects normally process visual orientation information in a multi-modal reference frame that combines both proprioceptive and gravitational cues when both are available, but that a proprioceptive reference frame is sufficient for this task in the absence of gravity after a short period of adaptation. Some of the results from this study have been previously published in a preliminary report [7].

  15. Development of an Operation Control System for Photovoltaics and Electric Storage Heaters for Houses Based on Information in Weather Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    An all-electric home using an electric storage heater with safety and cleaning is expanded. However, the general electric storage heater leads to an unpleasant room temperature and energy loss by the overs and shorts of the amount of heat radiation when the climate condition changes greatly. Consequently, the operation of the electric storage heater introduced into an all-electric home, a storage type electric water heater, and photovoltaics was planned using weather forecast information distributed by a communication line. The comfortable evaluation (the difference between a room-temperature target and a room-temperature result) when the proposed system was employed based on the operation planning, purchase electric energy, and capacity of photovoltaics was investigated. As a result, comfortable heating operation was realized by using weather forecast data; furthermore, it is expected that the purchase cost of the commercial power in daytime can be reduced by introducing photovoltaics. Moreover, when the capacity of the photovoltaics was increased, the surplus power was stored in the electric storage heater, but an extremely unpleasant room temperature was not shown in the investigation ranges of this paper. By obtaining weather information from the forecast of the day from an external service using a communication line, the heating system of the all-electric home with low energy loss and comfort temperature is realizable.

  16. Organic integrated circuits for information storage based on ambipolar polymers and charge injection engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Erba, Giorgio; Luzio, Alessandro; Natali, Dario; Kim, Juhwan; Khim, Dongyoon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Noh, Yong-Young; Caironi, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Ambipolar semiconducting polymers, characterized by both high electron (μe) and hole (μh) mobility, offer the advantage of realizing complex complementary electronic circuits with a single semiconducting layer, deposited by simple coating techniques. However, to achieve complementarity, one of the two conduction paths in transistors has to be suppressed, resulting in unipolar devices. Here, we adopt charge injection engineering through a specific interlayer in order to tune injection into frontier energy orbitals of a high mobility donor-acceptor co-polymer. Starting from field-effect transistors with Au contacts, showing a p-type unbalanced behaviour with μh = 0.29 cm2/V s and μe = 0.001 cm2/V s, through the insertion of a caesium salt interlayer with optimized thickness, we obtain an n-type unbalanced transistor with μe = 0.12 cm2/V s and μh = 8 × 10-4 cm2/V s. We applied this result to the development of the basic pass-transistor logic building blocks such as inverters, with high gain and good noise margin, and transmission-gates. In addition, we developed and characterized information storage circuits like D-Latches and D-Flip-Flops consisting of 16 transistors, demonstrating both their static and dynamic performances and thus the suitability of this technology for more complex circuits such as display addressing logic.

  17. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Storage by Information Technology Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses a survey methodology to determine the factors behind the decision to adopt cloud storage. The dependent variable in the study is the intent to adopt cloud storage. Four independent variables are utilized including need, security, cost-effectiveness and reliability. The survey includes a pilot test, field test and statistical…

  18. 76 FR 5613 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Storage and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Register on November 18, 2010 (75 FR 70687). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the OMB...; Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) hereby... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia,'' to the Office of...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Lanthanide Aluminotungstates and Rhenium Polyoxometalates: Potential Application in Molecular Information Storage Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Polyoxometalates (abbreviated as POMs) are metal-oxide clusters with frameworks built from group 5 or 6 transition metals linked by shared oxide ions. The Keggin structure is one of the most famous structural forms of POMs. Keggin anions have a general formula of [XM12O40 ]n-, where X is a p-block atom and M is a transition metal atom such as W or Mo. Upon removal of one MO4+ unit from the Keggin anion, the monovacant structure [XM11O39] n- is formed. Those POMs that have lost one or more metal center are called lacunary POMs, which are very nice building blocks for the fabrication of coordination polymers. My research focuses on two facets of POM chemistry: 1) Lanthanide chemistry of aluminum tungstate monovacant Keggin and 2) Rhenium chemistry of aluminum tungstate Keggin and Wells-Dawson POM alpha1 -P2W17O61. In lanthanide POM research area, we obtained the following results: 1) The starting material aluminum tungstate monovacant Keggin α-K 9AlW12O39 was synthesized. Its single crystal was firstly identified by multinuclear NMR and X-ray crystallography. Its redox properties on the nano-scale solid state were determined by Conducting Electrostatic Force Mode (EFM) probes. It is well known that for POMs, a number of varies redox states are normally stable and reversible. Thus we estimated that POMs can potentially be used in molecular information storage applications, which we refer to as "redox disk drives". 2) Eight lanthanide aluminum tungstate Keggin complexes were synthesized. In their molecular structures (identified by multinuclear NMR and X-ray crystallography), each α-AlW11O39 is connected by lanthanide (III) cations to form 1D and 2D networks. All AlW11O39 Keggin POMs are regularly aligning on a flat plane. Microscopic data also verified that there is layer-by-layer morphology in this series of compounds. Overall, we postulate that aluminum tungstate Keggin POMs are a very promising materials for making future information storage device because they

  20. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  1. Organic integrated circuits for information storage based on ambipolar polymers and charge injection engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Erba, Giorgio; Natali, Dario; Luzio, Alessandro; Caironi, Mario E-mail: yynoh@dongguk.edu; Noh, Yong-Young E-mail: yynoh@dongguk.edu

    2014-04-14

    Ambipolar semiconducting polymers, characterized by both high electron (μ{sub e}) and hole (μ{sub h}) mobility, offer the advantage of realizing complex complementary electronic circuits with a single semiconducting layer, deposited by simple coating techniques. However, to achieve complementarity, one of the two conduction paths in transistors has to be suppressed, resulting in unipolar devices. Here, we adopt charge injection engineering through a specific interlayer in order to tune injection into frontier energy orbitals of a high mobility donor-acceptor co-polymer. Starting from field-effect transistors with Au contacts, showing a p-type unbalanced behaviour with μ{sub h} = 0.29 cm{sup 2}/V s and μ{sub e} = 0.001 cm{sup 2}/V s, through the insertion of a caesium salt interlayer with optimized thickness, we obtain an n-type unbalanced transistor with μ{sub e} = 0.12 cm{sup 2}/V s and μ{sub h} = 8 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}/V s. We applied this result to the development of the basic pass-transistor logic building blocks such as inverters, with high gain and good noise margin, and transmission-gates. In addition, we developed and characterized information storage circuits like D-Latches and D-Flip-Flops consisting of 16 transistors, demonstrating both their static and dynamic performances and thus the suitability of this technology for more complex circuits such as display addressing logic.

  2. Efficient storage and transmission of digital fundus images with patient information using reversible watermarking technique and error control codes.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Jagadish; Bhat, P Subbanna; Acharya, U Rajendra; Kumar, M Sathish

    2009-06-01

    Handling of patient records is increasing overhead costs for most of the hospitals in this digital age. In most hospitals and health care centers, the patient text information and corresponding medical images are stored separately as different files. There is a possibility of mishandling the text file containing patient history. We are proposing a novel method for the compact storage and transmission of patient information with the medical images. In this technique, we are using a reversible watermarking technique to hide the patient information within the retinal fundus image. There is a possibility that these medical images, which carry patient information, can get corrupted by the noise during the storage or transmission. The safe recovery of patient information is important in this situation. So, to recover the maximum amount of text information in the noisy environment, the encrypted patient information is coded with error control coding (ECC) techniques. The performance of three types of ECC for various levels of salt & pepper (S & P) noise is tabulated for a specific example. The proposed system is more reliable even in a noisy environment and saves memory.

  3. Collection and dissemination of thermal energy storage system information for the pulp and paper industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edde, H.

    1981-01-01

    The collection and dissemination of thermal energy storage (TES) system technology for the pulp and paper industry with the intent of reducing fossil fuel usage is discussed. The study plan is described and a description presented of example TES systems.

  4. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; ,; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional scale. The National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System (NatCarb) is a relational database and geographic information system (GIS) that integrates carbon storage data generated and maintained by the RCSPs and various other sources. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project is working to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO2 carbon capture and storage data. NatCarb is organizing and enhancing the critical information about CO2 sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, model, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data related to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. NatCarb is a functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. It forms the first step toward a functioning National Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (NCCI). NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of

  5. Spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles and hexaferrite single crystals for information data storage and RF devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalli, Jeevan Prasad

    Since their discovery in the early 1950's hexagonal ferrites or hexaferrites have been studied for a long time because of their technological applications, such as microwave devices and high density magnetic recording media. In this dissertation efforts have been made to address these two applications by developing nanosized spherical barium ferrite particles for advanced magnetic recording media, and hexaferrite single crystals for low loss RF devices. Accordingly, this dissertation consists of two parts; part one spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles for information data storage media, and part two hexaferrite single crystals for RF devices. Part I. Spherical Barium Ferrite Nanoparticles Hexagonal barium ferrite (H-BaFe) nanoparticles are good candidates for particulate recording media due to their high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, excellent chemical stability, and narrow switching field distribution. One major disadvantage of using H-BaFe particles for particulate recording media is their poor dispersion and a high degree of stacking that deteriorate the recording capability by creating large media noise and surface roughness. One way to solve and improve the recording performance of H-BaFe media is employing substantially nanosized spherical barium ferrite (S­BaFe) particles. Spherical shaped particles have low aspect ratio and only form a point-to-point contact, unlike the H-BaFe particles. Therefore, using S-BaFe particles not only decrease the degree of magnetic interaction between the particles but also can substantially increases the recording performance by improving the dispersion and SNR of the particles in the magnetic media. In this dissertation, two different approaches were employed successfully to synthesize S-BaFe nanoparticles in the range of 20-45 nm. Part II. Hexaferrite Single Crystals As wireless communication systems are flourishing, and the operating frequencies are increasing, there is a great demand for RF devices such as

  6. Methods, systems, and apparatus for storage, transfer and/or control of information via matter wave dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vestergaard Hau, Lene (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods, systems and apparatus for generating atomic traps, and for storing, controlling and transferring information between first and second spatially separated phase-coherent objects, or using a single phase-coherent object. For plural objects, both phase-coherent objects have a macroscopic occupation of a particular quantum state by identical bosons or identical BCS-paired fermions. The information may be optical information, and the phase-coherent object(s) may be Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids, or superconductors. The information is stored in the first phase-coherent object at a first storage time and recovered from the second phase-coherent object, or the same first phase-coherent object, at a second revival time. In one example, an integrated silicon wafer-based optical buffer includes an electrolytic atom source to provide the phase-coherent object(s), a nanoscale atomic trap for the phase-coherent object(s), and semiconductor-based optical sources to cool the phase-coherent object(s) and provide coupling fields for storage and transfer of optical information.

  7. Methods and apparatus for capture and storage of semantic information with sub-files in a parallel computing system

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron

    2015-02-03

    Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using sub-files with semantically meaningful boundaries. A method is provided for storing at least one file generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and a plurality of sub-files. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a user specification of semantic information related to the file; providing the semantic information as a data structure description to a data formatting library write function; and storing the semantic information related to the file with one or more of the sub-files in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. The semantic information provides a description of data in the file. The sub-files can be replicated based on semantically meaningful boundaries.

  8. Encrypted Fourier holographic data storage with variable data reference wave for optical information security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeja, M. K.; Ajith Kumar, P. T.; Nair, Achuthsankar S.

    2008-03-01

    In this work two liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LCSLMs) were applied to encode a reference beam and holographic storage of a set of encrypted data pages that formed the object beam. The SLMs were developed by converting two 84×48 pixels mobile phone displays and were set in transmissive mode. Fourier holograms were recorded in a red sensitive photopolymer emulsion (SM635C of POLYGRAMA, Brazil), coated on a glass substrate. While replay the reconstructed data page, recorded against a specific reference beam was captured by using a CCD camera and processed in a personal computer for decryption. The encoded reference beam forms a unique key to the individual hologram recorded through shift multiplexing. Diffraction efficiency of holograms was calculated and was found to be about 45%. The system offers a very cost effective solution for secure data storage and retrieval and can be used for storing valuable software, security documents etc.

  9. An innovative, multidisciplinary educational program in interactive information storage and retrieval. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Gallagher, Mary C.

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Educational Program in Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-12. The project objectives are to develop a set of transportable, hands-on, data base management courses for science and engineering students to facilitate their utilization of information storage and retrieval programs.

  10. Alternatives of informed consent for storage and use of human biological material for research purposes: Brazilian regulation.

    PubMed

    Marodin, Gabriela; França, Paulo Henrique Condeixa de; Salgueiro, Jennifer Braathen; Motta, Marcia Luz da; Tannous, Gysélle Saddi; Lopes, Anibal Gil

    2014-12-01

    Informed consent is recognized as a primary ethical requirement to conduct research involving humans. In the investigations with the use of human biological material, informed consent (IC) assumes a differentiated condition on account of the many future possibilities. This work presents suitable alternatives for IC regarding the storage and use of human biological material in research, according to new Brazilian regulations. Both norms - Resolution 441/11 of the National Health Council, approved on 12 May 2011, and Ordinance 2.201 (NATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR BIOREPOSITORIES AND BIOBANKS OF HUMAN BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL FOR RESEARCH PURPOSE) of the Brazil Ministry of Health, approved on 14 September 2011 - state that the consent of subjects for the collection, storage and use of samples stored in Biobanks is necessarily established by means of a Free and Informed Consent Form (ICF). In order to obtain individual and formal statements, this form should contain the following two mutually exclusive options: an explanation about the use of the stored material in each research study, and the need for new consent or the waiver thereof when the material is used for a new study. On the other hand, ICF suitable for Biorepositories must be exclusive and related to specific research. Although Brazilian and international regulations identify the main aspects to be included in the IC, efforts are still necessary to improve the consent process, so that the document will become a bond of trust between subject and researcher.

  11. Hazardous substance USTs: RCRA Subtitle 1, Underground Storage Tanks. RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, R.

    1994-01-01

    Underground tanks that contain petroleum or hazardous substances may be subject to the Federal Underground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. These regulations, issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [Section 9003 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA)], established standards for installation, operation, release detection, corrective action, repair, and closure. The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 9007 of RCRA to implement these regulations at DOE facilities with USTs.

  12. A Simple Example of ``Quantum Darwinism'': Redundant Information Storage in Many-Spin Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2005-11-01

    As quantum information science approaches the goal of constructing quantum computers, understanding loss of information through decoherence becomes increasingly important. The information about a system that can be obtained from its environment can facilitate quantum control and error correction. Moreover, observers gain most of their information indirectly, by monitoring (primarily photon) environments of the "objects of interest." Exactly how this information is inscribed in the environment is essential for the emergence of "the classical" from the quantum substrate. In this paper, we examine how many-qubit (or many-spin) environments can store information about a single system. The information lost to the environment can be stored redundantly, or it can be encoded in entangled modes of the environment. We go on to show that randomly chosen states of the environment almost always encode the information so that an observer must capture a majority of the environment to deduce the system's state. Conversely, in the states produced by a typical decoherence process, information about a particular observable of the system is stored redundantly. This selective proliferation of "the fittest information" (known as Quantum Darwinism) plays a key role in choosing the preferred, effectively classical observables of macroscopic systems. The developing appreciation that the environment functions not just as a garbage dump, but as a communication channel, is extending our understanding of the environment's role in the quantum-classical transition beyond the traditional paradigm of decoherence.

  13. Using Geographic Information Systems to Determine Site Suitability for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Facility.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charles A; Matthews, Kennith; Pulsipher, Allan; Wang, Wei-Hsung

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable product of using radioactive material in education and research activities, medical applications, energy generation, and weapons production. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) makes up a majority of the radioactive waste produced in the United States. In 2010, over two million cubic feet of LLW were shipped to disposal sites. Despite efforts from several states and compacts as well as from private industry, the options for proper disposal of LLW remain limited. New methods for quickly identifying potential storage locations could alleviate current challenges and eventually provide additional sites and allow for adequate regional disposal of LLW. Furthermore, these methods need to be designed so that they are easily communicated to the public. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based method was developed to determine suitability of potential LLW disposal (or storage) sites. Criteria and other parameters of suitability were based on the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) requirements as well as supporting literature and reports. The resultant method was used to assess areas suitable for further evaluation as prospective disposal sites in Louisiana. Criteria were derived from the 10 minimum requirements in 10 CFR Part 61.50, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 0902, and studies at existing disposal sites. A suitability formula was developed permitting the use of weighting factors and normalization of all criteria. Data were compiled into GIS data sets and analyzed on a cell grid of approximately 14,000 cells (covering 181,300 square kilometers) using the suitability formula. Requirements were analyzed for each cell using multiple criteria/sub-criteria as well as surrogates for unavailable datasets. Additional criteria were also added when appropriate. The method designed in this project proved to be sufficient for initial screening tests in determining the most suitable areas for prospective disposal (or storage

  14. Using Geographic Information Systems to Determine Site Suitability for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Facility.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charles A; Matthews, Kennith; Pulsipher, Allan; Wang, Wei-Hsung

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable product of using radioactive material in education and research activities, medical applications, energy generation, and weapons production. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) makes up a majority of the radioactive waste produced in the United States. In 2010, over two million cubic feet of LLW were shipped to disposal sites. Despite efforts from several states and compacts as well as from private industry, the options for proper disposal of LLW remain limited. New methods for quickly identifying potential storage locations could alleviate current challenges and eventually provide additional sites and allow for adequate regional disposal of LLW. Furthermore, these methods need to be designed so that they are easily communicated to the public. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based method was developed to determine suitability of potential LLW disposal (or storage) sites. Criteria and other parameters of suitability were based on the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) requirements as well as supporting literature and reports. The resultant method was used to assess areas suitable for further evaluation as prospective disposal sites in Louisiana. Criteria were derived from the 10 minimum requirements in 10 CFR Part 61.50, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 0902, and studies at existing disposal sites. A suitability formula was developed permitting the use of weighting factors and normalization of all criteria. Data were compiled into GIS data sets and analyzed on a cell grid of approximately 14,000 cells (covering 181,300 square kilometers) using the suitability formula. Requirements were analyzed for each cell using multiple criteria/sub-criteria as well as surrogates for unavailable datasets. Additional criteria were also added when appropriate. The method designed in this project proved to be sufficient for initial screening tests in determining the most suitable areas for prospective disposal (or storage

  15. Distinct Prefrontal Molecular Mechanisms for Information Storage Lasting Seconds versus Minutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyan, Jason D.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2005-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to actively hold information "online" for a period of seconds in working memory for guiding goal-directed behavior. It has been proposed that relevant information is stored in other brain regions, which is retrieved and held in working memory for subsequent assimilation by the PFC in order to guide behavior. It…

  16. Information retrieval system: impacts of water-level changes on uses of federal storage reservoirs of the Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Cowley, P.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    A project undertaken to provide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with information needed to conduct environmental assessments and meet requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act) is described. Access to information on environmental effects would help BPA fulfill its responsibilities to coordinate power generation on the Columbia River system, protect uses of the river system (e.g., irrigation, recreation, navigation), and enhance fish and wildlife production. Staff members at BPA identified the need to compile and index information resources that would help answer environmental impact questions. A computer retrieval system that would provide ready access to the information was envisioned. This project was supported by BPA to provide an initial step toward a compilation of environmental impact information. Scientists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) identified, gathered, and evaluated information related to environmental effects of water level on uses of five study reservoirs and developed and implemented and environmental data retrieval system, which provides for automated storage and retrieval of annotated citations to published and unpublished information. The data retrieval system is operating on BPA's computer facility and includes the reservoir water-level environmental data. This project was divided into several tasks, some of which were conducted simultaneously to meet project deadlines. The tasks were to identify uses of the five study reservoirs, compile and evaluate reservoir information, develop a data entry and retrieval system, identify and analyze research needs, and document the data retrieval system and train users. Additional details of the project are described in several appendixes.

  17. Infochemistry and infofuses for the chemical storage and transmission of coded information

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Samuel W.; Chiechi, Ryan C.; LaFratta, Christopher N.; Webb, Michael R.; Lee, Andrew; Wiley, Benjamin J.; Zakin, Mitchell R.; Walt, David R.; Whitesides, George M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a self-powered system that uses chemical reactions—the thermal excitation of alkali metals—to transmit coded alphanumeric information. The transmitter (an “infofuse”) is a strip of the flammable polymer nitrocellulose patterned with alkali metal ions; this pattern encodes the information. The wavelengths of 2 consecutive pulses of light represent each alphanumeric character. While burning, infofuses transmit a sequence of pulses (at 5–20 Hz) of atomic emission that correspond to the sequence of metallic salts (and therefore to the encoded information). This system combines information technology and chemical reactions into a new area—“infochemistry”—that is the first step toward systems that combine sensing and transduction of chemical signals with multicolor transmission of alphanumeric information. PMID:19470465

  18. The impact of storage on processing: how is information maintained in working memory?

    PubMed

    Vergauwe, Evie; Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is typically defined as a system devoted to the simultaneous maintenance and processing of information. However, the interplay between these 2 functions is still a matter of debate in the literature, with views ranging from complete independence to complete dependence. The time-based resource-sharing model assumes that a central bottleneck constrains the 2 functions to alternate in such a way that maintenance activities postpone concurrent processing, with each additional piece of information to be maintained resulting in an additional postponement. Using different kinds of memoranda, we examined in a series of 7 experiments the effect of increasing memory load on different processing tasks. The results reveal that, insofar as attention is needed for maintenance, processing times linearly increase at a rate of about 50 ms per verbal or visuospatial memory item, suggesting a very fast refresh rate in working memory. Our results also show an asymmetry between verbal and spatial information, in that spatial information can solely rely on attention for its maintenance while verbal information can also rely on a domain-specific maintenance mechanism independent from attention. The implications for the functioning of working memory are discussed, with a specific focus on how information is maintained in working memory.

  19. Proceedings of the Symposium on Information Storage and Retrieval...April 1-2, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minker, Jack, Ed.; Rosenfeld, Sam, Ed.

