Science.gov

Sample records for infrared infinite extra

  1. Results of On-Orbit Testing of an Extra-Vehicular Infrared Camera Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Patricia A.; Cramer, K. Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This paper will discuss an infrared camera inspection system that has been developed to allow astronauts to demonstrate the ability to inspect reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) components on the space shuttle as part of extra-vehicular activities (EVA) while in orbit. Presented will be the performance of the EVA camera system coupled with solar heating for inspection of damaged RCC specimens and NDE standards. The data presented was acquired during space shuttle flights STS-121 and STS-115 as well during a staged EVA from the ISS. The EVA camera system was able to detect flatbottom holes as small as 2.54cm in diameter with 25% material loss. Results obtained are shown to be comparable to ground-based thermal inspections performed in the laboratory using the same camera and simulated solar heating. Data on both the time history of the specimen temperature and the ability of the inspection system to image defects due to impact will likewise be presented.

  2. Infinite Multiplets

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Nambu, Y.

    1967-01-01

    The main ingredients of the method of infinite multiplets consist of: 1) the use of wave functions with an infinite number of components for describing an infinite tower of discrete states of an isolated system (such as an atom, a nucleus, or a hadron), 2) the use of group theory, instead of dynamical considerations, in determining the properties of the wave functions.

  3. Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-04-01

    Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

  4. Continuous statistical modelling for rapid detection of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil using mid infrared and Raman spectroscopic data.

    PubMed

    Georgouli, Konstantia; Martinez Del Rincon, Jesus; Koidis, Anastasios

    2017-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to develop a novel dimensionality reduction technique as a part of an integrated pattern recognition solution capable of identifying adulterants such as hazelnut oil in extra virgin olive oil at low percentages based on spectroscopic chemical fingerprints. A novel Continuous Locality Preserving Projections (CLPP) technique is proposed which allows the modelling of the continuous nature of the produced in-house admixtures as data series instead of discrete points. The maintenance of the continuous structure of the data manifold enables the better visualisation of this examined classification problem and facilitates the more accurate utilisation of the manifold for detecting the adulterants. The performance of the proposed technique is validated with two different spectroscopic techniques (Raman and Fourier transform infrared, FT-IR). In all cases studied, CLPP accompanied by k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) algorithm was found to outperform any other state-of-the-art pattern recognition techniques. PMID:27664692

  5. Novel, Rapid Identification, and Quantification of Adulterants in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Azizian, Hormoz; Mossoba, Magdi M; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Kramer, John K G

    2015-07-01

    A new, rapid Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopic procedure is described to screen for the authenticity of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) and to determine the kind and amount of an adulterant in EVOO. To screen EVOO, a partial least squares (PLS1) calibration model was developed to estimate a newly created FT-NIR index based mainly on the relative intensities of two unique carbonyl overtone absorptions in the FT-NIR spectra of EVOO and other mixtures attributed to volatile (5280 cm(-1)) and non-volatile (5180 cm(-1)) components. Spectra were also used to predict the fatty acid (FA) composition of EVOO or samples spiked with an adulterant using previously developed PLS1 calibration models. Some adulterated mixtures could be identified provided the FA profile was sufficiently different from those of EVOO. To identify the type and determine the quantity of an adulterant, gravimetric mixtures were prepared by spiking EVOO with different concentrations of each adulterant. Based on FT-NIR spectra, four PLS1 calibration models were developed for four specific groups of adulterants, each with a characteristic FA composition. Using these different PLS1 calibration models for prediction, plots of predicted vs. gravimetric concentrations of an adulterant in EVOO yielded linear regression functions with four unique sets of slopes, one for each group of adulterants. Four corresponding slope rules were defined that allowed for the determination of the nature and concentration of an adulterant in EVOO products by applying these four calibration models. The standard addition technique was used for confirmation. PMID:26050093

  6. Infinitely Large New Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2000-01-24

    We construct intersecting brane configurations in anitde Sitter (AdS) space which localize gravity to the intersection region, generalizing the trapping of gravity to any number n of infinite extra dimensions. Since the 4D Planck scale M{sub Pl} is determined by the fundamental Planck scale M{sub *} and the AdS radius L via the familiar relation M{sup 2}{sub Pl}{approx}M{sup 2+n}{sub *}L{sup n} , we get two kinds of theories with TeV scale quantum gravity and submillimeter deviations from Newton's law. With M{sub *}{approx}TeV and L{approx}submillimeter , we recover the phenomenology of theories with large extra dimensions. Alternatively, if M{sub *}{approx}L{sup -1}{approx}M{sub Pl} , and our 3-brane is at a distance of {approx}100M{sup -1}{sub Pl} from the intersection, we obtain a theory with an exponential determination of the weak/Planck hierarchy. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  7. Infinitely Large New Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia; Kaloper, Nemanja

    1999-07-29

    We construct intersecting brane configurations in Anti-de-Sitter space localizing gravity to the intersection region, with any number n of extra dimensions. This allows us to construct two kinds of theories with infinitely large new dimensions, TeV scale quantum gravity and sub-millimeter deviations from Newton's Law. The effective 4D Planck scale M{sub Pl} is determined in terms of the fundamental Planck scale M{sub *} and the AdS radius of curvature L via the familiar relation M{sub Pl}{sup 2} {approx} M{sub *}{sup 2+n} L{sup n}; L acts as an effective radius of compactification for gravity on the intersection. Taking M{sub *} {approx} TeV and L {approx} sub-mm reproduces the phenomenology of theories with large extra dimensions. Alternately, taking M{sub *} {approx} L{sup -1} {approx} M{sub Pl}, and placing our 3-brane a distance {approx} 100M{sub Pl}{sup -1} away from the intersection gives us a theory with an exponential determination of the Weak/Planck hierarchy.

  8. Unification and Infinite Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    Some infinite series are analysed on the basis of the hypergeometric function and integer structure and modular rings. The resulting generalized functions are compared with differentiation of the "mother" series. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. The Infinite Hotel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a historical context for the debate between Georg Cantor and Leopold Kronecker regarding the cardinality of different infinities and incorporates the short story "Welcome to the Hotel Infinity," which uses the analogy of a hotel with an infinite number of rooms to help explain this concept. Wanko makes use of this history and…

  10. Diphoton resonance from a warped extra dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Martin; Hörner, Clara; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a warped extra dimension, which successfully address the hierarchy and flavor problems of elementary particle physics, can provide an elegant explanation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. A gauge-singlet bulk scalar with {O} (1) couplings to fermions is identified as the new resonance S, and the vector-like Kaluza-Klein excitations of the SM quarks and leptons mediate its loop-induced couplings to photons and gluons. The electroweak gauge symmetry almost unambiguously dictates the bulk matter content and hence the hierarchies of the Sto γ γ, W W,ZZ,Zγ, toverline{t} and dijet decay rates. We find that the S → Zγ decay mode is strongly suppressed, such that Br( S → Zγ) /Br( S → γγ) < 0 .1. The hierarchy problem for the new scalar boson is solved in analogy with the Higgs boson by localizing it near the infrared brane. The infinite sums over the Kaluza-Klein towers of fermion states converge and can be calculated in closed form with a remarkably simple result. Reproducing the observed pp → S → γγ signal requires Kaluza-Klein masses in the multi-TeV range, consistent with bounds from flavor physics and electroweak precision observables.

  11. Infinitely coloured black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2000-04-01

    We formulate the field equations for SU (icons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/> ) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, and use an analytic approximation to elucidate the properties of spherically symmetric black hole solutions. This model may be motivated by string theory considerations, given the enormous gauge symmetries which characterize string theory. The solutions simplify considerably in the presence of a negative cosmological constant, particularly for the limiting cases of a very large cosmological constant or very small gauge field. The black holes possess infinite amounts of gauge field hair, and we speculate on possible consequences of this for quantum decoherence, which, however, we do not tackle here.

  12. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  13. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  14. Students' Conception of Infinite Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Planell, Rafael; Gonzalez, Ana Carmen; DiCristina, Gladys; Acevedo, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of a study of students' understanding of infinite series. It has a three-fold purpose: to show that students may construct two essentially different notions of infinite series, to show that one of the constructions is particularly difficult for students, and to examine the way in which these two different constructions may be…

  15. Ferromagnetic of nanowires of infinite length and infinite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacouche, Khaled; Hadiji, Rejeb

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the work described in this paper is to determine, via an asymptotic analysis, the limiting form of the free energy governing in the first case 3D ferromagnetic nanowires of infinite length in the limit and in the second case 3D thin films which become infinite when their thickness is vanished. A 1D limit problem on the nanowires and a 2D limit problem on the thin films are obtained.

  16. Systems level feasibility study for the detection of extra-solar planets. Volume 1: Infrared interferometer (IRIS) known as the Stanford Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A sensor system for the direct detection of extrasolar planets from an Earth orbit is evaluated: a spinning, infrared interferometer (IRIS). It is shuttle deployed, free flying, requires no on-orbit assembly and no reservicing over a design life of five years. The sensor concept and the mission objectives are reviewed, and the performance characteristics of a baseline sensor for standard observation conditions are derived. A baseline sensor design is given and the enabling technology discussed. Cost and weight estimates are performed; and a schedule for an IRIS program including technology development and assessment of risk are given. Finally, the sensor is compared with the apodized visual telescope sensor (APOTS) proposed for the same mission. The major conclusions are: that with moderate to strong technology advances, particularly in the fields of long life cryogenics, dynamical control, mirror manufacturing, and optical alignment, the detection of a Jupiter like planet around a Sunlike star at a distance of 30 light years is feasible, with a 3 meter aperture and an observation time of 1 hour. By contrast, major and possibly unlikely breakthroughs in mirror technology are required for APOTS to match this performance.

  17. Adjective with Infinitive in English and Polish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz

    1975-01-01

    Deals with infinitives that occur with predicate adjectives. Syntactic relations occuring between Infinitive and Copula plus Adjective are examined with the aim of showing the Polish counterparts of English infinitives. (Author/RM)

  18. Infinite swapping in curved spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curotto, E.; Mella, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We develop an extension of the infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping techniques [N. Plattner, J. D. Doll, P. Dupuis, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. E. Gubernatis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134111 (2011)] to curved spaces. Furthermore, we test the performance of infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping in a series of flat spaces characterized by the same potential energy surface model. We develop a second order variational algorithm for general curved spaces without the extended Lagrangian formalism to include holonomic constraints. We test the new methods by carrying out NVT classical ensemble simulations on a set of multidimensional toroids mapped by stereographic projections and characterized by a potential energy surface built from a linear combination of decoupled double wells shaped purposely to create rare events over a range of temperatures.

  19. Decoherence in infinite quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Philippe; Hellmich, Mario

    2012-09-01

    We review and discuss a notion of decoherence formulated in the algebraic framework of quantum physics. Besides presenting some sufficient conditions for the appearance of decoherence in the case of Markovian time evolutions we provide an overview over possible decoherence scenarios. The framework for decoherence we establish is sufficiently general to accommodate quantum systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom.

  20. Olive oil's extra benefits.

    PubMed

    2016-08-17

    Could a Mediterranean diet including extra virgin olive oil reduce the risk of breast cancer? Niki Mourouti and Demosthenes Panagiotakos' study in Evidence Based Nursing examined the effects on cancer risks of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil. PMID:27533420

  1. Infinite resources: the ultimate strategy.

    PubMed

    Goeller, H E; Zucker, A

    1984-02-01

    By projecting global population growth and demand for nonrenewable materials over the next century, it appears unlikely that the world will run short of any element before about 2050. This provides considerable time to develop new technology to economically exploit lower grade and alternative ores to bring some 30 elements into essentially infinite supply, and to use these elements in developing substitutes to satisfy the requirements of modern civilized societies. PMID:17781431

  2. Calculators to Motivate Infinite Composition of Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, E. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how calculators may be used to motivate a concept called infinite composition of functions. Several mathematical topics, such as continued square roots, continued fractions, and infinite products are treated and discussed as special cases. (Author/MK)

  3. Teleportation schemes in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fichtner, Karl-Heinz; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2005-10-01

    The success of quantum mechanics is due to the discovery that nature is described in infinite dimension Hilbert spaces, so that it is desirable to demonstrate the quantum teleportation process in a certain infinite dimensional Hilbert space. We describe the teleportation process in an infinite dimensional Hilbert space by giving simple examples.

  4. Squashed entanglement in infinite dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2016-03-01

    We analyse two possible definitions of the squashed entanglement in an infinite-dimensional bipartite system: direct translation of the finite-dimensional definition and its universal extension. It is shown that the both definitions produce the same lower semicontinuous entanglement measure possessing all basis properties of the squashed entanglement on the set of states having at least one finite marginal entropy. It is also shown that the second definition gives an adequate lower semicontinuous extension of this measure to all states of the infinite-dimensional bipartite system. A general condition relating continuity of the squashed entanglement to continuity of the quantum mutual information is proved and its corollaries are considered. Continuity bound for the squashed entanglement under the energy constraint on one subsystem is obtained by using the tight continuity bound for quantum conditional mutual information (proved in the Appendix by using Winter's technique). It is shown that the same continuity bound is valid for the entanglement of formation. As a result the asymptotic continuity of the both entanglement measures under the energy constraint on one subsystem is proved.

  5. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  6. Improving the Instruction of Infinite Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindaman, Brian; Gay, A. Susan

    2012-01-01

    Calculus instructors struggle to teach infinite series, and students have difficulty understanding series and related concepts. Four instructional strategies, prominently used during the calculus reform movement, were implemented during a 3-week unit on infinite series in one class of second-semester calculus students. A description of each…

  7. Scalable L-infinite coding of meshes.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Adrian; Cernea, Dan C; Alecu, Alin; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the novel concept of local-error control in mesh geometry encoding. In contrast to traditional mesh-coding systems that use the mean-square error as target distortion metric, this paper proposes a new L-infinite mesh-coding approach, for which the target distortion metric is the L-infinite distortion. In this context, a novel wavelet-based L-infinite-constrained coding approach for meshes is proposed, which ensures that the maximum error between the vertex positions in the original and decoded meshes is lower than a given upper bound. Furthermore, the proposed system achieves scalability in L-infinite sense, that is, any decoding of the input stream will correspond to a perfectly predictable L-infinite distortion upper bound. An instantiation of the proposed L-infinite-coding approach is demonstrated for MESHGRID, which is a scalable 3D object encoding system, part of MPEG-4 AFX. In this context, the advantages of scalable L-infinite coding over L-2-oriented coding are experimentally demonstrated. One concludes that the proposed L-infinite mesh-coding approach guarantees an upper bound on the local error in the decoded mesh, it enables a fast real-time implementation of the rate allocation, and it preserves all the scalability features and animation capabilities of the employed scalable mesh codec. PMID:20224144

  8. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-09-18

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  9. Envisioning the Infinite by Projecting Finite Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We analyze interviews with 24 post-secondary students as they reason about infinite processes in the context of the tricky Tennis Ball Problem. By metaphorically projecting various properties from the finite states such as counting and indexing, participants envisioned widely varying final states for the infinite process. Depending on which…

  10. Quantum walks with infinite hitting times

    SciTech Connect

    Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2006-10-15

    Hitting times are the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given starting vertex. The hitting time for a classical random walk on a connected graph will always be finite. We show that, by contrast, quantum walks can have infinite hitting times for some initial states. We seek criteria to determine if a given walk on a graph will have infinite hitting times, and find a sufficient condition, which for discrete time quantum walks is that the degeneracy of the evolution operator be greater than the degree of the graph. The set of initial states which give an infinite hitting time form a subspace. The phenomenon of infinite hitting times is in general a consequence of the symmetry of the graph and its automorphism group. Using the irreducible representations of the automorphism group, we derive conditions such that quantum walks defined on this graph must have infinite hitting times for some initial states. In the case of the discrete walk, if this condition is satisfied the walk will have infinite hitting times for any choice of a coin operator, and we give a class of graphs with infinite hitting times for any choice of coin. Hitting times are not very well defined for continuous time quantum walks, but we show that the idea of infinite hitting-time walks naturally extends to the continuous time case as well.

  11. Infinite sets and double binds.

    PubMed

    Arden, M

    1984-01-01

    There have been many attempts to bring psychoanalytical theory up to date. This paper approaches the problem by discussing the work of Gregory Bateson and Ignacio Matte-Blanco, with particular reference to the use made by these authors of Russell's theory of logical types. Bateson's theory of the double bind and Matte-Blanco's bilogic are both based on concepts of logical typing. It is argued that the two theories can be linked by the idea that neurotic symptoms are based on category errors in thinking. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a middle-aged woman. The intention is to demonstrate that the process of making interpretations can be thought of as revealing errors in thinking. Changes in the patient's inner world are then seen to be the result of clarifying childhood experiences based on category errors. Matte-Blanco's theory of bilogic and infinite experiences is a re-evaluation of the place of the primary process in mental life. It is suggested that a combination of bilogic and double bind theory provides a possibility of reformulating psychoanalytical theory. PMID:6544755

  12. Dual range infinitely variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Eichenberger, P.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes in a transaxle assembly comprising an infinitely variably belt and sheave assembly driving sheave portions and driven sheave portions, a housing assembly enclosing the sheave portions. It includes a torque input shaft coaxially disposed with respect to the driving sheave portions, means for drivably connecting the driving sheave portions and the input shaft; a secondary shaft having an axis in spaced parallel relationship with respect to the torque input shaft. The driven sheave portions being mounted for rotation on the axis of the secondary shaft; a flexible drive member driveable connected to the input sheave portions and the output sheave portions. The flexible drive member engaging the input and output sheave portions at an effective pitch diameter for each sheave portion; fluid pressure servo means for adjustable positioning the sheave portions to effect variations in the effective pitch diameters of the driving sheave portions and the driven sheave portions; a countershaft mounted in spaced parallel dispositions with respect to the secondary shaft, a bearing assembly means for journalling the countershaft in the housing assembly, a high speed range gear train connecting the secondary shaft with the countershaft; fluid pressure operated clutch means for activating and deactivating selectively the high speed range gear train and the low speed range gear train; and planetary forward and reverse means disposed concentrically with respect to the countershaft including clutch means.

  13. Infinite sets and double binds.

    PubMed

    Arden, M

    1984-01-01

    There have been many attempts to bring psychoanalytical theory up to date. This paper approaches the problem by discussing the work of Gregory Bateson and Ignacio Matte-Blanco, with particular reference to the use made by these authors of Russell's theory of logical types. Bateson's theory of the double bind and Matte-Blanco's bilogic are both based on concepts of logical typing. It is argued that the two theories can be linked by the idea that neurotic symptoms are based on category errors in thinking. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a middle-aged woman. The intention is to demonstrate that the process of making interpretations can be thought of as revealing errors in thinking. Changes in the patient's inner world are then seen to be the result of clarifying childhood experiences based on category errors. Matte-Blanco's theory of bilogic and infinite experiences is a re-evaluation of the place of the primary process in mental life. It is suggested that a combination of bilogic and double bind theory provides a possibility of reformulating psychoanalytical theory.

  14. Infinite resources: the ultimate strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Goeller, H.E.; Zucker, A.

    1984-02-03

    If the author's projections of world demand for nonrenewable materials prove to be reasonably correct, then it seems highly likely that currently economic resources of many important elements will be in inadequate supply by 2100. At the same time, the prospects appear good that resources of more than 30 elements can be made virtually unlimited if sufficient R and D is invested. Eventually a number of elements will undoubtedly become too scarce and expensive to use except for a few vital purposes. However, there is plenty of time before resources of any limited material become completely economically depleted in which to develop adequate substitutes by using more plentiful materials. The ability to tailor new materials to set specifications is advancing rapidly, and our capabilities in this direction should grow with time if R and D in this area is adequately supported. Although a strategy of infinite resources may be difficult to pursue in the face of global political uncertainties, success would mean that future shortages will be at most only transient events and that a stable population of 8.5 billion people will not be imperiled or impoverished by the lack of materials required for civilized life. 20 references, 3 tables.

  15. Subdivisions with infinitely supported mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; Pan, Yali

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the convergence of subdivision schemes associated with masks being polynomially decay sequences. Two-scale vector refinement equations are the formwhere the vector of functions [phi]=([phi]1,E..,[phi]r)T is in and is polynomially decay sequence of rxr matrices called refinement mask. Associated with the mask a is a linear operator on given byBy using same methods in [B. Han, R. Q. Jia, Characterization of Riesz bases of wavelets generated from multiresolution analysis, manuscript]; [BE Han, Refinable functions and cascade algorithms in weighted spaces with infinitely supported masks, manuscript]; [R.Q. Jia, Q.T. Jiang, Z.W. Shen, Convergence of cascade algorithms associated with nonhomogeneous refinement equations, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 129 (2001) 415-427]; [R.Q. Jia, Convergence of vector subdivision schemes and construction of biorthogonal multiple wavelets, in: Advances in Wavelet, Hong Kong,1997, Springer, Singapore, 1998, pp. 199-227], a characterization of convergence of the sequences in the L2-norm is given, which extends the main results in [R.Q. Jia, S.D. Riemenschneider, D.X. Zhou, Vector subdivision schemes and multiple wavelets, Math. Comp. 67 (1998) 1533-1563] on convergence of the subdivision schemes associated with a finitely supported mask to the case in which mask a is polynomially decay sequence. As an application, we also obtain a characterization of smoothness of solutions of the refinement equation mentioned above for the case r=1.

  16. Extra- and intrathoracic access.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, Miltos K; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    The most complex patients requiring vascular access are those with bilateral central vein occlusions. Endovascular repair of the central lesions when feasible allow upper extremity use for access. When endovascular repair is not feasible, femoral vein transposition should be the next choice. When lower limb access sites have been exhausted or are contraindicated as in obese patients and in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease, a range of extrathoracic "exotic" extra-anatomic access procedures as the necklace cross-chest arteriovenous (AV) grafts, the ipsilateral axillo-axillary loops, the brachial-jugular AV grafts, the axillo-femoral AV grafts or even intra-thoracic ones as the right atrial AV bypasses represent the vascular surgeon's last resort. The selection among those extra-anatomical chest-wall procedures should be based upon each patient's anatomy or patient-specific factors. PMID:24817469

  17. The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Drake, Frank

    2011-02-13

    Modern history of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is reviewed. The history of radio searches is discussed, as well as the major advances that have occurred in radio searches and prospects for new instruments and search strategies. Recent recognition that searches for optical and infrared signals make sense, and the reasons for this are described, as well as the equipment and special detection methods used in optical searches. The long-range future of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) is discussed in the context of the history of rapid change, on the cosmic and even the human time scale, of the paradigms guiding SETI searches. This suggests that SETI searches be conducted with a very open mind. PMID:21220287

  18. Where Infinite Spin Particles are Localizable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Roberto; Morinelli, Vincenzo; Rehren, Karl-Henning

    2016-07-01

    Particle states transforming in one of the infinite spin representations of the Poincaré group (as classified by E. Wigner) are consistent with fundamental physical principles, but local fields generating them from the vacuum state cannot exist. While it is known that infinite spin states localized in a spacelike cone are dense in the one-particle space, we show here that the subspace of states localized in any double cone is trivial. This implies that the free field theory associated with infinite spin has no observables localized in bounded regions. In an interacting theory, if the vacuum vector is cyclic for a double cone local algebra, then the theory does not contain infinite spin representations. We also prove that if a Doplicher-Haag-Roberts representation (localized in a double cone) of a local net is covariant under a unitary representation of the Poincaré group containing infinite spin, then it has infinite statistics. These results hold under the natural assumption of the Bisognano-Wichmann property, and we give a counter-example (with continuous particle degeneracy) without this property where the conclusions fail. Our results hold true in any spacetime dimension s + 1 where infinite spin representations exist, namely {s≥ 2}.

  19. Semi-infinite cohomology and string theory.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, I B; Garland, H; Zuckerman, G J

    1986-11-01

    We develop the theory of semi-infinite cohomology of graded Lie algebras first introduced by Feigin. We show that the relative semi-infinite cohomology has a structure analogous to that of the de Rham cohomology in Kähler geometry. We prove a vanishing theorem for a special class of modules, and we apply our results to the case of the Virasoro algebra and the Fock module. In this case the zero cohomology is identified as the physical subspace of the Fock module and the no-ghost theorem follows. We reveal the profound relation of semi-infinite cohomology theory to the gauge-invariant free string theory constructed by Banks and Peskin. We then indicate the connection between gauge-invariant interacting string theories and the geometric realizations of the infinite-dimensional Lie algebras.

  20. Understanding the behaviour of infinite ladder circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-11-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block of impedance is added. However, the impedance derived from this assumption may lead to incorrect conclusions if it is not treated carefully. Sometimes, in the literature, the input impedance behaviour of infinite ladder circuits is referred to as a paradox, leaving students and educators in doubt. This study intends to clarify this confusion and help to better comprehend the behaviour of the input impedance of infinite ladder circuits.

  1. Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, J.L.; /SLAC

    2006-11-07

    If the structure of spacetime is different than that readily observed, gravitational physics, particle physics and cosmology are all immediately affected. The physics of extra dimensions offers new insights and solutions to fundamental questions arising in these fields. Novel ideas and frameworks are continuously born and evolved. They make use of string theoretical features and tools and they may reveal if and how the 11-dimensional string theory is relevant to our four-dimensional world. We have outlined some of the experimental observations in particle and gravitational physics as well as astrophysical and cosmological considerations that can constrain or confirm these scenarios. These developing ideas and the wide interdisciplinary experimental program that is charted out to investigate them mark a renewed effort to describe the dynamics behind spacetime. We look forward to the discovery of a higher dimensional spacetime.

  2. A Planar Calculus for Infinite Index Subfactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penneys, David

    2013-05-01

    We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II 1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.

  3. On infinite-dimensional state spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Tobias

    2013-05-15

    It is well known that the canonical commutation relation [x, p]=i can be realized only on an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. While any finite set of experimental data can also be explained in terms of a finite-dimensional Hilbert space by approximating the commutation relation, Occam's razor prefers the infinite-dimensional model in which [x, p]=i holds on the nose. This reasoning one will necessarily have to make in any approach which tries to detect the infinite-dimensionality. One drawback of using the canonical commutation relation for this purpose is that it has unclear operational meaning. Here, we identify an operationally well-defined context from which an analogous conclusion can be drawn: if two unitary transformations U, V on a quantum system satisfy the relation V{sup -1}U{sup 2}V=U{sup 3}, then finite-dimensionality entails the relation UV{sup -1}UV=V{sup -1}UVU; this implication strongly fails in some infinite-dimensional realizations. This is a result from combinatorial group theory for which we give a new proof. This proof adapts to the consideration of cases where the assumed relation V{sup -1}U{sup 2}V=U{sup 3} holds only up to {epsilon} and then yields a lower bound on the dimension.

  4. Infinite Sums of M-Bonacci Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A-iru, Muniru A.

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we construct infinite series using M-bonacci numbers in a manner similar to that used in previous studies and investigate the convergence of the series to an integer. Our results generalize the ones obtained for Fibonacci numbers.

  5. Wald Entropy for Ghost-Free, Infinite Derivative Theories of Gravity.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Aindriú; Mazumdar, Anupam; Teimouri, Ali

    2015-05-22

    In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Wald entropy for any spherically symmetric black hole within an infinite derivative theory of gravity that is quadratic in curvature is determined solely by the area law. Thus, the infrared behavior of gravity is captured by the Einstein-Hilbert term, provided that the massless graviton remains the only propagating degree of freedom in the spacetime. PMID:26047217

  6. The Extra-Zodiacal Explorer (EZE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, S. W.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Kruk, J. W.; Thronson, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a mission architecture study designed to substantially increase the potential science performance of the NASA SMD Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO offerors working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to an extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to 10X increased photometric sensitivity and 150X increased observing speed relative to a Sun-Earth L2 or Earth-trailing orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time systems; thus, providing a means to realize major science objectives while increasing the SMD Astrophysics portfolio diversity and resiliency to external budget pressure. The SEP technology employed in this study has applicability to SMD Planetary competed missions and aligns with NASA in-space propulsion technology road map objectives and associated flight demonstration planning.

  7. A Stochastic Tikhonov Theorem in Infinite Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Buckdahn, Rainer Guatteri, Giuseppina

    2006-03-15

    The present paper studies the problem of singular perturbation in the infinite-dimensional framework and gives a Hilbert-space-valued stochastic version of the Tikhonov theorem. We consider a nonlinear system of Hilbert-space-valued equations for a 'slow' and a 'fast' variable; the system is strongly coupled and driven by linear unbounded operators generating a C{sub 0}-semigroup and independent cylindrical Brownian motions. Under well-established assumptions to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions, we deduce the required stability of the system from a dissipativity condition on the drift of the fast variable. We avoid differentiability assumptions on the coefficients which would be unnatural in the infinite-dimensional framework.

  8. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    SciTech Connect

    Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-15

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  9. Gauge fields and infinite chains of dualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Sundell, Per; West, Peter

    2015-09-01

    We show that the particle states of Maxwell's theory, in D dimensions, can be represented in an infinite number of ways by using different gauge fields. Using this result we formulate the dynamics in terms of an infinite set of duality relations which are first order in space-time derivatives. We derive a similar result for the three form in eleven dimensions where such a possibility was first observed in the context of E 11. We also give an action formulation for some of the gauge fields. In this paper we give a pedagogical account of the Lorentz and gauge covariant formulation of the irreducible representations of the Poincaré group, used previously in higher spin theories, as this plays a key role in our constructions. It is clear that our results can be generalised to any particle.

  10. Infinitely many singular interactions on noncompact manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Kaynak, Burak Tevfik Turgut, O. Teoman

    2015-05-15

    We show that the ground state energy is bounded from below when there are infinitely many attractive delta function potentials placed in arbitrary locations, while all being separated at least by a minimum distance, on two dimensional non-compact manifold. To facilitate the reading of the paper, we first present the arguments in the setting of Cartan–Hadamard manifolds and then subsequently discuss the general case. For this purpose, we employ the heat kernel techniques as well as some comparison theorems of Riemannian geometry, thus generalizing the arguments in the flat case following the approach presented in Albeverio et al. (2004). - Highlights: • Schrödinger-operator for infinitely many singular interactions on noncompact manifolds. • Proof of the finiteness of the ground-state energy.

  11. 2.5D Finite/infinite Element Approach for Simulating Train-Induced Ground Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. B.; Hung, H. H.; Kao, J. C.

    2010-05-01

    The 2.5D finite/infinite element approach for simulating the ground vibrations by surface or underground moving trains will be briefly summarized in this paper. By assuming the soils to be uniform along the direction of the railway, only a two-dimensional profile of the soil perpendicular to the railway need be considered in the modeling. Besides the two in-plane degrees of freedom (DOFs) per node conventionally used for plane strain elements, an extra DOF is introduced to account for the out-of-plane wave transmission. The profile of the half-space is divided into a near field and a semi-infinite far field. The near field containing the train loads and irregular structures is simulated by the finite elements, while the far field covering the soils with infinite boundary by the infinite elements, by which due account is taken of the radiation effects for the moving loads. Enhanced by the automated mesh expansion procedure proposed previously by the writers, the far field impedances for all the lower frequencies are generated repetitively from the mesh created for the highest frequency considered. Finally, incorporated with a proposed load generation mechanism that takes the rail irregularity and dynamic properties of trains into account, an illustrative case study was performed. This paper investigates the vibration isolation effect of the elastic foundation that separates the concrete slab track from the underlying soil or tunnel structure. In addition, the advantage of the 2.5D approach was clearly demonstrated in that the three-dimensional wave propagation effect can be virtually captured using a two-dimensional finite/infinite element mesh. Compared with the conventional 3D approach, the present approach appears to be simple, efficient and generally accurate.

  12. The infinite hidden Markov random field model.

    PubMed

    Chatzis, Sotirios P; Tsechpenakis, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Hidden Markov random field (HMRF) models are widely used for image segmentation, as they appear naturally in problems where a spatially constrained clustering scheme is asked for. A major limitation of HMRF models concerns the automatic selection of the proper number of their states, i.e., the number of region clusters derived by the image segmentation procedure. Existing methods, including likelihood- or entropy-based criteria, and reversible Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, usually tend to yield noisy model size estimates while imposing heavy computational requirements. Recently, Dirichlet process (DP, infinite) mixture models have emerged in the cornerstone of nonparametric Bayesian statistics as promising candidates for clustering applications where the number of clusters is unknown a priori; infinite mixture models based on the original DP or spatially constrained variants of it have been applied in unsupervised image segmentation applications showing promising results. Under this motivation, to resolve the aforementioned issues of HMRF models, in this paper, we introduce a nonparametric Bayesian formulation for the HMRF model, the infinite HMRF model, formulated on the basis of a joint Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) and Markov random field (MRF) construction. We derive an efficient variational Bayesian inference algorithm for the proposed model, and we experimentally demonstrate its advantages over competing methodologies.

  13. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields.

    PubMed

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-09-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessity to specify a priori a fixed number of hidden states available but also of the problem of overfitting. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithms are often employed for inference in such models. However, convergence of such algorithms is rather difficult to verify, and as the complexity of the task at hand increases the computational cost of such algorithms often becomes prohibitive. These limitations can be overcome by variational techniques. In this paper, we present a generalized framework for infinite HCRF models, and a novel variational inference approach on a model based on coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures, the HCRF-DPM. We show that the variational HCRF-DPM is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and performs as well as the best parametric HCRFs-chosen via cross-validation-for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain in audiovisual sequences. PMID:26353136

  14. A motif for infinite metal atom wires.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xi; Warren, Steven A; Pan, Yung-Tin; Tsao, Kai-Chieh; Gray, Danielle L; Bertke, Jeffery; Yang, Hong

    2014-12-15

    A new motif for infinite metal atom wires with tunable compositions and properties is developed based on the connection between metal paddlewheel and square planar complex moieties. Two infinite Pd chain compounds, [Pd4(CO)4(OAc)4Pd(acac)2] 1 and [Pd4(CO)4(TFA)4Pd(acac)2] 2, and an infinite Pd-Pt heterometallic chain compound, [Pd4(CO)4(OAc)4Pt(acac)2] 3, are identified by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In these new structures, the paddlewheel moiety is a Pd four-membered ring coordinated by bridging carboxylic ligands and μ2 carbonyl ligands. The planar moiety is either Pd(acac)2 or Pt(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate). These moieties are connected by metallophilic interactions. The results showed that these one-dimensional metal wire compounds have photoluminescent properties that are tunable by changing ligands and metal ions. 3 can also serve as a single source precursor for making Pd4Pt bimetallic nanostructures with precise control of metal composition.

  15. Infrared Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  16. Supersolids: Solids Having Finite Volume and Infinite Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, William P.

    1989-01-01

    Supersolids furnish an ideal introduction to the calculus topic of infinite series, and are useful for combining that topic with integration. Five examples of supersolids are presented, four requiring only a few basic properties of infinite series and one requiring a number of integration principles as well as infinite series. (MNS)

  17. Survival of scalar zero modes in warped extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    George, Damien P.

    2011-05-15

    Models with an extra dimension generally contain background scalar fields in a nontrivial configuration, whose stability must be ensured. With gravity present, the extra dimension is warped by the scalars, and the spin-0 degrees of freedom in the metric mix with the scalar perturbations. Where possible, we formally solve the coupled Schroedinger equations for the zero modes of these spin-0 perturbations. When specializing to the case of two scalars with a potential generated by a superpotential, we are able to fully solve the system. We show how these zero modes can be used to construct a solution matrix, whose eigenvalues tell whether a normalizable zero mode exists, and how many negative mass modes exist. These facts are crucial in determining stability of the corresponding background configuration. We provide examples of the general analysis for domain-wall models of an infinite extra dimension and domain-wall soft-wall models. For five-dimensional models with two scalars constructed using a superpotential, we show that a normalizable zero mode survives, even in the presence of warped gravity. Such models, which are widely used in the literature, are therefore phenomenologically unacceptable.

  18. Collider searches for extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberg, Greg; /Brown U.

    2004-12-01

    Searches for extra spatial dimensions remain among the most popular new directions in our quest for physics beyond the Standard Model. High-energy collider experiments of the current decade should be able to find an ultimate answer to the question of their existence in a variety of models. Until the start of the LHC in a few years, the Tevatron will remain the key player in this quest. In this paper, we review the most recent results from the Tevatron on searches for large, TeV{sup -1}-size, and Randall-Sundrum extra spatial dimensions, which have reached a new level of sensitivity and currently probe the parameter space beyond the existing constraints. While no evidence for the existence of extra dimensions has been found so far, an exciting discovery might be just steps away.

  19. Extra osseous primary Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Asad; Muhammad, Agha Taj; Soomro, Abdul Ghani; Siddiqui, Akmal Jamal

    2010-01-01

    The case of 20 years old boy with an extra osseous Ewing's sarcoma is described. He was initially diagnosed as a case of infiltrative malignant tumour of left suprarenal gland on the basis of preoperative workup but postoperative biopsy of surgically excised specimen confirmed Extra-osseous Ewing's Sarcoma (EES) suprarenal gland with no evidence of malignancy on skeletal scintiscan, bone marrow aspirate and histopathology Suprarenal location of primary EES is unknown and probably has not been reported in literature. We report a unique case of EES.

  20. Triton,... electron,... cosmon,...: An infinite regression?

    PubMed

    Dehmelt, H

    1989-11-01

    I propose an elementary particle model in which the simplest near-Dirac particles triton, proton, and electron are members of the three top layers of a bottomless stack. Each particle is a composite of three particles from the next layer below in an infinite regression approaching Dirac point particles. The cosmon, an immensely heavy lower layer subquark, is the elementary particle. The world-atom, a tightly bound cosmon/anticosmon pair of zero relativistic total mass, arose from the nothing state in a quantum jump. Rapid decay of the pair launched the big bang and created the universe. PMID:16594084

  1. Infinite Maxwell fisheye inside a finite circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangjié; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-12-01

    This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional heterogeneous imaging medium composed of an isotropic refractive index. We exploit conformal-mapping to transfer the full Maxwell fisheye into a finite circle. Unlike our previous design that requires a mirror of Zhukovski airfoil shape, this approach can work without a mirror, while offering a comparable imaging resolution. This medium may also be used as an isotropic gradient index lens to transform a light source inside it into two identical sources of null interference. A merit of this approach is reduction of the near-zero-index area from an infinite zone into a finite one, which shall ease its realization.

  2. The infinite sites model of genome evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Ratan, Aakrosh; Raney, Brian J.; Suh, Bernard B.; Miller, Webb; Haussler, David

    2008-01-01

    We formalize the problem of recovering the evolutionary history of a set of genomes that are related to an unseen common ancestor genome by operations of speciation, deletion, insertion, duplication, and rearrangement of segments of bases. The problem is examined in the limit as the number of bases in each genome goes to infinity. In this limit, the chromosomes are represented by continuous circles or line segments. For such an infinite-sites model, we present a polynomial-time algorithm to find the most parsimonious evolutionary history of any set of related present-day genomes. PMID:18787111

  3. Origin of the 'Extra Entropy'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    2008-01-01

    I will discuss how one can determine the origin of the 'extra entropy' in groups and clusters and the feedback needed in models of galaxy formation. I will stress the use of x-ray spectroscopy and imaging and the critical value that Con-X has in this regard.

