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Sample records for infrared double-flash experiments

  1. Fourier transform infrared double-flash experiments resolve bacteriorhodopsin's M1 to M2 transition.

    PubMed Central

    Hessling, B; Herbst, J; Rammelsberg, R; Gerwert, K

    1997-01-01

    The orientation of the central proton-binding site, the protonated Schiff base, away from the proton release side to the proton uptake side is crucial for the directionality of the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. It has been proposed that this movement, called the reprotonation switch, takes place in the M1 to M2 transition. To resolve the molecular events in this M1 to M2 transition, we performed double-flash experiments. In these experiments a first pulse initiates the photocycle and a second pulse selectively drives bR molecules in the M intermediate back into the BR ground state. For short delay times between initiating and resetting pulses, most of the M molecules being reset are in the M1 intermediate, and for longer delay times most of the reset M molecules are in the M2 intermediate. The BR-M1 and BR-M2 difference spectra are monitored with nanosecond step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Because the Schiff base reprotonation rate is kM1 = 0.8 x 10(7) s(-1) in the light-induced M1 back-reaction and kM2 = 0.36 x 10(7) s(-1) in the M2 back-reaction, the two different M intermediates represent two different proton accessibility configurations of the Schiff base. The results show only a minute movement of one or two peptide bonds in the M1 to M2 transition that changes the interaction of the Schiff base with Y185. This backbone movement is distinct from the larger one in the subsequent M to N transition. No evidence of a chromophore isomerization is seen in the M1 to M2 transition. Furthermore, the results show time-resolved reprotonation of the Schiff base from D85 in the M photo-back-reaction, instead of from D96, as in the conventional cycle. Images Scheme 2 PMID:9336202

  2. Musicians have enhanced audiovisual multisensory binding: experience-dependent effects in the double-flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is associated with behavioral and neurophysiological enhancements in auditory processing for both musical and nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech). Yet, whether the benefits of musicianship extend beyond enhancements to auditory-specific skills and impact multisensory (e.g., audiovisual) processing has yet to be fully validated. Here, we investigated multisensory integration of auditory and visual information in musicians and nonmusicians using a double-flash illusion, whereby the presentation of multiple auditory stimuli (beeps) concurrent with a single visual object (flash) induces an illusory perception of multiple flashes. We parametrically varied the onset asynchrony between auditory and visual events (leads and lags of ±300 ms) to quantify participants' "temporal window" of integration, i.e., stimuli in which auditory and visual cues were fused into a single percept. Results show that musically trained individuals were both faster and more accurate at processing concurrent audiovisual cues than their nonmusician peers; nonmusicians had a higher susceptibility for responding to audiovisual illusions and perceived double flashes over an extended range of onset asynchronies compared to trained musicians. Moreover, temporal window estimates indicated that musicians' windows (<100 ms) were ~2-3× shorter than nonmusicians' (~200 ms), suggesting more refined multisensory integration and audiovisual binding. Collectively, findings indicate a more refined binding of auditory and visual cues in musically trained individuals. We conclude that experience-dependent plasticity of intensive musical experience extends beyond simple listening skills, improving multimodal processing and the integration of multiple sensory systems in a domain-general manner.

  3. Musicians have enhanced audiovisual multisensory binding: experience-dependent effects in the double-flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is associated with behavioral and neurophysiological enhancements in auditory processing for both musical and nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech). Yet, whether the benefits of musicianship extend beyond enhancements to auditory-specific skills and impact multisensory (e.g., audiovisual) processing has yet to be fully validated. Here, we investigated multisensory integration of auditory and visual information in musicians and nonmusicians using a double-flash illusion, whereby the presentation of multiple auditory stimuli (beeps) concurrent with a single visual object (flash) induces an illusory perception of multiple flashes. We parametrically varied the onset asynchrony between auditory and visual events (leads and lags of ±300 ms) to quantify participants' "temporal window" of integration, i.e., stimuli in which auditory and visual cues were fused into a single percept. Results show that musically trained individuals were both faster and more accurate at processing concurrent audiovisual cues than their nonmusician peers; nonmusicians had a higher susceptibility for responding to audiovisual illusions and perceived double flashes over an extended range of onset asynchronies compared to trained musicians. Moreover, temporal window estimates indicated that musicians' windows (<100 ms) were ~2-3× shorter than nonmusicians' (~200 ms), suggesting more refined multisensory integration and audiovisual binding. Collectively, findings indicate a more refined binding of auditory and visual cues in musically trained individuals. We conclude that experience-dependent plasticity of intensive musical experience extends beyond simple listening skills, improving multimodal processing and the integration of multiple sensory systems in a domain-general manner. PMID:27334887

  4. An Introductory Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Kenneth R.; Smith, Wendy D.; Thomsen, Marcus W.; Yoder, Claude H.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project designed to introduce infrared spectroscopy as a structure-determination technique. Students are introduced to infrared spectroscopy fundamentals then try to determine the identity of an unknown liquid from its infrared spectrum and molecular weight. The project demonstrates that only rarely can the identity of even simple…

  5. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  6. A Quantitative Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahling, Mark D.; Eliason, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Although infrared spectroscopy is used primarily for qualitative identifications, it is possible to use it as a quantitative tool as well. The use of a standard curve to determine percent methanol in a 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol sample is described. Background information, experimental procedures, and results obtained are provided. (JN)

  7. Fourier transform infrared spectrometery: an undergraduate experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, L.

    2016-11-01

    Simple apparatus is developed, providing undergraduate students with a solid understanding of Fourier transform (FT) infrared (IR) spectroscopy in a hands on experiment. Apart from its application to measuring the mid-IR spectra of organic molecules, the experiment introduces several techniques with wide applicability in physics, including interferometry, the FT, digital data analysis, and control theory.

  8. Diffraction experiments with infrared remote controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment in which radiation emitted by an infrared remote control is passed through a diffraction grating. An image of the diffraction pattern is captured using a cell phone camera and then used to determine the wavelength of the radiation.

  9. [Study on photographing experiment of infrared detector].

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Jiang; Zhang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Infrared detectors are widely used in multi spectral remote sensing systems, and in order to verify photographing principles of infrared time delay integration (TDI) detector, and make preparations for future research, a verification system for infrared TDI camera is proposed in the present paper. Experimental methods are explained thoroughly and two major factors which affect image quality are analyzed. First, the causes of image motion and their effects on the quality of image are studied, and a novel architecture using high precision DC-speed machine is presented, then the relationship between velocity of precision turntable and detectors line transfer frequency is determined by Kalman algorithm. Second, four focusing means are analyzed and compared, and video signal amplitude method is selected according to practical application. Finally, a genuine demo system is established in national supervision and test center for optics mechanics quality. 5.3, 6.4 and 9.2 mm drones are chosen for testing. Experimental results indicate that the obtained drone is vivid, and camera's resolution achieves 11.3 lines per mm, which satisfies preliminary aims.

  10. Stray light analysis of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breault, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The straylight analysis of the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) on the cosmic background explorer (COBE) mission is discussed. From the statement of work (SOW), the purpose of DIRBE is to measure, or set upper limits on, the spectral and spatial character of the diffuse extra galactic infrared radiation. Diffuse infrared sources within our own galaxy are measured. The required reduction of the unwanted radiation imposes severe design and operating restrictions on the DIRBE instrument. To accomplish its missions, it will operate at a multitude of wavelengths ranging from 1.25 um out to 200 to 300 microns. The operating bands and the required point source normalized irradiance transmittance (PSNIT) are shown. The important straylight concepts in the DIRBE design are reviewed. The model and assumptions used in APART analysis are explained. The limitations due to the scalar theory used in the analysis are outlined.

  11. High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckehard, Lorenz; Frerker, Hap; Fitch, Robert Alan

    High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment for monitoring global climate changes uses ISS internal and external resources (eg. data storage). The optical experiment will consist of an infrared camera for monitoring global climate changes from the ISS. This technology was evaluated by the German small satellite mission BIRD and further developed in different ESA projects. Compared to BIRD the presended instrument uses proven sensor advanced technologies (ISS external) and ISS on board processing and storage capabili-ties (internal). The instrument will be equipped with a serial interfaces for TM/TC and several relay commands for the power supply. For data processing and storage a mass memory is re-quired. The access to actual attitude data is highly desired to produce geo referenced maps-if possible by an on board processing.

  12. Conceptual design study for Infrared Limb Experiment (IRLE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Doran J.; Ulwick, Jim; Esplin, Roy; Batty, J. C.; Ware, Gene; Tew, Craig

    1989-01-01

    The phase A engineering design study for the Infrared Limb Experiment (IRLE) instrument, the infrared portion of the Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Explorer (MELTER) satellite payload is given. The IRLE instrument is a satellite instrument, based on the heritage of the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) program, that will make global measurements of O3, CO2, NO, NO2, H2O, and OH from earth limb emissions. These measurements will be used to provide improved understanding of the photochemistry, radiation, dynamics, energetics, and transport phenomena in the lower thermosphere, mesosphere, and stratosphere. The IRLE instrument is the infrared portion of the MELTER satellite payload. MELTER is being proposed to NASA Goddard by a consortium consisting of the University of Michigan, University of Colorado and NASA Langley. It is proposed that the Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University (SDL/USU) build the IRLE instrument for NASA Langley. MELTER is scheduled for launch in November 1994 into a sun-synchronous, 650-km circular orbit with an inclination angle of 97.8 deg and an ascending node at 3:00 p.m. local time.

  13. Infrared hyperspectral imaging results from vapor plume experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.

    1995-04-17

    In this article, recent measurements made with LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer, are presented. The experience gained with this instrument has produced a variety of insights into the tradeoffs between signal to noise ratio (SNR), spectral resolution and temporal resolution for time multiplexed Fourier transform imaging spectrometers. This experience has also clarified the practical advantages and disadvantages of Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging spectrometers regarding adaptation to varying measurement requirements on SNR vs. spectral resolution, spatial resolution and temporal resolution.

  14. Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.

  15. Flying the Infrared Skies: An Authentic SOFIA Educator Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, J. G.

    2015-11-01

    The NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) flagship education effort is its Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program. The program flies teams of teachers on SOFIA research flights as part of an educator professional development effort enabling these teachers to experience first-hand the workings of the airborne observatory, to interact with scientists and technologists, to observe research in progress and how scientists use technology—all in support of national STEM goals. The presenter will share his own experience as an EPO escort on a recent SOFIA flight including two educator teams, providing a first-hand account of how an “authentic” science experience can exploit unique NASA assets to improve science teaching, inspire students, inform local communities, and contribute to the elevation of public science literacy.

  16. A near-infrared SETI experiment: instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Shelley A.; Werthimer, Dan; Treffers, Richard R.; Maire, Jérôme; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Stone, Remington P. S.; Drake, Frank; Meyer, Elliot; Dorval, Patrick; Siemion, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    We are designing and constructing a new SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) instrument to search for direct evidence of interstellar communications via pulsed laser signals at near-infrared wavelengths. The new instrument design builds upon our past optical SETI experiences, and is the first step toward a new, more versatile and sophisticated generation of very fast optical and near-infrared pulse search devices. We present our instrumental design by giving an overview of the opto-mechanical design, detector selection and characterization, signal processing, and integration procedure. This project makes use of near-infrared (950 - 1650 nm) discrete amplification Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) that have > 1 GHz bandwidths with low noise characteristics and moderate gain (~104). We have investigated the use of single versus multiple detectors in our instrument (see Maire et al., this conference), and have optimized the system to have both high sensitivity and low false coincidence rates. Our design is optimized for use behind a 1m telescope and includes an optical camera for acquisition and guiding. A goal is to make our instrument relatively economical and easy to duplicate. We describe our observational setup and our initial search strategies for SETI targets, and for potential interesting compact astrophysical objects.

  17. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE LOW RESOLUTION SPECTROMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumura, K.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Murata, K.; Battle, J.; Bock, J.; Brown, S.; Lykke, K.; Smith, A.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Keating, B.; Renbarger, T.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W.; Sullivan, I.; and others

    2013-08-15

    Absolute spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse radiation at 1 {mu}m to 2 {mu}m are crucial to our understanding of the radiative content of the universe from nucleosynthesis since the epoch of reionization, the composition and structure of the zodiacal dust cloud in our solar system, and the diffuse galactic light arising from starlight scattered by interstellar dust. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment is a {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15-30 absolute spectrophotometer designed to make precision measurements of the absolute near-infrared sky brightness between 0.75 {mu}m <{lambda} < 2.1 {mu}m. This paper presents the optical, mechanical, and electronic design of the LRS, as well as the ground testing, characterization, and calibration measurements undertaken before flight to verify its performance. The LRS is shown to work to specifications, achieving the necessary optical and sensitivity performance. We describe our understanding and control of sources of systematic error for absolute photometry of the near-infrared extragalactic background light.

  18. NIFTE: The Near Infrared Faint-Object Telescope Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, James J.; Lange, Andrew E.; Matsumoto, T.; Eisenhardt, Peter B.; Hacking, Perry B.; Schember, Helene R.

    1994-01-01

    The high sensitivity of large format InSb arrays can be used to obtain deep images of the sky at 3-5 micrometers. In this spectral range cool or highly redshifted objects (e.g. brown dwarfs and protogalaxies) which are not visible at shorter wavelengths may be observed. Sensitivity at these wavelengths in ground-based observations is severly limited by the thermal flux from the telescope and from the earth's atmosphere. The Near Infrared Faint-Object Telescope Experiment (NIFTE), a 50 cm cooled rocket-borne telescope combined with large format, high performance InSb arrays, can reach a limiting flux less than 1 micro-Jy(1-sigma) over a large field-of-view in a single flight. In comparison, the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) will require days of observation to reach a sensitivity more than one order of magnitude worse over a similar area of the sky. The deep 3-5 micrometer images obtained by the rocket-borne telescope will assist in determining the nature of faint red objects detected by ground-based telescopes at 2 micrometers, and by ISO at wavelengths longer than 5 micrometers.

  19. Jupiter's atmospheric composition from the Cassini thermal infrared spectroscopy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunde, V. G.; Flasar, F. M.; Jennings, D. E.; Bezard, B.; Strobel, D. F.; Conrath, B. J.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Achterberg, R. K.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Irwin, P.; Brasunas, J. C.; Pearl, J. C.; Smith, M. D.; Orton, G. S.; Gierasch, P. J.; Spilker, L. J.; Carlson, R. C.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Calcutt, S. B.; Read, P. L.; Taylor, F. W.; Fouchet, T.; Parrish, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer observed Jupiter in the thermal infrared during the swing-by of the Cassini spacecraft. Results include the detection of two new stratospheric species, the methyl radical and diacetylene, gaseous species present in the north and south auroral infrared hot spots; determination of the variations with latitude of acetylene and ethane, the latter a tracer of atmospheric motion; observations of unexpected spatial distributions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen cyanide, both considered to be products of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts; characterization of the morphology of the auroral infrared hot spot acetylene emission; and a new evaluation of the energetics of the northern auroral infrared hot spot.

  20. Infrared experiments for spaceborne planetary atmospheres research. Full report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The role of infrared sensing in atmospheric science is discussed and existing infrared measurement techniques are reviewed. Proposed techniques for measuring planetary atmospheres are criticized and recommended instrument developments for spaceborne investigations are summarized for the following phenomena: global and local radiative budget; radiative flux profiles; winds; temperature; pressure; transient and marginal atmospheres; planetary rotation and global atmospheric activity; abundances of stable constituents; vertical, lateral, and temporal distribution of abundances; composition of clouds and aerosols; radiative properties of clouds and aerosols; cloud microstructure; cloud macrostructure; and non-LTE phenomena.

  1. First results from the large probe infrared radiometer experiment.

    PubMed

    Boese, R W; Pollack, J B; Silvaggio, P M

    1979-02-23

    During the descent to the surface of Venus, the large probe infrared radiometer measured the net thermal radiative flux in several spectral bandpasses. Preliminary analysis has permitted us to estimate (i) the infrared extinction coefficient profile attributable to aerosols, with respect to their visible profile, in the upper atmosphere of Venus and (ii) the water vapor mixing ratio below the clouds. An indication of the composition of a multicomponent cloud is seen in the data from the spectral bandpass from 6 to 7 micrometers.

  2. Infrared experiments for spaceborne planetary atmospheres research. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The role of 0.5 to 300 micron remote sensing in planetary atmospheres exploration was evaluated by examining a broad range of measurement techniques including quantitative intercomparisons of existing and planned instruments by the phenomenological method. Key areas of infrared instrumentation requiring development for the investigations of atmospheres were identified.

  3. Research and experiment of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ling; Min, Chaobo; Sun, Jianning; Gu, Yan; Yang, Feng; Zhu, Bo; Pan, Jingsheng; Guo, Yiliang

    2015-04-01

    The design and imaging characteristic experiment of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system are introduced. Through the adoption of InGaAs focal plane array, the real time image process structure of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is researched. The hardware circuit and image process software of the imaging system based on FPGA are researched. The InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is composed of shortwave infrared lens, InGaAs focal plane array, temperature controller module, power supply module, analog-to-digital converter module, digital-to-analog converter module, FPGA image processing module and optical-mechanical structure. The main lock frequency of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is 30MHz. The output mode of the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is PAL analog signal. The power dissipation of the imaging system is 2.6W. The real time signal process in InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system includes non-uniformly correction algorithm, bad pixel replacement algorithm, and histogram equalization algorithm. Based on the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system, the imaging characteristic test of shortwave infrared is carried out for different targets in different conditions. In the foggy weather, the haze and fog penetration are tested. The InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system could be used for observing humans, boats, architecture, and mountains in the haze and foggy weather. The configuration and performance of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system are respectively logical and steady. The research on the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is worthwhile for improving the development of night vision technology.

  4. Infrared Spectrum of Methanol: A First-Year Student Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Garth; Dwyer, Mark

    1981-01-01

    Describes an experiment providing an experimental introduction to vibrational spectroscopy and experience in using an elementary vacuum line. The experiment, using a gas cell charged with methanol, is completed in a three-hour laboratory period and is directed toward understanding vibrational spectroscopy rather than the diagnostic value of the…

  5. X-Ray Shadowing Experiments Toward Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. E.; Snowden, S.; Bania, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    We searched for X-ray shadowing toward two infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) using the MOS detectors on XMM-Newton to learn about the Galactic distribution of X-ray emitting plasma. IRDCs make ideal X-ray shadowing targets of 3/4 keY photons due to their high column densities, relatively large angular sizes, and known kinematic distances. Here we focus on two clouds near 30 deg Galactic longitude at distances of 2 and 5 kpc from the Sun. We derive the foreground and background column densities of molecular and atomic gas in the direction of the clouds. We find that the 3/4 ke V emission must be distributed throughout the Galactic disk. It is therefore linked to the structure of the cooler material of the ISM, and to the birth of stars.

  6. X-RAY SHADOWING EXPERIMENTS TOWARD INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Snowden, S. L.

    2010-10-01

    We searched for X-ray shadowing toward two infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) using the MOS detectors on XMM-Newton to learn about the Galactic distribution of X-ray emitting plasma. IRDCs make ideal X-ray shadowing targets of 3/4 keV photons due to their high column densities, relatively large angular sizes, and known kinematic distances. Here we focus on two clouds near 30{sup 0} Galactic longitude at distances of 2 and 5 kpc from the Sun. We derive the foreground and background column densities of molecular and atomic gas in the direction of the clouds. We find that the 3/4 keV emission must be distributed throughout the Galactic disk. It is therefore linked to the structure of the cooler material of the interstellar medium and to the birth of stars.

  7. Scientific support of the Apollo infrared scanning radiometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, W. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Infrared Scanning Radiometer (ISR) was designed to map the thermal emission of the lunar surface from the service module of the orbiting Apollo 17 spacecraft. Lunar surface nighttime temperatures, which are extremely difficult to map from earth based telescopes were measured. The ISR transmitted approximately 90 hours of lunar data spread over 5 days in lunar orbit. Approximately 10 to the 8th power independent lunar temperature measurements were made with an absolute accuracy of 2K. Spatial resolution at nadir was approximately 2.2 km (depending on orbital altitude), exceeding that of earth based measurements by at least an order of magnitude. Preliminary studies of the data reveal the highest population of thermal anomalies (or hot spots) in Oceanus Procellarum. Very few anomalies exist on the far side of the moon as was predicted from the association of anomalies with mare on the near side. A number of negative anomalies (or cold spots) have also been found.

  8. Small helium-cooled infrared telescope experiment for Spacelab-2 (IRT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    1990-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope (IRT) experiment, flown on Spacelab-2, was used to make infrared measurements between 2 and 120 microns. The objectives were multidisciplinary in nature with astrophysical goals of mapping the diffuse cosmic emission and extended infrared sources and technical goals of measuring the induced Shuttle environment, studying properties of superfluid helium in space, and testing various infrared telescope system designs. Astrophysically, new data were obtained on the structure of the Galaxy at near-infrared wavelengths. A summary of the large scale diffuse near-infrared observations of the Galaxy by the IRT is presented, as well as a summary of the preliminary results obtained from this data on the structure of the galactic disk and bulge. The importance of combining CO and near-infrared maps of similar resolution to determine a 3-D model of galactic extinction is demonstrated. The IRT data are used, in conjunction with a proposed galactic model, to make preliminary measurements of the global scale parameters of the Galaxy. During the mission substantial amounts of data were obtained concerning the induced Shuttle environment. An experiment was also performed to measure spacecraft glow in the IR.

  9. An Inorganic Laboratory Experiment Involving Photochemistry, Liquid Chromatography, and Infrared Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Elroy W.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an experiment involving photochemical legand displacement on a metal carbonyl, separation of the product mixture by chromotography, and identification of the components by use of infrared spectroscopy and group theory. The chromatography and spectroscopy are combined as complementary tools in this experiment. (Author/JN)

  10. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  11. The cosmic infrared background experiment-2 (CIBER-2) for studying the near-infrared extragalactic background light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahata, Mai; Arai, Toshiaki; Battle, John; Bock, James; Cooray, Asantha; Enokuchi, Akito; Hristov, Viktor; Kanai, Yoshikazu; Kim, Min Gyu; Korngut, Phillip; Lanz, Alicia; Lee, Dae-Hee; Mason, Peter; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Morford, Tracy; Ohnishi, Yosuke; Park, Won-Kee; Sano, Kei; Takeyama, Norihide; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Zemcov, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We present the current status of the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment-2 (CIBER-2) project, whose goal is to make a rocket-borne measurement of the near-infrared Extragalactic Background Light (EBL), under a collaboration with U.S.A., Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The EBL is the integrated light of all extragalactic sources of emission back to the early Universe. At near-infrared wavelengths, measurement of the EBL is a promising way to detect the diffuse light from the first collapsed structures at redshift z˜10, which are impossible to detect as individual sources. However, recently, the intra-halo light (IHL) model is advocated as the main contribution to the EBL, and our new result of the EBL fluctuation from CIBER-1 experiment is also supporting this model. In this model, EBL is contributed by accumulated light from stars in the dark halo regions of low- redshift (z<2) galaxies, those were tidally stripped by the interaction of satellite dwarf galaxies. Thus, in order to understand the origin of the EBL, both the spatial fluctuation observations with multiple wavelength bands and the absolute spectroscopic observations for the EBL are highly required. After the successful initial CIBER- 1 experiment, we are now developing a new instrument CIBER-2, which is comprised of a 28.5-cm aluminum telescope and three broad-band, wide-field imaging cameras. The three wide-field (2.3×2.3 degrees) imaging cameras use the 2K×2K HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG arrays, and cover the optical and near-infrared wavelength range of 0.5-0.9 μm, 1.0-1.4 μm and 1.5-2.0 μm, respectively. Combining a large area telescope with the high sensitivity detectors, CIBER-2 will be able to measure the spatial fluctuations in the EBL at much fainter levels than those detected in previous CIBER-1 experiment. Additionally, we will use a linear variable filter installed just above the detectors so that a measurement of the absolute spectrum of the EBL is also possible. In this paper, the scientific

  12. A near-Infrared SETI Experiment: Alignment and Astrometric precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duenas, Andres; Maire, Jerome; Wright, Shelley; Drake, Frank D.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Siemion, Andrew; Stone, Remington P. S.; Tallis, Melisa; Treffers, Richard R.; Werthimer, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Beginning in March 2015, a Near-InfraRed Optical SETI (NIROSETI) instrument aiming to search for fast nanosecond laser pulses, has been commissioned on the Nickel 1m-telescope at Lick Observatory. The NIROSETI instrument makes use of an optical guide camera, SONY ICX694 CCD from PointGrey, to align our selected sources into two 200µm near-infrared Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) with a field-of-view of 2.5"x2.5" each. These APD detectors operate at very fast bandwidths and are able to detect pulse widths extending down into the nanosecond range. Aligning sources onto these relatively small detectors requires characterizing the guide camera plate scale, static optical distortion solution, and relative orientation with respect to the APD detectors. We determined the guide camera plate scale as 55.9+- 2.7 milli-arcseconds/pixel and magnitude limit of 18.15mag (+1.07/-0.58) in V-band. We will present the full distortion solution of the guide camera, orientation, and our alignment method between the camera and the two APDs, and will discuss target selection within the NIROSETI observational campaign, including coordination with Breakthrough Listen.

  13. Experiment requirements document for reflight of the small helium-cooled infrared telescope experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The four astronomical objectives addressed include: the measurement and mapping of extended low surface brightness infrared emission from the galaxy; the measurement of diffuse emission from intergalactic material and/or galaxies and quasi-stellar objects; the measurement of the zodiacal dust emission; and the measurement of a large number of discrete infrared sources.

  14. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  15. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Keating, B.; Renbarger, T.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W.; Sullivan, I.; Suzuki, K.

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  16. Near- and far-infrared observations of interplanetary dust bands from the COBE diffuse infrared background experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiesman, William J.; Hauser, Michael G.; Kelsall, Thomas; Lisse, Carey M.; Moseley, S. Harvey, Jr.; Reach, William T.; Silverberg, Robert F.; Stemwedel, Sally W.; Weiland, Janet L.

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) spacecraft have been used to examine the near and far infrared signatures of the interplanetary dust (IPD) bands. Images of the dust band pairs at ecliptic latitudes of +/- 1.4 deg and +/- 10 deg have been produced at DIRBE wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 micrometers. The observations at the shorter wavelengths provide the first evidence of scattered sunlight from particles responsible for the dust bands. It is found that the grains in the bands and those in the smooth IPD cloud have similar spectral energy distributions, suggesting similar compositions and possibly a common origin. The scattering albedos from 1.25 to 3.5 micrometers for the grains in the dust bands and those in the IPD cloud are 0.22 and 0.29, respectively. The 10 deg band pair is cooler (185 +/- 10 K) than the smooth interplanetary dust cloud (259 +/- 10 K). From both parallactic and thermal analyses, the implied location of the grains responsible for the peak brightness of the 10 deg band pair is 2.1 +/- 0.1 AU the Sun A parallactic distance of 1.4 +/- 0.2 AU is found for the peak of the 1.4 deg band pair.

  17. The Vinyl Acetate Content of Packaging Film: A Quantitative Infrared Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allpress, K. N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents an experiment used in laboratory technician training courses to illustrate the quantitative use of infrared spectroscopy which is based on industrial and laboratory procedures for the determination of vinyl acetate levels in ethylene vinyl acetate packaging films. Includes three approaches to allow for varying path lengths (film…

  18. Infrared horizon sensor modeling for attitude determination and control: Analysis and mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phenneger, M. C.; Singhal, S. P.; Lee, T. H.; Stengle, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    The work performed by the Attitude Determination and Control Section at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center in analyzing and evaluating the performance of infrared horizon sensors is presented. The results of studies performed during the 1960s are reviewed; several models for generating the Earth's infrared radiance profiles are presented; and the Horizon Radiance Modeling Utility, the software used to model the horizon sensor optics and electronics processing to computer radiance-dependent attitude errors, is briefly discussed. Also provided is mission experience from 12 spaceflight missions spanning the period from 1973 to 1984 and using a variety of horizon sensing hardware. Recommendations are presented for future directions for the infrared horizon sensing technology.

  19. Infrared Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lascours, Jean; Albe, Virginie

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of simple and nontraditional experiments that enable students to discover the properties of infrared radiation by studying the propagation, reflection, diffusion, and refraction of infrared. The experiments rely on two modules, an infrared transmitter and an infrared receiver. (SAH)

  20. Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS) experiment - STS 61-C results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, David A.; Dunavant, James C.; Myrick, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The operation of the Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing experiment on mission STS 61-C of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia is described. False-color video images are shown of surface temperatures on the leeside wing and fuselage areas during entry. Features evident in the imagery are related to aerodynamic flow phenomena such as shock interactions, leeside vortices, and elevon gap effects. Significant anomalies in experiment hardware operation occurred on this flight. The anomalous hardware performance resulted in requirements for major modification to the postflight data reduction procedures. The data collected provide a qualitative, but not a fully quantitative, look at leeside surface heating.

  1. The {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot, G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust

  2. Infrared spectrometry and radiometry of high-explosive detonations: the Los Alamos experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E H; Williams, R L; Frazier, E N; Stone, D K; Herr, K C; Young, R M; Robbins, R G

    1982-11-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether the infrared spectra of high-explosive detonations can be used to infer the type of explosive material and/or the containment material employed. Infrared spectra and radiometric traces were measured during a test series of twenty-three detonations; some were contained and some uncontained. A variety of high-explosive materials and containment materials were included. The explosive charge was typically about 175 g. Infrared spectra were taken at the rate of 250 spectra/sec. This rate was too slow to characterize the very early gas expansion or burn pase of these explosions. The infrared spectra of the delayed or afterburn phase of these explosions often displayed molecular emission and absorption features. Absorption by NH/sub 3/ was observed when C-4 was the high-explosive material, and not observed for any other material. Emissions from H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ were observed part of the time. Their occurence does not seem to be correlated with the type of containment or type of high-explosive material, or peak temperature reached in the afterburn. From the radiometric traces, one concludes that the relative peak radiance from the burn and afterburn phases depend strongly on the type of high-explosive material. For similar devices the burn phase is consistent from shot to shot, whereas the afterburn is very inconsistent. The answer to the question whether infrared spectra of high-explosive detonations can be used to infer the type of explosive material and/or the containment material must await spectral observations of the burn phase. We now believe that spectra of the burn phase are likely to be the ones most useful in identifying the high-explosive or containment material.

  3. Control software and user interface for the Canarias Infrared Camera Experiment (CIRCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Franch, Antonio; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Charcos-Llorens, Miguel V.; Edwards, Michelle L.; Varosi, Frank; Hon, David B.; Raines, Steven N.; Warner, Craig D.; Rashkin, David

    2006-06-01

    The Canarias InfraRed Camera Experiment (CIRCE) is a near-infrared visitor instrument for the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). This document shows CIRCE software. It will have two major functions: instrument control and observatory interface. The instrument control software is based on the UFLIB library, currently used to operate FLAMINGOS-1 and T-ReCS (as well as the CanariCam and FLAMINGOS-2 instruments under development in the University of Florida). The software interface with the telescope will be based on a CORBA server-client architecture. Finally, the user interface will consist of two java-based interfaces for the mechanism/detector control, and for quick look and analysis of data.

  4. Optical design of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. S.; Evans, D. C.; Moseley, H.; Ludwig, U. W.

    1982-01-01

    The conceptual design for a ten-band absolute filter photometer (the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) to operate at 2 K and measure galactic and extragalactic infrared radiation in the 1 to 300-micron range and polarization in the 1 to 3.5-micron range is presented, as part of the NASA Cosmic Background Explorer. The telescope optical design, a Gregorian design incorporating bafffles and shades to provide high stray-light rejection, is described. Pupil nonuniformity in the detector-assembly optical design has been limited. It is determined that detector sensitiity requirements can be met, and that the problem of radiation-induced responsivity variations can be solved by minimizing detector-assembly size, providing for in situ thermal annealing, and allowing for frequent detector calibration. Limitations on mirror performance are to be met by fabricating mirrors and structure from the same aluminum 6061 ingot.

  5. A high-speed, four-wavelength infrared pyrometer for low temperature shock physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Seifter, A.; Boboridis, K.; Payton, J. R.; Obst, A. W.

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the standard problems associated with contactless temperature measurements, pyrometry in shock physics experiments has many additional concerns. These include background temperatures which are often higher than the substrate temperature, non-uniform sample temperature due to hotspots and ejecta, fast sample motion up to several km s{sup -1}, fast-changing sample emissivity at shock breakout, and very short measurement times. We have designed a four channel, high speed near-infrared (NIR) pyrometer for measurements in the 400 to 1000K blackbody temperature regime. The front end optics are specific to each experiment, utilizing preferably reflective optics in order to mitigate spectral dispersion. Next-generation instruments under development are also discussed.

  6. Simulating satellite infrared sounding retrievals in support of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Mathews, William; Irion, Frederick W.; Sturm, Erick J.

    2014-09-01

    A new set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) are underway to assess the impact of higher spatial and temporal resolution sounding on hurricane forecast accuracy. To support these studies, we have developed an OSSE retrieval simulation system. The system uses a simulated satellite orbit track to provide sample locations and footprint area of the infrared sounder configuration to be simulated over the region of interest. The data to be sampled are an OSSE nature run developed by the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) and the University of Miami (UM). The nature run is sampled at the sounder locations and integrated over the sounder footprint area. The resulting averaged profiles are smoothed vertically with simulated averaging kernels for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) using a linear retrieval simulation to produce calculated temperature and water vapor profiles. With reasonable fidelity, the sampled and smoothed profiles simulate the retrievals we can expect from a sounder like AIRS for the orbit and sampling configurations under test. Three instruments were simulated corresponding to the AIRS 45×45km footprint in LEO, a hypothetical sounder at 2×2km footprint in LEO, and a hypothetical GEO sounder at 5×5km regional and 10km × 10km full disk footprint sizes. RMS error relative to the nature run is calculated to demonstrate the error characteristics of the simulation system. The simulated retrievals as a result of this effort are currently being assessed by NOAA AOML in an OSSE study to determine the impact of advanced hyperspectral infrared sounders on hurricane forecast improvement.

  7. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE WIDE-FIELD IMAGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, J.; Battle, J.; Sullivan, I.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Cooray, A.; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Smidt, J.; Hristov, V.; Lam, A. C.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Keating, B.; Renbarger, T.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W.; Suzuki, K.; and others

    2013-08-15

    We have developed and characterized an imaging instrument to measure the spatial properties of the diffuse near-infrared extragalactic background light (EBL) in a search for fluctuations from z > 6 galaxies during the epoch of reionization. The instrument is part of the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), designed to observe the EBL above Earth's atmosphere during a suborbital sounding rocket flight. The imaging instrument incorporates a 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign field of view to measure fluctuations over the predicted peak of the spatial power spectrum at 10 arcmin, and 7'' Multiplication-Sign 7'' pixels, to remove lower redshift galaxies to a depth sufficient to reduce the low-redshift galaxy clustering foreground below instrumental sensitivity. The imaging instrument employs two cameras with {Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approx} 0.5 bandpasses centered at 1.1 {mu}m and 1.6 {mu}m to spectrally discriminate reionization extragalactic background fluctuations from local foreground fluctuations. CIBER operates at wavelengths where the electromagnetic spectrum of the reionization extragalactic background is thought to peak, and complements fluctuation measurements by AKARI and Spitzer at longer wavelengths. We have characterized the instrument in the laboratory, including measurements of the sensitivity, flat-field response, stray light performance, and noise properties. Several modifications were made to the instrument following a first flight in 2009 February. The instrument performed to specifications in three subsequent flights, and the scientific data are now being analyzed.

  8. Infrared balloon experiment: improved instrumental configuration and assessment of instrument performance.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, G; Boscaleri, A; Carli, B; Mencaraglia, F; Palchetti, L; Pascale, E

    2006-02-10

    During the 2002 environmental satellite Envisat mid-latitude validation campaign, a new upgraded configuration of the Infrared Balloon Experiment (IBEX) Fourier transform spectrometer, which had its first flight in 1978, performed a stratospheric balloon flight across the Mediterranean Sea. Among the substantial upgrades made to the instrument, the use of photon-noise-limited detectors permitted us to reach the theoretical limits in terms of signal-to-noise ratio. Also, important modifications were made to the interferometric system and electronics, such as the installation of a solid-state laser reference source and an onboard data recording system. During the flight, measurement of volume-mixing-ratio vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, N2O, and ClO from an altitude of approximately 38 km were performed with a vertical resolution of approximately 1.5 km.

  9. A near-infrared SETI experiment: probability distribution of false coincidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Jérôme; Wright, Shelley A.; Werthimer, Dan; Treffers, Richard R.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Stone, Remington P. S.; Drake, Frank; Siemion, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A Search for Extraterrestrial Life (SETI), based on the possibility of interstellar communication via laser signals, is being designed to extend the search into the near-infrared spectral region (Wright et al, this conference). The dedicated near-infrared (900 to 1700 nm) instrument takes advantage of a new generation of avalanche photodiodes (APD), based on internal discrete amplification. These discrete APD (DAPD) detectors have a high speed response (< 1 GHz) and gain comparable to photomultiplier tubes, while also achieving significantly lower noise than previous APDs. We are investigating the use of DAPD detectors in this new astronomical instrument for a SETI search and transient source observations. We investigated experimentally the advantages of using a multiple detector device operating in parallel to remove spurious signals. We present the detector characterization and performance of the instrument in terms of false positive detection rates both theoretically and empirically through lab measurements. We discuss the required criteria that will be needed for laser light pulse detection in our experiment. These criteria are defined to optimize the trade between high detection efficiency and low false positive coincident signals, which can be produced by detector dark noise, background light, cosmic rays, and astronomical sources. We investigate experimentally how false coincidence rates depend on the number of detectors in parallel, and on the signal pulse height and width. We also look into the corresponding threshold to each of the signals to optimize the sensitivity while also reducing the false coincidence rates. Lastly, we discuss the analytical solution used to predict the probability of laser pulse detection with multiple detectors.

  10. Regional Sediment Management Experiment Using the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and the Landsat Data Continuity Mission Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The central aim of this RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment is to demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/ Radiometer Suite and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensors as key input to the RSM (Regional Sediment Management) GIS (geographic information system) DSS (Decision Support System). The project affects the Coastal Management National Application.

  11. A Study of External Galaxies Detected by the {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Odenwald, S.; Newmark, J.; Smoot, G.

    1998-06-01

    A comparison of the {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky survey with the locations of known galaxies in the {ital IRAS} Catalog of Extragalactic Objects and the Center for Astrophysics Catalog of Galaxies led to the detection of as many as 57 galaxies. In this paper, we present the photometric data for these galaxies and an analysis of the seven galaxies that were detected at {lambda} {gt} 100 {mu}m. Estimates of the ratio of the mass of the cold dust (CD) component detected at {ital T}{sub {ital d}} = 20{endash}30 K to a very cold dust (VCD) component with {ital T}{sub {ital d}} {approx} 10{endash}15 K suggest that between 2{percent}{endash}100{percent} of the cirrus-like CD mass can also exist in many of these galaxies as VCD. In one galaxy, M33, the DIRBE photometry at 240 {mu}m suggests as much as 26 times as much VCD may be present as compared to the cirrus-like component. Further submillimeter measurements of this galaxy are required to verify such a large population of VCD. We also present 10 galaxies that were detected in the sky region not previously surveyed by {ital IRAS} and that can be used to construct a flux-limited all-sky catalog of galaxies brighter than 1000 Jy with a modest completeness limit of about 65{percent}. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  12. Retrieval of spectral and dynamic properties from two-dimensional infrared pump-probe experiments.

    PubMed

    Chelli, Riccardo; Volkov, Victor V; Righini, Roberto

    2008-07-15

    We have developed a fitting algorithm able to extract spectral and dynamic properties of a three level oscillator from a two-dimensional infrared spectrum (2D-IR) detected in time resolved nonlinear experiments. Such properties go from the frequencies of the ground-to-first and first-to-second vibrational transitions (and hence anharmonicity) to the frequency-fluctuation correlation function. This last is represented through a general expression that allows one to approach the various strategies of modeling proposed in the literature. The model is based on the Kubo picture of stochastic fluctuations of the transition frequency as a result of perturbations by a fluctuating surrounding. To account for the line-shape broadening due to pump pulse spectral width in double-resonance measurements, we supply the fitting algorithm with the option to perform the convolution of the spectral signal with a Lorentzian function in the pump-frequency dimension. The algorithm is tested here on 2D-IR pump-probe spectra of a Gly-Ala dipeptide recorded at various pump-probe delay times. Speedup benchmarks have been performed on a small Beowulf cluster. The program is written in FORTRAN language for both serial and parallel architectures and is available free of charge to the interested reader.

  13. Investigating Lava Properties using Experiments, Video Analysis, Infrared Thermometry and Numerical Flow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, E.; Spiegelman, M.; Karson, J.; Wysocki, R.

    2012-12-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of lava provide primary controls on lava flow behavior and are critical parameters in flow simulations. However, these properties are difficult to measure at field conditions or correctly extrapolate from the scale of small-size samples. We address this challenge by conducting controlled experiments using lab-made, meter scale basaltic lava flows and carefully monitoring their cooling and deformation using high spatial and temporal resolution video and infrared cameras. Our experimental setup is part of the Syracuse University Lava Project (\\url{http://lavaproject.syr.edu}) and includes a large furnace capable of melting up to 450 kg of basalt at temperatures well above the basalt liquidus. The lava is poured onto tilted planes or channels made of sand, steel, clay or gravel, to produce meters-long flows. This experimental setup is probably the only facility that allows such large scale controlled lava flows made of natural basaltic material. We record the motion of the lava using a high-resolution video camera placed directly above the flows, and the temperature using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) cameras and thermocouples. After the experiments, we analyze the images for lava deformation and cooling behavior. We compare the observations with numerical forward-models to constrain the thermal and rheological parameters and laws which best describe the lava. For the video analysis, we employ the technique of differential optical flow, which uses the time-variations of the spatial gradients of the image intensity to estimate velocity between consecutive frames. An important benefit for using optical flow, compared with other velocimetry methods, is that it outputs a spatially coherent flow field rather than point measurements. We demonstrate that the optical flow results agree with other measures of the flow velocity, and estimate the error due to noise and time-variability to be under 30 percent of the measured velocity. Our

  14. Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy in the Treatment of Pleural Disseminated NSCLC: Preclinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhide; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    Pleural metastases are common in patients with advanced thoracic cancers and are a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality yet is difficult to treat. Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a cancer treatment that combines the specificity of intravenously injected antibodies for targeting tumors with the toxicity induced by photosensitizers after exposure to NIR-light. Herein, we evaluate the efficacy of NIR-PIT in a mouse model of pleural disseminated non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted with a HER2, luciferase and GFP expressing NSCLC cell line (Calu3-luc-GFP). An antibody-photosensitizer conjugate (APC) consisting of trastuzumab and a phthalocyanine dye, IRDye-700DX, was synthesized. In vitro NIR-PIT cytotoxicity was assessed with dead staining, luciferase activity, and GFP fluorescence intensity. In vivo NIR-PIT was performed in mice with tumors implanted intrathoracic cavity or in the flank, and assessed by tumor volume and/or bioluminescence and fluorescence thoracoscopy. In vitro NIR-PIT-induced cytotoxicity was light dose dependent. In vivo NIR-PIT led significant reductions in both tumor volume (p = 0.002 vs. APC) and luciferase activity (p = 0.0004 vs. APC) in a flank model, and prolonged survival (p < 0.0001). Bioluminescence indicated that NIR-PIT lead to significant reduction in pleural dissemination (1 day after PIT; p = 0.0180). Fluorescence thoracoscopy confirmed the NIR-PIT effect on disseminated pleural disease. In conclusion, NIR-PIT has the ability to effectively treat pleural metastases caused by NSCLC in mice. Thus, NIR-PIT is a promising therapy for pleural disseminated tumors. PMID:25897335

  15. Near-IR Extragalactic Background Results from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemcov, Michael B.; CIBER

    2016-01-01

    The near IR extragalactic background light (EBL) encodes the integrated light production over cosmic history, so represents the total emission from all galaxies along the line of sight up to ancient first-light objects present during the epoch of reionization (EOR). This EOR emission necessarily comprises part of the background, and indeed a minimum level is required to supply enough photons to ionize the intergalactic medium, corresponding to an EBL brightness less than 1 nW m^-2 sr^-1, about one tenth of the integrated galactic light (IGL). In addition to emission from these IGL and EOR populations, low surface brightness tidal streams of stars stripped by gravitational interactions during galaxy formation at low redshifts, called intrahalo light (IHL), may also contribute a significant fraction of the EBL. Models for these components can be constrained both through direct photometric measurements, as well as the new technique of EBL anisotropy intensity mapping that takes advantage of the fact that the Zodiacal Light is spatially smooth while distant populations produce anisotropies with distinct spatial and spectral characteristics. This talk will present recent results from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), a sounding rocket borne payload designed to measure both the fluctuations and direct photometric emission of the extra-galactic background light. The anisotropy of the near-IR EBL suggests the presence of a bright component approximately as bright as the IGL component near 1 micron which we interpret as the aggregate emission from low-redshift IHL. New direct photometric measurements from CIBER's low resolution spectrometer will also be discussed.

  16. Far infrared tangential interferometry/polarimetry on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.; Domier, C.W.; Geck, W.R.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of the core B{sub T}(r,t) value is essential in the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX), since the effects of paramagnetism and diamagnetism in the NSTX are expected to be considerably greater than that in higher aspect ratio tokamaks. Therefore, without independent B{sub T}(r,t) measurement, plasma parameters dependent upon B{sub T} such as the {ital q} profile and local {beta} value cannot be evaluated. Tangential interferometer/polarimeter systems (eight channels) [H. Park, L. Guttadora, C. Domier, W. R. Geck, and N. C. Luhman, Jr., First and Second NSTX Research Forums, Princeton, NJ, 1997 (unpublished)] for the NSTX will provide temporally and radially resolved toroidal field profile [B{sub T}(r,t)] and two-dimensional electron density profile [n{sub e}(r,t)] data. The outcome of the proposed system is extremely important to the study of confinement, heating, and stability of the NSTX plasmas. The research task is largely based on utilizing existing hardware from the TFTR multichannel infrared interferometer system [D. K. Mansfield, H. K. Park, L. C. Johnson, H. Anderson, S. Foote, B. Clifton, and C. H. Ma, Appl. Opt. {bold 26}, 4469 (1987) and H. K. Park, D. K. Mansfield, and C. L. Johnson, Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostic, Los Angeles, CA, 28{endash}30 Oct. 1987 (unpublished), pp. 96{endash}104] which will be reconfigured into a tangential system for NSTX, and to develop the additional hardware required to complete the system. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. The QME AERI LBLRTM: A Closure Experiment for Downwelling High Spectral Resolution Infrared Radiance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. D.; Tobin, D. C.; Clough, S. A.; Brown, P. D.; Ellingson, R. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Knuteson, R. O.; Revercomb, H. E.; Shippert, T. R.; Smith, W. L.; Shephard, M. W.