    The symposium focused on advances in techniques in the computer oriented technology of information retrieval. Early developments and the status of recent efforts in document retrieval, question answering and data management systems are briefly reviewed. Unless fundamental processing techniques are developed and made available to workers,…

  20. The Impact of Storage on Processing: How Is Information Maintained in Working Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergauwe, Evie; Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is typically defined as a system devoted to the simultaneous maintenance and processing of information. However, the interplay between these 2 functions is still a matter of debate in the literature, with views ranging from complete independence to complete dependence. The time-based resource-sharing model assumes that a central…

  1. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-02-01

    The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  2. Controls on tree water uptake and information storage in tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; Simard, Sonia; Heidbüchel, Ingo; Güntner, Andreas; Heinrich, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Controls on tree water uptake are investigated in various forest stands in the northeastern German lowlands by a multi-method approach. This approach combines sapflow and dendrometer measurements as well as tree-ring analyses with soil moisture derived root water uptake rates. The latter method has the advantage that it provides depth distributions of root water uptake and thus additional information allowing for a more detailed analysis of the relationship between water availability and water uptake. High resolution climatic data makes it possible to investigate the site specific interplay between atmospheric demand and water availability on the one hand and tree response and adaptation on the other hand. The comparison of spatio-temporal patterns of these responses with concurrent tree growth as well as tree-ring analyses enables a first matching of actual and "archived" patterns and thus an estimate of how much of this information is stored in tree rings.

  3. Command surface controlled liquid crystalline waveguide structures as optical information storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Harald; Orendi, Horst; Buechel, Michael; Seki, Takahiro; Ito, Shinzaburo; Knoll, Wolfgang

    1994-12-01

    We report on optical waveguide structures in which light propagates within a liquid crystal (LC) thin film. In this configuration, the orientation, and therefore the optical properties of the LC waveguide structure are controlled by two photochromic command surfaces, consisting of an ultra thin film of a polymer with azobenzene side chains. When exposed to light of appropriate wavelength, the azobenzene side chains undergo a trans-cis photoisomerization process inducing a commensurate change in the LC alignment and therefore, in the set of refractive indices of the LC film. Using this effect we could reversibly write information into the LC cell. The size of our test structure was in the range of 50 micrometers. The stored information was read out by optical waveguide microscopy; the storing times were in the range of several hours.

  4. Information storage at the molecular level - The design of a molecular shift register memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose Nelson; Hopfield, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The control of electron transfer rates is discussed and a molecular shift register memory at the molecular level is described. The memory elements are made up of molecules which can exist in either an oxidized or reduced state and the bits can be shifted between the cells with photoinduced electron transfer reactions. The device integrates designed molecules onto a VLSI substrate. A control structure to modify the flow of information along a shift register is indicated schematically.

  5. Summary of Carbon Storage Project Public Information Meeting and Open House, Hawesville, Kentucky, October 28, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, David; Williams, David; Bowersox, J Richard; Leetaru, Hannes

    2012-06-01

    The Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS) completed a second phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection and seismic imaging in the Knox Group, a Cambrian Ordovician dolomite and sandstone sequence in September 2010. This work completed 2 years of activity at the KGS No. 1 Marvin Blan well in Hancock County, Kentucky. The well was drilled in 2009 by a consortium of State and industry partners (Kentucky Consortium for Carbon Storage). An initial phase of CO{sub 2} injection occurred immediately after completion of the well in 2009. The second phase of injection and seismic work was completed in September 2010 as part of a U.S. DOE funded project, after which the Blan well was plugged and abandoned. Following completion of research at the Blan well, a final public meeting and open house was held in Hancock County on October 28, 2010. This meeting followed one public meeting held prior to drilling of the well, and two on site visits during drilling (one for news media, and one for school teachers). The goal of the final public meeting was to present the results of the project to the public, answer questions, and address any concerns. Despite diligent efforts to publicize the final meeting, it was poorly attended by the general public. Several local county officials and members of the news media attended, but only one person from the general public showed up. We attribute the lack of interest in the results of the project to several factors. First, the project went as planned, with no problems or incidents that affected the local residents. The fact that KGS fulfilled the promises it made at the beginning of the project satisfied residents, and they felt no need to attend the meeting. Second, Hancock County is largely rural, and the technical details of carbon sequestration were not of interest to many people. The county officials attending were an exception; they clearly realized the importance of the project in future economic development for the county.

  6. Storage and retrieval of quantum information with a hybrid optomechanics-spin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Yang, Wan-Li; Feng, Mang

    2016-08-01

    We explore an efficient scheme for transferring the quantum state between an optomechanical cavity and an electron spin of diamond nitrogen-vacancy center. Assisted by a mechanical resonator, quantum information can be controllably stored (retrieved) into (from) the electron spin by adjusting the external field-induced detuning or coupling. Our scheme connects effectively the cavity photon and the electron spin and transfers quantum states between two regimes with large frequency difference. The experimental feasibility of our protocol is justified with accessible laboratory parameters.

  7. Storage and computationally efficient permutations of factorized covariance and square-root information arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muellerschoen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A unified method to permute vector stored Upper triangular Diagonal factorized covariance and vector stored upper triangular Square Root Information arrays is presented. The method involves cyclic permutation of the rows and columns of the arrays and retriangularization with fast (slow) Givens rotations (reflections). Minimal computation is performed, and a one dimensional scratch array is required. To make the method efficient for large arrays on a virtual memory machine, computations are arranged so as to avoid expensive paging faults. This method is potentially important for processing large volumes of radio metric data in the Deep Space Network.

  8. Leveraging information storage to select forecast-optimal parameters for delay-coordinate reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Garland, Joshua; James, Ryan G; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Delay-coordinate reconstruction is a proven modeling strategy for building effective forecasts of nonlinear time series. The first step in this process is the estimation of good values for two parameters, the time delay and the embedding dimension. Many heuristics and strategies have been proposed in the literature for estimating these values. Few, if any, of these methods were developed with forecasting in mind, however, and their results are not optimal for that purpose. Even so, these heuristics-intended for other applications-are routinely used when building delay coordinate reconstruction-based forecast models. In this paper, we propose an alternate strategy for choosing optimal parameter values for forecast methods that are based on delay-coordinate reconstructions. The basic calculation involves maximizing the shared information between each delay vector and the future state of the system. We illustrate the effectiveness of this method on several synthetic and experimental systems, showing that this metric can be calculated quickly and reliably from a relatively short time series, and that it provides a direct indication of how well a near-neighbor based forecasting method will work on a given delay reconstruction of that time series. This allows a practitioner to choose reconstruction parameters that avoid any pathologies, regardless of the underlying mechanism, and maximize the predictive information contained in the reconstruction. PMID:26986345

  9. The Electronic Logbook for the Information Storage of ATLAS Experiment at LHC (ELisA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corso Radu, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Magnoni, L.

    2012-12-01

    A large experiment like ATLAS at LHC (CERN), with over three thousand members and a shift crew of 15 people running the experiment 24/7, needs an easy and reliable tool to gather all the information concerning the experiment development, installation, deployment and exploitation over its lifetime. With the increasing number of users and the accumulation of stored information since the experiment start-up, the electronic logbook actually in use, ATLOG, started to show its limitations in terms of speed and usability. Its monolithic architecture makes the maintenance and implementation of new functionality a hard-to-almost-impossible process. A new tool ELisA has been developed to replace the existing ATLOG. It is based on modern web technologies: the Spring framework using a Model-View-Controller architecture was chosen, thus helping building flexible and easy to maintain applications. The new tool implements all features of the old electronic logbook with increased performance and better graphics: it uses the same database back-end for portability reasons. In addition, several new requirements have been accommodated which could not be implemented in ATLOG. This paper describes the architecture, implementation and performance of ELisA, with particular emphasis on the choices that allowed having a scalable and very fast system and on the aspects that could be re-used in different contexts to build a similar application.

  10. Optical Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderstar, John

    1987-01-01

    Classifies and briefly describes several types of optical storage media available today--read-only and write-once analog disks, read-only and write-once digital disks and erasable disks. The appropriateness of CD-ROM (compact disk read-only memory) for use in libraries of developing nations is discussed in terms of users' information needs and…

  11. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume IV: Sections 10--Security Storage and Control; 11--Organisation and Management; 12--Networks and External Sources of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The last of four volumes in a series describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. In "Security Storage and Control," Michael Sims…

  12. Associative Memory Storage and Retrieval: Involvement of Theta Oscillations in Hippocampal Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Federico; Treves, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Theta oscillations are thought to play a critical role in neuronal information processing, especially in the hippocampal region, where their presence is particularly salient. A detailed description of theta dynamics in this region has revealed not only a consortium of layer-specific theta dipoles, but also within-layer differences in the expression of theta. This complex and articulated arrangement of current flows is reflected in the way neuronal firing is modulated in time. Several models have proposed that these different theta modulators flexibly coordinate hippocampal regions, to support associative memory formation and retrieval. Here, we summarily review different approaches related to this issue and we describe a mechanism, based on experimental and simulation results, for memory retrieval in CA3 involving theta modulation. PMID:21961072

  13. Storage and computationally efficient permutations of factorized covariance and square-root information matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muellerschoen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A unified method to permute vector-stored upper-triangular diagonal factorized covariance (UD) and vector stored upper-triangular square-root information filter (SRIF) arrays is presented. The method involves cyclical permutation of the rows and columns of the arrays and retriangularization with appropriate square-root-free fast Givens rotations or elementary slow Givens reflections. A minimal amount of computation is performed and only one scratch vector of size N is required, where N is the column dimension of the arrays. To make the method efficient for large SRIF arrays on a virtual memory machine, three additional scratch vectors each of size N are used to avoid expensive paging faults. The method discussed is compared with the methods and routines of Bierman's Estimation Subroutine Library (ESL).

  14. A SHORT HISTORY CSISRS - AT THE CUTTING EDGE OF NUCLEAR DATA INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CINDA, EXFOR AND ENDF.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-12-01

    A short history of CSISRS, pronounced ''scissors'' and standing for the Cross Section Information Storage and Retrieval System, is given. The relationship of CSISRS to CINDA, to the neutron nuclear data four-centers, to EXFOR and to ENDF, the evaluated neutron nuclear data file, is briefly explained.

  15. Natural language query system design for interactive information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-17.

  16. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Identify the Geographic Regions Where People That Use Ground Water are Most Vulnerable to Impacts from Underground Storage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the vulnerability of ground water supplies to contamination from underground storage tanks (USTs) was assessed. The analysis was conducted for the 48 contiguous states, and then again for groups of states corresponding to the EPA Regio...

  17. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  18. Transient Auditory Storage of Acoustic Details Is Associated with Release of Speech from Informational Masking in Reverberant Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Xun; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual integration of the sound directly emanating from the source with reflections needs both temporal storage and correlation computation of acoustic details. We examined whether the temporal storage is frequency dependent and associated with speech unmasking. In Experiment 1, a break in correlation (BIC) between interaurally correlated…

  19. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  20. An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Educational Program in Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Gallagher, Mary C.

    1985-01-01

    There exists a large number of large-scale bibliographic Information Storage and Retrieval Systems containing large amounts of valuable data of interest in a wide variety of research applications. These systems are not used to capacity because the end users, i.e., the researchers, have not been trained in the techniques of accessing such systems. This thesis describes the development of a transportable, university-level course in methods of querying on-line interactive Information Storage and Retrieval systems as a solution to this problem. This course was designed to instruct upper division science and engineering students to enable these end users to directly access such systems. The course is designed to be taught by instructors who are not specialists in either computer science or research skills. It is independent of any particular IS and R system or computer hardware. The project is sponsored by NASA and conducted by the University of Southwestern Louisiana and Southern University.

  1. Information-computational system for storage, search and analytical processing of environmental datasets based on the Semantic Web technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A.; Gordov, E.; Okladnikov, I.

    2009-04-01

    In this report the results of the work devoted to the development of working model of the software system for storage, semantically-enabled search and retrieval along with processing and visualization of environmental datasets containing results of meteorological and air pollution observations and mathematical climate modeling are presented. Specially designed metadata standard for machine-readable description of datasets related to meteorology, climate and atmospheric pollution transport domains is introduced as one of the key system components. To provide semantic interoperability the Resource Description Framework (RDF, http://www.w3.org/RDF/) technology means have been chosen for metadata description model realization in the form of RDF Schema. The final version of the RDF Schema is implemented on the base of widely used standards, such as Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (http://dublincore.org/), Directory Interchange Format (DIF, http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/User/difguide/difman.html), ISO 19139, etc. At present the system is available as a Web server (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/metadatabase/) based on the web-portal ATMOS engine [1] and is implementing dataset management functionality including SeRQL-based semantic search as well as statistical analysis and visualization of selected data archives [2,3]. The core of the system is Apache web server in conjunction with Tomcat Java Servlet Container (http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/) and Sesame Server (http://www.openrdf.org/) used as a database for RDF and RDF Schema. At present statistical analysis of meteorological and climatic data with subsequent visualization of results is implemented for such datasets as NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, Reanalysis NCEP/DOE AMIP II, JMA/CRIEPI JRA-25, ECMWF ERA-40 and local measurements obtained from meteorological stations on the territory of Russia. This functionality is aimed primarily at finding of main characteristics of regional climate dynamics. The proposed system represents

  2. Feasibility study and preliminary design for fishing (TUNA) vessel fuel storage and distribution. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Conclusions and Recommendations; (3) Existing Conditions and Facilities for a Fuel Distribution Center; (4) Pacific Ocean Regional Tuna Fisheries and Resources; (5) Fishing Effort in the FSMEEZ 1992-1994; (6) Current Transshipping Operations in the Western Pacific Ocean; (7) Current and Probale Bunkering Practices of United States, Japanese, Koren, and Taiwanese Offshore-Based Vessels Operating in FSM and Adjacent Waters; (8) Shore-Based Fish-Handling/Processing; (9) Fuels Forecast; (10) Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution; (11) Cost Estimates; (12) Economic Evaluation of Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution.

  3. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  4. Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

  5. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  6. Optical storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.

    1991-01-01

    A new holographic image storage device which uses four-wave mixing in two photorefractive crystals is described. Photorefractive crystals promise information storage densities on the order of 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 12) bits per cubic centimeter at real-time rates. Several studies in recent years have investigated the use of photorefractive crystals for storing holographic image information. However, all of the previous studies have focused on techniques for storing information in a single crystal. The disadvantage of using a single crystal is that the read process is destructive. Researchers have developed techniques for fixing the information in a crystal so that it may be read many times. However, when fixed, the information cannot be readily erased and overwritten with new information. It two photorefractive crystals are used, holographic image information may be stored dynamically. That is, the stored image information may be read out more than once, and it may be easily erased and overwritten with new image information.

  7. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  8. A Mechanistically Informed User-Friendly Model to Predict Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage from Coastal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, O. I.; Ishtiaq, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a user-friendly modeling tool on MS Excel to predict the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and estimate potential carbon sequestration from the coastal wetlands. The dominant controls of wetland GHG fluxes and their relative mechanistic linkages with various hydro-climatic, sea level, biogeochemical and ecological drivers were first determined by employing a systematic data-analytics method, including Pearson correlation matrix, principal component and factor analyses, and exploratory partial least squares regressions. The mechanistic knowledge and understanding was then utilized to develop parsimonious non-linear (power-law) models to predict wetland carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes based on a sub-set of climatic, hydrologic and environmental drivers such as the photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity. The models were tested with field data for multiple sites and seasons (2012-13) collected from the Waquoit Bay, MA. The model estimated the annual wetland carbon storage by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to an extended growing season (e.g., May-October) and by accounting for the net annual lateral carbon fluxes between the wetlands and estuary. The Excel Spreadsheet model is a simple ecological engineering tool for coastal carbon management and their incorporation into a potential carbon market under a changing climate, sea level and environment. Specifically, the model can help to determine appropriate GHG offset protocols and monitoring plans for projects that focus on tidal wetland restoration and maintenance.

  9. epiPATH: an information system for the storage and management of molecular epidemiology data from infectious pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Amadoz, Alicia; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Background Most research scientists working in the fields of molecular epidemiology, population and evolutionary genetics are confronted with the management of large volumes of data. Moreover, the data used in studies of infectious diseases are complex and usually derive from different institutions such as hospitals or laboratories. Since no public database scheme incorporating clinical and epidemiological information about patients and molecular information about pathogens is currently available, we have developed an information system, composed by a main database and a web-based interface, which integrates both types of data and satisfies requirements of good organization, simple accessibility, data security and multi-user support. Results From the moment a patient arrives to a hospital or health centre until the processing and analysis of molecular sequences obtained from infectious pathogens in the laboratory, lots of information is collected from different sources. We have divided the most relevant data into 12 conceptual modules around which we have organized the database schema. Our schema is very complete and it covers many aspects of sample sources, samples, laboratory processes, molecular sequences, phylogenetics results, clinical tests and results, clinical information, treatments, pathogens, transmissions, outbreaks and bibliographic information. Communication between end-users and the selected Relational Database Management System (RDMS) is carried out by default through a command-line window or through a user-friendly, web-based interface which provides access and management tools for the data. Conclusion epiPATH is an information system for managing clinical and molecular information from infectious diseases. It facilitates daily work related to infectious pathogens and sequences obtained from them. This software is intended for local installation in order to safeguard private data and provides advanced SQL-users the flexibility to adapt it to their

  10. TODAM2: A Model for the Storage and Retrieval of Item, Associative, and Serial-Order Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Bennet B.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an extended version of the convolution-correlation memory model TODAM (theory of distributed associative memory) that eliminates some inadequacies of previous versions and provides a unified treatment of item, associative, and serial-order information. TODAM2 extends the chunking model to provide a general model for episodic…

  11. [Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database: An information system for storage and management of clinical and microbiological data of cystic fibrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Prieto, Claudia I; Palau, María J; Martina, Pablo; Achiary, Carlos; Achiary, Andrés; Bettiol, Marisa; Montanaro, Patricia; Cazzola, María L; Leguizamón, Mariana; Massillo, Cintia; Figoli, Cecilia; Valeiras, Brenda; Perez, Silvia; Rentería, Fernando; Diez, Graciela; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Bosch, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical management of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffering from acute pulmonary exacerbations or chronic lung infections demands continuous updating of medical and microbiological processes associated with the constant evolution of pathogens during host colonization. In order to monitor the dynamics of these processes, it is essential to have expert systems capable of storing and subsequently extracting the information generated from different studies of the patients and microorganisms isolated from them. In this work we have designed and developed an on-line database based on an information system that allows to store, manage and visualize data from clinical studies and microbiological analysis of bacteria obtained from the respiratory tract of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The information system, named Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database is available on the http://servoy.infocomsa.com/cfc_database site and is composed of a main database and a web-based interface, which uses Servoy's product architecture based on Java technology. Although the CFC database system can be implemented as a local program for private use in CF centers, it can also be used, updated and shared by different users who can access the stored information in a systematic, practical and safe manner. The implementation of the CFC database could have a significant impact on the monitoring of respiratory infections, the prevention of exacerbations, the detection of emerging organisms, and the adequacy of control strategies for lung infections in CF patients.

  12. Electronic Document Imaging and Optical Storage Systems for Local Governments: An Introduction. Local Government Records Technical Information Series. Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stanley F.

    This publication introduces electronic document imaging systems and provides guidance for local governments in New York in deciding whether such systems should be adopted for their own records and information management purposes. It advises local governments on how to develop plans for using such technology by discussing its advantages and…

  13. [Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database: An information system for storage and management of clinical and microbiological data of cystic fibrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Prieto, Claudia I; Palau, María J; Martina, Pablo; Achiary, Carlos; Achiary, Andrés; Bettiol, Marisa; Montanaro, Patricia; Cazzola, María L; Leguizamón, Mariana; Massillo, Cintia; Figoli, Cecilia; Valeiras, Brenda; Perez, Silvia; Rentería, Fernando; Diez, Graciela; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Bosch, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical management of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffering from acute pulmonary exacerbations or chronic lung infections demands continuous updating of medical and microbiological processes associated with the constant evolution of pathogens during host colonization. In order to monitor the dynamics of these processes, it is essential to have expert systems capable of storing and subsequently extracting the information generated from different studies of the patients and microorganisms isolated from them. In this work we have designed and developed an on-line database based on an information system that allows to store, manage and visualize data from clinical studies and microbiological analysis of bacteria obtained from the respiratory tract of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The information system, named Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database is available on the http://servoy.infocomsa.com/cfc_database site and is composed of a main database and a web-based interface, which uses Servoy's product architecture based on Java technology. Although the CFC database system can be implemented as a local program for private use in CF centers, it can also be used, updated and shared by different users who can access the stored information in a systematic, practical and safe manner. The implementation of the CFC database could have a significant impact on the monitoring of respiratory infections, the prevention of exacerbations, the detection of emerging organisms, and the adequacy of control strategies for lung infections in CF patients. PMID:26895996

  14. Complex life histories of fishes revealed through natural information storage devices: case studies of diadromous events as recorded by otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfman, M.; Limburg, K. E.; Kristiansson, P.; Svedäng, H.; Westin, L.; Wickström, H.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.

    2000-03-01

    Diadromous fishes - species that move across salinity gradients as part of their life repertoire - form a major part of coastal and inland fisheries. Conventional mark-recapture techniques have long been used to track their movements, but give incomplete information at best. On the other hand, otoliths (ear-stones) of fishes can provide a complete record of major life history events, as reflected both in their microstructure and elemental composition. Strontium, which substitutes for calcium in the aragonite matrix of otoliths, is a powerful tracer of salinity histories in many migratory fishes. We measured Sr and Ca with a nuclear microprobe (PIXE) and show examples (eel, Anguilla anguilla; brown trout, Salmo trutta; American shad, Alosa sapidissima) of how the technique has solved several mysteries within fisheries biology.

  15. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    DOEpatents

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  16. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    PubMed Central

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  17. The Petascale Data Storage Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Garth; Long, Darrell; Honeyman, Peter; Grider, Gary; Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Roth, Philip; Felix, Evan; Ward, Lee

    2013-07-01

    Petascale computing infrastructures for scientific discovery make petascale demands on information storage capacity, performance, concurrency, reliability, availability, and manageability.The Petascale Data Storage Institute focuses on the data storage problems found in petascale scientific computing environments, with special attention to community issues such as interoperability, community buy-in, and shared tools.The Petascale Data Storage Institute is a collaboration between researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Michigan, and the University of California at Santa Cruz.