  4. Infinite densities for Lévy walks.

    PubMed

    Rebenshtok, A; Denisov, S; Hänggi, P; Barkai, E

    2014-12-01

    Motion of particles in many systems exhibits a mixture between periods of random diffusive-like events and ballistic-like motion. In many cases, such systems exhibit strong anomalous diffusion, where low-order moments 〈|x(t)|(q)〉 with q below a critical value q(c) exhibit diffusive scaling while for q>q(c) a ballistic scaling emerges. The mixed dynamics constitutes a theoretical challenge since it does not fall into a unique category of motion, e.g., the known diffusion equations and central limit theorems fail to describe both aspects. In this paper we resolve this problem by resorting to the concept of infinite density. Using the widely applicable Lévy walk model, we find a general expression for the corresponding non-normalized density which is fully determined by the particles velocity distribution, the anomalous diffusion exponent α, and the diffusion coefficient K(α). We explain how infinite densities play a central role in the description of dynamics of a large class of physical processes and discuss how they can be evaluated from experimental or numerical data. PMID:25615072

  5. Statistical Mechanics of Infinite Gravitating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saslaw, William C.

    2008-01-01

    The cosmological many-body problem was stated over 300 years ago, but its solution is quite recent and still incomplete. Imagine an infinite expanding universe essentially containing a very large number of objects moving in response to their mutual gravitational forces. What will be the spatial and velocity distributions of these objects and how will they evolve? This question fascinates on many levels. Though inherently non-linear, it turns out to be one of the few analytically solvable problems of statistical mechanics with long range forces. The partition function can be calculated. From this all the thermodynamic properties of the system can be obtained for the grand canonical ensemble. They confirm results derived independently directly from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The behavior of infinite gravitating systems is quite different from their finite relations such as star clusters. Infinite gravitating systems have regimes of negative specific heat, an unusual type of phase transition, and a very close relation to the observed large-scale structure of our universe. This last feature provides an additional astronomical motivation, especially since the statistical mechanics may be generalized to include effects of dark matter haloes around galaxies. Previously the cosmological many-body problem has mostly been studied using the BBGKY hierarchy (not so suitable in the non-linear regime) and by direct computer integrations of the objects' orbits. The statistical mechanics agrees with and substantially extends these earlier results. Most astrophysicists had previously thought that a statistical thermodynamic approach would not be applicable because: a) many-body gravitational systems have no rigorous equilibrium state, b) the unshielded nature of the long-range force would cause the partition function to diverge on large scales, and c) point masses would produce divergences on small scales. However, deeper considerations show that these are not

  6. Simulating infinite vortex lattices in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingarelli, Luca; Keaveny, Eric E.; Barnett, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    We present an efficient framework to numerically treat infinite periodic vortex lattices in rotating superfluids described by the Gross-Pitaevskii theory. The commonly used split-step Fourier (SSF) spectral methods are inapplicable to such systems as the standard Fourier transform does not respect the boundary conditions mandated by the magnetic translation group. We present a generalisation of the SSF method which incorporates the correct boundary conditions by employing the so-called magnetic Fourier transform. We test the method and show that it reduces to known results in the lowest-Landau-level regime. While we focus on rotating scalar superfluids for simplicity, the framework can be naturally extended to treat multicomponent systems and systems under more general ‘synthetic’ gauge fields.

  7. Gravitating Global Monopoles in Extra Dimensions and the Braneworld Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, K.A.; Meierovich, B.E.

    2005-12-15

    Multidimensional configurations with a Minkowski external spacetime and a spherically symmetric global monopole in extra dimensions are discussed in the context of the braneworld concept. The monopole is formed with a hedgehoglike set of scalar fields {phi}{sup i} with a symmetry-breaking potential V depending on the magnitude {phi}{sup 2} = {phi}{sup i}{phi}{sup i}. All possible kinds of globally regular configurations are singled out without specifying the shape of V({phi}). These variants are governed by the maximum value {phi}{sub m} of the scalar field, characterizing the energy scale of symmetry breaking. If {phi}{sub m} < {phi}{sub cr} (where {phi}{sub cr} is a critical value of {phi} related to the multidimensional Planck scale), the monopole reaches infinite radii, whereas in the 'strong field regime', when {phi}{sub m} {>=} {phi}{sub cr} , the monopole may end with a finite-radius cylinder or have two regular centers. The warp factors of monopoles with both infinite and finite radii may either exponentially grow or tend to finite constant values far from the center. All such configurations are shown to be able to trap test scalar matter, in striking contrast to RS2 type five-dimensional models. The monopole structures obtained analytically are also found numerically for the Mexican hat potential with an additional parameter acting as a cosmological constant.

  8. Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callin, P.; Burgess, C. P.

    2006-09-01

    Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case.

  9. Dynamics for QCD on an Infinite Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundling, Hendrik; Rudolph, Gerd

    2016-08-01

    We prove the existence of the dynamics automorphism group for Hamiltonian QCD on an infinite lattice in R^3, and this is done in a C*-algebraic context. The existence of ground states is also obtained. Starting with the finite lattice model for Hamiltonian QCD developed by Kijowski, Rudolph (cf. J Math Phys 43:1796-1808 [15], J Math Phys 46:032303 [16]), we state its field algebra and a natural representation. We then generalize this representation to the infinite lattice, and construct a Hilbert space which has represented on it all the local algebras (i.e., kinematics algebras associated with finite connected sublattices) equipped with the correct graded commutation relations. On a suitably large C*-algebra acting on this Hilbert space, and containing all the local algebras, we prove that there is a one parameter automorphism group, which is the pointwise norm limit of the local time evolutions along a sequence of finite sublattices, increasing to the full lattice. This is our global time evolution. We then take as our field algebra the C*-algebra generated by all the orbits of the local algebras w.r.t. the global time evolution. Thus the time evolution creates the field algebra. The time evolution is strongly continuous on this choice of field algebra, though not on the original larger C*-algebra. We define the gauge transformations, explain how to enforce the Gauss law constraint, show that the dynamics automorphism group descends to the algebra of physical observables and prove that gauge invariant ground states exist.

  10. Extra-articular Snapping Hip

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Context: Snapping hip, or coxa saltans, is a vague term used to describe palpable or auditory snapping with hip movements. As increasing attention is paid to intra-articular hip pathologies such as acetabular labral tears, it is important to be able to identify and understand the extra-articular causes of snapping hip. Evidence Acquisition: The search terms snapping hip and coxa sultans were used in PubMed to locate suitable studies of any publication date (ending date, November 2008). Results: Extra-articular snapping may be caused laterally by the iliotibial band or anteriorly by the iliopsoas tendon. Snapping of the iliopsoas tendon usually requires contraction of the hip flexors and may be difficult to differentiate from intra-articular causes of snapping. Dynamic ultrasound can help detect abrupt tendon translation during movement, noninvasively supporting the diagnosis of extra-articular snapping hip. The majority of cases of snapping hip resolve with conservative treatment, which includes avoidance of aggravating activities, stretching, and anti-inflammatory medication. In recalcitrant cases, surgery to lengthen the iliotibial band or the iliopsoas tendon has produced symptom relief but may result in prolonged weakness. Conclusions: In treating active patients with snapping soft tissues around the hip, clinicians should recognize that the majority of cases resolve without surgical intervention, while being mindful of the potential for concomitant intra-articular and internal snapping hips. PMID:23015936

  11. Algebraic independence properties related to certain infinite products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Taka-aki

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we establish algebraic independence of the values of a certain infinite product as well as its all successive derivatives at algebraic points other than its zeroes, using the fact that the logarithmic derivative of an infinite product gives a partial fraction expansion. Such an infinite product is generated by a linear recurrence. The method used for proving the algebraic independence is based on the theory of Mahler functions of several variables.

  12. Propagation of SH waves in an infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric/piezomagnetic periodically layered structure.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Liu, Yu-Shan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, SH bulk/surface waves propagating in the corresponding infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric (PE)/piezomagnetic (PM) and PM/PE periodically layered composites are investigated by two methods, the stiffness matrix method and the transfer matrix method. For a semi-infinite PE/PM or PM/PE medium, the free surface is parallel to the layer interface. Both PE and PM materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic solids. Dispersion equations are derived by the stiffness/transfer matrix methods, respectively. The effects of electric-magnetic (ME) boundary conditions at the free surface and the layer thickness ratios on dispersion curves are considered in detail. Numerical examples show that the results calculated by the two methods are the same. The dispersion curves of SH surface waves are below the bulk bands or inside the frequency gaps. The ratio of the layer thickness has an important effect not only on the bulk bands but also on the dispersion curves of SH surface waves. Electric and magnetic boundary conditions, respectively, determine the dispersion curves of SH surface waves for the PE/PM and PM/PE semi-infinite structures. The band structures of SH bulk waves are consistent for the PE/PM and PM/PE structures, however, the dispersive behaviors of SH surface waves are indeed different for the two composites. The realization of the above-mentioned characteristics of SH waves will make it possible to design PE/PM acoustic wave devices with periodical structures and achieve the better performance.

  13. Propagation of SH waves in an infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric/piezomagnetic periodically layered structure.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Liu, Yu-Shan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, SH bulk/surface waves propagating in the corresponding infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric (PE)/piezomagnetic (PM) and PM/PE periodically layered composites are investigated by two methods, the stiffness matrix method and the transfer matrix method. For a semi-infinite PE/PM or PM/PE medium, the free surface is parallel to the layer interface. Both PE and PM materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic solids. Dispersion equations are derived by the stiffness/transfer matrix methods, respectively. The effects of electric-magnetic (ME) boundary conditions at the free surface and the layer thickness ratios on dispersion curves are considered in detail. Numerical examples show that the results calculated by the two methods are the same. The dispersion curves of SH surface waves are below the bulk bands or inside the frequency gaps. The ratio of the layer thickness has an important effect not only on the bulk bands but also on the dispersion curves of SH surface waves. Electric and magnetic boundary conditions, respectively, determine the dispersion curves of SH surface waves for the PE/PM and PM/PE semi-infinite structures. The band structures of SH bulk waves are consistent for the PE/PM and PM/PE structures, however, the dispersive behaviors of SH surface waves are indeed different for the two composites. The realization of the above-mentioned characteristics of SH waves will make it possible to design PE/PM acoustic wave devices with periodical structures and achieve the better performance. PMID:26836289

  14. Infinite-range exterior complex scaling as a perfect absorber in time-dependent problems

    SciTech Connect

    Scrinzi, Armin

    2010-05-15

    We introduce infinite range exterior complex scaling (irECS) which provides for complete absorption of outgoing flux in numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with strong infrared fields. This is demonstrated by computing high harmonic spectra and wave-function overlaps with the exact solution for a one-dimensional model system and by three-dimensional calculations for the H atom and an Ne atom model. We lay out the key ingredients for correct implementation and identify criteria for efficient discretization.

  15. Screening and validation of EXTraS data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpano, Stefania; Haberl, F.; De Luca, A.; Tiengo, A.: Israel, G.; Rodriguez, G.; Belfiore, A.; Rosen, S.; Read, A.; Wilms, J.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Law-Green, D.

    2015-09-01

    The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) is aimed at fullyexploring the serendipitous content of the XMM-Newton EPIC database in the timedomain. The project is funded within the EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework and is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), CNR/IMATI (Italy), University of Leicester (UK), MPE (Germany) and ECAP (Germany). The several tasks consist in characterise aperiodicvariability for all 3XMM sources, search for short-term periodic variability on hundreds of thousands sources, detect new transient sources that are missed by standard source detection and hence not belonging to the 3XMM catalogue, search for long term variability by measuring fluxes or upper limits for both pointed and slew observations, and finally perform multiwavelength characterisation andclassification. Screening and validation of the different products is essentially in order to reject flawed results, generated by the automatic pipelines. We present here the screening tool we developed in the form of a Graphical User Interface and our plans for a systematic screening of the different catalogues.

  16. Infinite statistics condensate as a model of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2013-11-01

    In some models, dark matter is considered as a condensate bosonic system. In this paper, we prove that condensation is also possible for particles that obey infinite statistics and derive the critical condensation temperature. We argue that a condensed state of a gas of very weakly interacting particles obeying infinite statistics could be considered as a consistent model of dark matter.

  17. A New Look at Infinitives in Business and Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Marshall

    2002-01-01

    Argues the infinitive phrase has not been taken seriously in writing because writers have been too concerned with Bishop Robert Lowth's proscription against the split infinitive. Notes that examination of three types of technical prose (instructions, annual reports, and "junk mail") reveals that more than one sentence in four contains an…

  18. Equations of gas dynamics admitting an infinite number of symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkov, A.G.; Mikhalyaev, B.B.

    1988-02-01

    All the equations of state for which the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics have an infinite Lie-Baecklund algebra are found. In all these cases, the gas-dynamic equations can either be integrated directly or represented in Lax form. A method for constructing an infinite set of conservation laws is indicated.

  19. Hamel's Formalism for Infinite-Dimensional Mechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Donghua; Berchenko-Kogan, Yakov; Zenkov, Dmitry V.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce Hamel's formalism for infinite-dimensional mechanical systems and in particular consider its applications to the dynamics of nonholonomically constrained systems. This development is a nontrivial extension of its finite-dimensional counterpart. The analysis is applied to several continuum mechanical systems of interest, including coupled systems and systems with infinitely many constraints.

  20. Solenoid magnetic fields calculated from superposed semi-infinite solenoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Flax, L.

    1966-01-01

    Calculation of a thick solenoid coils magnetic field components is made by a superposition of the fields produced by four solenoids of infinite length and zero inner radius. The field produced by this semi-infinite solenoid is dependent on only two variables, the radial and axial field point coordinates.

  1. Hearing and Infinite-Period Bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Seung; Bozovic, Dolores; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2011-03-01

    Auditory and vestibular systems present us with biological sensors that can achieve sub-nanometer sensitivity orders of magnitude in the dynamic range, while operating in a fluid-immersed, room-temperature environment. While the mechanisms behind this extreme sensitivity and robustness of the inner ear have not been fully explained, nonlinear response has been shown to be crucial to its proper function. Recent experiments have recorded innate motility of hair cells of the bullfrog sacculus, under varying degrees of steady-state offset. The bundle deflection was shown to suppress or enhance spontaneous oscillations, and affect the sensitivity of the mechanical response. We will present a theoretical model based on cubic nonlinearity and show that in different parameter regimes, the system can be induced to cross a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, an infinite-period bifurcation, or a multi-critical point. Comparing the numerical simulation to the experiment, we will present evidence that the multi-critical point corresponds most closely to the dynamic state of saccular hair cells. Further, we will discuss the crossing of the bifurcation, and the sensitivity of the phase-locked response in various frequency regimes.

  2. Control system for an infinitely variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.

    1986-12-09

    This patent describes a control system for an infinitely variable belt-drive transmission having a selector device including a drive range position and a neutral position, a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc, and a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc. It also has a belt engaged with both the pulleys, a hydraulic control circuit for supplying oil to the servo chambers and for draining the servo chambers. The hydraulic control circuit is provided with a pressure regulator valve for providing a line pressure and a transmission ratio control valve for applying the line pressure to the servo chamber of the drive pulley. The improvement described here comprises: a lubricating oil circuit provided in the hydraulic control circuit for supplying lubricating oil to the drive and driven pulleys; a passage for supplying a part of the lubricating oil to the servo chamber of the drive pulley; a check valve provided in the passage for preventing the reverse flow of the lubricating oil; and a select position detecting valve for enabling the supply of the lubricating oil to the servo chamber at the selection of the neutral position.

  3. An arbitrarily shaped inclusion with uniform eigencurvatures in an infinite plate, semi-infinite plate, two bonded semi-infinite plates or a circular plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Kun

    2015-04-01

    Within the framework of the Kirchhoff-Love isotropic and homogeneous plate theory, we obtain, in a unified manner, the analytic solutions to the Eshelby's problem of an inclusion of arbitrary shape with uniform eigencurvatures in an infinite plate, a semi-infinite plate, one of two bonded semi-infinite plates or a circular plate by means of conformal mapping and analytical continuation. The edge of the semi-infinite plate can be rigidly clamped, free or simply supported, while that of the circular plate can be rigidly clamped, free or perfectly bonded to the surrounding infinite plate. Several examples of practical and theoretical interests are presented to demonstrate the general method. In particular, the elementary expressions of the internal elastic fields of bending moments and deflections within an ( n + 1)-fold rotational symmetric inclusion described by a five-term mapping function, a symmetric airfoil cusp inclusion, a symmetric lip cusp inclusion and an inclusion described by a rational mapping function in an infinite plate are derived.

  4. Higgs bosons in extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiros, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a mass mH≃125 GeV, we review different models where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model electroweak observables provide very strong bounds on the mass of KK modes which motivates extensions to overcome this problem. Two extensions are briefly discussed. One particular extension is based on the deformation of the metric such that it strongly departs from the AdS5 structure in the IR region while it goes asymptotically to AdS5 in the UV brane. This model has the IR brane close to a naked metric singularity (which is outside the physical interval) characteristic of soft-walls constructions. The proximity of the singularity provides a strong wave function renormalization for the Higgs field which suppresses the T and S parameters. The second class of considered extensions are based on the introduction of an extra gauge group in the bulk such that the custodial SU(2)R symmetry is gauged and protects the T parameter. By further enlarging the bulk gauge symmetry one can find models where the Higgs is identified with the fifth component of gauge fields and for which the Higgs potential along with the Higgs mass can be dynamically determined by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism.

  5. Motion of a mirror under infinitely fluctuating quantum vacuum stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingdi; Unruh, William G.

    2014-04-01

    The actual value of the quantum vacuum energy density is generally regarded as irrelevant in nongravitational physics. However, this paper presents a nongravitational system where this value does have physical significance. The system is a mirror with an internal degree of freedom that interacts with a scalar field. We find that the force exerted on the mirror by the field vacuum undergoes wild fluctuations with a magnitude proportional to the value of the vacuum energy density, which is mathematically infinite. This infinite fluctuating force gives infinite instantaneous acceleration of the mirror. We show that this infinite fluctuating force and infinite instantaneous acceleration make sense because they will not result in infinite fluctuation of the mirror's position. On the contrary, the mirror's fluctuating motion will be confined in a small region due to two special properties of the quantum vacuum: (1) the vacuum friction that resists the mirror's motion and (2) the strong anticorrelation of vacuum fluctuations that constantly changes the direction of the mirror's infinite instantaneous acceleration and thus cancels the effect of infinities to make the fluctuation of the mirror's position finite.

  6. Parabosons, parafermions, and explicit representations of infinite-dimensional algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Stoilova, N. I.; Van der Jeugt, J.

    2010-03-15

    The goal of this paper is to give an explicit construction of the Fock spaces of the parafermion and the paraboson algebra, for an infinite set of generators. This is equivalent to constructing certain unitary irreducible lowest weight representations of the (infinite rank) Lie algebra so({infinity}) and of the Lie superalgebra osp(1 vertical bar {infinity}). A complete solution to the problem is presented, in which the Fock spaces have basis vectors labeled by certain infinite but stable Gelfand-Zetlin patterns, and the transformation of the basis is given explicitly. Alternatively, the basis vectors can be expressed as semi-standard Young tableaux.

  7. Parabosons, parafermions, and explicit representations of infinite-dimensional algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, N. I.; van der Jeugt, J.

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to give an explicit construction of the Fock spaces of the parafermion and the paraboson algebra, for an infinite set of generators. This is equivalent to constructing certain unitary irreducible lowest weight representations of the (infinite rank) Lie algebra so(∞) and of the Lie superalgebra osp(1|∞). A complete solution to the problem is presented, in which the Fock spaces have basis vectors labeled by certain infinite but stable Gelfand-Zetlin patterns, and the transformation of the basis is given explicitly. Alternatively, the basis vectors can be expressed as semi-standard Young tableaux.

  8. Tight Lower Bound for Percolation Threshold on an Infinite Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Kathleen E.; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2014-11-01

    We construct a tight lower bound for the site percolation threshold on an infinite graph, which becomes exact for an infinite tree. The bound is given by the inverse of the maximal eigenvalue of the Hashimoto matrix used to count nonbacktracking walks on the original graph. Our bound always exceeds the inverse spectral radius of the graph's adjacency matrix, and it is also generally tighter than the existing bound in terms of the maximum degree. We give a constructive proof for existence of such an eigenvalue in the case of a connected infinite quasitransitive graph, a graph-theoretic analog of a translationally invariant system.

  9. Origin of a peculiar extra U(1)

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.M.; Dorsner, I.

    2005-07-01

    The origin of a family-independent ''extra U(1)'', discovered by Barr, Bednarz, and Benesh and independently by Ma, and whose phenomenology has recently been studied by Ma and Roy, is discussed. Even though it satisfies anomaly constraints in a highly economical way, with just a single extra triplet of leptons per family, this extra U(1) cannot come from four-dimensional grand unification. However, it is shown here that it can come from a Pati-Salam scheme with an extra U(1), which explains the otherwise surprising cancellation of anomalies.

  10. Gacs quantum algorithmic entropy in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Benatti, Fabio; Oskouei, Samad Khabbazi Deh Abad, Ahmad Shafiei

    2014-08-15

    We extend the notion of Gacs quantum algorithmic entropy, originally formulated for finitely many qubits, to infinite dimensional quantum spin chains and investigate the relation of this extension with two quantum dynamical entropies that have been proposed in recent years.

  11. Infrared Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lascours, Jean; Albe, Virginie

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of simple and nontraditional experiments that enable students to discover the properties of infrared radiation by studying the propagation, reflection, diffusion, and refraction of infrared. The experiments rely on two modules, an infrared transmitter and an infrared receiver. (SAH)

  12. A unified approach to infinite-dimensional integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, S.; Mazzucchi, S.

    2016-04-01

    An approach to infinite-dimensional integration which unifies the case of oscillatory integrals and the case of probabilistic type integrals is presented. It provides a truly infinite-dimensional construction of integrals as linear functionals, as much as possible independent of the underlying topological and measure theoretical structure. Various applications are given, including, next to Feynman path integrals, Schrödinger and diffusion equations, as well as higher order hyperbolic and parabolic equations.

  13. Optimal feedback control infinite dimensional parabolic evolution systems: Approximation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Wang, C.

    1989-01-01

    A general approximation framework is discussed for computation of optimal feedback controls in linear quadratic regular problems for nonautonomous parabolic distributed parameter systems. This is done in the context of a theoretical framework using general evolution systems in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Conditions are discussed for preservation under approximation of stabilizability and detectability hypotheses on the infinite dimensional system. The special case of periodic systems is also treated.

  14. Packing Infinite Number of Cubes in a Finite Volume Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Haishen; Wajngurt, Clara

    2006-01-01

    Packing an infinite number of cubes into a box of finite volume is the focus of this article. The results and diagrams suggest two ways of packing these cubes. Specifically suppose an infinite number of cubes; the side length of the first one is 1; the side length of the second one is 1/2 , and the side length of the nth one is 1/n. Let n approach…

  15. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  16. Physics of Extra Dimensions Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Csaba Csaki

    2007-12-19

    We provide the final report for Csaba Csaki's OJI project on "Physics of extra dimensions". It includes the summary of results of higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking, gauge-higgs unification, AdS/QCD and holographic technicolor, and chiral lattice theories from warped extra dimensions.

  17. Extra Y chromosome in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Xiao, H; Dadey, B; Block, A W; Han, T; Sandberg, A A

    1991-02-01

    Using separated lymphocytes from 95 male patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, we have established both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and short-term cultures with polyclonal B-cell mitogens. Cytogenetic studies of these patients revealed an extra Y chromosome in 4 of 71 male cell lines examined. An extra Y chromosome appeared to be the sole karyotype change (47,XY, + Y) in 2 of these 4 patients. The extra Y chromosome was accompanied by extra copies of chromosomes 12 and 21 (48,XY, + Y, + 12 and 48,XY, + Y, + 21) in the other 2 patients, respectively. The possible oncological role of the extra Y chromosome in the initiation of leukemia is discussed. PMID:1847090

  18. Extra-articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina; Tanasescu, R

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose main characteristic is persistent joint inflammation that results in joint damage and loss of function. Although RA is more common in females, extra-articular manifestations of the disease are more common in males. The extra-articular manifestations of RA can occur at any age after onset. It is characterised by destructive polyarthritis and extra-articular organ involvement, including the skin, eye, heart, lung, renal, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. The frequence of extra-articular manifestations in RA differs from one country to another. Extra-articular organ involvement in RA is more frequently seen in patients with severe, active disease and is associated with increased mortality. Incidence and frequence figures for extra-articular RA vary according to study design. Extra-articular involvement is more likely in those who have RF and/or are HLA-DR4 positive. Occasionally, there are also systemic manifestations such as vasculitis, visceral nodules, Sjögren's syndrome, or pulmonary fibrosis present. Nodules are the most common extra-articular feature, and are present in up to 30%; many of the other classic features occur in 1% or less in normal clinic settings. Sjögren's syndrome, anaemia of chronic disease and pulmonary manifestations are relatively common – in 6-10%, are frequently present in early disease and are all related to worse outcomes measures of rheumatoid disease in particular functional impairment and mortality. The occurrence of these systemic manifestations is a major predictor of mortality in patients with RA. This paper focuses on extra-articular manifestations, defined as diseases and symptoms not directly related to the locomotor system. PMID:21977172

  19. Measures of correlations in infinite-dimensional quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    Several important measures of correlations of the state of a finite-dimensional composite quantum system are defined as linear combinations of marginal entropies of this state. This paper is devoted to infinite-dimensional generalizations of such quantities and to an analysis of their properties. We introduce the notion of faithful extension of a linear combination of marginal entropies and consider several concrete examples, the simplest of which are quantum mutual information and quantum conditional entropy. Then we show that quantum conditional mutual information can be defined uniquely as a lower semicontinuous function on the set of all states of a tripartite infinite-dimensional system possessing all the basic properties valid in finite dimensions. Infinite-dimensional generalizations of some other measures of correlations in multipartite quantum systems are also considered. Applications of the results to the theory of infinite-dimensional quantum channels and their capacities are considered. The existence of a Fawzi-Renner recovery channel reproducing marginal states for all tripartite states (including states with infinite marginal entropies) is shown. Bibliography: 47 titles.

  20. Representations of Canonical Commutation Relations Describing Infinite Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the infinite volume limit of quantized photon fields in multimode coherent states. We show that for states containing a continuum of coherent modes, it is mathematically and physically natural to consider their phases to be random and identically distributed. The infinite volume states give rise to Hilbert space representations of the canonical commutation relations which we construct concretely. In the case of random phases, the representations are random as well and can be expressed with the help of Itô stochastic integrals. We analyze the dynamics of the infinite state alone and the open system dynamics of small systems coupled to it. We show that under the free field dynamics, initial phase distributions are driven to the uniform distribution. We demonstrate that coherences in small quantum systems, interacting with the infinite coherent state, exhibit Gaussian time decay. The decoherence is qualitatively faster than the one caused by infinite thermal states, which is known to be exponentially rapid only. This emphasizes the classical character of coherent states.

  1. Permittivity and permeability of semi-infinite metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porvatkina, O. V.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    In our work we investigate dielectric and magnetic properties of semi-infinite metamaterial consisting of particles of different possible nature: atoms, molecules, nanoparticles, etc. It is important that these particles would have magnetic properties. Polarization of a near-surface layer is known to differ from its bulk value for non-magnetic materials; for magnetic materials, including metamaterials, the situation should be similar, which is the subject of our research. We obtain analogues of the Clausius-Mossotti relation both for permittivity and permeability taking into account the local field effects in the longwave approximation for semi-infinite metamaterial. These relations describe the connection between macroscopic characteristics of the semi-infinite metamaterial (permittivity and permeability) and characteristics of constituent particles (dielectric polarizability and magnetic polarizability), which is a bright example of multi-scale approach - method very popular today in physical and computer simulating.

  2. Extra-cavity feedback into unstable resonators.

    PubMed

    Corkum, P B; Baldis, H A

    1979-05-01

    Unstable resonators constructed of totally reflecting optics are particularly sensitive to extra-cavity feedback. This is demonstrated experimentally by reflecting the attenuated output of an injection mode-locked TEA CO(2) laser, fitted with a confocal unstable resonator, back into the laser resonator. Even after attenuation by ~10(6), significant perturbation ( greater, similar10%) could be observed in the temporal characteristics of the output train. A theory of extra-cavity feedback in the geometric limit is presented. PMID:20212847

  3. Dynamics with infinitely many derivatives: the initial value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaby, Neil; Kamran, Niky

    2008-02-01

    Differential equations of infinite order are an increasingly important class of equations in theoretical physics. Such equations are ubiquitous in string field theory and have recently attracted considerable interest also from cosmologists. Though these equations have been studied in the classical mathematical literature, it appears that the physics community is largely unaware of the relevant formalism. Of particular importance is the fate of the initial value problem. Under what circumstances do infinite order differential equations possess a well-defined initial value problem and how many initial data are required? In this paper we study the initial value problem for infinite order differential equations in the mathematical framework of the formal operator calculus, with analytic initial data. This formalism allows us to handle simultaneously a wide array of different nonlocal equations within a single framework and also admits a transparent physical interpretation. We show that differential equations of infinite order do not generically admit infinitely many initial data. Rather, each pole of the propagator contributes two initial data to the final solution. Though it is possible to find differential equations of infinite order which admit well-defined initial value problem with only two initial data, neither the dynamical equations of p-adic string theory nor string field theory seem to belong to this class. However, both theories can be rendered ghost-free by suitable definition of the action of the formal pseudo-differential operator. This prescription restricts the theory to frequencies within some contour in the complex plane and hence may be thought of as a sort of ultra-violet cut-off. Our results place certain recent attempts to study inflation in the context of nonlocal field theories on a much firmer mathematical footing.

  4. Surface optical Bloch oscillations in semi-infinite waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Chremmos, I D; Efremidis, N K

    2012-06-01

    We predict that surface optical Bloch oscillations can exist in semi-infinite waveguide arrays with a linear index variation, if the array parameters close to the boundary are appropriately perturbed. The perturbation is such that the surface states obtain the Wannier-Stark ladder eigenvalues of the unperturbed infinite array. The number of waveguides, whose parameters need to be controlled, decreases with increasing ratio of index gradient over coupling. The configuration can find applications as a "matched" termination of waveguide arrays to eliminate the distortion of Bloch oscillations due to reflection on the boundaries.

  5. Infinite tension limit of the pure spinor superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovits, Nathan

    2014-03-01

    Mason and Skinner recently constructed a chiral infinite tension limit of the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz superstring which was shown to compute the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae for tree-level d = 10 Yang-Mills amplitudes and the NS-NS sector of tree-level d = 10 supergravity amplitudes. In this letter, their chiral infinite tension limit is generalized to the pure spinor superstring which computes a d = 10 superspace version of the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae for tree-level d = 10 super-Yang-Mills and supergravity amplitudes.

  6. Robust Consumption-Investment Problem on Infinite Horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Zawisza, Dariusz

    2015-12-15

    In our paper we consider an infinite horizon consumption-investment problem under a model misspecification in a general stochastic factor model. We formulate the problem as a stochastic game and finally characterize the saddle point and the value function of that game using an ODE of semilinear type, for which we provide a proof of an existence and uniqueness theorem for its solution. Such equation is interested on its own right, since it generalizes many other equations arising in various infinite horizon optimization problems.

  7. Extending NEC to model wire objects in infinite chiral media

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G.J.; Miller, E.K.; Bhattachryya, A.K.

    1992-03-01

    The development of a moment-method model for wire objects in an infinite chiral medium is described. In this work, the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) was extended by including a new integral-equation kernel obtained from the dyadic Green`s function for an infinite chiral medium. The NEC moment-method treatment using point matching and a three-term sinusoidal current expansion was adapted to the case of a chiral medium. Examples of current distributions and radiation patterns for simple antennas are presented, and the validation of the code is discussed. 15 refs.

  8. Superlinear nonlocal fractional problems with infinitely many solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binlin, Zhang; Molica Bisci, Giovanni; Servadei, Raffaella

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we study the existence of infinitely many weak solutions for equations driven by nonlocal integrodifferential operators with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. A model for these operators is given by the fractional Laplacian where s ∈ (0, 1) is fixed. We consider different superlinear growth assumptions on the nonlinearity, starting from the well-known Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz condition. In this framework we obtain three different results about the existence of infinitely many weak solutions for the problem under consideration, by using the Fountain Theorem. All these theorems extend some classical results for semilinear Laplacian equations to the nonlocal fractional setting.

  9. Gravitational waves from kinks on infinite cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2010-05-15

    Gravitational waves emitted by kinks on infinite strings are investigated using detailed estimations of the kink distribution on infinite strings. We find that gravitational waves from kinks can be detected by future pulsar timing experiments such as SKA for an appropriate value of the string tension, if the typical size of string loops is much smaller than the horizon at their formation. Moreover, the gravitational wave spectrum depends on the thermal history of the Universe and hence it can be used as a probe into the early evolution of the Universe.

  10. The physics of FEL in an infinite electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Webb, S.

    2010-10-07

    We solve linearized Vlasov-Maxwell FEL equations for a 3-D perturbation in the infinite electron beam with Lorentzian energy distributions using paraxial approximation. We present analytical solutions for various initial perturbations and discuss the effect of optical guiding in such system.

  11. Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong

    2012-01-01

    Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…

  12. Young Students Exploring Cardinality by Constructing Infinite Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Ken; Sendova, Evgenia; Sacristan, Ana Isabel; Noss, Richard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of computer programming activities aimed at introducing young students (9-13 years old) to the idea of infinity, and in particular, to the cardinality of infinite sets. This research was part of the "WebLabs" project where students from several European countries explored topics in…

  13. How Fragile Is Consolidated Knowledge? Ben's Comparisons of Infinite Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamir, Pessia; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    This article builds on two previous ones in which we presented the processes of construction and consolidation of one student's knowledge structures about comparisons of infinite sets, according to a recently proposed theory of abstraction. In the present article, we show that under slight variations of context, knowledge structures that have…

  14. Finding sums for an infinite class of alternating series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong

    2012-07-01

    Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the following form ?

  15. Functional DNA: Teaching Infinite Series through Genetic Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, R. Travis

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an extended analogy that connects infinite sequences and series to the science of genetics, by identifying power series as "DNA for a function." This analogy allows standard topics such as convergence tests or Taylor approximations to be recast in a "forensic" light as mathematical analogs of genetic concepts such as DNA…

  16. Reparametrization of the Relativistic Infinitely Extended Charged Particle Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan; Pourhassan, Behnam

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, relativistic infinitely extended particles formulated. Correct form of action with possibility of reparametrization obtained and effect of electric field considered. It may be one of the first step to re-introduce theory of every things given by Nakano and Hessaby many years ago.

  17. Plasmonic waves of a semi-infinite random nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Afshin

    2013-10-15

    The dispersion curves of the plasmonic waves of a semi-infinite random metal-dielectric nanocomposite, consisting of bulk metal embedded with dielectric inclusions, are presented. Two branches of p-polarized surface plasmon-polariton modes are found to exist. The possibility of experimentally observing the surface waves by attenuated total reflection is demonstrated.

  18. Infinite and Finite Games: Play and Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Laurie E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I shall argue for the value of conceptualizing, and practicing art education as a kind of play or game, drawing inspiration from the concepts of finite and infinite games articulated by philosopher James Carse (1986). In so doing, I seek to encourage a continuing dialogue with the assumptions that constrain the theoretical basis…

  19. The Limits of Some Infinite Families of Complex Contracting Mappings

    SciTech Connect

    Pagon, Dusan

    2008-11-13

    Self-similarity is strongly presented in modern mathematics and physics. We study a broad class of planar fractals--strongly self-similar sets of points in complex plane, obtained from a unit interval as geometric limits of certain infinite families of contracting mappings. Different 1-1 correspondences between the constructed set and the initial unit interval are established.

  20. On the steady propagation of a semi-infinite crack

    SciTech Connect

    Paukshto, M.V.; Sulimov, M.G.

    1994-12-25

    We consider the rectilinear propagation of a semi-infinite crack with constant velocity in a crystal structure. We obtain the solutions of homogeneous boundary-value problems for the corresponding difference-differential operators in spaces of one and two dimensions. We give a justification of the computational aspect of the problem.

  1. Extremely correlated Fermi liquids in the limit of infinite dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Perepelitsky, Edward Sriram Shastry, B.

    2013-11-15

    We study the infinite spatial dimensionality limit (d→∞) of the recently developed Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquid (ECFL) theory (Shastry 2011, 2013) [17,18] for the t–J model at J=0. We directly analyze the Schwinger equations of motion for the Gutzwiller projected (i.e. U=∞) electron Green’s function G. From simplifications arising in this limit d→∞, we are able to make several exact statements about the theory. The ECFL Green’s function is shown to have a momentum independent Dyson (Mori) self energy. For practical calculations we introduce a partial projection parameter λ, and obtain the complete set of ECFL integral equations to O(λ{sup 2}). In a related publication (Zitko et al. 2013) [23], these equations are compared in detail with the dynamical mean field theory for the large U Hubbard model. Paralleling the well known mapping for the Hubbard model, we find that the infinite dimensional t–J model (with J=0) can be mapped to the infinite-U Anderson impurity model with a self-consistently determined set of parameters. This mapping extends individually to the auxiliary Green’s function g and the caparison factor μ. Additionally, the optical conductivity is shown to be obtainable from G with negligibly small vertex corrections. These results are shown to hold to each order in λ. -- Highlights: •Infinite-dimensional t–J model (J=0) studied within new ECFL theory. •Mapping to the infinite U Anderson model with self consistent hybridization. •Single particle Green’s function determined by two local self energies. •Partial projection through control variable λ. •Expansion carried out to O(λ{sup 2}) explicitly.

  2. Recent advances in the use of NIR spectroscopy for qualitative control and protection of extra virgin olive oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies on the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the qualitative characterization of extra virgin olive oil, are reported and discussed in this paper. Research results confirms that NIR spectroscopy, combined with chemometric data analysis, allows to simultaneously evaluate all qual...

  3. Extra and Intra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, R K; Banskota, B; Rijal, S; Banskota, A K

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is not so rare intra-articular condition secondary to synovial metaplasia, that affects the knee joint. Extra-articular synovial chondromatosis however is an extremely rare condition that usually involves the synovial sheath or bursa of the foot or hand. We present two cases of synovial chondromatosis, one intra and one extra-articular. The first case was a 25 year old lady who presented with pain, swelling and restricted range of motion of left knee and was found to have an intra-articular synovial chondromatosis which was treated successfully by joint debridement. The second case was that of a 22 year old man who presented with right knee pain and was diagnosed to have an extra-articular synovial chondromatosis of his right medial hamstring tendon sheath, excision of which resulted in complete relief of symptoms. PMID:27549506

  4. Extra-dimensional models on the lattice

    DOE PAGES

    Knechtli, Francesco; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2016-08-05

    In this paper we summarize the ongoing effort to study extra-dimensional gauge theories with lattice simulations. In these models the Higgs field is identified with extra-dimensional components of the gauge field. The Higgs potential is generated by quantum corrections and is protected from divergences by the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions can occur through compactification or localization. Gauge-Higgs unification models are often studied using perturbation theory. Numerical lattice simulations are used to go beyond these perturbative expectations and to include nonperturbative effects. We describe the known perturbative predictions and their fate in the strongly-coupled regime formore » various extra-dimensional models.« less

  5. Microscopic Primordial Black Holes and Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, John A.; Wizansky, Tommer

    2006-11-15

    We examine the production and evolution of microscopic black holes in the early universe in the large extra dimensions scenario. We demonstrate that, unlike in the standard four-dimensional cosmology, in large extra dimensions absorption of matter from the primordial plasma by the black holes is significant and can lead to rapid growth of the black hole mass density. This effect can be used to constrain the conditions present in the very early universe. We demonstrate that this constraint is applicable in regions of parameter space not excluded by existing bounds.

  6. Synchronous extra-parotid Warthin's tumour.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, H; Kirkham, N; Hogbin, B M

    1989-08-01

    Warthin's tumour (also known as adenolymphoma or papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is benign and accounts for 12 per cent of all neoplasms of the parotid gland. A case of extra-parotid Warthin's tumour occurring synchronously in a peri-parotid lymph node is described. This is not a metastatic phenomenon and occurs as a result of salivary gland inclusions of local lymph nodes during the embryological development of the parotid. Extra-parotid Warthin's tumour should be regarded as a benign incidental finding and the prognosis is excellent.