    2004-11-01

    Research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has led to significant improvements in longwave radiative transfer modeling over the last decade. These improvements, which have generally come in small incremental changes, were made primarily in the water vapor self- and foreign-broadened continuum and the water vapor absorption line parameters. These changes, when taken as a whole, result in up to a 6 W m-2 improvement in the modeled clear-sky downwelling longwave radiative flux at the surface and significantly better agreement with spectral observations. This paper provides an overview of the history of ARM with regard to clear-sky longwave radiative transfer, and analyzes remaining related uncertainties in the ARM state-of-the-art Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM).A quality measurement experiment (QME) for the downwelling infrared radiance at the ARM Southern Great Plains site has been ongoing since 1994. This experiment has three objectives: 1) to validate and improve the absorption models and spectral line parameters used in line-by-line radiative transfer models, 2) to assess the ability to define the atmospheric state, and 3) to assess the quality of the radiance observations that serve as ground truth for the model. Analysis of data from 1994 to 1997 made significant contributions to optimizing the QME, but is limited by small but significant uncertainties and deficiencies in the atmospheric state and radiance observations. This paper concentrates on the analysis of QME data from 1998 to 2001, wherein the data have been carefully selected to address the uncertainties in the 1994 97 dataset. Analysis of this newer dataset suggests that the representation of self-broadened water vapor continuum absorption is 3% 8% too strong in the 750 1000 cm-1 region. The dataset also provides information on the accuracy of the self- and foreign-broadened continuum absorption in the 1100 1300 cm-1 region. After

  18. A near-infrared SETI experiment: A multi-time resolution data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallis, Melisa; Maire, Jerome; Wright, Shelley; Drake, Frank D.; Duenas, Andres; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Stone, Remington P. S.; Treffers, Richard R.; Werthimer, Dan; NIROSETI

    2016-06-01

    We present new post-processing routines which are used to detect very fast optical and near-infrared pulsed signals using the latest NIROSETI (Near-Infrared Optical Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) instrument. NIROSETI was commissioned in 2015 at Lick Observatory and searches for near-infrared (0.95 to 1.65μ) nanosecond pulsed laser signals transmitted by distant civilizations. Traditional optical SETI searches rely on analysis of coincidences that occur between multiple detectors at a fixed time resolution. We present a multi-time resolution data analysis that extends our search from the 1ns to 1ms range. This new feature greatly improves the versatility of the instrument and its search parameters for near-infrared SETI. We aim to use these algorithms to assist us in our search for signals that have varying duty cycles and pulse widths. We tested the fidelity and robustness of our algorithms using both synthetic embedded pulsed signals, as well as data from a near-infrared pulsed laser installed on the instrument. Applications of NIROSETI are widespread in time domain astrophysics, especially for high time resolution transients, and astronomical objects that emit short-duration high-energy pulses such as pulsars.

  19. Effect of metal stress on the thermal infrared emission of soybeans: A greenhouse experiment - Possible utility in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suresh, R.; Schwaller, M. R.; Foy, C. D.; Weidner, J. R.; Schnetzler, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Manganese-sensitive forest and manganese-tolerant lee soybean cultivars were subjected to differential manganese stress in loring soil in a greenhouse experiment. Leaf temperature measurements were made using thermistors for forest and lee. Manganese-stressed plants had higher leaf temperatures than control plants in both forest and lee. Results of this experiment have potential applications in metal stress detection using remote sensing thermal infrared data over large areas of vegetation. This technique can be useful in reconnaissance mineral exploration in densely-vegetated regions where conventional ground-based methods are of little help.

  20. Altered visual experience and acute visual deprivation affect predatory targeting by infrared-imaging Boid snakes.

    PubMed

    Grace, M S; Woodward, O M

    2001-11-23

    Boid and Crotaline snakes use both their eyes and infrared-imaging facial pit organs to target homeothermic prey. These snakes can target in complete darkness, but the eyes can also effectively direct predatory strikes. We investigated the behavioral correlates of boid snakes' simultaneous use of two imaging systems by testing whether congenital unilateral visual deprivation affects targeting performance. Normally sighted Burmese pythons exhibited average targeting angle of zero (on the midline axis of the head), but three unilaterally anophthalmic Burmese pythons targeted preferentially on the sighted side. A unilaterally anophthalmic amethystine python also targeted on the sighted side, and a unilaterally anophthalmic Brazilian rainbow boa tended to target on the sighted side, though its mean targeting angle was not significantly different from zero. When unilaterally anophthalmic Burmese pythons were temporarily blinded, mean strike angle changed to that of normally sighted snakes. These results show that while infrared-imaging snakes can shift between visual and infrared information under acute experimental conditions, loss of part of the visual field during development results in abnormal predatory targeting behavior. In contrast, normally sighted snakes subjected to temporary unilateral blinding do not target preferentially on the sighted side. Therefore, while loss of part of the visual field may be compensated for by infrared input in normal snakes, partial absence of visual input during development may alter central organization of visual information. Conversely, absence of half the visual field during development does not alter targeting performance based upon infrared input alone, suggesting that organization of the central infrared map does not depend upon normal organization of visual input.

  1. Investigation Development Plan for Reflight of the Small Helium-cooled Infrared Telescope Experiment. Volume 1: Investigation and Technical/management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope (IRT) is designed to survey extended celestial sources of infrared radiation between 4 and 120 micrometers wavelength. It will provide data regarding Space Shuttle induced environmental contamination and the zodical light. And, it will provide experience in the management of large volumes of superfluid helium in the space environment.

  2. Results from the Portable Infrared Aerosol Transmission Experiment (PIRATE) - Caribbean: An examination of the column integrated infrared extinction of Saharan dust and comparisons with data commonly used in models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M.; Gautier, C.

    2004-12-01

    Infrared optical depth of Saharan dust from field measurements made in Puerto Rico are presented and compared with frequently-used dust models. The Portable Infrared Aerosol Transmission Experiment (PIRATE) - Caribbean was a ground-based experiment that measured the infrared transmission of transportted dust from the Saharan Desert. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used in Boqueron, Puerto Rico from June 23 through June 30, 2004 as a high-resolution infrared sun photometer. The visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) around the time of each FTIR measurement was taken from a nearby AERONET sensor at La Parguera, Puerto Rico, for reference. The FTIR recorded the direct solar and scattered radiances from 3 to 14 microns. By collecting the solar radiance for several days, some for which the AOD was either very low (<0.1) or high (>0.5), the infrared AOD of the dust was determined as a function of wavelength. The measured infrared AOD of the dust is compared with frequently-used dust models, i.e. Volz and Sokolik, for various effective radii and assumed dust compositions. Since Saharan dust is often pervasive over large regions of the globe, these results are potentially important in models and satellite measurements attempting to determine the regional forcing from dust.

  3. Thermal Infrared Imaging Experiments of C-Type Asteroid 162173 Ryugu on Hayabusa2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tatsuaki; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Satoshi; Taguchi, Makoto; Imamura, Takeshi; Arai, Takehiko; Senshu, Hiroki; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Demura, Hirohide; Kitazato, Kohei; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Kouyama, Toru; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Wada, Takehiko; Takita, Jun; Sakatani, Naoya; Horikawa, Yamato; Endo, Ken; Helbert, Jörn; Müller, Thomas G.; Hagermann, Axel

    2016-09-01

    The thermal infrared imager TIR onboard Hayabusa2 has been developed to investigate thermo-physical properties of C-type, near-Earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu. TIR is one of the remote science instruments on Hayabusa2 designed to understand the nature of a volatile-rich solar system small body, but it also has significant mission objectives to provide information on surface physical properties and conditions for sampling site selection as well as the assessment of safe landing operations. TIR is based on a two-dimensional uncooled micro-bolometer array inherited from the Longwave Infrared Camera LIR on Akatsuki (Fukuhara et al., 2011). TIR takes images of thermal infrared emission in 8 to 12 μm with a field of view of 16 × 12° and a spatial resolution of 0.05° per pixel. TIR covers the temperature range from 150 to 460 K, including the well calibrated range from 230 to 420 K. Temperature accuracy is within 2 K or better for summed images, and the relative accuracy or noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) at each of pixels is 0.4 K or lower for the well-calibrated temperature range. TIR takes a couple of images with shutter open and closed, the corresponding dark frame, and provides a true thermal image by dark frame subtraction. Data processing involves summation of multiple images, image processing including the StarPixel compression (Hihara et al., 2014), and transfer to the data recorder in the spacecraft digital electronics (DE). We report the scientific and mission objectives of TIR, the requirements and constraints for the instrument specifications, the designed instrumentation and the pre-flight and in-flight performances of TIR, as well as its observation plan during the Hayabusa2 mission.

  4. Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment for SOFIA (SAFIRE): Progress and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, R. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Dwek, E.; Staguhn, J. G.; Irwin, K. D.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    SAFIRE/SOFIA is a versatile imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 100 less than lambda less than 655 microns, with spectral resolving power of approx. l0(exp 3). Selected as a "PI" instrument for the airborne Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), SAFIRE will apply two dimensional pop-up bolometer arrays to provide background limited imaging spectrometry. We describe the instrument design, its application to a range of astro- physical investigations, and current progress and results in the innovative detector and instrument design. SAFIRE/SOFIA is on track for availability in 2006.

  5. Extinction of visible and infrared radiation in rain Comparison of theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, C. W.; Atlas, D.

    1985-01-01

    A critical review is given of the experimental and theoretical results concerning the measurement of rainfall using optical extinction, i.e., the attenuation of radiation with wavelength less than or equal to that of the infrared band. It is shown that rainfall rates found from an empirical relation involving optical extinction generally display average deviations without regard for sign of only 25 percent when compared with those measured by raingages directly beneath the optical beam. It is also shown that the differences between experimental and theoretical results can be explained in terms of variations of the shape of the raindrop size distribution, i.e., deviations from exponentiality.

  6. Ice clouds optical properties in the Far Infrared from the ECOWAR-COBRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Rolando; Tosi, Ennio

    ECOWAR-COBRA (Earth COoling by WAter vapouR emission -Campagna di Osservazioni della Banda Rotazionale del vapor d'Acqua) field campaign took place in Italy from 3 to 17 March 2007 with the main goal of studying the scarcely sensed atmospheric emission occurring beyond 17 microns. Instrumentation involved in the campaign included two different Fourier Transforms Spectrometers (FTS) : REFIR-PAD (at Testa Grigia Station, 3500 m a.s.l.) and FTIR-ABB (at Cervinia Station, 1990 m a.s.l.). In this work cloudy sky data have been ana-lyzed. A cloud properties retrieval methodology (RT-RET), based on high spectral resolution measurements in the atmospheric window (800-1000 cm-1), is applied to both FTS sensors. Cloud properties determined from the infrared retrievals are compared with those obtained from Raman lidar taken by the BASIL Lidar system that was operating at Cervinia station. Cloud microphysical and optical properties retrieved by RT-RET are used to perform forward simulations over the entire FTSs measurements spectral interval. Results are compared to FTS data to test the ability of single scattering ice crystals models to reproduce cloudy sky radiances in the Far Infra-Red (FIR) part of the spectrum. New methods to retrieve cloud optical and microphysical properties exploiting high spectral resolution FIR measurements are also investigated.

  7. Acupuncture or low frequency infrared treatment for low back pain in Chinese patients: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Chia; Cheng, Li-Jen; Zhang, Yan; He, Xin; Knaggs, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is a popular but controversial treatment option for low back pain. In China, it is practised as traditional Chinese medicine; other treatment strategies for low back pain are commonly practised as Western medicine. Research on patient preference for low back-pain treatment options has been mainly conducted in Western countries and is limited to a willingness-to-pay approach. A stated-preference, discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine Chinese patient preferences and trade-offs for acupuncture and low frequency infrared treatment in low back pain from September 2011 to August 2012 after approval from the Department of Scientific Research in the study settings. Eight-six adult outpatients who visited the 'traditional medicine department' at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital and the 'rehabilitation department' at a Western medicine hospital in Guangdong Province of China for chronic low back pain during study period participated in an interview survey. A questionnaire containing 10 scenarios (5 attributes in each scenario) was used to ask participants' preference for acupuncture, low frequency infrared treatment or neither option. Validated responses were analysed using a nested-logit model. The decision on whether to receive a therapy was not associated with the expected utility of receiving therapy, female gender and higher out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased chance to receive treatments. Of the utility of receiving either acupuncture or low frequency infrared treatment, the treatment sensation was the most important attribute as an indicator of treatment efficacy, followed by the maximum efficacy, maintenance duration and onset of efficacy, and the out-of-pocket payment. The willingness-to-pay for acupuncture and low frequency infrared treatment were about $618.6 and $592.4 USD per course respectively, demonstrated patients' demand of pain management. The treatment sensation was regarded as an indicator of treatment

  8. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment: quantification of the near-infrared water vapor continuum from atmospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Andreas; Sussmann, Ralf; Rettinger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Inaccuracies in the description of atmospheric radiative processes are among the major shortcomings of current climate models. Especially the contribution by water vapor, the primary greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere, currently still lacks sufficiently accurate quantification. The main focus of our study is on the so-called water vapor continuum absorption in the near-infrared spectral range, which is of crucial importance for atmospheric radiative processes. To date, the quantification of this contribution originates exclusively from laboratory experiments which show contradictory results and whose findings are not unambiguously transferable to atmospheric conditions. The aim of the Zugspitze radiative closure study is therefore to obtain, to our knowledge for the first time, an exact characterization of the near-infrared water vapor continuum absorption using atmospheric measurements. This enables validation and, if necessary, improvements of the radiative transfer codes used in current climate models. The closure experiment comprises near-infrared spectral radiance measurements using a solar absorption FTIR spectrometer. These measurements are then compared to synthetic radiance spectra computed by means of a high-resolution radiative transfer model. The spectral residuals, i.e. the difference between measured and calculated spectral radiances can then be used to quantify errors in the description of water vapor absorption. Due to the extensive permanent instrumentation available at the Zugspitze observatory, the atmospheric state used as an input to the model calculations can be constrained with high accuracy. Additionally, we employ a novel radiometric calibration strategy for the solar FTIR spectral radiance measurements based on a combination of the Langley method and measurements of a medium-temperature blackbody source. These prerequisites enable accurate quantification of the water vapor continuum in the near-infrared spectral region, where

  9. Status and first results of the Canarias infrared camera experiment (CIRCE) for the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Alan; Stelter, Richard D.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Lasso-Cabrera, Nestor; Raines, Steven N.; Charcos, Miguel; Edwards, Michelle; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Ackley, Kendall; Cenarro, A. Javier; Bennett, John G.; Chinn, Brian; Frommeyer, Raymond; Herlevich, Michael D.; Miller, Paola; Murphey, Charles H.; Packham, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    CIRCE is a near-infrared (1-2.5 micron) imager, polarimeter and low-resolution spectrograph intended as a visitor instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.-4m telescope. It was built largely by graduate students and postdocs, with help from the UF astronomy engineering group, and is funded by the University of Florida and the U.S. National Science Foundation. CIRCE is intended to help fill the gap in time between GTC first light and the arrival of EMIR, and will also provide the following scientific capabilities to compliment EMIR after its arrival: high- resolution imaging, narrowband imaging, high-time-resolution photometry, imaging- and spectro- polarimetry, low-resolution spectroscopy. In this poster, we review the lab testing results for CIRCE from 2013 and describe the instrument status (currently in shipment to GTC).

  10. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Korngut, P. M.; Bock, J.; Renbarger, T.; Keating, B.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Battle, J.; Hristov, V.; Lanz, A.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Brown, S. W.; Lykke, K. R.; Smith, A. W.; Cooray, A.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W.; Shultz, B.; and others

    2013-08-15

    We have developed a near-infrared spectrometer designed to measure the absolute intensity of the solar 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line, scattered by interplanetary dust, in the zodiacal light (ZL) spectrum. Based on the known equivalent line width in the solar spectrum, this measurement can derive the zodiacal brightness, testing models of the ZL based on morphology that are used to determine the extragalactic background light in absolute photometry measurements. The spectrometer is based on a simple high-resolution tipped filter placed in front of a compact camera with wide-field refractive optics to provide the large optical throughput and high sensitivity required for rocket-borne observations. We discuss the instrument requirements for an accurate measurement of the absolute ZL brightness, the measured laboratory characterization, and the instrument performance in flight.

  11. Infrared sounding of the trade-wind boundary layer: AIRS and the RICO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, João P. A.; Teixeira, João; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Kahn, Brian H.; Dang, Van T.; Irion, Frederick W.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fishbein, Evan

    2010-12-01

    The new generation of remote sensors on board NASA's A-Train constellation offers the possibility of observing the atmospheric boundary layer in different regimes, with or without clouds. In this study we use data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and of the Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) campaign, to verify the accuracy and precision of the AIRS Version 5 Level 2 support product. This AIRS product has an improved vertical sampling that is necessary for the estimation of boundary layer properties. Good agreement is found between AIRS and RICO data, in a regime of oceanic shallow cumulus that is known to be difficult to analyze with other remote sensing data, and also shows a low sensitivity to cloud or land fraction. This suggests that AIRS data may be used for global boundary layer studies to support parameterization development in regions of difficult in-situ observation.

  12. Infrared Spectra of Simple Inorganic Ion Pairs in Solid Solution: A Physical Inorganic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Philip J.; Tong, William G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical inorganic experiment in which large single crystals of the alkali halides doped with divalent ion impurities are prepared easily. Demonstrates the ion pairing of inorganic ions in solid solution. (CS)

  13. The cloud monitor by an infrared camera at the Telescope Array experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, F.

    2011-09-22

    The mesurement of the extensive air shower using the fluorescence detectors (FDs) is affected by the condition of the atmosphere. In particular, FD aperture is limited by cloudiness. If cloud exists on the light path from extensive air shower to FDs, fluorescence photons will be absorbed drastically. Therefore cloudiness of FD's field of view (FOV) is one of important quality cut condition in FD analysis. In the Telescope Array (TA), an infrared (IR) camera with 320x236 pixels and a filed of view of 25.8 deg. x19.5 deg. has been installed at an observation site for cloud monitoring during FD observations. This IR camera measures temperature of the sky every 30 min during FD observation. IR camera is mounted on steering table, which can be changed in elevation and azimuthal direction. Clouds can be seen at a higher temperature than areas of cloudless sky from these temperature maps. In this paper, we discuss the quality of the cloud monitoring data, the analysis method, and current quality cut condition of cloudiness in FD analysis.

  14. Infrared Spectroscopic Data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), SDSS-III Data Release 10

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 10 is the first spectroscopic release from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), including spectra and derived stellar parameters for more than 50,000 stars. APOGEE is an ongoing survey of ~100,000 stars accessing all parts of the Milky Way. By operating in the infrared (H-band) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, APOGEE is better able to detect light from stars lying in dusty regions of the Milky Way than surveys conducted in the optical, making this survey particularly well-suited for exploring the Galactic disk and bulge. APOGEE's high resolution spectra provide detailed information about the stellar atmospheres; DR10 provides derived effective temperatures, surface gravities, overall metallicities, and information on the abundances of several chemical elements. [copied from http://www.sdss3.org/dr10/irspec/

  15. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1992 ASTEX field experiment. Calibration version: ASTEX King 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared (near-IR) channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1992 Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) field deployment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Tests during the ASTEX deployment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and then the MAS. This report summarizes the ASTEX hemisphere calibration, and then describes how the MAS was calibrated from the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. In addition, comparisons to an independent MAS calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere is discussed.

  16. Experiment tests of atmospheric turbulence effects on the infrared thermal imagers performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chensheng; Zhang, Zhijie; Hong, Pu; Wang, Qun

    2010-11-01

    This research indicated the experiment method to analyze and predict the effect of turbulence on the performance of IR thermal imagers. First, the values of structure constant of refractive index, Cn 2, were measured. The Cn 2 model used in engineering applications is also introduced. And the calculated values were compared to the experiment data, so that the model can be modified. Meanwhile, two IR thermal imagers in MWIR and LWIR bands were installed to provide the data on the range performance. After that, the range values as a function of varying turbulence were calculated utilizing the simulation tool. Finally, this paper analyzed the range values in different groups.

  17. Near-infrared fluorescence sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a multicenter experience

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Troyan, Susan L.; Mieog, J. Sven D.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Moffitt, Lorissa A.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Hirshfield-Bartek, Judith; Gioux, Sylvain; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Frangioni, John V.

    2014-01-01

    NIR fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has the potential to improve the SLN procedure by facilitating percutaneous and intraoperative identification of lymphatic channels and SLNs. Previous studies suggested that a dose of 0.62 mg (1.6 ml of 0.5 mM) ICG is optimal for SLN mapping in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer patients when used in conjunction with conventional techniques. Study subjects were 95 breast cancer patients planning to undergo SLN procedure at either the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (Boston, MA, USA) or the Leiden University Medical Center (Leiden, the Netherlands) between July 2010 and January 2013. Subjects underwent the standard-of-care SLN procedure at each institution using 99Technetium-colloid in all subjects and patent blue in 27 (28%) of the subjects. NIR fluorescence-guided SLN detection was performed using the Mini-FLARE imaging system. SLN identification was successful in 94 of 95 subjects (99%) using NIR fluorescence imaging or a combination of both NIR fluorescence imaging and radioactive guidance. In 2 of 95 subjects, radioactive guidance was necessary for initial in vivo identification of SLNs. In 1 of 95 subjects, NIR fluorescence was necessary for initial in vivo identification of SLNs. A total of 177 SLNs (mean = 1.9, range = 1–5) were resected: 100% NIR fluorescent, 88% radioactive, and 78% (of 40 nodes) blue. In 2 of 95 subjects (2.1%), SLNs containing macrometastases were found only by NIR fluorescence, and in 1 patient this led to upstaging to N1. This study demonstrates the safe and accurate application of NIR fluorescence imaging for the identification of SLNs in breast cancer patients, but calls into question what technique should be used as the gold standard in future studies. PMID:24337507

  18. Quantitative Investigations of Biodiesel Fuel Using Infrared Spectroscopy: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment for Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Andrew P.; Pomeroy, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel has gained attention in recent years as a renewable fuel source due to its reduced greenhouse gas and particulate emissions, and it can be produced within the United States. A laboratory experiment designed for students in an upper-division undergraduate laboratory is described to study biodiesel production and biodiesel mixing with…

  19. The spectroscopy of the atmosphere using far-infrared emission experiment (SAFIRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. M., III

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the SAFIRE experiment is to improve understanding of the middle-atmospher ozone distribution by conducting and analyzing global-scale measurements of important chemical, radiative and dynamical processes, including coupling among these processes and atmospheric regions. This will be accomplished by observing vertical profiles of temperature and key gases in the main chemical families. A detailed listing of SAFIRE measurements, including sepctral ranges, altitude ranges, IFOV, spatial and temporal resolution, latitude coverage and estimated precision is provided. The temperature, O3, CH4, and H2O observations will be useful for deriving and studying dynamical quantities such as geopotential height, potential vorticity, balanced winds and Eliassen-Palm fluxes. The SAFIRE observations will provide important data for study of chemistry, dynamics and transport processes. This experiment was conceived in response to a need for simultaneous measurements of odd hydrogen gases. These include gases such as OH, HO2, and atomic oxygen, which have not been observed by past satellite experiments and which will not be measured by any of teh Upper Atmosophere Reserach Satellite (UARS) experiments to be launched in 1991.

  20. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared - Part 1: Setup, uncertainty analysis, and assessment of far-infrared water vapor continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussmann, Ralf; Reichert, Andreas; Rettinger, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative knowledge of water vapor radiative processes in the atmosphere throughout the terrestrial and solar infrared spectrum is still incomplete even though this is crucial input to the radiation codes forming the core of both remote sensing methods and climate simulations. Beside laboratory spectroscopy, ground-based remote sensing field studies in the context of so-called radiative closure experiments are a powerful approach because this is the only way to quantify water absorption under cold atmospheric conditions. For this purpose, we have set up at the Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E; 2964 m a.s.l.) a long-term radiative closure experiment designed to cover the infrared spectrum between 400 and 7800 cm-1 (1.28-25 µm). As a benefit for such experiments, the atmospheric states at the Zugspitze frequently comprise very low integrated water vapor (IWV; minimum = 0.1 mm, median = 2.3 mm) and very low aerosol optical depth (AOD = 0.0024-0.0032 at 7800 cm-1 at air mass 1). All instruments for radiance measurements and atmospheric-state measurements are described along with their measurement uncertainties. Based on all parameter uncertainties and the corresponding radiance Jacobians, a systematic residual radiance uncertainty budget has been set up to characterize the sensitivity of the radiative closure over the whole infrared spectral range. The dominant uncertainty contribution in the spectral windows used for far-infrared (FIR) continuum quantification is from IWV uncertainties, while T profile uncertainties dominate in the mid-infrared (MIR). Uncertainty contributions to near-infrared (NIR) radiance residuals are dominated by water vapor line parameters in the vicinity of the strong water vapor bands. The window regions in between these bands are dominated by solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) calibration uncertainties at low NIR wavenumbers, while uncertainties due to AOD become an increasing and dominant contribution towards higher NIR wavenumbers

  1. Near-infrared fluorescence sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Floris P R; Troyan, Susan L; Mieog, J Sven D; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Moffitt, Lorissa A; Rosenberg, Mireille; Hirshfield-Bartek, Judith; Gioux, Sylvain; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Frangioni, John V

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has the potential to improve the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure by facilitating percutaneous and intraoperative identification of lymphatic channels and SLNs. Previous studies suggested that a dose of 0.62 mg (1.6 mL of 0.5 mM) ICG is optimal for SLN mapping in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of NIR fluorescence for SLN mapping in breast cancer patients when used in conjunction with conventional techniques. Study subjects were 95 breast cancer patients planning to undergo SLN procedure at either the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (Boston, MA, USA) or the Leiden University Medical Center (Leiden, the Netherlands) between July 2010 and January 2013. Subjects underwent the standard-of-care SLN procedure at each institution using (99)Technetium-colloid in all subjects and patent blue in 27 (28 %) of the subjects. NIR fluorescence-guided SLN detection was performed using the Mini-FLARE imaging system. SLN identification was successful in 94 of 95 subjects (99 %) using NIR fluorescence imaging or a combination of both NIR fluorescence imaging and radioactive guidance. In 2 of 95 subjects, radioactive guidance was necessary for initial in vivo identification of SLNs. In 1 of 95 subjects, NIR fluorescence was necessary for initial in vivo identification of SLNs. A total of 177 SLNs (mean 1.9, range 1-5) were resected: 100 % NIR fluorescent, 88 % radioactive, and 78 % (of 40 nodes) blue. In 2 of 95 subjects (2.1 %), SLNs-containing macrometastases were found only by NIR fluorescence, and in one patient this led to upstaging to N1. This study demonstrates the safe and accurate application of NIR fluorescence imaging for the identification of SLNs in breast cancer patients, but calls into question what technique should be used as the gold standard in future studies.

  2. Propagation of an electromagnetic wave in an absorbing anisotropic medium and infrared transmission of liquid crystals: comparison with experiments.

    PubMed

    Scaife, B K P; Sigarev, A A; Vij, J K; Goodby, J W

    2009-08-01

    The theory of the absorbance of a semi-infinite medium characterized by a second-rank dielectric tensor for the entire electromagnetic spectrum, as given by Scaife and Vij [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 174901 (2005)], is extended to include molecules of prolate spheriodal shape with longitudinal and transverse polarizabilities and to cover the case of elliptically polarized incident radiation. The theory is applied to the infrared transmission experiments of biaxial liquid crystals. It is found that the formula for the dependence on frequency and on angle of polarization of the absorbance A(omega,theta)= -log(10)[10(A(omega,0)) cos(2) theta + (10(-A(omega,pi/2)) sin(2) theta)] is unaffected by the anisotropy of the molecules and by the elliptical polarization of the incident radiation. A small (+/-5%) discrepancy between theory and experiment has been found for bands with high absorbances. It is found that this discrepancy does not depend on birefringence of the sample but may depend on the precise method of absorbance measurement and on effects at the surface of the cell containing the liquid crystal under test.

  3. Interactive Visualization of Infrared Spectral Data: Synergy of Computation, Visualization, and Experiment for Learning Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Paul M.; Motyka, Eric J.; Lancashire, Robert J.

    2000-05-01

    A straightforward procedure is described to combine computation of molecular vibrational modes using commonly available molecular modeling programs with visualization of the modes using advanced features of the MDL Information Systems Inc. Chime World Wide Web browser plug-in. Minor editing of experimental spectra that are stored in the JCAMP-DX format allows linkage of IR spectral frequency ranges to Chime molecular display windows. The spectra and animation files can be combined by Hypertext Markup Language programming to allow interactive linkage between experimental spectra and computationally generated vibrational displays. Both the spectra and the molecular displays can be interactively manipulated to allow the user maximum control of the objects being viewed. This procedure should be very valuable not only for aiding students through visual linkage of spectra and various vibrational animations, but also by assisting them in learning the advantages and limitations of computational chemistry by comparison to experiment.

  4. Design and fabrication of an infrared optical pyrometer ASIC as a diagnostic for shock physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Jared

    Optical pyrometry is the sensing of thermal radiation emitted from an object using a photoconductive device to convert photons into electrons, and is an important diagnostic tool in shock physics experiments. Data obtained from an optical pyrometer can be used to generate a blackbody curve of the material prior to and after being shocked by a high speed projectile. The sensing element consists of an InGaAs photodiode array, biasing circuitry, and multiple transimpedance amplifiers to boost the weak photocurrent from the noisy dark current into a signal that can eventually be digitized. Once the circuit elements have been defined, more often than not commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components are inadequate to satisfy every requirement for the diagnostic, and therefore a custom application specific design has to be considered. This thesis outlines the initial challenges with integrating the photodiode array block with multiple COTS transimpedance amplifiers onto a single chip, and offers a solution to a comparable optical pyrometer that uses the same type of photodiodes in conjunction with a re-designed transimpedance amplifier integrated onto a single chip. The final design includes a thorough analysis of the transimpedance amplifier along with modeling the circuit behavior which entails schematics, simulations, and layout. An alternative circuit is also investigated that incorporates an approach to multiplex the signals from each photodiode onto one data line and not only increases the viable real estate on the chip, but also improves the behavior of the photodiodes as they are subjected to less thermal load. The optical pyrometer application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for shock physic experiments includes a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with a 100 kΩ gain operating at bandwidth of 30 MHz, and an input-referred noise RMS current of 50 nA that is capable of driving a 50 Ω load.

  5. CoCo: an experiment in infrared coronagraphy at the IRTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, Douglas W.; Ftaclas, Christo; Brown, Robert H.; Trilling, David

    1998-08-01

    Imaging planets, brown dwarfs and disks around nearby stars is a challenging endeavor due to the required scene contrast. Success requires imaging down to m equals 20-25 within arcseconds of stars that are 4th-6th magnitude. Light scattered and diffracted from a variety of sources increases the background flux in the area of interest by orders of magnitude masking the target objects. As first shown by M. B. Lyot in 1939 masks can be placed in the focal pane and pupil planes of a camera to occult the bright central source making it possible to image the faint extensions around it. CoCo is an experiment in using a coronagraphic camera, for IR observations, on a large telescope in an effort to understand how a coronagraph can help and how to properly design one of the new generation of large telescopes. Recent result with CoCo show a factor of 5-10 reduction in background levels in the area from 2-7 arcseconds from the central object. This paper will describe those result and summarize what has been learned towards building coronagraphic cameras for today's large telescopes.

  6. Intercomparison of stratospheric water vapor observed by satellite experiments: Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II versus Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere and Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, E.W.; Larsen, J.C. ); McCormick, M.P.; McMaster, L.R.; Chu, W.P. ); Rind, D. ); Oltmans, S. )

    1993-03-20

    This paper presents a comparison of the stratospheric water vapor measurements made by the satellite-borne sensors the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II), the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS), and the Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment. LIMS obtained data for 7 months between November 1978 and May 1979; ATMOS was carried on Shuttle and observed eight profiles from April 30 to May 6, 1985 at approximately 30[degrees]N and 50[degrees]S; and, SAGE II continues to make measurements since its launch in October 1984. For both 30[degrees]N and 50[degrees]S in May, the comparisons between SAGE II and ATMOS show agreement within the estimated combined uncertainty of the two experiments. Several important features identified by LIMS observations have been confirmed by SAGE II: a well-developed hygropause in the lower stratosphere at low- to mid-latitudes, a poleward latitudinal gradient, increasing water vapor mixing ratios with altitude in the tropics, and the transport of dry lower stratospheric water vapor upward and southward in May, and upward and northward in November. A detailed comparative study also indicates that the two previously suggested corrections for LIMS, a correction in tropical lower stratosphere due to a positive temperature bias and the correction above 28 km based on improved emissivities will bring LIMS measurements much closer to those of SAGE II. The only significant difference occurs at high southern latitudes in May below 18 km, where LIMS measurements are 2-3 ppmv greater. It should be noted that LIMS observations are from 16 to 50 km, ATMOS from 14 to 86 km, and SAGE II from mid-troposphere to 40 km. With multiyear coverage, SAGE II observations should be useful for studying tropospheric-stratospheric exchange, for stratospheric transport, and for preparing water vapor climatologies for the stratosphere and the upper troposphere. 32 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Combining computer game-based behavioural experiments with high-density EEG and infrared gaze tracking.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Keith J; Belmonte, Matthew K

    2010-01-01

    Experimental paradigms are valuable insofar as the timing and other parameters of their stimuli are well specified and controlled, and insofar as they yield data relevant to the cognitive processing that occurs under ecologically valid conditions. These two goals often are at odds, since well controlled stimuli often are too repetitive to sustain subjects' motivation. Studies employing electroencephalography (EEG) are often especially sensitive to this dilemma between ecological validity and experimental control: attaining sufficient signal-to-noise in physiological averages demands large numbers of repeated trials within lengthy recording sessions, limiting the subject pool to individuals with the ability and patience to perform a set task over and over again. This constraint severely limits researchers' ability to investigate younger populations as well as clinical populations associated with heightened anxiety or attentional abnormalities. Even adult, non-clinical subjects may not be able to achieve their typical levels of performance or cognitive engagement: an unmotivated subject for whom an experimental task is little more than a chore is not the same, behaviourally, cognitively, or neurally, as a subject who is intrinsically motivated and engaged with the task. A growing body of literature demonstrates that embedding experiments within video games may provide a way between the horns of this dilemma between experimental control and ecological validity. The narrative of a game provides a more realistic context in which tasks occur, enhancing their ecological validity (Chaytor & Schmitter-Edgecombe, 2003). Moreover, this context provides motivation to complete tasks. In our game, subjects perform various missions to collect resources, fend off pirates, intercept communications or facilitate diplomatic relations. In so doing, they also perform an array of cognitive tasks, including a Posner attention-shifting paradigm (Posner, 1980), a go/no-go test of motor

  8. Combining Computer Game-Based Behavioural Experiments With High-Density EEG and Infrared Gaze Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Keith J.; Belmonte, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental paradigms are valuable insofar as the timing and other parameters of their stimuli are well specified and controlled, and insofar as they yield data relevant to the cognitive processing that occurs under ecologically valid conditions. These two goals often are at odds, since well controlled stimuli often are too repetitive to sustain subjects' motivation. Studies employing electroencephalography (EEG) are often especially sensitive to this dilemma between ecological validity and experimental control: attaining sufficient signal-to-noise in physiological averages demands large numbers of repeated trials within lengthy recording sessions, limiting the subject pool to individuals with the ability and patience to perform a set task over and over again. This constraint severely limits researchers' ability to investigate younger populations as well as clinical populations associated with heightened anxiety or attentional abnormalities. Even adult, non-clinical subjects may not be able to achieve their typical levels of performance or cognitive engagement: an unmotivated subject for whom an experimental task is little more than a chore is not the same, behaviourally, cognitively, or neurally, as a subject who is intrinsically motivated and engaged with the task. A growing body of literature demonstrates that embedding experiments within video games may provide a way between the horns of this dilemma between experimental control and ecological validity. The narrative of a game provides a more realistic context in which tasks occur, enhancing their ecological validity (Chaytor & Schmitter-Edgecombe, 2003). Moreover, this context provides motivation to complete tasks. In our game, subjects perform various missions to collect resources, fend off pirates, intercept communications or facilitate diplomatic relations. In so doing, they also perform an array of cognitive tasks, including a Posner attention-shifting paradigm (Posner, 1980), a go/no-go test of motor

  9. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) high-resolution near-infrared multi-object fiber spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John C.; Hearty, Fred; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Majewski, Steven; Schiavon, Ricardo; Eisenstein, Daniel; Gunn, Jim; Blank, Basil; Henderson, Chuck; Smee, Stephen; Barkhouser, Robert; Harding, Al; Fitzgerald, Greg; Stolberg, Todd; Arns, Jim; Nelson, Matt; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Walker, Eric; Lam, Charles; Maseman, Paul; Barr, Jim; Leger, French; Carey, Larry; MacDonald, Nick; Horne, Todd; Young, Erick; Rieke, George; Rieke, Marcia; O'Brien, Tom; Hope, Steve; Krakula, John; Crane, Jeff; Zhao, Bo; Carr, Mike; Harrison, Craig; Stoll, Robert; Vernieri, Mary A.; Holtzman, Jon; Shetrone, Matt; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Johnson, Jennifer; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Gillespie, Bruce; Weinberg, David

    2010-07-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) will use a dedicated 300-fiber, narrow-band (1.5-1.7 micron), high resolution (R~30,000), near-infrared spectrograph to survey approximately 100,000 giant stars across the Milky Way. This survey, conducted as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III), will revolutionize our understanding of kinematical and chemical enrichment histories of all Galactic stellar populations. The instrument, currently in fabrication, will be housed in a separate building adjacent to the 2.5 m SDSS telescope and fed light via approximately 45-meter fiber runs from the telescope. The instrument design includes numerous technological challenges and innovations including a gang connector that allows simultaneous connection of all fibers with a single plug to a telescope cartridge that positions the fibers on the sky, numerous places in the fiber train in which focal ratio degradation must be minimized, a large (290 mm x 475 mm elliptically-shaped recorded area) mosaic-VPH, an f/1.4 sixelement refractive camera featuring silicon and fused silica elements with diameters as large as 393 mm, three near-within a custom, LN2-cooled, stainless steel vacuum cryostat with dimensions 1.4 m x 2.3 m x 1.3 m.

  10. Dissociation dynamics of the CO2 molecule studied with XUV pump and near-infrared probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiri, Kanaka Raju; Malakar, Yu; Li, Xiang; Kaderiya, Balram; Pearson, Wright; Cao, Wei; Ben-Itzhak, Itzik; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Trapp, Philip; Trabert, Daniel; Wilhelm, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Ultrafast dynamics of ionic states of the CO2 molecule have recently been studied by employing a pump-probe technique using broadband ultrashort XUV-pump pulses containing the 11th to 17th harmonics of a near-infrared laser (NIR). Here, we present the results of a complimentary experiment employing longer (~100 fs) but narrowband, single harmonic (11th or 13th) pulses to excite molecular wave packets to specific states of CO2+,which are probed by NIR-induced dissociation. We employ a reaction microscope to measure energy- and angle-resolved yields of all charged reaction fragments as a function of XUV-NIR delay. In particular, the delay dependence of O+ and CO+ ion production for parallel and perpendicular NIR and XUV polarizations are contrasted with the data obtained by Timmers et al. using ultrashort broadband train of harmonics. This project is supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy. K. R. P. and W. L. P. are supported by National Foundation Award No. IIA-143049.

  11. Satellite Characterization of Biomass Burning: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Combustion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, D.; Steiner, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) examination of the combustion products of selected forest materials using a meeker burner flame at temperatures up to 500 degrees Celsius produces a cluster of broad distinct peaks throughout the 400 to 4000 cm-1 wavenumber interval. Distinct bands bracketed by wavenumbers 400-700, 1500-1700, 2200-2400 and 3300-3600 cm-1 show variable intensity with an average difference between the least absorbing and most strongly absorbing species of approximately fifty percent. Given that spectral band differences of ten percent are within the range of modern satellite spectrometers, these band differences are of potential value for discriminating between fires that are impacting a range of vegetation types. Corresponding scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive micro-chemical (SEM/ED) analysis establishes that the evolved soot particles exhibit a characteristic rounded morphology, are carbon rich and host a wide range of adsorbed elements, including calcium, aluminum, potassium, silicon, sulfur and trace nitrogen. Combustion experiments involving leaves and branches as a subset of the biomass experiments at 200-500 degrees Celsius yield a similar broad background, but with peak shifts for maxima residing at less than 1700 cm-1. Additional peaks appear in the ranges 1438-1444, 875 and 713 cm-1. These peak are of potential use for discriminating between hot and smoldering fires, and between soot and smoke yields from green woods and whole-wood or lumber. The spectral shifts noted for low temperature smoldering conditions are in the vicinity of those cited for green vegetation and may not be resolved by present satellite platforms. Nevertheless, the experimental peak data set is of potential use for discriminating between a conflagration or accentuated fire and one characterized by smoldering at low temperature. SEM/ED analysis of the combusted leaf, branch, bark and various crown assemblages yields comparable morphological and

  12. A modified algorithm for continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy applied to in-vivo animal experiments and on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Hopman, Jeroen C. W.; Liem, K. Djien; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Thijssen, Johan M.

    2008-02-01

    Continuous wave Near Infrared Spectroscopy is a well known non invasive technique for measuring changes in tissue oxygenation. Absorption changes (ΔO2Hb and ΔHHb) are calculated from the light attenuations using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Generally, the concentration changes are calculated relative to the concentration at a starting point in time (delta time method). It is also possible, under certain assumptions, to calculate the concentrations by subtracting the equations at different wavelengths (delta wavelength method). We derived a new algorithm and will show the possibilities and limitations. In the delta wavelength method, the assumption is that the oxygen independent attenuation term will be eliminated from the formula even if its value changes in time, we verified the results with the classical delta time method using extinction coefficients from different literature sources for the wavelengths 767nm, 850nm and 905nm. The different methods of calculating concentration changes were applied to the data collected from animal experiments. The animals (lambs) were in a stable normoxic condition; stepwise they were made hypoxic and thereafter they returned to normoxic condition. The two algorithms were also applied for measuring two dimensional blood oxygen saturation changes in human skin tissue. The different oxygen saturation levels were induced by alterations in the respiration and by temporary arm clamping. The new delta wavelength method yielded in a steady state measurement the same changes in oxy and deoxy hemoglobin as the classical delta time method. The advantage of the new method is the independence of eventual variation of the oxygen independent attenuations in time.

  13. Mapping methane concentrations from a controlled release experiment using the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.; Aubrey, A. D.; Green, R. O.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng) are well suited for monitoring local methane sources by covering large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve emissions. As part of a field campaign with controlled methane releases at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC), a number of methane plumes were clearly visible at multiple flux rates and flight altitudes. Images of plumes appeared consistent with wind directions measured at ground stations and were present for fluxes as low as 14.2 cubic meters of methane per hour, equivalent to 0.09 kt/year. Direct comparison of results from AVIRISng and plume dispersion models is ongoing and will be used to assess the potential of constraining emission fluxes using AVIRISng. Methane plumes observed at RMOTC with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) will also be presented. This controlled release experiment was used to determine the methane sensitivity of AVIRISng and inform sensor design for future imaging spectrometers that could constrain natural and anthropogenic methane emissions on local and regional scales. Imaging spectrometers permit direct attribution of emissions to individual point sources which is particularly useful given the large uncertainties associated with anthropogenic emissions, including industrial point source emissions and fugitive methane from the oil and gas industry. Figure caption: a. AVIRISng true color image indicating tube trailer (TT), meteorological tower (MT), and release point (RP). b. Prominent methane plume and measured enhancements for 70.8 cubic meters per hour methane flux is consistent with wind speed and direction (see arrow) measured by meteorological tower. A linear transect is shown in red and corresponds to enhancements shown in c. d. True color image showing release point (RP). e. Smaller methane plume for 14.2 cubic meters per hour flux. f. Methane

  14. Infrared Spectroscopy with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations : gas phase floppy peptides of increasing size and complexity, in relation with IR-MPD experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2009-03-01

    We present finite temperature DFT-based Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for the calculation of infrared spectra of complex molecular systems, either in the gas phase or in the condensed phase. We will review the fundamentals of the method, as well as the applicability and originality of finite temperature MD simulations for the purpose of modeling infrared spectra. Illustrations are taken from the infrared spectroscopy of alanine peptides of increasing size and complexity (from dipeptides to an octo-peptide) in the gas phase, in relation with IR-MPD (Infrared Multi Photon Dissociation) experiments : 300-400 K gas-phase action spectroscopy as devised on the CLIO platform at the University of Orsay-France or on the platform developed in the group of L. Snoek at Oxford-UK. A special emphasis on vibrational anharmonicities and how they can be extracted from molecular dynamics simulations will be put forward. Furthermore, band assignments in terms of atomic movements from MD is challenging and we have introduced a general method for obtaining effective normal modes of molecular systems from MD simulations.

  15. Applications of Group Theory: Infrared and Raman Spectra of the Isomers of 1,2-Dichloroethylene: A Physical Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Norman C.; Lacuesta, Nanette N.

    2004-01-01

    A study of the vibrational spectroscopy of the cis and trans isomers of 1,2-dichloroethylene provides an excellent opportunity to learn the applications group theory in laboratories. The necessity of using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in making full vibrational assignments is illustrated.

  16. MID-INFRARED SIZE SURVEY OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS: DESCRIPTION OF KECK SEGMENT-TILTING EXPERIMENT AND BASIC RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Monnier, J. D.; Tannirkulam, A.; Tuthill, P. G.; Ireland, M.; Cohen, R.; Perrin, M. D.

    2009-07-20

    The mid-infrared properties of pre-planetary disks are sensitive to the temperature and flaring profiles of disks for the regions where planet formation is expected to occur. In order to constrain theories of planet formation, we have carried out a mid-infrared ({lambda} = 10.7 {mu}m) size survey of young stellar objects using the segmented Keck telescope in a novel configuration. We introduced a customized pattern of tilts to individual mirror segments to allow efficient sparse-aperture interferometry, allowing full aperture synthesis imaging with higher calibration precision than traditional imaging. In contrast to previous surveys on smaller telescopes and with poorer calibration precision, we find that most objects in our sample are partially resolved. Here, we present the main observational results of our survey of five embedded massive protostars, 25 Herbig Ae/Be stars, 3 T Tauri stars, 1 FU Ori system, and five emission-line objects of uncertain classification. The observed mid-infrared sizes do not obey the size-luminosity relation found at near-infrared wavelengths and a companion paper will provide further modeling analysis of this sample. In addition, we report imaging results for a few of the most resolved objects, including complex emission around embedded massive protostars, the photoevaporating circumbinary disk around MWC 361A, and the subarcsecond binaries T Tau, FU Ori, and MWC 1080.

  17. Principles of stray light suppression and conceptual application to the design of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is a 10 band filter photometer that will operate at superfluid helium temperatures. Diffuse galactic and extragalactic infrared radiation in the 1-300 micrometer wavelength region will be measured by the instrument. Polarization measurements will be made for 3 bands in the 1-4 micrometer spectral region. The main sources of unwanted radiation are the sun, earth, thermal radiation from an external sun shield, the moon, the brighter planets and stars, and sky light itself from outside the instrument's nominal one degree square field of view. The system level engineering concepts and the principles of stray light suppression that resulted in the instrument design are presented.