  18. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  19. The design of PC/MISI, a PC-based common user interface to remote information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, The Design of PC/MISI, a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-15. The paper discusses the following: problem definition; the PC solution; the goals of system design; the design description; future considerations, the research environment; conclusions.

  20. 5 CFR 1312.25 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage. 1312.25 Section 1312.25... Information § 1312.25 Storage. All classified material in the possession of OMB will be stored in a GSA-approved container or in vault-type rooms approved for Top Secret storage. Under the direction of the...

  1. 5 CFR 1312.25 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage. 1312.25 Section 1312.25... Information § 1312.25 Storage. All classified material in the possession of OMB will be stored in a GSA-approved container or in vault-type rooms approved for Top Secret storage. Under the direction of the...

  2. 5 CFR 1312.25 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage. 1312.25 Section 1312.25... Information § 1312.25 Storage. All classified material in the possession of OMB will be stored in a GSA-approved container or in vault-type rooms approved for Top Secret storage. Under the direction of the...

  3. 5 CFR 1312.25 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage. 1312.25 Section 1312.25... Information § 1312.25 Storage. All classified material in the possession of OMB will be stored in a GSA-approved container or in vault-type rooms approved for Top Secret storage. Under the direction of the...

  4. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section A report, existing conditions calculations/supporting information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. Based upon US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (DOE/Al) Office and LANL projections, storage space limitations/restrictions will begin to affect LANL`s ability to meet its missions between 1998 and 2002.

  5. Secure Storage Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholdt, Ferrol; Caldwell, Blake A; Hicks, Susan Elaine; Koch, Scott M; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Pogge, James R; Scott, Stephen L; Shipman, Galen M; Sorrillo, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    include evaluation of performance/protection of select products. (Note, we are investigation the option of evaluating equipment from Seagate/Xyratex.) Outline: The remainder of this report is structured as follows: - Section 1: Describes the growing importance of secure storage architectures and highlights some challenges for HPC. - Section 2: Provides background information on HPC storage architectures, relevant supporting technologies for secure storage and details on OpenStack components related to storage. Note, that background material on HPC storage architectures in this chapter can be skipped if the reader is already familiar with Lustre and GPFS. - Section 3: A review of protection mechanisms in two HPC filesystems; details about available isolation, authentication/authorization and performance capabilities are discussed. - Section 4: Describe technologies that can be used to bridge gaps in HPC storage and filesystems to facilitate...

  6. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Sacit M; Howard, Rob L; Liu, Cheng; Mueller, Don; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Peterson, Steven K; Scaglione, John M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  7. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2016-05-03

    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.

  8. Cathodochromic storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosomworth, D. R.; Moles, W. H.

    1969-01-01

    A memory and display device has been developed by combing a fast phosphor layer with a cathodochromic layer in a cathode ray tube. Images are stored as patterns of electron beam induced optical density in the cathodo-chromic material. The stored information is recovered by exciting the backing, fast phosphor layer with a constant current electron beam and detecting the emitted radiation which is modulated by absorption in the cathodochromic layer. The storage can be accomplished in one or more TV frames (1/30 sec each). More than 500 TV line resolution and close to 2:1 contrast ratio are possible. The information storage time in a dark environment is approximately 24 hours. A reconstituted (readout) electronic video signal can be generated continuously for times in excess of 10 minutes or periodically for several hours.

  9. Theoretical and experimental aspects of optical storage of information via refreshing by inverse seeding in a photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal (BCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusevich, V.; Kiessling, A.; Kowarschik, R.

    2001-05-01

    We present a new experimental setup for the optical storage of information via refreshing by inverse seeding (OSIRIS), which allows a sixfold increase of the storage time of holograms in a Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal (BCT). The setup consists of two four-wave mixing processes with common amplified signal waves and phase-conjugated (pc) waves. Temporal behaviours of the amplified and pc signal waves for the OSIRIS experiment as well as for the common four-wave mixing experiment are compared and discussed. The solutions of coupled equations under the depleted-pump approximation are obtained in order to estimate the pc reflectivities and coupling gains of gratings inside the crystal.

  10. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2000-03-15

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area.

  11. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  12. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  13. 39 CFR 267.4 - Information security standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Information processing or storage system procurement, (5) Contractual relationships. ... management: (1) Information system development, (2) Information collection, (3) Information handling and processing, (4) Information dissemination and disclosure, (5) Information storage and destruction,...

  14. 39 CFR 267.4 - Information security standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Information processing or storage system procurement, (5) Contractual relationships. ... management: (1) Information system development, (2) Information collection, (3) Information handling and processing, (4) Information dissemination and disclosure, (5) Information storage and destruction,...

  15. 39 CFR 267.4 - Information security standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Information processing or storage system procurement, (5) Contractual relationships. ... management: (1) Information system development, (2) Information collection, (3) Information handling and processing, (4) Information dissemination and disclosure, (5) Information storage and destruction,...

  16. 39 CFR 267.4 - Information security standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Information processing or storage system procurement, (5) Contractual relationships. ... management: (1) Information system development, (2) Information collection, (3) Information handling and processing, (4) Information dissemination and disclosure, (5) Information storage and destruction,...

  17. 39 CFR 267.4 - Information security standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Information processing or storage system procurement, (5) Contractual relationships. ... management: (1) Information system development, (2) Information collection, (3) Information handling and processing, (4) Information dissemination and disclosure, (5) Information storage and destruction,...

  18. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Hazmat storage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    RCRA regulations governing hazardous materials storage, as well as potential long-term liabilities under CERCLA for soil and groundwater contamination, make daily management of industrial chemicals and wastes a precarious enterprise. Container corrosion, potential leaks and spills, possibilities of chemical reactions and fires, and health threats to employees and community members--not to mention the prospect of visits from regulatory agencies-comprise a persistent backdrop for environmental managers' decisions and actions. RCRA's Subtitle C, the hazardous waste management program, establishes cradle-to-grave liability for hazardous waste generators, rather loosely defined in practice as anyone whose actions bring a waste under RCRA's regulatory authority. Thus, someone who digs up a long-forgotten drum of hazardous chemicals, then stores or disposes it is a generator.

  20. Nuclear materials management storage study

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs` Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites.

  1. Optical Disk Technology and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Charles M.

    1982-01-01

    Provides basic information on videodisks and potential applications, including inexpensive online storage, random access graphics to complement online information systems, hybrid network architectures, office automation systems, and archival storage. (JN)

  2. Implant-isolated SAW storage correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S. S.; Gunshor, R. L.; Pierret, R. F.

    1985-09-01

    The development of surface acoustic wave (SAW) convolvers and correlators is reviewed. This is followed by the introduction of a new type of monolithic metal-zinc oxide-silicon dioxide-silicon storage correlator. Fabrication and operation of the implant isolated storage correlator, which relies on ion implantation for confinement of storage regions, is detailed. A capacitance-time measurement procedure for evaluation of the charge storage capability of the device is described, and correlation output information is used to estimate the effective recombination rate of the inversion layer charges. Finally, operational characteristics are examined and the new bias stable device is shown to exhibit a 3-dB storage time in excess of 0.5 s. The cited storage time exceeds reported storage times of other structures fabricated in the ZnO-SiO2-Si layered medium configuration.

  3. The Design of PC/MISI, a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. ThesisFinal Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of information contained in the data bases of large-scale information storage and retrieval systems is very large and growing at a rapid rate. The methods available for assessing this information have not been successful in making the information easily available to the people who have the greatest need for it. This thesis describes the design of a personal computer based system which will provide a means for these individuals to retrieve this data through one standardized interface. The thesis identifies each of the major problems associated with providing access to casual users of IS and R systems and describes the manner in which these problems are to be solved by the utilization of the local processing power of a PC. Additional capabilities, not available with standard access methods, are also provided to improve the user's ability to make use of this information. The design of PC/MISI is intended to facilitate its use as a research vehicle. Evaluation mechanisms and possible areas of future research are described. The PC/MISI development effort is part of a larger research effort directed at improving access to remote IS and R systems. This research effort, supported in part by NASA, is also reviewed.

  4. BINARY STORAGE ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Chu, J.C.

    1958-06-10

    A binary storage device is described comprising a toggle provided with associsted improved driver circuits adapted to produce reliable action of the toggle during clearing of the toggle to one of its two states. or transferring information into and out of the toggle. The invention resides in the development of a self-regulating driver circuit to minimize the fluctuation of the driving voltages for the toggle. The disclosed driver circuit produces two pulses in response to an input pulse: a first or ''clear'' pulse beginning nt substantially the same time but endlrg slightly sooner than the second or ''transfer'' output pulse.

  5. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-25

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  6. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VII--What to Choose, or the Purpose of It All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; Hofstede, Marten

    1994-01-01

    This last article in a series which reported results of a software evaluation project done by the Netherlands Association of Users of Online Information Systems (VOGIN) focuses on how to select appropriate software. Topics discussed include price considerations; user needs; and types and quality of information. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  7. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  8. STORAGE/SEDIMENTATION FACILITIES FOR CONTROL OF STORM AND COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW: DESIGN MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes applications of storage facilities in wet-weather flow management and presents step-by-step procedures for analysis and design of storage-treatment facilities. Retention, detention, and sedimentation storage information is classified and described. Internati...

  9. Storage Woes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are running out of closet space. With the amount of data predicted to grow 800 percent by 2016, higher education faces a desperate race to develop strategies to store and manage the tidal wave of information. Unfortunately, many IT departments, particularly those in the public sector, have flatlining budgets--and no money…

  10. 10 CFR 1017.24 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage. 1017.24 Section 1017.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.24 Storage. A document or material marked as containing UCNI...

  11. 10 CFR 1017.24 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage. 1017.24 Section 1017.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.24 Storage. A document or material marked as containing UCNI...

  12. 10 CFR 1017.24 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage. 1017.24 Section 1017.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.24 Storage. A document or material marked as containing UCNI...

  13. 10 CFR 1017.24 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage. 1017.24 Section 1017.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.24 Storage. A document or material marked as containing UCNI...

  14. 10 CFR 1017.24 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage. 1017.24 Section 1017.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.24 Storage. A document or material marked as containing UCNI...

  15. The High Performance Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, R.A.; Hulen, H.; Watson, R.

    1993-09-01

    The National Storage Laboratory (NSL) was organized to develop, demonstrate and commercialize technology for the storage system that will be the future repositories for our national information assets. Within the NSL four Department of Energy laboratories and IBM Federal System Company have pooled their resources to develop an entirely new High Performance Storage System (HPSS). The HPSS project concentrates on scalable parallel storage system for highly parallel computers as well as traditional supercomputers and workstation clusters. Concentrating on meeting the high end of storage system and data management requirements, HPSS is designed using network-connected storage devices to transfer data at rates of 100 million bytes per second and beyond. The resulting products will be portable to many vendor`s platforms. The three year project is targeted to be complete in 1995. This paper provides an overview of the requirements, design issues, and architecture of HPSS, as well as a description of the distributed, multi-organization industry and national laboratory HPSS project.

  16. PCB storage requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs, including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements specified at 40 CFR Part 761.65 require most PCB wastes to be stored in a facility that meets the specifications of that section. Additionally, the regulations include rules concerning time limits for PCBs and PCB Items in storage, rules concerning leaking electrical equipment, and rules concerning types of containers used to store PCBs and PCB Items. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning storage requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  17. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    SciTech Connect

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  18. High-Density Digital Data Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.; Gray, David L.

    1995-01-01

    High-density digital data storage system designed for cost-effective storage of large amounts of information acquired during experiments. System accepts up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data with overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. Data recorded on 8-millimeter magnetic tape in cartridges, each capable of holding up to five gigabytes of data. Each cartridge mounted on one of two tape drives. Operator chooses to use either or both of drives. One drive used for primary storage of data while other can be used to make a duplicate record of data. Alternatively, other drive serves as backup data-storage drive when primary one fails.

  19. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for final standards. Volume 2A. Comments on process vents, storage vessels, transfer operations, and equipment leaks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This background information document (BID) provides summaries and responses for public comments received regarding the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), commonly referred to as the HON. The HON will primarily affect the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI). However, the provisions for equipment leaks also apply to certain polymer and resin production processes, certain pesticide production processes, and certain miscellaneous processes that are subject to the negotiated regulation for equipment leaks. Volume 2A is organized by emission point and contains discussions of specific technical issues related to process vents, storage vessels, transfer operations, and equipment leaks. Volume 2A discusses specific technical issues such as control technology, cost analysis, emission estimates, Group 1/Group 2 determination, compliance options and demonstrations, and monitoring.

  20. Information retrieval system: impacts of water-level changes on uses of federal storage reservoirs of the Columbia River. Appendix F. RIVOPR user's manuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, P.J.; Simmons, M.A.; De Mier, W.V.

    1982-09-01

    Information relating to environmental effects of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) river operations is stored in a computer data base. The data is of two types: citations to sources of information and descriptions of specific impacts. The impacts are stored in the form of an impact matrix. A data base management system called DRS is used with BPA's VAX computer to access, select, and display portions of the data. This manual describes the use of DRS in conjunction with the River Operations (RIVOPR) data base. This manual teaches one how to use the RIVOPR data base. The manual is written specifically for the user. A user is any person who uses the computer as a tool. As a user, one is more concerned with how to use the computer than with how the computer works internally. The manual places special emphasis on understanding how data are stored and used. This manual includes general information about data bases and DRS language and commands. The manual also describes specific information about the RIVOPR system, including some examples of its use.

  1. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  2. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  3. Spent fuel storage. Facts booklet

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a spent nuclear fuel policy where the Government would, under certain conditions, take title to and store spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors. The policy is intended to provide spent fuel storage until final disposition is available. DOE has programs for providing safe, long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The spent fuel storage program is one element of waste management and compliments the disposal program. The costs for spent fuel services are to be fully recovered by the Government from the utilities. This will allow the utilities to confidently consider the costs for disposition of spent fuel in their rate structure. The United States would also store limited amounts of foreign spent fuel to meet nonproliferation objectives. This booklet summarizes information on many aspects of spent fuel storage.

  4. Phonorecords: Storage and Care Self-Evaluation Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, John W.; And Others

    This self evaluation form, designed to aid librarians in the care and storage of phonograph records, was developed from an extensive literature search on the subject of storage and care of non-book materials. A checklist of items relevant to proper care and storage procedures includes such information as temperature, humidity, types of packaging,…

  5. Underground storage tank program

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-12-31

    Underground storage tanks, UST`S, have become a major component of the Louisville District`s Environmental Support Program. The District`s Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ``JOC type`` contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ``boiler plate`` information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor`s bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor`s factor to determine the value of the work.

  6. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  7. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

  8. Superconducting energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  9. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  10. Thermal Storage Applications Workshop. Volume 1: Plenary Session Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the development of inexpensive and efficient thermal and thermochemical energy storage technology to the solar power program is discussed in a summary of workship discussions held to exchange information and plan for future systems. Topics covered include storage in central power applications such as the 10 MW-e demonstration pilot receiver to be constructed in Barstow, California; storage for small dispersed systems, and problems associated with the development of storage systems for solar power plants interfacing with utility systems.

  11. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  12. Acquisition of shape information in working memory, as a function of viewing time and number of consecutive images: evidence for a succession of discrete storage classes.

    PubMed

    Ninio, J

    1998-07-01

    The capacity of visual working memory was investigated using abstract images that were slightly distorted NxN (with generally N=8) square lattices of black or white randomly selected elements. After viewing an image, or a sequence of images, the subjects viewed couples of images containing the test image and a distractor image derived from the first one by changing the black or white value of q randomly selected elements. The number q was adjusted in each experiment to the difficulty of the task and the abilities of the subject. The fraction of recognition errors, given q and N was used to evaluate the number M of bits memorized by the subject. For untrained subjects, this number M varied in a biphasic manner as a function of the time t of presentation of the test image: it was on average 13 bits for 1 s, 16 bits for 2 to 5 s, and 20 bits for 8 s. The slow pace of acquisition, from 1 to 8 s, seems due to encoding difficulties, and not to channel capacity limitations. Beyond 8 s, M(t), accurately determined for one subject, followed a square root law, in agreement with 19th century observations on the memorization of lists of digits. When two consecutive 8x8 images were viewed and tested in the same order, the number of memorized bits was downshifted by a nearly constant amount, independent of t, and equal on average to 6-7 bits. Across the subjects, the shift was independent of M. When two consecutive test images were related, the recognition errors decreased for both images, whether the testing was performed in the presentation or the reverse order. Studies involving three subjects, indicate that, when viewing m consecutive images, the average amount of information captured per image varies with m in a stepwise fashion. The first two step boundaries were around m=3 and m=9-12. The data are compatible with a model of organization of working memory in several successive layers containing increasing numbers of units, the more remote a unit, the lower the rate at

  13. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  14. Storage Media for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautman, Rodes

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer storage devices designed to provide additional memory for microcomputers--chips, floppy disks, hard disks, optical disks--and describes how secondary storage is used (file transfer, formatting, ingredients of incompatibility); disk/controller/software triplet; magnetic tape backup; storage volatility; disk emulator; and…

  15. Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has been publishing monthly storage information for years. In order to address the need for more timely information, in 1994 the American Gas Association (AGA) began publishing weekly storage levels. Both the EIA and the AGA series provide estimates of the total working gas in storage, but use significantly different methodologies.

  16. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30).

  17. 32 CFR 2001.53 - Open storage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open storage areas. 2001.53 Section 2001.53 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.53 Open storage areas. This section...

  18. 32 CFR 2001.53 - Open storage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open storage areas. 2001.53 Section 2001.53 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.53 Open storage areas. This section...

  19. How to Use Removable Mass Storage Memory Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Mass storage refers to the variety of ways to keep large amounts of information that are used on a computer. Over the years, the removable storage devices have grown smaller, increased in capacity, and transferred the information to the computer faster. The 8" floppy disk of the 1960s stored 100 kilobytes, or about 60 typewritten, double-spaced…

  20. Optical Storage and Retrieval of Library Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folen, Doris R.; Stackpole, Laurie E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the newly installed optical disk storage system at the Naval Research Laboratory's Research Library and Technical Information Center. Planning and design of the system, the conversion of 140,000 reports to optical disk, the information retrieval process, and future plans are covered. (Contains nine references.) (KRN)

  1. Large capacity cryopropellant orbital storage facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to develop the major features of a large capacity orbital propellant storage facility for the space-based cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. Projected propellant usage and delivery schedules can be accommodated by two orbital tank sets of 100,000 lb storage capacity, with advanced missions expected to require increased capacity. Information is given on tank pressurization schemes, propellant transfer configurations, pump specifications, the refrigeration system, and flight tests.

  2. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several

  3. GAP-43 Gene Expression Regulates Information Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Matthew R.; Honegger, Kyle S.; Tabatadze, Nino; Routtenberg, Aryeh

    2007-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that overexpression of the growth- and plasticity-associated protein GAP-43 improves memory. However, the relation between the levels of this protein to memory enhancement remains unknown. Here, we studied this issue in transgenic mice (G-Phos) overexpressing native, chick GAP-43. These G-Phos mice could be divided at…

  4. A new storage-ring light source

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  5. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a storage unit located on the Hanford Site. The unit consists of two earth-covered railroad tunnels that are used for storage of process equipment (some containing dangerous waste) removed from the PUREX Plant. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railroad cars and remotely transferred into the tunnels for long-term storage. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as a co-operator of the PUREX Storage Tunnels, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The PUREX Storage Tunnels Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision O) consists of both a Part A and Part B permit application and is based on information available as of August 31, 1990. An explanation of the Part A revision submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. In this Part A revision, the PUREX Storage Tunnels have been redesignated as a miscellaneous unit. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  6. Electron trapping data storage system and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, Daniel; Earman, Allen; Chaffin, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    The advent of digital information storage and retrieval has led to explosive growth in data transmission techniques, data compression alternatives, and the need for high capacity random access data storage. Advances in data storage technologies are limiting the utilization of digitally based systems. New storage technologies will be required which can provide higher data capacities and faster transfer rates in a more compact format. Magnetic disk/tape and current optical data storage technologies do not provide these higher performance requirements for all digital data applications. A new technology developed at the Optex Corporation out-performs all other existing data storage technologies. The Electron Trapping Optical Memory (ETOM) media is capable of storing as much as 14 gigabytes of uncompressed data on a single, double-sided 54 inch disk with a data transfer rate of up to 12 megabits per second. The disk is removable, compact, lightweight, environmentally stable, and robust. Since the Write/Read/Erase (W/R/E) processes are carried out 100 percent photonically, no heating of the recording media is required. Therefore, the storage media suffers no deleterious effects from repeated Write/Read/Erase cycling.

  7. Grain Handling and Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  8. Wind-energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  9. Mass Storage Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay; Schraeder, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    Presents an overview of the mass storage market and discusses mass storage systems as part of computer networks. Systems for personal computers, workstations, minicomputers, and mainframe computers are described; file servers are explained; system integration issues are raised; and future possibilities are suggested. (LRW)

  10. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  11. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  12. 12. NORTHWEST CORNER OF STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 342) IN STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTHWEST CORNER OF STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 342) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  13. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  14. Radiation analysis for a generic centralized interim storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, S.G.; Lopez, P.; Eble, R.G.

    1997-07-01

    This paper documents the radiation analysis performed for the storage area of a generic Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to establish the CISF Protected Area, Unrestricted Area, and Restricted Area boundaries. In order to model a large (6000 cask) storage array with a reasonable amount of analysis time and effort, a simplified calculational model was developed for the CISF. The CISF is designed to accommodate several different types of SNF storage systems. In order to simplify the calculation of dose rates from the storage area, the Westinghouse Large PWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) is selected as a representative storage system, since sufficient information is contained in its Safety Analysis Report to allow accurate modeling, and the surface dose rates on the MPC are consistent with other storage systems.