  7. Infrared Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    This review on infrared spectrometry covering the period from late 1981 to late 1983, is divided into nine sections. Topic areas include: books; reviews; analytical applications; biochemical applications; environmental applications; polymer applications; infrared instrumentation; sampling techniques; and software and algorithms. (JN)

  8. Predictive Rate-Distortion for Infinite-Order Markov Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzen, Sarah E.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-06-01

    Predictive rate-distortion analysis suffers from the curse of dimensionality: clustering arbitrarily long pasts to retain information about arbitrarily long futures requires resources that typically grow exponentially with length. The challenge is compounded for infinite-order Markov processes, since conditioning on finite sequences cannot capture all of their past dependencies. Spectral arguments confirm a popular intuition: algorithms that cluster finite-length sequences fail dramatically when the underlying process has long-range temporal correlations and can fail even for processes generated by finite-memory hidden Markov models. We circumvent the curse of dimensionality in rate-distortion analysis of finite- and infinite-order processes by casting predictive rate-distortion objective functions in terms of the forward- and reverse-time causal states of computational mechanics. Examples demonstrate that the resulting algorithms yield substantial improvements.

  9. Accelerated Gibbs Sampling for Infinite Sparse Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Andrzejewski, D M

    2011-09-12

    The Indian Buffet Process (IBP) gives a probabilistic model of sparse binary matrices with an unbounded number of columns. This construct can be used, for example, to model a fixed numer of observed data points (rows) associated with an unknown number of latent features (columns). Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are often used for IBP inference, and in this technical note, we provide a detailed review of the derivations of collapsed and accelerated Gibbs samplers for the linear-Gaussian infinite latent feature model. We also discuss and explain update equations for hyperparameter resampling in a 'full Bayesian' treatment and present a novel slice sampler capable of extending the accelerated Gibbs sampler to the case of infinite sparse factor analysis by allowing the use of real-valued latent features.

  10. Polygons in restricted geometries subjected to infinite forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, N. R.; Eng, J. W.; Soteros, C. E.

    2016-10-01

    We consider self-avoiding polygons in a restricted geometry, namely an infinite L × M tube in {{{Z}}}3. These polygons are subjected to a force f, parallel to the infinite axis of the tube. When f\\gt 0 the force stretches the polygons, while when f\\lt 0 the force is compressive. We obtain and prove the asymptotic form of the free energy in both limits f\\to +/- ∞ . We conjecture that the f\\to -∞ asymptote is the same as the limiting free energy of ‘Hamiltonian’ polygons, polygons which visit every vertex in a L× M× N box. We investigate such polygons, and in particular use a transfer-matrix methodology to establish that the conjecture is true for some small tube sizes. Dedicated to Anthony J Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  11. LES investigation of infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-12-01

    The layouts of turbines affect the turbine wake interactions and thus the wind farm performance. The wake interactions in infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays are investigated and compared with infinite aligned turbine arrays in this paper. From the numerical results we identify three types of wake behaviours, which are significantly different from wakes in aligned wind-turbine arrays. For the first type, each turbine wake interferes with the pair of staggered downstream turbine wakes and the aligned downstream turbine. For the second type, each turbine wake interacts with the first two downstream turbine wakes but does not show significant interference with the second aligned downstream turbine. For the third type, each turbine wake recovers immediately after passing through the gap of the first two downstream turbines and has little interaction with the second downstream turbine wakes The extracted power density and power efficiency are also studied and compared with aligned wind-turbine arrays.

  12. Conformal field theories with infinitely many conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, Ivan

    2013-02-15

    Globally conformal invariant quantum field theories in a D-dimensional space-time (D even) have rational correlation functions and admit an infinite number of conserved (symmetric traceless) tensor currents. In a theory of a scalar field of dimension D-2 they were demonstrated to be generated by bilocal normal products of free massless scalar fields with an O(N), U(N), or Sp(2N) (global) gauge symmetry [B. Bakalov, N. M. Nikolov, K.-H. Rehren, and I. Todorov, 'Unitary positive energy representations of scalar bilocal fields,' Commun. Math. Phys. 271, 223-246 (2007); e-print arXiv:math-ph/0604069v3; and 'Infinite dimensional Lie algebras in 4D conformal quantum field theory,' J. Phys. A Math Theor. 41, 194002 (2008); e-print arXiv:0711.0627v2 [hep-th

  13. Some characterizations of quantum channel in infinite Hilbert spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiu-Hong; Li, Yuan

    2014-05-15

    We first show that for any quantum states ρ on H and σ on K there exists a quantum channel Φ such that Φ(ρ) = σ, where H and K are finite or infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Then we consider some conclusions for the quantum channel Φ such that Φ(ρ) = σ and Φ(I{sub H}) exists or Φ(I{sub H})=I{sub K}.

  14. Analysis of Multiple Cracks in an Infinite Functionally Graded Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shbeeb, N. I.; Binienda, W. K.; Kreider, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    A general methodology was constructed to develop the fundamental solution for a crack embedded in an infinite non-homogeneous material in which the shear modulus varies exponentially with the y coordinate. The fundamental solution was used to generate a solution to fully interactive multiple crack problems for stress intensity factors and strain energy release rates. Parametric studies were conducted for two crack configurations. The model displayed sensitivity to crack distance, relative angular orientation, and to the coefficient of nonhomogeneity.

  15. Infinite Simple 3d Cubic Network of Identical Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asad, Jihad H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the effective capacitance between the origin (0, 0, 0) and any other lattice site (l1, l2, l3), in an infinite simple cubic (SC) network consisting of identical capacitors each of capacitance C, has been expressed rationally in terms of the known value go and π. The asymptotic behavior is also investigated, and some numerical values for the effective capacitance are presented.

  16. Exploring Warped Compactifications of Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabholkar, Sujan

    In 1920s, the concept of extra dimensions was considered for the first time to unify gravity and electromagnetism. Since then there have been many developments to understand the unification of fundamental forces using extra dimensions. In this thesis, we study this idea of extra dimensions in higher dimensional gravity theories such as String Theory or Supergravity to make connections with cosmology. We construct a family of non-singular time-dependent solutions of a six-dimensional gravity with a warped geometry. The warp factor is time-dependent and breaks the translation invariance along one of the extra directions. Our solutions have the desired property of homogeneity and isotropy along the non-compact space. These geometries are supported by matter that does not violate the null energy condition. These 6D solutions do not have a closed trapped surface and hence the Hawking-Penrose singularity theorems do not apply to these solutions. These solutions are constructed from 7D locally flat solution by performing Kaluza-Klein reduction. We also study warped compactifications of string/M theory with the help of effective potentials for the construction of de Sitter vacua. The dynamics of the conformal factor of the internal metric is explored to investigate instabilities. The results works the best mainly in the case of a slowly varying warp factor. We also present interesting ideas to find AdS vacua of N=1 flux compactifications using smooth, compact toric manifolds as internal space.

  17. Extra virgin olive oil's polyphenols: biological activities.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Bernardini, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In addition to its high proportion of oleic acid (which is considered as "neutral" in terms of cardioprotection), extra virgin olive oil is rich in phenolic compounds, which other vegetable oils do not contain. This review critically appraises the current scientific evidence of a healthful role of olive phenols, with particular emphasis on hydroxytyrosol and related molecules.

  18. Progress in extra-solar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in extra-solar planet detection is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the definition of a planet; (2) the weakness of planet signals; (3) direct techniques - imaging and spectral detection; and (4) indirect techniques - reflex motion and occultations.

  19. Precision Constraints on Extra Fermion Generations

    SciTech Connect

    Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul

    2010-07-16

    There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data.

  20. Infinite variance in fermion quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei

    2016-03-01

    For important classes of many-fermion problems, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods allow exact calculations of ground-state and finite-temperature properties without the sign problem. The list spans condensed matter, nuclear physics, and high-energy physics, including the half-filled repulsive Hubbard model, the spin-balanced atomic Fermi gas, and lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations at zero density with Wilson Fermions, and is growing rapidly as a number of problems have been discovered recently to be free of the sign problem. In these situations, QMC calculations are relied on to provide definitive answers. Their results are instrumental to our ability to understand and compute properties in fundamental models important to multiple subareas in quantum physics. It is shown, however, that the most commonly employed algorithms in such situations have an infinite variance problem. A diverging variance causes the estimated Monte Carlo statistical error bar to be incorrect, which can render the results of the calculation unreliable or meaningless. We discuss how to identify the infinite variance problem. An approach is then proposed to solve the problem. The solution does not require major modifications to standard algorithms, adding a "bridge link" to the imaginary-time path integral. The general idea is applicable to a variety of situations where the infinite variance problem may be present. Illustrative results are presented for the ground state of the Hubbard model at half-filling.

  1. Single file diffusion into a semi-infinite tube.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Spencer G; Brown, Aidan I; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a semi-infinite tube, such as luminal diffusion of proteins into microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no impact on the evolution of particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0, tracked particles are initially super-diffusive after entering the system, but asymptotically diffusive at later times. For finite time intervals, the ratio of the net displacement of individual single-file particles to the average displacement of untracked particles is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times. When each particle is numbered, from the first to enter (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of this distance ratio for all n. Experimental techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching of fluorescently tagged proteins, should be able to observe these single-file effects. However, biological phenomena that depend on local concentration, such as flagellar extension or luminal enzymatic activity, should not exhibit single-file effects. PMID:26595123

  2. Analysis of transitional separation bubbles on infinite swept wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. L.; Carter, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    A previously developed two-dimensional local inviscid-viscous interaction technique for the analysis of airfoil transitional separation bubbles, ALESEP (Airfoil Leading Edge Separation), has been extended for the calculation of transitional separation bubbles over infinite swept wings. As part of this effort, Roberts' empirical correlation, which is interpreted as a separated flow empirical extension of Mack's stability theory for attached flows, has been incorporated into the ALESEP procedure for the prediction of the transition location within the separation bubble. In addition, the viscous procedure used in the ALESEP techniques has been modified to allow for wall suction. A series of two-dimensional calculations is presented as a verification of the prediction capability of the interaction techniques with the Roberts' transition model. Numerical tests have shown that this two-dimensional natural transition correlation may also be applied to transitional separation bubbles over infinite swept wings. Results of the interaction procedure are compared with Horton's detailed experimental data for separated flow over a swept plate which demonstrates the accuracy of the present technique. Wall suction has been applied to a similar interaction calculation to demonstrate its effect on the separation bubble. The principal conclusion of this paper is that the prediction of transitional separation bubbles over two-dimensional or infinite swept geometries is now possible using the present interacting boundary layer approach.

  3. Single file diffusion into a semi-infinite tube.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Spencer G; Brown, Aidan I; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2015-11-23

    We investigate single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a semi-infinite tube, such as luminal diffusion of proteins into microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no impact on the evolution of particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0, tracked particles are initially super-diffusive after entering the system, but asymptotically diffusive at later times. For finite time intervals, the ratio of the net displacement of individual single-file particles to the average displacement of untracked particles is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times. When each particle is numbered, from the first to enter (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of this distance ratio for all n. Experimental techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching of fluorescently tagged proteins, should be able to observe these single-file effects. However, biological phenomena that depend on local concentration, such as flagellar extension or luminal enzymatic activity, should not exhibit single-file effects.

  4. Single file diffusion into a semi-infinite tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Spencer G.; Brown, Aidan I.; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a semi-infinite tube, such as luminal diffusion of proteins into microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no impact on the evolution of particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0, tracked particles are initially super-diffusive after entering the system, but asymptotically diffusive at later times. For finite time intervals, the ratio of the net displacement of individual single-file particles to the average displacement of untracked particles is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times. When each particle is numbered, from the first to enter (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of this distance ratio for all n. Experimental techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching of fluorescently tagged proteins, should be able to observe these single-file effects. However, biological phenomena that depend on local concentration, such as flagellar extension or luminal enzymatic activity, should not exhibit single-file effects.

  5. Infinitely dilute partial molar properties of proteins from computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Smith, Paul E

    2014-11-13

    A detailed understanding of temperature and pressure effects on an infinitely dilute protein's conformational equilibrium requires knowledge of the corresponding infinitely dilute partial molar properties. Established molecular dynamics methodologies generally have not provided a way to calculate these properties without either a loss of thermodynamic rigor, the introduction of nonunique parameters, or a loss of information about which solute conformations specifically contributed to the output values. Here we implement a simple method that is thermodynamically rigorous and possesses none of the above disadvantages, and we report on the method's feasibility and computational demands. We calculate infinitely dilute partial molar properties for two proteins and attempt to distinguish the thermodynamic differences between a native and a denatured conformation of a designed miniprotein. We conclude that simple ensemble average properties can be calculated with very reasonable amounts of computational power. In contrast, properties corresponding to fluctuating quantities are computationally demanding to calculate precisely, although they can be obtained more easily by following the temperature and/or pressure dependence of the corresponding ensemble averages.

  6. Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, N.; Godt, J.

    2008-01-01

    [1] We present a generalized framework for the stability of infinite slopes under steady unsaturated seepage conditions. The analytical framework allows the water table to be located at any depth below the ground surface and variation of soil suction and moisture content above the water table under steady infiltration conditions. The framework also explicitly considers the effect of weathering and porosity increase near the ground surface on changes in the friction angle of the soil. The factor of safety is conceptualized as a function of the depth within the vadose zone and can be reduced to the classical analytical solution for subaerial infinite slopes in the saturated zone. Slope stability analyses with hypothetical sandy and silty soils are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the framework. These analyses indicate that for hillslopes of both sandy and silty soils, failure can occur above the water table under steady infiltration conditions, which is consistent with some field observations that cannot be predicted by the classical infinite slope theory. A case study of shallow slope failures of sandy colluvium on steep coastal hillslopes near Seattle, Washington, is presented to examine the predictive utility of the proposed framework. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Infinite variance in fermion quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei

    2016-03-01

    For important classes of many-fermion problems, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods allow exact calculations of ground-state and finite-temperature properties without the sign problem. The list spans condensed matter, nuclear physics, and high-energy physics, including the half-filled repulsive Hubbard model, the spin-balanced atomic Fermi gas, and lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations at zero density with Wilson Fermions, and is growing rapidly as a number of problems have been discovered recently to be free of the sign problem. In these situations, QMC calculations are relied on to provide definitive answers. Their results are instrumental to our ability to understand and compute properties in fundamental models important to multiple subareas in quantum physics. It is shown, however, that the most commonly employed algorithms in such situations have an infinite variance problem. A diverging variance causes the estimated Monte Carlo statistical error bar to be incorrect, which can render the results of the calculation unreliable or meaningless. We discuss how to identify the infinite variance problem. An approach is then proposed to solve the problem. The solution does not require major modifications to standard algorithms, adding a "bridge link" to the imaginary-time path integral. The general idea is applicable to a variety of situations where the infinite variance problem may be present. Illustrative results are presented for the ground state of the Hubbard model at half-filling. PMID:27078480

  8. Backward Stochastic Differential Equations in Infinite Dimensions with Continuous Driver and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman, Marco Hu, Ying

    2007-09-15

    In this paper we prove the existence of a solution to backward stochastic differential equations in infinite dimensions with continuous driver under various assumptions. We apply our results to a stochastic game problem with infinitely many players.

  9. Infrared Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Jet Propulsion Laboratory Technical Support Package (TSP) describing a technique for processing data from an infrared radiometer assisted a manufacturer of laminates for printed circuit boards. To reduce emissions and lower the cost of producing prepreg (a continuous glass cloth, or web, impregnated with epoxy resin and partially cured by applying heat), Norplex Oak switched to infrared treating towers. The TSP confirmed the company's computer prediction of heat flux patterns, provided information that allowed the company to modify infrared treaters for consistency, and furnished a basis for development of optimal heater placements. The treaters are now successfully operating at increased speeds with improved product consistency.

  10. Wall and antiwall in the Randall-Sundrum model and a new infrared regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Shoichi

    2002-04-01

    An approach to finding the field equation solution of the Randall-Sundrum model with the S1/Z2 extra axis is presented. We closely examine the infrared singularity. The vacuum is set by the five-dimensional Higgs boson field. Both the domain wall and the anti-domain-wall naturally appear, at the ends of the extra compact axis, by taking a new infrared regularization. The solution is considered to be stable by the kink boundary condition. A continuous (infrared-) regularized solution, which is a truncated Fourier series of a discontinuous solution, is utilized. The ultraviolet-infrared relation appears in the regularized solution.

  11. Why Infrared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses applications of techniques developed for the remote sensing of infrared radiation. In addition to military applications, remote sensing has become important in collecting environmental data and detecting ecological problems. (JR)

  12. The EXTraS project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; Tiengo, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Watson, M.; Haberl, F.; Wilms, J.

    2016-06-01

    The EXTraS project is extracting the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by XMM-Newton/EPIC since its launch. This includes a search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis, as well as a search and characterization of variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources, spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. All our results, together with new analysis tools, will be made available to the community in an easy-to-use form at the end of 2016, with prospects of extending the analysis to future data. EXTraS products will have a very broad range of applications, from the search for rare events to population studies, with a large impact in almost all fields of astrophysics. This will boost the scientific exploitation of XMM data and make EPIC the reference for time-domain astronomy in the soft X-rays. The EXTraS project (2014-2016), funded within the EU/FP7 framework, is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), CNR/IMATI (Italy), University of Leicester (UK), MPE (Germany) and ECAP (Germany).

  13. Unveiling long-term variability in XMM-Newton surveys within the EXTraS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, S.; Read, A.; Law-Green, D.; Watson, M.; Pye, J.; O'Brien, P.

    2016-06-01

    The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray transient and variable sky) is an EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework programme that aims to bring together a diverse set of time-domain analyses of XMM-Newton X-ray data and make them available to the public in a coherent manner. Through a combination of pointed observations and slew scans, XMM-Newton has repeatedly observed many regions of the sky, in a few cases up to ˜50 times, ˜70000 sources being observed more than once. While non-uniformly spaced and often sparse, these snapshots provide scientifically valuable information on the photometric behaviour of sources on longer term (hours to ˜ a decade) timescales. Here we describe the collation of XMM-Newton data for long-term variability from the 3XMM-DR5 catalogue, the slew survey and upper-limit information from the associated XMM-Newton products, and the analysis being performed on the ensuing light curves. We also present emerging examples of some newly identified long-term variable sources to highlight the value of this element of the EXTraS project. These longer baseline light curves can (i) unveil variable sources that appear stable in individual observations, (ii) reveal exotic and transient sources and (iii) complement short-term variability information from elsewhere in the EXTraS project by probing slower physical phenomena.

  14. One universal extra dimension in PYTHIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElKacimi, M.; Goujdami, D.; Przysiezniak, H.; Skands, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Universal Extra Dimensions model has been implemented in the PYTHIA generator from version 6.4.18 onwards, in its minimal formulation with one TeV -1-sized extra dimension. The additional possibility of gravity-mediated decays, through a variable number of eV -1-sized extra dimensions into which only gravity extends, is also available. The implementation covers the lowest lying Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of Standard Model particles, except for the excitations of the Higgs fields, with the mass spectrum calculated at one loop. 2→2 tree-level production cross sections and unpolarized KK number conserving 2-body decays are included. Mixing between iso-doublet and -singlet KK excitations is neglected thus far, and is expected to be negligible for all but the top sector. New version summaryProgram title: PYTHIA Version number: 6.420 Catalogue identifier: ACTU_v2_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ACTU_v2_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 79 362 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 590 900 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: CERN lxplus and any other machine with a Fortran 77 compiler Operating system: Linux Red Hat RAM: about 800 K words Word size: 32 bits Classification: 11.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ACTU_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 135 (2001) 238 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: At high energy collisions between elementary particles, physics beyond the Standard Model is searched for. Many models are being investigated, namely extra-dimensional models. Solution method: The Universal Extra Dimension model is implemented in the PYTHIA event generator. Reasons for new version

  15. Extra-oral Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Alharbi, Fahad; McIntyre, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Extra-oral appliances are used in orthodontics to apply forces to the jaws, dentition or both and the popularity of these appliances is cyclical. Although the use of retraction headgear for the management of Class II malocclusion has declined over the last 20 years with the refinement of non-compliance approaches, including temporary anchorage devices, headgear still has a useful role in orthodontics. The use of protraction headgear has increased as more evidence of its effectiveness for the treatment of Class lIl malocclusion has become available. This paper describes the mechanics and contemporary uses of headgear in orthodontics for primary care dentists and specialist orthodontists. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Extra-oral appliances have specific uses in orthodontic biomechanics. Clinicians using retraction headgear and protraction headgear should be familiar with their clinical indications, the potential problems and how these can be avoided.

  16. Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Apollo Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Apollo Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity (IEVA) spacesuits, which supported launch and reentry and extra-vehicular activity. This program was NASA's first attempt to develop a new suit design from requirements and concepts. Mr. Thomas will chronicle the challenges, developments, struggles, and solutions that culminated in the system that allowed the first human exploration of the Moon and deep space (outside low-Earth orbit). Apollo pressure suit designs allowed the heroic repair of the Skylab space station and supported the first U.S. and Russian spacecraft docking during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project. Mr. Thomas will also discuss the IEVA suits' successes and challenges associated with the IEVA developments of the 1960s.

  17. Signals for Extra Dimensions at CLIC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2001-08-28

    A brief overview is presented of the signatures for several different models with extra dimensions at CLIC, an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with a center of mass energy of 3-5 TeV and an integrated luminosity of order 1 ab{sup -1}. In all cases the search reach for the resulting new physic signatures is found to be in the range of {approx} 15-80 TeV.

  18. Extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, J.

    1987-01-01

    Extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has proved to be a revolutionary advance in the treatment of renal stone disease. It, itself, is non-invasive but may necessitate or be used as an adjunct to more invasive auxiliary procedures. The basic principles of lithotripsy, the clinical experience thus far and probable future applications are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3330235

  19. Dimensional reduction without continuous extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Froehlich, J.; Schubnel, B.; Wyler, D.

    2013-01-15

    We describe a novel approach to dimensional reduction in classical field theory. Inspired by ideas from noncommutative geometry, we introduce extended algebras of differential forms over space-time, generalized exterior derivatives, and generalized connections associated with the 'geometry' of space-times with discrete extra dimensions. We apply our formalism to theories of gauge- and gravitational fields and find natural geometrical origins for an axion- and a dilaton field, as well as a Higgs field.

  20. Kinks, extra dimensions, and gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    O'Callaghan, Eimear; Gregory, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    We investigate in detail the gravitational wave signal from kinks on cosmic (super)strings, including the kinematical effects from the internal extra dimensions. We find that the signal is suppressed, however, the effect is less significant that that for cusps. Combined with the greater incidence of kinks on (super)strings, it is likely that the kink signal offers the better chance for detection of cosmic (super)strings.

  1. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  2. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  3. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  4. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  5. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  6. J-integral estimates for cracks in infinite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, N. E.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis and discussion is presented of existing estimates of the J-integral for cracks in infinite bodies. Equations are presented which provide convenient estimates for Ramberg-Osgood type elastoplastic materials containing cracks and subjected to multiaxial loading. The relationship between J and the strain normal to the crack is noted to be only weakly dependent on state of stress. But the relationship between J and the stress normal to the crack is strongly dependent on state of stress. A plastic zone correction term often employed is found to be arbitrary, and its magnitude is seldom significant.

  7. Convex aggregative modelling of infinite memory nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachel, Paweł

    2016-08-01

    The convex aggregation technique is applied for modelling general class of nonlinear systems with unknown structure and infinite memory. The finite sample size properties of the algorithm are formally established and compared to the standard least-squares counterpart of the method. The proposed algorithm demonstrates its advantages when the a-priori knowledge and the measurement data are both scarce, that is, when the information about the actual system structure is unknown or uncertain and the measurement set is small and disturbed by a noise. Numerical experiments illustrate application and practical benefits of the method for various nonlinear systems.

  8. Approximate Controllability of Fractional Neutral Stochastic System with Infinite Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, R.; Ganesh, R.; Suganya, S.

    2012-12-01

    The concept of controllability plays an important role in analysis and design of linear and nonlinear control systems. Further, fractional differential equations have wide applications in engineering and science. In this paper, the approximate controllability of neutral stochastic fractional integro-differential equation with infinite delay in a Hilbert space is studied. By using Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem with stochastic analysis theory, we derive a new set of sufficient conditions for the approximate controllability of nonlinear fractional stochastic system under the assumption that the corresponding linear system is approximately controllable. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate the obtained theory.

  9. Spin transport of weakly disordered Heisenberg chain at infinite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khait, Ilia; Gazit, Snir; Yao, Norman Y.; Auerbach, Assa

    2016-06-01

    We study the disordered Heisenberg spin chain, which exhibits many-body localization at strong disorder, in the weak to moderate disorder regime. A continued fraction calculation of dynamical correlations is devised, using a variational extrapolation of recurrents. Good convergence for the infinite chain limit is shown. We find that the local spin correlations decay at long times as C ˜t-β , whereas the conductivity exhibits a low-frequency power law σ ˜ωα . The exponents depict subdiffusive behavior β <1 /2 ,α >0 at all finite disorders and convergence to the scaling result α +2 β =1 at large disorders.

  10. Scan blindness in infinite phased arrays of printed dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive study of infinite phased arrays of printed dipole antennas is presented, with emphasis on the scan blindness phenomenon. A rigorous and efficient moment method procedure is used to calculate the array impedance versus scan angle. Data are presented for the input reflection coefficient for various element spacings and substrate parameters. A simple theory, based on coupling from Floquet modes to surface wave modes on the substrate, is shown to predict the occurrence of scan blindness. Measurements from a waveguide simulator of a blindness condition confirm the theory.

  11. Rotor-router walk on a semi-infinite cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoyan, Vl V.; Poghosyan, V. S.; Priezzhev, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    We study the rotor-router walk with the clockwise ordering of outgoing edges on the semi-infinite cylinder. Imposing uniform conditions on the boundary of the cylinder, we consider growth of the cluster of visited sites and its internal structure. The average width of the surface region of the cluster evolves with time to the stationary value by a scaling law whose parameters are close to the standard KPZ exponents. We introduce characteristic labels corresponding to closed clockwise contours formed by rotors and show that the sequence of labels has in average an ordered helix structure.

  12. Infinite impulse response modal filtering in visible adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapito, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.

    2012-07-01

    Diffraction limited resolution adaptive optics (AO) correction in visible wavelengths requires a high performance control. In this paper we investigate infinite impulse response filters that optimize the wavefront correction: we tested these algorithms through full numerical simulations of a single-conjugate AO system comprising an adaptive secondary mirror with 1127 actuators and a pyramid wavefront sensor (WFS). The actual practicability of the algorithms depends on both robustness and knowledge of the real system: errors in the system model may even worsen the performance. In particular we checked the robustness of the algorithms in different conditions, proving that the proposed method can reject both disturbance and calibration errors.

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 8 - Extra work and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extra work and changes. Sec. 8 Section 8 Shipping... Sec. 8 Extra work and changes. (a) At any time after the award of an original job order and during the time the work thereunder is being performed, additional or extra work or changes in the work covered...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 8 - Extra work and changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Extra work and changes. Sec. 8 Section 8 Shipping... Sec. 8 Extra work and changes. (a) At any time after the award of an original job order and during the time the work thereunder is being performed, additional or extra work or changes in the work covered...

  15. Infrared Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive infrared camera that observes the blazing plumes from the Space Shuttle or expendable rocket lift-offs is capable of scanning for fires, monitoring the environment and providing medical imaging. The hand-held camera uses highly sensitive arrays in infrared photodetectors known as quantum well infrared photo detectors (QWIPS). QWIPS were developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Center for Space Microelectronics Technology in partnership with Amber, a Raytheon company. In October 1996, QWIP detectors pointed out hot spots of the destructive fires speeding through Malibu, California. Night vision, early warning systems, navigation, flight control systems, weather monitoring, security and surveillance are among the duties for which the camera is suited. Medical applications are also expected.

  16. Conformal field theories with infinitely many conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    Globally conformal invariant quantum field theories in a D-dimensional space-time (D even) have rational correlation functions and admit an infinite number of conserved (symmetric traceless) tensor currents. In a theory of a scalar field of dimension D-2 they were demonstrated to be generated by bilocal normal products of free massless scalar fields with an O(N), U(N), or Sp(2N) (global) gauge symmetry [B. Bakalov, N. M. Nikolov, K.-H. Rehren, and I. Todorov, "Unitary positive energy representations of scalar bilocal fields," Commun. Math. Phys. 271, 223-246 (2007), 10.1007/s00220-006-0182-2; e-print arXiv:math-ph/0604069v3; B. Bakalov, N. M. Nikolov, K.-H. Rehren, and I. Todorov, "Infinite dimensional Lie algebras in 4D conformal quantum field theory," J. Phys. A Math Theor. 41, 194002 (2008), 10.1088/1751-8113/41/19/194002; e-print arXiv:0711.0627v2 [hep-th

  17. Infinite Factorial Unbounded-State Hidden Markov Model.

    PubMed

    Valera, Isabel; Ruiz, Francisco J R; Perez-Cruz, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    There are many scenarios in artificial intelligence, signal processing or medicine, in which a temporal sequence consists of several unknown overlapping independent causes, and we are interested in accurately recovering those canonical causes. Factorial hidden Markov models (FHMMs) present the versatility to provide a good fit to these scenarios. However, in some scenarios, the number of causes or the number of states of the FHMM cannot be known or limited a priori. In this paper, we propose an infinite factorial unbounded-state hidden Markov model (IFUHMM), in which the number of parallel hidden Markovmodels (HMMs) and states in each HMM are potentially unbounded. We rely on a Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) prior over integer-valued matrices, in which the columns represent the Markov chains, the rows the time indexes, and the integers the state for each chain and time instant. First, we extend the existent infinite factorial binary-state HMM to allow for any number of states. Then, we modify this model to allow for an unbounded number of states and derive an MCMC-based inference algorithm that properly deals with the trade-off between the unbounded number of states and chains. We illustrate the performance of our proposed models in the power disaggregation problem. PMID:26571511

  18. Spectra of Semi-Infinite Quantum Graph Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, Stephen P.; Tillay, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum of a semi-infinite quantum graph tube with square period cells is analyzed. The structure is obtained by rolling up a doubly periodic quantum graph into a tube along a period vector and then retaining only a semi-infinite half of the tube. The eigenfunctions associated to the spectrum of the half-tube involve all Floquet modes of the full tube. This requires solving the complex dispersion relation {D(λ,k_1,k_2)=0} with {(k_1,k_2)in({C}/2π{Z})^2} subject to the constraint {a k_1 + b k_2 ≡ 0} (mod {2π}), where a and b are integers. The number of Floquet modes for a given {λin{R}} is {2max{ a, b }}. Rightward and leftward modes are determined according to an indefinite energy flux form. The spectrum may contain eigenvalues that depend on the boundary conditions, and some eigenvalues may be embedded in the continuous spectrum.

  19. Masses of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Satpathy, L.; Nayak, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    We present mass excesses of 3481 nuclei in the range 18less than or equal toAless than or equal to267 using the infinite nuclear matter model based on the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem. In this model the ground-state energy of a nucleus of asymmetry ..beta.. is considered equivalent to the energy of a perfect sphere made up of the infinite nuclear matter of the same asymmetry plus the residual energy due to shell effects, deformation, etc., called the local energy eta. In this model there are two kinds of parameters: global and local. The five global parameters characterizing the properties of the above sphere are determined by fitting the mass of all nuclei (756) in the recent mass table of Wapstra et al. having error bar less than 30 keV. The local parameters are determined for 25 regions each spanning 8 or 10 A values. The total number of parameters including the five global ones is 238. The root-mean-square deviation for the calculated masses from experiment is 397 keV for the 1572 nuclei used in the least-squares fit. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  20. The linear quadratic optimal control problem for infinite dimensional systems over an infinite horizon - Survey and examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensoussan, A.; Delfour, M. C.; Mitter, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Available published results are surveyed for a special class of infinite-dimensional control systems whose evolution is characterized by a semigroup of operators of class C subscript zero. Emphasis is placed on an approach that clarifies the system-theoretic relationship among controllability, stabilizability, stability, and the existence of a solution to an associated operator equation of the Riccati type. Formulation of the optimal control problem is reviewed along with the asymptotic behavior of solutions to a general system of equations and several theorems concerning L2 stability. Examples are briefly discussed which involve second-order parabolic systems, first-order hyperbolic systems, and distributed boundary control.

  1. Infrared Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Diatek Corporation, San Diego, CA and the Jet Propulsion Lab developed the Diatek Model 7000 aural thermometer which weighs only eight ounces, and measures temperature in less than two seconds using infrared astronomy technology to measure the amount of infrared energy emitted by the eardrum (the same way temperature of stars and planets is measured). This method avoids contact with mucous membranes, virtually eliminating the possibility of cross infection, and permits temperature measurement of newborn, critically ill, or incapacitated patients. Diatek Corporation was purchased by Welch Allyn Inc. The Diatek Model 7000 is now marketed as SureTemp.

  2. Infrared Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Earth objects emit natural radiation invisible to the unaided human eye, but visible to infrared scanning devices such as the device developed by Inframetrics, Inc. Such devices serve a number of purposes ranging from detection of heat loss in buildings for energy conservation measures, to examining heat output of industrial machinery for trouble shooting and preventive maintenance. Representative of system is Model 525, a small, lightweight field instrument that scans infrared radiation and translates its findings to a TV picture of the temperature pattern in the scene being viewed. An accessory device permits viewing the thermal radiation in color.

  3. Infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

  4. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  5. Infrared Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefers, John

    2006-01-01

    An infrared (IR) thermometer lab offers the opportunity to give science students a chance to measure surface temperatures, utilizing off-the-shelf technology. Potential areas of study include astronomy (exoplanets), electromagnetic spectrum, chemistry, evaporation rates, anatomy, crystal formation, and water or liquids. This article presents one…

  6. Laryngeal Leishmaniasis with Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tayal, Swati; Khatiwada, Saurav; Sehrawat, Priyanka; Nischal, Neeraj; Jorwal, Pankaj; Soneja, Manish; Sharma, M C; Sharma, S K; Verma, Pankaj; Singh, Anup

    2015-09-01

    Clinical presentations of Leishmania infection include visceral (most common form), cutaneous, mucocutaneous, mucosal and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Mucosal form of leishmaniasis mostly involves oral and nasal mucosa. Rarely, laryngeal and pharyngeal mucosa may also be involved. Its concomitant presence with tuberculosis (TB), a disease rampant in India, is uncommon. Here we are reporting a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis associated with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), with approach to diagnosis and treatment in a tropical resource-limited setting. PMID:27608871

  7. Split universal extra dimension and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seong Chan; Shu Jing

    2009-05-01

    Motivated by the recent observation of the high energy electron and positron excesses in cosmic ray by PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS, we suggest an anomaly-free scenario for the universal extra dimension that localizes the standard model quarks and splits the spectrum of Kaluza-Klein (KK) quarks from KK leptons. When the SM quarks are 'well localized' at the boundaries, the most stringent bound of the model (1/R>510 GeV) comes from the resonance search for the Tevatron dijet channels. Even at the early stage of LHC, one can discover the second KK gluon for masses up to 4 TeV.

  8. Multigravity from a discrete extra dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffayet, C.; Mourad, J.

    2004-06-01

    Multigravity theories are constructed from the discretization of the extra dimension of five-dimensional gravity. Using an ADM decomposition, the discretization is performed while maintaining the four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariance on each site. We relate the Goldstone bosons used to realize nonlinearly general covariance in discretized gravity to the shift fields of the higher-dimensional metric. We investigate the scalar excitations of the resulting theory and show the absence of ghosts and massive modes; this is due to a local symmetry inherited from the reparametrization invariance along the fifth dimension.

  9. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; Max, V.E.; Brase, J.M.; Caffano, C.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Macintosh, B.A.

    1997-03-01

    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets may be possible with the new generation of large ground-based telescopes equipped with state- of- the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth`s atmosphere. The first of these systems is scheduled to begin operation in 1998 on the 10 in Keck II telescope. In this paper, general formulas for high-contrast imaging with AO systems are presented and used to calculate the sensitivity of the Keck AO system. The results of these calculations show that the Keck AO system should achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect giant planets around several nearby bright stars.

  10. Flavor Structure of Warped Extra Dimension Models

    SciTech Connect

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Perez, Gilad; Soni, Amarjit

    2004-08-10

    We recently showed, in hep-ph/0406101, that warped extra dimensional models with bulk custodial symmetry and few TeV KK masses lead to striking signals at B-factories. In this paper, using a spurion analysis, we systematically study the flavor structure of models that belong to the above class. In particular we find that the profiles of the zero modes, which are similar in all these models, essentially control the underlying flavor structure. This implies that our results are robust and model independent in this class of models. We discuss in detail the origin of the signals in B-physics. We also briefly study other NP signatures that arise in rare K decays (K {yields} {pi}{nu}{nu}), in rare top decays [t {yields} c{gamma}(Z, gluon)] and the possibility of CP asymmetries in D{sup 0} decays to CP eigenstates such as K{sub s}{pi}{sup 0} and others. Finally we demonstrate that with light KK masses, {approx} 3 TeV, the above class of models with anarchic 5D Yukawas has a ''CP problem'' since contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment are roughly 20 times larger than the current experimental bound. Using AdS/CFT correspondence, these extra-dimensional models are dual to a purely 4D strongly coupled conformal Higgs sector thus enhancing their appeal.

  11. Flavor structure of warped extra dimension models

    SciTech Connect

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Perez, Gilad; Soni, Amarjit

    2005-01-01

    We recently showed that warped extra-dimensional models with bulk custodial symmetry and few TeV Kaluza-Klein (KK) masses lead to striking signals at B factories. In this paper, using a spurion analysis, we systematically study the flavor structure of models that belong to the above class. In particular we find that the profiles of the zero modes, which are similar in all these models, essentially control the underlying flavor structure. This implies that our results are robust and model independent in this class of models. We discuss in detail the origin of the signals in B physics. We also briefly study other new physics signatures that arise in rare K decays (K{yields}{pi}{nu}{nu}), in rare top decays [t{yields}c{gamma}(Z,gluon)], and the possibility of CP asymmetries in D{sup 0} decays to CP eigenstates such as K{sub S}{pi}{sup 0} and others. Finally we demonstrate that with light KK masses, {approx}3 TeV, the above class of models with anarchic 5D Yukawas has a 'CP problem' since contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment are roughly 20 times larger than the current experimental bound. Using AdS/CFT correspondence, these extra-dimensional models are dual to a purely 4D strongly coupled conformal Higgs sector thus enhancing their appeal.

  12. An Infinite Mixture Model for Coreference Resolution in Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sijia; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhary, Vipin; Li, Dingcheng

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that natural language processing is indispensable to process electronic health records (EHRs). However, poor performance in relation detection tasks, such as coreference (linguistic expressions pertaining to the same entity/event) may affect the quality of EHR processing. Hence, there is a critical need to advance the research for relation detection from EHRs. Most of the clinical coreference resolution systems are based on either supervised machine learning or rule-based methods. The need for manually annotated corpus hampers the use of such system in large scale. In this paper, we present an infinite mixture model method using definite sampling to resolve coreferent relations among mentions in clinical notes. A similarity measure function is proposed to determine the coreferent relations. Our system achieved a 0.847 F-measure for i2b2 2011 coreference corpus. This promising results and the unsupervised nature make it possible to apply the system in big-data clinical setting.

  13. Casimir energy of a semi-circular infinite cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, V. V.; Lambiase, G.; Scarpetta, G.