  18. New approach to optimize near-infrared spectra with design of experiments and determination of milk compounds as influence factors for changing milk over time.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, Lorenzo; Huck, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The optimization of near-infrared spectroscopic parameters was realized via design of experiments. With this new approach objectivity can be integrated into conventional, rather subjective approaches. The investigated factors are layer thickness, number of scans and temperature during measurement. Response variables in the full factorial design consisted of absorption intensity, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility of the spectra. Optimized factorial combinations have been found to be 0.5mm layer thickness, 64 scans and 25°C ambient temperature for liquid milk measurements. Qualitative analysis of milk indicated a strong correlation of environmental factors, as well as the feeding of cattle with respect to the change in milk composition. This was illustrated with the aid of near-infrared spectroscopy and the previously optimized parameters by detection of altered fatty acids in milk, especially by the fatty acid content (number of carboxylic functions) and the fatty acid length. PMID:27374567

  19. Short-range verification experiment of a trial one-dimensional synthetic aperture infrared laser radar operated in the 10-microm band.

    PubMed

    Yoshikado, S; Aruga, T

    2000-03-20

    A trial one-dimensional (1-D) synthetic aperture infrared laser radar (SAILR) system for imaging static objects, with two CO(2) lasers as a transmitter and a local oscillator for heterodyne detection, was constructed. It has a single receiving aperture mounted on a linearly movable stage with a length of 1 m and a position accuracy of 1 microm. In an indoor short-range experiment to confirm the fundamental functions of the system and demonstrate its unique imaging process we succeeded in obtaining 1-D synthetic aperture images of close specular point targets with theoretically expected resolution.

  20. A Cryogenic, Insulating Suspension System for the High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC)and Submillemeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael L.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2002-01-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists of two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill.

  1. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment. Calibration version: FIRE King 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Laboratory tests during the FIRE Cirrus field experiment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and from the hemisphere to the MAS. The purpose of this report is to summarize the FIRE-Cirrus hemisphere calibration, and then describe how the MAS was calibrated from observations of the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented, and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. Thermal sensitivity of the MAS visible and near-infrared calibration is also discussed. Typically, the MAS in-flight is 30 to 60 degrees C colder than the room temperature laboratory calibration. Results from in-flight temperature measurements and tests of the MAS in a cold chamber are given, and from these, equations are derived to adjust the MAS in-flight data to what the value would be at laboratory conditions. For FIRE-Cirrus data, only channels 3 through 6 were found to be temperature sensitive. The final section of this report describes comparisons to an independent MAS (room temperature) calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere.

  2. Performance Expectations for Future Moderate Resolution Visible and Infrared Space Instruments Based on AIRS and MODIS In-Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Baron, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration performance for future sensors. This paper addresses each of these performance areas and provides lessons learned from MODIS and AIRS. We also present expectations in performance of the system based on information from NASA Instrument Incubator Program and industry reports. Tradeoffs are presented vs orbit altitude (LEO, ME0 and GEO) and provide a 'systems' perspective to future measurement concepts.

  3. Study of the ammonia ice cloud layer in the Equatorial Region of Jupiter from the infrared interferometric experiment on Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marten, A.; Rouan, D.; Baluteau, J. P.; Gautier, D.; Conrath, B. J.; Hanel, R. A.; Kunde, V.; Samuelson, R.; Chedin, A.; Scott, N.

    1981-01-01

    Spectra from the Voyager 1 infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) obtained near the time of closest approach to Jupiter were analyzed for the purpose of inferring ammonia cloud properties associated with the Equatorial Region. Comparisons of observed spectra with synthetic spectra computed from a radiative transfer formulation, that includes multiple scattering, yielded the following conclusions: (1) very few NH3 ice particles with radii less than 3 microns contribute to the cloud opacity; (2) the major source of cloud opacity arises from particles with radii in excess of 30 microns; (3) column particle densities are between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude smaller than those derived from thermochemical considerations alone, implying the presence of important atmospheric motion; and (4) another cloud system is confirmed to exist deeper in the Jovian troposphere.

  4. Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling, Randy L.

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy refers to measurement of the absorption of different frequencies of IR radiation by foods or other solids, liquids, or gases. IR spectroscopy began in 1800 with an experiment by Herschel. When he used a prism to create a spectrum from white light and placed a thermometer at a point just beyond the red region of the spectrum, he noted an increase in temperature. This was the first observation of the effects of IR radiation. By the 1940s, IR spectroscopy had become an important tool used by chemists to identify functional groups in organic compounds. In the 1970s, commercial near-IR reflectance instruments were introduced that provided rapid quantitative determinations of moisture, protein, and fat in cereal grains and other foods. Today, IR spectroscopy is used widely in the food industry for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of ingredients and finished foods.

  5. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared - Part 2: Accurate calibration of high spectral-resolution infrared measurements of surface solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Andreas; Rettinger, Markus; Sussmann, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative knowledge of water vapor absorption is crucial for accurate climate simulations. An open science question in this context concerns the strength of the water vapor continuum in the near infrared (NIR) at atmospheric temperatures, which is still to be quantified by measurements. This issue can be addressed with radiative closure experiments using solar absorption spectra. However, the spectra used for water vapor continuum quantification have to be radiometrically calibrated. We present for the first time a method that yields sufficient calibration accuracy for NIR water vapor continuum quantification in an atmospheric closure experiment. Our method combines the Langley method with spectral radiance measurements of a high-temperature blackbody calibration source (< 2000 K). The calibration scheme is demonstrated in the spectral range 2500 to 7800 cm-1, but minor modifications to the method enable calibration also throughout the remainder of the NIR spectral range. The resulting uncertainty (2σ) excluding the contribution due to inaccuracies in the extra-atmospheric solar spectrum (ESS) is below 1 % in window regions and up to 1.7 % within absorption bands. The overall radiometric accuracy of the calibration depends on the ESS uncertainty, on which at present no firm consensus has been reached in the NIR. However, as is shown in the companion publication Reichert and Sussmann (2016), ESS uncertainty is only of minor importance for the specific aim of this study, i.e., the quantification of the water vapor continuum in a closure experiment. The calibration uncertainty estimate is substantiated by the investigation of calibration self-consistency, which yields compatible results within the estimated errors for 91.1 % of the 2500 to 7800 cm-1 range. Additionally, a comparison of a set of calibrated spectra to radiative transfer model calculations yields consistent results within the estimated errors for 97.7 % of the spectral range.

  6. High resolution infrared spectroscopy from space: A preliminary report on the results of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment on Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Raper, Odell F.

    1987-01-01

    The ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) experiment has the broad purpose of investigating the physical structure, chemistry, and dynamics of the upper atmosphere through the study of the distributions of the neutral minor and trace constituents and their seasonal and long-term variations. The technique used is high-resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy using the Sun as the radiation source, observing the changes in the transmission of the atmosphere as the line-of-sight from the Sun to the spacecraft penetrates the atmosphere close to the Earth's limb at sunrise and sunset. During these periods, interferograms are generated at the rate of one each second which yield, when transformed, high resolution spectra covering the 2.2 to 16 micron region of the infrared. Twenty such occultations were recorded during the Spacelab 3 flight, which have produced concentration profiles for a large number of minor and trace upper atmospheric species in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Several of these species have not previously been observed in spectroscopic data. The data reduction and analysis procedures used following the flight are discussed; a number of examples of the spectra obtained are shown, and a bar graph of the species detected thus far in the analysis is given which shows the altitude ranges for which concentration profiles were retrieved.

  7. Intercomparison of stratospheric water vapor observed by satellite experiments - Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II versus Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere and Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiou, E. W.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Larsen, J. C.; Rind, D.; Oltmans, S.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison is made of the stratospheric water vapor measurements made by the satellite sensors of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II), the Nimbus-7 LIMS, and the Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment. It was found that, despite differences in the measurement techniques, sampling bias, and observational periods, the three experiments have disclosed a generally consistent pattern of stratospheric water vapor distribution. The only significant difference occurs at high southern altitudes in May below 18 km, where LIMS measurements were 2-3 ppmv greater than those of SAGE II and ATMOS.

  8. Irreversible transformation of ferromagnetic ordered stripe domains in single-shot infrared-pump/resonant-x-ray-scattering-probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeard, Nicolas; Schaffert, Stefan; López-Flores, Víctor; Jaouen, Nicolas; Geilhufe, Jan; Günther, Christian M.; Schneider, Michael; Graves, Catherine; Wang, Tianhan; Wu, Benny; Scherz, Andreas; Baumier, Cédric; Delaunay, Renaud; Fortuna, Franck; Tortarolo, Marina; Tudu, Bharati; Krupin, Oleg; Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joe; Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J.; Lüning, Jan; Eisebitt, Stefan; Boeglin, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of a magnetic domain structure upon excitation by an intense, femtosecond infrared (IR) laser pulse has been investigated using single-shot based time-resolved resonant x-ray scattering at the x-ray free electron laser LCLS. A well-ordered stripe domain pattern as present in a thin CoPd alloy film has been used as a prototype magnetic domain structure for this study. The fluence of the IR laser pump pulse was sufficient to lead to an almost complete quenching of the magnetization within the ultrafast demagnetization process taking place within the first few hundreds of femtoseconds following the IR laser pump pulse excitation. On longer time scales this excitation gave rise to subsequent irreversible transformations of the magnetic domain structure. Under our specific experimental conditions, it took about 2 ns before the magnetization started to recover. After about 5 ns the previously ordered stripe domain structure had evolved into a disordered labyrinth domain structure. Surprisingly, we observe after about 7 ns the occurrence of a partially ordered stripe domain structure reoriented into a novel direction. It is this domain structure in which the sample's magnetization stabilizes as revealed by scattering patterns recorded long after the initial pump-probe cycle. Using micromagnetic simulations we can explain this observation based on changes of the magnetic anisotropy going along with heat dissipation in the film.

  9. 3D-FEM electrical–thermal–mechanical analysis and experiment of Si-based MEMS infrared emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Na; Chen, Ran-Bin; San, Hai-Sheng; Chen, Xu-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Designs, simulations, and fabrications of silicon-based MEMS infrared (IR) emitters for gas sensing application are presented. A 3D finite element method (3D-FEM) was used to analyze the coupled electrical–thermal–mechanical properties of a bridge hotplate structure (BHS) IR emitter and closed hotplate structure (CHS) IR emitter using Joule heating and thermal expansion models of COMSOL™. The IR absorptions of n- and p-silicon were calculated for the design of self-heating structure. The BHS and CHS IR emitters were fabricated synchronously using micro-electromechanical systems technology for a direct performance comparison. Both types of IR emitters were characterized by electrical and optical measurements. The experimental results show that BHS IR emitters have higher radiation density, lower power consumption, and faster frequency-response than CHS IR emitters due to the use of a thermal isolation structure and self-heating structure. Meanwhile, the simulated results agree well with the corresponding measured results, which indicate that the 3D-FEM-model is effective and can be used in the optimal design of electro-thermal devices.

  10. Influence of a fat layer on the near infrared spectra of human muscle: quantitative analysis based on two-layered Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ye; Soyemi, Olusola O.; Landry, Michelle R.; Soller, Babs R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of fat thickness on the diffuse reflectance spectra of muscle in the near infrared (NIR) region is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-layer structure and with phantom experiments. A polynomial relationship was established between the fat thickness and the detected diffuse reflectance. The influence of a range of optical coefficients (absorption and reduced scattering) for fat and muscle over the known range of human physiological values was also investigated. Subject-to-subject variation in the fat optical coefficients and thickness can be ignored if the fat thickness is less than 5 mm. A method was proposed to correct the fat thickness influence. c2005 Optical Society of America.

  11. A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szalay, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was developed as a means of incorporating instrumental analyses into an introductory chemistry laboratory. A two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitation and their relative amounts measured. These compounds were chosen because the combination of…

  12. Quantitative chemical identification of four gases in remote infrared (9-11 mum) differential absorption lidar experiments.

    PubMed

    Quagliano, J R; Stoutland, P O; Petrin, R R; Sander, R K; Romero, R J; Whitehead, M C; Quick, C R; Tiee, J J; Jolin, L J

    1997-03-20

    A combined experimental and computational approach utilizing tunable CO(2) lasers and chemometric analysis was employed to detect chemicals and their concentrations in the field under controlled release conditions. We collected absorption spectra for four organic gases in the laboratory by lasing 40 lines of the laser in the 9.3-10.8-mum range. The ability to predict properly the chemicals and their respective concentrations depends on the nature of the target, the atmospheric conditions, and the round-trip distance. In 39 of the 45 field experiments, the identities of the released chemicals were identified correctly without predictions of false positives or false negatives. PMID:18250883

  13. Propagation experiments in the near infrared along a 150-km path and from stars in the Canarian archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeron, Adolfo; Rubio, Juan A.; Belmonte, Aniceto M.; Garcia, Enrique; Prud'homme, Tony; Sodnik, Zoran; Connor, Chris

    2002-03-01

    Within the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX project, aimed at experimentally demonstrating the feasibility of inter-satellite optical communications links, an Optical Ground Station (OGS) has been built by ESA in the premises of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC, Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands) Observatory of Teide, in the Tenerife island. The OGS is designed to test the optical communications payload on board the ESA's Artemis satellite and to perform ground-satellite optical communications experiments. As part of the OGS design study, an assessment of the impact of the atmosphere on the ground- satellite links was carried out. This assessment included experimental characterizations of the atmospheric effects through both measurements from stars in positions close to the Artemis one in bands comprising the SILEX wavelengths, using the IAC's Mons telescope in the Observatory of Teide, and measurements on a horizontal link with a transmitter near the IAC's Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma island, based on a laser diode similar to those to be used in SILEX, and a receiver in the Teide Observatory, almost 150 km apart, in the Tenerife island. The 830-nm wavelength horizontal measurements allowed checking the variations in the behavior of the atmospheric turbulence through the diurnal cycle. Besides the information relevant to assess the OGS performance, the horizontal-propagation experiments allowed to gather a considerable amount of propagation data on a very long path, most of it 2400 m above the sea.

  14. Performance of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) high-resolution near-infrared multi-object fiber spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John C.; Hearty, F.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Majewski, S. R.; Schiavon, R.; Eisenstein, D.; Gunn, J.; Holtzman, J.; Nidever, D.; Gillespie, B.; Weinberg, D.; Blank, B.; Henderson, C.; Smee, S.; Barkhouser, R.; Harding, A.; Hope, S.; Fitzgerald, G.; Stolberg, T.; Arns, J.; Nelson, M.; Brunner, S.; Burton, A.; Walker, E.; Lam, C.; Maseman, P.; Barr, J.; Leger, F.; Carey, L.; MacDonald, N.; Ebelke, G.; Beland, S.; Horne, T.; Young, E.; Rieke, G.; Rieke, M.; O'Brien, T.; Crane, J.; Carr, M.; Harrison, C.; Stoll, R.; Vernieri, M.; Shetrone, M.; Allende-Prieto, C.; Johnson, J.; Frinchaboy, P.; Zasowski, G.; Garcia Perez, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Cunha, K.; Smith, V. V.; Meszaros, Sz.; Zhao, B.; Hayden, M.; Chojnowski, S. D.; Andrews, B.; Loomis, C.; Owen, R.; Klaene, M.; Brinkmann, J.; Stauffer, F.; Long, D.; Jordan, W.; Holder, D.; Cope, F.; Naugle, T.; Pfaffenberger, B.; Schlegel, D.; Blanton, M.; Muna, D.; Weaver, B.; Snedden, S.; Pan, K.; Brewington, H.; Malanushenko, E.; Malanushenko, V.; Simmons, A.; Oravetz, D.; Mahadevan, S.; Halverson, S.

    2012-09-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) uses a dedicated 300-fiber, narrow-band near-infrared (1.51-1.7 μm), high resolution (R~22,500) spectrograph to survey approximately 100,000 giant stars across the Milky Way. This three-year survey, in operation since late-summer 2011 as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III), will revolutionize our understanding of the kinematical and chemical enrichment histories of all Galactic stellar populations. We present the performance of the instrument from its first year in operation. The instrument is housed in a separate building adjacent to the 2.5-m SDSS telescope and fed light via approximately 45-meter fiber runs from the telescope. The instrument design includes numerous innovations including a gang connector that allows simultaneous connection of all fibers with a single plug to a telescope cartridge that positions the fibers on the sky, numerous places in the fiber train in which focal ratio degradation had to be minimized, a large mosaic-VPH (290 mm x 475 mm elliptically-shaped recorded area), an f/1.4 six-element refractive camera featuring silicon and fused silica elements with diameters as large as 393 mm, three near-infrared detectors mounted in a 1 x 3 mosaic with sub-pixel translation capability, and all of these components housed within a custom, LN2-cooled, stainless steel vacuum cryostat with dimensions 1.4-m x 2.3-m x 1.3-m.

  15. Infrared surface temperature measurements for the surface tension driven convection experiment. M.S. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ., Aug. 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, Alexander D.

    1989-01-01

    In support of the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE), a planned space transportation system (STS) flight experiment, a commercially available infrared thermal imaging system is used to quantify the imposed thermal signature along the free surface. The system was tested and calibrated for the STDCE with ground-based equivalents of the STDCE hardware. Before using the system, consideration was given to the radiation characteristics of the target (silicone oil). Absorption coefficients were calculated to understand the surface depth as seen by the imager and the penetration depth of the surface heater (CO2 laser). The performance and operational specifications for the imager and image processing system are described in detail to provide an understanding of the equipment. Measurements made with the system were compared to thermocouple measurements and a calculated surface temperature distribution. This comparison showed that in certain regions the IR imager measurements were within 5 percent of the overall temperature difference across the free surface. In other regions the measurements were within + or - 10 percent of the overall temperature gradient across the free surface. The effective emissivity of silicone oil for these experimental conditions was also determined. Measurement errors and their possible solutions are discussed.

  16. Infrared Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  17. Continuing Studies of Planetary Atmospheres Associated with Experiments on the Galileo Jupiter Probe and Infrared Observations of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, Boris

    1998-01-01

    The results of the nephelometer experiment conducted aboard the Probe of the Galileo mission to Jupiter are presented. The tenuous clouds and sparse particulate matter in the relatively particle-free 5-micron "hot spot" region of the Probe's descent were documented from about 0.46 bars to about 12 bars. Three regions of apparent coherent structure were noted, in addition to many indications of extremely small particle concentrations along the descent path. From the first valid measurement at about 0.46 bars down to about 0.55 bars a feeble decaying lower portion of a cloud, corresponding with the predicted ammonia particle cloud, was encountered. A denser, but still very modest, particle structure was present in the pressure regime extending from about 0.76 to a distinctive base at 1.34 bars, and is compatible with the expected ammonium hydrosulfide cloud. No massive water cloud was encountered, although below the second structure, a small, vertically thin layer at about 1.65 bars may be detached from the cloud above, but may also be water condensation, compatible with reported measurements of water abundance from other Galileo Mission experiments. A third small signal region, extending from about 1.9 to 4.5 bars, exhibited quite weak but still distinctive structure, and, although the identification of the light scatterers in this region is uncertain, may also be a water cloud perhaps associated with lateral atmospheric motion and/or reduced to a small mass density by atmospheric subsidence or other explanations. Rough descriptions of the particle size distributions and cloud properties in these regions have been derived, although they may be imprecise because of the small signals and experimental difficulties. These descriptions document the small number densities of particles, the moderate particle sizes, generally in the slightly submicron to few micron range, and the resulting small optical depths, mass densities due to particles, column particle number loading

  18. Infrared Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    This review on infrared spectrometry covering the period from late 1981 to late 1983, is divided into nine sections. Topic areas include: books; reviews; analytical applications; biochemical applications; environmental applications; polymer applications; infrared instrumentation; sampling techniques; and software and algorithms. (JN)

  19. Global optimization of the infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR MALDESI) source for mass spectrometry using statistical design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Barry, Jeremy A; Muddiman, David C

    2011-12-15

    Design of experiments (DOE) is a systematic and cost-effective approach to system optimization by which the effects of multiple parameters and parameter interactions on a given response can be measured in few experiments. Herein, we describe the use of statistical DOE to improve a few of the analytical figures of merit of the infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) source for mass spectrometry. In a typical experiment, bovine cytochrome c was ionized via electrospray, and equine cytochrome c was desorbed and ionized by IR-MALDESI such that the ratio of equine:bovine was used as a measure of the ionization efficiency of IR-MALDESI. This response was used to rank the importance of seven source parameters including flow rate, laser fluence, laser repetition rate, ESI emitter to mass spectrometer inlet distance, sample stage height, sample plate voltage, and the sample to mass spectrometer inlet distance. A screening fractional factorial DOE was conducted to designate which of the seven parameters induced the greatest amount of change in the response. These important parameters (flow rate, stage height, sample to mass spectrometer inlet distance, and laser fluence) were then studied at higher resolution using a full factorial DOE to obtain the globally optimized combination of parameter settings. The optimum combination of settings was then compared with our previously determined settings to quantify the degree of improvement in detection limit. The limit of detection for the optimized conditions was approximately 10 attomoles compared with 100 femtomoles for the previous settings, which corresponds to a four orders of magnitude improvement in the detection limit of equine cytochrome c.

  20. Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.

    PubMed

    Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves warming of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air warming experiment called Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger (B4WarmED) that addresses the potential for projected climate warming to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil warming (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). Warming was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed warming. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil warming to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the warming approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). PMID:25640748

  1. Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.

    PubMed

    Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves warming of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air warming experiment called Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger (B4WarmED) that addresses the potential for projected climate warming to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil warming (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). Warming was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed warming. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil warming to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the warming approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall).

  2. The RED Experiment: An Assessment of Boundary Layer Effects in a Trade Winds Regime on Microwave and Infrared Propagation over the Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kenneth; Brooks, Barbara; Caffrey, Peter; Clarke, Antony; Cohen, Leo; Crahan, Katie; Davidson, Kenneth; de Jong, Arie; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Dion, Denis; Doss-Hammel, Stephen; Frederickson, Paul; Friehe, Carl; Hristov, Tihomir; Khelif, Djamal; Moerman, Marcel; Reid, Jeffery S.; Reising, Steven; Smith, Michael; Terrill, Eric; Tsintikidis, Dimitris

    2004-09-01

    In the surface layer over the ocean the Monin Obukhov similarity theory is often applied to construct vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind speed. In this context, the rough boundary layer is derived from empirical relations where ocean wave characteristics are neglected. For seas where wind speed is less than 10 m s-1 there is excellent agreement for both meteorological and microwave propagation theory and measurements. However, recent evidence indicates that even small waves perturb these profiles. It is, therefore, hypothesized that mechanical forcing by sea waves is responsible for modifying scalar profiles in the lowest portion of the surface layer, thereby reducing the effects of evaporation ducting on microwave signal propagation. This hypothesis, that a rough sea surface modifies the evaporation duct, was the primary motivation for the Rough Evaporation Duct (RED) experiment.RED was conducted off of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu from late August to mid-September 2001. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Platform Floating Instrument Platform, moored about 10 km off the northeast coast of Oahu, hosted the primary meteorological sensor suites and the transmitters for both the microwave and the infrared propagation links. Two land sites were instrumented—one with microwave receivers and the other with an infrared receiver—two buoys were deployed, a small boat was instrumented, and two aircraft flew various tracks to sense both sea and atmospheric conditions.Through meteorological and propagation measurements, RED achieved a number of its objectives. First, although we did not experience the desired conditions of simultaneous high seas, high winds, and large surface gradients of temperature and humidity necessary to significantly affect the evaporation duct, observations verify that waves do modify the scalars within the air sea surface layer. Second, an intriguing and controversial result is the lack of agreement of the

  3. Use of CO2 laser and AgClBr infrared transmitting fibers for tympanoplasty: experiments on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilker, Zeev; Daykhovsky, Leon; Nageris, Ben I.; Feinmesser, R.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Ravid, Avi; Kariv, Naam; Katzir, Abraham

    1999-06-01

    One of the most common ear disease is Chronic Otitis Media that leads to a tympanic membrane perforation. The treatment of this condition is by a surgical procedure, tympanoplasty that is often done under local or general anesthesia. During this procedure an autologous fascia is applied to close the perforation. Commonly, fixation of the fascia is achieved mostly by Gel-Form. During the last several years various fascia fixation techniques were suggested. These included a welding procedure based on using an Argon laser. The disadvantages of the latter is that the visible Argon laser is not absorbed well by the relatively thin tympanic membrane and the fascia. It does not lead to strong weld and it may heat the middle of the ear, causing neural hearing loss. The CO2 laser IR radiation is much more suitable for welding of these thin tissues, because of its very high absorption in tissues. There is still a need to deliver this radiation to the weld site using a thin and flexible optical fiber. In this work we have welded fascia on the tympanic membranes of guinea pigs using a CO2 laser. Holes of diameter 2-3 mm were punctured in the membranes and apiece of fascia was placed on the holes. Laser power of the order of 0.5W was delivered to the fascia using an IR transmitting AgClBr fiber. In experiments done on 11 animals and CO2 laser welding was successfully done on in 15 years. The success of these preliminary studies in the animal models shows that CO2 laser tympanoplasty could be a very valuable surgical technique.

  4. Enhanced near-infrared shielding ability of (Li,K)-codoped WO3 for smart windows: DFT prediction validated by experiment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenxi; Chen, Jian-Feng; Zeng, Xiaofei; Cheng, Daojian; Huan, Haifeng; Cao, Dapeng

    2016-02-19

    By means of hybrid density functional theory (DFT) computations, we found that (Li,K)-codoped WO3 shows a significantly enhanced near-infrared (NIR) absorption ability for smart windows, and investigated the influence of doping through the analysis of the electronic structures of pure and doped hexagonal WO3. Furthermore, this codoped material, with a hexagonal tungsten bronze nanostructure, was successfully prepared via a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction for the first time. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared products possessed a nanorod-like morphology with diameters of about 5-10 nm. It was demonstrated that (Li,K)-codoped WO3 presents a better NIR absorption ability than pure, Li-monodoped or K-monodoped WO3, which is in good agreement with our theoretical predictions. The experiment and simulation results reveal that this enhanced optical property in NIR can be explained by the existence of high free electrons existing in (Li,K)-codoped WO3.

  5. Validation of the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) Experiment by Ground-Based Infrared Solar Spectroscopic Measurements of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Methane (CH4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pougatchev, Nikita

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the MOPITT experiment is to enhance our knowledge of the lower atmosphere system and particularly how it interacts with the surface/ocean/biomass systems. The particular focus is the distribution, transport, sources and sinks of carbon monoxide and methane in the troposphere. The MOPITT instrument was launched on EOS TERRA satellite December 18, 1999. After the launch and until March 22, 2000 the MOPITT instrument was in engineering and calibration mode. Beginning March 23, 2000 through May 6, 2001 the instrument was in a science measurement mode with some calibration breaks. On May 7, 2001 a criocooler on a side B died and channels 1 - 4 became inoperational. The MOPITT resumed its scientific measurements on August 25, 2001 with channels 5 - 8. With some calibration breaks the instrument currently provides the data. The project has three elements to it: hardware, data analysis and modeling. The MOPITT instrument, on the NASA EOS Terra satellite, measures the upwelling infrared radiance. Using the technique of correlation spectroscopy, information regarding the distribution of atmospheric CO and CH4 can be extracted. By using appropriate data analysis techniques, concentration profiles of CO are currently obtained on a global basis at a reasonably high horizontal (approximately 22km) and vertical resolution (approximately 3km). Column amounts of methane will be derived over the sunlit side of the orbit. These profiles are assimilated into models to study the chemistry and dynamics of CO, CH4 and other constituents of the lower atmosphere.

  6. Enhanced near-infrared shielding ability of (Li,K)-codoped WO3 for smart windows: DFT prediction validated by experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenxi; Chen, Jian-Feng; Zeng, Xiaofei; Cheng, Daojian; Huang, Haifeng; Cao, Dapeng

    2016-02-01

    By means of hybrid density functional theory (DFT) computations, we found that (Li,K)-codoped WO3 shows a significantly enhanced near-infrared (NIR) absorption ability for smart windows, and investigated the influence of doping through the analysis of the electronic structures of pure and doped hexagonal WO3. Furthermore, this codoped material, with a hexagonal tungsten bronze nanostructure, was successfully prepared via a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction for the first time. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared products possessed a nanorod-like morphology with diameters of about 5-10 nm. It was demonstrated that (Li,K)-codoped WO3 presents a better NIR absorption ability than pure, Li-monodoped or K-monodoped WO3, which is in good agreement with our theoretical predictions. The experiment and simulation results reveal that this enhanced optical property in NIR can be explained by the existence of high free electrons existing in (Li,K)-codoped WO3.

  7. Enhanced near-infrared shielding ability of (Li,K)-codoped WO3 for smart windows: DFT prediction validated by experiment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenxi; Chen, Jian-Feng; Zeng, Xiaofei; Cheng, Daojian; Huan, Haifeng; Cao, Dapeng

    2016-02-19

    By means of hybrid density functional theory (DFT) computations, we found that (Li,K)-codoped WO3 shows a significantly enhanced near-infrared (NIR) absorption ability for smart windows, and investigated the influence of doping through the analysis of the electronic structures of pure and doped hexagonal WO3. Furthermore, this codoped material, with a hexagonal tungsten bronze nanostructure, was successfully prepared via a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction for the first time. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared products possessed a nanorod-like morphology with diameters of about 5-10 nm. It was demonstrated that (Li,K)-codoped WO3 presents a better NIR absorption ability than pure, Li-monodoped or K-monodoped WO3, which is in good agreement with our theoretical predictions. The experiment and simulation results reveal that this enhanced optical property in NIR can be explained by the existence of high free electrons existing in (Li,K)-codoped WO3. PMID:26783034

  8. Enhanced near-infrared shielding ability of (Li,K)-codoped WO3 for smart windows: DFT prediction validated by experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenxi; Chen, Jian-Feng; Zeng, Xiaofei; Cheng, Daojian; Huang, Haifeng; Cao, Dapeng

    2016-02-01

    By means of hybrid density functional theory (DFT) computations, we found that (Li,K)-codoped WO3 shows a significantly enhanced near-infrared (NIR) absorption ability for smart windows, and investigated the influence of doping through the analysis of the electronic structures of pure and doped hexagonal WO3. Furthermore, this codoped material, with a hexagonal tungsten bronze nanostructure, was successfully prepared via a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction for the first time. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared products possessed a nanorod-like morphology with diameters of about 5–10 nm. It was demonstrated that (Li,K)-codoped WO3 presents a better NIR absorption ability than pure, Li-monodoped or K-monodoped WO3, which is in good agreement with our theoretical predictions. The experiment and simulation results reveal that this enhanced optical property in NIR can be explained by the existence of high free electrons existing in (Li,K)-codoped WO3.

  9. Infrared Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Jet Propulsion Laboratory Technical Support Package (TSP) describing a technique for processing data from an infrared radiometer assisted a manufacturer of laminates for printed circuit boards. To reduce emissions and lower the cost of producing prepreg (a continuous glass cloth, or web, impregnated with epoxy resin and partially cured by applying heat), Norplex Oak switched to infrared treating towers. The TSP confirmed the company's computer prediction of heat flux patterns, provided information that allowed the company to modify infrared treaters for consistency, and furnished a basis for development of optimal heater placements. The treaters are now successfully operating at increased speeds with improved product consistency.

  10. Why Infrared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses applications of techniques developed for the remote sensing of infrared radiation. In addition to military applications, remote sensing has become important in collecting environmental data and detecting ecological problems. (JR)

  11. History of infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  12. Mid-infrared picosecond pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe experiments to resolve a ground-state intermediate in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    PubMed

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; van Thor, Jasper J

    2009-12-24

    Multipulse picosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy has been used to study photochemical reactions of the cyanobacterial phytochrome photoreceptor Cph1. Different photophysical schemes have been discussed in the literature to describe the pathways after photoexcitation, particularly, to identify reaction phases that are linked to photoisomerisation and electronic decay in the 1566-1772 cm(-1) region that probes C=C and C=O stretching modes of the tetrapyrrole chromophore. Here, multipulse spectroscopy is employed, where, compared to conventional visible pump-mid-infrared probe spectroscopy, an additional visible pulse is incorporated that interacts with populations that are evolving on the excited- and ground-state potential energy surfaces. The time delays between the pump and the dump pulse are chosen such that the dump pulse interacts with different phases in the reaction process. The pump and dump pulses are at the same wavelength, 640 nm, and are resonant with the Pr ground state as well as with the excited state and intermediates. Because the dump pulse additionally pumps the remaining, partially recovered, and partially oriented ground-state population, theory is developed for estimating the fraction of excited-state molecules. The calculations take into account the model-dependent ground-state recovery fraction, the angular dependence of the population transfer resulting from the finite bleach that occurs with linearly polarized intense femtosecond optical excitation, and the partially oriented population for the dump field. Distinct differences between the results from the experiments that use a 1 or a 14 ps dump time favor a branching evolution from S1 to an excited state or reconfigured chromophore and to a newly identified ground-state intermediate (GSI). Optical dumping at 1 ps shows the instantaneous induced absorption of a delocalized C=C stretching mode at 1608 cm(-1), where the increased cross section is associated with the electronic ground

  13. An Inexpensive Digital Infrared Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Details are given for the conversion of an inexpensive webcam to a camera specifically sensitive to the near infrared (700-1000 nm). Some experiments and practical applications are suggested and illustrated. (Contains 9 figures.)

  14. Infrared Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive infrared camera that observes the blazing plumes from the Space Shuttle or expendable rocket lift-offs is capable of scanning for fires, monitoring the environment and providing medical imaging. The hand-held camera uses highly sensitive arrays in infrared photodetectors known as quantum well infrared photo detectors (QWIPS). QWIPS were developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Center for Space Microelectronics Technology in partnership with Amber, a Raytheon company. In October 1996, QWIP detectors pointed out hot spots of the destructive fires speeding through Malibu, California. Night vision, early warning systems, navigation, flight control systems, weather monitoring, security and surveillance are among the duties for which the camera is suited. Medical applications are also expected.

  15. Infrared Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Diatek Corporation, San Diego, CA and the Jet Propulsion Lab developed the Diatek Model 7000 aural thermometer which weighs only eight ounces, and measures temperature in less than two seconds using infrared astronomy technology to measure the amount of infrared energy emitted by the eardrum (the same way temperature of stars and planets is measured). This method avoids contact with mucous membranes, virtually eliminating the possibility of cross infection, and permits temperature measurement of newborn, critically ill, or incapacitated patients. Diatek Corporation was purchased by Welch Allyn Inc. The Diatek Model 7000 is now marketed as SureTemp.

  16. Infrared Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Earth objects emit natural radiation invisible to the unaided human eye, but visible to infrared scanning devices such as the device developed by Inframetrics, Inc. Such devices serve a number of purposes ranging from detection of heat loss in buildings for energy conservation measures, to examining heat output of industrial machinery for trouble shooting and preventive maintenance. Representative of system is Model 525, a small, lightweight field instrument that scans infrared radiation and translates its findings to a TV picture of the temperature pattern in the scene being viewed. An accessory device permits viewing the thermal radiation in color.

  17. Infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

  18. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  19. Infrared Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefers, John

    2006-01-01

    An infrared (IR) thermometer lab offers the opportunity to give science students a chance to measure surface temperatures, utilizing off-the-shelf technology. Potential areas of study include astronomy (exoplanets), electromagnetic spectrum, chemistry, evaporation rates, anatomy, crystal formation, and water or liquids. This article presents one…

  20. Infrared floodlight

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Robert E.; English, George J.

    1986-08-05

    An infrared floodlight assembly designed particularly for security purposes and including a heat-conducting housing, a lens secured to the housing to provide a closure therefor, and a floodlight located within (and surrounded by) the housing. The floodlight combines the use of a tungsten halogen light source and dichroic hot and cold mirrors for directing substantially only infrared radiation toward the assembly's forward lens. Visible radiation is absorbed by the housing's interior wall(s) and, optionally, by a filter located between the floodlight and lens. An optional means may be used within the floodlight to reflect all forward radiation back toward the paraboloidal hot mirror or, alternatively, to reflect only visible radiation in this direction. The dichroic hot and cold mirrors preferably each comprise a glass substrate having multiple layers of titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide thereon.

  1. Infrared backscattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Nevitt, Timothy J.; Singham, Shermila Brito

    1989-01-01

    All particles in the atmosphere are not spherical. Moreover, the scattering properties of randomly oriented nonspherical particles are not equivalent to those of spherical particles no matter how the term equivalent is defined. This is especially true for scattering in the backward direction and at the infrared wavelengths at which some atmospheric particles have strong absorption bands. Thus calculations based on Mie theory of infrared backscattering by dry or insoluble atmospheric particles are suspect. To support this assertion, it was noted that peaks in laboratory-measured infrared backscattering spectra show appreciable shifts compared with those calculated using Mie theory. One example is ammonium sulfate. Some success was had in modeling backscattering spectra of ammonium sulfate particles using a simple statistical theory called the continuous distribution of ellipsoids (CDE) theory. In this theory, the scattering properties of an ensemble are calculated. Recently a modified version of this theory was applied to measured spectra of scattering by kaolin particles. The particles were platelike, so the probability distribution of ellipsoidal shapes was chosen to reflect this. As with ammonium sulfate, the wavelength of measured peak backscattering is shifted longward of that predicted by Mie theory.

  2. Infrared retina

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Tyo, J. Scott; Jang, Woo-Yong

    2011-12-06

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  3. Solar Tower Experiments for Radiometric Calibration and Validation of Infrared Imaging Assets and Analysis Tools for Entry Aero-Heating Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Horvath, Thomas J.; Mercer, David C.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ross, Martin N.; Tietjen, Alan; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements assessment team has a task to perform radiometric calibration and validation of land-based and airborne infrared imaging assets and tools for remote thermographic imaging. The IR assets and tools will be used for thermographic imaging of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry aero-heating to provide flight boundary layer transition thermography data that could be utilized for calibration and validation of empirical and theoretical aero-heating tools. A series of tests at the Sandia National Laboratories National Solar Thermal Test Facility were designed for this task where reflected solar radiation from a field of heliostats was used to heat a 4 foot by 4 foot test panel consisting of LI 900 ceramic tiles located on top of the 200 foot tall Solar Tower. The test panel provided an Orbiter-like entry temperature for the purposes of radiometric calibration and validation. The Solar Tower provided an ideal test bed for this series of radiometric calibration and validation tests because it had the potential to rapidly heat the large test panel to spatially uniform and non-uniform elevated temperatures. Also, the unsheltered-open-air environment of the Solar Tower was conducive to obtaining unobstructed radiometric data by land-based and airborne IR imaging assets. Various thermocouples installed on the test panel and an infrared imager located in close proximity to the test panel were used to obtain surface temperature measurements for evaluation and calibration of the radiometric data from the infrared imaging assets. The overall test environment, test article, test approach, and typical test results are discussed.

  4. The theory and experiment of very-long-wavelength 256×1 GaAs/Al x Ga1- x As quantum well infrared detector linear arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fangmin; Li, Ning; Xiong, Dayuan; Zhen, Honglou; Xu, Xiangyan; Hou, Ying; Ding, Ruijun; Lu, Wei; Huang, Qi; Zhou, Junming

    2008-07-01

    The 256×1 linear array of multiple quantum wells infrared photodetector (QWIP) is designed and fabricated for the peak response wavelength at λ P = 14.6 μm. The response spectral width is bigger than 2.2 μm. The two-dimensional (2D) diffractive coupling grating has been formed on the top QWIP photosensitive pixel for coupling the infrared radiation to the infrared detective layers. The performance of the device at V B = 3 V and T = 45 K has the responsibility 4.28×10-2 (A/W), the blackbody detectivity D b* = 5.14×109 (cm·Hz1/2/W), and the peak detectivity D λ * = 4.24× 1010 (cm·Hz1/2/W). The sensor pixels are connected with CMOS read out circuit (ROC) hybridization by indium bumps. When integral time is 100 μs, the linear array has the effective pixel of QWIP FPA N ef of 99.2%, the average responsibility overline R (V/W) of 3.48×106 (V/W), the average peak detectivity D λ * of 8.29×109 (cm·Hz1/2/W), and the non-uniformity UR of 5.83%. This device is ready for the thermal image application.

  5. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

  6. Infrared Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  7. An experimental investigation to determine the effect of window cooling by mass injection for the Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of mass injection on the shuttle infrared leeside temperature sensing (SILTS) pod window surfaces in reducing window heating and minimizing window lens radiation during the reentry data taking period is investigated. Heat transfer coefficients on and around the simulated windows and window cavities are determined. Heat transfer rates and window coolant flow rates are reported for the SILTS configuration. A comparison of two windows' geometries and their effects on the heat transfer rate is discussed and oil flow photographs are presented to indicate how mass injection affects the flow field near the SILTS window.

  8. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a new generation of orbital, airborne and ground-based infrared astronomical observatory facilities, including the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS), the cosmic background explorer (COBE), the NASA Kuiper airborne observatory, and the NASA infrared telescope facility, intensified the need for a comprehensive, machine-readable data base and catalog of current infrared astronomical observations. The Infrared Astronomical Data Base and its principal data product, this catalog, comprise a machine-readable library of infrared (1 micrometer to 1000 micrometers) astronomical observations published in the scientific literature since 1965.

  9. A comparison between Nimbus 5 THIR and ITPR temperatures and derived winds with rawinsonde data obtained in the AVE II experiment. [Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer and Infrared Temperature Profile Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.; Scoggins, J. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    During the second Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II), atmospheric temperature profiles were computed from Nimbus 5 data, which comprised ITPR, NEMS, and SCR measurements. Rawinsonde data were obtained from NWS stations in the AVE II network and processed for each pressure contact; the soundings closest in space and time were interpolated to the Nimbus 5 sounding points for comparison purposes. Cross sections of thermal and geostrophic winds were computed from satellite-derived cross sections of temperature along the Nimbus orbital track.

  10. Revisiting the Aqueous Solutions of Dimethyl Sulfoxide by Spectroscopy in the Mid- and Near-Infrared: Experiments and Car-Parrinello Simulations.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Victoria M; Dhumal, Nilesh R; Zehentbauer, Florian M; Kim, Hyung J; Kiefer, Johannes

    2015-11-19

    The infrared and near-infrared spectra of the aqueous solutions of dimethyl sulfoxide are revisited. Experimental and computational vibrational spectra are analyzed and compared. The latter are determined as the Fourier transformation of the velocity autocorrelation function of data obtained from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental absorption spectra are deconvolved, and the excess spectra are determined. The two-dimensional excess contour plot provides a means of visualizing and identifying spectral regions and concentration ranges exhibiting nonideal behavior. In the binary mixtures, the analysis of the SO stretching band provides a semiquantitative picture of the formation and dissociation of hydrogen-bonded DMSO-water complexes. A maximum concentration of these clusters is found in the equimolar mixture. At high DMSO concentration, the formation of rather stable 3DMSO:1water complexes is suggested. The formation of 1DMSO:2water clusters, in which the water oxygen atoms interact with the sulfoxide methyl groups, is proposed as a possible reason for the marked depression of the freezing temperature at the eutectic point. PMID:26509778

  11. Revisiting the Aqueous Solutions of Dimethyl Sulfoxide by Spectroscopy in the Mid- and Near-Infrared: Experiments and Car-Parrinello Simulations.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Victoria M; Dhumal, Nilesh R; Zehentbauer, Florian M; Kim, Hyung J; Kiefer, Johannes

    2015-11-19

    The infrared and near-infrared spectra of the aqueous solutions of dimethyl sulfoxide are revisited. Experimental and computational vibrational spectra are analyzed and compared. The latter are determined as the Fourier transformation of the velocity autocorrelation function of data obtained from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental absorption spectra are deconvolved, and the excess spectra are determined. The two-dimensional excess contour plot provides a means of visualizing and identifying spectral regions and concentration ranges exhibiting nonideal behavior. In the binary mixtures, the analysis of the SO stretching band provides a semiquantitative picture of the formation and dissociation of hydrogen-bonded DMSO-water complexes. A maximum concentration of these clusters is found in the equimolar mixture. At high DMSO concentration, the formation of rather stable 3DMSO:1water complexes is suggested. The formation of 1DMSO:2water clusters, in which the water oxygen atoms interact with the sulfoxide methyl groups, is proposed as a possible reason for the marked depression of the freezing temperature at the eutectic point.

  12. Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mampaso, A.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez, F.

    2004-01-01

    What do we understand of the birth and death of stars? What is the nature of the tiny dust grains that permeate our Galaxy and other galaxies? And how likely is the existence of brown dwarfs, extrasolar planets or other sub-stellar mass objects? These are just a few of the questions that can now be addressed in a new era of infrared observations. IR astronomy has been revolutionised over the past few years by the widespread availability of large, very sensitive IR arrays and the success of IR satellites (IRAS in particular). Several IR space missions due for launch over the next few years promise an exciting future too. For these reasons, the IV Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics was dedicated to this burgeoning field. Its primary goal was to introduce graduate students and researchers from other areas to the important new observations and physical ideas that are emerging in this wide-ranging field of research. Lectures from nine leading researchers, renowned for their teaching abilities, are gathered in this volume. These nine chapters provide an excellent introduction as well as a thorough and up-to-date review of developments - essential reading for graduate students entering IR astronomy, and professionals from other areas who realise the importance that IR astronomy may have on their research.

  13. Infrared low-level wind shear work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Pat

    1988-01-01

    Results of field experiments for the detection of clear air disturbance and low level wind shear utilizing an infrared airborne system are given in vugraph form. The hits, misses and nuisance alarms scores are given. Information is given on the infrared spatial resolution technique. The popular index of aircraft hazard (F= WX over g - VN over AS) is developed for a remote temperature sensor.

  14. Detection of latent fingerprints by near-infrared spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Dai, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Spectral imaging technology research is becoming more extensive in the field of examination of material evidence. Near-Infrared spectral imaging technology is an important part of the full spectrum of imaging technology. This paper finished the experiment contents of the Near-Infrared spectrum imaging method and image acquisition system Near-Infrared spectral imaging technology. The experiment of Near-Infrared spectral imaging method obtains the image set of the Near-Infrared spectrum, and formats a pseudo-color images to show the potential traces successfully by processing the set of spectral images; Near-Infrared spectral imaging technology explores the technology method of obtaining the image set of Near-Infrared spectrometer and image acquisition system, and extensive access to the Near-Infrared spectrum information of latent blood, stamp and smear fingerprints on common objects, and study the characteristics of the Near-Infrared spectrum. Near-Infrared spectroscopic imaging experiments explores a wide variety of Near-Infrared reflectance spectra of the object material curve and its Near-Infrared spectrum of imaging modalities, can not only gives a reference for choosing Near-Infrared wavelength to show the object surface potential traces of substances, but also gives important data for the Near-Infrared spectrum of imaging technology development.