  15. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-07-06

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer

  16. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    SciTech Connect

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  17. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  18. Percolation in dense storage arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Scott; Wilcke, Winfried W.; Garner, Robert B.; Huels, Harald

    2002-11-01

    As computers and their accessories become smaller, cheaper, and faster the providers of news, retail sales, and other services we now take for granted on the Internet have met their increasing computing needs by putting more and more computers, hard disks, power supplies, and the data communications linking them to each other and to the rest of the wired world into ever smaller spaces. This has created a new and quite interesting percolation problem. It is no longer desirable to fix computers, storage or switchgear which fail in such a dense array. Attempts to repair things are all too likely to make problems worse. The alternative approach, letting units “fail in place”, be removed from service and routed around, means that a data communications environment will evolve with an underlying regular structure but a very high density of missing pieces. Some of the properties of this kind of network can be described within the existing paradigm of site or bond percolation on lattices, but other important questions have not been explored. I will discuss 3D arrays of hundreds to thousands of storage servers (something which it is quite feasible to build in the next few years), and show that bandwidth, but not percolation fraction or shortest path lengths, is the critical factor affected by the “fail in place” disorder. Redundancy strategies traditionally employed in storage systems may have to be revised. Novel approaches to routing information among the servers have been developed to minimize the impact.

  19. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  20. Data storage technology comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1990-01-01

    The role of data storage and data storage technology is an integral, though conceptually often underestimated, portion of data processing technology. Data storage is important in the mass storage mode in which generated data is buffered for later use. But data storage technology is also important in the data flow mode when data are manipulated and hence required to flow between databases, datasets and processors. This latter mode is commonly associated with memory hierarchies which support computation. VLSI devices can reasonably be defined as electronic circuit devices such as channel and control electronics as well as highly integrated, solid-state devices that are fabricated using thin film deposition technology. VLSI devices in both capacities play an important role in data storage technology. In addition to random access memories (RAM), read-only memories (ROM), and other silicon-based variations such as PROM's, EPROM's, and EEPROM's, integrated devices find their way into a variety of memory technologies which offer significant performance advantages. These memory technologies include magnetic tape, magnetic disk, magneto-optic disk, and vertical Bloch line memory. In this paper, some comparison between selected technologies will be made to demonstrate why more than one memory technology exists today, based for example on access time and storage density at the active bit and system levels.

  1. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  2. Data storage for managing the health enterprise and achieving business continuity.

    PubMed

    Hinegardner, Sam

    2003-01-01

    As organizations move away from a silo mentality to a vision of enterprise-level information, more healthcare IT departments are rejecting the idea of information storage as an isolated, system-by-system solution. IT executives want storage solutions that act as a strategic element of an IT infrastructure, centralizing storage management activities to effectively reduce operational overhead and costs. This article focuses on three areas of enterprise storage: tape, disk, and disaster avoidance.

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  4. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  5. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  6. Information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  7. 49 CFR 1280.6 - Storage of classified documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storage of classified documents. 1280.6 Section 1280.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... SECURITY INFORMATION AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.6 Storage of classified documents. All...

  8. 49 CFR 1280.6 - Storage of classified documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storage of classified documents. 1280.6 Section 1280.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... SECURITY INFORMATION AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.6 Storage of classified documents. All...

  9. 49 CFR 1280.6 - Storage of classified documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage of classified documents. 1280.6 Section 1280.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... SECURITY INFORMATION AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.6 Storage of classified documents. All...

  10. 49 CFR 1280.6 - Storage of classified documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storage of classified documents. 1280.6 Section 1280.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... SECURITY INFORMATION AND CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 1280.6 Storage of classified documents. All...

  11. Durable High-Density Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamartine, Bruce C.; Stutz, Roger A.

    1996-01-01

    The focus ion beam (FIB) micromilling process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate that the useful life of data written on silicon or gold-coated silicon to be on the order of a few thousand years without the need to rewrite the data every few years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface, much like stone cutters in ancient civilizations removed material from stone. The deeper the information is carved into the media, the longer the expected life of the information. The process can record information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 23 Gbits/square inch, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus, it is possible to record, in a human-viewable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the remaining higher density information.

  12. Food Storage Guide for Schools and Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Div. of Child Nutrition.

    This booklet has been prepared as a guide to show good methods of handling and storing USDA-donated and locally purchased foods. The information was drawn from many resources and includes latest research data available on types of storage facilities and equipment needed for handling and storing foods. The material is organized in five parts: (1)…

  13. Durable high-density data storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper will discuss the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling process, media life considerations, and methods of reading the micromilled data. The FIB process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate the useful life of data written on silicon or gold coated silicon to be a few thousand years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface much like stone cutting. The deeper information is carved into the media the longer the expected life of the information. The process can read information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 3.5 Gbits/cm{sup 2}, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus it is possible to record, in a human readable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the higher density information.

  14. Storage Ring EDM Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semertzidis, Yannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Dedicated storage ring electric dipole moment (EDM) methods show great promise advancing the sensitivity level by a couple orders of magnitude over currently planned hadronic EDM experiments. We describe the present status and recent updates of the field.

  15. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  16. Industrial storage applications overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a technology demonstration for the food processing industry, development and technology demonstrations for selected near-term, in-plant applications and advanced industrial applications of thermal energy storage are overviewed.

  17. Hydrogen storage compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  18. Sphingolipid lysosomal storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Platt, Frances M

    2014-06-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases are inborn errors of metabolism, the hallmark of which is the accumulation, or storage, of macromolecules in the late endocytic system. They are monogenic disorders that occur at a collective frequency of 1 in 5,000 live births and are caused by inherited defects in genes that mainly encode lysosomal proteins, most commonly lysosomal enzymes. A subgroup of these diseases involves the lysosomal storage of glycosphingolipids. Through our understanding of the genetics, biochemistry and, more recently, cellular aspects of sphingolipid storage disorders, we have gained insights into fundamental aspects of cell biology that would otherwise have remained opaque. In addition, study of these disorders has led to significant progress in the development of therapies, several of which are now in routine clinical use. Emerging mechanistic links with more common diseases suggest we need to rethink our current concept of disease boundaries.

  19. Mass storage system reference model, Version 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Sam (Editor); Miller, Steve (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The high-level abstractions that underlie modern storage systems are identified. The information to generate the model was collected from major practitioners who have built and operated large storage facilities, and represents a distillation of the wisdom they have acquired over the years. The model provides a common terminology and set of concepts to allow existing systems to be examined and new systems to be discussed and built. It is intended that the model and the interfaces identified from it will allow and encourage vendors to develop mutually-compatible storage components that can be combined to form integrated storage systems and services. The reference model presents an abstract view of the concepts and organization of storage systems. From this abstraction will come the identification of the interfaces and modules that will be used in IEEE storage system standards. The model is not yet suitable as a standard; it does not contain implementation decisions, such as how abstract objects should be broken up into software modules or how software modules should be mapped to hosts; it does not give policy specifications, such as when files should be migrated; does not describe how the abstract objects should be used or connected; and does not refer to specific hardware components. In particular, it does not fully specify the interfaces.

  20. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J. T.; Larsen, R. S.; Shapiro, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks.

  1. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  2. Energy storage apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Evans, H. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A high efficiency, flywheel type energy storage device which comprises an electronically commutated d.c. motor/generator unit having a massive flywheel rotor magnetically suspended around a ring shaped stator is presented. During periods of low energy demand, the storage devices were operated as a motor, and the flywheel motor was brought up to operating speed. Energy was drawn from the device functioning as a generator as the flywheel rotor rotated during high energy demand periods.

  3. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  4. WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 3568), SPARES INERT STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3570), MISSILE ASSEMBLY SHOP (BUILDING 3578) AND SEGREGATED MAGAZINE STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3572). VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  5. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  6. Optical storage media data integrity studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podio, Fernando L.

    1994-01-01

    Optical disk-based information systems are being used in private industry and many Federal Government agencies for on-line and long-term storage of large quantities of data. The storage devices that are part of these systems are designed with powerful, but not unlimited, media error correction capacities. The integrity of data stored on optical disks does not only depend on the life expectancy specifications for the medium. Different factors, including handling and storage conditions, may result in an increase of medium errors in size and frequency. Monitoring the potential data degradation is crucial, especially for long term applications. Efforts are being made by the Association for Information and Image Management Technical Committee C21, Storage Devices and Applications, to specify methods for monitoring and reporting to the user medium errors detected by the storage device while writing, reading or verifying the data stored in that medium. The Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL) of the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) has a leadership role in the development of these standard techniques. In addition, CSL is researching other data integrity issues, including the investigation of error-resilient compression algorithms. NIST has conducted care and handling experiments on optical disk media with the objective of identifying possible causes of degradation. NIST work in data integrity and related standards activities is described.

  7. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for

  8. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLGOY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-23

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for

  9. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology

  10. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  11. Microcavity hydrogen storage. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Teitel, R. J.

    1981-05-01

    In the microcavity storage system, high pressure hydrogen is stored in hollow, glass microspheres, 5 to 150 ..mu..m. This report presents the results of an experimental study to evaluate the performance of commercially available microspheres for this application. Eight grades were evaluated and their characteristics are presented. A substantial fraction of the microsphere beds survived the conditions of storing hydrogen at pressures of 400 atm. establishing that the concept of high pressure hydrogen storage is feasible. Information was gathered on the properties of the survivor microspheres. Processes for their selective recovery are being investigated.

  12. [Microbiological Aspects of Radioactive Waste Storage].

    PubMed

    Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N

    2015-01-01

    The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix).

  13. [Microbiological Aspects of Radioactive Waste Storage].

    PubMed

    Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N

    2015-01-01

    The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix). PMID:26310021

  14. Experimental study of optical storage characteristics of photochromic material: pyrrylfulgide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli; Chen, Yi; Han, Yong; Wang, Congmin; Wang, Yingli; Menke, Neimule; Chen, Guofu; Fan, Meigong

    2003-04-01

    Optical data storage is a frontier in the information science. Currently, there are mainly two kinds of storage materials, i.e., thermal-optic and photonic materials. The storage methods are divided into serial and parallel modes. In the market, the mature technique is CD-RW, which uses the thermal-optic material and serial method. The storage density of the CD-RW is restricted by the size of material particles, the conduction of heat, etc. Besides, the recording speed is seriously limited by the process of heating. Photonic materials and parallel method will be the trend in the optical data storage. Because it is based on the photon reaction on the molecule scale, the storage density and speed will be greatly increased. In this paper, a new kind of organic photochromic material -- pyrrylfulgide was studied. A parallel optical data storage system was established. Using the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film as a recording medium, micro-images and binary digital information could be recorded, readout and erased in this parallel system. The recorded information on the film can be kept for at least 8 months in dark at room temperature. So far, the storage density is 3 x 107 bit/cm2.

  15. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing

  16. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with

  17. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  18. Energy storage connection system

    DOEpatents

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  19. High temperature storage loop :

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  20. Berkeley Storage Manager

    2007-03-01

    Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management of shared storage components on the Grid, They provide storage availability for the planning and execution of a Grid job. SRMs manage two types of resources: space and files. When managing space, SRMs negotiate space allocation with the requesting client, andlor assign default space quotas. When managing files, SRMs allocate space for files, invoke file transfer servicesmore » to move files into the space. phi files for a certain lifetime, release files upon the clients’ request, and use file replacement policies to optimize the use of the shared space. SPMs can be designed to provide effective sharing of files, by monitoring the activity of shared files, and make dynamic decisions on which files to replace when space is needed. In addition, SRMs perform automatic gathage collection of unused files by removing selected files whose lifetime has expired when space is needed. BeStMan is a Java implementation of SRM functionality by the Scientific Data Management Group at LBNL. It manages multiple disks as well as the HPSS mass storage system, and can be adapted to other storage systems. The BeStMan package contains the SRM server, the SRM client tools, and SRM testing tools.« less

  1. Fourth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains copies of all those technical papers received in time for publication just prior to the Fourth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage and Technologies, held March 28-30, 1995, at the University of Maryland, University College Conference Center, in College Park, Maryland. This series of conferences continues to serve as a unique medium for the exchange of information on topics relating to the ingestion and management of substantial amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. This year's discussion topics include new storage technology, stability of recorded media, performance studies, storage system solutions, the National Information infrastructure (Infobahn), the future for storage technology, and lessons learned from various projects. There also will be an update on the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model Version 5, on which the final vote was taken in July 1994.

  2. Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, T F; Worsley, M; Satcher, J H

    2008-08-11

    This effort is focused on the design of new nanostructured carbon-based materials that meet the DOE 2010 targets for on-board vehicle hydrogen storage. Carbon aerogels (CAs) are a unique class of porous materials that possess a number of desirable structural features for the storage of hydrogen, including high surface areas (over 3000 m{sup 2}/g), continuous and tunable porosities, and variable densities. In addition, the flexibility associated with CA synthesis allows for the incorporation of modifiers or catalysts into the carbon matrix in order to alter hydrogen sorption enthalpies in these materials. Since the properties of the doped CAs can be systematically modified (i.e. amount/type of dopant, surface area, porosity), novel materials can be fabricated that exhibit enhanced hydrogen storage properties. We are using this approach to design new H{sub 2} sorbent materials that can storage appreciable amounts of hydrogen at room temperature through a process known as hydrogen spillover. The spillover process involves the dissociative chemisorption of molecular hydrogen on a supported metal catalyst surface (e.g. platinum or nickel), followed by the diffusion of atomic hydrogen onto the surface of the support material. Due to the enhanced interaction between atomic hydrogen and the carbon support, hydrogen can be stored in the support material at more reasonable operating temperatures. While the spillover process has been shown to increase the reversible hydrogen storage capacities at room temperature in metal-loaded carbon nanostructures, a number of issues still exist with this approach, including slow kinetics of H{sub 2} uptake and capacities ({approx} 1.2 wt% on carbon) below the DOE targets. The ability to tailor different structural aspects of the spillover system (i.e. the size/shape of the catalyst particle, the catalyst-support interface and the support morphology) should provide valuable mechanistic information regarding the critical aspects of the

  3. Inertial energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kelly, James J.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    The inertial energy storage device of the present invention comprises a composite ring formed of circumferentially wound resin-impregnated filament material, a flanged hollow metal hub concentrically disposed in the ring, and a plurality of discrete filament bandsets coupling the hub to the ring. Each bandset is formed of a pair of parallel bands affixed to the hub in a spaced apart relationship with the axis of rotation of the hub being disposed between the bands and with each band being in the configuration of a hoop extending about the ring along a chordal plane thereof. The bandsets are disposed in an angular relationship with one another so as to encircle the ring at spaced-apart circumferential locations while being disposed in an overlapping relationship on the flanges of the hub. The energy storage device of the present invention has the capability of substantial energy storage due to the relationship of the filament bands to the ring and the flanged hub.

  4. DNA, human memory, and the storage technology of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2002-01-01

    The sophisticated tools and techniques employed by Nature for purposeful storage of information stand in stark contrast to the primitive and relatively inefficient means used by man. We describe some impressive features of biological data storage, and speculate on approaches to research and development that could benefit the storage industry in the coming decades.

  5. REDOX electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Reservoirs of chemical solutions can store electrical energy with high efficiency. Reactant solutions are stored outside conversion section where charging and discharging reactions take place. Conversion unit consists of stacks of cells connected together in parallel hydraulically, and in series electrically. Stacks resemble fuel cell batteries. System is 99% ampere-hour efficient, 75% watt hour efficient, and has long projected lifetime. Applications include storage buffering for remote solar or wind power systems, and industrial load leveling. Cost estimates are $325/kW of power requirement plus $51/kWh storage capacity. Mass production would reduce cost by about factor of two.

  6. Thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Leifer, Leslie

    1976-01-01

    A thermal energy storage material which is stable at atmospheric temperature and pressure and has a melting point higher than 32.degree.F. is prepared by dissolving a specific class of clathrate forming compounds, such as tetra n-propyl or tetra n-butyl ammonium fluoride, in water to form a substantially solid clathrate. The resultant thermal energy storage material is capable of absorbing heat from or releasing heat to a given region as it transforms between solid and liquid states in response to temperature changes in the region above and below its melting point.

  7. Neptunium storage at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, C.J.; Shiraga, S.S.; Schwartz, R.A.; Smith, R.J.; Wootan, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    A decision must be made regarding whether the United State`s stockpile of neptunium should be discarded into the waste stream or kept for the production of Pu-238. Although the cost of long term storage is not inconsequential, to dispose of the material means the closing of our option to maintain control over our Pu-238 stockpile. Within the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at Hanford there exists a remotely operated facility that can be converted for neptunium storage. This paper describes the facility and the anticipated handling requirements.

  8. Storage tracking refinery trends

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, J.

    1996-05-01

    Regulatory and marketplace shakeups have made the refining and petrochemical industries highly competitive. The fight to survive has forced refinery consolidations, upgrades and companywide restructurings. Bulk liquid storage terminals are following suit. This should generate a flurry of engineering and construction by the latter part of 1997. A growing petrochemical industry translates into rising storage needs. Industry followers forecasted flat petrochemical growth in 1996 due to excessive expansion in 1994 and 1995. But expansion is expected to continue throughout this year on the strength of several products.

  9. Queuing Models of Tertiary Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore

    1996-01-01

    Large scale scientific projects generate and use large amounts of data. For example, the NASA Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project is expected to archive one petabyte per year of raw satellite data. This data is made automatically available for processing into higher level data products and for dissemination to the scientific community. Such large volumes of data can only be stored in robotic storage libraries (RSL's) for near-line access. A characteristic of RSL's is the use of a robot arm that transfers media between a storage rack and the read/write drives, thus multiplying the capacity of the system. The performance of the RSL's can be a critical limiting factor for the performance of the archive system. However, the many interacting components of an RSL make a performance analysis difficult. In addition, different RSL components can have widely varying performance characteristics. This paper describes our work to develop performance models of an RSL in isolation. Next we show how the RSL model can be incorporated into a queuing network model. We use the models to make some example performance studies of archive systems. The models described in this paper, developed for the NASA EODIS project, are implemented in C with a well defined interface. The source code, accompanying documentation, and also sample JAVA applets are available at: http://www.cis.ufl.edu/ted/

  10. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  11. Network file-storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W.W.; Devaney, M.J.; Willbanks, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Common File System (CFS) is a file management and mass storage system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's computer network. The CFS is organized as a hierarchical storage system: active files are stored on fast-access storage devices, larger, less active files are stored on slower, less expensive devices, and archival files are stored offline. Files are automatically moved between the various classes of storage by a file migration program that analyzes file activity, file size and storage device capabilities. This has resulted in a cost-effective system that provides both fast access and large data storage capability (over five trillion bits currently stored).

  12. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  13. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WEST STORAGE BASIN AT FUEL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WEST STORAGE BASIN AT FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-51-689. Unknown Photographer, 1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  15. 173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  16. 175. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WALL OF STORAGE ROOM, ADDED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    175. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WALL OF STORAGE ROOM, ADDED WITH ELEVATOR ADDITION OF 1905. WALL IS EXTERIOR OF ORIGINAL WAGON WORKS OF 1883. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  17. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  18. The Open Storage Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions about…

  19. Interim onsite radwaste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, V.F.; Roddy, F.M.

    1994-12-31

    The problems associated with state compacts for disposing of radioactive waste are well known. Presently, it appears that no compact will be capable of receiving waste by January 1996. Most compacts and independent states are essentially at ground zero. Politics, the {open_quotes}Not in MY backyard{close_quotes} (NIMBY) factor, poor public relations, public mistrust, public unawareness of engineering radwaste disposal, unfavorable media hype, and a multitude of other issues will delay projects even further. The financial burden imposed on electric utility rate payers is monumental. An economical and viable solution is onsite radwaste storage at nuclear stations. For example, the Bechtel design can store waste for $32/ft{sup 3}, whereas burial costs per cubic foot are approximately $300.00/ft{sup 3} for a LSA box, $350.00/ft{sup 3} for low-level resins, and $570.00/ft{sup 3} for high-level resins, plus transportation costs of approximately $2.00 per mile. This Bechtel onsite radwaste storage is designed for maximum radwaste storage per square foot. In the overall design, emphasis was placed upon operations, maintenance, health physics, personnel, radiation exposure, and economics. Many utility personnel were consulted for their input. The final design has encompassed most of these views to provide the optimum onsite storage facility.

  20. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  1. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  2. Tuber Storage Proteins

    PubMed Central

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose‐binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067

  3. Storage research roundup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With so much research being done in the areas of potato production, variety development, genetics, disease resistance and pest management it is easy to miss some of the research being done on potato storage. Below are highlights from a few of the noteworthy papers published recently that relate to t...

  4. Ethylene Gas in Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylene is a small volatile organic molecule that is produced by plants and many microbes. Potato tubers sense ethylene at concentrations of less than 1 ppm and respond to ethylene in ways that may be beneficial or detrimental for potato tuber storage. High concentrations of ethylene suppress sprou...

  5. Tuber storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  6. Catchment water storage: Models vs Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Hilary

    2016-04-01

    Recent years have seen a great deal of progress in development of hydrological models that can simulate both the dynamic streamflow response and the hydrochemical flux response of a catchment. In general terms, streamflow response is driven by water deficit in the catchment, whereas hydrochemical response is driven by water storage. Therefore, models that can simultaneously predict both responses must succeed in representing these two related, but different, quantities. This presentation will consider how much information we can gain from field studies to quantify the joint deficit/storage state of a catchment. In particular, examples from two New Zealand experimental catchments in lowland and high country locations will be used to link typical measurements available with the information required by hydrological - hydrochemical models. I will then use the example catchments to assess how well the structure of a typical hydrological-hydrochemical model is supported by field measurements. In particular, can we quantify catchment storage and link this to flow response? Can we incorporate our knowledge of plant water use into such a model, including timing and depth of water withdrawn by the plant? What can field measurements tell us about spatial variability in hydrological-hydrochemical response and can this be represented in the model? I will conclude by discussing what we can learn from field data about the major challenges ahead in catchment storage modelling.