    2001-05-01

    The Casimir energy of a semi-circular cylindrical shell is calculated by making use of the zeta function technique. This shell is obtained by crossing an infinite circular cylindrical shell by a plane passing through the symmetry axes of the cylinder and by considering only half of this configuration. All the surfaces, including the cutting plane, are assumed to be perfectly conducting. The zeta functions for scalar massless fields obeying the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions on the semi-circular cylinder are constructed exactly. The sum of these zeta functions gives the zeta function for the electromagnetic field in question. The relevant plane problem is considered also. In all the cases the final expressions for the corresponding Casimir energies contain the pole contributions which are the consequence of the edges or corners in the boundaries. This implies that further renormalization is needed in order for the finite physical values for vacuum energy to be obtained for given boundary conditions.

  14. Multilocus models in the infinite island model of population structure.

    PubMed

    Roze, Denis; Rousset, François

    2008-06-01

    Different methods have been developed to consider the effects of statistical associations among genes that arise in population genetics models: kin selection models deal with associations among genes present in different interacting individuals, while multilocus models deal with associations among genes at different loci. It was pointed out recently that these two types of models are very similar in essence. In this paper, we present a method to construct multilocus models in the infinite island model of population structure (where deme size may be arbitrarily small). This method allows one to compute recursions on allele frequencies, and different types of genetic associations (including associations between different individuals from the same deme), and incorporates selection. Recursions can be simplified using quasi-equilibrium approximations; however, we show that quasi-equilibrium calculations for associations that are different from zero under neutrality must include a term that has not been previously considered. The method is illustrated using simple examples.

  15. Eisenstein series for infinite-dimensional U-duality groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleig, Philipp; Kleinschmidt, Axel

    2012-06-01

    We consider Eisenstein series appearing as coefficients of curvature corrections in the low-energy expansion of type II string theory four-graviton scattering amplitudes. We define these Eisenstein series over all groups in the E n series of string duality groups, and in particular for the infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody groups E 9, E 10 and E 11. We show that, remarkably, the so-called constant term of Kac-Moody-Eisenstein series contains only a finite number of terms for particular choices of a parameter appearing in the definition of the series. This resonates with the idea that the constant term of the Eisenstein series encodes perturbative string corrections in BPS-protected sectors allowing only a finite number of corrections. We underpin our findings with an extensive discussion of physical degeneration limits in D < 3 space-time dimensions.

  16. Doubly infinite separation of quantum information and communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Perry, Christopher; Zhu, Yechao; Koh, Dax Enshan; Aaronson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    We prove the existence of (one-way) communication tasks with a subconstant versus superconstant asymptotic gap, which we call "doubly infinite," between their quantum information and communication complexities. We do so by studying the exclusion game [C. Perry et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030504] for which there exist instances where the quantum information complexity tends to zero as the size of the input n increases. By showing that the quantum communication complexity of these games scales at least logarithmically in n , we obtain our result. We further show that the established lower bounds and gaps still hold even if we allow a small probability of error. However in this case, the n -qubit quantum message of the zero-error strategy can be compressed polynomially.

  17. Infinite-noise criticality: Nonequilibrium phase transitions in fluctuating environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, Jose

    We study the effects of time-varying environmental noise on nonequilibrium phase transitions in spreading and growth processes. Using the examples of the logistic evolution equation as well as the contact process, we show that such temporal disorder gives rise to a distinct type of critical points at which the effective noise amplitude diverges on long time scales. This leads to enormous density fluctuations characterized by an infinitely broad probability distribution at criticality. We develop a real-time renormalization-group theory that provides a general framework for the effects of temporal disorder on nonequilibrium processes. We also discuss how general this exotic critical behavior is, we illustrate the results by computer simulations, and we touch upon experimental applications of our theory. Supported by the NSF under Grant No. DMR-1205803, by Simons Foundation, by FAPESP under Grant No. 2013/09850-7, and by CNPq under Grant Nos. 590093/2011-8 and 305261/2012-6.

  18. A General No-Cloning Theorem for an infinite Multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Yvon

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, I formulate a general no-cloning theorem which covers the quantum-mechanical and the theoretical quantum information cases as well as the cosmological multiverse theory. However, the main argument is topological and does not involve the peculiar copier devices of the quantum-mechanical and information-theoretic approaches to the no-cloning thesis. It is shown that a combinatorial set-theoretic treatment of the mathematical and physical spacetime continuum in cosmological or quantum-mechanical terms forbids an infinite (countable or uncountable) number of exact copies of finite elements (states) in the uncountable multiverse cosmology. The historical background draws on ideas from Weyl to Conway and Kochen on the free will theorem in quantum mechanics.

  19. Predictive optimized adaptive PSS in a single machine infinite bus.

    PubMed

    Milla, Freddy; Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A

    2016-07-01

    Power System Stabilizer (PSS) devices are responsible for providing a damping torque component to generators for reducing fluctuations in the system caused by small perturbations. A Predictive Optimized Adaptive PSS (POA-PSS) to improve the oscillations in a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) power system is discussed in this paper. POA-PSS provides the optimal design parameters for the classic PSS using an optimization predictive algorithm, which adapts to changes in the inputs of the system. This approach is part of small signal stability analysis, which uses equations in an incremental form around an operating point. Simulation studies on the SMIB power system illustrate that the proposed POA-PSS approach has better performance than the classical PSS. In addition, the effort in the control action of the POA-PSS is much less than that of other approaches considered for comparison.

  20. Phases of the infinite U Hubbard model on square lattices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yao, Hong; Berg, Erez; White, Steven R; Kivelson, Steven A

    2012-03-23

    We apply the density matrix renormalization group to study the phase diagram of the infinite U Hubbard model on 2- to 6-leg ladders. Where the results are largely insensitive to the ladder width, we consider the results representative of the 2D square lattice. We find a fully polarized ferromagnetic Fermi liquid phase when n, the density of electrons per site, is in the range 1>n≳0.800. For n=3/4 we find an unexpected insulating checkerboard phase with coexisting bond-density order with 4 sites per unit cell and block-spin antiferromagnetic order with 8 sites per unit cell. For 3/4>n, all ladders with width >2 have unpolarized ground states. PMID:22540606

  1. LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Noninteracting fermions in infinite dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, Muktish

    2010-11-01

    Usually, we study the statistical behaviour of noninteracting fermions in finite (mainly two and three) dimensions. For a fixed number of fermions, the average energy per fermion is calculated in two and in three dimensions, and it becomes equal to 50% and 60% of the Fermi energy respectively. However, in higher dimensions this percentage increases as the dimensionality increases, and in infinite dimensions it becomes 100%. This is an interesting result, at least pedagogically, which implies that all fermions are moving with Fermi momentum. This result is not yet discussed in standard text books of quantum statistics. Here this fact is discussed and explained. I hope that this letter will be helpful for graduate students to study the behaviours of free fermions in generalized dimensionality.

  2. Exploring percolative landscapes: Infinite cascades of geometric phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonin, P. N.; Chitov, Gennady Y.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of many kinetic processes in 1+1 (space-time) dimensions results in 2 D directed percolative landscapes. The active phases of these models possess numerous hidden geometric orders characterized by various types of large-scale and/or coarse-grained percolative backbones that we define. For the patterns originated in the classical directed percolation (DP) and contact process we show from the Monte Carlo simulation data that these percolative backbones emerge at specific critical points as a result of continuous phase transitions. These geometric transitions belong to the DP universality class and their nonlocal order parameters are the capacities of corresponding backbones. The multitude of conceivable percolative backbones implies the existence of infinite cascades of such geometric transitions in the kinetic processes considered. We present simple arguments to support the conjecture that such cascades of transitions are a generic feature of percolation as well as of many other transitions with nonlocal order parameters.

  3. Recurrent kernel machines: computing with infinite echo state networks.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Echo state networks (ESNs) are large, random recurrent neural networks with a single trained linear readout layer. Despite the untrained nature of the recurrent weights, they are capable of performing universal computations on temporal input data, which makes them interesting for both theoretical research and practical applications. The key to their success lies in the fact that the network computes a broad set of nonlinear, spatiotemporal mappings of the input data, on which linear regression or classification can easily be performed. One could consider the reservoir as a spatiotemporal kernel, in which the mapping to a high-dimensional space is computed explicitly. In this letter, we build on this idea and extend the concept of ESNs to infinite-sized recurrent neural networks, which can be considered recursive kernels that subsequently can be used to create recursive support vector machines. We present the theoretical framework, provide several practical examples of recursive kernels, and apply them to typical temporal tasks.

  4. Infinite dilution conductimetry of plasma and urine: correlation with osmolality.

    PubMed

    Genain, C; Tellier, P; Syrota, A; Pocidalo, J J; Hans, M

    1978-08-15

    The infinite dilution conductivity (IDC) of plasma and urine allows a measurement of the electrolyte content in small samples (5 to 15 microliter). The method was compared to the corrected osmolality (II'p) measured by the freezing-point depression. A linear correlation existed between II'p and the IDC: for plasma: II'p = 13.10 sigma o,p + 37.00 (n = 46 and r = 0.9949) for urine: II'u = 12.75 sigma o,u + 16.56 (n = 85 and r = 0.9504). The measurement of the IDC does not depend on protein concentration and can be used instead of the osmometer methods to determine the total plasma and urine electrolyte content.

  5. Broadband computation of the scattering coefficients of infinite arbitrary cylinders.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Cédric; Guizal, Brahim; Felbacq, Didier

    2012-07-01

    We employ a time-domain method to compute the near field on a contour enclosing infinitely long cylinders of arbitrary cross section and constitution. We therefore recover the cylindrical Hankel coefficients of the expansion of the field outside the circumscribed circle of the structure. The recovered coefficients enable the wideband analysis of complex systems, e.g., the determination of the radar cross section becomes straightforward. The prescription for constructing such a numerical tool is provided in great detail. The method is validated by computing the scattering coefficients for a homogeneous circular cylinder illuminated by a plane wave, a problem for which an analytical solution exists. Finally, some radiation properties of an optical antenna are examined by employing the proposed technique.

  6. Solutions of evolution equations associated to infinite-dimensional Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerdiane, Habib

    2016-05-01

    We study an evolution equation associated with the integer power of the Gross Laplacian ΔGp and a potential function V on an infinite-dimensional space. The initial condition is a generalized function. The main technique we use is the representation of the Gross Laplacian as a convolution operator. This representation enables us to apply the convolution calculus on a suitable distribution space to obtain the explicit solution of the perturbed evolution equation. Our results generalize those previously obtained by Hochberg [K. J. Hochberg, Ann. Probab. 6 (1978) 433.] in the one-dimensional case with V=0, as well as by Barhoumi-Kuo-Ouerdiane for the case p=1 (See Ref. [A. Barhoumi, H. H. Kuo and H. Ouerdiane, Soochow J. Math. 32 (2006) 113.]).

  7. Variational optimization with infinite projected entangled-pair states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corboz, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    We present a scheme to perform an iterative variational optimization with infinite projected entangled-pair states, a tensor network ansatz for a two-dimensional wave function in the thermodynamic limit, to compute the ground state of a local Hamiltonian. The method is based on a systematic summation of Hamiltonian contributions using the corner-transfer-matrix method. Benchmark results for challenging problems are presented, including the two-dimensional Heisenberg model, the Shastry-Sutherland model, and the t -J model, which show that the variational scheme yields considerably more accurate results than the previously best imaginary-time evolution algorithm, with a similar computational cost and with a faster convergence towards the ground state.

  8. Persistence in nonautonomous predator-prey systems with infinite delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Zhidong; Rehim, Mehbuba

    2006-12-01

    This paper studies the general nonautonomous predator-prey Lotka-Volterra systems with infinite delays. The sufficient and necessary conditions of integrable form on the permanence and persistence of species are established. A very interesting and important property of two-species predator-prey systems is discovered, that is, the permanence of species and the existence of a persistent solution are each other equivalent. Particularly, for the periodic system with delays, applying these results, the sufficient and necessary conditions on the permanence and the existence of positive periodic solutions are obtained. Some well-known results on the nondelayed periodic predator-prey Lotka-Volterra systems are strongly improved and extended to the delayed case.

  9. Extra Pay for Extra Duties of Teachers, 1974-75. ERS Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieber, Gertrude N.

    This report presents a system-by-system listing of extra pay for athletic and nonathletic extracurricular teacher activities. The data is drawn from the information supplied in connection with the Educational Research Service "National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools, 1974-75." Table 1 shows the number of school systems reporting…

  10. The EXTraS project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiengo, Andrea

    Modern soft X-ray observatories can yield unique insights into time domain astrophysics. Indeed, a huge amount of information is stored - and largely unexploited - in data archives. The EXTraS project will harvest the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton mission in more than 13 yr of observations. This will include a search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis, as well as a search and characterization of variability (both periodical and aperiodical) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale (from <1 s to >10 yr) and six orders of magnitude in flux (from 10(-9) to 10(-15) erg cm(-2) s(-1) in 0.2-12 keV). X-ray results will be complemented by multiwavelength characterization of all previously undetected sources. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. All our results will be made available to the community in a public catalogue, together with new analysis tools. The EXTraS project, funded within the EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework, is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), CNR/IMATI (Italy), University of Leicester (UK), MPE (Germany) and ECAP (Germany).

  11. Unveiling long-term variability in XMM-Newton surveys: the EXTraS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, S.; Read, A.; De Luca, A.; EXTraS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The 3XMM-DR4 catalogue, the XMM-Newton Slew Survey (XSS) and the associated XMM-Newton EPIC data, are extensive resources for exploring high energy, time-domain astrophysics. Amongst these data are potential, hitherto unidentified variable sources, ranging from short duration (~seconds) transients through to objects varying on timescales of years. Variability signatures can be key to understanding the energetics and physical processes in a diverse range of astrophysical settings. The EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework project, `Exploring the X-ray transient and variable sky' (EXTraS), aims to exploit these XMM-Newton resources to explore, as fully as possible, the range of X-ray variability present and provide the results to the community through a public database. Here we outline one of the project's core aims, i.e. identifying and characterising long-term (days to years) variability. The 3XMM-DR4 catalogue contains ˜67000 sources with multiple detections. 3XMM, in conjunction with the XSS, which has now covered almost 70% of the sky, often with multiple slews, offers excellent scope for identifying new variable objects by tracking their flux between XMM-Newton observations. We discuss the plans for the EXTraS long-term variability catalogue and highlight some examples of the detection of long-term variability in 3XMM-DR4/XSS data.

  12. Infrared limit of Horava's gravity with the global Hamiltonian constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Kobakhidze, Archil

    2010-09-15

    We show that Horava's theory of gravitation with the global Hamiltonian constraint does not reproduce general relativity in the infrared domain. There is one extra propagating degree of freedom, besides those two associated with the massless graviton, which does not decouple.

  13. Infrared floodlight

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Robert E.; English, George J.

    1986-08-05

    An infrared floodlight assembly designed particularly for security purposes and including a heat-conducting housing, a lens secured to the housing to provide a closure therefor, and a floodlight located within (and surrounded by) the housing. The floodlight combines the use of a tungsten halogen light source and dichroic hot and cold mirrors for directing substantially only infrared radiation toward the assembly's forward lens. Visible radiation is absorbed by the housing's interior wall(s) and, optionally, by a filter located between the floodlight and lens. An optional means may be used within the floodlight to reflect all forward radiation back toward the paraboloidal hot mirror or, alternatively, to reflect only visible radiation in this direction. The dichroic hot and cold mirrors preferably each comprise a glass substrate having multiple layers of titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide thereon.

  14. Infrared backscattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Nevitt, Timothy J.; Singham, Shermila Brito

    1989-01-01

    All particles in the atmosphere are not spherical. Moreover, the scattering properties of randomly oriented nonspherical particles are not equivalent to those of spherical particles no matter how the term equivalent is defined. This is especially true for scattering in the backward direction and at the infrared wavelengths at which some atmospheric particles have strong absorption bands. Thus calculations based on Mie theory of infrared backscattering by dry or insoluble atmospheric particles are suspect. To support this assertion, it was noted that peaks in laboratory-measured infrared backscattering spectra show appreciable shifts compared with those calculated using Mie theory. One example is ammonium sulfate. Some success was had in modeling backscattering spectra of ammonium sulfate particles using a simple statistical theory called the continuous distribution of ellipsoids (CDE) theory. In this theory, the scattering properties of an ensemble are calculated. Recently a modified version of this theory was applied to measured spectra of scattering by kaolin particles. The particles were platelike, so the probability distribution of ellipsoidal shapes was chosen to reflect this. As with ammonium sulfate, the wavelength of measured peak backscattering is shifted longward of that predicted by Mie theory.

  15. Infrared retina

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Tyo, J. Scott; Jang, Woo-Yong

    2011-12-06

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  16. Perfect-fluid cosmologies with extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleiser, Reinaldo J.; Diaz, Mario C.

    1988-06-01

    We give an analysis of the solutions of the n-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations with a metric in the form of a direct sum of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric and a Kasner-type Euclidean metric. The solutions are interpreted as four-dimensional perfect-fluid cosmological FRW models, using the simple ansatz proposed by Ibán~ez and Verdaguer. We first obtain the general solution for flat models. These are perfect-fluid solutions that can be made compatible with contraction of all the extra dimensions. The general compatibility of the field equations is then discussed. It is found that for n>5 both open and closed models admit a range of perfect-fluid solutions whose qualitative behavior is analyzed.

  17. Lepton flavor violation in extra dimension models

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, W.-F.; Ng, John N.

    2005-03-01

    Models involving large extra spatial dimension(s) have interesting predictions on lepton flavor violating processes. We consider some five-dimensional (5D) models which are related to neutrino mass generation or address the fermion masses hierarchy problem. We study the signatures in low energy experiments that can discriminate the different models. The focus is on muon-electron conversion in nuclei {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {mu}{yields}3e processes and their {tau} counterparts. Their links with the active neutrino mass matrix are investigated. We show that in the models we discussed the branching ratio of {mu}{yields}e{gamma} like rare process is much smaller than the ones of {mu}{yields}3e like processes. This is in sharp contrast to most of the traditional wisdom based on four-dimensional (4D) gauge models. Moreover, some rare tau decays are more promising than the rare muon decays.

  18. Extra echo spaces: ultrasonography and computerised tomography correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Wada, T; Honda, M; Matsuyama, S

    1982-01-01

    Among the echocardiograms of 844 patients of the International Goodwill Hospital from January 1980 to April 1981, 700 showed clinically inexplicable extra echo spaces. Fifty of the 700 had computerised tomography of their hearts which showed the extra echo spaces to be caused either by anterior or posterior subepicardial fat. Six of the 50 cases had both fat and pericardial effusions, which are difficult to differentiate echocardiographically unless follow-up clinical observations are performed. Subepicardial fat deposits are reasonable explanations for the extra echo spaces frequently observed by echocardiography: they correlate well with clinical findings. Subepicardial fat should be recognised as the cause of such extra echo spaces. Images PMID:7073903

  19. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

  20. Science with the EXTraS Project: Exploring the X-Ray Transient and Variable Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; Salvaterra, R.; Tiengo, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Watson, M. G.; Haberl, F.; Wilms, J.

    The EXTraS project ("Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky") will characterise the temporal behaviour of the largest ever sample of objects in the soft X-ray range (0.1-12 keV) with a complex, systematic and consistent analysis of all data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray observatory since its launch. We will search for, and characterize variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. We will also search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis. Our analysis will be completed by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries and phenomenological classification of variable sources. All results and products will be made available to the community in a public archive, serving as a reference for a broad range of astrophysical investigations.

  1. The evolution of comets and the detectability of Extra-Solar Oort Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    According the standard theory, comets are natural products of solar system formation, ejected to the Oort Cloud by gravitational scattering events during the epoch of giant planet formation. Stored far from the Sun for billions of years, comets almost certainly contain a record of the events which occurred during (and perhaps even before) the epoch of planetary formation. Two themes are examined of the evolutionary processes that affect comets in the Oort Cloud, and a search for evidence of Extra-Solar Oort Clouds (ESOCs). With regard to cometary evolution in the Oort Cloud, it was found that luminous O stars and supernovae have heated the surface layers of all comets on numerous occasions to 20 to 30 K and perhaps once to 50 K. Interstellar medium (ISM) interactions blow small grains out of the Oort Clouds, and erode the upper few hundred g/cu cm of material from cometary surfaces. The findings presented contradict the standard view that comets do not undergo physical change in the Oort Cloud. A logical consequence of the intimate connection between the Oort Cloud and our planetary system is that the detection of comet clouds around other stars would strongly indicate the sites of extant extra-solar planetary systems. A search was conducted for infrared IR emission from debris in ESOCs. After examining 17 stars using the Infrared Astronomical Satellite data base, only upper limits on ESOC emission could be set.

  2. Maxwell-Higgs self-dual solitons on an infinite cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Sourrouille, Lucas

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the Maxwell-Higgs model on the surface of an infinite cylinder. In particular, we show that this model supports self-dual topological soliton solutions on the infinite tube. Finally, the Bogomol’nyi-type equations are studied from theoretical and numerical point of view.

  3. The Transition from Comparison of Finite to the Comparison of Infinite Sets: Teaching Prospective Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamir, Pessia

    1999-01-01

    Describes a course in Cantorian Set Theory relating to prospective secondary mathematics teachers' tendencies to overgeneralize from finite to infinite sets. Indicates that when comparing the number of elements in infinite sets, teachers who took the course were more successful and more consistent in their use of single method than those who…

  4. New Twists and Turns for Actinide Chemistry: Organometallic Infinite Coordination Polymers of Thorium Diazide.

    PubMed

    Monreal, Marisa J; Seaman, Lani A; Goff, George S; Michalczyk, Ryszard; Morris, David E; Scott, Brian L; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2016-03-01

    Two organometallic 1D infinite coordination polymers and two organometallic monometallic complexes of thorium diazide have been synthesized and characterized. Steric control of these self-assembled arrays, which are dense in thorium and nitrogen, has also been demonstrated: infinite chains can be circumvented by using steric bulk either at the metallocene or with a donor ligand in the wedge. PMID:26865502

  5. Infinite Horizon Stochastic Optimal Control Problems with Degenerate Noise and Elliptic Equations in Hilbert Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Masiero, Federica

    2007-05-15

    Semilinear elliptic partial differential equations are solved in a mild sense in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. These results are applied to a stochastic optimal control problem with infinite horizon. Applications to controlled stochastic heat and wave equations are given.

  6. Confusing Aspects in the Calculation of the Electrostatic Potential of an Infinite Line of Charge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, I.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we discuss the trick of eliminating infinite potential of reference arguing that it corresponds to a constant of integration, in the problem of determining the electrostatic potential of an infinite line of charge with uniform density, and show how the problem must be tackled properly. The usual procedure is confusing for most…

  7. A conformal truncation framework for infinite-volume dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Emanuel; Khandker, Zuhair U.; Walters, Matthew T.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new framework for studying conformal field theories deformed by one or more relevant operators. The original CFT is described in infinite volume using a basis of states with definite momentum, P , and conformal Casimir, C. The relevant deformation is then considered using lightcone quantization, with the resulting Hamiltonian expressed in terms of this CFT basis. Truncating to states with C ≤ C_{max } , one can numerically find the resulting spectrum, as well as other dynamical quantities, such as spectral densities of operators. This method requires the introduction of an appropriate regulator, which can be chosen to preserve the conformal structure of the basis. We check this framework in three dimensions for various perturbative deformations of a free scalar CFT, and for the case of a free O( N ) CFT deformed by a mass term and a non-perturbative quartic interaction at large- N . In all cases, the truncation scheme correctly reproduces known analytic results. We also discuss a general procedure for generating a basis of Casimir eigenstates for a free CFT in any number of dimensions.

  8. Communication Tasks with Infinite Quantum-Classical Separation.

    PubMed

    Perry, Christopher; Jain, Rahul; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2015-07-17

    Quantum resources can be more powerful than classical resources-a quantum computer can solve certain problems exponentially faster than a classical computer, and computing a function of two parties' inputs can be done with exponentially less communication with quantum messages than with classical ones. Here we consider a task between two players, Alice and Bob where quantum resources are infinitely more powerful than their classical counterpart. Alice is given a string of length n, and Bob's task is to exclude certain combinations of bits that Alice might have. If Alice must send classical messages, then she must reveal nearly n bits of information to Bob, but if she is allowed to send quantum bits, the amount of information she must reveal goes to zero with increasing n. Next, we consider a version of the task where the parties may have access to entanglement. With this assistance, Alice only needs to send a constant number of bits, while without entanglement, the number of bits Alice must send grows linearly with n. The task is related to the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem which arises in the context of the foundations of quantum theory. PMID:26230777

  9. Oscillating laminar electrokinetic flow in infinitely extended circular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, A; Masliyah, J H; Yang, J

    2003-05-01

    This article addresses the problem of oscillating laminar electrokinetic liquid flow in an infinitely extended circular microchannel. Based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for low surface potential at the channel wall, a complex variable approach is used to obtain an analytical solution for the flow. The complex counterparts of the flow rate and the current are linearly dependent on the pressure gradient and the external electric field. This property is used to show that Onsager's principle of reciprocity continues to be valid (involving the complex quantities) for the stated problem. During oscillating pressure-driven flow, the electroviscous effect for a given value of the normalized reciprocal electrical double-layer (EDL) thickness is observed to attain a maximum at a certain normalized frequency. In general, an increasing normalized frequency results in a reduction of EDL effects, leading to (i). a volumetric flow rate in the case of streaming potential approaching that predicted by the theory without EDL effects, and (ii). a reduction in the volumetric flow rate in the case of electroosmosis. PMID:12725819

  10. Infinite hidden conditional random fields for human behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF (iHCRF), which is a nonparametric model based on hierarchical Dirichlet processes and is capable of automatically learning the optimal number of hidden states for a classification task. We show how we learn the model hyperparameters with an effective Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling technique, and we explain the process that underlines our iHCRF model with the Restaurant Franchise Rating Agencies analogy. We show that the iHCRF is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and outperforms the best finite HCRFs--chosen via cross-validation--for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain. Moreover, the iHCRF manages to achieve this performance in significantly less total training, validation, and testing time. PMID:24808217

  11. Partition Theory for Periodic and Semi-Infinite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niffenegger, Kelsie; Wasserman, Adam

    Standard approximations to the exchange-correlation (XC) functional of Kohn-Sham Density-Functional Theory are insufficiently accurate to describe charge transfer at metal-atom interfaces and other systems requiring proper treatment of fractional electron charges. The root of the problem is connected to the lack of derivative discontinuities in the approximate XC functionals at integer numbers of electrons. Partition Theory (PT) is a promising, formally exact method to correct this issue. We study the simplest model for an atom adsorbed at a metal surface: A one-dimensional step potential separated a fixed distance from an attractive well that admits only one bound state when isolated. The semi-infinite metal is populated with non-interacting electrons up to the Fermi energy. We derive the PT-equations for this problem and indicate how the associated partition potential can be calculated. PT is also a promising method for improving the computational scaling of other large and/or periodic systems. We study the partition potential for periodic 1-D chains of identical attractive wells and comment on the uniqueness of the partition potential when going from finite to periodic systems.

  12. Isotropic probability measures in infinite-dimensional spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George

    1987-01-01

    Let R be the real numbers, R(n) the linear space of all real n-tuples, and R(infinity) the linear space of all infinite real sequences x = (x sub 1, x sub 2,...). Let P sub in :R(infinity) approaches R(n) be the projection operator with P sub n (x) = (x sub 1,...,x sub n). Let p(infinity) be a probability measure on the smallest sigma-ring of subsets of R(infinity) which includes all of the cylinder sets P sub n(-1) (B sub n), where B sub n is an arbitrary Borel subset of R(n). Let p sub n be the marginal distribution of p(infinity) on R(n), so p sub n(B sub n) = p(infinity) (P sub n to the -1 (B sub n)) for each B sub n. A measure on R(n) is isotropic if it is invariant under all orthogonal transformations of R(n). All members of the set of all isotropic probability distributions on R(n) are described. The result calls into question both stochastic inversion and Bayesian inference, as currently used in many geophysical inverse problems.

  13. Communication Tasks with Infinite Quantum-Classical Separation.

    PubMed

    Perry, Christopher; Jain, Rahul; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2015-07-17

    Quantum resources can be more powerful than classical resources-a quantum computer can solve certain problems exponentially faster than a classical computer, and computing a function of two parties' inputs can be done with exponentially less communication with quantum messages than with classical ones. Here we consider a task between two players, Alice and Bob where quantum resources are infinitely more powerful than their classical counterpart. Alice is given a string of length n, and Bob's task is to exclude certain combinations of bits that Alice might have. If Alice must send classical messages, then she must reveal nearly n bits of information to Bob, but if she is allowed to send quantum bits, the amount of information she must reveal goes to zero with increasing n. Next, we consider a version of the task where the parties may have access to entanglement. With this assistance, Alice only needs to send a constant number of bits, while without entanglement, the number of bits Alice must send grows linearly with n. The task is related to the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem which arises in the context of the foundations of quantum theory.

  14. Superposition, Transition Probabilities and Primitive Observables in Infinite Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Detlev; Størmer, Erling

    2015-10-01

    The concepts of superposition and of transition probability, familiar from pure states in quantum physics, are extended to locally normal states on funnels of type I∞ factors. Such funnels are used in the description of infinite systems, appearing for example in quantum field theory or in quantum statistical mechanics; their respective constituents are interpreted as algebras of observables localized in an increasing family of nested spacetime regions. Given a generic reference state (expectation functional) on a funnel, e.g. a ground state or a thermal equilibrium state, it is shown that irrespective of the global type of this state all of its excitations, generated by the adjoint action of elements of the funnel, can coherently be superimposed in a meaningful manner. Moreover, these states are the extreme points of their convex hull and as such are analogues of pure states. As further support of this analogy, transition probabilities are defined, complete families of orthogonal states are exhibited and a one-to-one correspondence between the states and families of minimal projections on a Hilbert space is established. The physical interpretation of these quantities relies on a concept of primitive observables. It extends the familiar framework of observable algebras and avoids some counter intuitive features of that setting. Primitive observables admit a consistent statistical interpretation of corresponding measurements and their impact on states is described by a variant of the von Neumann-Lüders projection postulate.

  15. An Infinite Mixture Model for Coreference Resolution in Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sijia; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhary, Vipin; Li, Dingcheng

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that natural language processing is indispensable to process electronic health records (EHRs). However, poor performance in relation detection tasks, such as coreference (linguistic expressions pertaining to the same entity/event) may affect the quality of EHR processing. Hence, there is a critical need to advance the research for relation detection from EHRs. Most of the clinical coreference resolution systems are based on either supervised machine learning or rule-based methods. The need for manually annotated corpus hampers the use of such system in large scale. In this paper, we present an infinite mixture model method using definite sampling to resolve coreferent relations among mentions in clinical notes. A similarity measure function is proposed to determine the coreferent relations. Our system achieved a 0.847 F-measure for i2b2 2011 coreference corpus. This promising results and the unsupervised nature make it possible to apply the system in big-data clinical setting. PMID:27595047

  16. An Infinite Mixture Model for Coreference Resolution in Clinical Notes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sijia; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhary, Vipin; Li, Dingcheng

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that natural language processing is indispensable to process electronic health records (EHRs). However, poor performance in relation detection tasks, such as coreference (linguistic expressions pertaining to the same entity/event) may affect the quality of EHR processing. Hence, there is a critical need to advance the research for relation detection from EHRs. Most of the clinical coreference resolution systems are based on either supervised machine learning or rule-based methods. The need for manually annotated corpus hampers the use of such system in large scale. In this paper, we present an infinite mixture model method using definite sampling to resolve coreferent relations among mentions in clinical notes. A similarity measure function is proposed to determine the coreferent relations. Our system achieved a 0.847 F-measure for i2b2 2011 coreference corpus. This promising results and the unsupervised nature make it possible to apply the system in big-data clinical setting. PMID:27595047

  17. Spectral Methods Using Rational Basis Functions on an Infinite Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, John P.

    1987-03-01

    By using the map y = L cot( t) where L is a constant, differential equations on the interval yɛ [- ∞, ∞] can be transformed into tɛ [0, π] and solved by an ordinary Fourier series. In this article, earlier work by Grosch and Orszag ( J. Comput. Phys.25, 273 (1977)), Cain, Ferziger, and Reynolds ( J. Comput. Phys.56, 272 (1984)), and Boyd ( J. Comput. Phys.25, 43 (1982); 57, 454 (1985); SIAM J. Numer. Anal. (1987)) is extended in several ways. First, the series of orthogonal rational functions converge on the exterior of bipolar coordinate surfaces in the complex y-plane. Second, Galerkin's method will convert differential equations with polynomial or rational coefficients into banded matrix problems. Third, with orthogonal rational functions it is possible to obtain exponential convergence even for u( y) that asymptote to a constant although this behavior would wreck alternatives such as Hermite or sinc expansions. Fourth, boundary conditions are usually "natural" rather than "essential" in the sense that the singularities of the differential equation will force the numerical solution to have the correct behavior at infinity even if no constraints are imposed on the basis functions. Fifth, mapping a finite interval to an infinite one and then applying the rational Chebyshev functions gives an exponentially convergent method for functions with bounded endpoint singularities. These concepts are illustrated by five numerical examples.

  18. Scattering by infinitely rising one-dimensional potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, E. M.; Sesma, J.

    2015-12-01

    Infinitely rising one-dimensional potentials constitute impenetrable barriers which reflect totally any incident wave. However, the scattering by such kind of potentials is not structureless: resonances may occur for certain values of the energy. Here we consider the problem of scattering by the members of a family of potentials Va(x) = - sgn(x) | x | a, where sgn represents the sign function and a is a positive rational number. The scattering function and the phase shifts are obtained from global solutions of the Schrödinger equation. For the determination of the Gamow states, associated to resonances, we exploit their close relation with the eigenvalues of the PT-symmetric Hamiltonians with potentials VaPT(x) = - i sgn(x) | x | a. Calculation of the time delay in the scattering at real energies is used to characterize the resonances. As an additional result, the breakdown of the PT-symmetry of the family of potentials VaPT for a < 3 may be conjectured.

  19. Semiclassical limits of quantum partition functions on infinite graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Güneysu, Batu

    2015-02-15

    We prove that if H denotes the operator corresponding to the canonical Dirichlet form on a possibly locally infinite weighted graph (X, b, m), and if v : X → ℝ is such that H + v/ħ is well-defined as a form sum for all ħ > 0, then the quantum partition function tr(e{sup −βħ(H+v/ħ)}) converges to ∑{sub x∈X}e{sup −βv(x)} as ħ → 0 +, for all β > 0, regardless of the fact whether e{sup −βv} is a priori summable or not. This fact can be interpreted as a semiclassical limit, and it allows geometric Weyl-type convergence results. We also prove natural generalizations of this semiclassical limit to a large class of covariant Schrödinger operators that act on sections in Hermitian vector bundle over (X, m, b), a result that particularly applies to magnetic Schrödinger operators that are defined on (X, m, b)

  20. A simple extrapolation of thermodynamic perturbation theory to infinite order

    SciTech Connect

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard

    2015-09-21

    Recent analyses of the third and fourth order perturbation contributions to the equations of state for square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains show trends that persist across orders and molecular models. In particular, the ratio between orders (e.g., A{sub 3}/A{sub 2}, where A{sub i} is the ith order perturbation contribution) exhibits a peak when plotted with respect to density. The trend resembles a Gaussian curve with the peak near the critical density. This observation can form the basis for a simple recursion and extrapolation from the highest available order to infinite order. The resulting extrapolation is analytic and therefore cannot fully characterize the critical region, but it remarkably improves accuracy, especially for the binodal curve. Whereas a second order theory is typically accurate for the binodal at temperatures within 90% of the critical temperature, the extrapolated result is accurate to within 99% of the critical temperature. In addition to square well spheres and Lennard-Jones chains, we demonstrate how the method can be applied semi-empirically to the Perturbed Chain - Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT)

  1. Causal field theory with an infinite speed of sound

    SciTech Connect

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Geshnizjani, Ghazal

    2007-04-15

    We introduce a model of scalar field dark energy, Cuscuton, which can be realized as the incompressible (or infinite speed of sound) limit of a scalar field theory with a noncanonical kinetic term (or k-essence). Even though perturbations of Cuscuton propagate superluminally, we show that they have a locally degenerate phase space volume (or zero entropy), implying that they cannot carry any microscopic information, and thus the theory is causal. Even coupling to ordinary scalar fields cannot lead to superluminal signal propagation. Furthermore, we show that the family of constant field hypersurfaces is the family of constant mean curvature hypersurfaces, which are the analogs of soap films (or soap bubbles) in Euclidian space. This enables us to find the most general solution in 1+1 dimensions, whose properties motivate conjectures for global degeneracy of the phase space in higher dimensions. Finally, we show that the Cuscuton action can model the continuum limit of the evolution of a field with discrete degrees of freedom and argue why it is protected against quantum corrections at low energies. While this paper mainly focuses on interesting features of Cuscuton in a Minkowski space-time, a companion paper examines cosmology with Cuscuton dark energy.

  2. The Interface between Neighborhood Density & Optional Infinitives: Normal Development and Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Jill R.; Storkel, Holly L.; Rice, Mabel L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of neighborhood density on optional infinitives was evaluated for typically developing (TD) children and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Forty children, 20 in each group, completed two production tasks that assessed third person singular production. Half of the sentences in each task presented a dense verb, and half presented a sparse verb. Children’s third person singular accuracy was compared across dense and sparse verbs. Results showed that the TD group was significantly less likely to use optional infinitives with dense, rather than sparse verbs. In contrast, the distribution of optional infinitives for the SLI group was independent of verb neighborhood density. Follow-up analyses showed that the lack of neighborhood density effect for the SLI group could not be attributed to heterogeneous neighborhood density effects or floor effects. Results were interpreted within the Optional Infinitive/Extended Optional Infinitive accounts for typical language development and SLI for English speaking children. PMID:22123500

  3. Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Germain, Ryan R; Duthie, A Bradley; Losdat, Sylvain; Wolak, Matthew E; Nietlisbach, Pirmin

    2015-01-01

    Extra-pair reproduction is widely hypothesized to allow females to avoid inbreeding with related socially paired males. Consequently, numerous field studies have tested the key predictions that extra-pair offspring are less inbred than females’ alternative within-pair offspring, and that the probability of extra-pair reproduction increases with a female's relatedness to her socially paired male. However, such studies rarely measure inbreeding or relatedness sufficiently precisely to detect subtle effects, or consider biases stemming from failure to observe inbred offspring that die during early development. Analyses of multigenerational song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) pedigree data showed that most females had opportunity to increase or decrease the coefficient of inbreeding of their offspring through extra-pair reproduction with neighboring males. In practice, observed extra-pair offspring had lower inbreeding coefficients than females’ within-pair offspring on average, while the probability of extra-pair reproduction increased substantially with the coefficient of kinship between a female and her socially paired male. However, simulations showed that such effects could simply reflect bias stemming from inbreeding depression in early offspring survival. The null hypothesis that extra-pair reproduction is random with respect to kinship therefore cannot be definitively rejected in song sparrows, and existing general evidence that females avoid inbreeding through extra-pair reproduction requires reevaluation given such biases. PMID:25346331

  4. [Extra-thoracic solitary fibrous tumor. Report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Amel; Mestiri, Sarra; Mokni, Moncef; Stita, Wided; Ikram, Bellara; Sriha, Badreddine; Korbi, Sadok

    2006-09-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), is an unusual entity, first described in the pleura, but can involve other serosal surfaces and viscera. We report two cases of extra-thoracic SFT involving the retro-peritoneum and the upper arm. Extra-thoracic TFS is a rarily wide morphologic and evolutive spectrum.

  5. 7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra Fancy. “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of..., scab, freezing injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from injury... rubs, hail, drought spots, scars, disease, insects, or other means. The apples are free from...

  6. 7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra Fancy. “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of one variety (except when more than one variety is printed on... apples are also free from injury caused by bruises, brown surface discoloration, smooth...