  15. Visualizing Chemistry with Infrared Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Almost all chemical processes release or absorb heat. The heat flow in a chemical system reflects the process it is undergoing. By showing the temperature distribution dynamically, infrared (IR) imaging provides a salient visualization of the process. This paper presents a set of simple experiments based on IR imaging to demonstrate its enormous…

  16. Infrared Spectroscopy of Deuterated Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment (based on the potassium bromide pressed-pellet method) involving the infrared spectroscopy of deuterated compounds. Deuteration refers to deuterium-hydrogen exchange at active hydrogen sites in the molecule. (JN)

  17. Infrared Spectrometry of Inorganic Salts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Martin N.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment which uses infrared spectroscopy to analyze inorganic ions and thereby serves to introduce an important instrumental method of analysis. Presents a table of eight anions and the ammonium ion with the frequencies of their normal modes, as well as the spectra of three sulfate salts. (RR)

  18. Research on infrared imaging illumination model based on materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-he; Feng, Chao-yin; Guo, Chang-geng; Zheng, Hai-jing; Han, Qiang; Hu, Hai-yan

    2013-09-01

    In order to effectively simulate infrared features of the scene and infrared high light phenomenon, Based on the visual light illumination model, according to the optical property of all material types in the scene, the infrared imaging illumination models are proposed to fulfill different materials: to the smooth material with specular characteristic, adopting the infrared imaging illumination model based on Blinn-Phone reflection model and introducing the self emission; to the ordinary material which is similar to black body without highlight feature, ignoring the computation of its high light reflection feature, calculating simply the material's self emission and its reflection to the surrounding as its infrared imaging illumination model, the radiation energy under zero range of visibility can be obtained according to the above two models. The OpenGl rendering technology is used to construct infrared scene simulation system which can also simulate infrared electro-optical imaging system, then gets the synthetic infrared images from any angle of view of the 3D scenes. To validate the infrared imaging illumination model, two typical 3D scenes are made, and their infrared images are calculated to compare and contrast with the real collected infrared images obtained by a long wave infrared band imaging camera. There are two major points in the paper according to the experiment results: firstly, the infrared imaging illumination models are capable of producing infrared images which are very similar to those received by thermal infrared camera; secondly, the infrared imaging illumination models can simulate the infrared specular feature of relative materials and common infrared features of general materials, which shows the validation of the infrared imaging illumination models. Quantitative analysis shows that the simulation images are similar to the collected images in the aspects of main features, but their histogram distribution does not match very well, the

  19. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  20. Visible-Near Infrared Point Spectrometry of Drill Core Samples from Río Tinto, Spain: Results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) Drilling Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  1. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis. PMID:19105759

  2. Strength of mineral absorption features in the transmitted component of near-infrared reflected light - First results from RELAB. [spectrogoniometer for planetary and lunar surface composition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Bidirectional reflectance measurements are the only type of reflectance data available to the remote observer. For compositional interpretations, data are desired not only for identification of possible mineral components but also for modal abundance. The latter requires detailed information about the strength of absorption features. Using a new laboratory facility, the RELAB, laboratory data in the near infrared are presented that document effects of particle size, mineral mixtures, and viewing geometry for selected materials with well-developed absorption bands. The commonly observed increase in reflectance with decrease in particle size is also observed for absorption bands as well as a related decrease in absorption strength. For small particles in parts of the spectrum of maximum reflectance, however, a minor decrease in reflectance with a decrese in particle size is sometimes observed. Small particles dominate the observed characteristics of particulate surfaces, which contain a range of particle sizes. The mean optical path length (transmission through particles) of reflected radiation measured for a variety of particle sizes has an apparent upper limit of about 2 mm for particles of less than 250 microns. The typical number of particles involved in the optical path is less than 50.

  3. Fe-H/D stretching and bending modes in nuclear resonant vibrational, Raman and infrared spectroscopies: Comparisons of density functional theory and experiment

    PubMed Central

    Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Guo, Yisong; Wang, Hongxin; Cramer, Stephen P.; Case, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Infrared, Raman, and nuclear resonant vibrational (NRVS) spectroscopies have been used to address the Fe-H bonding in trans-Fe(H)(CO) iron hydride compound, Fe(H)(CO)(dppe)2, dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane. H and D isotopomers of the compound, with the selective substitution at the metal-coordinated hydrogen, have been considered in order to address the Fe-H/D stretching and bending modes. Experimental results are compared to the normal mode analysis by the density functional theory (DFT). The results are that (i) the IR spectrum does not clearly show Fe–H stretching or bending modes; (ii) Fe–H stretching modes are clear but weak in the Raman spectrum, and Fe–H bending modes are weak; (iii) NRVS 57Fe spectroscopy resolves Fe-H bending clearly, but Fe–H or Fe–D stretching is above its experimentally resolved frequency range. DFT caclulations (with no scaling of frequencies) show intensities and peak locations that allow unambigous correlations between observed and calculated features, with frequency errors generally less than 15 cm−1. Prospects for using these techniques to unravel vibrational modes of protein active sites are discussed. PMID:21322496

  4. New infrared photon absorption processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bayfield, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    The fast ionization of atoms by very short laser pulses, and its possible suppression at extreme pulse intensities, is an active new field of investigation at present. Described is an investigation of whether past techniques for infrared laser multiphoton ionization of excited hydrogen atoms and of one-dimensional microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms can be combined and extended to address the new issues. Although technically difficult and requiring further improvement of apparatus, intense-field infrared laser experiments on excited hydrogen atoms are possible and can directly test theoretical and numerical results.

  5. Phosphorylation effect on the GSSS peptide conformation in water: Infrared, vibrational circular dichroism, and circular dichroism experiments and comparisons with molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung-Koo; Joo, Cheonik; Yang, Seongeun; Han, Hogyu; Cho, Minhaeng

    2007-06-01

    The phosphorylation effect on the small peptide conformation in water has not been clearly understood yet, despite the widely acknowledged notion that control of protein activity by phosphorylation works mainly by inducing conformational change. To elucidate the detailed mechanism, we performed infrared (IR) absorption and vibrational and electronic circular dichroism studies of both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated tetrapeptides, GSSS 1 and GSSpS 2. The solution structure of the tetrapeptide is found to be little dependent on the presence of the neutral or negatively charged phosphoryl group, and to be a mixture of extended structures including polyproline II (PII) and β-sheet conformations. The additional band at 1598cm-1 in the amide I IR spectrum of the phosphorylated peptide GSSpS at neutral pD appears to be clear spectroscopic evidence for direct intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interaction between the side chain dianionic phosphoryl group and the backbone amide proton. On the basis of amide I IR band analyses, the authors found that the probability of finding the phosphoryl group strongly H bonded to the backbone proton in GSSpS is about 43% at pD 7.0 and 37°C. Such a H-bonding interaction in GSSpS has the biological standard enthalpy and entropy of -15.1kJ /mol and -51.2J/Kmol, respectively. Comparisons between the experimentally measured IR and VCD spectra and the numerically simulated ones suggested that the currently available force field parameters need to be properly modified. The results in this paper may shed light on an unknown mechanism of controlling the peptide conformation by phosphorylation.

  6. Challenges in atmospheric monitoring of areal emission sources - an Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopic experience report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetze, C.; Sauer, U.; Dietrich, P.

    2015-12-01

    Reliable detection and assessment of near-surface CO2 emissions from natural or anthropogenic sources require the application of various monitoring tools at different spatial scales. Especially, optical remote sensing tools for atmospheric monitoring have the potential to measure integrally CO2 emissions over larger scales (> 10.000m2). Within the framework of the MONACO project ("Monitoring approach for geological CO2 storage sites using a hierarchical observation concept"), an integrative hierarchical monitoring concept was developed and validated at different field sites with the aim to establish a modular observation strategy including investigations in the shallow subsurface, at ground surface level and the lower atmospheric boundary layer. The main aims of the atmospheric monitoring using optical remote sensing were the observation of the gas dispersion in to the near-surface atmosphere, the determination of maximum concentration values and identification of the main challenges associated with the monitoring of extended emission sources with the proposed methodological set up under typical environmental conditions. The presentation will give an overview about several case studies using the integrative approach of Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (OP FTIR) in combination with in situ measurements. As a main result, the method was validated as possible approach for continuous monitoring of the atmospheric composition, in terms of integral determination of GHG concentrations and to identify target areas which are needed to be investigated more in detail. Especially the data interpretation should closely consider the micrometeorological conditions. Technical aspects concerning robust equipment, experimental set up and fast data processing algorithms have to be taken into account for the enhanced automation of atmospheric monitoring.

  7. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Metal-Organic Framework by Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and Infrared Spectroscopy: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kelly E.; Conway, Samantha G.

    2015-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment involves the synthesis and characterization of a metal-organic framework with microporous channels that are held intact via hydrogen bonding of the coordinated water molecules. The hydrothermal synthesis of Co[subscript 3](BTC)[subscript 2]·12H[subscript 2]O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid)…

  8. The Visualization of Infrared Radiation Using Thermal Sensitive Foils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a set of demonstration school experiments where infrared radiation is detected using thermal sensitive foils. The possibility of using standard glass lenses for infrared imaging is discussed in detail. It is shown that with optic components made from glass, infrared radiation up to 2.5 µm of wavelength can be detected. The…

  9. Cherenkov infrared laser

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.; Walsh, J.

    1985-01-01

    Successful production of microwave radiation by Cherenkov masers has prompted an investigation into their feasibility for submillimeter and far-infrared wavelength generation. A theoretical examination of output parameters such as frequency and small signal gain was conducted for an easily fabricated resonator geometry. The resonator consists of two parallel plates, each with a thin (0.5 to 3 ..mu..m) dielectric coating, separated by 2 mm. This waveguide will support TM modes which are coupled to a relativistic electron beam propagating between the plates. While the interaction of the electrons with the dielectric causes spontaneous Cherenkov emission, the difference between the beam velocity and the phase velocity of the mode causes a bunching of the electrons which is responsible for further stimulated emission. The frequency of the generated radiation is determined by the dispersion relation of the waveguide mode. Gain is calculated assuming the effects of space-charge modes are negligible i.e., operation is in the Compton regime. Results indicate that such a double-slab resonator will provide detectable levels of infrared radiation from a mildly relativistic (3-10 MeV) electron beam. The theoretical analysis is undertaken in preparation for a series of experiments to be conducted at the ENEA facility in Frascati, Italy where a 5 MeV microtron accelerator will be used to produce radiation in the 10- to 100 ..mu..m range. A suitable choice for the dielectric material would be polyethylene, both because of its low dielectric constant (2.2) and its relatively low loss in the infrared. A detailed discussion of the design choices will be presented.

  10. SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes Artwork. Concepts: Based on 18 Years of Experience of Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) Operation, Characteristics, Operations and Science

  11. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared - Part 3: Quantification of the mid- and near-infrared water vapor continuum in the 2500 to 7800 cm-1 spectral range under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Andreas; Sussmann, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    We present a first quantification of the near-infrared (NIR) water vapor continuum absorption from an atmospheric radiative closure experiment carried out at the Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E; 2964 m a.s.l.). Continuum quantification is achieved via radiative closure using radiometrically calibrated solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra covering the 2500 to 7800 cm-1 spectral range. The dry atmospheric conditions at the Zugspitze site (IWV 1.4 to 3.3 mm) enable continuum quantification even within water vapor absorption bands, while upper limits for continuum absorption can be provided in the centers of window regions. Throughout 75 % of the 2500 to 7800 cm-1 spectral range, the Zugspitze results agree within our estimated uncertainty with the widely used MT_CKD 2.5.2 model (Mlawer et al., 2012). In the wings of water vapor absorption bands, our measurements indicate about 2-5 times stronger continuum absorption than MT_CKD, namely in the 2800 to 3000 cm-1 and 4100 to 4200 cm-1 spectral ranges. The measurements are consistent with the laboratory measurements of Mondelain et al. (2015), which rely on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CDRS), and the calorimetric-interferometric measurements of Bicknell et al. (2006). Compared to the recent FTIR laboratory studies of Ptashnik et al. (2012, 2013), our measurements are consistent within the estimated errors throughout most of the spectral range. However, in the wings of water vapor absorption bands our measurements indicate typically 2-3 times weaker continuum absorption under atmospheric conditions, namely in the 3200 to 3400, 4050 to 4200, and 6950 to 7050 cm-1 spectral regions.

  12. The mechanisms of the SAMS experiment flown on Nimbus 7 with particular reference to the 2 axis scanning mirror. [infrared radiometer for stratospheric and mesospheric investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadley, H.

    1980-01-01

    The stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS) experiment on Nimbus 7 includes a 2 axis scanning mirror and 7 pressure modulator cells. The SAMS experiment is a limb sounding instrument to measure the temperature profile and minor constituents of the atmosphere. The limb scan requires small mirror steps over a 3 deg range, while the scan in azimuth is in larger steps over a 15 deg range. The mirror is plane, 20 cm in diameter, and of zero expansion glass-ceramic. It is supported on two tilt tables, fitted one on the other, with the axes at right angles. The angle of tilt is adjusted by means of recirculating ball screws which are ion plated with lead for lubrication and driven by stepper motors. The seven gas filled cells are each pressure modulated by a 3 cm diameter, 0.3 cm stroke piston which is supported by diaphragm springs and driven electromagnetically at the system's mechanical resonant frequency. The mean pressure of the filling gas, which is the atmospheric constituent being measured, is changed by varying the temperature of a suitable molecular sieve.

  13. Infrared: Beyond the Visible

    NASA Video Gallery

    Infrared: Beyond the Visible, is a fast, fun look at why infrared light matters to astronomy, and what the Webb Space Telescope will search for once it's in orbit. Caption file available at: http:/...

  14. Comparative study of thermal infrared imaging and fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing for detecting lacustrine groundwater discharge: a mesocosm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marruedo Arricibita, Amaia I.; Lewandowski, Jörg; Krause, Stefan; Hannah, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Detecting lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD) still remains a challenge. The buoyancy of groundwater during winter and early spring can be used for identification of groundwater up-welling related hotspots on surface water by TIR imaging (TIR). TIR has been successfully used to image and fast screen relatively large surface areas of coastal zones, lakes, reservoirs and large rivers for groundwater contributions. Still, quantitative interpretations of groundwater fluxes are hampered by the lack of understanding how the groundwater up-welling signal propagates from the sediment-water interface through the water column to the water-air interface and what perturbations and signal losses occur along this pathway. In the present study, groundwater discharge to a surface water body was simulated in a mesocosm experiment. Under winter conditions water of 14° C to 16°C was discharged at the bottom of a 10x2.8 m mesocosm where surface water varied from 4°C -7.4°C. Four layers (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm above the sediment) of the 81 cm deep mesocosm were equipped with fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) for tracing thermal patterns in the mesocosm and TIR imaging was deployed to monitor temperature pattern at the water surface in order to: (1) analyze the propagation of the temperature signal through the water column by FO-DTS and (2) characterize the spatial distribution of groundwater upwelling at the pond surface by FO-DTS and TIR. Different LGD rates were simulated in order to establish the minimum rate of GW upwelling that can be reliably detected at the water surface by TIR imaging. The experiments also allow us to benchmark scale dependencies and adequacy of both methods, FO-DTS and TIR. They also reveal that weather conditions can have important impacts on the detection of LGD at surface water-atmosphere interfaces at larger scales.

  15. Infrared laser induced population transfer and parity selection in 14NH3: A proof of principle experiment towards detecting parity violation in chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietiker, P.; Miloglyadov, E.; Quack, M.; Schneider, A.; Seyfang, G.

    2015-12-01

    We have set up an experiment for the efficient population transfer by a sequential two photon—absorption and stimulated emission—process in a molecular beam to prepare quantum states of well defined parity and their subsequent sensitive detection. This provides a proof of principle for an experiment which would allow for parity selection and measurement of the time evolution of parity in chiral molecules, resulting in a measurement of the parity violating energy difference ΔpvE between enantiomers of chiral molecules. Here, we present first results on a simple achiral molecule demonstrating efficient population transfer (about 80% on the average for each step) and unperturbed persistence of a selected excited parity level over flight times of about 1.3 ms in the beam. In agreement with model calculations with and without including nuclear hyperfine structure, efficient population transfer can be achieved by a rather simple implementation of the rapid adiabatic passage method of Reuss and coworkers and considering also the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique of Bergmann and coworkers as an alternative. The preparation step uses two powerful single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillators of high frequency stability and accuracy. The detection uses a sensitive resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization method after free flight lengths of up to 0.8 m in the molecular beam. Using this technique, we were able to also resolve the nuclear hyperfine structure in the rovibrational levels of the ν1 and ν3 fundamentals as well as the 2ν4 overtone of 14NH3, for which no previous data with hyperfine resolution were available. We present our new results on the quadrupole coupling constants for the ν1, ν3, and 2ν4 levels in the context of previously known data for ν2 and its overtone, as well as ν4, and the ground state. Thus, now, 14N quadrupole coupling constants for all fundamentals and some overtones of 14NH3 are known and can be used for

  16. Infrared laser induced population transfer and parity selection in (14)NH3: A proof of principle experiment towards detecting parity violation in chiral molecules.

    PubMed

    Dietiker, P; Miloglyadov, E; Quack, M; Schneider, A; Seyfang, G

    2015-12-28

    We have set up an experiment for the efficient population transfer by a sequential two photon-absorption and stimulated emission-process in a molecular beam to prepare quantum states of well defined parity and their subsequent sensitive detection. This provides a proof of principle for an experiment which would allow for parity selection and measurement of the time evolution of parity in chiral molecules, resulting in a measurement of the parity violating energy difference ΔpvE between enantiomers of chiral molecules. Here, we present first results on a simple achiral molecule demonstrating efficient population transfer (about 80% on the average for each step) and unperturbed persistence of a selected excited parity level over flight times of about 1.3 ms in the beam. In agreement with model calculations with and without including nuclear hyperfine structure, efficient population transfer can be achieved by a rather simple implementation of the rapid adiabatic passage method of Reuss and coworkers and considering also the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique of Bergmann and coworkers as an alternative. The preparation step uses two powerful single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillators of high frequency stability and accuracy. The detection uses a sensitive resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization method after free flight lengths of up to 0.8 m in the molecular beam. Using this technique, we were able to also resolve the nuclear hyperfine structure in the rovibrational levels of the ν1 and ν3 fundamentals as well as the 2ν4 overtone of (14)NH3, for which no previous data with hyperfine resolution were available. We present our new results on the quadrupole coupling constants for the ν1, ν3, and 2ν4 levels in the context of previously known data for ν2 and its overtone, as well as ν4, and the ground state. Thus, now, (14)N quadrupole coupling constants for all fundamentals and some overtones of (14)NH3 are known and can be used for

  17. Quantifying the Efficiency of Fibre-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing and Thermal Infrared Imaging for Detecting Lacustrine Groundwater Exfiltration: a Mesocosm Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marruedo Arricibita, A. I.; Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.; Dämpfling, H.

    2015-12-01

    Detecting groundwater inflow into lakes and reservoirs still remains a challenge. The buoyancy of groundwater during winter and early spring can be used for identification of groundwater up-welling related hotspots on surface water by TIR imaging (TIR). TIR has been successfully used to image and fast screen relatively large surface areas of lakes, reservoirs and large rivers for groundwater contributions. Still, quantitative interpretations of groundwater fluxes are hampered by the lack of understanding how the groundwater up-welling signal is propagated from the sediment-water interface through the water column to the water-air interface and what perturbations and signal losses occur along this pathway. In the present study, groundwater discharge to a surface water body was simulated in a mesocosm experiment. Under winter conditions water of 14° C to 16°C was discharged at the bottom of a 10x2.8 m mesocosm where surface water varied from 4°C -7.4°C. Four layers (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm above the sediment) of the 81 cm deep mesocosm were equipped with fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) for tracing thermal patterns in the mesocosm and TIR imaging was deployed to monitor temperature pattern at the water surface in order to: (1) analyze the propagation of the temperature signal through the water column by FO-DTS (2) characterize the spatial distribution of groundwater-borne hot spots on the lake surface by FO-DTS and TIR and, (3) conduct inverse modelling from surface water TIR data to identify the groundwater source at the sediment-water interface. In order to assess the reliability of the model we compare modeled data with FO-DTS observations. Different exfiltration rates were simulated in order to establish the minimum rate of GW upwelling that can be reliably detected at the water surface by TIR imaging. The experiments also allow us to benchmark scale dependencies and adequacy of both methods, FO-DTS and TIR. They also reveal that weather

  18. Infrared laser induced population transfer and parity selection in {sup 14}NH{sub 3}: A proof of principle experiment towards detecting parity violation in chiral molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Dietiker, P.; Miloglyadov, E.; Quack, M. Schneider, A.; Seyfang, G.

    2015-12-28

    We have set up an experiment for the efficient population transfer by a sequential two photon—absorption and stimulated emission—process in a molecular beam to prepare quantum states of well defined parity and their subsequent sensitive detection. This provides a proof of principle for an experiment which would allow for parity selection and measurement of the time evolution of parity in chiral molecules, resulting in a measurement of the parity violating energy difference Δ{sub pv}E between enantiomers of chiral molecules. Here, we present first results on a simple achiral molecule demonstrating efficient population transfer (about 80% on the average for each step) and unperturbed persistence of a selected excited parity level over flight times of about 1.3 ms in the beam. In agreement with model calculations with and without including nuclear hyperfine structure, efficient population transfer can be achieved by a rather simple implementation of the rapid adiabatic passage method of Reuss and coworkers and considering also the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique of Bergmann and coworkers as an alternative. The preparation step uses two powerful single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillators of high frequency stability and accuracy. The detection uses a sensitive resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization method after free flight lengths of up to 0.8 m in the molecular beam. Using this technique, we were able to also resolve the nuclear hyperfine structure in the rovibrational levels of the ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 3} fundamentals as well as the 2ν{sub 4} overtone of {sup 14}NH{sub 3}, for which no previous data with hyperfine resolution were available. We present our new results on the quadrupole coupling constants for the ν{sub 1}, ν{sub 3}, and 2ν{sub 4} levels in the context of previously known data for ν{sub 2} and its overtone, as well as ν{sub 4}, and the ground state. Thus, now, {sup 14}N quadrupole coupling constants for all

  19. Infrared and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Acetylacetone and Hexafluoroacetylacetone.

    PubMed

    Howard, Daryl L; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Huang, Jing; Meuwly, Markus

    2015-07-23

    The infrared and near-infrared spectra of acetylacetone, acetylacetone-d8, and hexafluoroacetylacetone are characterized from experiment and computations at different levels. In the fundamental region, the intramolecular hydrogen bonded OH-stretching transition is clearly observed as a very broad band with substantial structure and located at significantly lower frequency compared to common OH-stretching frequencies. There is no clear evidence for OH-stretching overtone transitions in the near-infrared region, which is dominated by the CH-stretching overtones of the methine and methyl CH bonds. From molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, with a potential energy surface previously validated for tunneling splittings, the infrared spectra are determined and used in assigning the experimentally measured ones. It is found that the simulated spectrum in the region associated with the proton transfer mode is exquisitely sensitive to the height of the barrier for proton transfer. Comparison of the experimental and the MD simulated spectra establishes that the barrier height is around 2.5 kcal/mol, which favorably compares with 3.2 kcal/mol obtained from high-level electronic structure calculations.

  20. Estimation of detection limits of a clinical fluorescence optical mammography system for the near-infrared fluorophore IRDye800CW: phantom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Arthur; Mourik, Jurgen E. M.; van der Voort, Marjolein; Pearlman, Paul C.; Nielsen, Tim; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Elias, Sjoerd G.

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate if clinical fluorescence imaging of IRDye800CW is feasible on our fluorescence optical mammography system by estimating detection limits assessed by breast-cancer-simulating phantom experiments. Phantoms (2.1 cm3, 0.9 cm3) with IRDye800CW concentrations of 0.5 to 120 nM were suspended in a 550 cm3 measurement cup containing 507 surface-mounted source and detector fibers. The cup was filled with optical matching fluid containing IRDye800CW concentrations of 0, 5, 10, or 20 nM. Tomographic fluorescence images were acquired by exciting IRDye800CW at 730 nm wavelengths above 750 nm were filtered. Signal intensities were calculated over a volume of interest corresponding to the size and location of the phantom in the reconstructed images. Correlations (R2) were calculated, and detection limits with associated upper 95% prediction interval were estimated. Between-day reproducibility was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Fluorescent intensities were strongly correlated with phantom IRDye800CW concentrations (R2∶0.983 to 0.999). IRDye800CW detection limits ranged from 0.14 to 2.46 nM (upper 95% prediction limit 4.63 to 18.63 nM). ICC ranged from 0.88 to 1.00. The estimated detection limits for IRDye800CW were in the low-nanomolar range. These results support the start of clinical trials to evaluate the fluorescence optical mammography system using IRDye800CW labeled breast cancer targeting ligands.

  1. LCD Monitors as an Alternative for Precision Demanding Visual Psychophysical Experiments.

    PubMed

    Bognár, Anna; Csibri, Péter; András, Csaba Márk; Sáry, Gyula

    2016-09-01

    Precise timing and presentation of stimuli is critical in vision research, still, the limiting factor in successful recognition is often the monitor itself that is used to present the stimuli. The most widespread method is the use of monitors controlled by personal computers. Traditionally, most experiments used cathode-ray tubes but they are more and more difficult to access, and instead, liquid-crystal displays are getting more and more popular. The two types have fundamentally different working principles and limitations in displaying the stimulus.In our experiments, the temporal precision of the stimulus presentation was in focus. We investigated whether liquid-crystal displays, which are not considered to be fit to display fast successive stimuli, can represent an alternative choice for cathode-ray tubes. We used the double flash and the flicker illusion to compare the technical capabilities of the two monitor types. These illusions not only do require a precise timing but also a very short exposure to the stimuli. At the same time, the interstimulus interval is also of extreme importance. In addition, these illusions require peripheral stimulation of the retina, which is more sensitive to the temporal aspects of the visual stimulus. On the basis of previous studies and our own psychophysical results, we suggest that liquid-crystal displays might be a good alternative for precise, frame-to-frame stimulus presentation even if parts of the stimuli are projected on the peripheral retina. PMID:27271338

  2. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    SOFIA, (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is a planned 2.5 meter telescope to be installed in a Boeing 747 aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 46,000 feet. It will permit routine measurement of infrared radiation inaccessible from the ground-based sites, and observation of astronomical objects and transient events from anywhere in the world. The concept is based on 18 years of experience with NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which SOFIA would replace.

  3. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becklin, Eric E.

    2001-01-01

    The joint U.S. and German SOFIA project to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP is now well into development. First science flights will begin in 2004 with 20% of the observing time assigned to German investigators. The observatory is expected to operate for over 20 years. The sensitivity, characteristics and science instrument complement are discussed. Present and future instrumentation will allow unique astrobiology experiments to be carried out. Several experiments related to organic molecules in space will be discussed.

  4. Preliminary experience for the evaluation of the intraoperative graft patency with real color charge-coupled device camera system: an advanced device for simultaneous capturing of color and near-infrared images during coronary artery bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Handa, Takemi; Katare, Rajesh G; Sasaguri, Shiro; Sato, Takayuki

    2009-08-01

    We developed a new color charge-coupled device (CCD) camera for the intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. This device consists of a combination of custom-made optical filters and an ultra-high sensitive CCD image sensor, which can detect simultaneously color and near-infrared (NIR) rays from 380 to 1200 nm. We showed a comparison between our system and other devices for the preliminary experience. We routinely performed both transit-time flowmetry (TFM) and color images for intraoperative assessment, thallium-scintigraphy for the early postoperative assessment, and then angiography after 1-year surgery. We also obtained intraoperative graft flows and images in 116 grafts. Although TFM indicated a graft patency, the CCD camera suspected perfusion failures in four grafts. Also the analysis of the ICG fluorescence intensity showed the significant hypoperfusion at the perfusion territory distal to the anastomosis (graft vs. perfusion territory; 230+/-26 vs. 156+/-13 a.u, P=0.02). When the CCD camera suspected a graft failure, CCD camera and angiography showed a comparable graft failure. The unique device that visualized ICG-enhanced structures against a background of natural myocardial color improved the visibility of abnormality in flow and perfusion. Our findings show that this device may become a standard intraoperative graft and perfusion assessment tool in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). PMID:19423513

  5. Thermal infrared radiometer calibration and experimental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, JiAn; Wang, Difeng; Gong, Fang; Yan, Bai; He, Xianqiang

    2015-08-01

    Thermal infrared radiometers play a vital role in obtaining information in field measurements and also in verifying information from remote sensing satellite sensor data. However, the calibration precision of the thermal infrared radiometers directly affects the accuracy of the remote sensing data analysis and application. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the calibration of thermal infrared radiometers is of sufficient and reliable precision. In this paper, the theory of a six-band thermal infrared radiometer (CE 312-2 ASTER) calibration method was introduced, with the calibration being conducted by using a blackbody source in the laboratory. The sources of error during the calibration procedure were analyzed, and the results of the calibration were provided. Then, laboratory experiments using the radiometer were described. The measurements of the surface temperature of a water sample that was contained in a thermostatic water bath, performed by using the radiometer, were compared to the water sample's temperature controlled by another device. These experiments were used to evaluate the calibration precision of the CE 312-2 ASTER radiometer, by means of assessing the measurement accuracy of the experiments. The results demonstrated that the calibration coefficients of the CE 312-2 ASTER thermal infrared radiometer displayed a very good performance, with highly accurate measurements, and could be used to detect phenomena related to a thermal infrared target.

  6. Merged infrared catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, M.; Brown, L. W.; Mead, J. M.; Nagy, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation of equatorial coordinates, spectral types, magnitudes, and fluxes from five catalogues of infrared observations is presented. This first edition of the Merged Infrared Catalogue contains 11,201 oservations from the Two-Micron Sky Survey, Observations of Infrared Radiation from Cool Stars, the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory four Color Infrared Sky Survey and its Supplemental Catalog, and from Catalog of 10 micron Celestial Objects (HALL). This compilation is a by-product of a computerized infrared data base under development at Goddard Space Flight Center; the objective is to maintain a complete and current record of all infrared observations from 1 micron m to 1000 micron m of nonsolar system objects. These observations are being placed into a standardized system.

  7. Infrared in automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predmesky, Ronald L.; Zaluzec, Matthew J.

    1997-04-01

    As the automotive industry continues to develop advanced materials and manufacturing processes, infrared imaging has the potential to become a major tool in process monitoring and closed loop process control. This paper reviews five novel applications of infrared imaging in applications such as product testing, component manufacture, and vehicle assembly. Infrared was found to be effective as a diagnostics tool for characterizing disc brake systems and electronic engine control sensors. The effectiveness of infrared to qualify fuel nozzle backspray was used to optimize hardware design for fuel systems. Finally, infrared was found to be useful in vehicle assembly operations in the installation of windshield glass and instrument panel hardware where visual inspection was impractical. The speed of image capture and the availability of image processing software for real time image processing and closed loop process control will no doubt find more applications as infrared imaging finds its niche in the automotive industry.

  8. Optical and infrared masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Ongoing research progress in the following areas is described: (1) tunable infrared light sources and applications; (2) precision frequency and wavelength measurements in the infrared with applications to atomic clocks; (3) zero-degree pulse propagation in resonant medium; (4) observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas; (5) unidirectional laser amplifier with built-in isolator; and (6) progress in infrared metal-to-metal point contact tunneling diodes.

  9. Early infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2009-07-01

    I present a short history of infrared astronomy, from the first scientific approaches of the ‘radiant heat’ in the seventeenth century to the 1970's, the time when space infrared astronomy was developing very rapidly. The beginning of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy is also covered. As the progress of infrared astronomy was strongly dependent on detectors, some details are given on their development.

  10. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  11. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  12. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed.

  13. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed.

  14. Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The infrared astronomical data base and its principal data product, the catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), comprise a machine readable library of infrared (1 microns to 1000 microns astronomical observations. To date, over 1300 journal articles and 10 major survey catalogs are included in this data base, which contains about 55,000 individual observations of about 10,000 different infrared sources. Of these, some 8,000 sources are identifiable with visible objects, and about 2,000 do not have known visible counterparts.

  15. Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-05-01

    The infrared astronomical data base and its principal data product, the catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), comprise a machine readable library of infrared (1 microns to 1000 microns astronomical observations. To date, over 1300 journal articles and 10 major survey catalogs are included in this data base, which contains about 55,000 individual observations of about 10,000 different infrared sources. Of these, some 8,000 sources are identifiable with visible objects, and about 2,000 do not have known visible counterparts.

  16. A real-time infrared imaging simulation method with physical effects modeling of infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ni; Huai, Wenqing; Wang, Shaodan; Ren, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Infrared imaging simulation technology can provide infrared data sources for the development, improvement and evaluation of infrared imaging systems under different environment, status and weather conditions, which is reusable and more economic than physical experiments. A real-time infrared imaging simulation process is established to reproduce a complete physical imaging process. Our emphasis is put on the modeling of infrared sensors, involving physical effects of both spatial domain and frequency domain. An improved image convolution method is proposed based on GPU parallel processing to enhance the real-time simulation ability with ensuring its simulation accuracy at the same time. Finally the effectiveness of the above methods is validated by simulation analysis and result comparison.

  17. Infrared monitoring of the Space Station environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Jennings, Donald E.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement and monitoring of infrared emission in the environment of the Space Station has a twofold importance - for the study of the phenomena itself and as an aid in planning and interpreting Station based infrared experiments. Spectral measurements of the infrared component of the spacecraft glow will, along with measurements in other spectral regions, provide data necessary to fully understand and model the physical and chemical processes producing these emissions. The monitoring of the intensity of these emissions will provide background limits for Space Station based infrared experiments and permit the determination of optimum instrument placement and pointing direction. Continuous monitoring of temporal changes in the background radiation (glow) will also permit better interpretation of Station-based infrared earth sensing and astronomical observations. The primary processes producing infrared emissions in the Space Station environment are: (1) Gas phase excitations of Station generated molecules ( e.g., CO2, H2O, organics...) by collisions with the ambient flux of mainly O and N2. Molecular excitations and generation of new species by collisions of ambient molecules with Station surfaces. They provide a list of resulting species, transition energies, excitation cross sections and relevant time constants. The modeled spectrum of the excited species occurs primarily at wavelengths shorter than 8 micrometer. Emissions at longer wavelengths may become important during rocket firing or in the presence of dust.

  18. The Infrared Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habing, Harm J.; Neugebauer, Gerry

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is a survey instrument that has provided an overall view of the infrared sky and identified objects that merit further investigation. A description of the IRAS and examples of the types of astronomical data collected are presented. (JN)

  19. Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Phillip

    1982-01-01

    Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

  20. Infrared emission from interplanetary dust

    SciTech Connect

    Temi, P.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Moreno, G.; Salama, A.

    1989-02-01

    Standard models of the interplanetary dust emission fail to account satisfactorily for IR observations. A new model of the dust, based on very simple assumptions on the grain structure (spherical and homogeneous) and chemical composition (astronomical silicates, graphite, blackbodies) is developed. Updated values of the refractive indexes have been included in the analysis. The predictions of the model (absolute values of the fluxes, spectral shape, elongation dependence of the emission) have then been compared with all the available IR observations performed by the ARGO (balloon-borne experiment by University of Rome), AFGL and Zodiacal Infrared Project (ZIP) (rocket experiments by Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.), and IRAS satellite. Good agreement is found when homogeneous data sets from single experiments (e.g., ZIP and ARGO) are considered separately. 19 references.

  1. Infrared spectroscopic measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, G.

    1976-01-01

    The collision induced spectrum in equilibrium H2(eH2) and in equilibrium H2-He mixtures have been determined at densities below 120 amagat in the region 500 to 900 cm/1 at 293, 195, and 77K. The collision induced spectrum of normal H2 at 77K in the region 25 to 490 cm/1 has also been determined. The details of the experiment, experimental results, and comparison with previous results are presented. A report dealing with a new theory of the shape of pressure induced spectra with an application to the far infrared spectrum of eH2 at 77K is appended.

  2. Microthermomechanical infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffanson, M.; Rangelow, I. W.

    2014-03-01

    We present a state-of-the-art overview of microthermomechanical infrared sensor technology. The working principle of this sensor is based on a bi-material actuated micromechanical deflection, generated by an induced temperature rise due to incident infrared radiation absorption. In order to generate a thermal image the thermomechanical deflections of the freestanding microstructures are read by either capacitive, piezoresistive or optical means. Research and development activities in this field began in the early 1990s. The development of this technology within the last 20 years has resulted in innovations such as uncooled multiband infrared detection, high-speed infrared sensing and uncooled THz imaging. This paper outlines representative milestones of this technology and analyses important results of notable groups. Significant activities on capacitive and optical readout techniques of thermomechanical infrared arrays are presented. Furthermore the advantages of microthermomechanical infrared sensors over current well-established uncooled infrared technologies are summarized. In conclusion the latest developments of this technology offer a highly potential solution for a variety of important energy-saving, safety and security applications.

  3. Mauna Kea Observatory infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Galactic and solar system infrared observations are reported using a broad variety of radiometric and spectroscopic instrumentation. Infrared programs and papers published during this period are listed.

  4. Glory of clouds in the near infrared.

    PubMed

    Spinhirne, J D; Nakajima, T

    1994-07-20

    Spectrally resolved visible and infrared images of marine stratus clouds were acquired from the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft during the 1987 First International Cloud Climatology Program Regional Experiment. The images were obtained by cross-track scanning radiometers. Data images at nearinfrared wavelengths show frequent and readily apparent brightness features that are due to glory single scattering. The observations and subsequent analysis by radiative transfer calculations show that the glory is a significant feature of near-infrared solar reflectance from water clouds. Glory observations and calculations based on in-cloud microphysics measurements agree well. The most dramatic difference from the visible glory is that the scattering angles are significantly larger in the near infrared. The glory is also apparently more distinct in the near infrared than in the visible, as scattering size parameters are in a range that effectively produces a glory feature, and also there is less obscuration bymultipe-scattering reflectance because of absorption of radiation by droplets in the near infrared. For both the visible and the near infrared, the principal factors that wash out the glory are dispersion and, to a lesser degree, the effective radius of the cloud droplet-size distribution. The obscuration by multiple scattering in optically thick clouds is secondary. Rather than being a novelty, glory observations would be an accurate and unambiguous technique to sense the droplet size of water clouds remotely.

  5. Daylight coloring for monochrome infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabura, James

    2015-05-01

    The effectiveness of infrared imagery in poor visibility situations is well established and the range of applications is expanding as we enter a new era of inexpensive thermal imagers for mobile phones. However there is a problem in that the counterintuitive reflectance characteristics of various common scene elements can cause slowed reaction times and impaired situational awareness-consequences that can be especially detrimental in emergency situations. While multiband infrared sensors can be used, they are inherently more costly. Here we propose a technique for adding a daylight color appearance to single band infrared images, using the normally overlooked property of local image texture. The simple method described here is illustrated with colorized images from the visible red and long wave infrared bands. Our colorizing process not only imparts a natural daylight appearance to infrared images but also enhances the contrast and visibility of otherwise obscure detail. We anticipate that this colorizing method will lead to a better user experience, faster reaction times and improved situational awareness for a growing community of infrared camera users. A natural extension of our process could expand upon its texture discerning feature by adding specialized filters for discriminating specific targets.

  6. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101). PMID:25490236

  7. Infrared astronomy after IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Thompson, R. I.; Werner, M. W.; Witteborn, F. C.; Becklin, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of infrared astronomy in the wake of IRAS is discussed. Attention is given to an overview of next generation infrared telescope technology, with emphasis on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) which has been built to replace IRAS in the 1990s. Among the instruments to be included on SIRTF are: a wide-field high-resolution camera covering the infrared range 3-30 microns with large arrays of detectors; an imaging photometer operating in the range 3-700 microns; and a spectrograph covering the range 2.5-200 microns with resolutions of 2 and 0.1 percent. Observational missions for the SIRTF are proposed in connection with: planetary formation; star formation; cosmic energy sources; active galactic nuclei; and quasars.

  8. Compact Infrared Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2009-01-01

    Concentric spectrometer forms are advantageous for constructing a variety of systems spanning the entire visible to infrared range. Spectrometer examples are given, including broadband or high resolution forms. Some issues associated with the Dyson catadioptric type are also discussed.

  9. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Rockstad, Howard K. (Inventor); Reynolds, Joseph K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane which would otherwise change deflection depending upon incident infrared radiation. The resulting infrared sensor will meet or exceed the performance of all other broadband, uncooled, infrared sensors and can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. The technology is readily implemented as a small-format linear array suitable for commercial and spacecraft applications.

  10. Infrared processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  11. Submillimeter and infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, T. G.

    An overview of the current state of submillimeter and infrared astronomy is given. In order to develop these fields, three areas must be considered. First, a platform immuned to atmospheric effects must be found, and satellites capable of supporting large telescopes must be designed. Current programs are considering specialized instruments such as COBE, a small cosmic background explorer; IRAS, a small cooled infrared survey telescope; and SIRTF, a small cooled infrared telescope. Second, a large area telescope with light gathering power and resolution, comparable to that available in the optical and radio, is essential to the program. Recent NASA studies have indicated the feasibility of constructing a 20 m diameter telescope with a 20 micron wavelength diffraction. Third, detectors are being developed which are near quantum noise limited, radio-style detectors. Questions which can be answered by submillimeter and infrared techniques pertain to star formation, existence of other planetary systems, and missing mass formation.

  12. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  13. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer to simultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline provides subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers.

  14. Infrared Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Successive years of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Langley Research Center to Sensiv Inc., a joint venture between Foster-Miller Inc. and Isorad, Ltd., assisted in the creation of remote fiber optic sensing systems. NASA's SBIR interest in infrared, fiber optic sensor technology was geared to monitoring the curing cycles of advanced composite materials. These funds helped in the fabrication of an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. Foster-Miller ingenuity allowed infrared transmitting optical fibers to combine with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to enable remote sensing. Sensiv probes operate in the mid-infrared range of the spectrum, although modifications to the instrument also permits its use in the near-infrared region. The Sensiv needle-probe is built to be placed in a liquid or powder and analyze the chemicals in the mixture. Other applications of the probe system include food processing control; combustion control in furnaces; and maintenance problem solving.

  15. Infrared Protein Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    J Sage; Y Zhang; J McGeehan; R Ravelli; M Weik; J van Thor

    2011-12-31

    We consider the application of infrared spectroscopy to protein crystals, with particular emphasis on exploiting molecular orientation through polarization measurements on oriented single crystals. Infrared microscopes enable transmission measurements on individual crystals using either thermal or nonthermal sources, and can accommodate flow cells, used to measure spectral changes induced by exposure to soluble ligands, and cryostreams, used for measurements of flash-cooled crystals. Comparison of unpolarized infrared measurements on crystals and solutions probes the effects of crystallization and can enhance the value of the structural models refined from X-ray diffraction data by establishing solution conditions under which they are most relevant. Results on several proteins are consistent with similar equilibrium conformational distributions in crystal and solutions. However, the rates of conformational change are often perturbed. Infrared measurements also detect products generated by X-ray exposure, including CO{sub 2}. Crystals with favorable symmetry exhibit infrared dichroism that enhances the synergy with X-ray crystallography. Polarized infrared measurements on crystals can distinguish spectral contributions from chemically similar sites, identify hydrogen bonding partners, and, in opportune situations, determine three-dimensional orientations of molecular groups. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Structure and Function in the Crystalline State.

  16. Infrared Heating of Hydrogen Layers in Hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Kozioziemski, B J; McEachern, R L; London, R A; Bitter, D N

    2001-08-15

    The authors report results of modeling and experiments on infrared heated deuterium-hydride (HD) layers in hohlraums. A 2 mm diameter, 40 {micro}m thick shell with 100-400 {micro}m thick HD ice inside a NIF scale-1 gold hohlraum with 1-3 {micro}m rms surface roughness is heated by pumping the HD vibrational bands. Models indicate control of the low-mode layer shape by adjusting the infrared distribution along the hohlraum walls. They have experimentally demonstrated control of the layer symmetry perpendicular to the hohlraum axis.

  17. Catalog of infrared observations including: Bibliography of infrared astronomy and index of infrared source positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Catalog of Infrared Observations and its Far Infrared Supplement summarize all infrared astronomical observations at infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Catalog includes as appendices the Bibliography of infrared astronomy which keys observations in the Catalog with the original journal references, and the index of infrared source positions which gives source positions for alphabetically listed sources in the Catalog. The Catalog data base contains over 85,000 observations of about 10,000 infrared sources, of which about 2,000 have no known visible counterpart.

  18. Ambient temperature normalization for infrared face recognition based on the second-order polynomial model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengzi

    2015-08-01

    The influence of ambient temperature is a big challenge to robust infrared face recognition. This paper proposes a new ambient temperature normalization algorithm to improve the performance of infrared face recognition under variable ambient temperatures. Based on statistical regression theory, a second order polynomial model is learned to describe the ambient temperature's impact on infrared face image. Then, infrared image was normalized to reference ambient temperature by the second order polynomial model. Finally, this normalization method is applied to infrared face recognition to verify its efficiency. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed temperature normalization method is feasible and can significantly improve the robustness of infrared face recognition.

  19. Demonstration of Symmetry Control of Infrared Heated Deuterium Layers in Hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Koziozieski, B J; London, R A; McEachern, R L; Bittner, D N

    2003-08-22

    Infrared smoothed deuterium ice layers inside capsules have been successfully demonstrated for capsules inside cylindrical hohlraums. Improved characterization methods and infrared illumination enables low mode control in both the axial and azimuthal directions. Experimental results agree well with computer models. Results of these experiments will be used to derive accuracy requirements for an infrared heating system for ice layers in hohlraums on NIF.

  20. Infrared astronomical data base and catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, M.; Gezari, D. Y.; Mead, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a computer data base of infrared astronomical observations. The data base represents a machine-readable library of infrared observational data published in the relevant literature since 1960 for celestial sources outside the solar system. It likewise includes the contents of infrared surveys and catalogs. A catalog of infrared observations has been developed in both printed and magnetic-tape formats. The data base will be accessed through a bibliographic guide and an atlas of infrared source names and positions. Future plans also include two-dimensional graphical displays of infrared data and a user-interactive data terminal.

  1. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schember, Helene; Manhart, Paul; Guiar, Cecilia; Stevens, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will be the first true infrared observatory in space, building upon the technical and scientific experience gained through its two NASA survey-oriented predecessors: the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. During its minimum five year lifetime, the SIRTF will perform pointed scientific observations at wavelengths from 1.8 to 1200 microns with an increase in sensitivity over previous missions of several orders of magnitude. This paper discusses a candidate design for the SIRTF telescope, encompassing optics, cryostat, and instrument accommodation, which has been undertaken to provide a fulcrum for the development of functional requirements, interface definition, risk assessment and cost. The telescope optics employ a baffled Ritchey-Chretien Cassegrain system with a 1-m class primary mirror, an active secondary mirror, and a stationary facetted tertiary mirror. The optics are embedded in a large superfluid He cryostat designed to maintain the entire telescope-instrument system at temperatures below 3 K.

  2. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.

    1989-01-01

    SOFIA will be a three meter class telescope operating in a Boeing 747, offering astronomers routine access to infrared wavelengths unavailable from the ground, and with the means to observe transient astronomical events from anywhere in the world. The concept is based on 15 years of experience with NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which SOFIA will replace in the mid 1990's. SOFIA's wavelength range covers nearly four decades of the electromagnetic spectrum: from the visible, throughout the infrared and submillimeter, to the microwave region. Relative to the KAO, SOFIA will be roughly ten times more sensitive for compact sources, enabling observations of fainter objects and measurements at higher spectral resolution. Also, it will have three times the angular resolving power for wavelengths greater than 30 microns, permitting more detailed imaging at far infrared wavelengths.