  7. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Midwestern high-level radioactive waste transportation project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  8. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  9. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  10. Florida's Information Policy: Problems and Issues in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Legislature, Tallahassee.

    This report examines the major issues arising from the impact of information technology on the creation of government information and its storage, processing, and recordkeeping, based on information gathered through a literature search, several mailed questionnaires, and three public hearings. An outline of the background of the information policy…

  11. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  12. Storage analyses for water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, H.C.; Hardison, C.H.

    1973-01-01

    This manual briefly describes various methods of storage analysis and recommends one method for use by the U.S. Geological Survey to produce draft-storage relations useful to planners and designers. The recommended method is described in detail.

  13. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  14. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  15. Network storage service usage characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Performance and functionality increases in network environments have in the need for readily accessible mass storage. UNIX{reg_sign}-based networks and mass storage systems are providing the required connectivity and interoperability, however, how UNIX-based mass storage systems are being used is not well documented. This paper describes a study of the usage of the UNIX-based Network Storage Service at Sandia National Laboratories.

  16. Network storage service usage characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Performance and functionality increases in network environments have in the need for readily accessible mass storage. UNIX[reg sign]-based networks and mass storage systems are providing the required connectivity and interoperability, however, how UNIX-based mass storage systems are being used is not well documented. This paper describes a study of the usage of the UNIX-based Network Storage Service at Sandia National Laboratories.

  17. Commoditization of High Performance Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Studham, Scott S.

    2004-04-01

    The commoditization of high performance computers started in the late 80s with the attack of the killer micros. Previously, high performance computers were exotic vector systems that could only be afforded by an illustrious few. Now everyone has a supercomputer composed of clusters of commodity processors. A similar commoditization of high performance storage has begun. Commodity disks are being used for high performance storage, enabling a paradigm change in storage and significantly changing the price point of high volume storage.

  18. EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION PROJECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LINDQUIST, E.F.; AND OTHERS

    TO AID DATA COLLECTION ANALYSIS, STORAGE, AND DISSEMINATION, INSTRUMENTS AND PROCEDURES WERE DEVELOPED FOR COLLECTING INFORMATION ON ALL ASPECTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR A LARGE POPULATION OF SCHOOLS, INCLUDING INFORMATION ON INDIVIDUAL PUPILS, SCHOOL PERSONNEL, SCHOOLS, AND SCHOOL DISTRICTS. COMPUTER PROGRAMS AND DATA-PROCESSING TECHNIQUES…

  19. Advances in macromolecular data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-09-01

    We propose to develop a new method of information storage to replace magnetic hard disk drives and other instruments of secondary/backup data storage. The proposed method stores petabytes of user-data in a sugar cube (1 cm3), and can read/write that information at hundreds of megabits/sec. Digital information is recorded and stored in the form of a long macromolecule consisting of at least two bases, 𝐴 and 𝐵. (This would be similar to DNA strands constructed from the four nucleic acids 𝐺, 𝐶, 𝐴, 𝑇.) The macromolecules initially enter the system as blank slates. A macromolecule with, say, 10,000 identical bases in the form of 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴. . . . 𝐴𝐴𝐴 may be used to record a kilobyte block of user-data (including modulation and error-correction coding), although, in this blank state, it can only represent the null sequence 00000....000. Suppose this blank string of 𝐴's is dragged before an atomically-sharp needle of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). When electric pulses are applied to the needle in accordance with the sequence of 0s and 1s of a 1 𝑘𝐵 block of user-data, selected 𝐴 molecules will be transformed into 𝐵 molecules (e.g., a fraction of 𝐴 will be broken off and discarded). The resulting string now encodes the user-data in the form of 𝐴𝐴𝐵𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐴. . . 𝐵𝐴𝐵. The same STM needle can subsequently read the recorded information, as 𝐴 and 𝐵 would produce different electric signals when the strand passes under the needle. The macromolecule now represents a data block to be stored in a "parking lot" within the sugar cube, and later brought to a read station on demand. Millions of parking spots and thousands of Read/Write stations may be integrated within the micro-fabricated sugar cube, thus providing access to petabytes of

  20. Flywheel energy storage unit technology development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    A program to demonstrate an improved flywheel energy storage unit (ESU) to be used in combination with a heat engine for propelling a 1985 family sedan is described. Information is included on flywheel ESU design criteria, design, stress analysis thermal analysis, and performance. The ESU was designed, fabricated, and partially evaluated prior to the program being discontinued by LLL because of electrical machine failures and insufficient funds to correct the hardware discrepancies.

  1. Storage Area Networks and The High Performance Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, H; Graf, O; Fitzgerald, K; Watson, R W

    2002-03-04

    The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPSS is able to leverage today's Storage Area Network (SAN) infrastructures to provide cost effective, large-scale storage systems and high performance global file access for clients. Key attributes of SAN file systems are found in HPSS today, and more complete SAN file system capabilities are being added. This paper traces the HPSS storage network architecture from the original implementation using HIPPI and IPI-3 technology, through today's local area network (LAN) capabilities, and to SAN file system capabilities now in development. At each stage, HPSS capabilities are compared with capabilities generally accepted today as characteristic of storage area networks and SAN file systems.

  2. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Mennicke, S.; Weddigen, G.

    1983-06-14

    Electrochemical storage cell or battery of the alkali metal and chalcogen type with at least one anode space intended for receiving the anolyte and a cathode space for receiving the catholyte. The spaces are separated from each other by an alkali-ion-conducting solid electrolyte wall, and sulfur or sulfides are filled into the cathode space. The cathode space is filled with two or more porous layers of which always at least one is ion-conducting and one is electron-conducting. At least one ion-conducting layer rests at least in regions against the solid electrolyte, and at least one electron-conducting layer rests at least in some areas against the metallic housing of the storage cell. An electron-conducting layer is adjacent to each ion-conducting layer and vice versa. At least the electron-conducting layer is impregnated with sulfur.

  3. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Langpape, R.

    1984-06-05

    The invention relates to an electrochemical storage cell on the basis of alkali metal and chalcogen, particularly sodium and sulfur. The storage cell has an anode space for receiving the anolyte and a cathode space for receiving the catholyte. The two spaces are separated from each other by a cup-shaped solid electrolyte. The solid electrolyte is surrounded in the region of the anode space by a capillary structure over the entire length. The capillary structure has at least one widened portion which is formed by an outward-pointing bulge of the capillary structure. The widened portion extends over the entire length of the capillary structure. Each widened portion is traversed in its interior by a canal. The cylinder surface of this canal is formed by a metal screen. The entrance opening of this canal is directly adjacent to the exit opening of a supply container for the sodium.

  4. Nano-storage wires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals.

  5. Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies held in Sep. 1992 are included. The conference served as an informational exchange forum for topics primarily relating to the ingestion and management of massive amounts of data and the attendant problems (data ingestion rates now approach the order of terabytes per day). Discussion topics include the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model, data archiving standards, high-performance storage devices, magnetic and magneto-optic storage systems, magnetic and optical recording technologies, high-performance helical scan recording systems, and low end helical scan tape drives. Additional topics addressed the evolution of the identifiable unit for processing purposes as data ingestion rates increase dramatically, and the present state of the art in mass storage technology.

  6. DOE/EPRI Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA.

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Huff, Georgianne; Currier, Aileen B.; Kaun, Benjamin C; Rastler, Dan M.; Chen, Stella Bingqing; Cotter, Andrew L.; Bradshaw, Dale T.; Gauntlett, William D.

    2015-02-01

    The Electricity Storage Handbook (Handbook) is a how - to guide for utility and rural cooperative engineers, planners, and decision makers to plan and implement energy storage projects. The Handbook also serves as an information resource for investors and venture capitalists, providing the latest developments in technologies and tools to guide their evaluation s of energy storage opportunities. It includes a comprehensive database of the cost of current storage systems in a wide variety of electric utility and customer services, along with interconnection schematics. A list of significant past and present energy storage projects is provided for a practical perspective . This Handbook, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration with the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, is published in electronic form at www.sandia.gov/ess. This Handbook is best viewed online.

  7. Ultra-high-density phase-change storage and memory.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Hendrik F; O'Boyle, Martin; Martin, Yves C; Rooks, Michael; Wickramasinghe, H Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Phase-change storage is widely used in optical information technologies (DVD, CD-ROM and so on), and recently it has also been considered for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports advances in thermal data recording of phase-change materials. Specifically, we show erasable thermal phase-change recording at a storage density of 3.3 Tb inch(-2), which is three orders of magnitude denser than that currently achievable with commercial optical storage technologies. We demonstrate the concept of a thin-film nanoheater to realize ultra-small heat spots with dimensions of less than 50 nm. Finally, we show in a proof-of-concept demonstration that an individual thin-film heater can write, erase and read the phase of these storage materials at competitive speeds. This work provides important stepping stones for a very-high-density storage or memory technology based on phase-change materials. PMID:16604077

  8. Ultra-high-density phase-change storage and memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; O'Boyle, Martin; Martin, Yves C.; Rooks, Michael; Wickramasinghe, H. Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Phase-change storage is widely used in optical information technologies (DVD, CD-ROM and so on), and recently it has also been considered for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports advances in thermal data recording of phase-change materials. Specifically, we show erasable thermal phase-change recording at a storage density of 3.3 Tb inch-2, which is three orders of magnitude denser than that currently achievable with commercial optical storage technologies. We demonstrate the concept of a thin-film nanoheater to realize ultra-small heat spots with dimensions of less than 50 nm. Finally, we show in a proof-of-concept demonstration that an individual thin-film heater can write, erase and read the phase of these storage materials at competitive speeds. This work provides important stepping stones for a very-high-density storage or memory technology based on phase-change materials.

  9. Ultra-high-density phase-change storage and memory.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Hendrik F; O'Boyle, Martin; Martin, Yves C; Rooks, Michael; Wickramasinghe, H Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Phase-change storage is widely used in optical information technologies (DVD, CD-ROM and so on), and recently it has also been considered for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports advances in thermal data recording of phase-change materials. Specifically, we show erasable thermal phase-change recording at a storage density of 3.3 Tb inch(-2), which is three orders of magnitude denser than that currently achievable with commercial optical storage technologies. We demonstrate the concept of a thin-film nanoheater to realize ultra-small heat spots with dimensions of less than 50 nm. Finally, we show in a proof-of-concept demonstration that an individual thin-film heater can write, erase and read the phase of these storage materials at competitive speeds. This work provides important stepping stones for a very-high-density storage or memory technology based on phase-change materials.

  10. Energy Storage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  11. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  12. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Steinleitner, G.

    1984-05-01

    Electrochemical storage cell or battery with at least one anode space for receiving the anolyte and one cathode space for receiving the catholyte which spaces are separated from each other by an alkali ion-conducting solid electrolyte and are bounded at least in some places by a metallic housing. A safety space which is subdivided into at least two safety zones, adjoins at least in some places, the solid electrolyte.

  13. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haberfellner, F.; Prappacher, G.

    1985-01-08

    Electrochemical storage cell of the sodium and sulfur type with at least one anode space for receiving the anolyte and a cathode space for receiving the catholyte, which are separated from each other by an alkali ion-conducting solid electrolyte and are bounded at least in some areas by a metallic housing. The cathode space is in communication via at least one connecting element with at least one supply container for the sodium polysulfide being formed in the chemical reaction.

  14. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to provide multi-stream transfers for high performance wide area access, support for third party copies, credential delegation or the required changes in the experiment and fabric management frameworks and tools. We describe new functionality that has been added to ease system administration, such as different filesystem weights and a faster disk drain, and new configuration and monitoring solutions based on the industry standards Puppet and Nagios. Finally, we explain some of the internal changes we had to do in the DPM architecture to better handle the additional load from the analysis use cases.

  15. A methodological comparison of catchment storages in mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Markus; Staudinger, Maria; Stölzle, Michael; Seeger, Stefan; Seibert, Jan; Stahl, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important functions of catchments is the temporary storage of water, which directly influences runoff dynamics, rainfall-runoff transformation, partitioning of evaporation and runoff fluxes, and accessibility of water to plants. Generally, a large catchment storage is considered beneficial and in particular increases the transit times and hence the buffer functioning related to water quality. Many different methods have been developed to assess catchment storage, however, there are hardly any direct comparisons of several of these methods. One challenge is the definition of water storage, while some methods allow estimation of the entire water storage in a catchment, other methods quantify only the dynamic storage. In addition, most studies focused more on lowland catchments with rain-dominated runoff regimes and observed groundwater fluctuations. Furthermore, these studies often focus on one or two catchments, but do not consider the influence of different climates on the relevance of water storage in the catchment. We applied a range of different methods to assess catchment storage characteristics in 18 catchments in the Swiss Alps, ranging from 500 to 2000m of mean elevation and hence from rainfall- to snowmelt dominated runoff regimes. The first method use only discharge information during recession periods and with varying approaches to extract discharge and storage changes between high flow and low flow, the dynamic catchment storage can be derived. In the next methods the conceptual hydrological model HBV is calibrated to the runoff dynamics and the dynamic and total catchment storages of the different compartments are being evaluated. The last methods are based on stable water isotope data analysis. We use the model TRANSEP to derive the dynamic storage as well as the total water storage of the catchment based on the transit times using several years of fortnightly isotope data in streamflow. The results show that the derived catchment

  16. Maui energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  17. Mass storage at NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    The need to manage large amounts of data on robotically controlled devices has been critical to the mission of this Agency for many years. In many respects this Agency has helped pioneer, with their industry counterparts, the development of a number of products long before these systems became commercially available. Numerous attempts have been made to field both robotically controlled tape and optical disk technology and systems to satisfy our tertiary storage needs. Custom developed products were architected, designed, and developed without vendor partners over the past two decades to field workable systems to handle our ever increasing storage requirements. Many of the attendees of this symposium are familiar with some of the older products, such as: the Braegen Automated Tape Libraries (ATL's), the IBM 3850, the Ampex TeraStore, just to name a few. In addition, we embarked on an in-house development of a shared disk input/output support processor to manage our every increasing tape storage needs. For all intents and purposes, this system was a file server by current definitions which used CDC Cyber computers as the control processors. It served us well and was just recently removed from production usage.

  18. Long-term data storage in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  19. Thermal storage for electric utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

  20. Scalable cloud without dedicated storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batkovich, D. V.; Kompaniets, M. V.; Zarochentsev, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a prototype of a scalable computing cloud. It is intended to be deployed on the basis of a cluster without the separate dedicated storage. The dedicated storage is replaced by the distributed software storage. In addition, all cluster nodes are used both as computing nodes and as storage nodes. This solution increases utilization of the cluster resources as well as improves fault tolerance and performance of the distributed storage. Another advantage of this solution is high scalability with a relatively low initial and maintenance cost. The solution is built on the basis of the open source components like OpenStack, CEPH, etc.

  1. Fuel performance in water storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950`s prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material.

  2. Performance evaluation of mass storage systems for scientific databases

    SciTech Connect

    Segev, A. |; Seshadri, S.; Rotem, D.

    1994-09-01

    Mass storage systems for computers are the solution to economic storage of vast volumes of data. These systems evolved from the traditional tape libraries manned by operating personnel and the automation of the storage and retrieval function has led to significant improvement in performance. But in contrast to traditional computer systems, little work has been done to characterize performance in terms of the design parameters. The design and performance analysis of mass storage systems is complicated due to several reasons. A major reason for the complexity is the time lags that may occur in retrieving parts of the information meant for the same query. The usual queuing models used for analyzing disk performance are not directly applicable, because there is greater scope for working in parallel in mass storage systems such as robotic libraries, which help mitigate these shortcomings. In this note, robotic libraries are modeled as queueing systems and explicit results related to performance are obtained. The physical model corresponds to a mass storage system, where the information is stored in cassettes, which are retrieved by robots to be read using one or two read heads. The results pertain to the effect of file splitting on cassettes, and optimal configuration and control of robots that perform the retrieval and storage functions.

  3. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R L; Nield, K J; Rohde, R R; Wolosewicz, R M

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating and cooling systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-Chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestics hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

  4. Data Acquisition and Mass Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Vyvre, P.

    2004-08-01

    The experiments performed at supercolliders will constitute a new challenge in several disciplines of High Energy Physics and Information Technology. This will definitely be the case for data acquisition and mass storage. The microelectronics, communication, and computing industries are maintaining an exponential increase of the performance of their products. The market of commodity products remains the largest and the most competitive market of technology products. This constitutes a strong incentive to use these commodity products extensively as components to build the data acquisition and computing infrastructures of the future generation of experiments. The present generation of experiments in Europe and in the US already constitutes an important step in this direction. The experience acquired in the design and the construction of the present experiments has to be complemented by a large R&D effort executed with good awareness of industry developments. The future experiments will also be expected to follow major trends of our present world: deliver physics results faster and become more and more visible and accessible. The present evolution of the technologies and the burgeoning of GRID projects indicate that these trends will be made possible. This paper includes a brief overview of the technologies currently used for the different tasks of the experimental data chain: data acquisition, selection, storage, processing, and analysis. The major trends of the computing and networking technologies are then indicated with particular attention paid to their influence on the future experiments. Finally, the vision of future data acquisition and processing systems and their promise for future supercolliders is presented.

  5. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    PubMed

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-01

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  6. A Central Capacity Limit to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saults, J. Scott; Cowan, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then storage limits for information in a single modality should apply also to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. The authors investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array…

  7. InfoStation: A Low-Cost Electronic Document Storage, Retrieval, and Transmission System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessier, David

    1987-01-01

    Describes InfoStation, an information system which integrates a microcomputer with a videotape recorder and facsimile machine, to provide backup storage and selective retrieval of both analog and digital information. The features and applications of the system are described in detail and compared with other computer storage methods. (CLB)

  8. Multiplexed Holographic Data Storage in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrl, David J.; Krile, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    High density optical data storage, driven by the information revolution, remains at the forefront of current research areas. Much of the current research has focused on photorefractive materials (SBN and LiNbO3) and polymers, despite various problems with expense, durability, response time and retention periods. Photon echo techniques, though promising, are questionable due to the need for cryogenic conditions. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films are an attractive alternative recording medium. Great strides have been made in refining BR, and materials with storage lifetimes as long as 100 days have recently become available. The ability to deposit this robust polycrystalline material as high quality optical films suggests the use of BR as a recording medium for commercial optical disks. Our own recent research has demonstrated the suitability of BR films for real time spatial filtering and holography. We propose to fully investigate the feasibility of performing holographic mass data storage in BR. Important aspects of the problem to be investigated include various data multiplexing techniques (e.g. angle- amplitude- and phase-encoded multiplexing, and in particular shift-multiplexing), multilayer recording techniques, SLM selection and data readout using crossed polarizers for noise rejection. Systems evaluations of storage parameters, including access times, memory refresh constraints, erasure, signal-to-noise ratios and bit error rates, will be included in our investigations.

  9. Ecological controls over global soil carbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Schimel, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    Globally, soil carbon comprises about 2/3 of terrestrial carbon storage. Soil carbon is thus an important reservoir of carbon, but also influences the responses of ecosystems to change by controlling many aspects of nutrient cycling. While broad-scale patterns of soil carbon accumulation can be explained in terms of climatic and biome distributions, many ecological processes also influence the storage and turnover of carbon in soils. I will present a synthesis of information from field studies, model experiments and global data bases on factors controlling the turnover and storage of soil carbon. First, I will review a series of studies showing links between vegetation change (successional and invasions) and soil carbon. Then I will review model analyses of the sensitivity of soil carbon to climatic and ecological changes. Results show that soil carbon storage is broadly sensitive to climate but greatly influenced by the allocation of detritus between resistant (lignaceous and woody) and more labile forms, and that biotic changes that affect allocation, affect soil carbon substantially at regionally and perhaps global scales.

  10. Structured Storage and Retrieval of SGML Documents Using Grove.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hak-Gyoon; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2000-01-01

    Discusses traditional information retrieval through indexing terms and describes a document storage and retrieval system based on structured information, where the SGML document is transformed into Grove (Graph Representation of Property Values) and stored at an element level by an object-oriented database management system. Also discusses query…

  11. Pumping and Breastmilk Storage

    MedlinePlus

    ... has how-to information and support to help women breastfeed successfully. Related information It's Only Natural: African-American breastfeeding Support for nursing moms in the workplace Subscribe to breastfeeding email updates Email Accessibility | Privacy ...

  12. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C. R.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).

  13. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Ison

    2008-11-08

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D&D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.M.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997.

  15. Operational Benefits of Meeting California's Energy Storage Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Josh; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Helman, Udi

    2015-12-18

    In October 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) finalized procurement targets and other requirements to its jurisdictional utilities for a minimum of 1,325 MW of 'viable and cost-effective' energy storage systems by 2020. The goal of this study is to explore several aspects of grid operations in California and the Western Interconnection resulting from meeting the CPUC storage targets. We perform this analysis using a set of databases and grid simulation tools developed and implemented by the CPUC, the California Independent System Operator (CAISO), and the California Energy Commission (CEC) for the CPUC's Long-term Procurement Plan (LTPP). The 2014 version of this database contains information about generators, storage, transmission, and electrical demand, for California in the year 2024 for both 33% and 40% renewable energy portfolios. We examine the value of various services provided by energy storage in these scenarios. Sensitivities were performed relating to the services energy storage can provide, the capacity and duration of storage devices, export limitations, and negative price floor variations. Results show that a storage portfolio, as outlined by the CPUC, can reduce curtailment and system-wide production costs for 33% and 40% renewable scenarios. A storage device that can participate in energy and ancillary service markets provides the grid with the greatest benefit; the mandated storage requirement of 1,325 MW was estimated to reduce the total cost of production by about 78 million per year in the 33% scenario and 144 million per year in the 40% scenario. Much of this value is derived from the avoided start and stop costs of thermal generators and provision of ancillary services. A device on the 2024 California grid and participating in only ancillary service markets can provide the system with over 90% of the value as the energy and ancillary service device. The analysis points to the challenge of new storage providing regulation

  16. Pseudocapacitors for Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Anuradha

    Fluctuation in the demand for electrical power and the intermittent nature of the supply of energy from renewable sources like solar and wind have made the need for energy storage a dire necessity. Current storage technologies like batteries and supercapacitors fall short either in terms of power output or in their ability to store sufficient energy. Pseudocapacitors combine features of both and offer an alternative to stabilize the power supply. They possess high rates of charge and discharge and are capable of storing much more energy in comparison to a supercapacitor. In the quest for solutions that are economical and feasible, we have investigated Prussian Blue in aqueous electrolytes for its use as a pseudocapacitor. Two different active materials based on Prussian Blue were prepared; one that has just Prussian Blue and the other that contains a mixture of Prussian Blue and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Four electrolytes differing in the valence of the cation were employed for the study. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge were used to characterize the electrodes. Our experiments have shown specific capacitances of Prussian Blue electrodes in the range of 140-720 F/g and that of Prussian Blue-CNT electrodes in the range of ˜52 F/g. The remarkable capacity of charge storage in Prussian Blue electrodes is attributed to its electrochemical activity ensuring surface redox and its tunnel-like structure allowing ease of entry and exit for ions like Potassium. Simple methods of synthesis have yielded specific capacitances of the order of hundreds of Farads per gram showing that Prussian Blue has promise as an electrode material for applications needing high rates of charge-discharge.