  7. 7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra Fancy. “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of..., scab, freezing injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from injury... rubs, hail, drought spots, scars, disease, insects, or other means. The apples are free from...

  8. 7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra Fancy. “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of one variety (except when more than one variety is printed on... apples are also free from injury caused by bruises, brown surface discoloration, smooth...

  9. 23 CFR 635.120 - Changes and extra work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Changes and extra work. 635.120 Section 635.120 Highways... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.120 Changes and extra work. (a) Following authorization... work shall have formal approval by the Division Administrator in advance of their effective...

  10. 23 CFR 635.120 - Changes and extra work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Changes and extra work. 635.120 Section 635.120 Highways... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.120 Changes and extra work. (a) Following authorization... work shall have formal approval by the Division Administrator in advance of their effective...

  11. Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Germain, Ryan R; Duthie, A Bradley; Losdat, Sylvain; Wolak, Matthew E; Nietlisbach, Pirmin

    2015-01-01

    Extra-pair reproduction is widely hypothesized to allow females to avoid inbreeding with related socially paired males. Consequently, numerous field studies have tested the key predictions that extra-pair offspring are less inbred than females' alternative within-pair offspring, and that the probability of extra-pair reproduction increases with a female's relatedness to her socially paired male. However, such studies rarely measure inbreeding or relatedness sufficiently precisely to detect subtle effects, or consider biases stemming from failure to observe inbred offspring that die during early development. Analyses of multigenerational song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) pedigree data showed that most females had opportunity to increase or decrease the coefficient of inbreeding of their offspring through extra-pair reproduction with neighboring males. In practice, observed extra-pair offspring had lower inbreeding coefficients than females' within-pair offspring on average, while the probability of extra-pair reproduction increased substantially with the coefficient of kinship between a female and her socially paired male. However, simulations showed that such effects could simply reflect bias stemming from inbreeding depression in early offspring survival. The null hypothesis that extra-pair reproduction is random with respect to kinship therefore cannot be definitively rejected in song sparrows, and existing general evidence that females avoid inbreeding through extra-pair reproduction requires reevaluation given such biases.

  12. Extra cellular matrix features in human meninges.

    PubMed

    Montagnani, S; Castaldo, C; Di Meglio, F; Sciorio, S; Giordano-Lanza, G

    2000-01-01

    We collected human fetal and adult normal meninges to relate the age of the tissue with the presence of collagenous and non-collagenous components of Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM). Immunohistochemistry led us to observe some differences in the amount and in the distribution of these proteins between the two sets of specimens. In particular, laminin and tenascin seem to be expressed more intensely in fetal meninges when compared to adult ones. In order to investigate whether the morphofunctional characteristics of fetal meninges may be represented in pathological conditions we also studied meningeal specimens from human meningiomas. Our attention was particularly focused on the expression of those non-collagenous proteins involved in nervous cell migration and neuronal morphogenesis as laminin and tenascin, which were present in lesser amount in normal adult specimens. Microscopical evidences led us to hipothesize that these proteins which are synthesized in a good amount during the fetal development of meninges can be newly produced in tumors. On the contrary, the role of tenascin and laminin in adult meninges is probably only interesting for their biophysical characteristics.

  13. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  14. Extra-Territorial Siting of Nuclear Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Thomas E.; Morris, Frederic A.

    2009-10-07

    Arrangements might be created for siting nuclear installations on land ceded by a host State for administration by an international or multinational organization. Such arrangements might prove useful in terms of resolving suspicions of proliferation in troubled areas of the world, or as a means to introduce nuclear activities into areas where political, financial or technical capabilities might otherwise make such activities unsound, or as a means to enable global solutions to be instituted for major nuclear concerns (e.g., spent fuel management). The paper examines practical matters associated with the legal and programmatic aspects of siting nuclear installations, including diplomatic/political frameworks, engaging competent industrial bodies, protection against seizure, regulation to ensure safety and security, waste management, and conditions related to the dissolution of the extra-territorial provisions as may be agreed as the host State(s) achieve the capabilities to own and operate the installations. The paper considers the potential for using such a mechanism across the spectrum of nuclear power activities, from mining to geological repositories for nuclear waste. The paper considers the non-proliferation dimensions associated with such arrangements, and the pros and cons affecting potential host States, technology vendor States, regional neighbors and the international community. It considers in brief potential applications in several locations today.

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling, Randy L.

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy refers to measurement of the absorption of different frequencies of IR radiation by foods or other solids, liquids, or gases. IR spectroscopy began in 1800 with an experiment by Herschel. When he used a prism to create a spectrum from white light and placed a thermometer at a point just beyond the red region of the spectrum, he noted an increase in temperature. This was the first observation of the effects of IR radiation. By the 1940s, IR spectroscopy had become an important tool used by chemists to identify functional groups in organic compounds. In the 1970s, commercial near-IR reflectance instruments were introduced that provided rapid quantitative determinations of moisture, protein, and fat in cereal grains and other foods. Today, IR spectroscopy is used widely in the food industry for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of ingredients and finished foods.

  16. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a new generation of orbital, airborne and ground-based infrared astronomical observatory facilities, including the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS), the cosmic background explorer (COBE), the NASA Kuiper airborne observatory, and the NASA infrared telescope facility, intensified the need for a comprehensive, machine-readable data base and catalog of current infrared astronomical observations. The Infrared Astronomical Data Base and its principal data product, this catalog, comprise a machine-readable library of infrared (1 micrometer to 1000 micrometers) astronomical observations published in the scientific literature since 1965.

  17. User's manual for GILDA: An infinite lattice diffusion theory calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Le, T.T.

    1991-11-01

    GILDA is a static two-dimensional diffusion theory code that performs either buckling (B[sup 2]) or k-effective (k[sub eff]) calculations for an infinite hexagonal lattice which is constructed by repeating identical seven-cell zones (one cell is one or seven identical homogenized hexes). GILDA was written by J. W. Stewart in 1973. This user's manual is intended to provide all of the information necessary to set up and execute a GILDA calculation and to interpret the output results. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the computer (VAX/VMS or IBM/MVS) and the JOSHUA system database on which the code is implemented. Users who are not familiar with the JOSHUA database are advised to consult additional references to understand the structure of JOSHUA records and data sets before turning to section 4 of this manual. Sections 2 and 3 of this manual serve as a theory document in which the basic diffusion theory and the numerical approximations behind the code are described. Section 4 describes the functions of the program's subroutines. Section 5 describes the input data and tutors the user how to set up a problem. Section 6 describes the output results and the error messages which may be encountered during execution. Users who only wish to learn how to run the code without understanding the theory can start from section 4 and use sections 2 and 3 as references. Finally, the VAX/VMS and the IBM execution command files together with sample input records are provided in the appendices at the end of this manual.

  18. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Judith Grobe; Bowman, Joel M.

    1980-10-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities Pn1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=‖nf-ni‖ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison.

  19. Commutative law for products of infinitely large isotropic random matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, Zdzislaw; Livan, Giacomo; Swiech, Artur

    2013-08-01

    Ensembles of isotropic random matrices are defined by the invariance of the probability measure under the left (and right) multiplication by an arbitrary unitary matrix. We show that the multiplication of large isotropic random matrices is spectrally commutative and self-averaging in the limit of infinite matrix size N→∞. The notion of spectral commutativity means that the eigenvalue density of a product ABC... of such matrices is independent of the order of matrix multiplication, for example, the matrix ABCD has the same eigenvalue density as ADCB. In turn, the notion of self-averaging means that the product of n independent but identically distributed random matrices, which we symbolically denote by AAA..., has the same eigenvalue density as the corresponding power An of a single matrix drawn from the underlying matrix ensemble. For example, the eigenvalue density of ABCCABC is the same as that of A2B2C3. We also discuss the singular behavior of the eigenvalue and singular value densities of isotropic matrices and their products for small eigenvalues λ→0. We show that the singularities at the origin of the eigenvalue density and of the singular value density are in one-to-one correspondence in the limit N→∞: The eigenvalue density of an isotropic random matrix has a power-law singularity at the origin ˜|λ|-s with a power s∈(0,2) when and only when the density of its singular values has a power-law singularity ˜λ-σ with a power σ=s/(4-s). These results are obtained analytically in the limit N→∞. We supplement these results with numerical simulations for large but finite N and discuss finite-size effects for the most common ensembles of isotropic random matrices.

  20. Axial gravitational perturbations of an infinite static line source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleiser, Reinaldo J.

    2015-03-01

    The Levi-Civita metric, which contains a naked singularity that has been interpreted as an infinite static line source, appears, for instance, as the possible end point in the collapse of cylindrically symmetric objects such as shells of dust. The analysis of its gravitational stability should therefore be relevant in the contexts of the cosmic censorship and hoop conjectures. In this paper we study axial gravitational perturbations of the Levi-Civita metric. The perturbations are restricted to axial symmetry but break the cylindrical symmetry of the background metric. We analyze the gauge issues that arise in setting up the appropriate form of the perturbed metric and show that it is possible to restrict the perturbations to diagonal terms but that this does not fix the gauge completely. We derive and solve the perturbation equations. The solutions contain gauge-trivial parts, and we show how to extract the gauge-nontrivial components. We impose appropriate boundary conditions on the solutions and show that these lead to a boundary value problem that determines the allowed functional forms of the perturbation modes. The associated eigenvalues determine a sort of ‘dispersion relation’ for the frequencies and corresponding ‘wave vector’ components. The central result of this analysis is that the spectrum of allowed frequencies contains one unstable (imaginary frequency) mode for every possible choice of the background metric. The completeness of the mode expansion in relation to the initial value problem and to the gauge problem is discussed in detail, and we show that the perturbations contain an unstable component for generic initial data and therefore that the Levi-Civita space times are gravitationally unstable. We also include, for completeness, a set of approximate eigenvalues and examples of the functional form of the solutions.

  1. HUBBLE'S INFRARED GALAXY GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    galaxies in near-infrared light, measured between 1.4 and 1.8 microns (H-band emission). Green is a mixture of the two. Distance of galaxies from Earth: NGC 5653 - 161 million light-years; NGC 3593 - 28 million light-years; NGC 891 - 24 million light-years; NGC 4826 - 19 million light-years; NGC 2903 - 25 million light-years; and NGC 6946 - 20 million light-years. Credits: Torsten Boeker, Space Telescope Science Institute, and NASA NOTE TO EDITORS: Image files and photo caption are available on the Internet at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/1999/10 or via links in http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html and http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html Higher resolution digital versions of (300 dpi JPEG and TIFF) of the release photo are available at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/1999/10/extra-photos.html STScI press releases and other information are available automatically by sending an Internet electronic mail message to pio-request@stsci.edu. In the body of the message (not the subject line) users should type the word 'subscribe' (don't use quotes). The system will respond with a confirmation of the subscription, and users will receive new press releases as they are issued. To unsubscribe, send mail to pio-request@stsci.edu. Leave the subject line blank, and type 'unsubscribe' (don't use quotes) in the body of the message.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.

    2013-10-01

    The book Black holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions written by Kirill A Bronnikov and Sergey G Rubin has been published recently by World Scientific Publishing Company. The authors are well known experts in gravity and cosmology. The book is a monograph, a considerable part of which is based on the original work of the authors. Their original point of view on some of the problems makes the book quite interesting, covering a variety of important topics of the modern theory of gravity, astrophysics and cosmology. It consists of 11 chapters which are organized in three parts. The book starts with an introduction, where the authors briefly discuss the main ideas of General Relativity, giving some historical remarks on its development and application to cosmology, and mentioning some more recent subjects such as brane worlds, f(R)-theories and gravity in higher dimensions. Part I of the book is called 'Gravity'. Chapters two and three are devoted to the Einstein equations and their spherical symmetric black hole solutions. This material is quite standard and can be found in practically any book on General Relativity. A brief summary of the Kerr metric and black hole thermodynamics are given in chapter four. The main part of this chapter is devoted to spherically symmetric black holes in non-Einstein gravity (with scalar and phantom fields), black holes with regular interior, and black holes in brane worlds. Chapters five and six are mainly dedicated to wormholes and the problem of their stability. Part II (Cosmology) starts with discussion of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and de Sitter solutions of the Einstein equations and their properties. It follows by describing a `big picture' of the modern cosmology (inflation, post-inflationary reheating, the radiation-dominated and matter-dominated states, and modern stage of the (secondary) inflation). The authors explain how the inflation models allow one to solve many of the long-standing problems of cosmology, such as

  3. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  4. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  5. Flag varieties, toric varieties, and suspensions: Three instances of infinite transitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhantsev, Ivan V; Zaidenberg, M G; Kuyumzhiyan, Karine G

    2012-07-31

    We say that a group G acts infinitely transitively on a set X if for every m element of N the induced diagonal action of G is transitive on the cartesian mth power X{sup m} backslash {Delta} with the diagonals removed. We describe three classes of affine algebraic varieties such that their automorphism groups act infinitely transitively on their smooth loci. The first class consists of normal affine cones over flag varieties, the second of nondegenerate affine toric varieties, and the third of iterated suspensions over affine varieties with infinitely transitive automorphism groups. Bibliography: 42 titles.

  6. Functors of White Noise Associated to Characters of the Infinite Symmetric Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bożejko, Marek; Guţă, Mădălin

    The characters of the infinite symmetric group are extended to multiplicative positive definite functions on pair partitions by using an explicit representation due to Veršik and Kerov. The von Neumann algebra generated by the fields with f in an infinite dimensional real Hilbert space is infinite and the vacuum vector is not separating. For a family depending on an integer N< - 1 an ``exclusion principle'' is found allowing at most ``identical particles'' on the same state: The algebras are type factors. Functors of white noise are constructed and proved to be non-equivalent for different values of N.

  7. Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mampaso, A.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez, F.

    2004-01-01

    What do we understand of the birth and death of stars? What is the nature of the tiny dust grains that permeate our Galaxy and other galaxies? And how likely is the existence of brown dwarfs, extrasolar planets or other sub-stellar mass objects? These are just a few of the questions that can now be addressed in a new era of infrared observations. IR astronomy has been revolutionised over the past few years by the widespread availability of large, very sensitive IR arrays and the success of IR satellites (IRAS in particular). Several IR space missions due for launch over the next few years promise an exciting future too. For these reasons, the IV Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics was dedicated to this burgeoning field. Its primary goal was to introduce graduate students and researchers from other areas to the important new observations and physical ideas that are emerging in this wide-ranging field of research. Lectures from nine leading researchers, renowned for their teaching abilities, are gathered in this volume. These nine chapters provide an excellent introduction as well as a thorough and up-to-date review of developments - essential reading for graduate students entering IR astronomy, and professionals from other areas who realise the importance that IR astronomy may have on their research.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.

    2013-10-01

    The book Black holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions written by Kirill A Bronnikov and Sergey G Rubin has been published recently by World Scientific Publishing Company. The authors are well known experts in gravity and cosmology. The book is a monograph, a considerable part of which is based on the original work of the authors. Their original point of view on some of the problems makes the book quite interesting, covering a variety of important topics of the modern theory of gravity, astrophysics and cosmology. It consists of 11 chapters which are organized in three parts. The book starts with an introduction, where the authors briefly discuss the main ideas of General Relativity, giving some historical remarks on its development and application to cosmology, and mentioning some more recent subjects such as brane worlds, f(R)-theories and gravity in higher dimensions. Part I of the book is called 'Gravity'. Chapters two and three are devoted to the Einstein equations and their spherical symmetric black hole solutions. This material is quite standard and can be found in practically any book on General Relativity. A brief summary of the Kerr metric and black hole thermodynamics are given in chapter four. The main part of this chapter is devoted to spherically symmetric black holes in non-Einstein gravity (with scalar and phantom fields), black holes with regular interior, and black holes in brane worlds. Chapters five and six are mainly dedicated to wormholes and the problem of their stability. Part II (Cosmology) starts with discussion of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and de Sitter solutions of the Einstein equations and their properties. It follows by describing a `big picture' of the modern cosmology (inflation, post-inflationary reheating, the radiation-dominated and matter-dominated states, and modern stage of the (secondary) inflation). The authors explain how the inflation models allow one to solve many of the long-standing problems of cosmology, such as

  9. Axion arising from warped extra-dimensional gauge fields

    SciTech Connect

    Burnier, Y.; Kuehnel, F.

    2011-06-01

    We present a connection between two known solutions to the strong-CP problem: the standard introduction of axions and the extra-dimensional one, relying on topological arguments. Using an equivalent lower-dimensional setup with a warped extra dimension but without adding any new fields, it is shown that an additional light degree of freedom appears. Like an axion, it couples to the topological charge density via fermionic loop corrections. Its decay constant is related to the geometry of the extra dimension and is suppressed by the warping scale.

  10. Extra-mammary findings on breast MRI: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Karp, Norna L; Price, Elissa R; Wisner, Dorota J; Chang, C Belinda; Hylton, Nola M; Joe, Bonnie N

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in breast coil performance have made detection of extra-mammary findings increasingly common. Some of these findings have important clinical implications. The radiologist should be aware of the spectrum of extra-mammary pathologies found on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and be able to distinguish clinically significant findings from those that are inconsequential. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate various common and uncommon extra-mammary findings encountered while interpreting breast MRI and to detail appropriate management recommendations.

  11. Development of an Extra-vehicular (EVA) Infrared (IR) Camera Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazarik, Michael; Johnson, Dave; Kist, Ed; Novak, Frank; Antill, Charles; Haakenson, David; Howell, Patricia; Pandolf, John; Jenkins, Rusty; Yates, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    Designed to fulfill a critical inspection need for the Space Shuttle Program, the EVA IR Camera System can detect crack and subsurface defects in the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) sections of the Space Shuttle s Thermal Protection System (TPS). The EVA IR Camera performs this detection by taking advantage of the natural thermal gradients induced in the RCC by solar flux and thermal emission from the Earth. This instrument is a compact, low-mass, low-power solution (1.2cm3, 1.5kg, 5.0W) for TPS inspection that exceeds existing requirements for feature detection. Taking advantage of ground-based IR thermography techniques, the EVA IR Camera System provides the Space Shuttle program with a solution that can be accommodated by the existing inspection system. The EVA IR Camera System augments the visible and laser inspection systems and finds cracks and subsurface damage that is not measurable by the other sensors, and thus fills a critical gap in the Space Shuttle s inspection needs. This paper discusses the on-orbit RCC inspection measurement concept and requirements, and then presents a detailed description of the EVA IR Camera System design.

  12. Dynamical Behavior of Delayed Reaction-Diffusion Hopfield Neural Networks Driven by Infinite Dimensional Wiener Processes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Wang, Linshan; Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Ruili

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we focus on the long time behavior of the mild solution to delayed reaction-diffusion Hopfield neural networks (DRDHNNs) driven by infinite dimensional Wiener processes. We analyze the existence, uniqueness, and stability of this system under the local Lipschitz function by constructing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii function and utilizing the semigroup theory. Some easy-to-test criteria affecting the well-posedness and stability of the networks, such as infinite dimensional noise and diffusion effect, are obtained. The criteria can be used as theoretic guidance to stabilize DRDHNNs in practical applications when infinite dimensional noise is taken into consideration. Meanwhile, considering the fact that the standard Brownian motion is a special case of infinite dimensional Wiener process, we undertake an analysis of the local Lipschitz condition, which has a wider range than the global Lipschitz condition. Two samples are given to examine the availability of the results in this paper. Simulations are also given using the MATLAB.

  13. The correlation length in thin film and semi-infinite medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1983-03-01

    Correlation lengths in directions parallel and perpendicular to a surface of a thin ferromagnetic film and a semi-infinite ferromagnet are calculated. Their dependences both on temperature and distance to a surface are discussed.

  14. High-energy scatterings in infinite-derivative field theory and ghost-free gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaganis, Spyridon; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we will consider scattering diagrams in the context of infinite-derivative theories. First, we examine a finite-order, higher-derivative scalar field theory and find that we cannot eliminate the growth of scattering diagrams for large external momenta. Then, we employ an infinite-derivative scalar toy model and obtain that the external momentum dependence of scattering diagrams is convergent as the external momenta become very large. In order to eliminate the external momentum growth, one has to dress the bare vertices of the scattering diagrams by considering renormalised propagator and vertex loop corrections to the bare vertices. Finally, we investigate scattering diagrams in the context of a scalar toy model which is inspired by a ghost-free and singularity-free infinite-derivative theory of gravity, where we conclude that infinite derivatives can eliminate the external momentum growth of scattering diagrams and make the scattering diagrams convergent in the ultraviolet.

  15. State feedback control of real-time discrete event systems with infinite states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seong-Jin; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study a state feedback supervisory control of timed discrete event systems (TDESs) with infinite number of states modelled as timed automata. To this end, we represent a timed automaton with infinite number of untimed states (called locations) by a finite set of conditional assignment statements. Predicates and predicate transformers are employed to finitely represent the behaviour and specification of a TDES with infinite number of locations. In addition, the notion of clock regions in timed automata is used to identify the reachable states of a TDES with an infinite time space. For a real-time specification described as a predicate, we present the controllability condition for the existence of a state feedback supervisor that restricts the behaviour of the controlled TDES within the specification.

  16. Extra-Zodiacal-Cloud Astronomy via Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Oleson, Steven R.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Thronson, Harley A.; Vaughn, Frank J.; Fixsen, Dale J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is often considered as primary propulsion for robotic planetary missions, providing the opportunity to deliver more payload mass to difficult, high-delta-velocity destinations. However, SEP application to astrophysics has not been well studied. This research identifies and assesses a new application of SEP as primary propulsion for low-cost high-performance robotic astrophysics missions. The performance of an optical/infrared space observatory in Earth orbit or at the Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) is limited by background emission from the Zodiacal dust cloud that has a disk morphology along the ecliptic plane. By delivering an observatory to a inclined heliocentric orbit, most of this background emission can be avoided, resulting in a very substantial increase in science performance. This advantage enabled by SEP allows a small-aperture telescope to rival the performance of much larger telescopes located at SEL2. In this paper, we describe a novel mission architecture in which SEP technology is used to enable unprecedented telescope sensitivity performance per unit collecting area. This extra-zodiacal mission architecture will enable a new class of high-performance, short-development time, Explorer missions whose sensitivity and survey speed can rival flagship-class SEL2 facilities, thus providing new programmatic flexibility for NASA's astronomy mission portfolio. A mission concept study was conducted to evaluate this application of SEP. Trajectory analyses determined that a 700 kg-class science payload could be delivered in just over 2 years to a 2 AU mission orbit inclined 15 to the ecliptic using a 13 kW-class NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) SEP system. A mission architecture trade resulted in a SEP stage architecture, in which the science spacecraft separates from the stage after delivery to the mission orbit. The SEP stage and science spacecraft concepts were defined in collaborative engineering environment studies. The

  17. Routing of deep-subwavelength optical beams without reflection and diffraction using infinitely anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catrysse, Peter B.; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-03-01

    Media that are described by extreme electromagnetic parameters, such as very large/small permittivity/permeability, have generated significant fundamental and applied interest in recent years. Notable examples include epsilon-near-zero, ultra-low refractive-index, and ultra-high refractive-index materials. Many photonic structures, such as waveguides, lenses, and photonic band gap materials, benefit greatly from the large index contrast provided by such media. In this paper, I discuss our recent work on media with infinite anisotropy, i.e., infinite permittivity (permeability) in one direction and finite in the other directions. As an illustration of the unusual optical behaviors that result from infinite anisotropy, I describe efficient light transport in deep-subwavelength apertures filled with infinitely anisotropic media. I then point out some of the opportunities that exist for controlling light at the nano-scale using infinitely anisotropic media by themselves. First, I show that a single medium with infinite anisotropy enables diffraction-free propagation of deep-subwavelength beams. Next, I demonstrate interfaces between two infinitely anisotropic media that are impedancematched for complete deep-subwavelength beams and enable reflection-free routing with zero bend radius that is entirely free from diffraction effects even when deep-subwavelength information is encoded on the beams. These behaviors indicate an unprecedented possibility to use media with infinite anisotropy to manipulate beams with deepsubwavelength features, including complete images. To illustrate physical realizability, I demonstrate a metamaterial design using existing materials in a planar geometry, which can be implemented using well-established nanofabrication techniques. This approach provides a path to deep-subwavelength routing of information-carrying beams and far-field imaging unencumbered by diffraction and reflection.

  18. Optimal feedback control of infinite-dimensional parabolic evolution systems - Approximation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Wang, C.

    1989-01-01

    A general approximation framework is discussed for computation of optimal feedback controls in linear quadratic regular problems for nonautonomous parabolic distributed parameter systems. This is done in the context of a theoretical framework using general evolution systems in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Conditions are discussed for preservation under approximation of stabilizability and detectability hypotheses on the infinite dimensional system. The special case of periodic systems is also treated.

  19. Infinite product expansion of the Fokker–Planck equation with steady-state solution

    PubMed Central

    Martin, R. J.; Craster, R. V.; Kearney, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical technique for solving Fokker–Planck equations that have a steady-state solution by representing the solution as an infinite product rather than, as usual, an infinite sum. This method has many advantages: automatically ensuring positivity of the resulting approximation, and by design exactly matching both the short- and long-term behaviour. The efficacy of the technique is demonstrated via comparisons with computations of typical examples. PMID:26346100

  20. Cosmological constraints on theories with large extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Smith, David

    1999-04-23

    In theories with large extra dimensions, constraints from cosmology lead to non-trivial lower bounds on the gravitational scale M, corresponding to upper bounds on the radii of the compact extra dimensions. These constraints are especially relevant to the case of two extra dimensions, since only if M is 10 TeV or less do deviations from the standard gravitational force law become evident at distances accessible to planned sub-mm gravity experiments. By examining the graviton decay contribution to the cosmic diffuse gamma radiation, we derive, for the case of two extra dimensions, a conservative bound M > 110TeV, corresponding to r{sub 2} < 5.1 x 10{sup -5} mm, well beyond the reach of these experiments. We also consider the constraint coming from graviton overclosure of the universe and derive an independent bound M > 6.5/{radical}h TeV, or r{sub 2} < .015hmm.

  1. Extra Dimensions and New Vector Bosons Searches in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Emam, W.

    2008-04-21

    This paper addresses a series of searches for signals from extra dimensions and new vector bosons in the CMS experiment. A brief review of the CMS discovery potential of these signatures in different luminosity scenarios is presented.

  2. Probing large extra dimensions with IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, Arman; Peres, O.L.G.; Tabrizi, Zahra E-mail: orlando@ifi.unicamp.br

    2014-12-01

    In models with Large Extra Dimensions the smallness of neutrino masses can be naturally explained by introducing gauge singlet fermions which propagate in the bulk. The Kaluza-Klein modes of these fermions appear as towers of sterile neutrino states on the brane. We study the phenomenological consequences of this picture for the high energy atmospheric neutrinos. For this purpose we construct a detailed equivalence between a model with large extra dimensions and a (3+n) scenario consisting of three active and n extra sterile neutrino states, which provides a clear intuitive understanding of Kaluza-Klein modes. Finally, we analyze the collected data of high energy atmospheric neutrinos by IceCube experiment and obtain bounds on the radius of extra dimensions.

  3. 20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gang service when there is in effect an arrangement between the employer and its employees for.... When the arrangement is such that an employee in extra board, pool, or chain gang service gets...

  4. 20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gang service when there is in effect an arrangement between the employer and its employees for.... When the arrangement is such that an employee in extra board, pool, or chain gang service gets...

  5. 20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gang service when there is in effect an arrangement between the employer and its employees for.... When the arrangement is such that an employee in extra board, pool, or chain gang service gets...

  6. 20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gang service when there is in effect an arrangement between the employer and its employees for.... When the arrangement is such that an employee in extra board, pool, or chain gang service gets...

  7. 7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT IS $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. A computer simulation study of VNTR population genetics: Constrained recombination rules out the infinite alleles model

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, R.M.; Martinson, J.J.; Flint, J.; Clegg, J.B.; Boyce, A.J. )

    1993-11-01

    Extensive allelic diversity in variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) has been discovered in the human genome. For population genetic studies of VNTRs, such as forensic applications, it is important to know whether a neutral mutation-drift balance of VNTR polymorphism can be represented by the infinite alleles model. The assumption of the infinite alleles model that each new mutant is unique is very likely to be violated by unequal sister chromatid exchange (USCE), the primary process believed to generate VNTR mutants. The authors show that increasing both mutation rates and misalignment constraint for intrachromosomal recombination in a computer simulation model reduces simulated VNTR diversity below the expectations of the infinite alleles model. Maximal constraint, represented as slippage of single repeats, reduces simulated VNTR diversity to levels expected from the stepwise mutation model. Although misalignment rule is the more important variable, mutation rate also has an effect. At moderate rates of USCE, simulated VNTR diversity fluctuates around infinite alleles expectation. However, if rates of USCE are high, as for hypervariable VNTRs, simulated VNTR diversity is consistently lower than predicted by the infinite alleles model. This has been observed for many VNTRs and accounted for by technical problems in distinguishing alleles of neighboring size classes. The authors use sampling theory to confirm the intrinsically poor fit to the infinite model of both simulated VNTR diversity and observed VNTR polymorphisms sampled from two Papua New Guinean populations. 25 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Computationally efficient analysis of extraordinary optical transmission through infinite and truncated subwavelength hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Miguel; Boix, Rafael R.; Medina, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    The authors present a computationally efficient technique for the analysis of extraordinary transmission through both infinite and truncated periodic arrays of slots in perfect conductor screens of negligible thickness. An integral equation is obtained for the tangential electric field in the slots both in the infinite case and in the truncated case. The unknown functions are expressed as linear combinations of known basis functions, and the unknown weight coefficients are determined by means of Galerkin's method. The coefficients of Galerkin's matrix are obtained in the spatial domain in terms of double finite integrals containing the Green's functions (which, in the infinite case, is efficiently computed by means of Ewald's method) times cross-correlations between both the basis functions and their divergences. The computation in the spatial domain is an efficient alternative to the direct computation in the spectral domain since this latter approach involves the determination of either slowly convergent double infinite summations (infinite case) or slowly convergent double infinite integrals (truncated case). The results obtained are validated by means of commercial software, and it is found that the integral equation technique presented in this paper is at least two orders of magnitude faster than commercial software for a similar accuracy. It is also shown that the phenomena related to periodicity such as extraordinary transmission and Wood's anomaly start to appear in the truncated case for arrays with more than 100 (10 ×10 ) slots.

  10. Stiffness and Mass Matrices of FEM-Applicable Dynamic Infinite Element with Unified Shape Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Konstantin

    2009-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the construction and evaluation of mass and stiffness matrices of elastodynamic four and five node infinite elements with unified shape functions (EIEUSF), recently proposed by the author. Such elements can be treated as a family of elastodynamic infinite elements appropriate for multi-wave soil-structure interaction problems. The common characteristic of the proposed infinite elements is the so-called unified shape function, based on finite number of wave shape functions. The idea and the construction of the unified shape basis are described in brief. This element belongs to the decay class of infinite elements. It is shown that by appropriate mapping functions the formulation of such an element can be easily transformed to a mapped form. The results obtained using the proposed infinite elements are in a good agreement with the superposed results obtained by a series of standard computational models. The continuity along the finite/infinite element line (artificial boundary) in two-dimensional substructure models is also discussed in brief. In this type of computational models such a line marks the artificial boundary between the near and the far field of the model.

  11. Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Calvert, George T; Monument, Michael J; Burt, Randall W; Jones, Kevin B; Randall, R Lor

    2012-01-01

    Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors are a significant cause of morbidity in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Understanding of the basic biology and natural history of these tumors has increased substantially over the past decade. Accordingly, medical and surgical management of desmoid tumors has also evolved. This paper analyzes recent evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, molecular biology, histopathology, screening, and treatment of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome.

  12. Extra-Pair Mating and Evolution of Cooperative Neighbourhoods

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, Sigrunn; Jørgensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans. PMID:24987839

  13. Effect of Extra-Framework Cations of LTL Nanozeolites to Inhibit Oil Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Cham, Hooi-Ying; Awala, Hussein; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R.; Wong, Ka-Lun; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-06-01

    Lubricant oils take significant part in current health and environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. Antioxidants are probably the most important additives used in oils because oxidative deterioration plays a major role in oil degradation. Zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven as another option as green antioxidants in oil formulation. The anti-oxidative behavior of zeolite NPs is obvious; however, the phenomenon is still under investigation. Herein, a study of the effect of extra-framework cations stabilized on Linde Type L (LTL) zeolite NPs (ca. 20 nm) on inhibition of oxidation in palm oil-based lubricant oil is reported. Hydrophilic LTL zeolites with a Si/Al ratio of 3.2 containing four different inorganic cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+) were applied. The oxidation of the lubricant oil was followed by visual observation, colorimetry, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, total acid number (TAN), and rheology analyses. The effect of extra-framework cations to slow down the rate of oil oxidation and to control the viscosity of oil is demonstrated. The degradation rate of the lubricant oil samples is decreased considerably as the polarizability of cation is increased with the presence of zeolite NPs. More importantly, the microporous zeolite NPs have a great influence in halting the steps that lead to the polymerization of the oils and thus increasing the lifetime of oils.

  14. Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jane M; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Arcese, Peter; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. We propose three demographic processes that could potentially cause mean f to differ between individual females’ EPO and WPO given random extra-pair reproduction with available males without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. Specifically, such a difference could arise if social pairings formed non-randomly with respect to relatedness or persisted non-randomly with respect to relatedness, or if the distribution of relatedness between females and their sets of potential mates changed during the period through which social pairings persisted. We used comprehensive pedigree and pairing data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to quantify these three processes and hence investigate how individual females could adjust mean offspring f through instantaneously random extra-pair reproduction. Female song sparrows tended to form social pairings with unrelated or distantly related males slightly less frequently than expected given random pairing within the defined set of available males. Furthermore, social pairings between more closely related mates tended to be more likely to persist across years than social pairings between less closely related mates. However, these effects were small and the mean relatedness between females and their sets of potential extra-pair males did not change substantially across the years through which social pairings persisted. Our framework and analyses illustrate how demographic and social structuring

  15. Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Arcese, Peter

    2015-07-01

    One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. We propose three demographic processes that could potentially cause mean f to differ between individual females' EPO and WPO given random extra-pair reproduction with available males without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. Specifically, such a difference could arise if social pairings formed non-randomly with respect to relatedness or persisted non-randomly with respect to relatedness, or if the distribution of relatedness between females and their sets of potential mates changed during the period through which social pairings persisted. We used comprehensive pedigree and pairing data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to quantify these three processes and hence investigate how individual females could adjust mean offspring f through instantaneously random extra-pair reproduction. Female song sparrows tended to form social pairings with unrelated or distantly related males slightly less frequently than expected given random pairing within the defined set of available males. Furthermore, social pairings between more closely related mates tended to be more likely to persist across years than social pairings between less closely related mates. However, these effects were small and the mean relatedness between females and their sets of potential extra-pair males did not change substantially across the years through which social pairings persisted. Our framework and analyses illustrate how demographic and social structuring within

  16. Designed blending for near infrared calibration.

    PubMed

    Scheibelhofer, Otto; Grabner, Bianca; Bondi, Robert W; Igne, Benoît; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes G

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopic methods are increasingly used for monitoring pharmaceutical manufacturing unit operations that involve powder handling and processing. With that regard, chemometric models are required to interpret the obtained spectra. There are many ways to prepare artificial powder blend samples used in a chemometric model for predicting the chemical content. Basically, an infinite number of possible concentration levels exist in terms of the individual components. In our study, design of experiments for ternary mixtures was used to establish a suitable number of blend compositions that represents the entire mixture region of interest for a three component blend. Various experimental designs and their effect on the predictive power of a chemometric model for near infrared spectra were investigated. It was determined that a particular choice of experimental design could change the predictive power of a model, even with the same number of calibration experiments. PMID:25980978

  17. Use of ICS/LABA (extra-fine and non-extra-fine) in elderly asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Benfante, Alida; Basile, Marco; Battaglia, Salvatore; Spatafora, Mario; Scichilone, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Age represents an exclusion criterion in randomized clinical trials designed to test the efficacy and safety of inhaled drugs in asthma. As a consequence, data on efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) combinations in elderly asthmatics are scanty. Older age is associated with an increased proportion of comorbid conditions; in addition, all organ functions undergo a process of senescence, thus reducing their ability to metabolize the agents. Overall, these age-associated conditions may variably, and often unpredictably, affect the metabolism and excretion of respiratory drugs. However, pharmacological treatment of asthma does not follow specific recommendations in the elderly. In the elderly, the ICS/LABA combinations may carry an increased risk of local indesiderable effects, primarily due to the lack of coordination between activation of the device and inhalation, and systemic adverse events, mainly due to the greater amount of active drug that is available because of the age-associated changes in organ functions as well as drug-to-drug and drug-to-concomitant disease interactions. The extra-fine formulations of ICSs/LABAs, which allow for a more favorable drug deposition in the lungs at a reduced dose, may contribute to overcome this issue. This review revises the efficacy and safety of treatment with ICSs/LABAs, focusing on the main pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs and highlighting the potential risks in the elderly asthmatic population. PMID:27789954

  18. The Role of Extra-Credit Assignments in the Teaching of World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, David

    2011-01-01

    The granting of extra credit is a hotly debated topic in all fields of education. Teachers are reluctant to offer extra credit for fear of inflating grades, but students are persistent in their demands for extra-credit points to which they have become accustomed. This article considers extra-credit assignments in the teaching of world languages.…

  19. Infrared: Beyond the Visible

    NASA Video Gallery

    Infrared: Beyond the Visible, is a fast, fun look at why infrared light matters to astronomy, and what the Webb Space Telescope will search for once it's in orbit. Caption file available at: http:/...

  20. Infinite-Dimensional Schur-Weyl Duality and the Coxeter-Laplace Operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsilevich, N. V.; Vershik, A. M.

    2014-05-01

    We extend the classical Schur-Weyl duality between representations of the groups and to the case of and the infinite symmetric group . Our construction is based on a "dynamic," or inductive, scheme of Schur-Weyl dualities. It leads to a new class of representations of the infinite symmetric group, which has not appeared earlier. We describe these representations and, in particular, find their spectral types with respect to the Gelfand-Tsetlin algebra. The main example of such a representation acts in an incomplete infinite tensor product. As an important application, we consider the weak limit of the so-called Coxeter-Laplace operator, which is essentially the Hamiltonian of the XXX Heisenberg model, in these representations.

  1. Limiting Motion for the Parabolic Ginzburg-Landau Equation with Infinite Energy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côte, Delphine; Côte, Raphaël

    2016-08-01

    We study a class of solutions to the parabolic Ginzburg-Landau equation in dimension 2 or higher, with ill-prepared infinite energy initial data. We show that, asymptotically, the vorticity evolves according to motion by mean curvature in Brakke's weak formulation. Then, we prove that in the plane, point vortices do not move in the original time scale. These results extend the works of Bethuel, Orlandi and Smets (Ann Math (2) 163(1):37-163, 2006; Duke Math J 130(3):523-614, 2005) to infinite energy data; they allow us to consider point vortices on a lattice (in dimension 2), or filament vortices of infinite length (in dimension 3).

  2. Nonminimal universal extra dimensional model confronts Bs→μ+μ-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anindya; Shaw, Avirup

    2016-03-01

    The addition of boundary localized kinetic and Yukawa terms to the action of a five-dimensional Standard Model would nontrivially modify the Kaluza-Klein spectra and some of the interactions among the Kaluza-Klein excitations compared to the minimal version of this model, in which these boundary terms are not present. In the minimal version of this framework, known as the universal extra dimensional model, special assumptions are made about these unknown, beyond the cutoff contributions to restrict the number of unknown parameters of the theory to be minimum. We estimate the contribution of Kaluza-Klein modes to the branching ratios of Bs (d )→μ+μ- in the framework of the nonminimal universal extra dimensional model, at one-loop level. The results have been compared to the experimental data to constrain the parameters of this model. From the measured decay branching ratio of Bs→μ+μ- (depending on the values of boundary localized parameters), the lower limit on R-1 can be as high as 800 GeV. We have briefly reviewed the bounds on nonminimal universal extra dimensional parameter space coming from electroweak precision observables. The present analysis (Bs→μ+μ-) has ruled out new regions of parameter space in comparison to the analysis of electroweak data. We have revisited the bound on R-1 in the universal extra dimensional model, which came out to be 454 GeV. This limit on R-1 in the universal extra dimensional framework is not as competitive as the limits derived from the consideration of relic density or Standard Model Higgs boson production and decay to W+W-. Unfortunately, the Bd→μ+μ- decay branching ratio would not set any significant limit on R-1 in a minimal or nonminimal universal extra dimensional model.