  3. Deep infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Matthew; Houck, J. R.; Hacking, Perry B.

    1992-01-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra of 17 infrared-bright emission-line galaxies near the north ecliptic pole are presented. Reddening-corrected line ratios forbidden O III 5007/H-beta, N II 6583/H-alpha, S II (6716 + 6731)/H-alpha, and O I 6300/H-alpha are used to discriminate between candidate energy generation mechanisms in each galaxy. These criteria have frequently been applied to optically selected samples of galaxies in the past, but this is the first time they have been applied to a set of faint flux-limited infrared-selected objects. The analysis indicates the sample contains seven starburst galaxies and three (AGN). However, seven galaxies in the present sample elude the classification scheme based on these line ratios. It is concluded that a two-component (starburst plus AGN) model for energy generation is inadequate for infrared galaxies.

  4. Variable waveband infrared imager

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  5. Infrared source test

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  6. A dynamic infrared source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persky, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    A system is described that can be used for testing infrared focal plane cameras in situations where conventional blackbody sources are deficient. The system uses readily available components, electronics, and software. It can provide either a wide area or a point source of infrared flux that can be programmed to follow a prescribed temporal profile at higher rates than available from commercial blackbody sources and with excellent repeatability. Additionally, the system provides flux without suffering from the temporal noise characteristic of commercial, wide area, flat sheet sources that results from turbulence in front of the blackbody. The system consists of commercially available, rapid rise time infrared radiators, either coupled to an integrating sphere for broad area flux, or used individually with a pinhole and collimator as a point source. A programmable voltage supply provides the power versus time profile at frequencies to several Hertz. Transfer from a standard blackbody calibrates the flux levels. This article provides a description, testing results, and application examples.

  7. Infrared Astronomy After IRAS.

    PubMed

    Rieke, G H; Werner, M W; Thompson, R I; Becklin, E E; Hoffmann, W F; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Stein, W A; Witteborn, F C

    1986-02-21

    The 250,000 sources in the recently issued Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) all-sky infrared catalog are a challenge to astronomy. Many of these sources will be studied with existing and planned ground-based and airborne telescopes, but many others can no longer even be detected now that IRAS has ceased to operate. As anticipated by advisory panels of the National Academy of Sciences for a decade, study of the IRAS sources will require the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), a cooled, pointed telescope in space. This instrument may be the key to our understanding of cosmic birth-the formation of planets, stars, galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and quasars. Compared with IRAS and existing telescopes, SIRTF's power derives from a thousandfold gain in sensitivity over five octaves of the spectrum.

  8. Advanced infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor

    1991-01-01

    This task supports the application of infrared heterodyne spectroscopy and other high resolution techniques, as well as infrared arrays to ultra-high resolution studies of molecular constituents of planetary atmospheres. High spectral and spatial resolution measurement and analysis of individual spectral lines permits the retrieval of distributions of atmospheric molecular abundances and temperatures and thus, information on local photochemical processes. Determination of absolute line positions to better than 10(exp -8) permits direct measurement of gas velocities to a few m/sec and thus, the study of dynamics. Observations are made from ground based observatories.

  9. Comparison and analysis on test methods of infrared radiant intensity of infrared decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chunsheng; Dai, Mengyan; Liu, Haifeng; Fang, Guofeng; Xie, Changyou; Zhang, Tong

    2014-11-01

    The research on infrared radiant characteristics of typical target is important for the detection and recognition of target, infrared simulation calculation and design of electro-optical countermeasures. Thus it is essential to select appropriate test method and optimal calculation method to improve the test accuracy and reliability of infrared radiant intensity. In this paper, three instruments including SR5000 spectroradiometer (CI, MigdalHaEmek, Israel), remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 (Bruker, Germany) and Image IR8325 (InfraTec Ltd, Germany) mid-infrared thermal imager were applied to test the infrared radiant (1μm-3μm - 3μm-5μm) intensity of decoy samples. Three methods were designed based on two operational principles including direct test and indirect test. The SR5000 spectroradiometer which is able to obtain the value of radian intensity immediately is regard as direct test. The other two instruments which deduce and calculate infrared radiant intensity according to Planck's law and Lambert's cosine law with some preliminary tested parameters such as the response voltage - the distribution of infrared radiant temperature of flaming samples and calibrated data by blackbody, however, are regard as indirect test. Reasons for the diversity of experiment results were provided through analysis on the concrete measurement theory and detailed calculation methods. Moreover, some rules and suggestions were put forward to improve the test accuracy and reliability of infrared radiant intensity when different methods were adopted. It is shown from experiment results that the average mid-infrared radiant intensity obtained from SR5000 was about 903W/Sr in near-infrared band - whereas Tensor 37 and Image IR8325 was about 834W/Sr and 547 W/Sr respectively. It was proved that maximum relative of calculated results from remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 and results measured with SR5000 spectroradiometer is below 13%, which meet the

  10. Infrared spectroscopy in biomedical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Kolyakov, Sergei F.; Letokhov, Vladilen S.; Artioushenko, Vjacheslav G.; Golovkina, Viktoriya N.

    1998-01-01

    Fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW- FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850 - 1850 cm-1) has recently found application in the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured in vivo the skin normal and malignant tissues on surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in the operating room for measurements of skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis), human breast, stomach, lung, kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of amino acid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  11. Infrared Thermometer (IRT) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    VR Morris

    2006-10-30

    The Infrared Thermometer (IRT) is a ground-based radiation pyrometer that provides measurements of the equivalent blackbody brightness temperature of the scene in its field of view. The downwelling version has a narrow field of view for measuring sky temperature and for detecting clouds. The upwelling version has a wide field of view for measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface.

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro, J.R.; Basile, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The final and largest volume to complete this four-volume treatise is published in response to the intense commercial and research interest in Fourier Transform Interferometry. Volume 4 introduces new information on, for example, applications of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Far-infrared Region. The editors place emphasis on surface studies and address advances in Capillary Gas Chromatography-Fourier Transform Interferometry.

  13. Barrier infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

  14. The infrared retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Sanjay

    2009-12-01

    As infrared imaging systems have evolved from the first generation of linear devices to the second generation of small format staring arrays to the present 'third-gen' systems, there is an increased emphasis on large area focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multicolour operation and higher operating temperature. In this paper, we discuss how one needs to develop an increased functionality at the pixel level for these next generation FPAs. This functionality could manifest itself as spectral, polarization, phase or dynamic range signatures that could extract more information from a given scene. This leads to the concept of an infrared retina, which is an array that works similarly to the human eye that has a 'single' FPA but multiple cones, which are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that enable the perception of colour. These cones are then coupled with powerful signal processing techniques that allow us to process colour information from a scene, even with a limited basis of colour cones. Unlike present day multi or hyperspectral systems, which are bulky and expensive, the idea would be to build a poor man's 'infrared colour' camera. We use examples such as plasmonic tailoring of the resonance or bias dependent dynamic tuning based on quantum confined Stark effect or incorporation of avalanche gain to achieve embodiments of the infrared retina.

  15. Ground based infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic instrumentation has been developed for ground-based measurements of astrophysical objects in the intermediate infrared. A conventional Michelson interferometer is limited for astronomical applications in the intermediate infrared by quantum noise fluctuations in the radiation form the source and/or background incident on the detector, and the multiplex advantage is no longer available. One feasible approach to recovering the multiplex advantage is post-dispersion. The infrared signal after passing through telescope and interferometer, is dispersed by a low resolution grating spectrometer onto an array of detectors. The feasibility of the post-dispersion system has been demonstrated with observations of astrophysical objects in the 5 and 10 micrometer atmospheric windows from ground-based telescopes. During FY87/88 the post-disperser was used at the Kitt Peak 4-meter telescope and McMath telescope with facility Fourier transform spectrometers. Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, and Venus were observed. On Jupiter, the resolution at 12 micrometer was 0.01/cm, considerably higher than had been acheived previously. The spectrum contains Jovian ethane and acetylene emission. Construction was begun on the large cryogenic grating spectrometer.

  16. One high performance technology of infrared scene projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-jie; Qian, Li-xun; Cao, Chun; Li, Zhuo

    2014-11-01

    Infrared scenes generation technologies are used to simulate the infrared radiation characteristics of target and background in the laboratory. They provide synthetic infrared imagery for thermal imager test and evaluation application in the infrared imaging systems. At present, many Infrared scenes generation technologies have been widely used, and they make a lot of achievements. In this paper, we design and manufacture one high performance IR scene generation technology, and the whole thin film type transducer is the key, which is fabricated based on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The specific MEMS technological process parameters are obtained from a large number of experiments. The properties of infrared scene generation chip are investigated experimentally. It achieves high resolution, high frame, and reliable performance, which can meet the requirements of most simulation system. The radiation coefficient of the thin film transducer is measured to be 0.86. The frame rate is 160 Hz. The emission spectrum is from 2μm to 12μm in infrared band. Illuminated by the visible light with different intensities the equivalent black body temperature of transducer could be varied in the range of 290K to 440K. The spatial resolution is more than 256×256.The geometric distortion and the uniformity of the generated infrared scene is 5 percent. The infrared scene generator based on the infrared scene generation chip include three parts, which are visual image projector, visual to thermal transducer and the infrared scene projector. The experimental results show that this thin film type infrared scene generation chip meets the requirements of most of hardware-in-the-loop scene simulation systems for IR sensors testing.

  17. Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.M. . Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1990-11-01

    This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Infrared Analysis Using Tissue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Noel L.; Wood, Steven G.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a quick, easy, and cheap, but effective method of obtaining infrared spectra of solids and nonvolatile liquids by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The technique uses tissue paper as a support matrix. (RH)

  19. Infrared astronomy takes center stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick C.; Gatley, Ian; Hollenbach, David

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of infrared astronomy, including the ability to detect cool matter, explore the hidden universe, reveal a wealth of spectral lines, and reach back to the beginning of time are outlined. Ground-based infrared observations such as observations in the thermal infrared region are discussed as well as observations utilizing infrared telescopes aboard NASA aircraft and orbiting telescopes. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy are described, and it is pointed out that infrared astronomers can penetrate obscuring dust to study stars and interstellar matter throughout the Milky Way galaxy. Application of various infrared instruments to the investigation of stars and planets is emphasized, and focus is placed on the discovery of clouds or disks of particles around mature stars and acquisition of high-resolution spectra of the gaseous and solid materials orbiting on the fringes of the solar system.

  20. Infrared Astronomy and Education: Linking Infrared Whole Sky Mapping with Teacher and Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, Bryan; Thaller, Michelle; Gorjian, Varoujan; Borders, Kyla; Pitman, Peter; Pereira, Vincent; Sepulveda, Babs; Stark, Ron; Knisely, Cindy; Dandrea, Amy; Winglee, Robert; Plecki, Marge; Goebel, Jeri; Condit, Matt; Kelly, Susan

    The Spitzer Space Telescope and the recently launched WISE (Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer) observe the sky in infrared light. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. Secondary students can do authentic research using infrared data. For example, students will use WISE data to mea-sure physical properties of asteroids. In order to prepare students and teachers at this level with a high level of rigor and scientific understanding, the WISE and the Spitzer Space Tele-scope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop in infrared astronomy.The lessons learned from the Spitzer and WISE teacher and student pro-grams can be applied to other programs engaging them in authentic research experiences using data from space-borne observatories such as Herschel and Planck. Recently, WISE Educator Ambassadors and NASA Explorer School teachers developed and led an infrared astronomy workshop at Arecibo Observatory in PuertoRico. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance and age of objects in the Universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and the Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. We will outline specific steps for sec-ondary astronomy professional development, detail student involvement in infrared telescope data analysis, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional secondary professional development and student involvement in infrared astronomy. Funding was

  1. Infrared observations of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The planetary observations presented are divided into three parts: (1) infrared photometry at all wavelengths accessible from the ground; (2) high resolution infrared mapping of Jupiter with special emphasis at 5 microns; and (3) extensive infrared observations of Comet Kohoutek. Results are briefly summarized.

  2. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Yuhsin

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  3. Verification of mesoscale objective analyses of VAS and rawinsode data using the March 1982 AVE/VAS special network data. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment/Visible-infrared spin-scan radiometer Atmospheric Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, James D.; Warner, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    Various combinations of VAS (Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder) data, conventional rawinsonde data, and gridded data from the National Weather Service's (NWS) global analysis, were used in successive-correction and variational objective-analysis procedures. Analyses are produced for 0000 GMT 7 March 1982, when the VAS sounding distribution was not greatly limited by the existence of cloud cover. The successive-correction (SC) Procedure was used with VAS data alone, rawinsonde data alone, and both VAS and rawinsonde data. Variational techniques were applied in three ways. Each of these techniques was discussed.

  4. Single-conformation infrared spectra of model peptides in the amide I and amide II regions: Experiment-based determination of local mode frequencies and inter-mode coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Evan G.; James, William H.; Choi, Soo Hyuk; Guo, Li; Gellman, Samuel H.; Müller, Christian W.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2012-09-01

    Single-conformation infrared spectra in the amide I and amide II regions have been recorded for a total of 34 conformations of three α-peptides, three β-peptides, four α/β-peptides, and one γ-peptide using resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy of the jet-cooled, isolated molecules. Assignments based on the amide NH stretch region were in hand, with the amide I/II data providing additional evidence in favor of the assignments. A set of 21 conformations that represent the full range of H-bonded structures were chosen to characterize the conformational dependence of the vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of the local amide I and amide II modes and their amide I/I and amide II/II coupling constants. Scaled, harmonic calculations at the DFT M05-2X/6-31+G(d) level of theory accurately reproduce the experimental frequencies and infrared intensities in both the amide I and amide II regions. In the amide I region, Hessian reconstruction was used to extract local mode frequencies and amide I/I coupling constants for each conformation. These local amide I frequencies are in excellent agreement with those predicted by DFT calculations on the corresponding 13C = 18O isotopologues. In the amide II region, potential energy distribution analysis was combined with the Hessian reconstruction scheme to extract local amide II frequencies and amide II/II coupling constants. The agreement between these local amide II frequencies and those obtained from DFT calculations on the N-D isotopologues is slightly worse than for the corresponding comparison in the amide I region. The local mode frequencies in both regions are dictated by a combination of the direct H-bonding environment and indirect, "backside" H-bonds to the same amide group. More importantly, the sign and magnitude of the inter-amide coupling constants in both the amide I and amide II regions is shown to be characteristic of the size of the H-bonded ring linking the two amide groups. These amide I/I and

  5. Biomimetic, polymer-based microcantilever infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael Thomas

    This dissertation describes the initial development of a polymer-based, microcantilever infrared sensor. The development of the sensor is bio-inspired and based upon the long-range infrared sensor found in the pyrophilous jewel beetle Melanophila acuminata, which is able to seek out forest fires from more than 50 km away. Based on several proposed models of the infrared detector found in Melanophila acuminata, as well as published in vivo experiments, the feasibility of polymer-based infrared thermal sensors was explored and developed. Polymer materials were chosen due to their high absorptivity in the infrared range due to vibrational resonance modes characteristic of their organic bonds. Polymeric materials investigated in the course of this work include the polysaccharide and biomaterial chitin, its deacetylated derivative, chitosan, and the work-horse polymer of the semiconductor industry, novolak-resin-based photoresist. Chitin and chitosan are particularly noteworthy polymers for exploration in infrared detection due to their natural absorbance of infrared radiation near the 3 mum and 10 mum bands, which are important for the detection of the temperatures of warm engines and human body temperature, respectively. Because only limited work (primarily focused on electrodeposition) has been focused on the microscale patterning of chitosan, a photolithography process for chitosan and chitin was developed to allow the integration of the material into a variety of microelectromechanical systems processes. In addition to optical/infrared sensing, this process has a variety of potential applications in tissue engineering, protein engineering, and lab-on-a-chip devices. To demonstrate these areas of use, surface functionalization was demonstrated using bioconjugation to attach a protein to a patterned chitosan surface. Thin films of chitosan and chitin were characterized using laser profilometry to identify the effect of temperature on the film stress, and contact

  6. Infrared floodlight assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wierzbicki, Julian J.; Chakrabarti, Kirti B.

    1987-09-22

    An infrared floodlight assembly (10) including a cast aluminum outer housing (11) defining a central chamber (15) therein. A floodlight (14), having a tungsten halogen lamp as the light source, is spacedly positioned within a heat conducting member (43) within chamber (15) such that the floodlight is securedly positioned in an aligned manner relative to the assembly's filter (35) and lens (12) components. The invention also includes venting means (51) to allow air passage between the interior of the member (43) and the adjacent chamber (15), as well as engagement means (85) for engaging a rear surface of the floodlight (14) to retain it firmly against an internal flange of the member (43). A reflector (61), capable of being compressed to allow insertion or removal, is located within the heat conducting member's interior between the floodlight (14) and filter (35) to reflect infrared radiation toward the filter (35) and spaced lens (12).

  7. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.

  8. Hybrid Infrared Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Gary C.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental device has low noise and high uniformity. Infrared imaging device combines array of InSb photodetectors with array of silicon field-effect-transistor switches. InSb chip forms roof over Si chip, each InSb detector cell engaging indium bump on corresponding Si switch cell below it. FET switches in 128-by-128 array turn on in sequence, read out charges on 128-by-128 array of photodetectors and multiplex them in serial output that represents pattern of light on array of photodetectors. Useful in sensitive infrared cameras for astronomy, medicine, inspection, and military surveillance. Reads out image data at rates up to 10 MHz and expands to 256-by-256 array.

  9. An infrared journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinch, Michael A.

    2015-06-01

    Infrared focal plane array technology has evolved dramatically over the last 50 years. The author has been privileged to participate in this remarkable evolution, working totally within the confines of one of the most significant and remaining US players in the focal plane game, namely Texas Instruments, later to become DRS Technologies. This presentation describes a journey from the Common Module through second and third generation infrared systems in the USA up to the exciting developments of the present day ultra-small pixel technology. It represents an attempt to detail both the technology development of the time together with some of its associated drama as viewed from the author's particular perspective. Thoughts on the lessons learned from this journey and their possible impact on future technology development will be discussed.

  10. Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrument study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrumentation conceptual design study was conducted to determine the physical and operational characteristics of the instruments needed to satisfy the experiment science requirements. The design of the instruments is based on using as many proven concepts as possible. Many design features are taken from current developments such as the Mariner, Pioneer 10, Viking Orbiter radiometers, and Nimbus D spectrometer. Calibration techniques and error analysis for the instrument system are discussed.

  11. Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockwell, C. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; DeMott, P. J.; Sullivan, R. C.; Reardon, J.; Ryan, K. C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Stevens, L.

    2014-09-01

    During the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4, October-November 2012) a large variety of regionally and globally significant biomass fuels was burned at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particle emissions were characterized by an extensive suite of instrumentation that measured aerosol chemistry, size distribution, optical properties, and cloud-nucleating properties. The trace gas measurements included high-resolution mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography, and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy. This paper summarizes the overall experimental design for FLAME-4 - including the fuel properties, the nature of the burn simulations, and the instrumentation employed - and then focuses on the OP-FTIR results. The OP-FTIR was used to measure the initial emissions of 20 trace gases: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, glycolaldehyde, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. These species include most of the major trace gases emitted by biomass burning, and for several of these compounds, this is the first time their emissions are reported for important fuel types. The main fire types included African grasses, Asian rice straw, cooking fires (open (three-stone), rocket, and gasifier stoves), Indonesian and extratropical peat, temperate and boreal coniferous canopy fuels, US crop residue, shredded tires, and trash. Comparisons of the OP-FTIR emission factors (EFs) and emission ratios (ERs) to field measurements of biomass burning verify that the large body of FLAME-4 results can be used to enhance the understanding of global biomass burning and its representation in atmospheric chemistry models. Crop residue fires are widespread globally and account for the most burned area in the US, but their emissions were previously poorly characterized. Extensive results are presented for burning rice and wheat straw: two major global crop residues

  12. Integrated infrared array technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Mccreight, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of integrated infrared (IR) array technology is presented. Although the array pixel formats are smaller, and the readout noise of IR arrays is larger, than the corresponding values achieved with optical charge-coupled-device silicon technology, substantial progress is being made in IR technology. Both existing IR arrays and those being developed are described. Examples of astronomical images are given which illustrate the potential of integrated IR arrays for scientific investigations.

  13. Thermochromic Infrared Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyu; Padilla, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    An infrared artificial thermochromic material composed of a metamaterial emitter and a bimaterial micro-electro-mechanical system is investigated. A differential emissivity of over 30% is achieved between 623 K and room temperature. The passive metamaterial device demonstrates the ability to independently control the peak wavelength and temperature dependence of the emissivity, and achieves thermal emission following a super Stefan-Boltzmann power curve. PMID:26619382

  14. Commercial infrared: some prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, William L.

    1994-10-01

    The time is ripe. Technological advances promise to permit civilian applications that are both cost effective and easy to use. The cold war is over and much of the enormous capability of the aerospace companies and engineers is available for peaceful exploitation. This discussion covers some of the technologies, applications, and policies that may and can facilitate the expansion of infrared technologies into the civilian economy.

  15. Infrared Maximally Abelian Gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Tereza; Cucchieri, Attilio; Mihara, Antonio

    2007-02-27

    The confinement scenario in Maximally Abelian gauge (MAG) is based on the concepts of Abelian dominance and of dual superconductivity. Recently, several groups pointed out the possible existence in MAG of ghost and gluon condensates with mass dimension 2, which in turn should influence the infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators. We present preliminary results for the first lattice numerical study of the ghost propagator and of ghost condensation for pure SU(2) theory in the MAG.

  16. Infrared Thermography For Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Lucky, Brian D.; Spiegel, Lyle B.; Hudyma, Russell M.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared imaging and image-data-processing system shows temperatures of joint during welding and provides data from which rates of heating and cooling determined. Information used to control welding parameters to ensure reliable joints, in materials which microstructures and associated metallurgical and mechanical properties depend strongly on rates of heating and cooling. Applicable to variety of processes, including tungsten/inert-gas welding; plasma, laser, and resistance welding; cutting; and brazing.

  17. Thermochromic Infrared Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyu; Padilla, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    An infrared artificial thermochromic material composed of a metamaterial emitter and a bimaterial micro-electro-mechanical system is investigated. A differential emissivity of over 30% is achieved between 623 K and room temperature. The passive metamaterial device demonstrates the ability to independently control the peak wavelength and temperature dependence of the emissivity, and achieves thermal emission following a super Stefan-Boltzmann power curve.

  18. The CAMCAO infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Antonio; Melo, Antonio; Alves, Joao; Rebordao, Jose; Pinhao, Jose; Bonfait, Gregoire; Lima, Jorge; Barros, Rui; Fernandes, Rui; Catarino, Isabel; Carvalho, Marta; Marques, Rui; Poncet, Jean-Marc; Duarte Santos, Filipe; Finger, Gert; Hubin, Norbert; Huster, Gotthard; Koch, Franz; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Marchetti, Enrico

    2004-09-01

    The CAMCAO instrument is a high resolution near infrared (NIR) camera conceived to operate together with the new ESO Multi-conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD) with the goal of evaluating the feasibility of Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics techniques (MCAO) on the sky. It is a high-resolution wide field of view (FoV) camera that is optimized to use the extended correction of the atmospheric turbulence provided by MCAO. While the first purpose of this camera is the sky observation, in the MAD setup, to validate the MCAO technology, in a second phase, the CAMCAO camera is planned to attach directly to the VLT for scientific astrophysical studies. The camera is based on the 2kx2k HAWAII2 infrared detector controlled by an ESO external IRACE system and includes standard IR band filters mounted on a positional filter wheel. The CAMCAO design requires that the optical components and the IR detector should be kept at low temperatures in order to avoid emitting radiation and lower detector noise in the region analysis. The cryogenic system inclues a LN2 tank and a sptially developed pulse tube cryocooler. Field and pupil cold stops are implemented to reduce the infrared background and the stray-light. The CAMCAO optics provide diffraction limited performance down to J Band, but the detector sampling fulfills the Nyquist criterion for the K band (2.2mm).

  19. Infrared emission from comets.

    PubMed

    Krishna-Swamy, K S; Sandford, S A; Allamandola, L J; Witteborn, F C; Bregman, J D

    1989-05-01

    A brief discussion of the infrared observations from 4 to 20 micrometers of seven comets is presented. The observed infrared emission from comets depends primarily on their heliocentric distance. A model based on grain populations composed of a mixture of silicate and amorphous carbon particles in the mass ratio of about 40 to 1, with a power-law size distribution similar to that inferred for comet Halley, is applied to the observations. The model provides a good match to the observed heliocentric variation of both the 10 micrometers feature and the overall thermal emission from comets West and Halley. Matches to the observations of comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock and the antitail of comet Kohoutek require slightly larger grains. While the model does not match the exact profile and position of the 3.4 micrometers feature discovered in comet Halley, it does produce a qualitative fit to the observed variation of the feature's strength as a function of heliocentric distance. The calculations predict that the continuum under the 3.4 micrometers feature is due primarily to thermal emission from the comet dust when the comet is close to the Sun and to scattered solar radiation at large heliocentric distances, as is observed. A brief discussion of the determination of cometary grain temperatures from the observed infrared emission is presented. It is found that the observed shape of the emission curve from about 4 to 8 micrometers provides the best spectral region for estimating the cometary grain temperature distribution.

  20. Infrared target array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. A.

    1980-04-01

    The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (USAYPG) was requested to develop and acquire a series of infrared targets with controllable thermal signatures to support the test and evaluation of the Target Acquisition Designation System/Pilot Night Vision System (TADS/PNVS) subsystems of the Advanced Attack Helicopter (AAH) Fire Control System. Prior to this development effort, no capability beyond the use of real-scene targets existed at USAYPG to provide thermally active targets with characteristic signatures in the infrared band. Three targets were acquired: (1) a detection target; (2) a recognition target; and (3) a laser scoring board. It is concluded that design goals were met and the system was delivered in time to perform its function. The system provides sufficient thermal realism and has advanced the state-of-the-art of infrared imaging system test and evaluation. It is recommended that the Field Equivalent Bar Target (FEBT) system be validated as a potential test standard and that environmentally 'hardened' targets be acquired for continued thermal sight testing.

  1. Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation using COBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This project was initiated to allow completion of the primary investigation of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (CORE) mission, and to study the implications of those findings. The Principal Investigator (PI) on this grant was also the Principal Investigator on the DIRBE team. The project had two specific goals: Goal 1: Seek improved limits upon, or detections of, the cosmic infrared background radiation using data from the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). Goal 2: Explore the implications of the limits and measured values of the cosmic infrared background for energy releases in the Universe since the formation of the first luminous sources. Both of these goals have been successfully accomplished.

  2. COBE'S INFRARED VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These three pictures are maps of the full sky as seen in infrared light. The top two are composite images taken in wavelengths of 60, 100, and 240 micrometers. The 60-micrometer brightness is shown in blue, the 100- micrometer brightness in green, and the 240-micrometer brightness in red. The bottom image shows just the 240-micrometer brightness after foreground light from the solar system and Galaxy has been removed. The images were compiled from data taken between December 1989 and September 1990 by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on board NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). They illustrate the steps scientists used to find the cosmic infrared background, which is a radiative fossil containing cumulative starlight which now appears in the infrared due to the cosmic redshift and by absorption and re-emission by dust in the universe since the Big Bang. The top picture represents the brightness of the full sky as seen in infrared light. The bright yellow-orange line across the center of the image arises from interstellar dust in the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, with the center of the Galaxy at the center of the image. The red color above and below this line shows additional wispy clouds of interstellar dust. The blue S-shaped color arises from interplanetary dust in the solar system. The middle picture represents a view of the sky after the foreground glow of the solar system dust has been extracted. This image is dominated by emission from interstellar dust in the Milky Way Galaxy. The two bright objects in the center of the lower right quadrant are nearby galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. After the infrared light from our solar system and galaxy has been removed, what remains is a uniform cosmic infrared background. The line across the center is an artifact from removal of galactic light. The DIRBE team reports detection of this cosmic background light also at 140 micrometers, and has set limits to its brightness at eight

  3. Noise gain and operating temperature of quantum well infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. C.

    1992-11-01

    The difference between the noise gain associated with dark current and the photoconductive gain in quantum well infrared photodetectors is discussed in light of recent experiments. The theoretical model is based on a single key parameter: the electron trapping probability. An empirical expression for the trapping probability or, alternatively, the electron escape probability is proposed. Using the dark current, the gain, the trapping probability expressions, and the device operating temperature for achieving background limited infrared performance is discussed.

  4. Infrared astronomical data base and catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Gezari, D. Y.; Mead, J. M.

    A computer data base of infrared astronomical observations has been established at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It contains a summary of all infrared (1-100 microns) observations of celestial sources outside the solar system, published in the major scientific journals since 1960, as well as the contents of infrared surveys and catalogs. A Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) has been developed from the data base in printed and magnetic tape versions. A bibliographic Guide to the Infrared Astronomical Literature, and an Altas of Infrared Source Names and Positions will be published in conjunction with the catalog. Future plans include development of an interactive data system at Goddard which will give a user direct access to the computerized data.

  5. Infrared astronomical data base and catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, M.; Gezari, D. Y.; Mead, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    A computer data base of infrared astronomical observations has been established at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It contains a summary of all infrared (1-100 microns) observations of celestial sources outside the solar system, published in the major scientific journals since 1960, as well as the contents of infrared surveys and catalogs. A Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) has been developed from the data base in printed and magnetic tape versions. A bibliographic Guide to the Infrared Astronomical Literature, and an Altas of Infrared Source Names and Positions will be published in conjunction with the catalog. Future plans include development of an interactive data system at Goddard which will give a user direct access to the computerized data.

  6. Synthetic infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, M B; Butler, M A; Kravitz, S H; Zubrzycki, W J; Ricco, A J

    1997-07-01

    We have designed, microfabricated, and characterized a diffractive optical element that reproduces the infrared spectrum of HF from 3600 to 4300 cm(-1) . The reflection-mode diffractive optic consists of 4096 lines, each 4.5mum wide, at 16 discrete depths relative to the substrate from 0 to 1.2 mum and was fabricated upon a silicon wafer by anisotropic reactive ion-beam etching in a four-mask-level process. We envisage the use of diffractive optical elements of this type as the basis for a new class of miniaturized, remote chemical sensor systems based on correlation spectroscopy.

  7. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2014-11-25

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  8. Active Pyroelectric Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Mina, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noncontact pyroelectric infrared detector is described. A pyroelectric film that also has piezoelectric properties is held in place so that it is free to vibrate. It is electrically stimulated to vibrate at a resonance frequency. The vibrating film forms part of a balanced bridge circuit. As thermal radiation impinges on the film the pyroelectric effect causes the resonance frequency to change, thereby unbalancing the bridge circuit. A differential amplifier tracks the change in voltage across the bridge. The resulting voltage signal is further processed by a bandpass filter and a precision rectifier. The device allows for DC or static temperature measurements without the use of a mechanical chopping device.

  9. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-01-01

    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  10. Cooled infrared telescope development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. S.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the design concept for a 1-m-aperture, cryogenically cooled telescope for Spacelab is assessed. The device makes use of double-folded Gregorian reflective optics. The planned cryogen is helium, and beryllium will be used for the 1.2 m primary mirror. Results of studies based on smaller instruments indicate that no new technology will be required to construct a Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility which will offer improvement over the sensitivity of conventional telescopes by a factor of 1000 at 10 micrometers.

  11. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOEpatents

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  12. Infrared inhibition of embryonic hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yves T.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Infrared control is a new technique that uses pulsed infrared lasers to thermally alter electrical activity. Originally developed for nerves, we have applied this technology to embryonic hearts using a quail model, previously demonstrating infrared stimulation and, here, infrared inhibition. Infrared inhibition enables repeatable and reversible block, stopping cardiac contractions for several seconds. Normal beating resumes after the laser is turned off. The block can be spatially specific, affecting propagation on the ventricle or initiation on the atrium. Optical mapping showed that the block affects action potentials and not just calcium or contraction. Increased resting intracellular calcium was observed after a 30-s exposure to the inhibition laser, which likely resulted in reduced mechanical function. Further optimization of the laser illumination should reduce potential damage. Stopping cardiac contractions by disrupting electrical activity with infrared inhibition has the potential to be a powerful tool for studying the developing heart.

  13. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Moon offers some remarkable opportunities for performing infrared astronomy. Although the transportation overhead can be expected to be very large compared with that for facilities in Earth orbit, certain aspects of the lunar environment should allow significant simplifications in the design of telescopes with background limited performance, at least in some parts of the thermal infrared spectrum. Why leave the Earth to perform infrared astronomy is addressed as is the reasons for going all the way to the Moon for its environment.

  14. The universe at infrared wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses the status of infrared astronomy after the mission of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). Important scientific results from IRAS include: the origin of the interplanetary dust cloud, the formation of solar type stars, the energetics of the interstellar medium, the discovery of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and their possible relation to the origin of quasars, and the large scale structure of the universe.

  15. Ultrabroadband infrared nanospectroscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Hans A.; Muller, Eric A.; Olmon, Robert L.; Martin, Michael C.; Raschke, Markus B.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing and ultimately controlling the heterogeneity underlying biomolecular functions, quantum behavior of complex matter, photonic materials, or catalysis requires large-scale spectroscopic imaging with simultaneous specificity to structure, phase, and chemical composition at nanometer spatial resolution. However, as with any ultrahigh spatial resolution microscopy technique, the associated demand for an increase in both spatial and spectral bandwidth often leads to a decrease in desired sensitivity. We overcome this limitation in infrared vibrational scattering-scanning probe near-field optical microscopy using synchrotron midinfrared radiation. Tip-enhanced localized light–matter interaction is induced by low-noise, broadband, and spatially coherent synchrotron light of high spectral irradiance, and the near-field signal is sensitively detected using heterodyne interferometric amplification. We achieve sub-40-nm spatially resolved, molecular, and phonon vibrational spectroscopic imaging, with rapid spectral acquisition, spanning the full midinfrared (700–5,000 cm−1) with few cm−1 spectral resolution. We demonstrate the performance of synchrotron infrared nanospectroscopy on semiconductor, biomineral, and protein nanostructures, providing vibrational chemical imaging with subzeptomole sensitivity. PMID:24803431

  16. Barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

    2014-06-01

    In 1959, Lawson and co-workers publication triggered development of variable band gap Hg1-xCdxTe (HgCdTe) alloys providing an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Over the five decades, this material system has successfully fought off major challenges from different material systems, but despite that it has more competitors today than ever before. It is interesting however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. They may promise to be more manufacturable, but never to provide higher performance or, with the exception of thermal detectors, to operate at higher temperatures. In the last two decades a several new concepts of photodetectors to improve their performance have been proposed including trapping detectors, barrier detectors, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage detectors. This paper describes the present status of infrared barrier detectors. It is especially addressed to the group of III-V compounds including type-II superlattice materials, although HgCdTe barrier detectors are also included. It seems to be clear that certain of these solutions have merged as a real competitions of HgCdTe photodetectors.

  17. Advanced infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, T.; Deming, Drake; Mumma, M.

    1988-01-01

    This task supports the application of infrared heterodyne and Fourier transform spectroscopy to ultra-high resolution studies of molecular constituents of planetary astomspheres and cometary comae. High spectral and spatial resolutions are especially useful for detection and study of localized, non-thermal phenomena in low temperature and low density regions, for detection of trace constituents and for measurement of winds and dynamical phenomena such as thermal tides. Measurement and analysis of individual spectial lines permits retrieval of atmospheric molecular abundances and temperatures and thus, information on local photochemical processes. Determination of absolute line positions to better than 10 to the minus eighth power permits direct measurements of gas velocity to a few meters/sec. Observations are made from ground based heterodyne spectrometers at the Kitt Peak McMath solar telescope and from the NASA infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Wind velocities at 110km altitude on Venus were extracted approximately 1 m/sec from measurements of non-thermal emission cores of 10.3 micron CO2 lines. Results indicate a subsolar to antisolar circulationwith a small zonal retrograde component.

  18. Static Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Schardt, Michael; Murr, Patrik J; Rauscher, Markus S; Tremmel, Anton J; Wiesent, Benjamin R; Koch, Alexander W

    2016-04-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has established itself as the standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. Here we present a robust and compact novel static Fourier transform spectrometer design without any moving parts. The design is well suited for measurements in the infrared as it works with extended light sources independent of their size. The design is experimentally evaluated in the mid-infrared wavelength region between 7.2 μm and 16 μm. Due to its large etendue, its low internal light loss, and its static design it enables high speed spectral analysis in the mid-infrared.

  19. [Microscopic infrared spectral imaging of oily core].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiao-Song; Yu, Zhao-Xian; Li, Jing; Chen, Chen

    2009-02-01

    In the present paper, the authors examined some oily core by microscopic infrared spectral imaging methods. Those methods can be classified in three modes, referred to as "transmission mode", "reflection mode" and "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode". The observed oily core samples belong to siltstone. The samples were made of quartz (-20%), feldspar(-50%) and other rock (igneous rock 25%, metamorphic rocks 1%, sedimentary rock 4%); a little recrystallized calcite (-1%) was in the pore, and the argillaceous matter was distributed along the edge of a pore. The experimental work has been accomplished using SHIMADZU Model IRPrestige-21 Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer plus AIM8800 infrared microscope. For IRPrestige-21, the spectral range is 7 800-350 cm(-1) spectral resolution is 1 cm(-1), and AIM8800 microscope with motorized stages has a resolution of 1 micrometer. The experiment was preformed at room temperature. In "transmission mode" infrared spectral imaging method, the spectral range was limited in wavenumbers greater than 2 000 cm(-1) because the base glass piece has strong light absorption. In contrast with "transmission mode", in "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode", the depth of penetration into sample is very small (1-2 micrometer), then the absorbance value has nothing to do with base glass piece light absorption. In microscopic infrared transmission spectra, the experimental result shows that there are some strong absorption peaks at 2 866, 2 928, 3 618 and 2 515 cm(-1) respectively. The former two peaks correspond to methyl(methylene) symmetrical and unsymmetrical stretch vibration mode, respectively. The latter two peaks correspond to hydroxyl-stretch vibration mode and S-H, P-H chemical bond stretch vibration mode, respectively. In microscopic longwave infrared ATR spectra, there are other stronger absorption peaks at 1 400, 1 038 and 783 cm(i1)respectively, corresponding to methyl(methylene) widing vibration mode and optical mode

  20. [Microscopic infrared spectral imaging of oily core].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiao-Song; Yu, Zhao-Xian; Li, Jing; Chen, Chen

    2009-02-01

    In the present paper, the authors examined some oily core by microscopic infrared spectral imaging methods. Those methods can be classified in three modes, referred to as "transmission mode", "reflection mode" and "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode". The observed oily core samples belong to siltstone. The samples were made of quartz (-20%), feldspar(-50%) and other rock (igneous rock 25%, metamorphic rocks 1%, sedimentary rock 4%); a little recrystallized calcite (-1%) was in the pore, and the argillaceous matter was distributed along the edge of a pore. The experimental work has been accomplished using SHIMADZU Model IRPrestige-21 Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer plus AIM8800 infrared microscope. For IRPrestige-21, the spectral range is 7 800-350 cm(-1) spectral resolution is 1 cm(-1), and AIM8800 microscope with motorized stages has a resolution of 1 micrometer. The experiment was preformed at room temperature. In "transmission mode" infrared spectral imaging method, the spectral range was limited in wavenumbers greater than 2 000 cm(-1) because the base glass piece has strong light absorption. In contrast with "transmission mode", in "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode", the depth of penetration into sample is very small (1-2 micrometer), then the absorbance value has nothing to do with base glass piece light absorption. In microscopic infrared transmission spectra, the experimental result shows that there are some strong absorption peaks at 2 866, 2 928, 3 618 and 2 515 cm(-1) respectively. The former two peaks correspond to methyl(methylene) symmetrical and unsymmetrical stretch vibration mode, respectively. The latter two peaks correspond to hydroxyl-stretch vibration mode and S-H, P-H chemical bond stretch vibration mode, respectively. In microscopic longwave infrared ATR spectra, there are other stronger absorption peaks at 1 400, 1 038 and 783 cm(i1)respectively, corresponding to methyl(methylene) widing vibration mode and optical mode

  1. Infrared image enhancement using Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2016-05-01

    Image enhancement is a crucial technique for infrared images. The clear image details are important for improving the quality of infrared images in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new enhancement method based on two priors via Cellular Automata. First, we directly learn the gradient distribution prior from the images via Cellular Automata. Second, considering the importance of image details, we propose a new gradient distribution error to encode the structure information via Cellular Automata. Finally, an iterative method is applied to remap the original image based on two priors, further improving the quality of enhanced image. Our method is simple in implementation, easy to understand, extensible to accommodate other vision tasks, and produces more accurate results. Experiments show that the proposed method performs better than other methods using qualitative and quantitative measures.

  2. Development of practical thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyu; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Yuan, Liyin; Liu, Enguang; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen

    2014-11-01

    As an optical remote sensing equipment, the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager operates in the thermal infrared spectral band and acquires about 180 wavebands in range of 8.0~12.5μm. The field of view of this imager is 13° and the spatial resolution is better than 1mrad. Its noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is less than 0.2K@300K(average). 1 The influence of background radiation of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager,and a simulation model of simplified background radiation is builded. 2 The design and implementationof the Cryogenic Optics. 3 Thermal infrared focal plane array (FPA) and special dewar component for the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager. 4 Parts of test results of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager.The hyperspectral imaging system is China's first success in developing this type of instrument, whose flight validation experiments have already been embarked on. The thermal infrared hyperspectral data acquired will play an important role in fields such as geological exploration and air pollutant identification.

  3. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  4. A detection method for infrared multi-target in aerospace backgound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ningming; Zhang, Yazhou

    2015-11-01

    Main task of the infrared search and track system is analyzing and identifying targets of airspace. But first this is needed to detect all targets in infrared image. Therefore, the multi-target detection algorithms are studied and we propose an effective multi-target detection method. Firstly, an improved morphological operator is designed based on airspace background and target traits of infrared image. Background is weakened but targets are enhanced when infrared image is processed by the gray morphological filter. Then, potential targets are found by the maximum local sum algorithm. Finally, true targets are affirmed based on data association of sequence images. The infrared images got from long-wavelength infrared camera are processed with the method of the paper. Experiment results show that the method can detect targets in infrared image quickly and accurately.

  5. Research of infrared image optimization algorithm in optical read-out IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianxiong; Cheng, Teng; Zhang, Qingchuan; Gao, Jie; Wu, Xiaoping

    2014-09-01

    Different from traditional electrical readout infrared imaging, optical readout infrared imaging system readout the thermo-mechanical response of focal plane array via visible light. Due to the different parameters of the optical system, usually,the infrared thermal image pixel corresponding to the thermal element of focal plane array is not consistent. And the substrate-free focal plane array brings thermal crosstalk, the image blur. This manuscript analyzes the optical readout infrared imaging principle, proposes an one to one correspondence method between the infrared thermal image pixel and the thermal element of focal plane array, optimizes the digital infrared image by the thermal crosstalk on substrate-free focal plane array. Simulation and experiments show that the algorithm can effectively enhance the contours of the infrared image detail, enhancing image quality.

  6. HUBBLE'S INFRARED GALAXY GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have used the NASA Hubble Space Telescope to produce an infrared 'photo essay' of spiral galaxies. By penetrating the dust clouds swirling around the centers of these galaxies, the telescope's infrared vision is offering fresh views of star birth. These six images, taken with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, showcase different views of spiral galaxies, from a face-on image of an entire galaxy to a close-up of a core. The top row shows spirals at diverse angles, from face-on, (left); to slightly tilted, (center); to edge-on, (right). The bottom row shows close-ups of the hubs of three galaxies. In these images, red corresponds to glowing hydrogen, the raw material for star birth. The red knots outlining the curving spiral arms in NGC 5653 and NGC 3593, for example, pinpoint rich star-forming regions where the surrounding hydrogen gas is heated by intense ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars. In visible light, many of these regions can be hidden from view by the clouds of gas and dust in which they were born. The glowing hydrogen found inside the cores of these galaxies, as in NGC 6946, may be due to star birth; radiation from active galactic nuclei (AGN), which are powered by massive black holes; or a combination of both. White is light from middle-age stars. Clusters of stars appear as white dots, as in NGC 2903. The galaxy cores are mostly white because of their dense concentration of stars. The dark material seen in these images is dust. These galaxies are part of a Hubble census of about 100 spiral galaxies. Astronomers at Space Telescope Science Institute took these images to fill gaps in the scheduling of a campaign using the NICMOS-3 camera. The data were non-proprietary, and were made available to the entire astronomical community. Filters: Three filters were used: red, blue, and green. Red represents emission at the Paschen Alpha line (light from glowing hydrogen) at a wavelength of 1.87 microns. Blue shows the

  7. Modulated infrared radiant source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; McCormick, R. F.

    1981-06-01

    A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

  8. Infrared Laser Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, R. M.

    1988-10-01

    Over the last 20 years there has been considerable research and development of infrared laser sources. This interest stems from the presence of two low attenuation windows in the atmosphere between 3-5μ,m and 8-14μ.m, on the basis of which, a wide range of military, industrial and medical applications have been proposed. In particular the CO2 laser with its lasing transitions between 9-11μm, has and continues to be, the focus of much attention. Although the CO2 laser was first demonstrated in 1964 by Patel', it is only in more recent years, with the application of improvements in the understanding of laser physics in conjunction with advances in relevant technologies, that high power devices which are also compact, efficient, reliable and long lived, have made practical applications feasible.

  9. Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will combine high sensitivity with the flexibility offered by the Space Transportation System. A recently completed study has generated a preliminary design which demonstrates the feasibility of SIRTF. The 1.0 to 1.5 meter aperture, f/8 Gregorian telescope will be cooled to 20 K by a stored supercritical helium system. The telescope will be pointed and stabilized at two levels: the European-developed Instrument Pointing System provides primary pointing and stabilization; and an internal star tracker senses residual errors and drives a folding mirror inside the telescope to null the errors. The folding mirror can also be driven by square or triangular waves to provide space chopping or small-area scanning.

  10. Modulated infrared radiant source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; Mccormick, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

  11. Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; McClelland, J.F. )

    1990-10-15

    Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy is a new method that can acquire analytically useful transmission spectra from moving, optically thick solids. No sample preparation is required. The spectra are of sufficient quality for accurate quantitative compositional analysis. The method works by the creation of a thin, short-lived, chilled layer at the sample surface. Blackbody-like thermal emission from the bulk of the sample is selectively absorbed as it passes through the chilled layer, so the transmission spectrum of the layer is superimposed on the observed thermal emission. Spectra of polycarbonate, beeswax, and copolymers of methyl and butyl methacrylate are presented. Compositional analysis of the methacrylate copolymers with a standard error or prediction of only 0.87 mol % is demonstrated.

  12. Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; McClelland, J F

    1990-10-15

    Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy is a new method that can acquire analytically useful transmission spectra from moving, optically thick solids. No sample preparation is required. The spectra are of sufficient quality for accurate quantitative compositional analysis. The method works by the creation of a thin, short-lived, chilled layer at the sample surface. Blackbody-like thermal emission from the bulk of the sample is selectively absorbed as it passes through the chilled layer, so the transmission spectrum of the layer is superimposed on the observed thermal emission. Spectra of polycarbonate, beeswax, and copolymers of methyl and butyl methacrylate are presented. Compositional analysis of the methacrylate copolymers with a standard error of prediction of only 0.87 mol % is demonstrated.