  17. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  18. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  19. Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  20. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Steinleitner, G.

    1985-05-07

    Electrochemical storage cell of the alkali metal and chalcogen type with at least one anode space for the alkali metal anolyte, and a cathode space for the chalcogen catholyte, with the anode space and the cathode space separated from each other by an alkali ion-conducting solid electrolyte wall, the improvement comprising the addition in the anode space of sodium and of a capturing material with O/sub 2/-getter properties in an amount sufficient to absorb detrimental bound or free oxygen.

  1. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hasenauer, D.

    1983-09-20

    An electrochemical storage cell is disclosed based on alkali metal and chalcogen comprising at least one anode space for the alkali metal anolyte and a cathode space for the chalcogen catholyte, with the anode space and the cathode space separated from each other by an alkali ion-conducting solid electrolyte wall and a metallic housing bounding the cell. The solid electrolyte wall has a plurality of spaced, outwardly extending hollow recesses, and at least one current collector disposed between each pair of adjacent recesses.

  2. Waste gas storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Method for storing a waste gas mixture comprised of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert gases, the gas mixture containing corrosive contaminants including inorganic acids and bases and organic solvents, and derived from space station operations. The gas mixture is stored under pressure in a vessel formed of a filament wound composite overwrap on a metal liner, the metal liner being pre-stressed in compression by the overwrap, thereby avoiding any tensile stress in the liner, and preventing stress corrosion cracking of the liner during gas mixture storage.

  3. Interim storage study report

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  4. Cold water aquifer storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-03-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  5. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host

  6. Cranfield Conference on Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Franklin F.

    The Third Cranfield Conference on Mechanised Information Storage and Retrieval Systems was held on 20-23 July 1971 in Cranfield, England. The report describes a number of the key papers presented at this conference. (Author)

  7. Optical disk technology and information.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, C M

    1982-02-12

    The optical video disk, spawned by the home entertainment industry, and its counterpart, the optical digital disk, both hold great promise for information storage and retrieval and the scientific enterprise. Optical digital disks for computer mass storage are currently under development by many firms. In addition, efforts are under way to allow encoding of digital information on video disks. This is desirable as an inexpensive publication medium for machine-readable data as well as a means of obtaining both video and digital information on one disk. Potential applications of this technology include inexpensive on-line storage, random access graphics to complement on-line information systems, hybrid network architectures, office automation systems, and archival storage.

  8. Assessment of plutonium storage safety issues at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) mission for utilization and storage of nuclear materials has recently changed as a result of the end of the ``Cold War`` era. Past and current plutonium storage practices largely reflect a temporary, in-process, or in-use storage condition which must now be changed to accommodate longer-term storage. This report summarizes information concerning current plutonium metal and oxide storage practices which was presented at the Office of Defense programs (DP) workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 26-27, 1993 and contained in responses to questions by DP-62 from the field organizations.

  9. Magnetic energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The fusion program embraces low loss superconductor strand development with integration into cables capable of carrying 50 kA in pulsed mode at high fields. This evolvement has been paralleled with pulsed energy storage coil development and testing from tens of kJ at low fields to a 20 MJ prototype tokamak induction coil at 7.5 T. Energy transfer times have ranged from 0.7 ms to several seconds. Electric utility magnetic storage for prospective application is for diurnal load leveling with massive systems to store 10 GWh at 1.8 K in a dewar structure supported on bedrock underground. An immediate utility application is a 30 MJ system to be used to damp power oscillations on the Bonneville Power Administration electric transmission lines. An off-shoot of this last work is a new program for electric utility VAR control with the potential for use to suppress subsynchronous resonance. This paper presents work in progress, work planned, and recently completed unusual work.

  10. Research on ATCA-based content aware storage data gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Zhou, Jingli; Qin, LeiHua; Hong, Hanyang; Guan, Qiang

    2008-12-01

    This research proposes a new Storage Data Gateway (SDG) on Content Aware Storage System (CASS). The CASS consists of storage application service, content auto-tiering storage; management and control sever which is the Content Management Server (CMS). The system gives each stored object a unique content address, derived from the content itself. The physical location of stored information becomes irrelevant to users. The CMS takes advantage of the tier data architecture and decides data migration strategists. But the CMS will be overload if the system assigns the backup and data migration work to it on LAN-based model. That server does not need to control each data duplication or migration. It will be free with Sever-free model. The system needs some special device to transfer data between highspeed storage node and low-speed storage node and intermix FC storage node and IP storage node with content information instead of the responsibility of CMS like on LAN-based model. That device is a new type of SDG which needs content aware, high bandwidth, strong computing ability, and high reliability. According to those requirements, we design the Content Aware SDG (CA-SDG) based on ATCA specifications. Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) is a new series of PICMG specifications, targeted to requirements for the next generation of carrier grade communications equipment. This series of specifications incorporates the latest trends in high speed interconnect technologies, next generation processors and improved reliability, manageability and serviceability. The hardware system of CA-SDG consists of two compute units (one unit deal with commands from CMS, the other interpreter data between storage nodes), two network switch units (one is redundant), two network interface units (one group units interconnect application service layer, and the other group provide the communication of heterogeneous storage nodes), one local storage unit and one manager unit

  11. Petabyte Class Storage at Jefferson Lab (CEBAF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Rita; Davis, Mark

    1996-01-01

    By 1997, the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will collect over one Terabyte of raw information per day of Accelerator operation from three concurrently operating Experimental Halls. When post-processing is included, roughly 250 TB of raw and formatted experimental data will be generated each year. By the year 2000, a total of one Petabyte will be stored on-line. Critical to the experimental program at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is the networking and computational capability to collect, store, retrieve, and reconstruct data on this scale. The design criteria include support of a raw data stream of 10-12 MB/second from Experimental Hall B, which will operate the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). Keeping up with this data stream implies design strategies that provide storage guarantees during accelerator operation, minimize the number of times data is buffered allow seamless access to specific data sets for the researcher, synchronize data retrievals with the scheduling of postprocessing calculations on the data reconstruction CPU farms, as well as support the site capability to perform data reconstruction and reduction at the same overall rate at which new data is being collected. The current implementation employs state-of-the-art StorageTek Redwood tape drives and robotics library integrated with the Open Storage Manager (OSM) Hierarchical Storage Management software (Computer Associates, International), the use of Fibre Channel RAID disks dual-ported between Sun Microsystems SMP servers, and a network-based interface to a 10,000 SPECint92 data processing CPU farm. Issues of efficiency, scalability, and manageability will become critical to meet the year 2000 requirements for a Petabyte of near-line storage interfaced to over 30,000 SPECint92 of data processing power.

  12. Petabyte class storage at Jefferson Lab (CEBAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, R.; Davis, M.

    1996-08-01

    By 1997, this facility will collect over 1 Terabyte of raw information/day accelerator operation from three concurrently operating experimental halls. With post-processing, it means that about 250 TB raw and formatted experimental data will be generated each year. By the year 2000, a total of one Petabyte will be stored on-line. Critical to the program is the networking and computational capability to collect, store, retrieve, and reconstruct data on this scale. Design criteria include support of a raw data stream of 10-12 MB/second from Experimental Hall B, which will operate the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Keeping up with this data stream implies design strategies that provide storage guarantees during accelerator operation, minimize the number of times data is buffered, allow seamless access to specific data sets for the researcher, synchronize data retrievals with scheduling of postprocessing calculations on the data reconstruction CPU farms, as well as support the site capability for data reconstruction and reduction at same overall rate that new data is being collected. Current implementation uses state of the art StorageTek Redwood tape drives and robotics library integrated with the Open Storage Manager Hierarchical Storage Management software (Computer Associates, International), the use of Fibre Channel RAID disks dual-ported between Sun Microsystems SMP servers, and a network-based interface to a 10,000 SPECint92 data processing CPU farm. Issues of efficiency, scaleability, and manageability will become critical to meet the year 2000 requirements for a Petabyte of near-line storage interfaced to over 30,000 SPECint92 of data processing power.

  13. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  14. Storage and conservation of bagasse

    SciTech Connect

    Cusi, D.S.

    1980-08-01

    Storage of bagasse produced at harvest time becomes necessary when it is used for operations that are carried out continuously throughout the year, such as pulp and paper production. The sugar cane tissues suffer severe mechanical treatment in the sugar mills crushers, are further damaged in depithers and in many cases degraded while in storage. The processes of degradation are examined and handling and storage procedures are discussed which will minimize the quality and material losses.

  15. Aquifer thermal energy storage program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Demonstration Program is to stimulate the interest of industry by demonstrating the feasibility of using a geological formation for seasonal thermal energy storage, thereby, reducing crude oil consumption, minimizing thermal pollution, and significantly reducing utility capital investments required to account for peak power requirements. This purpose will be served if several diverse projects can be operated which will demonstrate the technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage systems.

  16. Bulk pesticide storage - state perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Buzicky, G.

    1994-12-31

    State bulk pesticide storage regulations continue to evolve differentially due, in large part, to the absence of federal regulations. This is about to change because of the pending promulgation of 40 CFR Part 165, as amended in 1988 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules regarding storage, handling and disposal. Until final adoption of the rules by EPA, states continue to address bulk pesticide storage and handling according to individual state statute, rules and guidelines.

  17. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  18. Optimization of radioactive waste storage.

    PubMed

    Dellamano, José Claudio; Sordi, Gian-Maria A A

    2007-02-01

    In several countries, low-level radioactive wastes are treated and stored awaiting construction and operation of a final repository. In some cases, interim storage may be extended for decades requiring special attention regarding security issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends segregation of wastes that may be exempted from interim storage or ultimate disposal. The paper presents a method to optimize the decision making process regarding exemption vs. interim storage or ultimate disposal of these wastes. PMID:17228185

  19. UFD Storage and Transportation - Transportation Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-08-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Transportation Task commenced in October 2010. As its first task, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compiled a list of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of transportation systems and their possible degradation mechanisms during extended storage. The list of SSCs and the associated degradation mechanisms [known as features, events, and processes (FEPs)] were based on the list of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage system SSCs and degradation mechanisms developed by the UFD Storage Task (Hanson et al. 2011). Other sources of information surveyed to develop the list of SSCs and their degradation mechanisms included references such as Evaluation of the Technical Basis for Extended Dry Storage and Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel (NWTRB 2010), Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification, Revision 1 (OCRWM 2008), Data Needs for Long-Term Storage of LWR Fuel (EPRI 1998), Technical Bases for Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (EPRI 2002), Used Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Extended Storage Collaboration Program (EPRI 2010a), Industry Spent Fuel Storage Handbook (EPRI 2010b), and Transportation of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, Issues Resolution (EPRI 2010c). SSCs include items such as the fuel, cladding, fuel baskets, neutron poisons, metal canisters, etc. Potential degradation mechanisms (FEPs) included mechanical, thermal, radiation and chemical stressors, such as fuel fragmentation, embrittlement of cladding by hydrogen, oxidation of cladding, metal fatigue, corrosion, etc. These degradation mechanisms are discussed in Section 2 of this report. The degradation mechanisms have been evaluated to determine if they would be influenced by extended storage or high burnup, the need for additional data, and their importance to transportation. These categories were used to identify the most significant transportation degradation mechanisms. As expected, for the most part, the

  20. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  1. Degenerate resistive switching and ultrahigh density storage in resistive memory

    SciTech Connect

    Lohn, Andrew J. Mickel, Patrick R. James, Conrad D.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2014-09-08

    We show that in tantalum oxide resistive memories, activation power provides a multi-level variable for information storage that can be set and read separately from the resistance. These two state variables (resistance and activation power) can be precisely controlled in two steps: (1) the possible activation power states are selected by partially reducing resistance, then (2) a subsequent partial increase in resistance specifies the resistance state and the final activation power state. We show that these states can be precisely written and read electrically, making this approach potentially amenable for ultra-high density memories. We provide a theoretical explanation for information storage and retrieval from activation power and experimentally demonstrate information storage in a third dimension related to the change in activation power with resistance.

  2. Degenerate resistive switching and ultrahigh density storage in resistive memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Mickel, Patrick R.; James, Conrad D.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2014-09-01

    We show that in tantalum oxide resistive memories, activation power provides a multi-level variable for information storage that can be set and read separately from the resistance. These two state variables (resistance and activation power) can be precisely controlled in two steps: (1) the possible activation power states are selected by partially reducing resistance, then (2) a subsequent partial increase in resistance specifies the resistance state and the final activation power state. We show that these states can be precisely written and read electrically, making this approach potentially amenable for ultra-high density memories. We provide a theoretical explanation for information storage and retrieval from activation power and experimentally demonstrate information storage in a third dimension related to the change in activation power with resistance.

  3. Programming and Training for Small Farm Grain Storage. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual No. M-2B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Carl

    This handbook for Peace Corps agricultural programmers, trainers, and volunteers is designed to aid them in identifying storage problems and devising solutions to them. Part 1 covers grain storage project programming. Information provided for the volunteers involved in grain storage projects includes project goals and objectives as well as methods…

  4. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Apart from the hydrogeological conditions, high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. After one year of planning, construction, and the successful drilling of a research well to 495 m b.s.l. the first large scale heat storage test in the Malm aquifer was finished just before Christmas 2014. An enormous technical challenge was the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10-50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. About 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary to achieve the desired water temperatures. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for the analysis of the concentration of the tracers and the cation concentrations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analyzed for major ions and trace elements in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger proved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating

  5. Measurements of Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2004-03-01

    The many sensational claims of vast quantities of hydrogen (H) stored in carbon materials reported since 1996 have resulted in the H storage and carbon scientific literature now being cluttered with misinformation and some genuinely bad science. H storage experiments are not trivial, and they are prone to error and misinterpretation. For example, volumetric experiments use equilibrium gas pressures (P) and temperatures (T) measured in calibrated volumes to determine the number of moles of gas, and changes in P without changes in T (or leakage) are then interpreted as sorption. A typical mistake is measuring P vs. time after pressurizing a sample chamber and interpreting a drop in P as sorption. This is difficult to interpret as real absorption because all confounding effects (leaks, T drifts, thermal inhomogeneities, etc.) are nearly impossible to eliminate. Moreover, the basic thermodynamic properties of gas flow systems tell us that high-P gases filling evacuated chambers experience non-negligible rises in T. Another example of misinterpretation arises in gravimetric experiments that use weight (W) measurements corrected for large T-dependent buoyancy effects to determine gas sorption. Here a typical mistake is interpreting the actual sorption of heavy residual impurity gases as H sorption. These and other techniques for measuring H sorption must be performed and interpreted with great care due to difficulties associated with small sample sizes, high gas pressures, very reactive materials, contamination, low signal-to-noise, poor experimental design, and, in some cases, bad science. Good science respects the difference between measurement precision (the number of significant digits of P or W measurements) and experimental accuracy (the degree of certainty that P or W changes really represent H sorption). At General Motors, we endeavor to understand, conduct, and promote reliable H storage measurements on new materials and routinely use both volumetric

  6. VIEW OF MIDDLE STORAGE BASIN NUMBER 2 OF FUEL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MIDDLE STORAGE BASIN NUMBER 2 OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING NORTHEAST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-17-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. VIEW OF SOUTH STORAGE BASIN NUMBER 1 OF FUEL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH STORAGE BASIN NUMBER 1 OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING NORTHEAST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-18-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Insulated solar storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Eldighidy, S.M. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical and experimental investigation of an insulated parallelepiped, outdoor solar, water-filled storage tank of size 1 m {times} 0.5 m {times} 0.3 m, that is made from galvanized iron. The absorption coefficient of the insulating material has been determined. The effects of plastic covers and insulation thickness on the water temperature and the energy gained or lost by water are investigated. Moreover, the effects of insulation thickness on the temperature profiles of the insulating material are discussed. The results show that the absorption coefficient decreases as the insulation thickness increases. Also, it is found that the glass wool insulation of 2.5 cm thickness has the best results compared with the other thicknesses (5 cm, 7.5 cm, and 10 cm) as far as the water temperature and the energy gained by water are concerned.

  9. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Haar, W.; Kleinschmager, H.; Weddigen, G.

    1980-01-15

    An electrochemical storage cell or battery is described with at least one anode filled with a molten alkali metal as the anolyte and at least one cathode chamber filled with a sulfur-containing catholyte substance with the anode chamber and the cathode chamber separated from each other by an alkali-ion-conducting solid electrolyte. To the catholyte substance is added an additive which converts the sulfur chains into an electrically charged state for obtaining electromigration of the sulfur phase. This induces mobilization of the sulfur phase in the cathode chamber and prevents major accumulation of liquid sulfur as an insulator. As a result the cell can be repeatedly recharged with large currents to a greater capacity. Additives are a dienophilic compound or a reaction product of a dienophilic compound and sulfur.

  10. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, B.; Kleinschmager, H.

    1980-12-16

    An electrochemical storage cell or battery with an anode space for an alkali metal as the anolyte and with a cathode space for a sulfur-containing catholyte substance, which are separated from each other by an alkali-ion-conducting solid electrolyte and are confined by a cell wall of metal, particularly of a light metal or steel is described. Long-life corrosion protection of the metal cell wall is provided by a protective layer by applying to at least that part of the metal cell wall in contact with the catholyte substance, a foil of corrosion-resistant material 0.01 to 0.2 mm thick by means of a conductive adhesive which retains its adhesive properties at operating temperatures.

  11. Core assembly storage structure

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  12. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, James A.; Wang, Tao; Ebner, Armin D.; Holland, Charles E.

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  13. Global root zone storage capacity from satellite-based evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M.; Gao, Hongkai; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Senay, Gabriel B.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Keys, Patrick W.; Gordon, Line J.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an "Earth observation-based" method for estimating root zone storage capacity - a critical, yet uncertain parameter in hydrological and land surface modelling. By assuming that vegetation optimises its root zone storage capacity to bridge critical dry periods, we were able to use state-of-the-art satellite-based evaporation data computed with independent energy balance equations to derive gridded root zone storage capacity at global scale. This approach does not require soil or vegetation information, is model independent, and is in principle scale independent. In contrast to a traditional look-up table approach, our method captures the variability in root zone storage capacity within land cover types, including in rainforests where direct measurements of root depths otherwise are scarce. Implementing the estimated root zone storage capacity in the global hydrological model STEAM (Simple Terrestrial Evaporation to Atmosphere Model) improved evaporation simulation overall, and in particular during the least evaporating months in sub-humid to humid regions with moderate to high seasonality. Our results suggest that several forest types are able to create a large storage to buffer for severe droughts (with a very long return period), in contrast to, for example, savannahs and woody savannahs (medium length return period), as well as grasslands, shrublands, and croplands (very short return period). The presented method to estimate root zone storage capacity eliminates the need for poor resolution soil and rooting depth data that form a limitation for achieving progress in the global land surface modelling community.

  14. Scalable fault tolerant image communication and storage grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slik, David; Seiler, Oliver; Altman, Tym; Montour, Mike; Kermani, Mohammad; Proseilo, Walter; Terry, David; Kawahara, Midori; Leckie, Chris; Muir, Dale

    2003-05-01

    Increasing production and use of digital medical imagery are driving new approaches to information storage and management. Traditional, centralized approaches to image communication, storage and archiving are becoming increasingly expensive to scale and operate with high levels of reliability. Multi-site, geographically-distributed deployments connected by limited-bandwidth networks present further scalability, reliability, and availability challenges. A grid storage architecture built from a distributed network of low cost, off-the-shelf servers (nodes) provides scalable data and metadata storage, processing, and communication without single points of failure. Imaging studies are stored, replicated, cached, managed, and retrieved based on defined rules, and nodes within the grid can acquire studies and respond to queries. Grid nodes transparently load-balance queries, storage/retrieval requests, and replicate data for automated backup and disaster recovery. This approach reduces latency, increases availability, provides near-linear scalability and allows the creation of a geographically distributed medical imaging network infrastructure. This paper presents some key concepts in grid storage and discusses the results of a clinical deployment of a multi-site storage grid for cancer care in the province of British Columbia.

  15. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The design of the Initial Blood Storage Experiment (IBSE) was based upon a carefully controlled comparison between identical sets of human blood cell suspensions - red cells, white cell, and platelets - one set of which was transported aboard the Columbia on a 6 day 11 hour mission, and the other held on the ground. Both sets were carried inside stainless steel dewars within specially fabricated flight hardware. Individual bags of cell suspensions were randomly assigned with respect to ground vs orbit status, dewar chamber, and specific location within the dewar. To foster optimal preservation, each cell type was held under specific optimal conditions of pH, ionic strength, solute concentration, gas tension, and temperature. An added variable in this initial experiment was provided by the use of three different polymer/plasticizer formulations for the sealed bags which held the blood cells. At termination of the experiment, aliquots of the suspensions, identified only by code, were distributed to be assayed. Assays were selected to constitute a broad survey of cellular properties and thereby maximize the chances of detection of gravitational effects. A total of 74 different outcome measurements were reported for statistical analysis. When the measurements were completed, the results were entered into the IBSE data base, at which time the data were matched with the original blood bag numbers to determine their status with respect to polymer/plasticizer type, orbit status (orbit or ground), and storage position within the experimental hardware. The data were studied by analysis of variance. Initially, type of bag and orbital status were main factors; later more detailed analyses were made on specific issues such as position in the hardware and specific plastic. If the analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance at the 5 percent level the corresponding p-value was reported.