  3. Search for Universal Extra Dimensions with the D0 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, Jason D.

    2011-10-01

    A search for signs of universal extra dimensions (UED) has been performed with the D0 experiment, using events with two same-sign muons. The considered minimal UED model includes one extra dimension, and has a stable lightest Kaluza-Klein particle (LKP) which is a dark matter candidate. In the search, 7.3 fb{sup -1} of D0 data, collected in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, have been used.

  4. Scrotal abscess, a rare case of extra intestinal amoebiasis.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, R H

    2015-09-01

    The majority of amoeba infection are asymptomatic, but clinically intestinal amoebiasis or extra intestinal amoebiasis may result. Genital amoebiasis is very rare manifestation of extra intestial amoebiasis, but a case of amoebic scrotal abscess, seen in Surabaya. The invasive form of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite was seen in Giemsa stained aspirate of the abscess. In case of an abscess bacteria are primarly considered, but the case presented here shows that amoeba can be the cause, although very rarely. Thus when bacteriological diagnostics are negative amoeba should be considered, especially in case of brown-reddish colored and foul smelling pus. PMID:26695210

  5. Universal Extra Dimension models with right-handed neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Shigeki; Sato, Joe; Yamanaka, Masato; Senami, Masato

    2008-04-21

    Relic abundance of dark matter is investigated in the framework of universal extra dimension (UED) models with right-handed neutrinos. These models are free from the KK graviton problem in the minimal UED model. The first KK particle of the right-handed neutrino is a dark matter candidate in this framework. When ordinary neutrino masses are large enough such as the degenerate mass spectrum case, the dark matter relic abundance can increase significantly. The scale of the extra dimension consistent with cosmological observations can be 500 GeV in the minimal setup of UED models with right-handed neutrinos.

  6. Inheritance contradictions between functional and extra-functional requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hochmueller, E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the tension which may arise between functional and extra-functional requirements during the process of object-oriented design. A sketch of some design conflicts in object-oriented development induced by concurrency and security requirements will serve as a basis for rather provocative prospects on an essential distinction between the core requirements for systems dealing with their proper purpose and functionality and the requirements which can be considered to be of extra-functional nature in constraining the systems solution space.

  7. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: A gravitational wave window on extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, Chris; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2007-05-01

    We report on the possibility of detecting a submillimetre-sized extra dimension by observing gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by point-like objects orbiting a braneworld black hole. Matter in the 'visible' universe can generate a discrete spectrum of high frequency GWs with amplitudes moderately weaker than the predictions of general relativity, while GW signals generated by matter on a 'shadow' brane hidden in the bulk are potentially strong enough to be detected using current technology. We know of no other astrophysical phenomena that produce GWs with a similar spectrum, which stresses the need to develop detectors capable of measuring this high-frequency signature of large extra dimensions.

  8. Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Maziashvili, Michael

    2013-03-01

    We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r→0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.

  9. Determining the end of infinite-acting behavior for producing wells in closed rectangles. Report SUPRI TR-19

    SciTech Connect

    Gobran, B.D.; Abbaszadeh-Dehghani, M.

    1981-02-01

    During a pressure drawdown test, all wells behave as if they are in an infinite reservoir for a brief period (termed the infinite-acting time). In an attempt to better determine this time for well locations in closed rectangular shapes, we have produced computer and hand calculator programs as well as contour graphs that yield the dimensionless time (in terms of area), t/sub DA/, which defines the end of the infinite-acting period.

  10. Analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for infinite-space fluence

    SciTech Connect

    Liemert, Andre; Kienle, Alwin

    2011-01-15

    This Brief Report presents the derivation of analytical expressions for the fluence of the steady state radiative transfer equation in an infinitely extended and anisotropically scattering medium in arbitrary dimensions for different source types. The fluence, which is composed of an infinite sum of diffusion-like Green's functions, was compared to the Monte Carlo method. Within the stochastic nature of the Monte Carlo simulations, an exact agreement was found in the steady state and time domains. It is shown that the use of low-order approximations is sufficient for many relevant cases.

  11. Numerical approximation for the infinite-dimensional discrete-time optimal linear-quadratic regulator problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.

    1986-01-01

    An abstract approximation framework is developed for the finite and infinite time horizon discrete-time linear-quadratic regulator problem for systems whose state dynamics are described by a linear semigroup of operators on an infinite dimensional Hilbert space. The schemes included the framework yield finite dimensional approximations to the linear state feedback gains which determine the optimal control law. Convergence arguments are given. Examples involving hereditary and parabolic systems and the vibration of a flexible beam are considered. Spline-based finite element schemes for these classes of problems, together with numerical results, are presented and discussed.

  12. Computational methods for optimal linear-quadratic compensators for infinite dimensional discrete-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.

    1986-01-01

    An abstract approximation theory and computational methods are developed for the determination of optimal linear-quadratic feedback control, observers and compensators for infinite dimensional discrete-time systems. Particular attention is paid to systems whose open-loop dynamics are described by semigroups of operators on Hilbert spaces. The approach taken is based on the finite dimensional approximation of the infinite dimensional operator Riccati equations which characterize the optimal feedback control and observer gains. Theoretical convergence results are presented and discussed. Numerical results for an example involving a heat equation with boundary control are presented and used to demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  13. Extending NEC to model wire objects in infinite chiral media. [Numerical electromagnetic code (NEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G.J. ); Miller, E.K. ); Bhattachryya, A.K. . Physical Science Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    The development of a moment-method model for wire objects in an infinite chiral medium is described. In this work, the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) was extended by including a new integral-equation kernel obtained from the dyadic Green's function for an infinite chiral medium. The NEC moment-method treatment using point matching and a three-term sinusoidal current expansion was adapted to the case of a chiral medium. Examples of current distributions and radiation patterns for simple antennas are presented, and the validation of the code is discussed. 15 refs.

  14. Infinite hierarchy of nonlinear Schrödinger equations and their solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankiewicz, A.; Kedziora, D. J.; Chowdury, A.; Bandelow, U.; Akhmediev, N.

    2016-01-01

    We study the infinite integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation hierarchy beyond the Lakshmanan-Porsezian-Daniel equation which is a particular (fourth-order) case of the hierarchy. In particular, we present the generalized Lax pair and generalized soliton solutions, plane wave solutions, Akhmediev breathers, Kuznetsov-Ma breathers, periodic solutions, and rogue wave solutions for this infinite-order hierarchy. We find that "even- order" equations in the set affect phase and "stretching factors" in the solutions, while "odd-order" equations affect the velocities. Hence odd-order equation solutions can be real functions, while even-order equation solutions are always complex.

  15. Infinite hierarchy of nonlinear Schrödinger equations and their solutions.

    PubMed

    Ankiewicz, A; Kedziora, D J; Chowdury, A; Bandelow, U; Akhmediev, N

    2016-01-01

    We study the infinite integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation hierarchy beyond the Lakshmanan-Porsezian-Daniel equation which is a particular (fourth-order) case of the hierarchy. In particular, we present the generalized Lax pair and generalized soliton solutions, plane wave solutions, Akhmediev breathers, Kuznetsov-Ma breathers, periodic solutions, and rogue wave solutions for this infinite-order hierarchy. We find that "even- order" equations in the set affect phase and "stretching factors" in the solutions, while "odd-order" equations affect the velocities. Hence odd-order equation solutions can be real functions, while even-order equation solutions are always complex. PMID:26871072

  16. Persistence and Permanence for a Class of Functional Differential Equations with Infinite Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with a class of cooperative functional differential equations (FDEs) with infinite delay, for which sufficient conditions for persistence and permanence are established. Here, the persistence refers to all solutions with initial conditions that are positive, continuous and bounded. The present method applies to a very broad class of abstract systems of FDEs with infinite delay, both autonomous and non-autonomous, which include many important models used in mathematical biology. Moreover, the hypotheses imposed are in general very easy to check. The results are illustrated with some selected examples.

  17. Low formation energy and kinetic barrier of Stone-Wales defect in infinite and finite silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjanath, Aaditya; Singh, Abhishek K.

    2014-01-01

    Stone-Wales (SW) defects in materials having hexagonal lattice are the most common topological defects that affect the electronic and mechanical properties. Using first principles density functional theory based calculations, we study the formation energy and kinetic barrier of SW-defect in infinite and finite sheets of silicene. The formation energies as well as the barriers in both the cases are significantly lower than those of graphene. Furthermore, compared with the infinite sheets, the energy barriers and formation energies are lower for finite sheets. However, due to low barriers these defects are expected to heal out of the finite sheets.

  18. Finding Limit Cycles in self-excited oscillators with infinite-series damping functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Debapriya; Banerjee, Dhruba; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a simple method for finding the location of limit cycles of self excited oscillators whose damping functions can be represented by some infinite convergent series. We have used standard results of first-order perturbation theory to arrive at amplitude equations. The approach has been kept pedagogic by first working out the cases of finite polynomials using elementary algebra. Then the method has been extended to various infinite polynomials, where the fixed points of the corresponding amplitude equations cannot be found out. Hopf bifurcations for systems with nonlinear powers in velocities have also been discussed.

  19. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Yuhsin

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  20. 32 CFR 776.45 - Extra-tribunal statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extra-tribunal statements. 776.45 Section 776.45 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL... possibility of a plea of guilty to the offense or the existence or contents of any confession, admission,...

  1. 32 CFR 776.45 - Extra-tribunal statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extra-tribunal statements. 776.45 Section 776.45 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL... possibility of a plea of guilty to the offense or the existence or contents of any confession, admission,...

  2. 32 CFR 776.45 - Extra-tribunal statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extra-tribunal statements. 776.45 Section 776.45 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL... possibility of a plea of guilty to the offense or the existence or contents of any confession, admission,...

  3. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and randomly…

  4. Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.

    Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

  5. 8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT OF SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. CANAL EMERGES FROM EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. "EXTRA" LENGTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CANAL EMERGES FROM EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. "EXTRA" LENGTH WAS TO STORE SPENT FUEL THAT WOULD ACCUMULATE BEFORE THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT WAS READY TO PROCESS IT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1659. Unknown Photographer, 3/9/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Extra-axial isolated cerebral varix misdiagnosed as convexity meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Qian; Cui, Yan; Yi, Lei; Ouyang, Yian; Jiang, Yugang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Isolated cerebral varix is a rare cerebrovascular anomaly, which is easily misdiagnosed as other brain tumors. A 59-year-old female patient with noncontributory medical history presented with headache and insomnia for the last 2 months. Upon admission, her neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-demarcated extra medullary mass, 11 × 11 mm in size, within the subdural space at the right frontal lobe. The lesion was initially interpreted as a convexity meningioma. After conducting a craniotomy on the patient, an extra-axial varix was exposed and resected subsequently. The patient's headache was resolved soon after surgery and charged without neurologic sequelae. Extra-axial isolated cerebral varix is mimicking convexity meningioma on MR images and should be considered as a differential diagnosis. The focal erosion in the inner table of the skull could be an important character of extra-axial isolated cerebral varix. An extremely round shape and smooth contour of the lesion was another important character. Isolated cerebral varix is rare vascular lesion that is treated surgically in the case of rupture or compression of adjacent structures. The information obtained with noninvasive imaging techniques should include CTA to make a clinical decision. PMID:27368037

  8. Extra-team Connections for Knowledge Transfer between Staff Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Wiecha, Jean L.; Emmons, Karen M.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2009-01-01

    As organizations implement novel health promotion programs across multiple sites, they face great challenges related to knowledge management. Staff social networks may be a useful medium for transferring program-related knowledge in multi-site implementation efforts. To study this potential, we focused on the role of extra-team connections (ties…

  9. 20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions in extra service. 332.4 Section 332.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT MILEAGE OR WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.4 Restrictions in...

  10. Extra-articular Mimickers of Lateral Meniscal Tears

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Joseph U.; Strauss, Eric J.; Lodha, Sameer; Bach, Bernard R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Lateral meniscus tears are a common entity seen in sports medicine. Although lateral-side knee pain is often the result of a meniscus injury, several extra-articular pathologies share signs and symptoms with a meniscus tear. It is critical for the clinician to be able to identify and understand extra-articular pathologies that can present similar to a lateral meniscus tear. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search for all relevant articles between 1980 and February 2010. Study Type: Clinical review. Results: Common extra-articular pathologies that can mimic lateral meniscal tears include iliotibial band syndrome, proximal tibiofibular joint instability, snapping biceps femoris or popliteus tendons, and peroneal nerve compression syndrome or neuritis. The patient history, physical examination features, and radiographic findings can be used to separate these entities from the more common intra-articular knee pathologies. Conclusions: In treating patients who present with lateral-sided knee pain, clinicians should be able to recognize and treat extra-articular pathologies that can present in a similar fashion as lateral meniscus tears. PMID:23015995

  11. The use of extra-oral traction with removable appliances.

    PubMed

    Rock, W P

    1990-05-19

    Extra-oral traction has two main applications in orthodontic treatment. It may be used to prevent forward movement of anchor teeth and also to provide a force for distalisation of molars, and/or buccal segments. If correctly applied, EOT can help to ease problems in a difficult treatment and make possible an otherwise impossible treatment plan.

  12. Are Extra Classes the Success behind High Performance and Marks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santhi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Extra classes have been a fixture in the educational system in India. They pre-date all existing educational programmes and examinations. Yet more recently the justification and reasons for the maintenance of these classes have been called into question. There have been unsubstantiated claims that in some cases the classes have been "organized" in…

  13. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  14. Extra focal convective suppressing solar collector. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This progress report describes work done on the Extra Focal Convective Suppressing Solar Collector. The topics of the report include sensor refinement for the tracking electronics, tracking controller refinement, system optics evaluation, absorber system material evaluation and performance, tracking hardware evaluation and refinement, and full scale prototype construction and testing.

  15. Chemical changes in extra virgin argan oil after thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr Eddine; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters, measured every 6 hours, of extra virgin argan oil heated for 24 h at 180 degrees C were investigated and compared with those of five other edible oils treated in the same thermoxidative condition. Argan oil was found to be particularly stable at high temperature, its level of polar compounds remaining low even after 24 h of heating.

  16. Extra-Curricular Inequality. Research Brief. Edition 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Research Briefing analyses Office for National Statistics data and finds children from the most advantaged households benefit from significantly more spending on extra-curricular activities and private tutoring than their poorer peers. The brief also includes the Trust's annual polling on private tuition and new polling on parents and…

  17. Charged current unitarity and extra neutral gauge bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.; Sirling, A.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental status of the Kobayashi-Maskawa-Cabibbo (KMC) matrix is surveyed and shown to provide a precision test of the standard model at the level of its O(..cap alpha..) radiative corrections. Implications for new physics and constraints of extra neutral gauge bosons are described. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Extra-medical stimulant dependence among recent initiates

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Megan S.; Anthony, James C.

    2014-01-01

    New estimates for the risk of becoming stimulant dependent within 24 months after first extra-medical (EM) use of a stimulant drug compound are presented, with a focus on subgroup variations in this risk (e.g., alcohol dependence, male–female differences). The study estimates are derived from a representative sample of United States residents ages 12 and older (n = 166,737) obtained from the 2003 to 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. A total of 1700 respondents were found to have used stimulants extra-medically for the first time within 24 months prior to assessment. Approximately 5% of these recent-onset EM users had become stimulant dependent since onset of EM use. As hypothesized, alcohol dependence cases were found to have experienced an excess risk of becoming stimulant dependent soon after onset of stimulant drug use; there was no robust male–female difference in risk. Independently, initiates who had used multiple types of stimulants extra-medically, and methamphetamine users, were more likely to have become stimulant dependent soon after onset of use; by comparison, EM users of methylphenidate (Ritalin®) were less likely to have developed rapid-onset dependence. These epidemiologic findings help quantify a continuing public health burden associated with new onsets of extra-medical stimulant use in the 21st century. PMID:19515516

  19. Lesson of the Heart: An Extra-Credit Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher candidates need to have a passion for teaching and a drive to do whatever is necessary even when it is uncomfortable, uncommon, or hard. Such efforts should not be considered extra, but essential. A purposeful, focused enthusiasm for one's students, a belief in their potential, along with heartfelt compassion and the perseverance to work…

  20. University Extra-Mural Studies and Extension Outreach: Incompatibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The argument of this paper is that--within a wide range of university responses to the challenge of outreach--there grew up in the extra-mural or adult education departments of many UK universities an alternative epistemological paradigm to the older and more traditional extension programmes. This paradigm threatened the extension approach and has…

  1. The Extra Strand of the Maori Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Georgina

    2011-01-01

    This paper comments on the process of re-development of the Maori-medium Science (Putaiao) curriculum, as part of overall curriculum development in Aotearoa New Zealand. A significant difference from the English Science curriculum was the addition of an "extra strand" covering the history and philosophy of science. It is recommended that this…

  2. Extra-tropical Cyclones and Windstorms in Seasonal Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Befort, Daniel J.; Weisheimer, Antje; Knight, Jeff; Thornton, Hazel; Roberts, Julia; Hermanson, Leon

    2015-04-01

    Severe damages and large insured losses over Europe related to natural phenomena are mostly caused by extra-tropical cyclones and their related windstorm fields. Thus, an adequate representation of these events in seasonal prediction systems and reliable forecasts up to a season in advance would be of high value for society and economy. In this study, state-of-the-art seasonal forecast prediction systems are analysed (ECMWF, UK Met Office) regarding the general climatological representation and the seasonal prediction of extra-tropical cyclones and windstorms during the core winter season (DJF) with a lead time of up to four months. Two different algorithms are used to identify cyclones and windstorm events in these datasets. Firstly, we apply a cyclone identification and tracking algorithm based on the Laplacian of MSLP and secondly, we use an objective wind field tracking algorithm to identify and track continuous areas of extreme high wind speeds (cf. Leckebusch et al., 2008), which can be related to extra-tropical winter cyclones. Thus, for the first time, we can analyse the forecast of severe wind events near to the surface caused by extra-tropical cyclones. First results suggest a successful validation of the spatial climatological distributions of wind storm and cyclone occurrence in the seasonal forecast systems in comparison with reanalysis data (ECMWF-ERA40 & ERAInterim) in general. However, large biases are found for some areas. The skill of the seasonal forecast systems in simulating the year-to-year variability of the frequency of severe windstorm events and cyclones is investigated using the ranked probability skill score. Positive skill is found over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere as well as for the most intense extra-tropical cyclones and its related wind fields.

  3. Search for large extra dimensions in diphoton events at CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, Simona

    In spite of its undisputed success, the Standard Model is not a theory of everything as it does not incorporate gravity. Gravity is the weakest of all forces and its strength becomes comparable to the remaining forces at energies of the order of the Planck scale, at approximately 10 19 GeV and the Standard Model is viewed as an effective theory at energies below this scale. Recently, a model of large extra dimensions has been formulated by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulous, and Dvali that claims that the electroweak scale (approximately 1 TeV) is the only fundamental scale in nature and the fact that the Planck scale appears so large is an artifact of the existence of extra dimensions in which only gravity propagates. This theory can be tested at existing collider experiments, where energies sufficiently high to probe the extra dimensions can be achieved. In particular, the existence of extra dimensions can manifest itself with production of Standard Model particles through graviton mediated processes and thus it predicts an enhancement of production cross sections at high invariant mass. The goal of this work is to search for an excess in the 100 pb-1 of diphoton data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab at s = 1.8 TeV during the 1992--1996 run. No excess is observed and thus we place a 95% confidence level limit on the Planck scale in the bulk extra dimensions MS of 899 GeV for constructive interference and of 797 GeV for destructive interference (Hewett convention).

  4. The logic of turmoil: some epistemological and clinical considerations on emotional experience and the infinite.

    PubMed

    Bria, Pietro; Lombardi, Riccardo

    2008-08-01

    The idea of the infinite has its origins in the very beginnings of western philosophy and was developed significantly by modern philosophers such as Galileo and Leibniz. Freud discovered the Unconscious which does not respect the laws of classical logic, flouting its fundamental principle of non-contradiction. This opened the way to a new epistemology in which classical logic coexists with an aberrant logic of infinite affects. Matte Blanco reorganized this Freudian revolution in logic and introduced the concept of bi-logic, which is an intermingling of symmetric and Aristotelic logics. The authors explore some epistemological and clinical aspects of the functioning of the deep unconscious where the emergence of infinity threatens to overwhelm the containing function of thought, connecting this topic to some of Bion's propositions. They then suggest that bodily experiences can be considered a prime source of the logic of turmoil, and link a psychoanalytic consideration of the infinite to the mind-body relation. Emotional catastrophe is seen both as a defect-a breakdown of the unfolding function which translates unconscious material into conscious experience-and as the consequence of affective bodily pressures. These pressures function in turn as symmetrizing or infinitizing operators. Two clinical vignettes are presented to exemplify the hypotheses.

  5. Being "Stresslessly Invisible": The Rise and Fall of Videophony in David Foster Wallace's "Infinite Jest"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbat, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    In a satiric chapter of David Foster Wallace's novel "Infinite Jest," a mock media expert reports how American consumers of the near future recoil from a new communication device known as "videophony" and return to the voice-only telephone of the Bell Era. This article explores the said chapter in the framework of media theories reading the…

  6. Reply to Comment on ‘Wigner function for a particle in an infinite lattice’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinarejos, M.; Pérez, A.; Bañuls, M. C.

    2013-06-01

    In a recent paper (2012 New J. Phys. 14 103009), we proposed a definition of the Wigner function for a particle on an infinite lattice. Here we argue that the criticism to our work raised by Bizarro is not substantial and does not invalidate our proposal.

  7. Variable Input: What Sarah Reveals about Nonagreeing "Don't" and Theories of Root Infinitives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Two recent proposals link the use of nonagreeing "don't" to the Root Infinitive (RI) Stage. Guasti & Rizzi (2002) argue for a misset parameter involving how agreement is spelled out. Schütze (2010) proposes that Infl is underspecified in child language and that "do" surfaces to support the contracted clitic/affix…

  8. One-Dimensional Infinite Horizon Nonconcave Optimal Control Problems Arising in Economic Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslavski, Alexander J.

    2011-12-15

    We study the existence of optimal solutions for a class of infinite horizon nonconvex autonomous discrete-time optimal control problems. This class contains optimal control problems without discounting arising in economic dynamics which describe a model with a nonconcave utility function.

  9. De Finetti representation theorem for infinite-dimensional quantum systems and applications to quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Renner, R; Cirac, J I

    2009-03-20

    We show that the quantum de Finetti theorem holds for states on infinite-dimensional systems, provided they satisfy certain experimentally verifiable conditions. This result can be applied to prove the security of quantum key distribution based on weak coherent states or other continuous variable states against general attacks.

  10. De Finetti representation theorem for infinite-dimensional quantum systems and applications to quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Renner, R; Cirac, J I

    2009-03-20

    We show that the quantum de Finetti theorem holds for states on infinite-dimensional systems, provided they satisfy certain experimentally verifiable conditions. This result can be applied to prove the security of quantum key distribution based on weak coherent states or other continuous variable states against general attacks. PMID:19392183

  11. Stochastic control of infinite dimensional systems in Hilbert space: A factorization perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, Mark M.; Schumitzky, Alan

    1987-01-01

    A factorization perspective on problems of optimal causal estimation and optimal causal control of linear stochastic systems defined on an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space is presented. A separation principle is derived for the case in which the system input/output map is generated by an abstract evolution operator. The factorization formalism allows for an essentially algebraic approach to these problems.

  12. Local density approximation results for bond length alternation in the infinite polyyne chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylaska, Eric; Weare, John

    1998-03-01

    Calculations for large even numbered carbon ring molecules and band structure calculations for the infinite polyyne chain within the local density approximation are reported. We studied the alternation of bond lengths in this system as a function of size. Particular focus is on alternation in the infinite system. For intermediate and large sized Cn rings with n satisfying n=4N (doubly-antiaromatic rings) there is a substantial first order Jahn-Teller distortion which decreases for large N. On the other hand, for Cn rings satisfying n=4N+2 (doubly-aromatic rings) the second order Jahn-Teller distortion does not produce bond length alternation even by the large C_42 ring. The persistance of aromatic behavior in the very large carbon rings manifests itself in the band structure calculations by making the amount of bond length alternation predicted for the infinite polyyne chain extremely sensitive to the numerical treatment of the Brillouin zone. We have shown that the infinite polyyne has a finite amount of bond length alternation but the condensation energy is very small.

  13. Infinitives or Bare Stems? Are English-Speaking Children Defaulting to the Highest-Frequency Form?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räsänen, Sanna H. M.; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    Young English-speaking children often produce utterances with missing 3sg -s (e.g., *He play). Since the mid 1990s, such errors have tended to be treated as Optional Infinitive (OI) errors, in which the verb is a non-finite form (e.g., Wexler, 1998; Legate & Yang, 2007). The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional…

  14. Boundary effect on the elastic field of a semi-infinite solid containing inhomogeneities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y. J.; Song, G.; Yin, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The boundary effect of one inhomogeneity embedded in a semi-infinite solid at different depths has firstly been investigated using the fundamental solution for Mindlin's problem. Expanding the eigenstrain in a polynomial form and using the Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method, one can calculate the eigenstrain and thus obtain the elastic field. When the inhomogeneity is far from the boundary, the solution recovers Eshelby's solution. The method has been extended to a many-particle system in a semi-infinite solid, which is first demonstrated by the cases of two spheres. The comparison of the asymptotic form solution with the finite-element results shows the accuracy and capability of this method. The solution has been used to illustrate the boundary effects on its effective material behaviour of a semi-infinite simple cubic lattice particulate composite. The local field of a semi-infinite composite has been calculated at different volume fractions. A representative unit cell has been taken with different depths to the surface. The average stress and strain of the unit cell have been calculated under uniform loading conditions of normal or shear force on the surface, respectively. The effective elastic moduli of the unit cell not only depend on the material proportion, but also on its distance to the surface. The present model can be extended to other types of particle distribution and ellipsoidal particles. PMID:26345084

  15. Infinite statistics” and its two-parameter q-deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A. K.; Rajasekaran, G.

    1994-05-01

    We generalize Greenberg's q-mutator algebra for infinite statistics to the most general form invariant under unitary transformations in the indices and study its consequences. Constraints on the parameter space arising from the positivity of the metric in the underlying Fock space are obtained.

  16. Wavenumbers for currents on infinite- and finite-length wires in a chiral medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Burke, G.J.; Miller, E.K.

    1992-03-01

    There is increasing interest in determining the electromagnetic properties of material media differing from free space and the effects thereof on the radiation, propagation, and scattering of electromagnetic fields. A material property of special present interest is that of chirality. Chirality manifests itself as a ``handedness`` wherein a chiral medium does not support propagation of a linearly-polarized plane wave, but which instead decomposes into two circularly-polarized waves that propagate at different speeds. Initial work in this area was devoted to developing various analytical solutions to some basic problems such as the Green`s Dyadic for a point current source. Attention is now being increasingly devoted to using this early work for a variety of applications such as analyzing antennas in chiral media scattering from chiral objects; scattering from objects having chiral coatings; and reflection from planar chiral interfaces. The focus of the work described here is determining the wavenumbers (={minus}{alpha}{minus}j{beta}) of the current waves excited on wire antennas located in an infinite chiral medium using two complementary approaches. One is to use an extension of an existing computer model (NEC) that permits modeling of arbitrary wire objects located in an infinite chiral medium. The other is to develop a solution for an infinitely long cylindrical antenna also located in an infinite chiral medium. The latter canonical problem is of interest in its own right as well as providing a means for achieving mutual validation with the NEC model. 9 refs.

  17. Creating Visual Aids with Graphic Organisers on an Infinite Canvas--The Impact on the Presenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteleyn, Jordi; Mottart, Andre; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Instead of the traditional set of slides, the visual aids of a presentation can now be graphic organisers (concept maps, knowledge maps, mind maps) on an infinite canvas. Constructing graphic organisers has a beneficial impact on learning, but this topic has not been studied in the context of giving a presentation. The present study examined this…

  18. Subsonic Euler Flows with Large Vorticity Through an Infinitely Long Axisymmetric Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lili; Duan, Ben

    2016-04-01

    This paper is a sequel to the earlier work Du and Duan (J Diff Equ 250:813-847, 2011) on well-posedness of steady subsonic Euler flows through infinitely long three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles. In Du and Duan (J Diff Equ 250:813-847, 2011), the authors showed the existence and uniqueness of the global subsonic Euler flows through an infinitely long axisymmetric nozzle, when the variation of Bernoulli's function in the upstream is sufficiently small and the mass flux of the incoming flow is less than some critical value. The smallness of the variation of Bernoulli's function in the upstream prevents the attendance of the possible singularity in the nozzles, however, at the same time it also leads that the vorticity of the ideal flow is sufficiently small in the whole nozzle and the flows are indeed adjacent to axisymmetric potential flows. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the vorticity for the smooth subsonic ideal flows in infinitely long axisymmetric nozzles. We modify the formulation of the problem in the previous work Du and Duan (J Diff Equ 250:813-847, 2011) and the existence and uniqueness results on the smooth subsonic ideal polytropic flows in infinitely long axisymmetric nozzles without the restriction on the smallness of the vorticity are shown in this paper.

  19. Conceptually Driven and Visually Rich Tasks in Texts and Teaching Practice: The Case of Infinite Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Martin, Alejandro S.; Nardi, Elena; Biza, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The study we report here examines parts of what Chevallard calls the "institutional" dimension of the students' learning experience of a relatively under-researched, yet crucial, concept in Analysis, the concept of infinite series. In particular, we examine how the concept is introduced to students in texts and in teaching practice. To this…

  20. Subsonic Euler Flows with Large Vorticity Through an Infinitely Long Axisymmetric Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lili; Duan, Ben

    2016-09-01

    This paper is a sequel to the earlier work Du and Duan (J Diff Equ 250:813-847, 2011) on well-posedness of steady subsonic Euler flows through infinitely long three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles. In Du and Duan (J Diff Equ 250:813-847, 2011), the authors showed the existence and uniqueness of the global subsonic Euler flows through an infinitely long axisymmetric nozzle, when the variation of Bernoulli's function in the upstream is sufficiently small and the mass flux of the incoming flow is less than some critical value. The smallness of the variation of Bernoulli's function in the upstream prevents the attendance of the possible singularity in the nozzles, however, at the same time it also leads that the vorticity of the ideal flow is sufficiently small in the whole nozzle and the flows are indeed adjacent to axisymmetric potential flows. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the vorticity for the smooth subsonic ideal flows in infinitely long axisymmetric nozzles. We modify the formulation of the problem in the previous work Du and Duan (J Diff Equ 250:813-847, 2011) and the existence and uniqueness results on the smooth subsonic ideal polytropic flows in infinitely long axisymmetric nozzles without the restriction on the smallness of the vorticity are shown in this paper.

  1. Wavenumbers for currents on infinite- and finite-length wires in a chiral medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.K. ); Burke, G.J. ); Miller, E.K. )

    1992-01-01

    There is increasing interest in determining the electromagnetic properties of material media differing from free space and the effects thereof on the radiation, propagation, and scattering of electromagnetic fields. A material property of special present interest is that of chirality. Chirality manifests itself as a handedness'' wherein a chiral medium does not support propagation of a linearly-polarized plane wave, but which instead decomposes into two circularly-polarized waves that propagate at different speeds. Initial work in this area was devoted to developing various analytical solutions to some basic problems such as the Green's Dyadic for a point current source. Attention is now being increasingly devoted to using this early work for a variety of applications such as analyzing antennas in chiral media scattering from chiral objects; scattering from objects having chiral coatings; and reflection from planar chiral interfaces. The focus of the work described here is determining the wavenumbers (={minus}{alpha}{minus}j{beta}) of the current waves excited on wire antennas located in an infinite chiral medium using two complementary approaches. One is to use an extension of an existing computer model (NEC) that permits modeling of arbitrary wire objects located in an infinite chiral medium. The other is to develop a solution for an infinitely long cylindrical antenna also located in an infinite chiral medium. The latter canonical problem is of interest in its own right as well as providing a means for achieving mutual validation with the NEC model. 9 refs.

  2. The Interface between Neighborhood Density and Optional Infinitives: Normal Development and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Jill R.; Storkel, Holly L.; Rice, Mabel L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of neighborhood density on optional infinitives was evaluated for typically developing (TD) children and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Forty children, twenty in each group, completed two production tasks that assessed third person singular production. Half of the sentences in each task presented a dense verb, and…

  3. Acoustic transmission through a 2-D orthotropic multi-layered infinite cylindrical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, A.; Lesueur, C.

    1992-05-01

    An investigation is presented of the transmission loss of two-dimensional orthotropic multilayered infinite cylindrical shells. Equations of motion are established by using a variational displacement formulation; these equations remain unchanged in form whatever the number of layers. Numerical results are presented illustrating the influence of acoustic and structural parameters on the transmission loss.

  4. Infinite face-centered-cubic network of identical resistors: Application to lattice Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asad, J. H.; Diab, A. A.; Hijjawi, R. S.; Khalifeh, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The equivalent resistance between the origin and any other lattice site, in an infinite face-centered-cubic network consisting of identical resistors, has been expressed rationally in terms of the known value f_o(3;0,0,0) and π . The asymptotic behavior is investigated, and some calculated values for the equivalent resistance are presented.

  5. An Introduction to Differentials Based on Hyperreal Numbers and Infinite Microscopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we propose to introduce the differential of a function through a non-classical way, lying on hyperreals and infinite microscopes. This approach is based on the developments of nonstandard analysis, wants to be more intuitive than the classical one and tries to emphasize the functional and geometric aspects of the differential. In…

  6. Stray light analysis of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breault, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The straylight analysis of the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) on the cosmic background explorer (COBE) mission is discussed. From the statement of work (SOW), the purpose of DIRBE is to measure, or set upper limits on, the spectral and spatial character of the diffuse extra galactic infrared radiation. Diffuse infrared sources within our own galaxy are measured. The required reduction of the unwanted radiation imposes severe design and operating restrictions on the DIRBE instrument. To accomplish its missions, it will operate at a multitude of wavelengths ranging from 1.25 um out to 200 to 300 microns. The operating bands and the required point source normalized irradiance transmittance (PSNIT) are shown. The important straylight concepts in the DIRBE design are reviewed. The model and assumptions used in APART analysis are explained. The limitations due to the scalar theory used in the analysis are outlined.

  7. Nanowire-based frequency-selective capacitive photodetector for resonant detection of infrared radiation at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, Saumil

    2014-07-14

    Characteristics of a capacitive infrared photodetector that works at room temperature by registering a change in capacitance upon illumination are reported. If used in an ideal resonant inductor-resistor-capacitor circuit, it can exhibit zero dark current, zero standby power dissipation, infinite detectivity, and infinite light-to-dark contrast ratio. It is also made frequency-selective by employing semiconductor nanowires that selectively absorb photons of energies close to the nanowire's bandgap. Based on measured parameters, the normalized detectivity is estimated to be ∼3 × 10{sup 7} Jones for 1.6 μm IR wavelength at room temperature.

  8. Merged infrared catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, M.; Brown, L. W.; Mead, J. M.; Nagy, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation of equatorial coordinates, spectral types, magnitudes, and fluxes from five catalogues of infrared observations is presented. This first edition of the Merged Infrared Catalogue contains 11,201 oservations from the Two-Micron Sky Survey, Observations of Infrared Radiation from Cool Stars, the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory four Color Infrared Sky Survey and its Supplemental Catalog, and from Catalog of 10 micron Celestial Objects (HALL). This compilation is a by-product of a computerized infrared data base under development at Goddard Space Flight Center; the objective is to maintain a complete and current record of all infrared observations from 1 micron m to 1000 micron m of nonsolar system objects. These observations are being placed into a standardized system.

  9. Infrared in automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predmesky, Ronald L.; Zaluzec, Matthew J.

    1997-04-01

    As the automotive industry continues to develop advanced materials and manufacturing processes, infrared imaging has the potential to become a major tool in process monitoring and closed loop process control. This paper reviews five novel applications of infrared imaging in applications such as product testing, component manufacture, and vehicle assembly. Infrared was found to be effective as a diagnostics tool for characterizing disc brake systems and electronic engine control sensors. The effectiveness of infrared to qualify fuel nozzle backspray was used to optimize hardware design for fuel systems. Finally, infrared was found to be useful in vehicle assembly operations in the installation of windshield glass and instrument panel hardware where visual inspection was impractical. The speed of image capture and the availability of image processing software for real time image processing and closed loop process control will no doubt find more applications as infrared imaging finds its niche in the automotive industry.

  10. DISSIPATION AND EXTRA LIGHT IN GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. 'CUSP' ELLIPTICALS

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Cox, Thomas J.; Dutta, Suvendra N.; Hernquist, Lars; Kormendy, John; Lauer, Tod R.

    2009-03-15

    We study the origin and properties of 'extra' or 'excess' central light in the surface brightness profiles of cusp or power-law elliptical galaxies. Dissipational mergers give rise to two-component profiles: an outer profile established by violent relaxation acting on stars already present in the progenitor galaxies prior to the final stages of the merger, and an inner stellar population comprising the extra light, formed in a compact central starburst. By combining a large set of hydrodynamical simulations with data that span a broad range of profiles at various masses, we show that observed cusp ellipticals appear consistent with the predicted 'extra light' structure, and we use our simulations to motivate a two-component description of the observations that allows us to examine how the properties and mass of this component scale with, e.g., the mass, gas content, and other properties of the galaxies. We show how to robustly separate the physically meaningful extra light and outer, violently relaxed profile, and demonstrate that the observed cusps and 'extra light' are reliable tracers of the degree of dissipation in the spheroid-forming merger. We show that the typical degree of dissipation is a strong function of stellar mass, roughly tracing the observed gas fractions of disks of the same mass over the redshift range z {approx} 0-2. We demonstrate a correlation between the strength of this component and effective radius at fixed mass, in the sense that systems with more dissipation are more compact, sufficient to explain the discrepancy in the maximum phase-space and mass densities of ellipticals and their progenitor spirals. We show that the outer shape of the light profile in simulated and observed systems (when fit to properly account for the central light) does not depend on mass, with a mean outer Sersic index {approx}2.5. We also explore how this relates to, e.g., the shapes, kinematic properties, and stellar population gradients of ellipticals. Extra

  11. Optical and infrared masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Ongoing research progress in the following areas is described: (1) tunable infrared light sources and applications; (2) precision frequency and wavelength measurements in the infrared with applications to atomic clocks; (3) zero-degree pulse propagation in resonant medium; (4) observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas; (5) unidirectional laser amplifier with built-in isolator; and (6) progress in infrared metal-to-metal point contact tunneling diodes.

  12. Early infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2009-07-01

    I present a short history of infrared astronomy, from the first scientific approaches of the ‘radiant heat’ in the seventeenth century to the 1970's, the time when space infrared astronomy was developing very rapidly. The beginning of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy is also covered. As the progress of infrared astronomy was strongly dependent on detectors, some details are given on their development.

  13. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  14. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  15. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed.

  16. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed.