  13. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  14. Infrared laser system

    DOEpatents

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph

    1982-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  15. Infrared laser system

    DOEpatents

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph S.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  16. New technique for enhancement of high dynamic range infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Xin-sai; Xu, Hualiang; He, Ming; Li, Mingming

    2012-10-01

    A Bilateral Filter (BF) and Multi-scale Retinex (MSR) based infrared image enhancement algorithm is proposed in this paper. It's known that the MSR algorithm derived from vision theory can achieve dynamic range compression and tonal rendition effectively but suffers from `halo' phenomena caused by the existence of "sharp" edges in infrared images. Research shows that bilateral filter has the property of separating image details from strong edges. Therefore, we process detail components containing strong edges in MSR algorithm with bilateral filter to achieve dynamic range compression, detail enhancement and avoid `halo' artifacts at the same time. The performance of proposed algorithm is then validated by experiments with three real infrared images and compared with other two infrared images enhancement algorithms.

  17. Based on spatial-temporal multiframe association infrared target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Wang, Chao; Huang, Faliang; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Infrared small target detection is difficult due to several aspects, including the low signal-to-clutter ratio of the infrared image, and the small size, lack of shape and texture information of the target. a novel method, which is based on spatial-temporal association, is presented for infrared target detection. The algorithm consists of the three steps: Firstly, 2-dimensional histogram of entropy flow field is computed to estimate the background motion. Secondly, the difference image through background motion compensation is obtained. Finally, the targets are detected by spatial-temporal filter. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust to noise, and also fit to detect small targets under moving backgrounds in infrared image sequences.

  18. Optical and Infrared Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; McAlister, Harold A.

    Stellar interferometers achieve limiting angular resolution inaccessible to evennext-generation single-aperture telescopes. Arrays of small or modest apertureshave achieved baselines exceeding 300 m producing submilliarcsecond resolutionsat visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The technical cost and challenge inbuilding interferometric arrays is substantial due to the very high toleranceimposed by optical physics on the precision of beam combination and optical pathlength matching for two or more telescopes. This chapter presents the basic theoryand overall design considerations for an interferometer with an emphasis on thepractical aspects of constructing a working instrument that overcomes obstaclesimposed by the atmosphere, submicron path length matching requirements,limitations on number of telescopes and their layout, light losses throughmultiple reflections and transmissions necessary to superimpose telescopebeams in the beam-combining laboratory, and other realities of the art ofinterferometry. The basic design considerations for an interferometer arelaid out starting with site selection and telescope placement and thenfollowed through to beam combination and measurement of interferometricvisibility and closure phase after the encountering of numerous subsystems byincoming wavefronts. These subsystems include active wavefront sensing fortip/tilt correction or even full-up adaptive optics, telescope design fordirecting collimated beams over large distances, diffraction losses, polarizationmatching, optical path length insertion and active compensation, correctionfor atmospheric refraction and differential dispersion in glass and air,separation of light into visible and near-infrared channels, alignment over longoptical paths, high-precision definition of the three-dimensional layout of aninterferometric array, and, finally, a variety of beam-combining schemes fromsimple two-way combiners to multitelescope imaging combiners in thepupil and image planes. Much

  19. Infrared surface polaritons on antimony.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Justin W; Medhi, Gautam; Shahzad, Monas; Rezadad, Imen; Maukonen, Doug; Peale, Robert E; Boreman, Glenn D; Wentzell, Sandy; Buchwald, Walter R

    2012-01-30

    The semimetal antimony, with a plasma frequency ~80 times less than that of gold, is potentially useful as a host for infrared surface polaritons (SPs). Relevant IR SP properties, including the frequency-dependent propagation length and penetration depths for fields into the media on either side of the interface, were determined from optical constants measured on optically-thick thermally-evaporated Sb films over the wavelength range 1 to 40 μm. Plasma and carrier relaxation frequencies were determined from Drude-model fits to these data. The real part of the permittivity is negative for wavelengths beyond 11 μm. Distinct resonant decreases in specular reflected intensity were observed for Sb lamellar gratings in the wavelength range of 6 to 11 μm, where the real part of the permittivity is positive. Both resonance angles and the angular reflectance spectral line shapes are in agreement with theory for excitation of bound surface electromagnetic waves (SPs). Finite element method (FEM) electrodynamic simulations indicate the existence of SP modes under conditions matching the experiments. FEM results also show that such waves depend on having a significant imaginary part of the permittivity, as has been noted earlier for the case of surface exciton polaritons.

  20. Infrared imaging of varicose veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Zeeuw, Raymond; Verdaasdonk, Ruud M.; Wittens, Cees H. A.

    2004-06-01

    It has been established that varicose veins are better visualized with infrared photography. As near-infrared films are nowadays hard to get and to develop in the digital world, we investigated the use of digital photography of varicose veins. Topics that are discussed are illumination setup, photography and digital image enhancement and analysis.

  1. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy in astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A.

    1980-01-01

    A heterodyne spectrometer was constructed and applied to problems in infrared astronomical spectroscopy. The instrument offers distinct observational advantages for the detection and analysis of individual spectral lines at Doppler-limited resolution. Observations of carbon dioxide in planetary atmospheres and ammonia in circumstellar environments demonstrate the substantial role that infrared heterodyne techniques will play in the astronomical spectroscopy of the future.

  2. The research on the effect of atmospheric transmittance for the measuring accuracy of infrared thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-cun; Chen, Yi-ming; Fu, Xian-bin; Luo, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    The effect of atmospheric transmittance on infrared thermal imager temperature measuring accuracy cannot be ignored when the object is far from infrared thermal imager. In this paper, a method of reducing the influence of atmospheric transmittance is proposed for the infrared thermal imager. Firstly, the temperature measuring formula of infrared thermal imager and the effect of atmospheric transmittance on temperature measuring accuracy is analyzed. According to the composition of the atmosphere, the main factors influencing the atmosphere transmittance are determined. Secondly, the temperature measuring model of infrared thermal imager in sea level is established according to the absorption of water vapor and carbon dioxide, the scattering of air molecules and aerosol particulate, and the attenuation effects of weather conditions such as rain and snow. Finally, the correctness and feasibility of the proposed model is verified by the comparison experiments of four different environmental conditions. According to the experiments, the temperature measuring accuracy of the infrared thermal imager is improved.

  3. Shortwave infrared detection of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Samuel N.

    Shortwave infrared sensors were included on Thematic Mapper to observe vegetation reflected radiance patterns that are related to leaf water content. However, there was some uncertainty whether these measurements would increase the information content of multispectral measurements beyond that provided by visible and near infrared measurements. Analysis of field measurements for corn and soybeans observed throughout the growing season shows that shortwave infrared measurements enhance discrimination between these species, particularly in mid-season. Modeling the canopy reflectances shows that differential leaf absorptance can produce the observed pattern. Analysis of coincident aerial photography suggests that within canopy shadowing is also important. Too few studies of leaf optical properties have been conducted to permit generalization of the results to other vegetation species but the results do show that shortwave infrared measurements contribute new information about vegetation not previously available in visible and near infrared measurements.

  4. An Infrared Multiwavelength Lidar for Compositional Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Sun, X.; Li, S. X.; Numata, K.; Neumann, G. A.; Abshire, J. B.; Smith, D. E.

    2016-10-01

    A laser altimeter that measures surface reflectance in up to seven bands in the infrared is being developed. Narrow band infrared lasers and infrared avalanche photodiode arrays have been demonstrated. The instrument can detect ppm levels of water.

  5. Infrared divergences in de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect

    Polarski, D. Service d'Astrophysique, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France)

    1991-03-15

    Infrared divergences in de Sitter space are considered. It is shown that symmetry breaking is unavoidable only when the infrared divergence is strong enough. The static vacuum has no symmetry breaking despite the presence of an infrared divergence.

  6. GIRL - The German infrared laboratory for spacelab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, D.; Grewing, M.; Offermann, D.; Drapatz, S.; Klipping, G.

    GIRL's principal components are a large cryostat, which contains a 300-liter tank for liquid helium, and a long cooled baffle system. The cryostat contains a 50-cm telescope and 4 scientific experiments. These focal plane experiments make GIRL a universal astronomical observatory, equipped with all the instruments necessary to analyze radiation from celestial objects. To fully exploit the high sensitivity of modern infrared detectors attainable under low background conditions (less than 10 to the 8th photons per sq cm per sec), the telescope, the lower part of the baffle system, and all the experiments are cooled to less than 10 K. The IR camera will be used for surveying and mapping extended regions. The photopolarimeter will be used for measuring low resolution spectra of the faintest objects, in particular galaxies. The Ebert-Fastie spectrometer is designed primarily for aeronomical measurements by limb scanning.

  7. Broadband infrared beam splitter for spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianyan; Liu, Dingquan; Qin, Yang

    2014-10-01

    A broadband infrared beam splitter (BS) on ZnSe substrate used for the spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder (SIIRS) is studied in the spectral range of 4.44-15 μm. Both broadband antireflection coating and broadband beam-splitter coating in this BS are designed and tested. To optimize the optical properties and the stability of the BS, suitable infrared materials were selected, and improved deposition techniques were applied. The designed structures matched experimental data well, and the properties of the BS met the application specification of SIIRS. PMID:25322240

  8. [Identification of different lac with infrared spectrum].

    PubMed

    Dong, Qin; Qiu, Jian; He, Run-xi; Zhang, Jian-yun

    2004-05-01

    Fourier infrared spectrum was used to differentiate raw lac, bleached las and lac mixed with resin. The results indicate that the infrared spectra of raw lac and lac mixed with resin are similar, so the authors can differentiate them by the following items: (1) the position and the shape of absorbing peak between 3500 and 2500 cm(-1), (2) the difference of the vibration peak at 1700 cm(-1) for C=O, (3) characteristic peak between 1200 and 1400 cm(-1), (4) the number of peaks and the change in the position of peak. But with bleached and graft copolymerization lacs the properties have been changed by chemical processing. Graft copolymerization of lac is made from methyl-acrylic acid-methyl fat by using potassium permanganate as stimulant. Their main differences are: the change of vibration peak of 1700 cm(-1) for C=O, a sharp small peak at 1558 cm(-1), a peak with middle strength at 681 cm(-1), and spliting to two small peaks at 1151 cm(-1). The experiment shows that the method of infrared spectrum is more scientific and effective than traditional method. PMID:15769053

  9. Gerard Kuiper and the Infrared Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek

    2013-10-01

    The life and contributions of Gerard Kuiper have been documented by Dale Cruikshank in his National Academy of Sciences biography. I will argue that particularly important in this eventful life was Kuiper's war time experiences. Kuiper's wartime role evolved as the war unfolded, but towards the end he was charged by the US military with reporting German progress with war-related technologies and the activities of scientists under Nazi control. He interviewed a great many scientists, including his own PhD mentor (Ejnar Hertzsprung), and when Kuiper was the only person available, he interviewed concentration-camp victims. He carried briefing sheets that identified the technologies being sought by the allies and the major fraction of these involved infrared equipment. He sent back to the USA boxes of documents, and large amounts of equipment, and he stressed to the military his interest in these for his own research. It seems very likely that in this way an effective PbS infrared detector, so critical to Kuiper's career and the future of planetary science, came to the USA and to Robert Cashman's laboratory at Northwestern University. As the war was winding down, Cashman and Kuiper worked together to develop a practical infrared spectrometer for astronomical use. Within months, Kuiper discovered the C02 atmospheres on Mars and Venus.

  10. Atmospheric modulation transfer function in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskila, Kobi; Towito, Shay; Shmuel, Elad; Levi, Ran; Kopeika, Natan; Krapels, Keith; Driggers, Ronald G.; Vollmerhausen, Richard H.; Halford, Carl E.

    2004-01-01

    In high-resolution ultranarrow field-of-view thermal imagers, image quality over relatively long path lengths is typically limited by atmospheric degradation, especially atmospheric blur. We report our results and analyses of infrared images from two sites, Fort A. P. Hill and Aberdeen Proving Ground. The images are influenced by the various atmospheric phenomena: scattering, absorption, and turbulence. A series of experiments with high-resolution equipment in both the 3-5- and 8-13-μm regions at the two locations indicate that, as in the visible, image quality is limited much more by atmosphere than by the instrumentation for ranges even of the order of only a few kilometers. For paths close to the ground, turbulence is more dominant, whereas for paths involving higher average elevation, aerosol modulation transfer function (MTF) is dominant. As wavelength increases, turbulence MTF also increases, thus permitting aerosol MTF to become more dominant. A critical role in aerosol MTF in the thermal infrared is attributed to absorption, which noticeably decreases atmospheric transmission much more than in the visible, thereby reducing high-spatial-frequency aerosol MTF. These measurements indicate that atmospheric MTF should be a basic component in imaging system design and analysis even in the infrared, especially as higher-resolution hardware becomes available.

  11. Atmospheric modulation transfer function in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Buskila, Kobi; Towito, Shay; Shmuel, Elad; Levi, Ran; Kopeika, Natan; Krapels, Keith; Driggers, Ronald G; Vollmerhausen, Richard H; Halford, Carl E

    2004-01-10

    In high-resolution ultranarrow field-of-view thermal imagers, image quality over relatively long path lengths is typically limited by atmospheric degradation, especially atmospheric blur. We report our results and analyses of infrared images from two sites, Fort A. P. Hill and Aberdeen Proving Ground. The images are influenced by the various atmospheric phenomena: scattering, absorption, and turbulence. A series of experiments with high-resolution equipment in both the 3-5- and 8-13-microm regions at the two locations indicate that, as in the visible, image quality is limited much more by atmosphere than by the instrumentation for ranges even of the order of only a few kilometers. For paths close to the ground, turbulence is more dominant, whereas for paths involving higher average elevation, aerosol modulation transfer function (MTF) is dominant. As wavelength increases, turbulence MTF also increases, thus permitting aerosol MTF to become more dominant. A critical role in aerosol MTF in the thermal infrared is attributed to absorption, which noticeably decreases atmospheric transmission much more than in the visible, thereby reducing high-spatial-frequency aerosol MTF. These measurements indicate that atmospheric MTF should be a basic component in imaging system design and analysis even in the infrared, especially as higher-resolution hardware becomes available.

  12. ``Seeing" Infrared in Undergraduate Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    2001-05-01

    A recent survey which examined the topics taught in a representative sample of university introductory astronomy courses conducted by the AAS Education Office (Slater et. al., Physics Teacher, 39, 52, 2001) concluded that "...the electromagnetic spectrum was by far the most frequently cited topic." Given the growing importance of astronomical observations outside of the visible part of the spectrum, it is unfortunate that very little in the way of direct experience with longer and shorter wavelength radiation is provided to students. As part of our ongoing curriculum and materials development "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments", we have designed novel lecture demonstrations and hands-on experiments which allow students to explore near-infrared radiation for themselves. These activities require only readily available inexpensive commercial photographic filters, webcams and IR sources such as infrared remote controls. In this presentation, we will show how these materials can be utilized within the framework of introductory astronomy lectures and laboratories to increase student understanding of non-visible astronomical observations and of the meaning of false color presentations of astronomical images. This work was supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551.

  13. An improved infrared technique for sorting pecans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeve, Thorsten; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Lamonica, John A., Jr.

    1991-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of pecan spectral reflectances. It describes an experiment for measuring the contrast between several components of raw pecan product to be sorted. An analysis of the experimental data reveals high contrast ratios in the infrared spectrum, suggesting a potential improvement in sorting efficiency when separating pecan meat from shells. It is believed that this technique has the potential to dramatically improve the efficiency of current sorting machinery, and to reduce the cost of processing pecans for the consumer market.

  14. Infrared Scanning For Electrical Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbath, Steven E.

    1983-03-01

    Given the technological age that we have now entered, the purpose of this paper is to relate how infrared scanning can be used for an electrical preventative maintenance program. An infrared scanner is able to produce an image because objects give off infrared radiation in relationship to their temperature. Most electrical problems will show up as an increase in temperature, thereby making the infrared scanner a useful preventative maintenance tool. Because of the sensitivity of most of the scanners, .1 to .2 of a degree, virtually all electrical problems can be pinpointed long before they become a costly failure. One of the early uses of infrared scanning was to check the power company's electrical distribution system. Most of this was performed via aircraft or truck mounted scanning devices which necessitated its semi-permanent mounting. With the advent of small hand held infrared imagers, along with more portability of the larger systems, infrared scanning has gained more popularity in checking electrical distribution systems. But the distribution systems are now a scaled down model, mainly the in-plant electrical systems. By in-plant, I mean any distribution of electricity; once it leaves the power company's grid. This can be in a hospital, retail outlet, warehouse or manufacturing facility.

  15. Experimental Determination of Infrared Extinction Coefficients of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This technique is based on irradiating a single isolated charged dust particle suspended in balance by an electric field, and measuring the scattered radiation as a function of angle. The observed scattered intensity profile at a specific wavelength obtained for a dust particle of known composition is compared with Mie theory calculations, and the variable parameters relating to the particle size and complex refractive index are adjusted for a best fit between the two profiles. This leads to a simultaneous determination of the particle radius, the complex refractive index, and the scattering and extinction coefficients. The results of these experiments can be utilized to examine the IRAS and DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) infrared data sets in order to determine the dust particle physical characteristics and distributions by using infrared models and inversion techniques. This technique may also be employed for investigation of the rotational bursting phenomena whereby large size cosmic and interplanetary particles are believed to fragment into smaller dust particles.

  16. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  17. Saturn's Infrared Temperature Snapshot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    Scientists have discovered a wave pattern, or oscillation, in Saturn's atmosphere only visible from Earth every 15 years. The pattern ripples back and forth like a wave within Saturn's upper atmosphere. In this region, temperatures switch from one altitude to the next in a candy cane-like, striped, hot-cold pattern.

    The temperature 'snapshot' shown in these two images captures two different phases of this wave oscillation: the temperature at Saturn's equator switches from hot to cold, and temperatures on either side of the equator switch from cold to hot every Saturn half-year.

    The image on the left was taken in 1997 and shows the temperature at the equator is colder than the temperature at 13 degrees south latitude. Conversely, the image on the right taken in 2006 shows the temperature at the equator is warmer.

    These images were taken with NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  18. New frontiers for infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C.

    2015-03-01

    Infrared (IR) science and technology has been mainly dedicated to surveillance and security: since the 70's specialized techniques have been emerging in thermal imaging for medical and cultural heritage diagnostics, building and aeronautics structures control, energy savings and remote sensing. Most of these applications were developed thanks to IR FPAs sensors with high numbers of pixels and, actually, working at room temperatures. Besides these technological achievements in sensors/ receivers, advanced developments of IR laser sources up to far IR bands have been achieved in the form QCL (quantum cascade laser), allowing wide band TLC and high sensitivity systems for security. recently new sensors and sources with improved performances are emerging in the very far IR region up to submillimeter wavelengths, the so called terahertz (THz) region. A survey of the historical growth and a forecast of the future developments in Devices and Systems for the new frontier of IR will be discussed, in particular for the key questions: "From where and when is IR coming?", "Where is it now?" and "Where will it go and when?". These questions will be treated for key systems (Military/Civil), key devices (Sensors/ Sources), and new strategic technologies (Nanotech/TeraHertz).

  19. Neonatal infrared axillary thermometry.

    PubMed

    Seguin, J; Terry, K

    1999-01-01

    The authors compared axillary skin temperatures (AT) measured with an infrared (IR) thermometer (Lightouch Neonate, Exergen Corp) with rectal temperatures (RT) in 16 newly born term infants under radiant warmers (RW) and in cribs. Twelve stable, growing premature infants in incubators were also studied. This new device may be useful because of safety and rapid results (1 second), but clinical accuracy is unknown. For term infants, mean (SD) RT-AT difference was 0.1 (0.48) degree C under RW and 0.25 (0.17) degree C 2 hours later in cribs. For premature infants in incubators the mean RT-AT difference was 0.09 (0.16) degree C. Axillary temperatures measured by IR thermometer approximate RT for newly born term infants in cribs and stable premature infants in incubators. For newly born term infants under RW, RT-AT differences vary more widely, limiting clinical usefulness in this setting. The device, the unique age of this population, and the RW environment may play a role. PMID:9924640

  20. The Far Infrared Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, John; Carli, Bruno; Rizzi, Rolando; Serio, Carmine; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Palchetti, Luca; Maestri, T.; Brindley, H.; Masiello, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the far infrared (FIR) properties of the Earth's atmosphere, and the role of these properties in climate. These properties have been relatively poorly understood, and it is one of the purposes of this review to demonstrate that, in recent years, we have made great strides in improving this understanding. Seen from space, the Earth is a cool object, with an effective emitting temperature of about 255 K. This contrasts with a global mean surface temperature of 288 K, and is due primarily to strong absorption of outgoing longwave energy by water vapour, carbon dioxide and clouds (especially ice). A large fraction of this absorption occurs in the FIR, and so the Earth is effectively a FIR planet. The FIR is important in a number of key climate processes, for example the water vapour and cloud feedbacks (especially ice clouds). The FIR is also a spectral region which can be used to remotely sense and retrieve atmospheric composition in the presence of ice clouds. Recent developments in instrumentation have allowed progress in each of these areas, which are described, and proposals for a spaceborne FIR instrument are being formulated. It is timely to review the FIR properties of the clear and cloudy atmosphere, the role of FIR processes in climate, and its use in observing our planet from space.

  1. Atmospheric infrared sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenkranz, Philip, W.; Staelin, David, H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of two Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) team members during the first half of 1995. Changes to the microwave first-guess algorithm have separated processing of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A) from AMSU-B data so that the different spatial resolutions of the two instruments may eventually be considered. Two-layer cloud simulation data was processed with this algorithm. The retrieved water vapor column densities and liquid water are compared. The information content of AIRS data was applied to AMSU temperature profile retrievals in clear and cloudy atmospheres. The significance of this study for AIRS/AMSU processing lies in the improvement attributable to spatial averaging and in the good results obtained with a very simple algorithm when all of the channels are used. Uncertainty about the availability of either a Microwave Humidity Sensor (MHS) or AMSU-B for EOS has motivated consideration of possible low-cost alternative designs for a microwave humidity sensor. One possible configuration would have two local oscillators (compared to three for MHS) at 118.75 and 183.31 GHz. Retrieval performances of the two instruments were compared in a memorandum titled 'Comparative Analysis of Alternative MHS Configurations', which is attached.

  2. Infrared Risley beam pointer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harford, Steven T.; Gutierrez, Homero; Newman, Michael; Pierce, Robert; Quakenbush, Tim; Wallace, John; Bornstein, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC) has developed a Risley Beam Pointer (RBP) mechanism capable of agile slewing, accurate pointing and high bandwidth. The RBP is comprised of two wedged prisms that offer a wide Field of Regard (FOR) and may be manufactured and operated with diffraction limited optical quality. The tightly packaged mechanism is capable of steering a 4 inch beam over a 60° half angle cone with better than 60 μrad precision. Absolute accuracy of the beam steering is better than 1 mrad. The conformal nature of the RBP makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) thermal compliance to maintain bearing preload and optical figure over a wide temperature range; and ii) packaging of a remote infrared sensor that periodically reports the temperature of both prisms for accurate determination of the index of refraction. The pointing control system operates each prism independently and employs an inner rate loop nested within an outer position loop. Mathematics for the transformation between line-of-sight coordinates and prism rotation are hosted on a 200 MHz microcontroller with just 516 KB of RAM.

  3. Infrared imaging of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesco, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging of comets provides fundamental information about the distribution of dust in their comae and tails. The imaging program at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a unique 20-pixel bolometer array that was developed to image comets at 8 to 30 micrometer. These images provide the basis for: (1) characterizing the composition and size distribution of particles, (2) determining the mass-loss rates from cometary nuclei, and (3) describing the dynamics of the interaction between the dust and the solar radiation. Since the array became operational in 1985, researchers have produced a unique series of IR images of comets Giacobini-Zinner (GZ), Halley, and Wilson. That of GZ was the first groundbased thermal image ever made of a comet and was used to construct, with visible observations, an albedo map. Those data and dynamical analyses showed that GZ contained a population of large (approximately 300 micrometer), fluffy dust grains that formed a distinict inner tail. The accumulating body of images of various comets has also provided a basis for fruitfully intercomparing comet properties. Researchers also took advantage of the unique capabilities of the camera to resolve the inner, possible protoplanetary, disk of the star Beta Pictoris, while not a comet research program, that study is a fruitful additional application of the array to solar system astronomy.

  4. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  5. Measurements of Saharan Dust Extinction Spectra in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M.; Gautier, C.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Peterson, P.; Salustro, C.

    2006-12-01

    The infrared extinction spectra of Saharan dust obtained by the Portable Infrared Aerosol Transmission Experiment (PIRATE) are reported in this paper. Saharan dust extinction (optical thickness) spectra from 8 to 13 mm were obtained using solar occultation measurements at Mbour, Senegal in January and March 2006 using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The FTIR measured the solar flux in the infrared in the presence of Saharan dust, and the optical thickness was determined by comparing the measured spectra to the modeled spectra without dust for the same solar zenith angle, water vapor concentration and ozone concentration. The modeled spectra were generated using the Santa Barbara Disort Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) program. . The infrared optical thickness spectra is compared with modeled optical thickness spectra obtained using Mie theory and dust index of refraction from various sources with assumed log-normal size distributions. Results from these measurements may provide information for improving the remote detection of Saharan dust from space in the infrared using MODIS or AIRS.

  6. The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George; Kessler, Martin F.

    1995-01-01

    ISO, scheduled to launch in 1995, will carry into orbit the most sophisticated infrared observatory of the decade. Overviews of the mission, instrument payload and scientific program are given, along with a comparison of the strengths of ISO and SOFIA.

  7. Focal plane infrared readout circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An infrared imager, such as a spectrometer, includes multiple infrared photodetectors and readout circuits for reading out signals from the photodetectors. Each readout circuit includes a buffered direct injection input circuit including a differential amplifier with active feedback provided through an injection transistor. The differential amplifier includes a pair of input transistors, a pair of cascode transistors and a current mirror load. Photocurrent from a photodetector can be injected onto an integration capacitor in the readout circuit with high injection efficiency at high speed. A high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for reading out infrared detectors with large capacitances can be achieved even when short exposure times are used. The effect of image lag can be reduced.

  8. Cloud structure from infrared imagery.

    PubMed

    Blau, H H

    1968-10-01

    Infrared images of clouds recorded in reflected sunlight at wavelengths at which water and ice absorb will show greater structural detail than visible images, and, in principle, can provide information on cloud phase and particle size distributions.

  9. Complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An infrared detector having a hole barrier region adjacent to one side of an absorber region, an electron barrier region adjacent to the other side of the absorber region, and a semiconductor adjacent to the electron barrier.

  10. Infrared cubic dielectric resonator metamaterial.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Peters, David William; Ginn, James Cleveland, III; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2010-06-01

    Dielectric resonators are an effective means to realize isotropic, low-loss optical metamaterials. As proof of this concept, a cubic resonator is analytically designed and then tested in the long-wave infrared.

  11. Detecting and tracking small moving target in infrared image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hong-lei; Huang, Geng-hua; Wang, Hai-wei; Shu, Rong

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, infrared imaging systems play important roles in the field of civil and military. Especially small infrared target detecting and recognizing is one of the most widely use. The capability of target-detection algorithm is an important index of the system. This paper presents a novel algorithm for detecting a small moving target in infrared (IR) image sequences and finding its mass center, and recording the target moving track. In the target searching and recognizing algorithm of infrared image sequences, infrared image sequence is broken into frames, filtered by spatial filter algorithm, which helped to reduce granular noise. We use the Canny algorithm factor to find the edge of the target, and the result of detecting target edge is process by ecological open-loop filter method, including erosion and dilation algorithm with a same scale. Then, the candidate targets are recognized and saved temporarily. In order to get the mass centers of the candidate targets, the valid area of the candidate targets is defined by different weight valves, and then the mass centers are calculated by weighted average algorithm, and record per frame. After got several frames mass centers of the candidate targets, we get rid of the non-target mass centers by frame difference algorithm, and get the real mass center of the small moving infrared target. If the background is observed for enough time, the effect of frame difference algorithm is more efficiency. Finally, the moving track of the target is found out. The infrared (IR) image sequences used here are obtained through an IR camera in the laboratory, which uses a 288*384 silicon infrared image sensor produced by ULIS company. The methods referred above are realized and simulated on compute with Matlab. Theory analysis and experiments prove the method is reasonable and efficient.

  12. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John W.; Vergo, Norma; Walter, Louis

    1987-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic research efforts are discussed. The development of a new instrumentation to permit advanced measurements in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, the development of a special library of well-characterized mineral and rock specimens for interpretation of remote sensing data, and cooperative measurements of the spectral signatures of analogues of materials that may be present on the surfaces of asteroids, planets or their Moons are discussed.

  13. Infrared Data for Storm Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R.

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this section include: 1) 'Thunderstorm Top Structure Observed by Aircraft Overflights with an Infrared Radiometer'; 2) 'Thunderstorm Intensity as Determined from Satellite Data'; 3) 'Relation of Satellite-Based Thunderstorm Intensity to Radar-Estimated Rainfall'; 4) 'A Simple Physical Basis for Relating Geosynchronous Satellite Infrared Observations to Thunderstorm Rainfall'; 5) 'Satellite-Observed Cloud-Top Height Changes in Tornadic Thunderstorms'; 6) 'Predicting Tropical Cyclone Intensity Using Satellite-Measured Equivalent Blackbody Temperatures of Cloud Tops'.

  14. Infrared outburst in Arp 299

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattila, Seppo; Meikle, Peter; Kotak, Rubina; Perez-Torres, Miguel; Romero-Canizales, Cristina; Alberdi, Antxon

    2011-05-01

    Arp 299 is one of the nearest examples of a luminous infrared galaxy. We discovered a strong outburst in Arp 299 which is apparent at infrared (IR) wavelengths but not in the optical indicating emission from warm dust and a high extinction. This source could originate from an IR 'dust echo' resulting either from a highly obscured outburst in an active galactic nucleus or an energetic supernova. To continue our study of the origin of this outburst we propose short IRAC observations.

  15. Infrared images of merging galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, G. S.; James, P. A.; Joseph, R. D.; Mclean, I. S.; Doyon, R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared imaging of interacting galaxies is especially interesting because their optical appearance is often so chaotic due to extinction by dust and emission from star formation regions, that it is impossible to locate the nuclei or determine the true stellar distribution. However, at near-infrared wavelengths extinction is considerably reduced, and most of the flux from galaxies originates from red giant stars that comprise the dominant stellar component by mass. Thus near infrared images offer the opportunity to study directly components of galactic structure which are otherwise inaccessible. Such images may ultimately provide the framework in which to understand the activity taking place in many of the mergers with high Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) luminosities. Infrared images have been useful in identifying double structures in the nuclei of interacting galaxies which have not even been hinted at by optical observations. A striking example of this is given by the K images of Arp 220. Graham et al. (1990) have used high resolution imaging to show that it has a double nucleus coincident with the radio sources in the middle of the dust lane. The results suggest that caution should be applied in the identification of optical bright spots as multiple nuclei in the absence of other evidence. They also illustrate the advantages of using infrared imaging to study the underlying structure in merging galaxies. The authors have begun a program to take near infrared images of galaxies which are believed to be mergers of disk galaxies because they have tidal tails and filaments. In many of these the merger is thought to have induced exceptionally luminous infrared emission (cf. Joseph and Wright 1985, Sanders et al. 1988). Although the optical images of the galaxies show spectacular dust lanes and filaments, the K images all have a very smooth distribution of light with an apparently single nucleus.

  16. Shortwave infrared detection of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    Shortwave infrared sensors were included on the Thematic Mapper (TM) to observe vegetation reflected radiance patterns related to water leaf content. Analysis of field measurements for corn and soybeans throughout the growing season showed that shortwave infrared measurements enhance discrimination between the species, particularly in midseason. A numerical model of the canopy reflectance showed that differential leaf absorptance can produce the observed patterns. Analysis of coincident studies of leaf optical properties were conducted to generalize the results to other types of vegetation.

  17. Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Experimentally Shocked Anorthosite and Pyroxenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Hoerz, F.; Christensen, P.; Lucey, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    We performed shock recovery experiments at JSC (17-63 GPa) on samples of Stillwater pyroxenite and anorthosite and acquired their thermal infrared spectra (3-50 micron) to investigate the degradation of spectral features at high pressures. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. In-field stray light due to surface scattering effects in infrared imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Jiang, Hou-man; Cheng, Xiang-ai

    2011-08-01

    In-field stray light caused by surface scattering is a serious problem in many infrared imaging systems. Light that scattered from lenses in infrared imaging system produces a halo of stray light within the field of view and often degrades the performance of an optical system especially irradiated by intensive light such as laser. The experiments are performed by using infrared thermal imaging system, irradiated by CW DF infrared laser. The relationship between the diameter of saturated area on the detector and the incident laser irradiance is obtained, which can be well explained by the point spread function (PSF) of the optics including both diffraction and scattering components.

  19. Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Ph.; Dumas, P.; Schilcher, T.; Nadji, A.; Luedeke, A.; Hubert, N.; Cassinari, L.; Boege, M.; Denard, J.-C.; Stingelin, L.; Nadolski, L.; Garvey, T.; Albert, S.; Gough, Ch.; Quack, M.; Wambach, J.; Dehler, M.; Filhol, J.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Today, the vast majority of electron storage rings delivering synchrotron radiation for general user operation offer a dedicated infrared port. There is growing interest expressed by various scientific communities to exploit the mid-IR emission in microspectroscopy, as well as the far infrared (also called THz) range for spectroscopy. Compared with a thermal (laboratory-based source), IR synchrotron radiation sources offer enhanced brilliance of about two to three orders of magnitude in the mid-IR energy range, and enhanced flux and brilliance in the far-IR energy range. Synchrotron radiation also has a unique combination of a broad wavelength band together with a well defined time structure. Thermal sources (globar, mercury filament) have excellent stability. Because the sampling rate of a typical IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy experiment is in the kHz range (depending on the bandwidth of the detector), instabilities of various origins present in synchrotron radiation sources play a crucial role. Noise recordings at two different IR ports located at the Swiss Light Source and SOLEIL (France), under conditions relevant to real experiments, are discussed. The lowest electron beam fluctuations detectable in IR spectra have been quantified and are shown to be much smaller than what is routinely recorded by beam-position monitors. PMID:22186638

  20. The infrared camera onboard JEM-EUSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) on board the International Space Station (ISS) is the first space-based mission worldwide in the field of Ultra High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). For UHECR experiments, the atmosphere is not only the showering calorimeter for the primary cosmic rays, it is an essential part of the readout system, as well. Moreover, the atmosphere must be calibrated and has to be considered as input for the analysis of the fluorescence signals. Therefore, the JEM-EUSO Space Observatory is implementing an Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS) that will include an IR-Camera and a LIDAR. The AMS Infrared Camera is an infrared, wide FoV, imaging system designed to provide the cloud coverage along the JEM-EUSO track and the cloud top height to properly achieve the UHECR reconstruction in cloudy conditions. In this paper, an updated preliminary design status, the results from the calibration tests of the first prototype, the simulation of the instrument, and preliminary cloud top height retrieval algorithms are presented.

  1. Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Ph; Dumas, P; Schilcher, T; Nadji, A; Luedeke, A; Hubert, N; Cassinari, L; Boege, M; Denard, J-C; Stingelin, L; Nadolski, L; Garvey, T; Albert, S; Gough, Ch; Quack, M; Wambach, J; Dehler, M; Filhol, J-M

    2012-01-01

    Today, the vast majority of electron storage rings delivering synchrotron radiation for general user operation offer a dedicated infrared port. There is growing interest expressed by various scientific communities to exploit the mid-IR emission in microspectroscopy, as well as the far infrared (also called THz) range for spectroscopy. Compared with a thermal (laboratory-based source), IR synchrotron radiation sources offer enhanced brilliance of about two to three orders of magnitude in the mid-IR energy range, and enhanced flux and brilliance in the far-IR energy range. Synchrotron radiation also has a unique combination of a broad wavelength band together with a well defined time structure. Thermal sources (globar, mercury filament) have excellent stability. Because the sampling rate of a typical IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy experiment is in the kHz range (depending on the bandwidth of the detector), instabilities of various origins present in synchrotron radiation sources play a crucial role. Noise recordings at two different IR ports located at the Swiss Light Source and SOLEIL (France), under conditions relevant to real experiments, are discussed. The lowest electron beam fluctuations detectable in IR spectra have been quantified and are shown to be much smaller than what is routinely recorded by beam-position monitors.

  2. Integrated infrared and visible image sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor imaging devices integrating an array of visible detectors and another array of infrared detectors into a single module to simultaneously detect both the visible and infrared radiation of an input image. The visible detectors and the infrared detectors may be formed either on two separate substrates or on the same substrate by interleaving visible and infrared detectors.

  3. High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, B.; Covelli, J.; Davinic, N.; Hailey, J.; Jones, E.; Ortiz, V.; Racine, J.; Satterwhite, D.; Spriesterbach, T.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-01

    A low earth orbiting platform for an infrared (IR) sensor payload is examined based on the requirements of a Naval Research Laboratory statement of work. The experiment payload is a 1.5-meter square by 0.5-meter high cubic structure equipped with the imaging system, radiators, and spacecraft mounting interface. The orbit is circular at 509 km (275 nmi) altitude and 70 deg. inclination. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized with pointing accuracy of plus or minus 0.5 deg. in each axis. The experiment payload requires two 15-minute sensing periods over two contiguous orbit periods for 30 minutes of sensing time per day. The spacecraft design is presented for launch via a Delta 2 rocket. Subsystem designs include attitude control, propulsion, electric power, telemetry, tracking and command, thermal design, structure, and cost analysis.

  4. Kinematic measurements using an infrared sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, F.; Paulucci, L.

    2016-03-01

    The use of an infrared sensor as a new alternative to measure position as a function of time in kinematic experiments was investigated using a microcontroller as the data acquisition and control device. These are versatile sensors that offer advantages over typical ultrasound devices. The setup described in this paper enables students to develop their own experiments, promoting opportunities for learning physical concepts such as the different types of forces that can act on a body (gravitational, elastic, drag, etc) and the resulting types of movements with good sensitivity within the 4-30 cm range. As a proof of concept we also present the application of a prototype designed to record the kinematics of mass-spring systems.

  5. Designed blending for near infrared calibration.

    PubMed

    Scheibelhofer, Otto; Grabner, Bianca; Bondi, Robert W; Igne, Benoît; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes G

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopic methods are increasingly used for monitoring pharmaceutical manufacturing unit operations that involve powder handling and processing. With that regard, chemometric models are required to interpret the obtained spectra. There are many ways to prepare artificial powder blend samples used in a chemometric model for predicting the chemical content. Basically, an infinite number of possible concentration levels exist in terms of the individual components. In our study, design of experiments for ternary mixtures was used to establish a suitable number of blend compositions that represents the entire mixture region of interest for a three component blend. Various experimental designs and their effect on the predictive power of a chemometric model for near infrared spectra were investigated. It was determined that a particular choice of experimental design could change the predictive power of a model, even with the same number of calibration experiments. PMID:25980978

  6. Automatic target recognition algorithm based on statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Cao, Le-lin; Wu, Chun-feng; Hou, Qing-yu

    2009-07-01

    A novel automatic target recognition algorithm based on statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral images(SDOIMI) is proposed. Firstly, infrared multispectral characteristic matrix of the scenario is constructed based on infrared multispectral characteristic information (such as radiation intensity and spectral distribution etc.) of targets, background and decoys. Then the infrared multispectral characteristic matrix of targets is reconstructed after segmenting image by maximum distance method and fusing spatial and spectral information. Finally, an statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral images(SDOIMI) recognition criteria is formulated in terms of spectral radiation difference of interesting targets. In simulation, nine sub-bands multispectral images of real ship target and shipborne aerosol infrared decoy modulated by laser simulating ship geometry appearance are obtained via using spectral radiation curves. Digital simulation experiment result verifies that the algorithm is effective and feasible.

  7. Research on Appreciation Method for the Maximum Acting Distance of Infrared TV Goniometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Liang, Yan; Long, ShuLi; Zhang, Yong

    2002-09-01

    The maximum acting distance of infrared TV goniometers is a key index to appreciate its overall performance. By means of the theoretical research on the transmission equation of the infrared wave in the atmosphere and the technical analysis on the receiving property of the infrared TV goniometers, an auto-appreciating system for the maximum acting distance of infrared TV goniometers is presented which is controlled and processed by computer. The system uses advanced high-power infrared LED (light emitting diode) source driving technique, adjustable driving voltage technique controlled by DAC and image process technique. In addition, compared with the experiments of the firing ground, the validity of this method has been proved. Results from the system can also offer the reference to appreciate the effective acting distance of similar instruments such as laser ranging and laser navigation. As a result, this research is very valuable in the infrared wave application.

  8. Testing the spectrum of infrared emission reflected by several surfaces with a FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuanyu; Hu, Rui; Pang, Minhui; Bai, Haitao; Dong, Wenjie

    2014-09-01

    A set of sectional FTIR is applied to study the reflecting characteristics of several surfaces to infrared emission. The standard infrared source is separated from the host of the FTIR and set in a right-angled triangle with the reflecting plate and the entrance to make the reflecting infrared emission can easily pass into the detector through the route. The reflecting infrared emission from the FTIR source is measured by the FTIR detector. The reflecting plate includes metal plate, mirror, wood block and so on. A high intensity standard infrared source cooled by air is accepted and the testing background is atmosphere. The infrared emission reflected by the plate from the standard source is tested one by one. By the experiment, mirror has a good performance to reflect infrared emission, which is much better than unpainted iron plate or painted wood block. Certainly, unpainted iron plate has stronger capacity to reflect infrared emission than painted wood block, etc. As a result, the smoother the surface is, the stronger the reflecting performance is. The reflecting performance of painted surface to infrared emission is poorer than unpainted one. The various painted surfaces have not a visible difference upon their reflecting performance to infrared emission although they are made from different materials.

  9. New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J. (Editor); Leisawitz, David T. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy aimed to highlight the groundbreaking opportunities available for astronomical investigations in the far-infrared to submillimeter using advanced, space-based telescopes. Held at the University of Maryland on March 7-8, 2002, the Workshop was attended by 130 participants from 50 institutions, and represented scientists and engineers from many countries and with a wide variety of experience. The technical content featured 17 invited talks and 44 contributed posters, complemented by two sixperson panels to address questions of astronomy and technology.

  10. Remote Infrared Thermography for In-Flight Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiu, H. J.; vanDam, C. P.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of remote in-flight boundary layer visualization via infrared in incompressible flow was established in earlier flight experiments. The past year's efforts focused on refining and determining the extent and accuracy of this technique of remote in-flight flow visualization via infrared. Investigations were made into flow separation visualization, visualization at transonic conditions, shock visualization, post-processing to mitigate banding noise in the NITE Hawk's thermograms, and a numeric model to predict surface temperature distributions. Although further flight tests are recommended, this technique continues to be promising.

  11. Vibrationally compensated far infrared laser interferometer for plasma density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, D.K.; Johnson, L.C.; Mendelsohn, A.

    1980-12-01

    A modulated far-infrared laser interferometer presently operating on the PDX experiment at Princeton is described. The interferometer geometry permits the characterization of inside 'D', outside 'D', and circular discharges. To achieve this versatility, a titanium corner cube reflector, mounted inside the PDX vacuum vessel is used in conjunction with a second visible wavelength interferometer for vibration corrections. In addition, the use of room temperature quasi-optical Schottky diodes in the far-infrared interferometer is reported. The minimum detectable line average density of the system is about 5 x 10 to the 11th per cu cm.

  12. Cryogenic infrared imaging beryllium telescope for Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    The IRAS mission is the result of an international project involving the cooperation of the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. The Infrared Astronmical Satellite was placed into orbit on January 25, 1983. Its main function is to provide a survey of the entire sky as viewed in four octaves of infrared radiation in the wavelenth region from 8 to 120 microns. The cylindrical structure of the satellite contains a large dewar vessel with 70 liters of superfluid helium. The helium has the function to maintain the contents of the vessel at 2.5 K for the duration of the mission. The IRAS optics is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 24 inches aperture. Because of the operational requirements of the mission, it had been specified that all optical components should be beryllium. Attention is given to the cold performance test conducted with IRAS, plans for future infrared telescopes, and reflectance limits.

  13. Infrared Aerosol Radiative Forcing at the Surface and the Top of the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2003-01-01

    We study the clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing at infrared wavelengths using data from the Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) cruise of the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown. Limited number of data points is analyzed mostly from ship and collocated satellite values. An optical model is derived from chemical measurements, lidar profiles, and visible extinction measurements which is used to and estimate the infrared aerosol optical thickness and the single scattering albedo. The IR model results are compared to detailed Fourier Transform Interferometer based infrared aerosol forcing estimates, pyrgeometer based infrared downward fluxes, and against the direct solar forcing observations. This combined approach attests for the self-consistency of the optical model and allows to derive quantities such as the infrared forcing at the top of the atmosphere or the infrared optical thickness. The mean infrared aerosol optical thickness at 10 microns is 0.08 and the single scattering albedo is 0.55. The modeled infrared aerosol forcing reaches 10 W/sq m during the cruise, which is a significant contribution to the total direct aerosol forcing. The surface infrared aerosol radiative forcing is between 10 to 25% of the shortwave aerosol forcing. The infrared aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere can go up to 19% of the solar aerosol forcing. We show good agreement between satellite (CERES instrument) retrievals and model results at the top of the atmosphere. Over the Sea of Japan, the average infrared radiative forcing is 4.6 W/sq m in the window region at the surface and it is 1.5 W/sq m at top of the atmosphere. The top of the atmosphere IR forcing efficiency is a strong function of aerosol temperature while the surface IR forcing efficiency varies between 37 and 55 W/sq m (per infrared optical depth unit). and changes between 10 to 18 W/sq m (per infrared optical depth unit).

  14. Near infrared detectors for SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarle, G.

    2006-05-23

    Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

  15. Infrared variability of SS 433

    SciTech Connect

    Kodaira, K.; Nakada, Y.; Backman, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    New JHKLM photometry of SS 433 showing short time scale variabilities is reported for the period of 1983 July 16-22 UT. The entire body of infrared data included in this paper, Giles et al. (1980), and Catchpole et al. (1981), is examined with reference to periods of 164 days and 13.08 days. Comparison of the infrared light curves with the optical light curves of Leibowitz et al. (1984) makes it possible to conclude, within the context of an accretion disk model, that the majority of the infrared flux in the SS 433 system comes from the disk, and that the hot spot responsible for the hump in the visual and infrared light curves has a color similar to the average of the disk. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis of the infrared data suggests that the brightness maximum occurs when, seen from the compact star, the noncompact companion passes through a fixed elongation relative to the disk line of nodes with the orbital plane, if the precession is prograde. 15 references.

  16. New Opportunities in Mid-Infrared Emission Control

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS) has been well accepted as a preferred measurement technique for many industrial applications in recent years, especially for in situ applications. Previously, mainly near-infrared lasers have been used in TLAS sensors. The advent of compact mid-infrared light sources, like quantum cascade lasers and interband cascade lasers, has made it possible to detect gases with better sensitivity by utilizing fundamental absorption bands and to measure species that do not have any absorption lines in the near-infrared spectral region. This technological advancement has allowed developing new sensors for gases, such as nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide, for industrial applications. Detection limits of better than 1 ppm · m for nitric oxide and better than 10 ppm · m for sulfur dioxide are demonstrated in field experiments. PMID:26371003

  17. Cloud and Thermodynamic Parameters Retrieved from Satellite Ultraspectral Infrared Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schluessel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Mango, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric-thermodynamic parameters and surface properties are basic meteorological parameters for weather forecasting. A physical geophysical parameter retrieval scheme dealing with cloudy and cloud-free radiance observed with satellite ultraspectral infrared sounders has been developed and applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). The retrieved parameters presented herein are from radiance data gathered during the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx). JAIVEx provided intensive aircraft observations obtained from airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) systems, in-situ measurements, and dedicated dropsonde and radiosonde measurements for the validation of the IASI products. Here, IASI atmospheric profile retrievals are compared with those obtained from dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and the airborne FTS system. The IASI examples presented here demonstrate the ability to retrieve fine-scale horizontal features with high vertical resolution from satellite ultraspectral sounder radiance spectra.