  16. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted. PMID:26629882

  17. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted.

  18. Information Retrieval in Education - A Worthy Tradition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Because information handling applies to all forms of learning, one Microelectronics Education Programme (MEP) INSET strategy is devoted to a discussion of the generation, storage, retrieval, communication, and use of information in all subject areas. Discusses the nature of information; MEP and the information domain; information gathering, use,…

  19. Tribology of magnetic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1992-01-01

    The construction and the materials used in different magnetic storage devices are defined. The theories of friction and adhesion, interface temperatures, wear, and solid-liquid lubrication relevant to magnetic storage systems are presented. Experimental data are presented wherever possible to support the relevant theories advanced.

  20. Electrochemistry and Storage Panel Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.; Halpert, G.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance requirements for electrochemical power storage systems are discussed and some of the approaches towards satisfying these constraints are described. Geosynchronous and low Earth orbit applications, radar type load constraints, and high voltage systems requirements are addressed. In addition, flywheel energy storage is discussed.

  1. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  2. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  3. Neuroimaging of Lipid Storage Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly…

  4. Storage Technology: Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Charles M.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews terminology inherent in discussing microcomputer storage technologies and addresses aspects of magnetic storage and present and near-future technologies, including floppy disks, Winchester and removable hard disks, optical digital disks, optical video disks, (audio) compact disks, perpendicular magnetic recording, and erasable optical…

  5. Southern company energy storage study :

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  6. Analysis of ionic photofragments stored in an electrostatic storage ring.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Annette; Teiwes, Ricky; Kiefer, Hjalte V; Andersen, Lars H; Pedersen, Henrik B

    2016-01-01

    A new method to analyze the properties of fragment ions created in storage ring experiments is presented. The technique relies on an acceleration of ionic fragments immediately after production whereby the fragments are stored in the storage ring. To obtain a fragment mass spectrum, the storage ring is exploited as an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) in which case the number of stored fragment ions is recorded as a function of the applied acceleration potential. However, the storage ring can additionally be employed as a time-of-flight (TOF) instrument by registering the temporal distribution of fragment ions. It is demonstrated that the combined ESA-TOF operation of the ring allows not only to determine fragment masses with much better resolution compared to the ESA mode alone but also enables the extraction of detailed information on the fragmentation dynamics. The method is described analytically and verified with photodissociation experiments on stored Cl2 (-) at an excitation wavelength of 530 nm. PMID:26827313

  7. Analysis of ionic photofragments stored in an electrostatic storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Annette; Teiwes, Ricky; Kiefer, Hjalte V.; Andersen, Lars H.; Pedersen, Henrik B.

    2016-01-01

    A new method to analyze the properties of fragment ions created in storage ring experiments is presented. The technique relies on an acceleration of ionic fragments immediately after production whereby the fragments are stored in the storage ring. To obtain a fragment mass spectrum, the storage ring is exploited as an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) in which case the number of stored fragment ions is recorded as a function of the applied acceleration potential. However, the storage ring can additionally be employed as a time-of-flight (TOF) instrument by registering the temporal distribution of fragment ions. It is demonstrated that the combined ESA-TOF operation of the ring allows not only to determine fragment masses with much better resolution compared to the ESA mode alone but also enables the extraction of detailed information on the fragmentation dynamics. The method is described analytically and verified with photodissociation experiments on stored Cl 2- at an excitation wavelength of 530 nm.

  8. 7 CFR 1427.171 - Approved storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approved storage. 1427.171 Section 1427.171... Approved storage. Approved storage shall consist of storage located on or off the producer's farm... owner of such property has no lien for such storage against the cotton. The producer must...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.171 - Approved storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approved storage. 1427.171 Section 1427.171... Approved storage. Approved storage shall consist of storage located on or off the producer's farm... owner of such property has no lien for such storage against the cotton. The producer must...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.171 - Approved storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approved storage. 1427.171 Section 1427.171... Approved storage. Approved storage shall consist of storage located on or off the producer's farm... owner of such property has no lien for such storage against the cotton. The producer must...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.171 - Approved storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved storage. 1427.171 Section 1427.171... Approved storage. Approved storage shall consist of storage located on or off the producer's farm... owner of such property has no lien for such storage against the cotton. The producer must...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.171 - Approved storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approved storage. 1427.171 Section 1427.171... Approved storage. Approved storage shall consist of storage located on or off the producer's farm... owner of such property has no lien for such storage against the cotton. The producer must...

  13. Transphase cool storage test report

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.

    1993-12-01

    The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial cool storage systems. Transphase, Inc. provided a prototype of a new storage tank design equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system and filled with a eutectic designed to freeze at 41{degree}F. The Transphase cool storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging showed the ability to freeze the tank with relatively constant brine temperatures over most of the charging cycle. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was governed mainly by the brine flow rate and the tank`s remaining charge. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. This prototype unit experienced several operational problems, not unexpected for the first full-size execution of a new design. Such prototype testing was one of EPRI`s primary goals in founding the ISTF.

  14. Benefits from energy storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R J; Kannberg, L D; O'Connell, L G; Eisenhaure, D; Hoppie, L O; Barlow, T M; Steele, R S; Strauch, S; Lawson, L J; Sapowith, A P

    1983-11-01

    The United States is continuing to rely upon nondomestic and nonsecure sources of energy. Large quantities of energy are lost as a result of time mismatches between the supply and the demand for power. Substantial improvements in energy efficiency are possible through the use of improved energy storage; advanced energy storage can also improve the utilization of domestic energy resources (coal, geothermal, solar, wind, and nuclear) by providing energy in accordance with a user's time-varying needs. Advanced storage technologies offer potentially substantial cost and performance advantages but also have significant technical risk. If even a fraction of the proposed technologies reach fruition, they will make an important contribution to better use of our domestic energy resources. The Energy Storage and Transport Technologies Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers encourages research, development, and application of energy storage technologies to reduce imports and energy costs.

  15. Robust holographic storage system design.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration.

  16. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  17. Nanotechnology for Data Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; McCarthy, Brendan; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    This chapter considers atomic force microscopy (AFM) as an enabling technology for data storage applications, considering already existing technologies such as hard disk drives (HDD), optical disk drives (ODD) and Flash Memories that currently dominate the nonvolatile data storage market, together with future devices based on magnetoresistive and phase change effects. The issue at hand is the question of whether the novel AFM-based storage, dubbed "Probe Storage", can offer a competing approach to the currently available technologies by playing the role of a disruptive technology. Probe Storage will be contrasted to HDD and ODD who are purely mechanical, as they are based on a rotating disk that uses just a single probe to address billions of bits of data, and nonvolatile RAM that has no moving parts yet requires billions of interconnects. In particular, capacity, areal density, transfer rate, form factor and cost of various data storage devices will be discussed and the unique opportunity offered by Probe Storage in employing massive parallelism will be outlined. It will be shown that Probe Storage bridges the gap between HDD, ODD and other nonvolatile RAM, drawing from the strength of each one of these and adding a significant attribute neither of these has; namely, the possibility of addressing a very large number of nanoscale bits of data in parallel. This chapter differs from the other chapters in this book in that it addresses the important issue of whether a given scientific effort, namely, Probe Storage, is mature enough to evolve into a commercially viable technology. The answer seems to indicate that there indeed is a huge niche in the data storage arena that such a technology is uniquely qualified to fill, which is large enough to justify a major investment in research and development. Indeed, as other chapters indicate, such an effort is developing at a rapid pace, with hopes of having a viable product within a few years.

  18. Nanotechnology for Data Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; McCarthy, Brendan; Jabbour, Ghassan

    This chapter considers atomic force microscopy (AFM) as an enabling technology for data storage applications, considering already existing technologies such as hard disk drives (HDD), optical disk drives (ODD) and flash memories that currently dominate the nonvolatile data storage market, together with future devices based on magnetoresistive and phase change effects. The issue at hand is the question of whether the novel AFM-based storage, dubbed probe storage, can offer a competing approach to the currently available technologies by playing the role of a disruptive technology. Probe storage will be contrasted to HDD and ODD, which are purely mechanical as they are based on a rotating disk that uses just a single probe to address billions of bits of data, and nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) that has no moving parts yet requires billions of interconnects. In particular, capacity, areal density, transfer rate, form factor and the cost of various data storage devices will be discussed and the unique opportunity offered by probe storage in employing massive parallelism will be outlined. It will be shown that probe storage bridges the gap between HDD, ODD and other nonvolatile RAM, drawing from the strength of each one of these and adding a significant attribute neither of these has; namely, the possibility of addressing a very large number of nanoscale bits of data in parallel. This chapter differs from the other chapters in this book in that it addresses the important issue of whether a given scientific effort, namely, probe storage, is mature enough to evolve into a commercially viable technology. The answer seems to indicate that there is indeed a huge niche in the data storage arena that such a technology is uniquely qualified to fill, which is large enough to justify a major investment in research and development. Indeed, as other chapters indicate, such an effort is developing at a rapid pace, with hopes of having a viable product within a few years.

  19. SERODS: a new medium for high-density optical data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stokes, David L.

    1998-10-01

    A new optical dada storage technology based on the surface- enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect has been developed for high-density optical memory and three-dimensional data storage. With the surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) technology, the molecular interactions between the optical layer molecules and the nanostructured metal substrate are modified by the writing laser, changing their SERS properties to encode information as bits. Since the SERS properties are extremely sensitive to molecular nano- environments, very small 'spectrochemical holes' approaching the diffraction limit can be produced for the writing process. The SERODS device uses a reading laser to induce the SERS emission of molecules on the disk and a photometric detector tuned to the frequency of the RAMAN spectrum to retrieve the stored information. The results illustrate that SERODS is capable of three-dimensional data storage and has the potential to achieve higher storage density than currently available optical data storage systems.

  20. Hydrogen storage methods.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m(-3), approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen

  1. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  2. Hydrogen storage methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Züttel, Andreas

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is

  3. Arkansas Technology Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBiervliet, Alan; Parette, Howard P., Jr.

    The Arkansas Technology Information System (ARTIS) was developed to fill a significant void in existing systems of technical support to Arkansans with disabilities by creating and maintaining a consumer-responsive statewide system of data storage and retrieval regarding assistive technology and services. ARTIS goals also include establishment of a…

  4. Storage monitoring systems for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Pollock, R.

    1997-12-31

    In September 1993, President Clinton stated the US would ensure that its fissile material meet the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. To prepare for this future, Sandia National Laboratories has developed several monitoring systems, including the Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) and Project Straight-Line. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Sandia effort that merges remote monitoring technologies into a comprehensive storage monitoring system that will meet the near-term as well as the long-term requirements for these types of systems. Topics discussed include: motivations for storage monitoring systems to include remote monitoring; an overview of the needs and challenges of providing a storage monitoring system for the year 2000; an overview of how the MIMS and Straight-Line can be enhanced so that together they create an integrated and synergistic information system by the end of 1997; and suggested milestones for 1998 and 1999 to assure steady progress in preparing for the needs of 2000.

  5. Enterprise storage report for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Data processing has become an increasingly vital function, if not the most vital function, in most businesses today. No longer only a mainframe domain, the data processing enterprise also includes the midrange and workstation platforms, either local or remote. This expanded view of the enterprise has encouraged more and more businesses to take a strategic, long-range view of information management rather than the short-term tactical approaches of the past. This paper will highlight some of the significant aspects of data storage in the enterprise for the 1990's.

  6. SCIS. Small Container Storage Inventory System

    SciTech Connect

    Esworthy, S.

    1988-09-01

    SCIS, the Small Container Inventory System, was developed to track the chemical inventory in the Small Container Storage Facility. Running totals of the amounts of stored chemicals can be extracted daily, with reports generated at the close of business on the last working day of each month. SCIS is designed to provide complete logging of all chemical transactions of the Facility. Records can be retrieved based on key information in any of the 14 fields in the system. Eight reports are available by division, cabinet number, and chemical name; for chemicals removed and chemicals remaining; for all transactions occurring during a specified month; and a current inventory by chemical name and cabinet number.

  7. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    -integer linear program (MILP) written and executed in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software. LBNL has released version 1.2.0.11 of SVOW. Information can be found at http://der.lbl.gov/microgrids-lbnl/current-project-storage-viability-website.

  8. 21 CFR 864.9700 - Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9700 Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer. (a) Identification. A blood storage refrigerator and a blood storage freezer are devices...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9700 - Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9700 Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer. (a) Identification. A blood storage refrigerator and a blood storage freezer are devices...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9700 - Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9700 Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer. (a) Identification. A blood storage refrigerator and a blood storage freezer are devices...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9700 - Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9700 Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer. (a) Identification. A blood storage refrigerator and a blood storage freezer are devices...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: sialic acid storage disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions sialic acid storage disease sialic acid storage disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily ...

  13. The SERI solar energy storage program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Wright, J. D.; Wyman, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the DOE thermal and chemical energy storage program, the solar energy storage program (SERI) provides research on advanced technologies, systems analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and assessments are being prepared of thermal energy storage in solar applications. A ranking methodology for comparing thermal storage systems (performance and cost) is presented. Research in latent heat storage and thermochemical storage and transport is reported.

  14. Alfalfa hay storage losses study as influenced by bale type and storage method. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cuomo, G.; Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N.

    1997-10-30

    This experiment was conducted in cooperation with the Minnesota Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) cooperative. Alfalfa for use as both a biomass energy source and as a protein supplement has been proposed by MnVAP. Research has shown that alfalfa deteriorates over time in storage, and that storage method and bale type affect the amount of deterioration. Therefore, evaluation of different storage methods and bale types on dry matter and quality losses of alfalfa leaf and stem components is important information for the alfalfa grower and the MnVAP cooperative. Two bale types were evaluated for four storage methods, and measurements were made of initial and final bale weights, dry matter, leaf and stem components, and forage quality estimates. Few differences were detected among bale types for dry matter losses, and interactions among bale type and storage method were not detected. This indicates that dry matter losses were similar for different bale types regardless of the storage method. However, differences in dry matter losses and visible spoilage were detected among storage methods. No interactions between bale type and storage method were detected for forage quality parameters, indicating that forage quality losses as a result of storage were similar for different bale types. Bale type by sample type and storage method by sample type interactions were detected. Many of these were the result of poorer quality alfalfa. 4 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T; Andersson, Anna M

    2014-10-07

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001storage batteries.

  16. Tritium Storage Material

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-09-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 mn pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a comercial Pd black were measured.

  17. Recombinant electric storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Flicker, R.P.; Fenstermacher, S.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes a recombinant storage battery. It comprises: a plurality of positive plates containing about 2 to 4 percent of antimony based upon the total weight of the alloy and positive active material, and essentially antimony free negative plates in a closed case; a fibrous sheet plate separator between adjacent ones of the plates, and a body of an electrolyte to which the sheet separators are inert absorbed by each of the separators and maintained in contact with each of the adjacent ones of the plates. Each of the separator sheets comprising first fibers which impart to the sheet a given absorbency greater than 90 percent relative to the electrolyte and second fibers which impart to the sheet a different absorbency less than 80 percent relative to the electrolyte. The first and second fibers being present in such proportions that each of the sheet separators has an absorbency with respect to the electrolyte of from 75 to 95 percent and the second fibers being present in such proportions that the battery has a recombination rate adequate to compensate for gassing.

  18. Superconducting energy storage magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, Roger W. (Inventor); Eyssa, Yehia M. (Inventor); Abdelsalam, Mostafa K. (Inventor); Huang, Xianrui (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting magnet is formed having composite conductors arrayed in coils having turns which lie on a surface defining substantially a frustum of a cone. The conical angle with respect to the central axis is preferably selected such that the magnetic pressure on the coil at the widest portion of the cone is substantially zero. The magnet structure is adapted for use as an energy storage magnet mounted in an earthen trench or tunnel where the strength the surrounding soil is lower at the top of the trench or tunnel than at the bottom. The composite conductor may be formed having a ripple shape to minimize stresses during charge up and discharge and has a shape for each ripple selected such that the conductor undergoes a minimum amount of bending during the charge and discharge cycle. By minimizing bending, the working of the normal conductor in the composite conductor is minimized, thereby reducing the increase in resistance of the normal conductor that occurs over time as the conductor undergoes bending during numerous charge and discharge cycles.

  19. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  20. Disk storage at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascetti, L.; Cano, E.; Chan, B.; Espinal, X.; Fiorot, A.; González Labrador, H.; Iven, J.; Lamanna, M.; Lo Presti, G.; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S.; Rousseau, H.; van der Ster, D.

    2015-12-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  1. Chemical heat storage

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, C.A.; Jones, J.; Riddell, W.D.

    1984-08-28

    The present invention uses a dessicant and a means of drying out or changing the system by the use of off-peak electric power releasing. The heat is then released as required during periods of peak electric power by the reintroduction of moisture. The system includes a source of air and a fan for circulating the air in a circulation system including an outgoing loop and return loop for the circulating air. Selectively operatable evaporator heat exchanger, air wetting apparatus, and air heating apparatus are disposed in the outgoing loop of the circulating air. A dessicant-containing enclosure used to provide heat storage, and having air inlet means there-into from outgoing loop the circulating and an air outlet means therefrom to the return loop of the circulating air is disposed in the circulation system. The structure within the enclosure is such that there is a flow of air through a direct, unencumbered path out of contact with a major amount of the dessicant and by a secondary permeating flow through is dessicant. Selectively operable condenser heat exchanger apparatus is disposed in the return loop of the circulating air. Finally, selectively operatable air vanes are disposed in the return loop of the circulating air for circulating air through, e.g. the force air furnace; or recirculating air through the circulating system.

  2. The value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The report consists of three chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 provides basic information on the role of storage in today`s marketplace where natural gas is treated as a commodity. Chapter 2 provides statistical analyses of the relationship between storage and spot prices on both a monthly and daily basis. For the daily analysis, temperature data were used a proxy for storage withdrawals, providing a new means of examining the short-term relationship between storage and spot prices. Chapter 3 analyzes recent trends in storage management and use, as well as plans for additions to storage capacity. It also reviews the status of the new uses of storage resulting from Order 636, that is, market-based rates and capacity release. Appendix A serves as a stand-along primer on storage operations, and Appendix B provides further data on plans for the expansion of storage capacity. Appendix C explains recent revisions made to working gas and base gas capacity on the part of several storage operators in 1991 through 1993. The revisions were significant, and this appendix provides a consistent historical data series that reflects these changes. Finally, Appendix D presents more information on the regression analysis presented in Chapter 2. 19 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Neuroimaging of lipid storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly sensitive to lipid storage as the contents of the central nervous system must occupy uniform volume, and any increases in fluids or deposits will lead to pressure changes and interference with normal neurological function. In addition to primary lipid storage diseases, lysosomal storage diseases include the mucolipidoses (in which excessive amounts of lipids and carbohydrates are stored in the cells and tissues) and the mucopolysaccharidoses (in which abnormal glycosylated proteins cannot be broken down because of enzyme deficiency). Neurological dysfunction can be a manifestation of these conditions due to substrate deposition as well. This review will explore the modalities of neuroimaging that may have particular relevance to the study of the lipid storage disorder and their impact on elucidating aspects of brain function. First, the techniques will be reviewed. Next, the neuropathology of a few selected lipid storage disorders will be reviewed and the use of neuroimaging to define disease characteristics discussed in further detail. Examples of studies using these techniques will be discussed in the text.

  4. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  5. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  6. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  7. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  8. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  9. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor total water storage (TWS) changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water is often stored in reservoirs or lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with areas typically below GRACE resolution (~200 000 km2). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nonuniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates of TWS changes as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs and using a priori information on reservoir storage from radar altimetry. Analysis included numerical experiments testing effects of location and areal extent of the localized mass (reservoirs) within a basin on basin-wide average water storage changes, and application to the lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigris-Euphrates basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or overestimate basin-wide average water storage by up to a factor of ~2, depending on reservoir location and areal extent. Although reservoirs generally cover less than 1% of the basin area, and their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate water storage changes in some basins. For example, reservoir storage accounts for ~95% of seasonal water storage changes in the lower Nile and 10% in the Tigris-Euphrates. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual timescales can be large. For example, TWS decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the Tigris-Euphrates basin measured by GRACE was ~93 km3. Actual reservoir storage from satellite altimetry was limited to 27 km3, but their apparent impact on GRACE reached 45 km3, i.e., 50% of GRACE trend. Therefore, the actual impact of reservoirs would have been greatly

  10. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Staiger

    1999-06-01

    A potential option in the program for long-term management of high-level wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, calls for retrieving calcine waste and converting it to a more stable and less dispersible form. An inventory of calcine produced during the period December 1963 to May 1999 has been prepared based on calciner run, solids storage facilities operating, and miscellaneous operational information, which gives the range of chemical compositions of calcine waste stored at INTEC. Information researched includes calciner startup data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, solids storage bin capacities, calcine storage bin distributor systems, and solids storage bin design and temperature monitoring records. Unique information on calcine solids storage facilities design of potential interest to remote retrieval operators is given.