  17. Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The infrared astronomical data base and its principal data product, the catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), comprise a machine readable library of infrared (1 microns to 1000 microns astronomical observations. To date, over 1300 journal articles and 10 major survey catalogs are included in this data base, which contains about 55,000 individual observations of about 10,000 different infrared sources. Of these, some 8,000 sources are identifiable with visible objects, and about 2,000 do not have known visible counterparts.

  18. Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-05-01

    The infrared astronomical data base and its principal data product, the catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), comprise a machine readable library of infrared (1 microns to 1000 microns astronomical observations. To date, over 1300 journal articles and 10 major survey catalogs are included in this data base, which contains about 55,000 individual observations of about 10,000 different infrared sources. Of these, some 8,000 sources are identifiable with visible objects, and about 2,000 do not have known visible counterparts.

  19. Dark energy, scalar-tensor gravity, and large extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Sunhede, Daniel

    2006-04-15

    We explore in detail a dilatonic scalar-tensor theory of gravity inspired by large extra dimensions, where a radion field from compact extra dimensions gives rise to quintessence in our 4-dimensional world. We show that the model can give rise to other types of cosmologies as well, some more akin to k-essence and possibly variants of phantom dark energy. In our model the field (or radius) stabilization arises from quantum corrections to the effective 4D Ricci scalar. We then show that various constraints nearly determine the model parameters, and give an example of a quintessence-type cosmology consistent with observations. We show that the upcoming SNAP-experiment would easily distinguish the present model from a constant {lambda} model with an equal amount of dark energy, but that the SNAP-data alone will not be able distinguish it from a {lambda} model with about 5% less dark energy.

  20. Extra-Renal Manifestations of Complement-Mediated Thrombotic Microangiopathies

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Johannes; Rosales, Alejandra; Fischer, Caroline; Giner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are rare but severe disorders, characterized by endothelial cell activation and thrombus formation leading to hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ failure. Complement over activation in combination with defects in its regulation is described in an increasing number of TMA and if primary for the disease denominated as atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Although TMA predominantly affects the renal microvasculature, extra-renal manifestations are observed in 20% of patients including involvement of the central nerve system, cardiovascular system, lungs, skin, skeletal muscle, and gastrointestinal tract. Prompt diagnosis and treatment initiation are therefore crucial for the prognosis of disease acute phase and the long-term outcome. This review summarizes the available evidence on extra-renal TMA manifestations and discusses the role of acute and chronic complement activation by highlighting its complex interaction with inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial homeostasis. PMID:25250305

  1. [The place of extra-corporeal oxygenation in pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Le Guen, M; Parquin, F

    2015-04-01

    Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) effectively replaces the lung in providing oxygenation and carbon dioxide (CO2) removal. For some years, and in parallel to the H1N1 influenza pandemic, this technique has gained interest in relation to significant technological improvements, leading to new concepts of "awake and mobile ECMO" or rehabilitation with ECMO. Finally, the publication of randomized controlled trials giving encouraging results in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has helped to validate this technique and further studies are warranted. This general review aims to outline the definition, classification and principles of ECMO and to give some current information about the indications and possibilities of the technique to the pulmonologist and intensivist. Further possible uses for this technique include extra-corporeal removal of CO2 during hypercapnic respiratory failure and assistance during lung transplantation from the preoperative to the early postoperative period.

  2. Extra dimensions and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gozdz, Marek; Kaminski, Wieslaw A.; Faessler, Amand

    2005-05-01

    The neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the few phenomena, belonging to the nonstandard physics, which is extensively being sought for in experiments. In the present paper the link between the half-life of the neutrinoless double beta decay and theories with large extra dimensions is explored. The use of the sensitivities of currently planned 0{nu}2{beta} experiments: DAMA, CANDLES, COBRA, DCBA, CAMEO, GENIUS, GEM, MAJORANA, MOON, CUORE, EXO, and XMASS, gives the possibility for a nondirect 'experimental' verification of various extra dimensional scenarios. We discuss also the results of the Heidelberg-Moscow Collaboration. The calculations are based on the Majorana neutrino mass generation mechanism in the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model.

  3. The effect of the infrared phase of the discrete BFKL pomeron on transverse momentum diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Douglas A.; Vera, Agustín Sabio

    2016-08-01

    Imposing infrared boundary conditions on the BFKL equation with running coupling transforms the complex momentum ω-plane cut present in the gluon Green function into an infinite series of positive Regge poles. In addition, a cut on the negative ω line remains. We consider a Hermitian kernel at leading order with running coupling and construct the gluon Green function performing the ω integration away from the real axis. We find a strong dependence of the asymptotic intercepts and collinear behaviour on the non-perturbative choice of the boundary conditions, in the form of an infrared phase. This is particularly manifest in the asymmetric infrared/ultraviolet structure of the associated diffusion in transverse momentum. We find that random walks into the infrared region are largely reduced in this approach.

  4. Precision Radial Velocities in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Hugh

    2007-08-01

    The Precision Radial Velocity Spectrometer (PRVS) is designed to provide high throughput Doppler reflex measurements. PRVS is designed to always be available and provide 1.0 to 1.8 micron high-resolution spectroscopy with very high stability over several years. We have constructed models simulating likely candidates and demonstrated the ability to recover exoplanetary RV signals in the infrared. We have conducted limited experiments with a brass-board instrument to explore real-world issues yielding precisions of better than 10 m/s. We are thus confident that PRVS can provide for the detection of terrestrial-mass extra-solar planets in the habitable zones of low-mass stars. PRVS is scheduled to be the next ASPEN-process instrument for the Gemini telescopes and if funded in 2007 first light is expected by 2011.

  5. Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) review of a lifesaving technology

    PubMed Central

    Makdisi, George

    2015-01-01

    Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) indications and usage has strikingly progressed over the last 20 years; it has become essential tool in the care of adults and children with severe cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction refractory to conventional management. In this article we will provide a review of ECMO development, clinical indications, patients’ management, options and cannulations techniques, complications, outcomes, and the appropriate strategy of organ management while on ECMO. PMID:26380745

  6. Exploring the universal extra dimension at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Datta, Anindya; Majee, Swarup Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2009-11-01

    Besides supersymmetry, the other prime candidate of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), crying out for verification at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is extra-dimension. To hunt for effects of Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of known fermions and bosons is very much in the agenda of the LHC. These KK states arise when the SM particles penetrate in the extra space-like dimension(s). In this paper, we consider a 5d scenario, called 'Universal Extra Dimension', where the extra space coordinate, compactified on an orbifold S/Z, is accessed by all the particles. The KK number ( n) is conserved at all tree level vertices. This entails the production of KK states in pairs and renders the lightest KK particle stable, which leaves the detector carrying away missing energy. The splitting between different KK flavors is controlled by the zero mode masses and the bulk- and brane-induced one-loop radiative corrections. We concentrate on the production of an n=1 KK electroweak gauge boson in association with an n=1 KK quark. This leads to a signal consisting of only one jet, one or more leptons and missing p. For definiteness we usually choose the inverse radius of compactification to be R=500 GeV, which sets the scale of the lowest lying KK states. We show on a case-by-case basis (depending on the number of leptons in the final state) that with 10 fb -1 integrated luminosity at the LHC with √{s}=14 TeV this signal can be detected over the SM background by imposing appropriate kinematic cuts. We record some of the expectations for a possible intermediate LHC run at √{s}=10 TeV and also exhibit the integrated luminosity required to obtain a 5 σ signal as a function of R.

  7. Extra Dimensions in Photon or Jet plus Missing Transverse Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cardaci, Marco

    2010-02-10

    Recent studies of the CMS collaboration are presented on the sensitivity to searches for large (ADD) extra dimensions in channels with missing transverse energy (MET), i.e. the channels jets plus MET and photon plus MET. These studies are based on detailed detector simulation, including all Standard Model backgrounds. Particular emphasis is given to possible early discoveries, i.e. with 100 pb{sup -1} or less. Projected 95% CL exclusion limits as function of luminosity are presented as well.

  8. Detecting the polarization signatures of extra-solar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, J. H.; Lucas, P. W.; Bailey, J. A.; Tamura, M.; Hirst, E.

    2006-06-01

    Direct detection of the light scattered from extra-solar planets is important in establishing the planet's mass, radius, albedo and nature of the particles in the planetary atmosphere. We describe, and present results from, a new optical polarimeter (PlanetPol) designed to reach fractional polarizations of 10 -6 or better from ground-based telescopes, necessary to detect the polarization signature of unresolved hot-Jupiters.

  9. The Merits of Giving an Extra Credit Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Ryall

    2014-01-01

    In the past, Ryall Carroll struggled to get students to arrive on time, read the material in advance of the class, and to start class on topic. In an attempt to address these issues, he started implementing an extra-credit two-question quiz at the beginning of every class, hoping it would provide a small incentive for students to at least come on…

  10. Extra phalangeal crease - A trait in forensic identification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bahadur; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2015-10-01

    In the past, many biological, anthropological and forensic studies have been conducted on variations in finger and palm ridge patterns, however, finger crease patterns have not received much attention in the literature. The photocase shows an obvious extra phalangeal crease in the little finger as an extremely rarely reported characteristic. Similar unique characteristics need to be reported for their rarity and significance in forensic investigations.

  11. Effect of extra dimensions on gravitational waves from cosmic strings.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Eimear; Chadburn, Sarah; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Gregory, Ruth; Zavala, Ivonne

    2010-08-20

    We show how the motion of cosmic superstrings in extra dimensions can modify the gravitational wave signal from cusps. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, as well as reducing the probability of their formation, and thus give a significant dimension dependent damping of the gravitational waves. We look at the implication of this effect for LIGO and LISA, as well as commenting on more general frequency bands. PMID:20868089

  12. 17. NBS TOOL ROOM. MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS USED DURING EXTRA VEHICULAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. NBS TOOL ROOM. MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS USED DURING EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) MISSIONS AND NBS TRAINING. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT THE TOOLS ARE: SHUTTLE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (STS) PORTABLE FOOT RESTRAINT (PFR), ESSEX WRENCH, SOCKET WRENCH, SAFETY TETHER REEL (LEFT REAR), MINI WORKSTATION (CENTER REAR), TETHERS (FRONT CENTER), HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST) POWER TOOL (FRONT RIGHT), HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE & PORTABLE FOOT RESTRAINT (REAR RIGHT). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. Extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and function.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Radwa; Oakley, Oliver; Kim, Heehyen; Jin, Jooyoung; Ko, CheMyong Jay

    2016-09-01

    Estrogens are the key hormones regulating the development and function of reproductive organs in all vertebrates. Recent evidence indicates that estrogens play important roles in the immune system, cancer development, and other critical biological processes related to human well-being. Obviously, the gonads (ovary and testis) are the primary sites of estrogen synthesis, but estrogens synthesized in extra- gonadal sites play an equally important role in controlling biological activities. Understanding non-gonadal sites of estrogen synthesis and function is crucial and will lead to therapeutic interventions targeting estrogen signaling in disease prevention and treatment. Developing a rationale targeting strategy remains challenging because knowledge of extra-gonadal biosynthesis of estrogens, and the mechanism by which estrogen activity is exerted, is very limited. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries of extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and their local functions and discuss the significance of the most recent novel discovery of intestinal estrogen biosynthesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 488-496]. PMID:27530684

  14. Preoperative Embolization of Extra-axial Hypervascular Tumors with Onyx

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Matthew R.; Salem, Mohamed M.; Reddy, Arra S.; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Thomas, Ajith J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preoperative endovascular embolization of intracranial tumors is performed to mitigate anticipated intraoperative blood loss. Although the usage of a wide array of embolic agents, particularly polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), has been described for a variety of tumors, literature detailing the efficacy, safety and complication rates for the usage of Onyx is relatively sparse. Materials and Methods We reviewed our single institutional experience with pre-surgical Onyx embolization of extra-axial tumors to evaluate its efficacy and safety and highlight nuances of individualized cases. Results Five patients underwent pre-surgical Onyx embolization of large or giant extra-axial tumors within 24 hours of surgical resection. Four patients harbored falcine or convexity meningiomas (grade I in 2 patients, grade II in 1 patient and grade III in one patient), and one patient had a grade II hemangiopericytoma. Embolization proceeded uneventfully in all cases and there were no complications. Conclusion This series augments the expanding literature confirming the safety and efficacy of Onyx in the preoperative embolization of extra-axial tumors, underscoring its advantage of being able to attain extensive devascularization via only one supplying pedicle. PMID:27114961

  15. An Extra Push from Entrance-Channel Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Grar, Nabila; Rowley, Neil

    2006-08-14

    The fusion probability for heavy symmetric systems is known to show certain very specific features. Apart from the large variance of the fusion barrier distribution, it is found that the energy at which the s-wave transmission is 0.5 is shifted to an energy significantly higher than the nominal (e.g. Bass) Coulomb barrier. This last feature is referred to in the literature as the 'extra push' effect. Many models have been devised to explain the origin of these findings. It is worth noting, however, that despite the extra push, the capture cross section is still greatly enhanced at the very lowest energies. This fact cannot be explained within the framework of macroscopic theories involving conditional saddle points or frictional forces. We have performed full coupled-channel calculations for heavy, symmetric systems treating correctly the long-range Coulomb excitations of the collective quadrupole- and octupole-phonon states in the target and projectile. The results obtained show that the extra push and the overall shape of the fusion probability are simply explained by these entrance-channel effects.

  16. Extra-Neural Metastases of Malignant Gliomas: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Beauchesne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas account for approximately 60% of all primary brain tumors in adults. Prognosis for these patients has not significantly changed in recent years— despite debulking surgery, radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy—with a median survival of 9–12 months. Virtually no patients are cured of their illness. Malignant gliomas are usually locally invasive tumors, though extra-neural metastases can sometimes occur late in the course of the disease (median of two years). They generally appear after craniotomy although spontaneous metastases have also been reported. The incidence of these metastases from primary intra-cranial malignant gliomas is low; it is estimated at less than 2% of all cases. Extra-neural metastases from gliomas frequently occur late in the course of the disease (median of two years), and generally appear after craniotomy, but spontaneous metastases have also been reported. Malignant glioma metastases usually involve the regional lymph nodes, lungs and pleural cavity, and occasionally the bone and liver. In this review, we present three cases of extra-neural metastasis of malignant gliomas from our department, summarize the main reported cases in literature, and try to understand the mechanisms underlying these systemic metastases. PMID:24212625

  17. Signatures from an extra-dimensional seesaw model

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Melbeus, Henrik; Ohlsson, Tommy; Zhang He

    2010-08-15

    We study the generation of small neutrino masses in an extra-dimensional model, where singlet fermions are allowed to propagate in the extra dimension, while the standard model particles are confined to a brane. Motivated by the fact that extra-dimensional models are nonrenormalizable, we truncate the Kaluza-Klein towers at a maximal Kaluza-Klein number. This truncation, together with the structure of the bulk Majorana mass term, motivated by the Sherk-Schwarz mechanism, implies that the Kaluza-Klein modes of the singlet fermions pair to form Dirac fermions, except for a number of unpaired Majorana fermions at the top of each tower. These heavy Majorana fermions are the only sources of lepton number breaking in the model, and similarly to the type-I seesaw mechanism, they naturally generate small masses for the left-handed neutrinos. The lower Kaluza-Klein modes mix with the light neutrinos, and the mixing effects are not suppressed with respect to the light-neutrino masses. Compared to conventional fermionic seesaw models, such mixing can be more significant. We study the signals of this model at the Large Hadron Collider, and find that the current low-energy bounds on the nonunitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix are strong enough to exclude an observation.

  18. Helical cosmological magnetic fields from extra-dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmjeet, Kumar; Seshadri, T. R.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2015-05-01

    We study the inflationary generation of helical cosmological magnetic fields in a higher-dimensional generalization of the electromagnetic theory. For this purpose, we also include a parity breaking piece to the electromagnetic action. The evolution of an extra-dimensional scale factor allows the breaking of conformal invariance of the effective electromagnetic action in 1 +3 dimensions required for such generation. Analytical solutions for the vector potential can be obtained in terms of Coulomb wave-functions for some special cases. We also present numerical solutions for the vector potential evolution in more general cases. In the presence of a higher-dimensional cosmological constant there exist solutions for the scale factors in which both normal and extra dimensional space either inflate or deflate simultaneously with the same rate. In such a scenario, with the number of extra dimensions D =4 , a scale invariant spectrum of helical magnetic field is obtained. The net helicity arises, as one helical mode comes to dominate over the other at the superhorizon scales. A magnetic field strength of the order of 10-9 G can be obtained for the inflationary scale H ≃1 0-3 Mpl . Weaker fields will be generated for lower scales of inflation. Magnetic fields generated in this model respects the bounds on magnetic fields by Planck and γ -ray observations (i.e., 10-16 G

  19. 7 CFR 51.560 - U.S. Extra No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Grades § 51.560 U.S. Extra No. 1. “U.S. Extra No. 1” consists of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are well...

  20. 7 CFR 51.560 - U.S. Extra No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Grades § 51.560 U.S. Extra No. 1. “U.S. Extra No. 1” consists of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are well...

  1. Exhibition of structural flexibility of the infinite layer framework of the prototype compound Ca{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 2} prepared under ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kiruthika, G.V.M. . E-mail: gvmk@tifr.res.in; Varadaraju, U.V.

    2005-09-01

    The infinite layer compound Ca{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 2} has been synthesized by the sol-gel technique using the acetate gel route. The compound is found to be single-phasic as evidenced from the powder X-ray and electron diffraction measurements. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of homogenous stoichiometric phase pertaining to the composition Ca{sub 0.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 2}. High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) studies reveal interesting defects in the infinite layer frame work of the system. Apart from the usual strain and shear induced defects observed in the lattice, which is common among the perovskite compounds, the main finding is the defect along [0 1 0], occurring due to the intercalation of extra AO layer in the CuO{sub 2} plane. Such a defect is accommodated in the lattice by the increase in the interplanar distance (which is basically the c-axis parameter) from 3.2 to 3.4 A in the defective layer. This implies the formation of square pyramidal oxygen co-ordination of copper at the defect site.

  2. The Infrared Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habing, Harm J.; Neugebauer, Gerry

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is a survey instrument that has provided an overall view of the infrared sky and identified objects that merit further investigation. A description of the IRAS and examples of the types of astronomical data collected are presented. (JN)

  3. Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Phillip

    1982-01-01

    Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

  4. 7 CFR 51.881 - U.S. Extra Fancy Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Export. 51.881 Section 51.881... Vinifera Type) 1 Grades § 51.881 U.S. Extra Fancy Export. “U.S. Extra Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the requirements for U.S. Extra Fancy Table and, in addition, meet the packaging...

  5. 7 CFR 51.881 - U.S. Extra Fancy Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Export. 51.881 Section 51.881... U.S. Extra Fancy Export. “U.S. Extra Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the requirements for U.S. Extra Fancy Table and, in addition, meet the packaging requirements set forth in § 51.911....

  6. 7 CFR 51.881 - U.S. Extra Fancy Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Export. 51.881 Section 51.881... U.S. Extra Fancy Export. “U.S. Extra Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the requirements for U.S. Extra Fancy Table and, in addition, meet the packaging requirements set forth in § 51.911....

  7. 7 CFR 51.881 - U.S. Extra Fancy Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Export. 51.881 Section 51.881... Vinifera Type) 1 Grades § 51.881 U.S. Extra Fancy Export. “U.S. Extra Fancy Export” consists of grapes which meet the requirements for U.S. Extra Fancy Table and, in addition, meet the packaging...

  8. Analysis of monotectic growth: infinite diffusion in the L 2 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coriell, S. R.; Mitchell, W. F.; Murray, B. T.; Andrews, J. B.; Arikawa, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The Jackson-Hunt model of eutectic solidification is applied to monotectic solidification in which a liquid (L 1) transforms into rods of a different liquid (L 2) in a solid matrix. Limiting cases of no diffusion and infinite diffusion (complete mixing) in the L 2 phase are considered. An adaptive refinement and multigrid algorithm (MGGHAT) is used to obtain numerical solutions for the concentration field in the L 1 phase; this allows consideration of a general phase diagram. Density differences between the three phases, which cause fluid flow, are treated approximately. Specific calculations are carried out for aluminum-indium alloys. Infinite diffusion in the L 2 phase has only a small effect on the relationship between interface undercooling and rod spacing.

  9. Exponential stability of states close to resonance in infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambusi, Dario; Giorgilli, Antonio

    1993-05-01

    We develop canonical perturbation theory for a physically interesting class of infinite-dimensional systems. We prove stability up to exponentially large times for dynamical situations characterized by a finite number of frequencies. An application to two model problems is also made. For an arbitrarily large FPU-like system with alternate light and heavy masses we prove that the exchange of energy between the optical and the acoustical modes is frozen up to exponentially large times, provided the total energy is small enough. For an infinite chain of weakly coupled rotators we prove exponential stability for two kinds of initial data: (a) states with a finite number of excited rotators, and (b) states with the left part of the chain uniformly excited and the right part at rest.

  10. Towards understanding the ultraviolet behavior of quantum loops in infinite-derivative theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaganis, Spyridon; Biswas, Tirthabir; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we will consider quantum aspects of a non-local, infinite-derivative scalar field theory—a toy model depiction of a covariant infinite-derivative, non-local extension of Einstein’s general relativity which has previously been shown to be free from ghosts around the Minkowski background. The graviton propagator in this theory gets an exponential suppression making it asymptotically free, thus providing strong prospects of resolving various classical and quantum divergences. In particular, we will find that at one loop, the two-point function is still divergent, but once this amplitude is renormalized by adding appropriate counter terms, the ultraviolet behavior of all other one-loop diagrams as well as the two-loop, two-point function remains well under control. We will go on to discuss how one may be able to generalize our computations and arguments to arbitrary loops.

  11. Direct observation of infinite NiO2 planes in LaNiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Ai; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Irie, Hiroshi; Naito, Michio; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    Epitaxial thin films of LaNiO2, which is an oxygen-deficient perovskite with “infinite layers” of Ni1+O2, were prepared by a low-temperature reduction of LaNiO3 single-crystal films on NdGaO3 substrates. We report the high-angle annular dark-field and bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy observations of infinite NiO2 planes of c-axis-oriented LaNiO2 epitaxial thin films with a layer stacking sequence of NiO2/La/NiO2. Resistivity measurements on the films show T 2 dependence between 400 and 150 K and a negative Hall coefficient.

  12. Calculating alpha Eigenvalues in a Continuous-Energy Infinite Medium with Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Betzler, Benjamin R.; Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Brown, Forrest B.; Martin, William R.

    2012-09-04

    The {alpha} eigenvalue has implications for time-dependent problems where the system is sub- or supercritical. We present methods and results from calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum for a continuous-energy infinite medium with a simplified Monte Carlo transport code. We formulate the {alpha}-eigenvalue problem, detail the Monte Carlo code physics, and provide verification and results. We have a method for calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum in a continuous-energy infinite-medium. The continuous-time Markov process described by the transition rate matrix provides a way of obtaining the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum and kinetic modes. These are useful for the approximation of the time dependence of the system.

  13. Weak coupling expansion of Yang-Mills theory on recursive infinite genus surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Debashis; Imbimbo, Camillo; Kumar, Dushyant

    2014-10-01

    We analyze the partition function of two dimensional Yang-Mills theory on a family of surfaces of infinite genus. These surfaces have a recursive structure, which was used by one of us to compute the partition function that results in a generalized Migdal formula. In this paper we study the `small area' (weak coupling) expansion of the partition function, by exploiting the fact that the generalized Migdal formula is analytic in the (complexification of the) Euler characteristic. The structure of the perturbative part of the weak coupling expansion suggests that the moduli space of flat connections (of the SU(2) and SO(3) theories) on these infinite genus surfaces are well defined, perhaps in an appropriate regularization.

  14. Semi-infinite jellium: Thermodynamic potential, chemical potential, and surface energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrobij, P. P.; Markovych, B. M.

    2015-08-01

    A general expression for the thermodynamic potential of the model of semi-infinite jellium is obtained. By using this expression, the surface energy for the infinite barrier model is calculated. The behavior of the surface energy and of the chemical potential as functions of the Wigner-Seitz radius and the influence of the Coulomb interaction between electrons on the calculated values is studied. It is shown that taking into account the Coulomb interaction between electrons leads to growth of the surface energy. The surface energy is positive in the entire area of the Wigner-Seitz radius. It is shown that taking into account the Coulomb interaction between electrons leads to a decrease of the chemical potential.

  15. Multiple scattering of polarized light in turbid infinite planes: Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Soichi

    2016-05-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed for infinite plane media containing spherical particles of different sizes. Most of the features of the surface plots for the elements of the effective scattering Mueller matrices are explained by the azimuthal dependence of the matrix predicted according to the theory of Raković et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 3399 (1999)10.1364/AO.38.003399APOPAI1559-128X]. The reduced effective scattering Mueller matrices calculated according to the theory have eight nonzero elements, which are only dependent on the distance from the illumination point. The reduced matrices are factorized approximately into products of a depolarizer and retarding diattenuators. The turbid infinite plane media nearly behave as a pure depolarizer at long distances and become more diattenuating and birefringent with decreasing distance.

  16. Electro-magneto-thermo-elastic response of infinite functionally graded cylinders without energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkour, Ashraf M.; Abbas, Ibrahim A.

    2015-12-01

    The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of an infinite functionally graded (FG) hollow cylinder is studied in the context of Green-Naghdi's (G-N) generalized thermoelasticity theory (without energy dissipation). Material properties are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a novel power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. The inner surface of the FG cylinder is pure metal whereas the outer surface is pure ceramic. The equations of motion and the heat-conduction equation are used to derive the governing second-order differential equations. A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. The system of differential equations is solved numerically and some plots for displacement, radial and electromagnetic stresses, and temperature are presented. The radial displacement, mechanical stresses and temperature as well as the electromagnetic stress are all investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder.

  17. Numerical Solution of a Plane Jet Impingement on an Infinite Flat Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, S.; Irfan, Nagma

    2015-03-01

    In this paper numerical solution of the unsteady plane incompressible viscous jet impinging on to an infinite flat surface are presented for Re=450. In the present study, all calculations have been done by using Dufort Frankel scheme and over relaxation scheme. Result and graphs have been obtained by using MATLAB programming. The obtained results explain the flow of water after exhaling from nozzle and the streamlines and vorticity of flow ofwater after striking with flat infinite surface. The solutions obtained by proposed method indicate that this approach is easy to implement and computationally very attractive and the results of our investigation are in qualitative agreement with those available in the literature [1, 9]. This method is capable of greatly reducing the size of calculations while still maintaining high accuracy of the numerical solution.

  18. MARKOV: A methodology for the solution of infinite time horizon MARKOV decision processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Algorithms are described for determining optimal policies for finite state, finite action, infinite discrete time horizon Markov decision processes. Both value-improvement and policy-improvement techniques are used in the algorithms. Computing procedures are also described. The algorithms are appropriate for processes that are either finite or infinite, deterministic or stochastic, discounted or undiscounted, in any meaningful combination of these features. Computing procedures are described in terms of initial data processing, bound improvements, process reduction, and testing and solution. Application of the methodology is illustrated with an example involving natural resource management. Management implications of certain hypothesized relationships between mallard survival and harvest rates are addressed by applying the optimality procedures to mallard population models.

  19. Time regularity and long-time behavior of parabolic p-Laplace equations on infinite graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Bobo; Mugnolo, Delio

    2015-12-01

    We consider the so-called discrete p-Laplacian, a nonlinear difference operator that acts on functions defined on the nodes of a possibly infinite graph. We study the corresponding Cauchy problem and identify the generator of the associated nonlinear semigroups. We prove higher order time regularity of the solutions. We investigate the long-time behavior of the solutions and discuss in particular finite extinction time and conservation of mass. Namely, on one hand, for small p if an infinite graph satisfies some isoperimetric inequality, then the solution to the parabolic p-Laplace equation vanishes in finite time; on the other hand, for large p, these parabolic p-Laplace equations always enjoy conservation of mass.

  20. Option pricing for stochastic volatility model with infinite activity Lévy jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaoli; Zhuang, Xintian

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply the stochastic volatility model driven by infinite activity Lévy processes to option pricing which displays infinite activity jumps behaviors and time varying volatility that is consistent with the phenomenon observed in underlying asset dynamics. We specially pay attention to three typical Lévy processes that replace the compound Poisson jumps in Bates model, aiming to capture the leptokurtic feature in asset returns and volatility clustering effect in returns variance. By utilizing the analytical characteristic function and fast Fourier transform technique, the closed form formula of option pricing can be derived. The intelligent global optimization search algorithm called Differential Evolution is introduced into the above highly dimensional models for parameters calibration so as to improve the calibration quality of fitted option models. Finally, we perform empirical researches using both time series data and options data on financial markets to illustrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  1. Critical behavior of models with infinite disorder at a star junction of chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhász, Róbert

    2014-08-01

    We study two models having an infinite-disorder critical point—the zero temperature random transverse-field Ising model and the random contact process—on a star-like network composed of M semi-infinite chains connected to a common central site. By the strong disorder renormalization group method, the scaling dimension xM of the local order parameter at the junction is calculated. It is found to decrease rapidly with the number M of arms, but remains positive for any finite M. This means that, in contrast with the pure transverse-field Ising model, where the transition becomes of first order for M > 2, it remains continuous in the disordered models, although, for not too small M, it is hardly distinguishable from a discontinuous one owing to a close-to-zero xM. The scaling behavior of the order parameter in the Griffiths-McCoy phase is also analyzed.

  2. Uniform and weak stability of Bresse system with two infinite memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesmia, Aissa; Kirane, Mokhtar

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we consider one-dimensional linear Bresse systems in a bounded open domain under Dirichlet-Neumann-Neumann boundary conditions with two infinite memories acting only on two equations. First, we establish the well-posedness in the sense of semigroup theory. Then, we prove two (uniform and weak) decay estimates depending on the speeds of wave propagations, the smoothness of initial data and the arbitrarily growth at infinity of the two relaxation functions.

  3. A version of the infinite-dimensional Borsuk-Ulam theorem for multivalued maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gel'man, B. D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the proof of the infinite-dimensional Borsuk-Ulam theorem for odd completely continuous multivalued maps with convex images which are defined on level sets of even functions. The results obtained in the paper are new even for single-valued maps. In the final section some applications of the theorem to analysis and differential equations are discussed. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  4. Solutions of Boltzmann`s Equation for Mono-energetic Neutrons in an Infinite Homogeneous Medium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-11-30

    Boltzman's equation is solved for the case of monoenergetic neutrons created by a plane or point source in an infinite medium which has spherically symmetric scattering. The customary solution of the diffusion equation appears to be multiplied by a constant factor which is smaller than 1. In addition to this term the total neutron density contains another term which is important in the neighborhood of the source. It varies as 1/r{sup 2} in the neighborhood of a point source. (auth)

  5. Simple approximate formula for the reflection function of a homogeneous, semi-infinite turbid medium.

    PubMed

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2002-05-01

    A simple, approximate analytical formula is proposed for the reflection function of a semi-infinite, homogeneous particulate layer. It is assumed that the zenith angle of the viewing direction is equal to zero (thus corresponding to the case of nadir observations), whereas the light incidence direction is arbitrary. The formula yields accurate results for incidence-zenith angles less than approximately 85 degrees and can be useful in analyzing satellite nadir observations of optically thick clouds.

  6. Ergodicity and Parameter Estimates for Infinite-Dimensional Fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process

    SciTech Connect

    Maslowski, Bohdan Pospisil, Jan

    2008-06-15

    Existence and ergodicity of a strictly stationary solution for linear stochastic evolution equations driven by cylindrical fractional Brownian motion are proved. Ergodic behavior of non-stationary infinite-dimensional fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes is also studied. Based on these results, strong consistency of suitably defined families of parameter estimators is shown. The general results are applied to linear parabolic and hyperbolic equations perturbed by a fractional noise.

  7. Amplification of current density modulation in a FEL with an infinite electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Webb, S.D.

    2011-03-28

    We show that the paraxial field equation for a free electron laser (FEL) in an infinitely wide electron beam with {kappa}-2 energy distribution can be reduced to a fourth ordinary differential equation (ODE). Its solution for arbitrary initial phase space density modulation has been derived in the wave-vector domain. For initial current modulation with Gaussian profile, close form solutions are obtained in space-time domain. In developing an analytical model for a FEL-based coherent electron cooling system, an infinite electron beam has been assumed for the modulation and correction processes. While the assumption has its limitation, it allows for an analytical close form solution to be obtained, which is essential for investigating the underlying scaling law, benchmarking the simulation codes and understanding the fundamental physics. 1D theory was previously applied to model a CeC FEL amplifier. However, the theory ignores diffraction effects and does not provide the transverse profile of the amplified electron density modulation. On the other hand, 3D theories developed for a finite electron beam usually have solutions expanded over infinite number of modes determined by the specific transverse boundary conditions. Unless the mode with the largest growth rate substantially dominates other modes, both evaluation and extracting scaling laws can be complicated. Furthermore, it is also preferable to have an analytical FEL model with assumptions consistent with the other two sections of a CeC system. Recently, we developed the FEL theory in an infinitely wide electron beam with {kappa}-1 (Lorentzian) energy distribution. Close form solutions have been obtained for the amplified current modulation initiated by an external electric field with various spatial-profiles. In this work, we extend the theory into {kappa}-2 energy distribution and study the evolution of current density induced by an initial density modulation.

  8. The local autocorrelation time in thin film and semi-infinite model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1984-05-01

    The nearest-neighbour Ising model of a film in which exchange couplings in surface layers can differ from exchange couplings in other layers is considered. The dependence of the local autocorrelation time on distances to surfaces of the film, temperature and surface exchange couplings is discussed. The behaviour of the local autocorrelation time in a three-dimensional semi-infinite model is obtained assuming that the thickness of the film tends to infinity.

  9. Static properties of Bose-Einstein condensate mixtures in semi-infinite space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu, Nguyen Van

    2016-08-01

    Using double-parabola approximation (DPA) applied to Gross-Pitaevskii theory, the interfacial tension of Bose-Einstein condensate mixtures in semi-infinite system is obtained and shows that it is not vanishing at demix state K = 1, its value exactly coincides to wall tension of second component. A new kind of wetting phase transition (Antonov transition) is also considered within DPA and phase transition is first-order. Antonov line is thoroughly proved, too.

  10. On the existence of infinitely many universal tree-based networks.

    PubMed

    Hayamizu, Momoko

    2016-05-01

    A tree-based network on a set X of n leaves is said to be universal if any rooted binary phylogenetic tree on X can be its base tree. Francis and Steel showed that there is a universal tree-based network on X in the case of n = 3, and asked whether such a network exists in general. We settle this problem by proving that there are infinitely many universal tree-based networks for any n>1.

  11. Neutron Flux Perturbations due to Infinite Plane Absorbers IV: The Exponential Flux Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.M.R

    2002-02-15

    Flux depression factors and measures of asymmetry are presented for an absorbing and scattering slab in an infinite medium in which there is an overall exponential flux. One speed transport theory is employed. The effect of the slab on the exponential flux is determined and the necessary correction factors to recover the unperturbed flux from the activation of the slab are calculated. Although this is an old problem, we present here a new formalism which highlights clearly some important physical aspects.

  12. Second cluster integral from the spectrum of an infinite XXZ spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikov, P. N.

    2015-03-01

    First and second terms of the low-temperature cluster expansion for the free energy density of a magnetically polarized XXZ spin chain is obtained within the propagator approach suggested by E.W. Montroll and J.C. Ward. All the calculations employ only one- and two-magnon infinite-chain spectrums. In the XXX-point the result reproduces the well known S. Katsura's formula obtained 50 years ago by finite-chain calculations.

  13. Analytical solution for unsteady thermal stresses in an infinite cylinder composed of two materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, E.; Sanchez Sarmiento, G.; Laura, P.A.A.; Gutierrez, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    An exact analytical solution for unsteady thermal stresses in an infinitely long solid composite cylinder is presented. The unsteady temperature field is determined following Ozisik's (1980) treatment, but a more general solution is achieved by the present approach by considering a heat convection situation at the outer boundary. The plane stress and plane strain states are considered next, and the thermal stresses are evaluated. Results are provided as dimensionless plots for several combinations of thermal and mechanical parameters of practical interest. 6 references.

  14. Infinitely robust order and local order-parameter tulips in Apollonian networks with quenched disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, C. Nadir; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat

    2009-06-01

    For a variety of quenched random spin systems on an Apollonian network, including ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bond percolation and the Ising spin glass, we find the persistence of ordered phases up to infinite temperature over the entire range of disorder. We develop a renormalization-group technique that yields highly detailed information, including the exact distributions of local magnetizations and local spin-glass order parameters, which turn out to exhibit, as function of temperature, complex and distinctive tulip patterns.

  15. Existence of infinitely many periodic solutions for the radially symmetric wave equation with resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyi; Zhang, Zhitao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the periodic-Dirichlet problem for a forced nonlinear wave equation with resonance utt - Δu = μu + a (t , x)| u | p - 1 u in a n-dimensional ball. Under some suitable assumptions on μ, p and a (t , x), we prove the existence of infinitely many radially symmetric time-periodic solutions for the problem by variational methods.

  16. Linear vs nonlinear and infinite vs finite: An interpretation of chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Protopopescu, V.

    1990-10-01

    An example of a linear infinite-dimensional system is presented that exhibits deterministic chaos and thus challenges the presumably unquestionable connection between chaos and nonlinearity. Via this example, the roles of, and relationships between, linearity, nonlinearity, infinity and finiteness in the occurrence of chaos are investigated. The analysis of these complementary but related aspects leads to: a new interpretation of chaos as the manifestation of incompressible and thus incompressible information and a conjecture about the nonexistence of operationally accessible linear systems.

  17. 46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...

  18. 46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...

  19. 46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...

  20. 46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...

  1. 46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2750 - U.S. Extra Large Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Extra Large Virginia. 51.2750 Section 51.2750... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2750 U.S. Extra Large Virginia. “U.S. Extra Large Virginia” consists of shelled Virginia...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2750 - U.S. Extra Large Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Extra Large Virginia. 51.2750 Section 51.2750... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2750 U.S. Extra Large Virginia. “U.S. Extra Large Virginia” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2750 - U.S. Extra Large Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Extra Large Virginia. 51.2750 Section 51.2750... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2750 U.S. Extra Large Virginia. “U.S. Extra Large Virginia” consists of shelled Virginia...

  5. 7 CFR 51.880 - U.S. Extra Fancy Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Table. 51.880 Section 51.880 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... U.S. Extra Fancy Table. “U.S. Extra Fancy Table” consists of bunches of well developed grapes of...

  6. 7 CFR 51.880 - U.S. Extra Fancy Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Table. 51.880 Section 51.880 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Vinifera Type) 1 Grades § 51.880 U.S. Extra Fancy Table. “U.S. Extra Fancy Table” consists of bunches...

  7. 7 CFR 51.880 - U.S. Extra Fancy Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Extra Fancy Table. 51.880 Section 51.880 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... U.S. Extra Fancy Table. “U.S. Extra Fancy Table” consists of bunches of well developed grapes of...

  8. Dynamical scaling in infinitely correlated many-body systems through a quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Oscar Leonardo; Quiroga, Luis; Rodriguez, Ferney Javier; Johnson, Neil

    2013-03-01

    We assess dynamical scaling of many two-level systems (TLSs) infinitely correlated, either through a mediating radiation mode as in the Dicke Model, or through a direct interaction between TLSs as in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model. Those models are characterized by the presence of a Quantum Phase Transition (QPT) in the thermodynamic limit, and they belong to the same universality class. The assessment is done by means of exact computational simulations of finite-size systems under linear rampings of the interaction parameter crossing the quantum critical point. Our results exhibit significant differences with respect to previous works on dynamical scaling across QPTs in the near-adiabatic regime, which have focused on spin-chain models where correlation lengths can be defined. We have confirmed that in infinitely correlated models an effective system size can play the role of the correlation length in traditional scaling arguments. However, due to the infinite correlation among TLSs, the standard Kibble-Zurek mechanism is not realized as the system cannot fully enter an adiabatic evolution during the ordered phase. Also, in the two-level approximation, a suitable deviation from the standard Landau-Zener protocol must be performed in order to obtain scaling collapse.