  18. New maxillofacial infrared detection technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Nasyrov, M. R. Fisher, E. L.; Chernova, L. V.; Soicher, E. M.

    2015-11-17

    At the dental clinic the infrared range radiation spectrum of tissues was used to study the dynamics of local temperature and structure of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and other tissues of the maxillofacial area in adult healthy volunteers and patients. In particular, we studied the dynamics of local temperature of mucous membranes of the mouth, teeth, and places in the mouth and dental structures in the norm and in various pathological conditions of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and cheeks before, during and after chewing food, drinking water, medication, and inhalation of air. High safety and informational content of infrared thermography are prospective for the development of diagnostics in medicine. We have 3 new methods for infrared detection protected by patents in Russia.

  19. KIC 8462852: THE INFRARED FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Marengo, Massimo; Hulsebus, Alan; Willis, Sarah

    2015-11-20

    We analyzed the warm Spitzer/IRAC data of KIC 8462852. We found no evidence of infrared excess at 3.6 μm and a small excess of 0.43 ± 0.18 mJy at 4.5 μm below the 3σ threshold necessary to claim a detection. The lack of strong infrared excess 2 years after the events responsible for the unusual light curve observed by Kepler further disfavors the scenarios involving a catastrophic collision in a KIC 8462852 asteroid belt, a giant impact disrupting a planet in the system or a population of dust-enshrouded planetesimals. The scenario invoking the fragmentation of a family of comets on a highly elliptical orbit is instead consistent with the lack of strong infrared excess found by our analysis.

  20. Graybody Factors and Infrared Divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul; Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Parentani, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    A method of computing the gray-body factors for static spherically symmetric and BEC acoustic black holes using a Volterra integral equation is given. The results are used to investigate infrared divergences in the particle number, two-point function, point-split stress-energy tensor and density-density correlation function. Infrared divergences in the particle number and two-point function occur if the gray-body factor approaches a nonzero constant in the zero frequency limit, as happens for Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes and BEC acoustic black holes. However, no infrared divergences occur in the point-split stress-energy tensor or the density-density correlation function. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. PHY-0856050 and PHY-1308325.

  1. Infrared surface polaritons on bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilzadeh-Rezaie, Farnood; Smith, Christian W.; Nath, Janardan; Nader, Nima; Shahzad, Monas; Cleary, Justin W.; Avrutsky, Ivan; Peale, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Optical constants for evaporated bismuth (Bi) films were measured by ellipsometry and compared with those published for single crystal and melt-cast polycrystalline Bi in the wavelength range of 1 to 40 μm. The bulk plasma frequency ωp and high-frequency limit to the permittivity ε∞ were determined from the long-wave portion of the permittivity spectrum, taking previously published values for the relaxation time τ and effective mass m*. This part of the complex permittivity spectrum was confirmed by comparing calculated and measured reflectivity spectra in the far-infrared. Properties of surface polaritons (SPs) in the long-wave infrared were calculated to evaluate the potential of Bi for applications in infrared plasmonics. Measured excitation resonances for SPs on Bi lamellar gratings agree well with calculated resonance spectra based on grating geometry and complex permittivity.

  2. New maxillofacial infrared detection technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Nasyrov, M. R.; Soicher, E. M.; Fisher, E. L.; Chernova, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    At the dental clinic the infrared range radiation spectrum of tissues was used to study the dynamics of local temperature and structure of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and other tissues of the maxillofacial area in adult healthy volunteers and patients. In particular, we studied the dynamics of local temperature of mucous membranes of the mouth, teeth, and places in the mouth and dental structures in the norm and in various pathological conditions of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and cheeks before, during and after chewing food, drinking water, medication, and inhalation of air. High safety and informational content of infrared thermography are prospective for the development of diagnostics in medicine. We have 3 new methods for infrared detection protected by patents in Russia.

  3. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE PAGES

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A

    2011-09-01

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore » does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  4. Electrically tunable infrared metamaterial devices

    DOEpatents

    Brener, Igal; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-07-21

    A wavelength-tunable, depletion-type infrared metamaterial optical device is provided. The device includes a thin, highly doped epilayer whose electrical permittivity can become negative at some infrared wavelengths. This highly-doped buried layer optically couples with a metamaterial layer. Changes in the transmission spectrum of the device can be induced via the electrical control of this optical coupling. An embodiment includes a contact layer of semiconductor material that is sufficiently doped for operation as a contact layer and that is effectively transparent to an operating range of infrared wavelengths, a thin, highly doped buried layer of epitaxially grown semiconductor material that overlies the contact layer, and a metallized layer overlying the buried layer and patterned as a resonant metamaterial.

  5. KIC 8462852: The Infrared Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Massimo; Hulsebus, Alan; Willis, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the warm Spitzer/IRAC data of KIC 8462852. We found no evidence of infrared excess at 3.6 μm and a small excess of 0.43 ± 0.18 mJy at 4.5 μm below the 3σ threshold necessary to claim a detection. The lack of strong infrared excess 2 years after the events responsible for the unusual light curve observed by Kepler further disfavors the scenarios involving a catastrophic collision in a KIC 8462852 asteroid belt, a giant impact disrupting a planet in the system or a population of dust-enshrouded planetesimals. The scenario invoking the fragmentation of a family of comets on a highly elliptical orbit is instead consistent with the lack of strong infrared excess found by our analysis.

  6. Cloud altitude determination from infrared spectral radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L.; Frey, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The CO2 slicing method is generally recognized as the most accurate means of inferring cloud altitude from passive infrared radiance observations. The method is applicable to semi-transparent and broken clouds. During the cirrus FIRE and COHMEX field experiments, CO2 channel radiance data suitable for cloud altitude specification were achieved from moderate spectral resolution satellite sounders (NOAA-TOVS and GOES-VAS) and from a High spectral resolution Interferometer Spectrometer (HIS) flown on the NASA U2/ER2 aircraft. Also aboard the ER2 was a down-looking active lidar unit capable of providing cloud top pressure verifications with high accuracy. A third instrument, the Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) provided 50 meter resolution infrared window data which is used wtih radiosonde data to verify the heights of middle and low level clouds. Comparisons of lidar and MAMS/radiosonde ground truth cloud heights are made with those determined from: high resolution (0.5/cm) HIS spectra, HIS spectra degraded to the moderate resolution (15/cm) of the VAS/TOVS instruments, and spectrally averaged HIS radiances for individual pairs of VAS spectral channels. The results show that the best results are achieved from high resolution spectra; the RMS difference with the ground truth is 23 mb. The RMS differences between the infrared radiance determination and ground truth increase by 35 percent when the spectral resolution is degraded to the moderate spectral resolution of the VAS/TOVS instruments and by 52 to 183 percent, depending upon channel combinations, when only two spectral channels at VAS/TOVS spectral resolution are used.

  7. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossington, Carolyn Sally

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the Star Wars nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  8. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  9. Mid-infrared designer metals.

    PubMed

    Law, S; Adams, D C; Taylor, A M; Wasserman, D

    2012-05-21

    We demonstrate the potential of highly-doped semiconductor epilayers as building blocks for mid-infrared plasmonic structures. InAs epilayers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by Hall measurements and optical techniques. We show that the plasma frequency of our material can be controlled across a broad range of mid-infrared frequencies. Subwavelength disks are fabricated out of our material, and localized plasmonic resonances are observed from these structures. Experimental results are compared to both numerical simulations and a simple quasistatic dipole model of our disks with good agreement.

  10. Tunable quantum well infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A novel infrared detector (20, 20', 20), is provided, which is characterized by photon-assisted resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum wells (22a, 22b) separated by barrier layers (28) in an intrinsic semiconductor layer (24) formed on an n.sup.+ substrate (26), wherein the resonance is electrically tunable over a wide band of wavelengths in the near to long infrared region. An n.sup.+ contacting layer (34) is formed over the intrinsic layer and the substrate is n.sup.+ doped to provide contact to the quantum wells. The detector permits fabrication of arrays (30) (one-dimensional and two-dimensional) for use in imaging and spectroscopy applications.

  11. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Stanley A.; Reedy, Gerald T.; Kumar, Romesh

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  12. Mid-infrared laser filaments in the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mitrofanov, A. V.; Voronin, A. A.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Pugžlys, A.; Stepanov, E. A.; Andriukaitis, G.; Flöry, T.; Ališauskas, S.; Fedotov, A. B.; Baltuška, A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in the atmosphere offers unique opportunities for long-range transmission of high-power laser radiation and standoff detection. With the critical power of self-focusing scaling as the laser wavelength squared, the quest for longer-wavelength drivers, which would radically increase the peak power and, hence, the laser energy in a single filament, has been ongoing over two decades, during which time the available laser sources limited filamentation experiments in the atmosphere to the near-infrared and visible ranges. Here, we demonstrate filamentation of ultrashort mid-infrared pulses in the atmosphere for the first time. We show that, with the spectrum of a femtosecond laser driver centered at 3.9 μm, right at the edge of the atmospheric transmission window, radiation energies above 20 mJ and peak powers in excess of 200 GW can be transmitted through the atmosphere in a single filament. Our studies reveal unique properties of mid-infrared filaments, where the generation of powerful mid-infrared supercontinuum is accompanied by unusual scenarios of optical harmonic generation, giving rise to remarkably broad radiation spectra, stretching from the visible to the mid-infrared. PMID:25687621

  13. Mid-infrared laser filaments in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, A V; Voronin, A A; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Pugžlys, A; Stepanov, E A; Andriukaitis, G; Flöry, T; Ališauskas, S; Fedotov, A B; Baltuška, A; Zheltikov, A M

    2015-02-17

    Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in the atmosphere offers unique opportunities for long-range transmission of high-power laser radiation and standoff detection. With the critical power of self-focusing scaling as the laser wavelength squared, the quest for longer-wavelength drivers, which would radically increase the peak power and, hence, the laser energy in a single filament, has been ongoing over two decades, during which time the available laser sources limited filamentation experiments in the atmosphere to the near-infrared and visible ranges. Here, we demonstrate filamentation of ultrashort mid-infrared pulses in the atmosphere for the first time. We show that, with the spectrum of a femtosecond laser driver centered at 3.9 μm, right at the edge of the atmospheric transmission window, radiation energies above 20 mJ and peak powers in excess of 200 GW can be transmitted through the atmosphere in a single filament. Our studies reveal unique properties of mid-infrared filaments, where the generation of powerful mid-infrared supercontinuum is accompanied by unusual scenarios of optical harmonic generation, giving rise to remarkably broad radiation spectra, stretching from the visible to the mid-infrared.

  14. A new apparatus of infrared videopupillography for monitoring pupil size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, M.-L.; Huang, T.-W.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Sone, B.-S.; Huang, Y.-C.; Jeng, W.-D.; Chen, Y.-T.; Hsieh, Y.-F.; Tao, K.-H.; Li, S.-T.; Ou-Yang, M.; Chiou, J.-C.

    2013-09-01

    Glaucoma was diagnosed or tracked by the intraocular pressure (IOP) generally because it is one of the physiology parameters that are associated with glaucoma. But measurement of IOP is not easy and consistence under different measure conditions. An infrared videopupillography is apparatus to monitor the pupil size in an attempt to bypass the direct IOP measurement. This paper propose an infrared videopupillography to monitoring the pupil size of different light stimulus in dark room. The portable infrared videopupillography contains a camera, a beam splitter, the visible-light LEDs for stimulating the eyes, and the infrared LEDs for lighting the eyes. It is lighter and smaller than the present product. It can modulate for different locations of different eyes, and can be mounted on any eyeglass frame. An analysis program of pupil size can evaluate the pupil diameter by image correlation. In our experiments, the eye diameter curves were not smooth and jagged. It caused by the light spots, lone eyelashes, and blink. In the future, we will improve the analysis program of pupil size and seek the approach to solve the LED light spots. And we hope this infrared videopupillography proposed in this paper can be a measuring platform to explore the relations between the different diseases and pupil response.

  15. Retrievals with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schlussel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Calbet, Xavier; Mango, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite was launched on October 19, 2006. The Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx) was conducted during April 2007 mainly for validation of the IASI on the MetOp satellite. IASI possesses an ultra-spectral resolution of 0.25/cm and a spectral coverage from 645 to 2760/cm. Ultraspectral resolution infrared spectral radiance obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. An advanced retrieval algorithm with a fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. Preliminary retrievals of atmospheric soundings, surface properties, and cloud optical/microphysical properties with the IASI observations during the JAIVEx are obtained and presented. These retrievals are further inter-compared with those obtained from airborne FTS system, such as the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I), dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. The capabilities of satellite ultra-spectral sounder such as the IASI are investigated.

  16. Effects of water-filtered infrared A irradiation on human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tobias; Höhn, Annika; Piazena, Helmut; Grune, Tilman

    2010-01-01

    Infrared radiation is a substantial part of the solar energy output reaching the earth surface. Therefore, exposure of humans to infrared radiation is common. However, whether and how infrared (IR) or infrared A acts on human skin cells is still under debate. Recently the generation of reactive oxygen species by water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation was postulated. wIRA shows a spectral distribution similar to that of solar irradiation at the earth's surface. Thus, the need for protection of human skin from both solar- and artificially generated infrared A irradiation was concluded. Here we demonstrate that in human dermal fibroblasts this reactive oxygen species generation is dependent on heat formation by infrared A and can be reproduced by thermal exposure. On the other hand wIRA irradiation had no detectable effect if the temperature in the cells was kept constant, even if irradiance exceeded the extraterrestrial solar irradiance in the IR range by a factor of about 4 and the maximum at noontime in the tropics by a factor up to about 6. This could be demonstrated by the measurement of oxidant formation using H(2)DCFDA and the determination of protein carbonyls. In additional experiments we could show that during thermal exposure the mitochondria contribute significantly to oxidant production. Further experiments revealed that the major absorbance of infrared is due to absorption of the energy by cellular water.

  17. The method of infrared image simulation based on the measured image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shuli; Liu, Liang; Ren, Jiancun

    2015-10-01

    The development of infrared imaging guidance technology has promoted the research of infrared imaging simulation technology and the key of infrared imaging simulation is the generation of IR image. The generation of IR image is worthful in military and economy. In order to solve the problem of credibility and economy of infrared scene generation, a method of infrared scene generation based on the measured image is proposed. Through researching on optical properties of ship-target and sea background, ship-target images with various gestures are extracted from recorded images based on digital image processing technology. The ship-target image is zoomed in and out to simulate the relative motion between the viewpoint and the target according to field of view and the distance between the target and the sensor. The gray scale of ship-target image is adjusted to simulate the radiation change of the ship-target according to the distance between the viewpoint and the target and the atmospheric transmission. Frames of recorded infrared images without target are interpolated to simulate high frame rate of missile. Processed ship-target images and sea-background infrared images are synthetized to obtain infrared scenes according to different viewpoints. Experiments proved that this method is flexible and applicable, and the fidelity and the reliability of synthesis infrared images can be guaranteed.

  18. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  19. Flexible optical-infrared metafilter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Jean-Baptiste; Brissonneau, Vincent; Le Rouzo, Judikaël.; Ferchichi, Abdelkerim; Gourgon, Cécile; Dubarry, Christophe; Berginc, Gérard; Escoubas, Ludovic

    2014-02-01

    By combining the antireflective properties from gradual changes in the effective refractive index and cavity coupling from cone gratings, and the efficient optical behavior of a tungsten film, we have conceived a flexible filter showing very broad antireflective (AR) properties from the visible to short wavelength infrared region (SWIR: 0.7-1.5 μm) and simultaneously a mirror-like behavior in the mid-infrared wavelength region (MWIR: 3-5 μm) and long-infrared wavelength region (LWIR: 8 to 15 μm). Nanoimprint technology has permitted us to replicate inverted cone patterns on a large scale on a flexible polymer, afterwards coated with a thin tungsten film. This optical metafilter is of great interest in the stealth domain where optical signature reduction from the optical to SWIR region is an important matter. As it also acts as selective thermal emitter offering a good solar-absorption/ infrared-emissivity ratio, interests are found as well for solar heating applications.

  20. Infrared spectra of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townes, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    The development of high spectral resolution and highly sensitive long infrared wavelength instruments is reported. This instrumentation is used to examine molecular lines in planetary atmospheres in enough detail to obtain new information about these atmospheres. Such information includes (1) pressure and temperature relations in planetary atmospheres, and (2) molecular and isotopic composition.

  1. Infrared eye: an operational prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrette, Paul C.; Fortin, Jean; St-Germain, Daniel; Delisle, Jean

    1998-09-01

    A new concept of surveillance system called Wide Area Coverage Infrared Surveillance System (WACISS), based on the human vision, was developed and a first laboratory prototype was demonstrated recently. A second prototype, more operational, is named the Infrared Eye is being built and will be tested in cooperation with the NRCC Flight Research Laboratory. The Infrared Eye will use the new pixel-less quantum well infrared photodetector sensors, coupled to light emitting diodes (QWIP/LED), currently being developed at NRCC Institute for Microstructural Science under DREV sponsorship. The multiple advantages of the pixel-less QWIP/LED over conventional sensors will considerably simplify the design of the system. As the WACISS, the IR Eye will integrate two cameras: the first, with a wide field-of- view, will be used for detection while the second camera, with a narrower field with higher resolution for identification, will be mobile within the WFOV and slaved to the operator's line-of-sight by means of an eye-tracking system. The images from both cameras will be fused and shown simultaneously on a standard high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye-tracking unit. The basic concepts pertaining to the project and the design constraints of this second prototype are presented.

  2. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  3. Test bench for infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    The Bench for Infrared Detectors (BIRD 210) has been designed for testing IRFPA detectors up to 1024 x 1024 pixels. It is also suitable for single element detectors. The detectors are required to be equipped with their coolers (Stirling or thermo electrics) and cooler electronics.

  4. Antimonide superlattice barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Soibel, Alexander; Nguyen, Jean; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Lee, Michael C.; Yang, Baohau; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-08-01

    Unipolar barriers can block one carrier type but allow the un-impeded flow of the other. They can be used to implement the barrier infra-red detector (BIRD) design for increasing the collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, and reducing dark current generation without impeding photocurrent flow. In particular, the InAs/GaSb/AlSb material system, which can be epitaxially grown on GaSb or InAs substrates, is well suited for implementing BIRD structures, as there is considerable flexibility in forming a variety of alloys and superlattices, and tailoring band offsets. We describe our efforts to achieve high-performance long wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared photodetectors based on the BIRD architecture. Specifically, we report a 10 μm cutoff device based on a complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design. The detector, without anti-reflection coating, exhibits a responsivity of 1.5 A/W and a dark current density of 1×10-5 A/cm2 at 77K under 0.2 V bias. It reaches 300 K background limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) operation at 101 K, with a black-body BLIP D* value of 2.6×1010 cm-Hz1/2/W for 2π field of view under 0.2 V bias.

  5. Growing Crystals for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Unidirectional solidification yields bulk crystals with compositional homogeneity. Unidirectionaly crystal-growth furnace assembly travels vertically so crystal grows upward from bottom tapered end of ampoule. Separately controlled furnaces used for hot (upper) and cold (lower) zones. New process produces ingots with radial compositional homogeneity suitable for fabricating infrared detectors.

  6. INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

    2001-05-04

    Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

  7. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOEpatents

    Kurtz, Steven R.; Biefeld, Robert M.; Dawson, L. Ralph; Howard, Arnold J.; Baucom, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    An infrared emitting device and method. The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns.

  8. Equivalence theorem and infrared divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, T.

    1996-08-01

    We look at the equivalence theorem as a statement about the absence of polynomial infrared divergences when {ital m}{sub {ital W}}{r_arrow}0. We prove their absence in a truncated toy model and conjecture that, if they exist at all, they are due to couplings between light particles. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  10. Infrared Analysis of Geological Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Clark, E. Roy

    1980-01-01

    Describes the infrared analysis of geological specimens which can form the basis of a laboratory exercise, allowing some minerals to be identified by "fingerprint" technique. Students can gain insight into the concept of symmetry and environment around an atom. (Author/SA)

  11. Detector Arrays For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Paper describes status of program for developing integrated infrared detectors for astronomy. Program covers variety of detectors, including extrinsic silicon, extrinsic germanium, and indium antimonide devices with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Paper notes for arrays to reach background noise limit in cryogenic telescope, continued reductions in readout noise and dark current needed.

  12. Veterinary applications of infrared thermography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abnormal temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to myriad diseases in veterinary medicine, ranging across host species and disease etiologies. It can also be used to deter...

  13. NASA MUST Paper: Infrared Thermography of Graphite/Epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comeaux, Kayla; Koshti, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this project is to use Infrared Thermography, a non-destructive test, to detect detrimental cracks and voids beneath the surface of materials used in the space program. This project will consist of developing a simulation model of the Infrared Thermography inspection of the Graphite/Epoxy specimen. The simulation entails finding the correct physical properties for this specimen as well as programming the model for thick voids or flat bottom holes. After the simulation is completed, an Infrared Thermography inspection of the actual specimen will be made. Upon acquiring the experimental test data, an analysis of the data for the actual experiment will occur, which includes analyzing images, graphical analysis, and analyzing numerical data received from the infrared camera. The simulation will then be corrected for any discrepancies between it and the actual experiment. The optimized simulation material property inputs can then be used for new simulation for thin voids. The comparison of the two simulations, the simulation for the thick void and the simulation for the thin void, provides a correlation between the peak contrast ratio and peak time ratio. This correlation is used in the evaluation of flash thermography data during the evaluation of delaminations.

  14. Community Plan for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ade, Peter; Akeson, Rachel; Ali, Shafinaz; Amato, Michael; Arendt, Richard; Baker, Charles; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bock, James; Borne, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents the consensus view of the 124 participants in the Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy.We recommend that NASA pursue the vision for far-IR astronomy outlined in the NAS Decadal Survey, which said: A rational coordinated program for space optical and infrared astronomy would build on the experience gained with NGST1 to construct [a JWST-scale filled-aperture far-IR telescope SAFIR, and then ultimately, in the decade 2010 to 2020, build on the SAFIR, TPF, and SIM experience to assemble a space-based, far-infrared interferometer. SAFIR will study star formation in the young universe, the buildup of elements heavier than hydrogen over cosmic history, the process of galaxy formation, and the early phases of star formation, which occur behind a veil of dust that precludes detection at mid IR and shorter wavelengths. The far-infrared interferometer will resolve distant galaxies to study protogalaxy interactions and mergers and the processes that led to enhanced star formation activity and the formation of Active Galactic Nuclei, and will resolve protostars and debris disks in our Galaxy to study how stars and planetary systems form.

  15. Infrared characterized spacecraft contaminants and related compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    The limits of the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum are discussed, together with an explanation of some of the shortcomings of obtaining data in this range. Similarities and differences in the interest taken by the chemist/spectroscopist and the space/spectroscopist in the IR spectrum are discussed. The chemist uses IR spectra to identify materials and contaminants associated with spacecraft fabrication and testing. The space scientist, using IR spectrometry, can determine atmospheric conditions around planets, stars, and galaxies. He could also determine the temperature profile of the Earth's atmosphere at different altitudes, or even the temperature profile of the Sun. The importance of detecting contamination of spacecraft and the possible results of not taking corrective action are explored. All space experiments contain some contaminants, to a lesser or greater degree; the responsible personnel involved must determine the level of toleration. A collection of IR spectra of known spacecraft contaminants is presented as a guide for cognizant scientists and engineers.

  16. Precision Radial Velocities in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Hugh

    2007-08-01

    The Precision Radial Velocity Spectrometer (PRVS) is designed to provide high throughput Doppler reflex measurements. PRVS is designed to always be available and provide 1.0 to 1.8 micron high-resolution spectroscopy with very high stability over several years. We have constructed models simulating likely candidates and demonstrated the ability to recover exoplanetary RV signals in the infrared. We have conducted limited experiments with a brass-board instrument to explore real-world issues yielding precisions of better than 10 m/s. We are thus confident that PRVS can provide for the detection of terrestrial-mass extra-solar planets in the habitable zones of low-mass stars. PRVS is scheduled to be the next ASPEN-process instrument for the Gemini telescopes and if funded in 2007 first light is expected by 2011.

  17. Far-infrared spectra of benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelsmann, H. R.; Mielke, Z.

    1991-11-01

    Crystalline benzoic acid has been studied by far-infrared spectroscopy in the spectral region of 20-230 cm -1 with a view to a determination and an assignment of the pure lattice and the intermonomer vibrations. An anomalous behaviour, similar to the one found earlier in the mid-IR, is observed for the asymmetric OH…O stretching band with regard to the number of components of the band and its changes as a function of temperature and deuteration. The experiments were carried out for single crystals of fully hydrogenated benzoic acid (- h6) with polarization analysis, and for powder of h6, d1, d5 and d6 benzoic acid at temperatures between 6 and 295 K. An explanation of these anomalies is proposed.

  18. Astronomical near-infrared echelle gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R.; Liang, Ming

    2014-07-01

    High-resolution near-infrared echelle spectrographs require coarse rulings in order to match the free spectral range to the detector size. Standard near-IR detector arrays typically are 2 K x 2 K or 4 K x 4 K. Detectors of this size combined with resolutions in the range 30000 to 100000 require grating groove spacings in the range 5 to 20 lines/mm. Moderately high blaze angles are desirable to reduce instrument size. Echelle gratings with these characteristics have potential wide application in both ambient temperature and cryogenic astronomical echelle spectrographs. We discuss optical designs for spectrographs employing immersed and reflective echelle gratings. The optical designs set constraints on grating characteristics. We report on market choices for obtaining these gratings and review our experiments with custom diamond turned rulings.

  19. Antimonide superlattice complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.-Y.; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Nguyen, Jean; Keo, Sam A.; Rafol, B., , Sir; Yang, Baohua; Lee, Mike C.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Höglund, Linda; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2011-05-01

    The nearly lattice-matched InAs/GaSb/AlSb (antimonide) material system offers tremendous flexibility in realizing high-performance infrared detectors. Antimonide-based superlattice infrared absorbers can be customized to have cutoff wavelengths ranging from the short-wave infrared (SWIR) to the very long-wave infrared (VLWIR). They can be used in constructing sophisticated heterostructures to enable advanced infrared photodetector designs. In particular, they facilitate the construction of unipolar barriers, which can block one carrier type but allow the un-impeded flow of the other. Unipolar barriers are used to implement the barrier infrared detector (BIRD) design for increasing the collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, and reducing dark current generation without impeding photocurrent flow. We report our recent efforts in achieving state-of-the-art performance in antimonide superlattice based long-wavelength infrared photodetectors using a complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design.

  20. Symposium on Recent Results in Infrared Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at a symposium titled Recent Results in Infrared Astrophysics are set forth. The abstracts emphasize photometric, spectroscopic, polarization, and theoretical results on a broad range of current topics in infrared astrophysics.

  1. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  2. Far-infrared Extinction Mapping of Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ~100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler & Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ~1 g cm-2 in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf & Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  3. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-10

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm{sup –2} in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  4. Inexpensive infrared source improvised from flashlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Inexpensive hand-held source of infrared energy is provided by a flashlight bulb coated with a paint which filters out the visible light emitted by the bulb and transmits only infrared radiation. This device can be used for checking infrared sensors and for experimental purposes.

  5. Astronomical polarization studies at radio and infrared wavelengths. Part 2: Far infrared polarization of dust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    Far infrared polarization of dust clouds is examined. The recently observed 10 micron polarization of the Orion Nebula and the Galactic Center suggests that far infrared polarization may be found in these objects. Estimates are made of the degree of far infrared polarization that may exist in the Orion Nebula. An attempt to observe far infrared polarization from the Orion Nebula was carried out.

  6. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Cao, Yi; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Jencson, Jacob; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The exploration of the dynamic mid-infrared sky has just begun. We propose to continue the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) --- a systematic search of 194 nearby galaxies within 20 Mpc, on timescales ranging between a week to a year, to a depth of 20 mag. During Cycle 10, SPIRITS has discovered over 40 infrared transients and over 1200 infrared variables. We are discovering explosive transients (ILRT, LRN, CNe, SNe), eruptive variables (LBV, RSG, YSG, AGB), and mysterious new infrared events devoid of optical counterparts (e.g. possible birth of a massive star system). Our Cycle 10 discoveries motivate our experiment design for Cycle 11 and 12. In particular, we request additional shorter cadence baselines to fill in missing pieces in our understanding of the end points of stellar evolution. Three years of SPIRITS will constitute the definitive study to ascertain the rate and origin of new classes of infrared transients, quantify the contribution of classical novae to galactic chemical evolution, and uncover supernovae buried in starbursts. We are also systematically probing mass-loss rates and dust formation in the most massive stars. SPIRITS yields a census of supergiant variability and asymptotic giant branch variability in diverse galaxy environments. The SPIRITS team continues to be committed to a concomitant ground-based NIR and optical survey and extensive spectroscopic follow-up: 308 nights of near-IR imaging, 135 nights of optical imaging and 34 nights of spectroscopy in Cycle 11 and 12. Follow-up will serve to maximize the discovery potential of our requested 795.3 hrs of Spitzer/IRAC and 10 orbits of HST/WFC3 observing time.

  7. Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates in the Far-infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A,; Benford, Dominic J.; Dwek, Eli; Henry, Ross M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Silverberg, Robert f.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct interpretation of a vast array of astronomical data relies heavily on understanding the properties of silicate dust as a function of wavelength, temperature, and crystallinity. We introduce the QPASI-T (Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates with Infrared Techniques) project to address the need for high fidelity optical characterization data on the various forms of astronomical dust. We use two spectrometers to provide extinction data for silicate samples across a wide wavelength range (from the near infrared to the millimeter). New experiments are in development that will provide complementary information on the emissivity of our samples, allowing us to complete the optical characterization of these dust materials. In this paper, we present initial results from several materials including amorphous iron silicate, magnesium silicate and silica smokes, over a wide range of temperatures, and discuss the design and operation of our new experiments.

  8. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCan 2 program. This involved redesigning, testing, and making final modifications to the existing apparatus. The microgravity ignition experiment is intended to test the effect of microgravity on the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. An infrared heat lamp is used to heat the paper sample within a sealed canister. The interior of the canister was redesigned to increase stability and minimize conductive heat transfer to the sample. This design was fabricated and tested and a heat transfer model of the paper sample was developed.

  9. Infrared Variability in Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Gunther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Rice, T. S.; Reipurth, B.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of near-infrared UKIRT photometry and mid-infrared time-series photometry for several clusters taken as part of the Spitzer Young Stellar Object VARiability program (YSOVAR). In the clusters L1688, IRAS 20050+2720 and GGD 12-15 we identify variability in several hundred stars ranging from Class I to Class III. The data have photometric uncertainties less than 0.05 mag down to [4.5] ˜15.5. We study the light curves and color trajectories of the sources in the monitored fields. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find that they divide into observational classes which at a the least include: 1) stochastic variables, 2) long-term variables, 3) periodic stars which vary in frequency or amplitude and 4) stars with periodic variability which is stable over long timescales. Some YSO variability defies simple classification.

  10. Possible infrared aurorae on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, J.; Gillett, F. C.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    Infrared brightenings near the poles of Jupiter at 8 microns were observed in early 1980 by the NASA 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea and the Mayall 4-m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. It is suggested that these brightenings are related to the auroral zones which are determined by the magnetic mapping of the magnetotail onto the atmosphere, rather than by the Io flux tube. They were present in both hemispheres in January, present only in the north in February, and probably absent in the south in March. When visible, they were only seen in the hemisphere where the auroral zone was oriented toward the earth and absent otherwise.

  11. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  12. Pinwheel Looks 'Fab' in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The tangled arms of the Pinwheel galaxy, otherwise known as Messier 101, are decked out in red in this new infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The Pinwheel galaxy is located 27 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major. It is what's called a flocculent spiral, which means that its spiral arms are not well defined.

    The red color shows the dust, while the blue glow around the galaxy is from starlight.

    In this infrared composite, blue indicates light with a wavelength of 3.6 microns, green corresponds to 4.5 microns, and red to 5.8 and 8.0 microns. The contribution from starlight (measured at 3.6 microns) has been subtracted from the 5.8- and 8-micron images to enhance the visibility of the dust features.

  13. Foot evaluation by infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    DiBenedetto, Margarete; Yoshida, Michael; Sharp, Mark; Jones, Bruce

    2002-05-01

    For better assessment of foot injury severity during basic military training, we evaluated a simple noninvasive technique: thermography. With this infrared imaging method, we determined normal foot parameters (from 30 soldiers before training), thermographic findings in different foot stress fractures (from 30 soldiers so diagnosed), and normal responses to abnormal stresses in 30 trainees who underwent the same training as the previous group but did not have musculoskeletal complaints. We found that normal foot thermograms show onion peel-like progressive cooling on the plantar surface, with a medially located warm center at the instep. Thermograms of injured feet show areas of increased heat, but excessive weight-bearing pressures on feet, new shoes, or boots also cause increased infrared emission even without discomfort. Differentiation remains difficult; however, thermography can detect injury early. It does not reveal exact diagnoses, but its greatest benefit is easy follow-up to monitor severity and healing. PMID:12053846

  14. Genetically Engineered Microelectronic Infrared Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Tom; Klimeck, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    A genetic algorithm is used for design of infrared filters and in the understanding of the material structure of a resonant tunneling diode. These two components are examples of microdevices and nanodevices that can be numerically simulated using fundamental mathematical and physical models. Because the number of parameters that can be used in the design of one of these devices is large, and because experimental exploration of the design space is unfeasible, reliable software models integrated with global optimization methods are examined The genetic algorithm and engineering design codes have been implemented on massively parallel computers to exploit their high performance. Design results are presented for the infrared filter showing new and optimized device design. Results for nanodevices are presented in a companion paper at this workshop.

  15. Advanced infrared laser modulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheo, P. K.; Wagner, R.; Gilden, M.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to develop an electrooptic waveguide modulator for generating continuous tunable sideband power from an infrared CO2 laser. Parameters included were the waveguide configurations, microstrip dimensions device impedance, and effective dielectric constants. An optimum infrared laser modulator was established and was fabricated. This modulator represents the state-of-the-art integrated optical device, which has a three-dimensional topology to accommodate three lambda/4 step transformers for microwave impedance matching at both the input and output terminals. A flat frequency response of the device over 20 HGz or = 3 dB) was achieved. Maximum single sideband to carrier power greater than 1.2% for 20 W microwave input power at optical carrier wavelength of 10.6 microns was obtained.

  16. Dual-band infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, H.; Schlemmer, H.

    2005-10-01

    Every year, numerous accidents happen on European roads due to bad visibility (fog, night, heavy rain). Similarly, the dramatic aviation accidents of year 2001 in Milan and Zurich have reminded us that aviation safety is equally affected by reduced visibility. A dual-band thermal imager was developed in order to raise human situation awareness under conditions of reduced visibility especially in the automotive and aeronautical context but also for all transportation or surveillance tasks. The chosen wavelength bands are the Short Wave Infrared SWIR and the Long Wave Infrared LWIR band which are less obscured by reduced visibility conditions than the visible band. Furthermore, our field tests clearly show that the two different spectral bands very often contain complementary information. Pyramidal fusion is used to integrate complementary and redundant features of the multi-spectral images into a fused image which can be displayed on a monitor to provide more and better information for the driver or pilot.

  17. Infrared observations of AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzi, E. G.; Chincarini, G.; Tarenghi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Broadband infrared observations of the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii are reported. The observations were obtained in the J, H, K and L filters with the InSb photometer attached to the 1-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The infrared energy distribution observed from 0.35 to 3.5 microns for phase 0.5 suggests a spectral type of K5 V for the secondary and a distance to the system of approximately 70 pc if an absolute magnitude of 7.3 is assumed. Monitoring of the flux at 2.2 microns reveals a variability with an amplitude of approximately 0.3 magnitude over one third of the orbital period, the nature of which is under investigation.

  18. Joint microwave and infrared studies for soil moisture determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Schieldge, J. P.; Kahle, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using a combined microwave-thermal infrared system to determine soil moisture content is addressed. Of particular concern are bare soils. The theoretical basis for microwave emission from soils and the transport of heat and moisture in soils is presented. Also, a description is given of the results of two field experiments held during vernal months in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

  19. Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Shiguo; Liu, Yu; Qu, Chao; Lu, Liujin; Ma, Xiangyuan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Deng, Youquan

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrated an infrared variable focus ionic liquids lens using electrowetting, which could overcome the problems caused by use of water, e.g., evaporation and poor thermostability, while keeping good optical transparency in visible light and near-infrared region. Besides, the type of lens (convex or concave) could be tuned by applied voltage or refractive index of ILs used, and the transmittance was measured to exceed 90% over the spectrum of visible light and near-infrared. We believe this infrared variable focus ionic liquids lens has a great application prospect in both visible light and infrared image systems.

  20. Catalog of infrared observations. Part 2: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1987-01-01

    The Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) is a compilation of infrared astronomical observational data obtained from an extensive literature search of astronomical journals and major astronomical catalogs and surveys. The literature searches are complete for years 1965 to 1986. Supporting appendixes are published in this part. The appendices include an atlas of infrared source positions, two bibliographies of infrared literature upon which the search was based, and, keyed to the main Catalog listings (organized alphabetically by first author, and by date), an atlas of infrared spectral ranges, and IRAS data for the CIO sources. The complete CIO database is available to qualified users in printed microfiche and magnetic tape formats.

  1. Catalog of infrared observations. Part 2: Appendixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1987-12-01

    The Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) is a compilation of infrared astronomical observational data obtained from an extensive literature search of astronomical journals and major astronomical catalogs and surveys. The literature searches are complete for years 1965 to 1986. Supporting appendixes are published in this part. The appendices include an atlas of infrared source positions, two bibliographies of infrared literature upon which the search was based, and, keyed to the main Catalog listings (organized alphabetically by first author, and by date), an atlas of infrared spectral ranges, and IRAS data for the CIO sources. The complete CIO database is available to qualified users in printed microfiche and magnetic tape formats.

  2. Multi-channel infrared thermometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulrickson, M.A.

    A device for measuring the two-dimensional temperature profile of a surface comprises imaging optics for generating an image of the light radiating from the surface; an infrared detector array having a plurality of detectors; and optical means positioned between the imaging optics and the detector array for sampling, transmitting, and distributing the image over the detector surfaces. The optical means may be a light pipe array having one light pipe for each detector in the detector array.

  3. Multi-channel infrared thermometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulrickson, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    A device for measuring the two-dimensional temperature profile of a surface comprises imaging optics for generating an image of the light radiating from the surface; an infrared detector array having a plurality of detectors; and a light pipe array positioned between the imaging optics and the detector array for sampling, transmitting, and distributing the image over the detector surfaces. The light pipe array includes one light pipe for each detector in the detector array.

  4. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Lashley, Jason Charles; Opeil, Cyril P.; Smith, James Lawrence

    2010-03-30

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  5. Space infrared telescope facility project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    The functions undertaken during this reporting period were: to inform the planetary science community of the progress and status of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Project; to solicit input from the planetary science community on needs and requirements of planetary science in the use of SIRTF at such time that it becomes an operational facility; and a white paper was prepared on the use of the SIRTF for solar system studies.

  6. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  7. High accuracy broadband infrared spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan

    Mueller matrix spectroscopy or Spectropolarimetry combines conventional spectroscopy with polarimetry, providing more information than can be gleaned from spectroscopy alone. Experimental studies on infrared polarization properties of materials covering a broad spectral range have been scarce due to the lack of available instrumentation. This dissertation aims to fill the gap by the design, development, calibration and testing of a broadband Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectropolarimeter. The instrument operates over the 3-12 mum waveband and offers better overall accuracy compared to the previous generation instruments. Accurate calibration of a broadband spectropolarimeter is a non-trivial task due to the inherent complexity of the measurement process. An improved calibration technique is proposed for the spectropolarimeter and numerical simulations are conducted to study the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Insights into the geometrical structure of the polarimetric measurement matrix is provided to aid further research towards global optimization of Mueller matrix polarimeters. A high performance infrared wire-grid polarizer is characterized using the spectropolarimeter. Mueller matrix spectrum measurements on Penicillin and pine pollen are also presented.

  8. Infrared surveys of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, W. A.; Moxham, R.M.; Polcyn, F.; Landis, G.H.

    1964-01-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.

  9. Infrared science of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, William A.; Moxham, R.M.; Polcyn, R.C.; Landis, G.H.

    1964-01-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs is- suing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.

  10. The Clementine longwave infrared camera

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, R.E.; Lewis, I.T.; Sewall, N.R.; Park, H.S.; Shannon, M.J.; Ledebuhr, A.G.; Pleasance, L.D.; Massie, M.A.; Metschuleit, K.

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. The longwave-infrared (LWIR) camera supplemented the UV/Visible and near-infrared mapping cameras providing limited strip coverage of the moon, giving insight to the thermal properties of the soils. This camera provided {approximately}100 m spatial resolution at 400 km periselene, and a 7 km across-track swath. This 2.1 kg camera using a 128 x 128 Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) FPA viewed thermal emission of the lunar surface and lunar horizon in the 8.0 to 9.5 {micro}m wavelength region. A description of this light-weight, low power LWIR camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  11. Field induced gap infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, C. Thomas (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

  12. Silicates in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirocky, M. M.; Levenson, N. A.; Elitzur, M.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Armus, L.

    2008-05-01

    We analyze the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph. Dust emission dominates the MIR spectra of ULIRGs, and the reprocessed radiation that emerges is independent of the underlying heating spectrum. Instead, the resulting emission depends sensitively on the geometric distribution of the dust, which we diagnose with comparisons of numerical simulations of radiative transfer. Quantifying the silicate emission and absorption features that appear near 10 and 18 μm requires a reliable determination of the continuum, and we demonstrate that including a measurement of the continuum at intermediate wavelength (between the features) produces accurate results at all optical depths. With high-quality spectra, we successfully use the silicate features to constrain the dust chemistry. The observations of the ULIRGs and local sight lines require dust that has a relatively high 18 μm/10 μm absorption ratio of the silicate features (around 0.5). Specifically, the cold dust of Ossenkopf et al. is consistent with the observations, while other dust models are not. We use the silicate feature strengths to identify two families of ULIRGs, in which the dust distributions are fundamentally different. Optical spectral classifications are related to these families. In ULIRGs that harbor an active galactic nucleus, the spectrally broad lines are detected only when the nuclear surroundings are clumpy. In contrast, the sources of lower ionization optical spectra are deeply embedded in smooth distributions of optically thick dust.

  13. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOEpatents

    Kurtz, S.R.; Biefeld, R.M.; Dawson, L.R.; Howard, A.J.; Baucom, K.C.

    1997-04-29

    The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns. 8 figs.

  14. Method for improving visualization of infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimbalista, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Thermography has an extremely important difference from the other visual image converting electronic systems, like XRays or ultrasound: the infrared camera operator usually spend hour after hour with his/her eyes looking only at infrared images, sometimes several intermittent hours a day if not six or more continuous hours. This operational characteristic has a very important impact on yield, precision, errors and misinterpretation of the infrared images contents. Despite a great hardware development over the last fifty years, quality infrared thermography still lacks for a solution for these problems. The human eye physiology has not evolved to see infrared radiation neither the mind-brain has the capability to understand and decode infrared information. Chemical processes inside the human eye and functional cells distributions as well as cognitive-perceptual impact of images plays a crucial role in the perception, detection, and other steps of dealing with infrared images. The system presented here, called ThermoScala and patented in USA solves this problem using a coding process applicable to an original infrared image, generated from any value matrix, from any kind of infrared camera to make it much more suitable for human usage, causing a substantial difference in the way the retina and the brain processes the resultant images. The result obtained is a much less exhaustive way to see, identify and interpret infrared images generated by any infrared camera that uses this conversion process.

  15. Dynamic infrared scene projection: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Owen M.

    1998-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been major progress in the developing field of dynamic infrared scene projection, driven principally by the need for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the oncoming generation of imaging infrared missile seekers and more recently by the needs for realistic simulation of the new generation of thermal imagers and forward-looking infrared systems. In this paper the current status of the dynamic infrared projection field is reviewed, commencing with an outline of its history. The requirements for dynamic infrared scene projection are examined, allowing a set of validity criteria to be developed. Each class of infrared projector that has been investigated—emissive, transmissive, reflective, laser scanner and phosphor—together with the specific technology initiatives within the class is described and examined against the validity criteria. In this way the leading dynamic infrared scene projection technologies are identified.

  16. Proceedings of the Second Infrared Detector Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The workshop focused on infrared detector, detector array, and cryogenic electronic technologies relevant to low-background space astronomy. Papers are organized into the following categories: discrete infrared detectors and readout electronics; advanced bolometers; intrinsic integrated infrared arrays; and extrinsic integrated infrared arrays. Status reports on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) programs are also included.

  17. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-06-20

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  18. Temperature, Pressure, and Infrared Image Survey of an Axisymmetric Heated Exhaust Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Edward L.; Mahan, J. Robert; Birckelbaw, Larry D.; Turk, Jeffrey A.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Hange, Craig E.

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research is to numerically predict an infrared image of a jet engine exhaust plume, given field variables such as temperature, pressure, and exhaust plume constituents as a function of spatial position within the plume, and to compare this predicted image directly with measured data. This work is motivated by the need to validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes through infrared imaging. The technique of reducing the three-dimensional field variable domain to a two-dimensional infrared image invokes the use of an inverse Monte Carlo ray trace algorithm and an infrared band model for exhaust gases. This report describes an experiment in which the above-mentioned field variables were carefully measured. Results from this experiment, namely tables of measured temperature and pressure data, as well as measured infrared images, are given. The inverse Monte Carlo ray trace technique is described. Finally, experimentally obtained infrared images are directly compared to infrared images predicted from the measured field variables.

  19. Design of camouflage material for visible and near infrared based on thin film technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Lei; Shi, Jia-ming; Zhao, Da-peng; Liu, Hao; Wang, Chao; Xu, Yan-liang

    2015-11-01

    Visible light and near infrared based camouflage materials achieve good stealth under traditional optical detection equipment but its spectral differences with green plants can be taken advantage of by high spectrum based detection technologies. Based on the thin structure of bandpass filter, we designed an optical film with both green and near infrared spectrum. We conducted simulations using transfer matrix methods and optimized the result by simplex methods. The spectral reflectance curve of the proposed thin film matches that of green plants, and experiments show that the proposed thin film achieve good invisibility under visible light and near infrared in a wide viewing angle.

  20. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverburg, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The comparatively low spatial resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths. We have proposed a new high altitude balloon experiment, the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). High altitude operation makes far-infrared (30- 300micron) observations possible, and BETTII's 8-meter baseline provides unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 0.5 arcsec) in this band. BETTII will use a double-Fourier instrument to simultaneously obtain both spatial and spectral information. The spatially resolved spectroscopy provided by BETTII will address key questions about the nature of disks in young cluster stars and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the groundwork for future space interferometers.