  11. Lightweight hydride storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E.; Bauer, W.

    1995-09-01

    The need for lightweight hydrides in vehicular applications has prompted considerable research into the use of magnesium and its alloys. Although this earlier work has provided some improved performance in operating temperature and pressure, substantial improvements are needed before these materials will significantly enhance the performance of an engineered system on a vehicle. We are extending the work of previous investigators on Mg alloys to reduce the operating temperature and hydride heat of formation in light weight materials. Two important results will be discussed in this paper: (1) a promising new alloy hydride was found which has better pressure-temperature characteristics than any previous Mg alloy and, (2) a new fabrication process for existing Mg alloys was developed and demonstrated. The new alloy hydride is composed of magnesium, aluminum and nickel. It has an equilibrium hydrogen overpressure of 1.3 atm. at 200{degrees}C and a storage capacity between 3 and 4 wt.% hydrogen. A hydrogen release rate of approximately 5 x 10{sup -4} moles-H{sub 2}/gm-min was measured at 200{degrees}C. The hydride heat of formation was found to be 13.5 - 14 kcal/mole-H{sub 2}, somewhat lower than Mg{sub 2}Ni. The new fabrication method takes advantage of the high vapor transport of magnesium. It was found that Mg{sub 2}Ni produced by our low temperature process was better than conventional materials because it was single phase (no Mg phase) and could be fabricated with very small particle sizes. Hydride measurements on this material showed faster kinetic response than conventional material. The technique could potentially be applied to in-situ hydride bed fabrication with improved packing density, release kinetics, thermal properties and mechanical stability.

  12. Searching the "Nuclear Science Abstracts" Data Base by Use of the Berkeley Mass Storage System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, J. Joanne; Smith, Gloria L.

    1972-01-01

    Advantages of the Berkeley Mass Storage System (MSS) for information retrieval other than its size are: high serial-read rate, archival data storage; and random-access capability. By use of this device, the search cost in an SDI system based on the Nuclear Science Abstracts" data base was reduced by 20 percent. (6 references) (Author/NH)

  13. Small Farm Grain Storage. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Carl; Druben, Laurel

    Designed as a working and teaching tool for development workers in their field activities, this manual combines in one volume the basic principles of grain storage and the practical solutions currently being used and tested around the world to combat grain storage problems. Each of six sections begins with informative material on the topic to be…

  14. ORNL concept would greatly increase optical data storage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    ORNL researchers have developed a technique, surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS), which uses the light-emitting properties of molecules to pack considerably more information into compact discs. This new technology has the potential to store 10 days of music-instead of just 90 minutes-on a single disc.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type VI

    MedlinePlus

    ... a result, liver cells cannot use glycogen for energy. Since glycogen cannot be broken down, it accumulates within liver cells, causing these cells to become enlarged and dysfunctional. Learn more about the gene associated with glycogen storage disease type VI PYGL Related Information What is ...

  16. Underground storage tank 511-D1U1 closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the closure plan for diesel fuel underground storage tank 511-D1U1 and appendices containing supplemental information such as staff training certification and task summaries. Precision tank test data, a site health and safety plan, and material safety data sheets are also included.

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-PETROLEUM UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally acknowledged that a small fraction of the total underground storage tank population is used to store chemicals. The detailed characteristics of these tanks, however, are not well understood. Additional information is required if competent decisions are to be made ...

  18. Nicotine Modulates the Long-Lasting Storage of Fear Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Ramon H.; Radiske, Andressa; Kohler, Cristiano A.; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Bevilaqua, Lia R.; Rossato, Janine I.; Medina, Jorge H.; Cammarota, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Late post-training activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-hippocampus dopaminergic loop controls the entry of information into long-term memory (LTM). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) modulate VTA function, but their involvement in LTM storage is unknown. Using pharmacological and behavioral tools, we found that…

  19. On the Law Relating Processing to Storage in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Portrat, Sophie; Camos, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    "Working memory" is usually defined in cognitive psychology as a system devoted to the simultaneous processing and maintenance of information. However, although many models of working memory have been put forward during the last decades, they often leave underspecified the dynamic interplay between processing and storage. Moreover, the account of…

  20. Lake Michigan sediment lead storage and history of loads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dated sediment box cores collected in 1994-1996 from 52 locations in Lake Michigan were analyzed for to access storage, trends, and loading history of lead. The results of this study provide information of historic lead loads to the lake for a time period for which no other info...

  1. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  2. Storage characteristics of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Weight loss, percent extraction, and juice Brix were determined in stored sweet sorghum harvested as billets and stalks. Stalks lost less weight and maintained juice quality longer than billets. Storage requirements after harvest should determine the harvesting method.

  3. Electron trapping optical data storage system and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, Daniel; Earman, Allen; Chaffin, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    A new technology developed at Optex Corporation out-performs all other existing data storage technologies. The Electron Trapping Optical Memory (ETOM) media stores 14 gigabytes of uncompressed data on a single, double-sided 130 mm disk with a data transfer rate of up to 120 megabits per second. The disk is removable, compact, lightweight, environmentally stable, and robust. Since the Write/Read/Erase (W/R/E) processes are carried out photonically, no heating of the recording media is required. Therefore, the storage media suffers no deleterious effects from repeated W/R/E cycling. This rewritable data storage technology has been developed for use as a basis for numerous data storage products. Industries that can benefit from the ETOM data storage technologies include: satellite data and information systems, broadcasting, video distribution, image processing and enhancement, and telecommunications. Products developed for these industries are well suited for the demanding store-and-forward buffer systems, data storage, and digital video systems needed for these applications.

  4. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    PubMed

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  5. Working memory storage is intrinsically domain specific.

    PubMed

    Fougnie, Daryl; Zughni, Samir; Godwin, Douglass; Marois, René

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding debate in working memory (WM) is whether information is maintained in a central, capacity-limited storage system or whether there are domain-specific stores for different modalities. This question is typically addressed by determining whether concurrent storage of 2 different memory arrays produces interference. Prior studies using this approach have shown at least some cost to maintaining 2 memory arrays that differed in perceptual modalities. However, it is not clear whether these WM costs resulted from competition for a central, capacity-limited store or from other potential sources of dual-task interference, such as task preparation and coordination, overlap in representational content (e.g., object vs. space based), or cognitive strategies (e.g., verbalization, chunking of the stimulus material in a higher order structure). In the present study we assess dual-task costs during the concurrent performance of a visuospatial WM task and an auditory object WM task when such sources of interference are minimized. The results show that performance of these 2 WM tasks are independent from each another, even at high WM load. Only when we introduced a common representational format (spatial information) to both WM tasks did dual-task performance begin to suffer. These results are inconsistent with the notion of a domain-independent storage system, and suggest instead that WM is constrained by multiple domain-specific stores and central executive processes. Evidently, there is nothing intrinsic about the functional architecture of the human mind that prevents it from storing 2 distinct representations in WM, as long as these representations do not overlap in any functional domain.

  6. Unconditional security from noisy quantum storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Stephanie

    2010-03-01

    We consider the implementation of two-party cryptographic primitives based on the sole physical assumption that no large-scale reliable quantum storage is available to the cheating party. An important example of such a task is secure identification. Here, Alice wants to identify herself to Bob (possibly an ATM machine) without revealing her password. More generally, Alice and Bob wish to solve problems where Alice holds an input x (e.g. her password), and Bob holds an input y (e.g. the password an honest Alice should possess), and they want to obtain the value of some function f(x,y) (e.g. the equality function). Security means that the legitimate users should not learn anything beyond this specification. That is, Alice should not learn anything about y and Bob should not learn anything about x, other than what they may be able to infer from the value of f(x,y). We show that any such problem can be solved securely in the noisy-storage model by constructing protocols for bit commitment and oblivious transfer, where we prove security against the most general attack. Our protocols can be implemented with present-day hardware used for quantum key distribution. In particular, no quantum storage is required for the honest parties. Our work raises a large number of immediate theoretical as well as experimental questions related to many aspects of quantum information science, such as for example understanding the information carrying properties of quantum channels and memories, randomness extraction, min-entropy sampling, as well as constructing small handheld devices which are suitable for the task of secure identification. [4pt] Full version available at arXiv:0906.1030 (theoretical) and arXiv:0911.2302 (practically oriented).

  7. Addressing Information Proliferation: Applications of Information Extraction and Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jingjing

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the Internet and the ever-increasing capacity of storage media have made it easy to store, deliver, and share enormous volumes of data, leading to a proliferation of information on the Web, in online libraries, on news wires, and almost everywhere in our daily lives. Since our ability to process and absorb this information remains…

  8. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Olszewski, Mitchell; Morris, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  9. International developments in seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Gyuk, I.; Shivers, R.

    1984-08-01

    With thermal energy sources such as cogeneration or waste incineration, there is considerable disparity between potential heat supply and possible application. A similar problem exists for the utilization of winter chill for summer air conditioning. Seasonal thermal energy storage would be an essential factor in enhancing the cost effectiveness of such schemes. We shall review characteristic experimental facilities for large scale thermal energy storage in Canada, Scandinavia and the rest of Europe.

  10. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  11. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  12. Storage and feeding of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  13. Energy storage-boiler tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, T. A.; Nemecek, J. J.; Simmons, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities performed in an effort to demonstrate heat of fusion energy storage in containerized salts are reported. The properties and cycle life characteristics of a eutectic salt having a boiling point of about 385 C (NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2) were determined. M-terphenyl was chosen as the heat transfer fluid. Compatibility studies were conducted and mild steel containers were selected. The design and fabrication of a 2MWh storage boiler tank are discussed.

  14. Thermal energy storage test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ternes, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal behavior of prototype thermal energy storage units (TES) in both heating and cooling modes is determined. Improved and advanced storage systems are developed and performance standards are proposed. The design and construction of a thermal cycling facility for determining the thermal behavior of full scale TES units is described. The facility has the capability for testing with both liquid and air heat transport, at variable heat input/extraction rates, over a temperature range of 0 to 280 F.

  15. Multiplexed Holographic Data Storage in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrl, David J.; Krile, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Biochrome photosensitive films in particular Bacteriorhodopsin exhibit features which make these materials an attractive recording medium for optical data storage and processing. Bacteriorhodopsin films find numerous applications in a wide range of optical data processing applications; however the short-term memory characteristics of BR limits their applications for holographic data storage. The life-time of the BR can be extended using cryogenic temperatures [1], although this method makes the system overly complicated and unstable. Longer life-times can be provided in one modification of BR - the "blue" membrane BR [2], however currently available films are characterized by both low diffraction efficiency and difficulties in providing photoreversible recording. In addition, as a dynamic recording material, the BR requires different wavelengths for recording and reconstructing of optical data in order to prevent the information erasure during its readout. This fact also put constraints on a BR-based Optical Memory, due to information loss in holographic memory systems employing the two-lambda technique for reading-writing thick multiplexed holograms.

  16. Thermodynamics of electrochemical lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Maier, Joachim

    2013-05-01

    The thermodynamics of electrochemical lithium storage are examined by taking into account that it is the point defects that enable storage. While the Li defects are mobile, most of the other point defects have to be considered as frozen owing to the performance temperature being low compared to the melting point of the electrode materials. The defect chemistry needs to be considered to fully understand equilibrium charge/discharge curves. On this basis, single phase and multiphase storage mechanisms can be discussed in terms of theoretical storage capacity and theoretical voltage. Of paramount interest in the field of Li batteries are metastable materials, in particular nanocrystalline and amorphous materials. The thermodynamics of storage and voltage, also at interfaces, thus deserve a special treatment. The relationship between reversible cell voltage and lithium content is derived for the novel job-sharing mechanism. With respect to the classic storage modes, thermodynamic differences for cathodes and anodes are elaborated with a special attention being paid to the search for new materials. As this contribution concentrates on the equilibrium state, current-related phenomena (irreversible thermodynamics) are only briefly touched upon. PMID:23630067

  17. NV energy electricity storage valuation :

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority ("BA") as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 ("Pay-for-performance"). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  18. Stability models for sequential storage.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Emil M; Shum, Sam C

    2011-03-01

    Some drugs are intended for sequential storage under two different storage conditions. If the data for each condition are analyzed separately, predicting assay and other responses after T1 months at one condition followed by T2 months at the other condition is non-trivial for several reasons. First, the two analyses will give different intercept terms. What should one do about that? Second, how would one calculate the confidence limits for combined storage? Third, what if prior storage at one condition affects the slope at the other condition? This paper proposes a simple ANCOVA model containing two slope terms, one for each storage condition. When multiple batches and/or packages are involved, it is easily generalized to two sets of slope terms. Confidence limits are straightforward and can be calculated using existing commercial software. With properly designed data, one can test whether prior storage at one condition affects the slope at the other condition. If no such effect is significant, very useful extrapolations can be made. Temperature excursions, model reduction and curvilinear dependencies are discussed.

  19. Thermodynamics of electrochemical lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Maier, Joachim

    2013-05-01

    The thermodynamics of electrochemical lithium storage are examined by taking into account that it is the point defects that enable storage. While the Li defects are mobile, most of the other point defects have to be considered as frozen owing to the performance temperature being low compared to the melting point of the electrode materials. The defect chemistry needs to be considered to fully understand equilibrium charge/discharge curves. On this basis, single phase and multiphase storage mechanisms can be discussed in terms of theoretical storage capacity and theoretical voltage. Of paramount interest in the field of Li batteries are metastable materials, in particular nanocrystalline and amorphous materials. The thermodynamics of storage and voltage, also at interfaces, thus deserve a special treatment. The relationship between reversible cell voltage and lithium content is derived for the novel job-sharing mechanism. With respect to the classic storage modes, thermodynamic differences for cathodes and anodes are elaborated with a special attention being paid to the search for new materials. As this contribution concentrates on the equilibrium state, current-related phenomena (irreversible thermodynamics) are only briefly touched upon.

  20. Calmac Ice Storage Test report

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.

    1991-08-01

    The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial ice storage systems. Calmac provided a storage tank equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system. The Calmac ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging was similar to that reported by the manufacturer. Both the measured average and minimum brine temperatures were in close agreement with Calmac's literature values, and the ability to fully charge the tank was relatively unaffected by charging rate and brine flow rate. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was strongly affected by the discharge rate. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. Based on these tests, storage tank selection must depend most strongly on the discharge conditions required to serve the load. This report describes Calmac system performance fully under both charging and discharging conditions. Companion reports describe ISTF test procedures and ice-making efficiency test results that are common to many of the units tested. 11 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. FAFCO Ice Storage test report

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.

    1993-11-01

    The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial ice storage systems. FAFCO provided a storage tank equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system. The FAFCO ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging showed the ability to freeze the tank fully, storing from 150 to 200 ton-h. However, the charging rate showed significant variations during the latter portion of the charge cycle. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was strongly affected by the discharge rate and tank state of charge. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. Based on these tests, storage tank selection must depend on both charge and discharge conditions. This report describes FAFCO system performance fully under both charging and discharging conditions. While the test results reported here are accurate for the prototype 1990 FAFCO Model 200, currently available FAFCO models incorporate significant design enhancements beyond the Model 200. At least one major modification was instituted as a direct result of the ISTF tests. Such design improvements were one of EPRI`s primary goals in founding the ISTF.

  2. Third international workshop on ice storage for cooling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gorski, A.J.

    1986-04-01

    The third international workshop on ice storage for cooling applications which was informal and interactive in nature, was open to persons interested in all ice-growing technologies and in ice storage, both seasonal and diurnal. Presentations were made on some 20 topics, ranging from freezers in Alaska to ice cooling of commercial jet aircraft. Workshop tours included visits to ice-storage systems at Commonwealth Edison's facilities in Bolingbrook and Des Plaines Valley, the A.C. Neilsen builing in Northbrook, and the new State of Illinois Center in Chicago. The first workshop in the present series considered the future of ice storage and predicted applications in the agricultural sector, desalinization, and commercial ice production. Progress has been rapid in the intervening two years, and an important topic at the third workshop was the possible use of ''warm ices'' (clathrate hydrates) for energy storage. This report consists primarily of abstracts of presentations made at the workshop. Persons wishing to obtain further information about particular papers should contact the speakers directly; speakers' addresses and telephone numbers are listed in this report.

  3. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Y.; Peltola, E.; Sipilae, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, A.

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage (CALS) systems was launched in VTT in the course of the year 1990. The study was undertaken partly in the Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering and partly in the Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Laboratory. Information on existing mines in Finland which could be used as storage caverns were collected (part 2). The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were also estimated. This information was used in the first (and present) part of the report to calculate the economics of CAES. In the present part (part 1) of the study, an analysis of the different possible systems was given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with the CALS system. In the second system, wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straight-forward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  4. Storage Mixing Variability Across Seasons and Scales in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsouris, A. J.; Lyon, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to accurately assess water residence times and storage volumes hinges on data availability. However, hydrological data is often limited or non-existing in most regions of the world. This study synthesizes hydrological tracer data with hydroclimatic information in order to disentangle storage volume dynamics and variability across data-limited African catchments. Specifically, we focus on the Kilombero Valley in Tanzania where there is a large potential to develop and expand the agricultural sector and thus increasing food security nationally. The lack hydrological data and subsequent limited process understanding hinders our capacity to assess the sustainability of such an increased and intensified agriculture landscape. We demonstrate how hydrological tracers constitute an exceptionally valuable piece of information for constraining model parameterizations, improving process understanding and representing storage volumes in data limited regions. Geochemical (e.g., Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl-) and stable water isotope (d18O and d2H) tracers were used to estimate recharge rates and seasonal shifts in hydrologic flow pathways. End member mixing analysis (EMMA) applied within the GLUE uncertainty framework was used to assess relative source contributions to streamflow and storage volume connectivity across scales. Strong variations in stable water isotopes between rainfall seasons in Tanzania and geological partitioning of storages allowed for clear characterization of seasonal variations in hydrologic flow pathway development. Wetlands dominated the wet season flows while variability in the connectivity of water storages could be seen during the dry season. Differences in the wetting up versus drying down storage mixing across the landscape highlights process shifts. This characterization improves our ability to utilize the limited data available in Kilombero Valley as it provides the basis for modelling surface-groundwater interactions regionally and

  5. Moral Issues in Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capurro, Rafael

    This paper considers the ethical issues of the field of information science, particularly as they relate to the questions raised by the production, storage, dissemination, and use of specialized information through electronic devices, i.e., "reference databases" as well as "source databases." The topics considered include various aspects of ethics…

  6. Defense Technical Information Center thesaurus

    SciTech Connect

    Dickert, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    This DTIC Thesaurus provides a basic multidisciplinary subject term vocabulary used by DTIC to index and retrieve scientific and technical information from its various data bases and to aid DTIC`s users in their information storage and retrieval operations. It includes an alphabetical posting term display, a hierarchy display, and a Keywork Out of Context (KWOC) display.

  7. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  8. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  9. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  10. Diffraction-limited storage-ring vacuum technology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dmour, Eshraq; Ahlback, Jonny; Einfeld, Dieter; Tavares, Pedro Fernandes; Grabski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Some of the characteristics of recent ultralow-emittance storage-ring designs and possibly future diffraction-limited storage rings are a compact lattice combined with small magnet apertures. Such requirements present a challenge for the design and performance of the vacuum system. The vacuum system should provide the required vacuum pressure for machine operation and be able to handle the heat load from synchrotron radiation. Small magnet apertures result in the conductance of the chamber being low, and lumped pumps are ineffective. One way to provide the required vacuum level is by distributed pumping, which can be realised by the use of a non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating of the chamber walls. It may not be possible to use crotch absorbers to absorb the heat from the synchrotron radiation because an antechamber is difficult to realise with such a compact lattice. To solve this, the chamber walls can work as distributed absorbers if they are made of a material with good thermal conductivity, and distributed cooling is used at the location where the synchrotron radiation hits the wall. The vacuum system of the 3 GeV storage ring of MAX IV is used as an example of possible solutions for vacuum technologies for diffraction-limited storage rings. PMID:25177979

  11. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an evaluation of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) for 36 sedimentary basins in the onshore areas and State waters of the United States. The TASR is an estimate of the geologic storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage and is based on current geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. By using a geology-based probabilistic assessment methodology, the USGS assessment team members obtained a mean estimate of approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt) of subsurface CO2 storage capacity that is technically accessible below onshore areas and State waters; this amount is more than 500 times the 2011 annual U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions of 5.5 Gt (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/). In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directed the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2 in consultation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and State geological surveys. The USGS developed a methodology to estimate storage resource potential in geologic formations in the United States (Burruss and others, 2009, USGS Open-File Report (OFR) 2009–1035; Brennan and others, 2010, USGS OFR 2010–1127; Blondes, Brennan, and others, 2013, USGS OFR 2013–1055). In 2012, the USGS completed the assessment, and the results are summarized in this Fact Sheet and are provided in more detail in companion reports (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a,b; see related reports at right). The goal of this project was to conduct an initial assessment of storage capacity on a regional basis, and results are not intended for use in the evaluation of specific sites for potential CO2 storage. The national

  12. 7 CFR 1421.103 - Authorized storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federally licensed, are in compliance with 7 CFR part 735 or (ii) If not Federally licensed, are in... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized storage. 1421.103 Section 1421.103... § 1421.103 Authorized storage. (a) Authorized farm storage is: (1) A storage structure located on or...

  13. 27 CFR 19.353 - Storage inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage inventories. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage Inventories § 19.353 Storage inventories. Each warehouseman shall take a physical inventory of all spirits and wines held in the storage...

  14. 27 CFR 19.590 - Storage operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Storage operations. 19.590... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Records § 19.590 Storage... spirits or wines received in the storage account. The proprietor must use copies of gauge...

  15. 27 CFR 19.590 - Storage operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage operations. 19.590... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Records § 19.590 Storage... spirits or wines received in the storage account. The proprietor must use copies of gauge...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.857 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage. 1926.857 Section 1926.857 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Demolition § 1926.857 Storage. (a) The storage of waste... provide storage space for debris, provided falling material is not permitted to endanger the stability...

  17. 27 CFR 19.590 - Storage operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Storage operations. 19.590... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Records § 19.590 Storage... spirits or wines received in the storage account. The proprietor must use copies of gauge...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.857 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage. 1926.857 Section 1926.857 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Demolition § 1926.857 Storage. (a) The storage of waste... provide storage space for debris, provided falling material is not permitted to endanger the stability...

  19. 27 CFR 19.590 - Storage operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Storage operations. 19.590... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Storage Records § 19.590 Storage... spirits or wines received in the storage account. The proprietor must use copies of gauge...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.103 - Authorized storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federally licensed, are in compliance with 7 CFR part 735 or (ii) If not Federally licensed, are in... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized storage. 1421.103 Section 1421.103... § 1421.103 Authorized storage. (a) Authorized farm storage is: (1) A storage structure located on or...