  9. PhyloBayes MPI: phylogenetic reconstruction with infinite mixtures of profiles in a parallel environment.

    PubMed

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Stubbs, Daniel; Richer, Jacques

    2013-07-01

    Modeling across site variation of the substitution process is increasingly recognized as important for obtaining more accurate phylogenetic reconstructions. Both finite and infinite mixture models have been proposed and have been shown to significantly improve on classical single-matrix models. Compared with their finite counterparts, infinite mixtures have a greater expressivity. However, they are computationally more challenging. This has resulted in practical compromises in the design of infinite mixture models. In particular, a fast but simplified version of a Dirichlet process model over equilibrium frequency profiles implemented in PhyloBayes has often been used in recent phylogenomics studies, while more refined model structures, more realistic and empirically more fit, have been practically out of reach. We introduce a message passing interface version of PhyloBayes, implementing the Dirichlet process mixture models as well as more classical empirical matrices and finite mixtures. The parallelization is made efficient thanks to the combination of two algorithmic strategies: a partial Gibbs sampling update of the tree topology and the use of a truncated stick-breaking representation for the Dirichlet process prior. The implementation shows close to linear gains in computational speed for up to 64 cores, thus allowing faster phylogenetic reconstruction under complex mixture models. PhyloBayes MPI is freely available from our website www.phylobayes.org. PMID:23564032

  10. Complete spectrum of the infinite-U Hubbard ring using group theory

    SciTech Connect

    Soncini, Alessandro Van den Heuvel, Willem

    2014-05-14

    We present a full analytical solution of the multiconfigurational strongly correlated mixed-valence problem corresponding to the N-Hubbard ring filled with N−1 electrons, and infinite on-site repulsion. While the eigenvalues and the eigenstates of the model are known already, analytical determination of their degeneracy is presented here for the first time. The full solution, including degeneracy count, is achieved for each spin configuration by mapping the Hubbard model into a set of Hückel-annulene problems for rings of variable size. The number and size of these effective Hückel annulenes, both crucial to obtain Hubbard states and their degeneracy, are determined by solving a well-known combinatorial enumeration problem, the necklace problem for N−1 beads and two colors, within each subgroup of the C{sub N−1} permutation group. Symmetry-adapted solution of the necklace enumeration problem is finally achieved by means of the subduction of coset representation technique [S. Fujita, Theor. Chim. Acta 76, 247 (1989)], which provides a general and elegant strategy to solve the one-hole infinite-U Hubbard problem, including degeneracy count, for any ring size. The proposed group theoretical strategy to solve the infinite-U Hubbard problem for N−1 electrons is easily generalized to the case of arbitrary electron count L, by analyzing the permutation group C{sub L} and all its subgroups.

  11. Spatio-temporal learning with the online finite and infinite echo-state Gaussian processes.

    PubMed

    Soh, Harold; Demiris, Yiannis

    2015-03-01

    Successful biological systems adapt to change. In this paper, we are principally concerned with adaptive systems that operate in environments where data arrives sequentially and is multivariate in nature, for example, sensory streams in robotic systems. We contribute two reservoir inspired methods: 1) the online echostate Gaussian process (OESGP) and 2) its infinite variant, the online infinite echostate Gaussian process (OIESGP) Both algorithms are iterative fixed-budget methods that learn from noisy time series. In particular, the OESGP combines the echo-state network with Bayesian online learning for Gaussian processes. Extending this to infinite reservoirs yields the OIESGP, which uses a novel recursive kernel with automatic relevance determination that enables spatial and temporal feature weighting. When fused with stochastic natural gradient descent, the kernel hyperparameters are iteratively adapted to better model the target system. Furthermore, insights into the underlying system can be gleamed from inspection of the resulting hyperparameters. Experiments on noisy benchmark problems (one-step prediction and system identification) demonstrate that our methods yield high accuracies relative to state-of-the-art methods, and standard kernels with sliding windows, particularly on problems with irrelevant dimensions. In addition, we describe two case studies in robotic learning-by-demonstration involving the Nao humanoid robot and the Assistive Robot Transport for Youngsters (ARTY) smart wheelchair. PMID:25720008

  12. Increased extra-pair paternity in broods of aging males and enhanced recruitment of extra-pair young in a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, E. Keith; Forsman, Anna M.; Masters, Brian S.; Johnson, Bonnie G. P.; Johnson, L. Scott; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Thompson, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite keen interest in extra-pair mating in birds, its adaptive significance remains unresolved. Here, we use a multi-year dataset to test whether traits of a female’s social mate influence her propensity to produce extra-pair offspring in a population of house wrens, and whether producing extra-pair young has consequences for a female’s fitness through effects on offspring survival. Females were most likely to produce extra-pair offspring when paired with old males and when paired with males on poor-quality territories, although this latter effect was marginally non-significant. Among offspring, the cutaneous immunity of within-pair young decreased as the age of their sires increased, but cutaneous immunity of extra-pair young was not affected by the age of their extra-pair sires or by the age of the males rearing them. Extra-pair offspring were more likely than within-pair offspring to return as breeding adults to the local population, with extra-pair sons being more likely to return as a breeder for multiple years. Our findings support the hypothesis that females produce extra-pair offspring to enhance their inclusive fitness beyond what they are capable of given the male with which they are socially paired. PMID:26258950

  13. Effective pairing interaction in semi-infinite nuclear matter in the Brueckner approach: Model {delta}-shaped NN interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.; Lombardo, U.; Saperstein, E.E.; Zverev, M.V.

    1995-09-01

    The problem of pairing in semi-infinite nuclear matter is considered in the Brueckner approach. Equations for effective pairing interaction in semi-infinite matter are derived for the case of the separable representation of realistic NN interaction. The propagator of two noninteracting particles in a semi-infinite potential well is calculated numerically. The equation for effective interaction is solved for a model 8-shaped NN interaction, which correctly reproduces NN scattering in the low-energy limit. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Confirmation of declared provenance of European extra virgin olive oil samples by NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Tony; Downey, Gerard; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2008-12-10

    The potential of near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy (1100-2498 nm) combined with chemometric techniques to confirm the geographical origin of European olive oil samples was evaluated. In total, 913 extra virgin olive oil samples (210 Ligurian and 703 non-Ligurian) were collected over three consecutive harvests (2005, 2006, and 2007). A multivariate spectral fingerprint for Ligurian olive oil was developed and deployed to confirm or refute a claim that any given sample was Ligurian. Samples were pseudorandomly split into calibration (n = 280) and validation sets (n = 633); the only selection constraint applied was to insist on equal numbers of Ligurian and non-Ligurian samples in the calibration set. Following preliminary examination by principal component analysis, the full spectrum modeling method applied to the spectral data set was discriminant partial least-squares regression; various data pretreatments were also investigated. The best models correctly predicted the origins of samples in the prediction set up to 92.8 and 81.5% for Ligurian and non-Ligurian olive oil samples, respectively, using a first-derivative data pretreatment. The potential of this approach in commercial traceability and quality assurance schemes is noted.

  15. Extra and Intracellular Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles Mediated by Dead Fungal Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Ando, Rômulo Augusto; Oller Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto; Corrêa, Benedito

    2015-01-01

    The use of dead biomass of the fungus Hypocrea lixii as a biological system is a new, effective and environmentally friendly bioprocess for the production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NPs), which has become a promising field in nanobiotechnology. Dead biomass of the fungus was successfully used to convert nickel ions into nickel oxide NPs in aqueous solution. These NPs accumulated intracellularly and extracellularly on the cell wall surface through biosorption. The average size, morphology and location of the NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The NPs were mainly spherical and extra and intracellular NPs had an average size of 3.8 nm and 1.25 nm, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of nickel oxide NPs. Infrared spectroscopy detected the presence of functional amide groups, which are probable involved in particle binding to the biomass. The production of the NPs by dead biomass was analyzed by determining physicochemical parameters and equilibrium concentrations. The present study opens new perspectives for the biosynthesis of nanomaterials, which could become a potential biosorbent for the removal of toxic metals from polluted sites. PMID:26043111

  16. Microthermomechanical infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffanson, M.; Rangelow, I. W.

    2014-03-01

    We present a state-of-the-art overview of microthermomechanical infrared sensor technology. The working principle of this sensor is based on a bi-material actuated micromechanical deflection, generated by an induced temperature rise due to incident infrared radiation absorption. In order to generate a thermal image the thermomechanical deflections of the freestanding microstructures are read by either capacitive, piezoresistive or optical means. Research and development activities in this field began in the early 1990s. The development of this technology within the last 20 years has resulted in innovations such as uncooled multiband infrared detection, high-speed infrared sensing and uncooled THz imaging. This paper outlines representative milestones of this technology and analyses important results of notable groups. Significant activities on capacitive and optical readout techniques of thermomechanical infrared arrays are presented. Furthermore the advantages of microthermomechanical infrared sensors over current well-established uncooled infrared technologies are summarized. In conclusion the latest developments of this technology offer a highly potential solution for a variety of important energy-saving, safety and security applications.

  17. Mauna Kea Observatory infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Galactic and solar system infrared observations are reported using a broad variety of radiometric and spectroscopic instrumentation. Infrared programs and papers published during this period are listed.

  18. Three Extra Mirror or Sequential Families: Case for a Heavy Higgs Boson and Inert Doublet

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Homero; Melfo, Alejandra; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran

    2011-05-13

    We study the possibility of the existence of extra fermion families and an extra Higgs doublet. We find that requiring the extra Higgs doublet to be inert leaves space for three extra families, allowing for mirror fermion families and a dark matter candidate at the same time. The emerging scenario is very predictive: It consists of a standard model Higgs boson, with a mass above 400 GeV, heavy new quarks between 340 and 500 GeV, light extra neutral leptons, and an inert scalar with a mass below M{sub Z}.

  19. Vitamin D and extra-skeletal health: causality or consequence.

    PubMed

    Al Nozha, Omar M

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency /insufficiency is widely recognized as a global health problem that is likely to be involved in pathogenesis or progression of many acute and chronic health disorders. Its relation to skeletal health has been clearly demonstrated and thoroughly examined. This review aims to highlight the continuous debate about the relation between vitamin D and extra-skeletal health and whether it is a causality or just an association. Overall, the available evidence does not meet the criteria for establishing cause-and-effect relationships because of the limitations of observational studies to corroborate the causality due to many potential confounders. Moreover, the causal relationship couldn't be established in randomized studies or in many meta-analyses. This may reflect the fact that vitamin D level reduction is just a biomarker of ill health. The inflammatory processes involved in the disease occurrence and the functional limitations of the diseases would have a role in reducing serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D "25 (OH) D" level, which would explain why low vitamin D is reported in a wide range of disorders. This may underscore the possibility of harm instead of benefit of vitamin D supplementation when its exact role is not fully established, thus many guidelines and interest groups are still hesitant toward recommending replacement in extra-skeletal disease. Future directions entails the need for a large well-designed randomized control trials (RCTs) to resolve the active debate on the benefits of vitamin D replacement for extra-skeletal disease, and not only that, future studies should establish specific, clinically relevant effects of vitamin D repletion, provide cut-values for optimal serum levels of 25 (OH) D, and appropriate doses for non-skeletal health benefits.

  20. Vitamin D and extra-skeletal health: causality or consequence

    PubMed Central

    Al Nozha, Omar M.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency /insufficiency is widely recognized as a global health problem that is likely to be involved in pathogenesis or progression of many acute and chronic health disorders. Its relation to skeletal health has been clearly demonstrated and thoroughly examined. This review aims to highlight the continuous debate about the relation between vitamin D and extra-skeletal health and whether it is a causality or just an association. Overall, the available evidence does not meet the criteria for establishing cause-and-effect relationships because of the limitations of observational studies to corroborate the causality due to many potential confounders. Moreover, the causal relationship couldn’t be established in randomized studies or in many meta-analyses. This may reflect the fact that vitamin D level reduction is just a biomarker of ill health. The inflammatory processes involved in the disease occurrence and the functional limitations of the diseases would have a role in reducing serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D “25 (OH) D” level, which would explain why low vitamin D is reported in a wide range of disorders. This may underscore the possibility of harm instead of benefit of vitamin D supplementation when its exact role is not fully established, thus many guidelines and interest groups are still hesitant toward recommending replacement in extra-skeletal disease. Future directions entails the need for a large well-designed randomized control trials (RCTs) to resolve the active debate on the benefits of vitamin D replacement for extra-skeletal disease, and not only that, future studies should establish specific, clinically relevant effects of vitamin D repletion, provide cut-values for optimal serum levels of 25 (OH) D, and appropriate doses for non-skeletal health benefits. PMID:27610068

  1. Vitamin D and extra-skeletal health: causality or consequence.

    PubMed

    Al Nozha, Omar M

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency /insufficiency is widely recognized as a global health problem that is likely to be involved in pathogenesis or progression of many acute and chronic health disorders. Its relation to skeletal health has been clearly demonstrated and thoroughly examined. This review aims to highlight the continuous debate about the relation between vitamin D and extra-skeletal health and whether it is a causality or just an association. Overall, the available evidence does not meet the criteria for establishing cause-and-effect relationships because of the limitations of observational studies to corroborate the causality due to many potential confounders. Moreover, the causal relationship couldn't be established in randomized studies or in many meta-analyses. This may reflect the fact that vitamin D level reduction is just a biomarker of ill health. The inflammatory processes involved in the disease occurrence and the functional limitations of the diseases would have a role in reducing serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D "25 (OH) D" level, which would explain why low vitamin D is reported in a wide range of disorders. This may underscore the possibility of harm instead of benefit of vitamin D supplementation when its exact role is not fully established, thus many guidelines and interest groups are still hesitant toward recommending replacement in extra-skeletal disease. Future directions entails the need for a large well-designed randomized control trials (RCTs) to resolve the active debate on the benefits of vitamin D replacement for extra-skeletal disease, and not only that, future studies should establish specific, clinically relevant effects of vitamin D repletion, provide cut-values for optimal serum levels of 25 (OH) D, and appropriate doses for non-skeletal health benefits. PMID:27610068

  2. Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis Eroding and Penetrating the Acromion.

    PubMed

    El Rassi, George; Matta, Jihad; Hijjawi, Ayman; Khair, Ousama Abou; Fahs, Sara

    2015-10-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder is an uncommon disorder. It usually affects the glenohumeral joint and is characterized by metaplasia of the synovium leading to the formation of osteochondral loose bodies. Few cases of extra-articular subacromial synovial chondromatosis involving the rotator cuff tendon have been reported in the literature. The treatment of previously reported cases consisted of open bursectomy and removal of loose bodies. We report a case of subacromial synovial chondromatosis without rotator cuff involvement but with severe erosion and fracture of the acromion. Treatment consisted of shoulder arthroscopy to remove all loose bodies, total bursectomy, and debridement of the acromion. Potential benefits of arthroscopy were also evaluated. PMID:26697302

  3. Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis Eroding and Penetrating the Acromion

    PubMed Central

    El Rassi, George; Matta, Jihad; Hijjawi, Ayman; Khair, Ousama Abou; Fahs, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder is an uncommon disorder. It usually affects the glenohumeral joint and is characterized by metaplasia of the synovium leading to the formation of osteochondral loose bodies. Few cases of extra-articular subacromial synovial chondromatosis involving the rotator cuff tendon have been reported in the literature. The treatment of previously reported cases consisted of open bursectomy and removal of loose bodies. We report a case of subacromial synovial chondromatosis without rotator cuff involvement but with severe erosion and fracture of the acromion. Treatment consisted of shoulder arthroscopy to remove all loose bodies, total bursectomy, and debridement of the acromion. Potential benefits of arthroscopy were also evaluated. PMID:26697302

  4. Sturge-Weber syndrome: oral and extra-oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Dwivedi, Rahul; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare, congenital, neuro-oculo-cutaneous disorder which is characterised extra-orally by unilateral port wine stains on the face, glaucoma, seizures and mental retardation, and intra-orally by ipsilateral gingival haemangioma which frequently affects the maxilla or mandible. In the present case, a 15-year-old female patient presented with a port wine stain on the right side of the face and glaucoma of the right eye, and intra-orally with gingival haemangioma on the right side of the maxilla. PMID:25766438

  5. Radion stabilization from the vacuum on flat extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Eli; Perez-Lorenzana, A.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2008-01-15

    Volume stabilization in models with flat extra dimensions could follow from vacuum energy residing in the bulk when translational invariance is spontaneously broken. We study a simple toy model that exemplifies this mechanism which considers a massive scalar field with nontrivial boundary conditions at the end points of the compact space, and includes contributions from brane and bulk cosmological constants. We perform our analysis in the conformal frame where the radion field, associated with volume variations, is defined, and present a general strategy for building stabilization potentials out of those ingredients. We also provide working examples for the interval and the T{sup n}/Z{sub 2} orbifold configuration.

  6. Extra intestinal manifestations and complications in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Marineaţă, Anca; Rezuş, Elena; Mihai, Cătălina; Prelipcean, Cristina Cijevschi

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), doesn't affect only the intestinal tract, but also involve other organs such as: eyes, skin, joints, liver and biliary tracts, kidneys, lungs, vascular system. It is difficult to differentiate the true extraintestinal manifestations from secondary extraintestinal complications. The pathogenetic autoimmune mechanisms include genetic susceptibility, antigenic display of autoantigen, aberrant self-recognition and immunopathogenetic autoantibodies against organ-specific cellular antigens shared by colon and extra-colonic organs. An important role is owned by microbes due to molecular mimicry. This paper reviews the frequency, clinical presentation and therapeutic implications of extraintestinal symptoms in inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25076688

  7. Dynamically Downscaling Precipitation from Extra-Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, A.; Hodges, K.; Bengtsson, L.

    2012-04-01

    Recent flooding events experienced by the UK and Western Europe have highlighted the potential disruption caused by precipitation associated with extra-tropical cyclones. The question as to the effect of a warming climate on these events also needs to be addressed to determine whether such events will become more frequent or more intense in the future. The changes in precipitation can be addressed through the use of Global Climate Models (GCMs), however the resolution of GCMs are often too coarse to drive hydrological models, required to investigate any flooding that may be associated with the precipitation. The changes to the precipitation associated with extra-tropical cyclones are investigated by tracking cyclones in two resolutions of the ECHAM5 GCM, T213 and T319 for 20th and 21st century climate simulations. It is shown that the intensity of extreme precipitation associated with extra-tropical cyclones is predicted to increase in a warmer climate at both resolutions. It was also found that the increase in resolution shows an increase in the number of extreme events for several fields, including precipitation; however it is also seen that the magnitude of the response is not uniform across the seasons. The tails of the distributions are investigated using Extreme Value Theory (EVT) using a Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPD) with a Peaks over Threshold (POT) method, calculating return periods for given return levels. From the cyclones identified in the T213 resolution of the GCM a small number of cyclones were selected that pass over the UK, travelling from the South-West to the North-East. These are cyclones that are more likely to have large amounts of moisture associated with them and therefore potentially being associated with large precipitation intensities. Four cyclones from each climate were then selected to drive a Limited Area Model (LAM), to gain a more realistic representation of the precipitation associated with each extra-tropical cyclone. The

  8. Charged seven-dimensional spacetimes with spherically symmetric extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Ringeval, Christophe

    2009-06-15

    We derive exact solutions of the seven-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell equations for a spacetime exhibiting Poincare invariance along four dimensions and spherical symmetry in the extra dimensions. Such topology generically arises in the context of braneworld models. Our solutions generalize previous results on Ricci-flat spacetimes admitting the two-sphere and are shown to include wormhole configurations. A regular coordinate system suitable to describe the whole spacetime is singled out, and we discuss the physical relevance of the derived solutions.

  9. Search for universal extra dimensions in ppbar collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Aoki, Masato; Askew, Andrew Warren; /Florida State U. /Stockholm U.

    2011-12-01

    We present a search for Kaluza-Klein (KK) particles predicted by models with universal extra dimensions (UED) using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 7.3 fb{sup -1}, collected by the D0 detector at a p{bar p} center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The decay chain of KK particles can lead to a final state with two muons of the same charge. This signature is used to set a lower limit on the compactification scale of R{sup -1} > 260 GeV in a minimal UED model.

  10. APOLLO 9: Dave scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Dave Scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities around the Command Module 'Gumdrop'. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 9: The Duet of Spider & Gumdrop': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) Mission: APOLLO 9: Earth orbital flight with James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell Schweickart. First flight of the Lunar Module. Performed rendezvous, docking and E.V.A..Mission Duration 241hrs 0m 54s.

  11. Extra-cardiac stimulators: what do cardiologists need to know?

    PubMed

    Guinand, Alexandre; Noble, Stéphane; Frei, Angela; Renard, Julien; Tramer, Martin R; Burri, Haran

    2016-09-01

    For several decades, treating patients with pacemakers has been the privilege of cardiologists. However, in the last 30 years, researchers have found new targets for electrical stimulation in different clinical subspecialities, such as deep brain stimulation (for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and some psychiatric illnesses); spinal cord stimulation (for refractory angina, chronic pain, and peripheral artery disease); and sacral (for diverse urologic and proctologic conditions), vagal (for epilepsy), and phrenic nerve stimulation (for sleep apnoea). The purpose of this article is to familiarize cardiologists with these 'extra-cardiac pacemakers' and to discuss potential issues that must be addressed when these patients undergo cardiac procedures. PMID:27234870

  12. Medicare extra: a comprehensive benefit option for Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Davis, Karen; Moon, Marilyn; Cooper, Barbara; Schoen, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Part E, Medicare Extra, outlined in this paper adds a comprehensive benefit option to Medicare, eliminating the need for beneficiaries to purchase a private drug plan and Medigap supplemental coverage. Financed by a budget-neutral beneficiary premium, it has the advantages of greater simplicity, efficiency, and value without adding to federal costs. Beneficiaries now enrolled in Medigap plans would save money, as could employers by choosing a lower-cost alternative to current retiree health plans. Eliminating some of the excess payments to Medicare Advantage plans would yield savings that could be used to help finance premium subsidies for low-income beneficiaries.

  13. Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetesi, Zsolt

    2010-03-01

    The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and periphery strongly influence the value of the Llifetime of a civilization. Our development have several edifications of the investigations of the growth of an alien civilization.

  14. Zero point energy on extra dimensions: Noncommutative torus

    SciTech Connect

    Fabi, S.; Harms, B.; Karatheodoris, G.

    2007-09-15

    In this paper we calculate the zero point energy density experienced by observers on M{sup 4} due to a massless scalar field defined throughout M{sup 4}xT{sub F}{sup 2}, where T{sub F}{sup 2} are fuzzy extra dimensions. Using the Green's function approach we calculate the energy density for the commutative torus and the fuzzy torus. We also calculate the energy density for the fuzzy torus using the Hamiltonian approach. Agreement is shown between the Green's function and Hamiltonian approaches.

  15. Inert scalar dark matter in an extra dimension inspired model

    SciTech Connect

    Lineros, R.A.; Santos, F.A. Pereira dos E-mail: fabio.alex@fis.puc-rio.br

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we analyze a dark matter model inspired by theories with extra dimensions. The dark matter candidate corresponds to the first Kaluza–Klein mode of an real scalar added to the Standard Model. The tower of new particles enriches the calculation of the relic abundance. For large mass splitting, the model converges to the predictions of the inert singlet dark matter model. For nearly degenerate mass spectrum, coannihilations increase the cross-sections used for direct and indirect dark matter searches. Moreover, the Kaluza–Klein zero mode can mix with the SM higgs and further constraints can be applied.

  16. Scalar dark matter in an extra dimension inspired model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lineros, Roberto; Pereira dos Santos, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    In this work we consider a singlet scalar propagating in a flat large extra dimension. The first Kaluza-Klein mode associated to this singlet scalar will be a viable dark matter candidate. The tower of new particles enriches the calculation of the relic density due effect of coannihilation. For large mass splitting, the model converges to the predictions of the singlet dark matter model. For nearly degenerate mass spectrum, coannihilations increase the cross-sections used for direct and indirect dark matter searches. We investigate the impact of the Kaluza-Klein tower associated to singlet scalar for indirect and direct detection of dark matter.

  17. The effect of low level laser therapy in different wavelengths in the treatment of oral mucositis—proposal for extra-oral implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, J. J. C.; Queiroga, A. S.; de Biase, R. C. C. G.; Leite, E. P.; Cabral Júnior, C. R.; Limeira Júnior, F. A.

    2009-09-01

    The oral mucositis is the most frequent acute oral complication resulting from antineoplastic treatment and may worsen the clinical condition of the patient and interfere with his/her quality of life. This study aimed to comparatively evaluate, from a clinical point of view, the effect of Laser Therapy λ660 nm (wavelength of the red Laser) and λ830 nm (wavelength of the infrared Laser), at extra-oral points, in remission of severity of oral mucositis and pain associated with it in pediatric oncological patients undergoing chemotherapy with the anticancer drug methotrexate, noting which of the two wavelength is the most appropriate to this new technique. The sample consisted of 13 patients placed at random in each group and subjected to sessions of Low Level Laser Therapy, at pre-determined extra-oral points for five consecutive days, starting at the beginning of the observation of mucositis injuries. It became possible to note that from the group of patients in the group of Laser λ830 nm ( n = 6; 46.15%), four ( n = 4; 66.67%) of these patients had remission of injuries to grade 0 (WHO), and as for pain, five patients ( n = 5; 83.33%) showed no painful symptoms for mucositis injuries. In the Laser λ660 nm group ( n = 7; 53.85%), only two patients ( n = 2; 28.57%) achieved a regression of lesions to grade 0 (WHO), while four patients ( n = 4; 57.14%) had no pain. So, the extra-oral application of Laser Therapy was effective in treating injuries of oral mucositis in the patients treated; and Laser Therapy in the infrared spectrum (λ830 nm) was more effective in the treatment of oral mucositis injuries compared to the red spectrum (λ660 nm), which can be explained by the greater power of penetration of infrared rays, acting in a more expressive way in deeper places.

  18. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  19. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101). PMID:25490236

  20. Infrared astronomy after IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Thompson, R. I.; Werner, M. W.; Witteborn, F. C.; Becklin, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of infrared astronomy in the wake of IRAS is discussed. Attention is given to an overview of next generation infrared telescope technology, with emphasis on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) which has been built to replace IRAS in the 1990s. Among the instruments to be included on SIRTF are: a wide-field high-resolution camera covering the infrared range 3-30 microns with large arrays of detectors; an imaging photometer operating in the range 3-700 microns; and a spectrograph covering the range 2.5-200 microns with resolutions of 2 and 0.1 percent. Observational missions for the SIRTF are proposed in connection with: planetary formation; star formation; cosmic energy sources; active galactic nuclei; and quasars.

  1. Compact Infrared Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2009-01-01

    Concentric spectrometer forms are advantageous for constructing a variety of systems spanning the entire visible to infrared range. Spectrometer examples are given, including broadband or high resolution forms. Some issues associated with the Dyson catadioptric type are also discussed.

  2. Infrared Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  3. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Rockstad, Howard K. (Inventor); Reynolds, Joseph K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane which would otherwise change deflection depending upon incident infrared radiation. The resulting infrared sensor will meet or exceed the performance of all other broadband, uncooled, infrared sensors and can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. The technology is readily implemented as a small-format linear array suitable for commercial and spacecraft applications.

  4. Infrared processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  5. Submillimeter and infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, T. G.

    An overview of the current state of submillimeter and infrared astronomy is given. In order to develop these fields, three areas must be considered. First, a platform immuned to atmospheric effects must be found, and satellites capable of supporting large telescopes must be designed. Current programs are considering specialized instruments such as COBE, a small cosmic background explorer; IRAS, a small cooled infrared survey telescope; and SIRTF, a small cooled infrared telescope. Second, a large area telescope with light gathering power and resolution, comparable to that available in the optical and radio, is essential to the program. Recent NASA studies have indicated the feasibility of constructing a 20 m diameter telescope with a 20 micron wavelength diffraction. Third, detectors are being developed which are near quantum noise limited, radio-style detectors. Questions which can be answered by submillimeter and infrared techniques pertain to star formation, existence of other planetary systems, and missing mass formation.

  6. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  7. History of infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  8. A new (2+1)-dimensional generalization of the modified Korteweg-deVries equation and its infinitely many symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyong; Hu, Hanwei; Yu, Jun

    2011-10-01

    Starting from the nonlinear version of bilinear negative Kadomtsev-Petviashvili system, a new (2+1)-dimensional generalization of the modified Korteweg-deVries equation is obtained. For this new system, a set of infinitely many generalized symmetries is found by applying a formal series symmetry approach. And these symmetries constitute a closed infinite-dimensional Lie algebra which is a generalization of w∞ type algebra.

  9. Classification of symmetric polynomials of infinite variables: Construction of Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Zhenghan

    2008-06-01

    The classification of complex wave functions of infinite variables is an important problem since it is related to the classification of possible quantum states of matter. In this paper, we propose a way to classify symmetric polynomials of infinite variables using the pattern of zeros of the polynomials. Such a classification leads to a construction of a class of simple non-Abelian quantum Hall states which are closely related to parafermion conformal field theories.

  10. Infrared Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Successive years of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Langley Research Center to Sensiv Inc., a joint venture between Foster-Miller Inc. and Isorad, Ltd., assisted in the creation of remote fiber optic sensing systems. NASA's SBIR interest in infrared, fiber optic sensor technology was geared to monitoring the curing cycles of advanced composite materials. These funds helped in the fabrication of an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. Foster-Miller ingenuity allowed infrared transmitting optical fibers to combine with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to enable remote sensing. Sensiv probes operate in the mid-infrared range of the spectrum, although modifications to the instrument also permits its use in the near-infrared region. The Sensiv needle-probe is built to be placed in a liquid or powder and analyze the chemicals in the mixture. Other applications of the probe system include food processing control; combustion control in furnaces; and maintenance problem solving.

  11. Infrared Protein Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    J Sage; Y Zhang; J McGeehan; R Ravelli; M Weik; J van Thor

    2011-12-31

    We consider the application of infrared spectroscopy to protein crystals, with particular emphasis on exploiting molecular orientation through polarization measurements on oriented single crystals. Infrared microscopes enable transmission measurements on individual crystals using either thermal or nonthermal sources, and can accommodate flow cells, used to measure spectral changes induced by exposure to soluble ligands, and cryostreams, used for measurements of flash-cooled crystals. Comparison of unpolarized infrared measurements on crystals and solutions probes the effects of crystallization and can enhance the value of the structural models refined from X-ray diffraction data by establishing solution conditions under which they are most relevant. Results on several proteins are consistent with similar equilibrium conformational distributions in crystal and solutions. However, the rates of conformational change are often perturbed. Infrared measurements also detect products generated by X-ray exposure, including CO{sub 2}. Crystals with favorable symmetry exhibit infrared dichroism that enhances the synergy with X-ray crystallography. Polarized infrared measurements on crystals can distinguish spectral contributions from chemically similar sites, identify hydrogen bonding partners, and, in opportune situations, determine three-dimensional orientations of molecular groups. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Structure and Function in the Crystalline State.

  12. Generating Reduced Tests for FSMs with Extra States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simão, Adenilso; Petrenko, Alexandre; Yevtushenko, Nina

    We address the problem of generating tests from a deterministic Finite State Machine to provide full fault coverage even if the faults may introduce extra states in the implementations. It is well-known that such tests should include the sequences in the so-called traversal set, which contains all sequences of length defined by the number of extra states. Therefore, the only apparent opportunity to produce shorter tests is to find within a test suite a suitable arrangement of the sequences in the inescapable traversal set. We observe that the direct concatenation of the traversal set to a given state cover, suggested by all existing generation methods with full fault coverage, results in extensive test branching, when a test has to be repeatedly executed to apply all the sequences of the traversal set. In this paper, we state conditions which allow distributing these sequences over several tests. We then utilize these conditions to elaborate a method, called SPY-method, which shortens tests by avoiding test branching as much as possible. We present the results of the experimental comparison of the proposed method with an existing method which indicate that the resulting save can be up to 40%.

  13. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2012-07-10

    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more--a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible.

  14. Personal Cooling for Extra-Vehicular Activities on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pu, Zhengxiang; Kapat, Jay; Chow, Louis; Recio, Jose; Rini, Dan; Trevino, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Extra-vehicular activities (EVA) on Mars will require suits with sophisticated thermal control systems so that astronauts can work comfortably for extended periods of time. Any use of consumables such as water that cannot be easily replaced should be of particular concern. In this aspect the EVA suits for Mars environment need to be different from the current Space Shuttle Extra Vehicular Mobility Units (EMU) that depend on water sublimation into space for removing heat from suits. Moreover, Mars environment is quite different from what a typical EMU may be exposed to. These variations call for careful analysis and innovative engineering for design and fabrication of an appropriate thermal control system. This paper presents a thermal analysis of astronaut suits for EVA with medium metabolic intensity under a typical hot and a nominal cold environment on Mars. The paper also describes possible options that would allow conservation of water with low usage of electrical power. The paper then presents the conceptual design of a portable cooling unit for one such solution.

  15. Experience with carprofen in extra-articular inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Gotter, G

    1982-01-01

    Carprofen is a new non-steroidal compound with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties. Eighty patients with different types of extra-articular inflammatory processes such as periarthritis humero-scapularis, tendinitis, bursitis, etc., were studied by means of two double-blind protocol designs comparing carprofen 150 and 300 mg daily, either as a b.i.d. or a t.i.d. administration, for two weeks. The criteria to determine the therapeutic properties of the compound was based on the improvement of spontaneous pain, pain with movement and functional limitation. Evolution of symptoms showed that either 150 or 300 mg carprofen administered as a b.i.d. schedule, were equally effective (chi 2 test between groups was not significant). According to a t.i.d. schedule results were better with 300 mg. General tolerance was excellent and only 15% of the patients receiving 300 mg complained of side-effects, such as nausea, mild dermatitis, acidity and insomnia. In conclusion, carprofen 150 or 300 mg has a good therapeutical activity in extra-articular inflammatory processes, employing either a b.i.d. or a t.i.d. schedule. PMID:6983966

  16. A hydrodynamical model of shear flow over semi-infinite barriers with application to density currents

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A. )

    1992-12-01

    Vertically sheared airflow over semi-infinite barriers is investigated with a simple hydrodynamical model. The idealized flow is steady, two-dimensional, neutrally buoyant, and inviscid, bounded on the bottom by a semi-infinite impermeable barrier and on the top by a rigid tropopause lid. With attention further restricted to an exponentially decreasing wind shear, the equations of motion (Euler's equations) reduce, without approximation, to a modified Poisson equation for a pseudo streamfunction and a formula for the Exner function. The free parameters characterizing the model's environment are the tropopause height, the density scale height, the wind speed at ground level, and the wind speed at tropopause level. Additional parameters characterize the barrier geometry. Exact solutions of the equations of motion are obtained for semi-infinite plateau barriers and for a barrier qualitatively resembling the shallow density current associated with some thunderstorm outflows. These solutions are noteworthy in that the reduction of a certain nondimensional shear parameter (through negative values) results in greater vertical parcel displacements over the barrier despite a corresponding reduction in the vertical velocity. This steepening tendency culminates in overturning motions associated with both upstream and down-stream steering levels. In this latter case the low-level inflow impinging on the barrier participates in a mixed jump and overturning updraft reminiscent of updrafts simulated in numerical convective models. Conversely, for large values of the nondimensional shear parameter, parcels undergo small vertical parcel displacements over the barrier despite large vertical velocities. This latter behavior may account for the finding that strong convergence along the leading edge of storm outflows does not always trigger deep convection even in unstable environments.

  17. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, will carry a 3-meter-class telescope onboard a Boeing 747SP aircraft to altitudes of 41,000 to 45,000 ft, above most of the atmosphere's IR-absorbing water vapor. The telescope was developed and built in Germany and has been delivered to the U.S. in September 2002. The integration into the B747SP has been com- pleted and functional tests are under way in Waco, Texas. In early 2005 flight-testing of the observatory will initially be dedi-cated to the re-certification of the modified aircraft, then performance tests of the telescope and the electronics and data systems will commence. Later in 2005 after transferring to its home base, NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, SOFIA will start astrophysical observations. A suite of specialized infrared cameras and spectrometers covering wave-lengths between 1 and 600 ?m is being developed by U.S. and German science institutions. In addition to the infrared instruments, a high-speed visible range CCD camera will use the airborne observatory to chase the shadows of celestial bodies during occultations. Once SOFIA will be in routine operations with a planned observing schedule of up to 960 hours at altitude per year, it might also be available as a platform to serendipitous observations not using the main telescope, such as recordings of meteor streams or the search for extra-solar planets transiting their central stars. These are areas of research in which amateur astronomers with relatively small telescopes and state-of-the-art imaging equipment can contribute.

  18. MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL VARIABILITY ATLAS OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kospal, A.; Abraham, P.; Kun, M.; Moor, A.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Henning, Th.; Leinert, Ch.; Turner, N. J.

    2012-08-01

    Optical and near-infrared variability is a well-known property of young stellar objects. However, a growing number of recent studies claim that a considerable fraction of them also exhibit mid-infrared flux changes. With the aim of studying and interpreting variability on a decadal timescale, here we present a mid-infrared spectral atlas containing observations of 68 low- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects. The atlas consists of 2.5-11.6 {mu}m low-resolution spectra obtained with the ISOPHOT-S instrument on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 1996 and 1998, as well as 5.2-14.5 {mu}m low-resolution spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph instrument on board the Spitzer Space Telescope between 2004 and 2007. The observations were retrieved from the ISO and Spitzer archives and were post-processed interactively by our own routines. For those 47 objects where multi-epoch spectra were available, we analyze mid-infrared spectral variability on annual and/or decadal timescales. We identify 37 variable candidate sources. Many stars show wavelength-independent flux changes, possibly due to variable accretion rates. In several systems, all exhibiting 10 {mu}m silicate emission, the variability of the 6-8 {mu}m continuum, and the silicate feature exhibit different amplitudes. A possible explanation is variable shadowing of the silicate-emitting region by an inner disk structure of changing height or extra silicate emission from dust clouds in the disk atmosphere. Our results suggest that mid-infrared variability, in particular, the wavelength-dependent changes, is more ubiquitous than was known before. Interpreting this variability is a new possibility for exploring the structure of the disk and its dynamical processes.

  19. Traveling waves for the FitzHugh-Nagumo system on an infinite channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao-Nien; Chen, Chiun-Chuan; Huang, Chih-Chiang

    2016-09-01

    We are concerned with the traveling wave solutions for the FitzHugh-Nagumo system on an infinite channel. Based on a variational formulation in which a non-local term depends on a parameter, the speed of a traveling wave can be selected out. Furthermore, to show the existence of a traveling wave solution with such a speed, we seek a minimizer subject to a constraint. In the way of solving the variational problem, we apply a truncation technique to the nonlocal term to obtain a minimizer located in a bounded invariant region.

  20. Unified semiclassical perturbation and infinite order sudden approximation, with application to the reaction path Hamiltonian model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, William H.; Shi, Shenghua

    1981-09-01

    It is shown how two popular approximate dynamical models—the semiclassical perturbation (SCP) approximation and the infinite order sudden (IOS) approximation—can be combined in a consistent way that includes the correct features of both. Application of this unified SCP-IOS approximation to the reaction path Hamiltonian model of Miller, Handy, and Adam [J. Chem. Phys. 72, 99 (1980)] leads to extremely simple, explicit formulas for the reactive S matrix, product state distrubutions, etc., which can be readily applied to polyatomic systems. Initial numerical tests on a simple model problem indicate that the model is of useful accuracy.