  1. Wireless infrared communications for space and terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimmins, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Voice and data communications via wireless (and fiberless) optical means has been commonplace for many years. However, continuous advances in optoelectronics and microelectronics have resulted in significant advances in wireless optical communications over the last decade. Wilton has specialized in diffuse infrared voice and data communications since 1979. In 1986, NASA Johnson Space Center invited Wilton to apply its wireless telecommunications and factory floor technology to astronaut voice communications aboard the shuttle. In September, 1988 a special infrared voice communications system flew aboard a 'Discovery' Shuttle mission as a flight experiment. Since then the technology has been further developed, resulting in a general purpose of 2Mbs wireless voice/data LAN which has been tested for a variety of applications including use aboard Spacelab. Funds for Wilton's wireless IR development were provided in part by NASA's Technology Utilization Office and by the NASA Small Business Innovative Research Program. As a consequence, Wilton's commercial product capability has been significantly enhanced to include diffuse infrared wireless LAN's as well as wireless infrared telecommunication systems for voice and data.

  2. Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of molecules with infrared plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Infrared vibrational spectroscopy is an effective technique which enables the direct probe of molecular fingerprints, and such detection can be further enhanced by the emerging engineered plasmonic metamaterials. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrasensitive detection and characterization of polymer molecules based on an asymmetric infrared plasmonic metamaterial, and quantitatively analyze the molecule detection sensitivity and molecule-structure interactions. A sharp, non-radiative Fano resonance supported by the plasmonic metamaterial exhibits strongly enhanced near-field, and the resonance frequency is tailored to match the vibrational fingerprint of the target molecule. By utilizing the near-field nature of the plasmonic excitation, significantly enhanced absorption signal of molecules in the infrared spectroscopy are obtained, enabling ultrasensitive detection of only minute quantities of organic molecules. The enhancement of molecular absorption up to 105 fold is obtained, and sensitive detection of molecules at zeptomole levels (corresponding to a few tens of molecules within a unit cell) is achieved with high signal-to-noise ratio in our experiment. The demonstrated infrared plasmonic metamaterial sensing platform offers great potential for improving the specificity and sensitivity of label-free, biochemical detection.

  3. Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of molecules with infrared plasmonic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Infrared vibrational spectroscopy is an effective technique which enables the direct probe of molecular fingerprints, and such detection can be further enhanced by the emerging engineered plasmonic metamaterials. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrasensitive detection and characterization of polymer molecules based on an asymmetric infrared plasmonic metamaterial, and quantitatively analyze the molecule detection sensitivity and molecule-structure interactions. A sharp, non-radiative Fano resonance supported by the plasmonic metamaterial exhibits strongly enhanced near-field, and the resonance frequency is tailored to match the vibrational fingerprint of the target molecule. By utilizing the near-field nature of the plasmonic excitation, significantly enhanced absorption signal of molecules in the infrared spectroscopy are obtained, enabling ultrasensitive detection of only minute quantities of organic molecules. The enhancement of molecular absorption up to 105 fold is obtained, and sensitive detection of molecules at zeptomole levels (corresponding to a few tens of molecules within a unit cell) is achieved with high signal-to-noise ratio in our experiment. The demonstrated infrared plasmonic metamaterial sensing platform offers great potential for improving the specificity and sensitivity of label-free, biochemical detection. PMID:26388404

  4. Multiphoton infrared isotope separation using the MkIII FEL system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A. K.; Chesnokov, E. N.; Gorelik, S. R.; Molin, Yu. N.; Straub, K. D.; Szarmes, E. B.; Madey, J. M. J.

    1998-09-01

    The dissociation of polyatomic molecules induced by the absorption of multiple, infrared photons has been studied extensively beginning in the mid-1970's using multi-line molecular laser sources and tunable optical parametric oscillators. In 1995, we began a series of experiments to explore the use of the MkIII infrared FEL in studies of the dissociation of formic acid, nitromethane, ethyl chloride and chlorodifluoromethane in the gas phase, including measurements of isotopic selectivity [1-5].

  5. Tunable far infrared studies of molecular parameters in support of stratospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly V.; Evenson, K. M.; Park, K.; Radostitz, J. V.; Jennings, D. A.; Nolt, I. G.; Vanek, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    Lab studies were made in support of far infrared spectroscopy of the stratosphere using the Tunable Far InfraRed (TuFIR) method of ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy and, more recently, spectroscopic and retrieval calculations performed in support of satellite-based atmospheric measurement programs: the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY).

  6. Two instruments for far-infrared astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomo, J.L.

    1983-05-01

    Two instruments for far-infrared astrophysics are described. The first is a broad-band photometer used on White Mountain for astronomical observations from 10 to 30 cm/sup -1/ (300 GHz to 1 THz; lambda, 1 mm to 330 ..mu..). The optical system of the telescope includes a light-weight, high-speed, chopping secondary. The L /sup 4/He-cooled photometer uses low-pass filters and a L/sup 3/He-cooled, composite bolometer. The system performance is evaluated, and the site is compared to other possible platforms. The second project is a balloon-borne spectroradiometer to measure the cosmic background radiation from 3 to 10 cm/sup -1/ (100 GHz to 300 GHz; lambda, 3 mm to 1 mm). The apparatus has five band-pass filters with excellent rejection at higher frequencies, a low-noise chopper, and an internal calibrator. We describe the design and use of calibrators for such an experiment and develop a model of calibration procedures. The calibrations of several reported measurements are analyzed with this model, and flaws are found in one procedure. Finally, the system performance is used to estimate the accuracy this experiment can achieve.

  7. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): High Angular Resolution Astronomy at Far-Infrared Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission. and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The comparatively low spatial resolution of these missions, however. is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths. We have proposed a new high altitude balloon experiment, the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). High altitude operation makes far-infrared (30- 300micron) observations possible, and BETTII's 8-meter baseline provides unprecedented angular resolution (-0.5 arcsec) in this band. BETTII will use a double- Fourier instrument to simultaneously obtain both spatial and spectral informatioT. he spatially resolved spectroscopy provided by BETTII will address key questions about the nature of disks in young cluster stars and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the groundwork for future space interferometers.

  8. Infrared detectors for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, K.; Davis, R. P.; Knowles, P.; Shorrocks, N.

    2016-05-01

    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), developed by CNES and launched since 2006 on the Metop satellites, is established as a major source of data for atmospheric science and weather prediction. The next generation - IASI NG - is a French national contribution to the Eumetsat Polar System Second Generation on board of the Metop second generation satellites and is under development by Airbus Defence and Space for CNES. The mission aim is to achieve twice the performance of the original IASI instrument in terms of sensitivity and spectral resolution. In turn, this places very demanding requirements on the infrared detectors for the new instrument. Selex ES in Southampton has been selected for the development of the infrared detector set for the IASI-NG instruments. The wide spectral range, 3.6 to 15.5 microns, is covered in four bands, each served by a dedicated detector design, with a common 4 x 4 array format of 1.3 mm square macropixels. Three of the bands up to 8.7 microns employ photovoltaic MCT (mercury cadmium telluride) technology and the very long wave band employs photoconductive MCT, in common with the approach taken between Airbus and Selex ES for the SEVIRI instrument on Second Generation Meteosat. For the photovoltaic detectors, the MCT crystal growth of heterojunction photodiodes is by the MOVPE technique (metal organic vapour phase epitaxy). Novel approaches have been taken to hardening the photovoltaic macropixels against localised crystal defects, and integrating transimpedance amplifiers for each macropixel into a full-custom silicon read out chip, which incorporates radiation hard design.

  9. A Thermal Infrared Cloud Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallama, A.; Degnan, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    A thermal infrared imager for mapping the changing cloud cover over a ground based observing site has been developed. There are two main components to our instrument. One is a commercially made uncooled 10 micron thermal infrared detector that outputs a 120x120 pixel thermogram. The other is a convex electroplated reflector, which is situated beneath the detector and in its field of view. The resulting image covers the sky from zenith down to about 10 degrees elevation. The self-reflection of the camera and supporting vanes is removed by interpolation. Atmospheric transparency is distinguished by the difference between the sky temperature and the ambient air temperature. Clear sky is indicated by pixels having a difference of about 20 degrees C or more. The qualitative results 'clear, haze and cloud' have proven to be very reliable during two years of development and testing. Quantitative information, such as the extinction coefficient, is also available though it is not exact. The uncertainty is probably due to variability of the lapse rate under different atmospheric conditions. Software has been written for PC/DOS and VME/LynxOS (similar to Linux) systems in the C programming language. Functionality includes serial communication with the detector, analysis of the thermogram, mapping of cloud cover, data display, and file I/O. The main elements of cost in this system were for the thermal infrared detector and for the machining of an 18-inch diameter stainless steel mandrel. The latter is needed to produce an electroplated reflector. We have had good success with the gold and rhodium reflectors that have been generated. The reflectors themselves are relatively inexpensive now that the mandrel is available.

  10. The NIST Quantitative Infrared Database

    PubMed Central

    Chu, P. M.; Guenther, F. R.; Rhoderick, G. C.; Lafferty, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    With the recent developments in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers it is becoming more feasible to place these instruments in field environments. As a result, there has been enormous increase in the use of FTIR techniques for a variety of qualitative and quantitative chemical measurements. These methods offer the possibility of fully automated real-time quantitation of many analytes; therefore FTIR has great potential as an analytical tool. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) has developed protocol methods for emissions monitoring using both extractive and open-path FTIR measurements. Depending upon the analyte, the experimental conditions and the analyte matrix, approximately 100 of the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in the 1990 U.S.EPA Clean Air Act amendment (CAAA) can be measured. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has initiated a program to provide quality-assured infrared absorption coefficient data based on NIST prepared primary gas standards. Currently, absorption coefficient data has been acquired for approximately 20 of the HAPs. For each compound, the absorption coefficient spectrum was calculated using nine transmittance spectra at 0.12 cm−1 resolution and the Beer’s law relationship. The uncertainties in the absorption coefficient data were estimated from the linear regressions of the transmittance data and considerations of other error sources such as the nonlinear detector response. For absorption coefficient values greater than 1 × 10−4 μmol/mol)−1 m−1 the average relative expanded uncertainty is 2.2 %. This quantitative infrared database is currently an ongoing project at NIST. Additional spectra will be added to the database as they are acquired. Our current plans include continued data acquisition of the compounds listed in the CAAA, as well as the compounds that contribute to global warming and ozone depletion.

  11. MMT and Magellan infrared spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Brian A.; Fabricant, Daniel; Geary, John; Martini, Paul; Nystrom, George; Elston, Richard; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Epps, Harland

    2004-09-01

    We present the preliminary design for the MMT and Magellan Infrared Spectrograph (MMIRS). MMIRS is a fully refractive imager and multi-object spectrograph that uses a 2048x2048 pixel Hawaii2 HgCdTe array. It offers a 7'x7' imaging field of view and a 4'x7' field of view for multi-object spectroscopy. Dispersion is provided by a set of 5 grisms providing R=3000 at J, H, or K, or R=1300 in J+H or H+K.

  12. Infrared imaging of extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Tubbs, Eldred F.; Gaiser, Steven L.; Korechoff, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    An optical system for direct detection, in the infrared, of planets orbiting other stars is described. The proposed system consists of a large aperture (about 16 m) space-based telescope to which is attached a specialized imaging instrument containing a set of optical signal processing elements to suppress diffracted light from the central star. Starlight suppression is accomplished using coronagraphic apodization combined with rotational shearing interferometry. The possibility of designing the large telescope aperture to be of a deployable, multiarm configuration is examined, and it is shown that there is some sacrifice in performance relative to a filled, circular aperture.

  13. Stray light in infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dafu; He, Xiangrong; Wang, Xiaokun; Zhang, Kefeng; Tang, Hengjing; Li, Tao

    2009-07-01

    Infrared optical system which has severe requirements on stray light levels often need cold shield around the detector. Some basic design principles and goals for baffles are presented. The location of vanes for cold shield are shown based on universal design criteria of baffle vane. Three different categories of vane designs for cold shield and their advantages for stray light control are discussed: one vane, two vanes and three vanes. The design of vane structure on cold shield surfaces is analyzed using the LIGHTTOOLS stray light software. The PST curves of cold shield without vane and with different vanes are given.

  14. Isotope-edited infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Ginka S; Kubelka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Isotope-edited infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying structural and dynamical properties of peptides and proteins with site-specific resolution. Labeling of selected amide carbonyls with (13)C results in detectable sidebands of amide I' vibrations, which provide information about local conformation and/or solvent exposure without structural perturbation to the protein. Incorporation of isotopically labeled amino acids at specific positions is achieved by the chemical synthesis of the studied proteins. We describe the basic procedures for synthesis of (13)C isotopically edited protein samples, experimental IR spectroscopic measurements, and analysis of the site-specific structural changes from the thermal unfolding IR data.

  15. PDX infrared TV camera system

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    An infrared TV camera system has been developed for use on PDX. This system is capable of measuring the temporal and spatial energy deposition on the limiters and divertor neutralizer plates; time resolutions of 1 ms are achievable. The system has been used to measure the energy deposition on the PDX neutralizer plates and the temperature jump of limiter surfaces during a pulse. The energy scrapeoff layer is found to have characteristic dimensions of the order of a cm. The measurement of profiles is very sensitive to variations in the thermal emissivity of the surfaces.

  16. Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea.

    PubMed

    Xia, Nan; Wu, Xiao Y; Wang, Xing; Mou, Zong X; Wang, Man Q; Gu, Xin; Zheng, Xiao L; Hou, Wen S

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed near-infrared radiation has been proposed as an alternative stimulus for auditory nerve stimulation and could be potentially used in the design of cochlear implant. Although the infrared with high absorption coefficient of water (i.e., wavelength ranged from 1.8 to 2.2 μm) has been widely investigated, the lymph in the cochlea absorbs most of the infrared energies, and only a small part can arrive at the target auditory nerves. The present study is aimed to test whether the short-wavelength near-infrared irradiation with lower absorption coefficients can penetrate the lymph fluid to stimulate the auditory nerves. An 808-nm near-infrared laser was chosen to stimulate the auditory nerve in the guinea pig cochlea. The infrared pulse was delivered by an optical fiber that was surgically inserted near the round window membrane and oriented toward the spiral ganglion cells in the basal turn of the cochlea. The 2-Hz infrared pulses were used to stimulate the cochlea before and after the deafness with different pulse durations (100-1,000 μs). Optically evoked compound action potentials (oCAPs) were recorded during the infrared radiation. We successfully recorded oCAPs from both normal hearing animals and deafened animals. The oCAP amplitude increased with the infrared radiation energy. The preliminary experiment suggests that the near-infrared with lower absorption coefficients can effectively pass through the lymph filled in the cochlea and stimulate the auditory nerve. Further studies will optimize the deafness animal model and determine the optimal stimulation parameters.

  17. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  18. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  19. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOEpatents

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-01-21

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile. 9 figs.

  20. Catalog of Infrared Observations, Third Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Pitts, Patricia S.; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1993-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement contains a subset of the data in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (all observations at wavelengths greater than 4.6 microns). The Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), NASA RP-1294, is a compilation of infrared astronomical observational data obtained from an extensive literature search of scientific journals and major astronomical catalogs and surveys. The literature search is complete for years 1965 through 1990 in this Third Edition. The Catalog contains about 210,000 observations of roughly 20,000 individual sources and supporting appendices. The expanded Third Edition contains coded IRAS 4-band data for all CIO sources detected by IRAS. The appendices include an atlas of infrared source positions (also included in this volume), two bibliographies of Catalog listings, and an atlas of infrared spectral ranges. The complete CIO database is available to qualified users in printed, microfiche, and magnetic-tape formats.

  1. Catalog of infrared observations, third edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Pitts, Patricia S.; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1993-06-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement contains a subset of the data in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (all observations at wavelengths greater than 4.6 microns). The Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), NASA RP-1294, is a compilation of infrared astronomical observational data obtained from an extensive literature search of scientific journals and major astronomical catalogs and surveys. The literature search is complete for years 1965 through 1990 in this Third Edition. The Catalog contains about 210,000 observations of roughly 20,000 individual sources and supporting appendices. The expanded Third Edition contains coded IRAS 4-band data for all CIO sources detected by IRAS. The appendices include an atlas of infrared source positions (also included in this volume), two bibliographies of Catalog listings, and an atlas of infrared spectral ranges. The complete CIO database is available to qualified users in printed, microfiche, and magnetic-tape formats.

  2. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil; Tang, Zhuoqi; Furniss, David; Sojka, Lukasz; Stone, Nick; Jayakrupakar, Nallala; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Lindsay, Ian; Ward, Jon; Farries, Mark; Moselund, Peter M.; Napier, Bruce; Lamrini, Samir; Møller, Uffe; Kubat, Irnis; Petersen, Christian R.; Bang, Ole

    2016-03-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the midinfrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy (`opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis of external cancers, mid-infrared detection of cancer-margins during external surgery for precise removal of diseased tissue, in one go during the surgery, and mid-infrared endoscopy for early diagnosis of internal cancers and their precision removal. The mid-infrared spectral region has previously lacked portable, bright sources. We set a record in demonstrating extreme broad-band supercontinuum generated light 1.4 to 13.3 microns in a specially engineered, high numerical aperture mid-infrared optical fiber. The active mid-infrared fiber broadband supercontinuum for the first time offers the possibility of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security, agriculture and in manufacturing and chemical processing. This work is in part supported by the European Commission: Framework Seven (FP7) Large-Scale Integrated Project MINERVA: MId-to-NEaR- infrared spectroscopy for improVed medical diAgnostics (317803; www.minerva-project.eu).

  3. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  4. Modal Filters for Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, Alexander; MacDonald, Daniel R.; Soibel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range have been implemented as planar dielectric waveguides in infrared interferometric applications such as searching for Earth-like planets. When looking for a small, dim object ("Earth") in close proximity to a large, bright object ("Sun"), the interferometric technique uses beams from two telescopes combined with a 180 phase shift in order to cancel the light from a brighter object. The interferometer baseline can be adjusted so that, at the same time, the light from the dimmer object arrives at the combiner in phase. This light can be detected and its infrared (IR) optical spectra can be studied. The cancellation of light from the "Sun" to approximately equal to 10(exp 6) is required; this is not possible without special devices-modal filters- that equalize the wavefronts arriving from the two telescopes. Currently, modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range are implemented as single- mode fibers. Using semiconductor technology, single-mode waveguides for use as modal filters were fabricated. Two designs were implemented: one using an InGaAs waveguide layer matched to an InP substrate, and one using InAlAs matched to an InP substrate. Photon Design software was used to design the waveguides, with the main feature all designs being single-mode operation in the 10.5- to 17-micrometer spectral range. Preliminary results show that the filter's rejection ratio is 26 dB.

  5. Far infrared measurements of cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolt, Ira G.; Vanek, Michael D.; Tappan, N. D.; Minnis, Patrick; Alltop, J. L.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Lee, C.; Hamilton, Peter A.; Evans, K. Franklin; Evans, A. H.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Baran, Anthony J.

    1999-12-01

    Improved techniques for remote sensing of cirrus are needed to obtain global data for assessing the effect of cirrus in climate change models. Model calculations show that the far infrared/sub-millimeter spectral region is well suited for retrieving cirrus Ice Water Path and particle size parameters. Especially useful cirrus information is obtained at frequencies below 60 cm-1 where single particle scattering dominates over thermal emission for ice particles larger than about 50 micrometer. Earth radiance spectra have been obtained for a range of cloud conditions using an aircraft-based Fourier transform spectrometer. The Far InfraRed Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC) is a Martin-Puplett interferometer which incorporates a polarizer for the beamsplitter and can be operated in either intensity or linear polarization measurement mode. Two detector channels span 10 to 140 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1; achieving a Noise Equivalent Temperature of approximately 1K at 30 cm-1 in a 4 sec scan. Examples are shown of measured and modeled Earth radiance for a range of cloud conditions from 1998 and 1999 flights.

  6. Jupiter Eruptions Captured in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for high resolution image of Nature Cover

    Detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter's atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter's internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances. Understanding these outbreaks could be the key to unlock the mysteries buried in the deep Jovian atmosphere, say astronomers.

    This infrared image shows two bright plume eruptions obtained by the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on April 5, 2007.

    Understanding these phenomena is important for Earth's meteorology where storms are present everywhere and jet streams dominate the atmospheric circulation. Jupiter is a natural laboratory where atmospheric scientists study the nature and interplay of the intense jets and severe atmospheric phenomena.

    According to the analysis, the bright plumes were storm systems triggered in Jupiter's deep water clouds that moved upward in the atmosphere vigorously and injected a fresh mixture of ammonia ice and water about 20 miles (30 kilometers) above the visible clouds. The storms moved in the peak of a jet stream in Jupiter's atmosphere at 375 miles per hour (600 kilometers per hour). Models of the disturbance indicate that the jet stream extends deep in the buried atmosphere of Jupiter, more than 60 miles (approximately100 kilometers) below the cloud tops where most sunlight is absorbed.

  7. Volcano surveillance using infrared cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Letizia; Calvari, Sonia; Oppenheimer, Clive; Boschi, Enzo

    2011-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are commonly preceded, accompanied, and followed by variations of a number of detectable geophysical and geochemical manifestations. Many remote sensing techniques have been applied to tracking anomalies and eruptive precursors, and monitoring ongoing volcanic eruptions, offering obvious advantages over in situ techniques especially during hazardous activity. Whilst spaceborne instruments provide a distinct advantage for collecting data remotely in this regard, they still cannot match the spatial detail or time resolution achievable using portable imagers on the ground or aircraft. Hand-held infrared camera technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, resulting in a proliferation of commercially available instruments, such that volcano observatories are increasingly implementing them in monitoring efforts. Improved thermal surveillance of active volcanoes has not only enhanced hazard assessment but it has contributed substantially to understanding a variety of volcanic processes. Drawing on over a decade of operational volcano surveillance in Italy, we provide here a critical review of the application of infrared thermal cameras to volcano monitoring. Following a summary of key physical principles, instrument capabilities, and the practicalities and methods of data collection, we discuss the types of information that can be retrieved from thermal imagery and what they have contributed to hazard assessment and risk management, and to physical volcanology. With continued developments in thermal imager technology and lower instrument costs, there will be increasing opportunity to gather valuable observations of volcanoes. It is thus timely to review the state of the art and we hope thereby to stimulate further research and innovation in this area.

  8. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2016-06-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman-Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cutoff) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can be well described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field theories, require at least a perturbative treatment of inhomogeneity beyond a strict minisuperspace model. The new methods suggest a systematic extension of minisuperspace models by a canonical effective formulation of perturbative inhomogeneity.

  9. Far Infrared Measurements of Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolt, I. G.; Vanek, M. D.; Tappan, N. D.; Minnis, P.; Alltop, J. L.; Ade, A. R.; Lee, C.; Hamilton, P. A.; Evans, K. F.; Evans, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Improved techniques for remote sensing of cirrus are needed to obtain global data for assessing the effect of cirrus in climate change models. Model calculations show that the far infrared/sub-millimeter spectral region is well suited for retrieving cirrus Ice Water Path and particle size parameters. Especially useful cirrus information is obtained at frequencies below 60 cm-1 where single particle scattering dominates over thermal emission for ice particles larger than about 50 m. Earth radiance spectra have been obtained for a range of cloud conditions using an aircraft-based Fourier transform spectrometer. The Far InfraRed Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC) is a Martin-Puplett interferometer which incorporates a polarizer for the beamsplitter and can be operated in either intensity or linear polarization measurement mode. Two detector channels span 10 to 140 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1; achieving a Noise Equivalent Temperature of approximately 1K at 30 cm-1 in a 4 sec scan. Examples are shown of measured and modeled Earth radiance for a range of cloud conditions from 1998 and 1999 flights.

  10. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  11. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  12. Infrared Microspectroscopy Of Pathologic Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Timothy J.; Engler, Walter F.; Ventre, Kathleen M.

    1989-12-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique by which to characterize the conformations of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (1). Previously we have demonstrated that infrared spectroscopy can be used to characterize the secondary structure of abnormal protein accumulation products, known as amyloid, which are often found in association with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (2). The utility of the technique was highly limited by the fact that essentially the entire specimen had to consist of this abnormal protein for infrared spectroscopic analysis to be useful. The development of high quality microscopes capable of both light microscopic and infrared characterization of materials has enabled us to extend our earlier use of infrared spectroscopy to diseases and tissues in which the abnormal region of interest is only a few hundred square micrometers in area. Tissue for spectroscopic examination is mounted on microscope slides which have been prepared by acid washing, plating with gold or gold-palladium alloy (3) and coating with high molecular weight poly-L-lysine. Sections of tissue which have been previously embedded in paraffin are cut with a microtome at 4 to 5 micrometers thickness, floated onto a bath of distilled water, picked up on the microscope slide, and allowed to dry overnight. Paraffin is removed by soaking the slides in two changes of xylene, and then the sections are rehydrated by placing them in absolute alcohol, then in fifty percent alcohol, and finally in water. Sections may then be stained using standard histologic stains, such as hematoxylin and eosin, then once again dehydrated with alcohol. After drying, the sections are covered with an index-matching fluid, such as Fluorolube, which allows a relatively good visual microscopic examination of the tissue when the microscope is used in reflectance mode. High quality reflectance infrared spectra may be easily obtained when the tissue is prepared and mounted in this way (Figure 1

  13. The infrared emission from supernova condensates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.; Werner, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of detecting grains formed in supernovae by observations of their emission in the infrared is examined. The basic processes determining the temperature and infrared radiation of grains in supernova environments are analyzed, and the results are used to estimate the infrared emission from the highly metal enriched fast moving knots in Cas A. The predicted fluxes lie within the reach of current ground-based facilities at 10 microns, and their emission should be detectable throughout the infrared band with cryogenic space telescopes.

  14. Antimonide-based barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Soibel, Alexander; Nguyen, Jean; Keo, Sam A.; Lee, Michael C.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2010-04-01

    The nearly lattice-matched InAs/GaSb/AlSb (antimonide) material system offers tremendous flexibility in realizing high-performance infrared detectors. Antimonide-based alloy and superlattice infrared absorbers can be customized to have cutoff wavelengths ranging from the short wave infrared (SWIR) to the very long wave infrared (VLWIR). They can be used in constructing sophisticated heterostructures to enable advanced infrared photodetector designs. In particular, they facilitate the construction of unipolar barriers, which can block one carrier type but allow the unimpeded flow of the other. Unipolar barriers are used to implement the barrier infra-red detector (BIRD) design for increasing the collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, and reducing dark current generation without impeding photocurrent flow. We report our recent efforts in achieving state-of-the-art performance in antimonide alloy and superlattice based infrared photodetectors using the BIRD architecture. Specifically, we report a 10 μm cutoff superlattice device based on a complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design. The detector, without antireflection coating or passivation, exhibits a responsivity of 1.5 A/W and a dark current density of 1×10-5 A/cm2 at 77K under 0.2 V bias. It reaches 300 K background limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) operation at 87 K, with a blackbody BLIP D* value of 1.1×1011 cm-Hz1/2/W for f/2 optics under 0.2 V bias.

  15. Integrated-Circuit Broadband Infrared Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, G.; Jhabvala, M.; Burgess, A.

    1989-01-01

    Microscopic devices consume less power, run hotter, and are more reliable. Simple, compact, lightweight, rapidly-responding reference sources of broadband infrared radiation made available by integrated-circuit technology. Intended primarily for use in calibration of remote-sensing infrared instruments, devices eventually replace conventional infrared sources. New devices also replace present generation of miniature infrared sources. Self-passivating nature of poly-crystalline silicon adds to reliability of devices. Maximum operating temperature is 1,000 K, and power dissipation is only one-fourth that of prior devices.

  16. Remote sensing by infrared heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The use of infrared heterodyne spectrocopy for the study of planetary atmospheres is discussed. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy provides a convenient and sensitive method for measuring the true intensity profiles of atmospheric spectral lines. Application of radiative transfer theory to measured lineshapes can then permit the study of molecular abundances, temperatures, total pressures, excitation conditions, and dynamics of the regions of line formation. The theory of formation of atmospheric spectral lines and the retrieval of the information contained in these molecular lines is illustrated. Notable successes of such retrievals from infrared heterodyne measurements on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and the Earth are given. A discussion of developments in infrared heterodyne technology is also presented.

  17. Science off the Sphere: Earth in Infrared

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit views cities, agricultural areas and deserts using an infrared camera for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA...

  18. Infrared source cross-index, first edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1987-04-01

    The Infrared Source Cross-Index is a listing of correlated infrared source names (and positions) for astronomical objects observed at 1-1000 microns. The source names have been obtained from the database of the first edition of the Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO: NASA RP 1118), covering observations published through l982. Additional identifications were located by correlating these names with identifications contained in other machine-readable astronomical catalogs in the NASA National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). There are some 80,000 different source names in the Cross-Index, corresponding to over 27,000 unique infrared sources.

  19. Application of Infrared Scanners to Forest Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, S. N.

    1971-01-01

    The potential of using infrared scanners for the detection of forest fires is discussed. An experiment is described in which infrared and visual detection systems were used jointly to study timber fire detection. Many fires were detected visually but missed by the airborne IR system, and many fires were detected by the IR system but missed visually. Until more is learned about the relationship between heat output and smoke output from latent fires, the relative effectiveness of visual and IR systems cannot be determined. The 1970 tests indicated that IR used in combination with visual detection will result in a more efficient system than visual alone. Even with limited knowledge of the relative effectiveness of the two systems, operational use of a combined system can be used to substantially reduce total firefighting costs.

  20. Unveiling in Vivo Subcutaneous Thermal Dynamics by Infrared Luminescent Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Ximendes, Erving Clayton; Santos, Weslley Queiroz; Rocha, Uéslen; Kagola, Upendra Kumar; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Fernández, Nuria; Gouveia-Neto, Artur da Silva; Bravo, David; Domingo, Agustín Martín; del Rosal, Blanca; Brites, Carlos D S; Carlos, Luís Dias; Jaque, Daniel; Jacinto, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The recent development of core/shell engineering of rare earth doped luminescent nanoparticles has ushered a new era in fluorescence thermal biosensing, allowing for the performance of minimally invasive experiments, not only in living cells but also in more challenging small animal models. Here, the potential use of active-core/active-shell Nd(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped nanoparticles as subcutaneous thermal probes has been evaluated. These temperature nanoprobes operate in the infrared transparency window of biological tissues, enabling deep temperature sensing into animal bodies thanks to the temperature dependence of their emission spectra that leads to a ratiometric temperature readout. The ability of active-core/active-shell Nd(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped nanoparticles for unveiling fundamental tissue properties in in vivo conditions was demonstrated by subcutaneous thermal relaxation monitoring through the injected core/shell nanoparticles. The reported results evidence the potential of infrared luminescence nanothermometry as a diagnosis tool at the small animal level. PMID:26845418

  1. High performance infrared fast cooled detectors for missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Yann; Espuno, Laurent; Taalat, Rachid; Sultan, Ahmad; Cassaigne, Pierre; Matallah, Noura

    2016-05-01

    SOFRADIR was selected in the late 90's for the production of 320×256 MW detectors for major European missile programs. This experience has established our company as a key player in the field of missile programs. SOFRADIR has since developed a vast portfolio of lightweight, compact and high performance JT-based solutions for missiles. ALTAN is a 384x288 Mid Wave infrared detector with 15μm pixel pitch, and is offered in a miniature ultra-fast Joule- Thomson cooled Dewar. Since Sofradir offers both Indium Antimonide (InSb) and Mercury Cadmium Telluride technologies (MCT), we are able to deliver the detectors best suited to customers' needs. In this paper we are discussing different figures of merit for very compact and innovative JT-cooled detectors and are highlighting the challenges for infrared detection technologies.

  2. Development of Kinetic Inductance Detectors for Far-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, Alyssa; Aguirre, James E.; Stevenson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An instrument with high sensitivity and spectral resolution at far-infrared wavelengths could contribute significantly to several currently unanswered questions in astrophysics. Here, we describe a detector system suitable for a spectroscopic experiment at far-infrared wavelengths using kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). KIDs have the potential to achieve high sensitivity and low noise levels. Specifically, the approach we take uses lumped-element KIDs, which consist of separate capacitive and inductive elements combined to form a microresonator. The inductive element serves as a direct radiation absorber. We describe the design considerations, fabrication process, and readout scheme for a prototype LEKID array of 1600 pixels, along with results from a prototype detector array.

  3. Development and deployment of infrared fever screening systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yang How; Teo, Chee Wah; Ong, Eric; Tan, Lay Beng; Soo, Ming Jern

    2004-04-01

    The Infrared Fever Screening System (IFSS), conceptualised by Singapore's Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) and Singapore Technologies Electronics during the 2003 SARS outbreak, is the first infrared-based system in the world to be used for fever screening of large groups of people. The IFSS does not measure skin temperature but uses a two-point detection concept to screen for fever. The first decision point is to sieve out probable febrile persons using thermal imagers and the second decision point is the confirmation that the subject has an elevated body temperature using conventional clinical thermometers. Statistics, physics and human physiology were key inputs in the design of the IFSS. Workflow and other operational considerations such as operator training are also important in ensuring the performance of the IFSS. This paper shares our experience in the development and deployment of the IFSS.

  4. Unveiling in Vivo Subcutaneous Thermal Dynamics by Infrared Luminescent Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Ximendes, Erving Clayton; Santos, Weslley Queiroz; Rocha, Uéslen; Kagola, Upendra Kumar; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Fernández, Nuria; Gouveia-Neto, Artur da Silva; Bravo, David; Domingo, Agustín Martín; del Rosal, Blanca; Brites, Carlos D S; Carlos, Luís Dias; Jaque, Daniel; Jacinto, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The recent development of core/shell engineering of rare earth doped luminescent nanoparticles has ushered a new era in fluorescence thermal biosensing, allowing for the performance of minimally invasive experiments, not only in living cells but also in more challenging small animal models. Here, the potential use of active-core/active-shell Nd(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped nanoparticles as subcutaneous thermal probes has been evaluated. These temperature nanoprobes operate in the infrared transparency window of biological tissues, enabling deep temperature sensing into animal bodies thanks to the temperature dependence of their emission spectra that leads to a ratiometric temperature readout. The ability of active-core/active-shell Nd(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped nanoparticles for unveiling fundamental tissue properties in in vivo conditions was demonstrated by subcutaneous thermal relaxation monitoring through the injected core/shell nanoparticles. The reported results evidence the potential of infrared luminescence nanothermometry as a diagnosis tool at the small animal level.

  5. Thermal analysis of nanofluids in microfluidics using an infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Yi, Pyshar; Kayani, Aminuddin A; Chrimes, Adam F; Ghorbani, Kamran; Nahavandi, Saeid; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2012-07-21

    We present the thermal analysis of liquid containing Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles in a microfluidic platform using an infrared camera. The small dimensions of the microchannel along with the low flow rates (less than 120 μl min(-1)) provide very low Reynolds numbers of less than 17.5, reflecting practical parameters for a microfluidic cooling platform. The heat analysis of nanofluids has never been investigated in such a regime, due to the deficiencies of conventional thermal measurement systems. The infrared camera allows non-contact, three dimensional and high resolution capability for temperature profiling. The system was studied at different w/w concentrations of thermally conductive Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles and the experiments were in excellent agreement with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

  6. Convective rainfall estimation from digital GOES-1 infrared data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sickler, G. L.; Thompson, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of developing and objective technique for estimating convective rainfall from digital GOES-1 infrared data. The study area was a 240 km by 240 km box centered on College Station, Texas (Texas A and M University). The Scofield and Oliver (1977) rainfall estimation scheme was adapted and used with the digital geostationary satellite data. The concept of enhancement curves with respect to rainfall approximation is discussed. Raingage rainfall analyses and satellite-derived rainfall estimation analyses were compared. The correlation for the station data pairs (observed versus estimated rainfall amounts) for the convective portion of the storm was 0.92. It was demonstrated that a fairly accurate objective rainfall technique using digital geostationary infrared satellite data is feasible. The rawinsonde and some synoptic data that were used in this investigation came from NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment, AVE 7.

  7. Kinetic inductance detectors for far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, A.; Aguirre, J.; Stevenson, T.

    2016-07-01

    The star formation mechanisms at work in the early universe remain one of the major unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. Many of the luminous galaxies present during the period of peak star formation (at redshift of about 2.5) were heavily enshrouded in dust, which makes observing their properties difficult at optical wavelengths. However, many spectral lines exist at far-infrared wavelengths that serve as tracers of star formation. Here, we describe a detector system suitable for a balloon-borne spectroscopic intensity mapping experiment at far-infrared wavelengths. The system uses lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs), which have the potential to achieve high sensitivity and low noise levels. KIDs consist of separate capacitive and inductive elements, and use the inductive element as the radiation absorber. We describe the design considerations, fabrication process, and readout scheme for a prototype LEKID array of 1600 pixels.

  8. Thermal Design for Infrared Sensor Pixel Operated at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Yuya; Nakano, Tatsuya; Maeda, Naoki; Kimata, Masafumi; Takahata, Akihiro

    This paper discusses the effect of thermal conduction through the air on the sensitivity of thermal infrared detectors fabricated in a bulk micro-machining process from the device's front side. ANSYS analysis shows that the thermal conduction from the edge of the freestanding detector structure to the heat sink (Si substrate) considerably impacts the sensitivity. To confirm this phenomenon experimentally, we fabricated a TEG that includes thermopile infrared sensors with various distances between the edge of the freestanding detector structure and the Si substrate. TEG evaluation shows that the ANSYS analysis is quantitatively in good agreement with the experiment. The results obtained in this study suggest an optimum design from the viewpoint of thermal conduction through the air and the fill factor of the sensitive area.

  9. Physical Retrieval of Surface Emissivity Spectrum from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Weisz, Elisabeth; Zhou, Daniel K.

    2007-01-01

    Retrieval of temperature, moisture profiles and surface skin temperature from hyperspectral infrared (IR) radiances requires spectral information about the surface emissivity. Using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities typically results in large retrieval errors, particularly over semi-arid or arid areas where the variation in emissivity spectrum is large both spectrally and spatially. In this study, a physically based algorithm has been developed to retrieve a hyperspectral IR emissivity spectrum simultaneously with the temperature and moisture profiles, as well as the surface skin temperature. To make the solution stable and efficient, the hyperspectral emissivity spectrum is represented by eigenvectors, derived from the laboratory measured hyperspectral emissivity database, in the retrieval process. Experience with AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder) radiances shows that a simultaneous retrieval of the emissivity spectrum and the sounding improves the surface skin temperature as well as temperature and moisture profiles, particularly in the near surface layer.

  10. Cloud identification in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Brian H; Eldering, Annmarie; Irion, Fredrick W; Mills, Franklin P; Sen, Bhaswar; Gunson, Michael R

    2002-05-20

    High-resolution infrared nongas absorption spectra derived from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment are analyzed for evidence of the presence of cirrus clouds. Several nonspherical ice extinction models based on realistic size distributions and crystal habits along with a stratospheric sulfate aerosol model are fit to the spectra, and comparisons are made with different model combinations. Nonspherical ice models often fit observed transmission spectra better than a spherical Mie ice model, and some discrimination among nonspherical models is noted. The ATMOS lines of sight for eight occultations are superimposed on coincident geostationary satellite infrared imagery, and brightness temperatures along the lines of sight are compared with retrieved vertical temperature profiles. With these comparisons, studies of two cases of clear sky, three cases of opaque cirrus, and three cases of patchy cirrus are discussed.

  11. High-pressure-low-temperature cryostat designed for use with fourier transform infrared spectrometers and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Calladine, James A; Love, Ashley; Fields, Peter A; Wilson, Richard G M; George, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    The design for a new high-pressure-low-temperature infrared (IR) cell for performing experiments using conventional Fourier transform infrared or fast laser-based time-resolved infrared spectroscopy, in a range of solvents, is described. The design builds upon a commercially available compressor and cold end (Polycold PCC(®) and CryoTiger(®)), which enables almost vibration-free operation, ideal for use with sensitive instrumentation. The design of our cell and cryostat allows for the study of systems at temperatures from 77 to 310 K and at pressures up to 250 bar. The CaF2 windows pass light from the mid-IR to the ultraviolet (UV), enabling a number of experiments to be performed, such as Raman, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and time-resolved techniques where sample excitation/probing using continuous wave or pulsed lasers is required. We demonstrate the capabilities of this cell by detailing two different applications: (i) the reactivity of a range of Group V-VII organometallic alkane complexes using time-resolved spectroscopy on the millisecond timescale and (ii) the gas-to-liquid phase transition of CO2 at low temperature, which is applicable to measurements associated with transportation issues related to carbon capture and storage.

  12. Low cost infrared and near infrared sensors for UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aden, S. T.; Bialas, J. P.; Champion, Z.; Levin, E.; McCarty, J. L.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal remote sensing has a wide range of applications, though the extent of its use is inhibited by cost. Robotic and computer components are now widely available to consumers on a scale that makes thermal data a readily accessible resource. In this project, thermal imagery collected via a lightweight remote sensing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was used to create a surface temperature map for the purpose of providing wildland firefighting crews with a cost-effective and time-saving resource. The UAV system proved to be flexible, allowing for customized sensor packages to be designed that could include visible or infrared cameras, GPS, temperature sensors, and rangefinders, in addition to many data management options. Altogether, such a UAV system could be used to rapidly collect thermal and aerial data, with a geographic accuracy of less than one meter.

  13. Low-Cost Accelerometers for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Straulino, Samuele

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of a modern game-console controller as a data acquisition interface for physics experiments is discussed. The investigated controller is equipped with three perpendicular accelerometers and a built-in infrared camera to evaluate its own relative position. A pendulum experiment is realized as a demonstration of the proposed…

  14. Infrared Spectroscopy of the H2/HD/D2-O2 Van Der Waals Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and oxygen is the third, so understanding the interaction between the two in their different forms is important to understanding astrochemical processes. The interaction between H2 and O2 has been explored in low energy scattering experiments and by far infrared synchrotron spectroscopy of the van der Waals complex. The far infrared spectra suggest a parallel stacked average structure with seven bound rotationally excited states. Here, we present the far infrared spectrum of HD/D2-O2 and the mid infrared spectrum of H2-O2 at 80 K, recorded at the infrared beamline facility of the Australian Synchrotron. We observed 'sharp' peaks in the mid infrared region, corresponding to the end over end rotation of H2-O2, that are comparatively noisier than analogous peaks in the far infrared where the synchrotron light is brightest. The larger reduced mass of HD and D2 compared to H2 is expected to result in more rotational bound states and narrower bands. The latest results in our ongoing efforts to explore this system will be presented. Y. Kalugina, et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14, 16458 (2012) S. Chefdeville et al. Science 341, 1094 (2013) H. Bunn et al. ApJ 799, 65 (2015)

  15. Compensated infrared absorption sensor for carbon dioxide and other infrared absorbing gases

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2005-11-29

    A gas sensor, whose chamber uses filters and choppers in either a semicircular geometry or annular geometry, and incorporates separate infrared radiation filters and optical choppers. This configuration facilitates the use of a single infrared radiation source and a single detector for infrared measurements at two wavelengths, such that measurement errors may be compensated.

  16. Performance evaluation of infrared imaging system in field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chensheng; Guo, Xiaodong; Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Zhi-jie

    2014-11-01

    Infrared imaging system has been applied widely in both military and civilian fields. Since the infrared imager has various types and different parameters, for system manufacturers and customers, there is great demand for evaluating the performance of IR imaging systems with a standard tool or platform. Since the first generation IR imager was developed, the standard method to assess the performance has been the MRTD or related improved methods which are not perfect adaptable for current linear scanning imager or 2D staring imager based on FPA detector. For this problem, this paper describes an evaluation method based on the triangular orientation discrimination metric which is considered as the effective and emerging method to evaluate the synthesis performance of EO system. To realize the evaluation in field test, an experiment instrument is developed. And considering the importance of operational environment, the field test is carried in practical atmospheric environment. The test imagers include panoramic imaging system and staring imaging systems with different optics and detectors parameters (both cooled and uncooled). After showing the instrument and experiment setup, the experiment results are shown. The target range performance is analyzed and discussed. In data analysis part, the article gives the range prediction values obtained from TOD method, MRTD method and practical experiment, and shows the analysis and results discussion. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of this evaluation tool, and it can be taken as a platform to give the uniform performance prediction reference.

  17. Rotational fluid flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This project which began in 1986 as part of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program focuses on the design and implementation of an electromechanical system for studying vortex behavior in a microgravity environment. Most of the existing equipment was revised and redesigned by this project team, as necessary. Emphasis was placed on documentation and integration of the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Project results include reconfiguration and thorough testing of all hardware subsystems, implementation of an infrared gas entrainment detector, new signal processing circuitry for the ultrasonic fluid circulation device, improved prototype interface circuits, and software for overall control of experiment operation.

  18. Near infrared laser ocular bioeffects

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, D.J.; Beatrice, E.S.

    1989-05-01

    Thresholds for laser chorioretinal injury in the red end of the visible spectrum and the near-infrared (IR-A) spectral regions are presented. An unpredicted wavelength dependence of the injury threshold for single Q-switched pulses is demonstrated. Four lasers were used to determine thresholds at 40 wavelengths between 532 nm and 1064 nm: a ruby laser, a neodymium:YAG-pumped dye laser, an erbium:YLF laser and an alexandrite laser. Despite many careful and repeated efforts to determine a cause for the variation due to possible variations in the lasers or other aspects of the experimental technique and due to biological absorption properties of the eye, there is no complete or obvious explanation for the significant variations of threshold with small changes in wavelength. The implications of these findings for laser safety standards are presented.

  19. Measurement of sniper infrared signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastek, M.; Dulski, R.; Trzaskawka, P.; Bieszczad, G.

    2009-09-01

    The paper presents some practical aspects of sniper IR signature measurements. Description of particular signatures for sniper and background in typical scenarios has been presented. We take into consideration sniper activities in open area as well as in urban environment. The measurements were made at field test ground. High precision laboratory measurements were also performed. Several infrared cameras were used during measurements to cover all measurement assumptions. Some of the cameras are measurement class devices with high accuracy and speed. The others are microbolometer cameras with FPA detector similar to those used in real commercial counter-sniper systems. The registration was made in SWIR and LWIR spectral bands simultaneously. An ultra fast visual camera was also used for visible spectra registration. Exemplary sniper IR signatures for typical situation were presented.

  20. Material Evaluation by Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen D.; Reusser, Ricky S.

    2016-07-01

    Infrared thermography uses the temperature-imaging capability of modern thermal cameras to characterize materials and detect flaws. An energy source—whether a pulse of light from a laser or flash lamp, an induction coil, or some other source—induces heat flow in a material, and the resulting temperature patterns are imaged with the thermal camera. In flash thermography, the most widely used form of quantitative thermography, a pulse of light is used as the energy source, and then the surface cooldown is imaged with the thermal camera. Calculations based on an elementary theory of 1D heat conduction can determine thickness (or, equivalently, thermal diffusivity), and nonuniformity in the cooldown will identify defects. This article reviews the methods, approaches, and models of thermography. It focuses on illustrating and identifying the materials, thicknesses, and flaw conditions under which thermography is an effective material characterization technique.