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Sample records for infrared multiphoton dissociation

  1. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation for Quantitative Shotgun Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Ledvina, Aaron R.; Lee, M. Violet; McAlister, Graeme C.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    We modified a dual-cell linear ion trap mass spectrometer to perform infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in the low pressure trap of a dual-cell quadrupole linear ion trap (dual cell QLT) and perform large-scale IRMPD analyses of complex peptide mixtures. Upon optimization of activation parameters (precursor q-value, irradiation time, and photon flux), IRMPD subtly, but significantly outperforms resonant excitation CAD for peptides identified at a 1% false-discovery rate (FDR) from a yeast tryptic digest (95% confidence, p = 0.019). We further demonstrate that IRMPD is compatible with the analysis of isobaric-tagged peptides. Using fixed QLT RF amplitude allows for the consistent retention of reporter ions, but necessitates the use of variable IRMPD irradiation times, dependent upon precursor mass-to-charge (m/z). We show that IRMPD activation parameters can be tuned to allow for effective peptide identification and quantitation simultaneously. We thus conclude that IRMPD performed in a dual-cell ion trap is an effective option for the large-scale analysis of both unmodified and isobaric-tagged peptides. PMID:22480380

  2. Energetics from Slow Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation of Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Jockusch, Rebecca A.; Paech, Kolja

    2005-01-01

    Photodissociation kinetics of the protonated pentapeptide leucine enkephalin measured using a cw CO2 laser and a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer are reported. A short induction period, corresponding to the time required to raise the internal energy of the ion population to a (dissociating) steady state, is observed. After this induction period, the dissociation data are accurately fit by first-order kinetics. A plot of the log of the unimolecular dissociation rate constant, kuni, as a function of the log of laser power is linear at low laser powers (<9 W, kuni <0.05 s−1), but tapers off at high laser power (9–33 W, kuni = 0.05–7 s−1). The entire measured dissociation curve can be accurately fit by an exponential function plus a constant. The experiment is simulated using a master equation formalism. In the model, the laser radiation is described as an energetically flat-topped distribution which is spatially uniform. This description is consistent with experimental results which indicate that ion motion within the cell averages out spatial inhomogeneities in the laser light. The model has several adjustable parameters. The effect of varying these parameters on the calculated kinetics and power dependence curves is discussed. A procedure for determining a limited range of threshold dissociation energy, Eo, which fits both the measured induction period and power dependence curves, is presented. Using this procedure, Eo of leucine enkephalin is determined to be 1.12–1.46 eV. This result is consistent with, although less precise than, values measured previously using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation. Although the blackbody dissociation results were used as a starting point to search for fits of the master equation model to experiment, these results demonstrate that it is, in principle, possible to determine a limited range of Eo from slow infrared multiphoton dissociation data alone. PMID:16467893

  3. Electric field effects in the infrared multiphoton dissociation of CF2HCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozel, P.; van den Bergh, H.

    1981-02-01

    The infrared multiphoton dissociation of chlorodifluoromethane is studied in a dc electric field. The reaction yield is measured as a function of the laser energy fluence, the CF2HCl pressure, and the electric field strength in the range 0⩽E⩽5.4 kV cm-1. At low fluence (F<1J cm-2) and intensity, under essentially collision free conditions, the multiphoton dissociation is strongly enhanced by the electric field. This is tentatively explained by a breakdown in the angular momentum selection rules caused by the applied field.

  4. Imaging NO elimination in the infrared multiphoton dissociation of nitroalkanes and alkyl nitrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Ravin; Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Suits, Arthur G.

    2016-02-01

    We present a DC slice imaging study of the decomposition of C2, C3 and C4 nitroalkanes and alkyl nitrites, focusing on the NO elimination channel, possibly a minor pathway. Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) is used to induce dissociation on the ground electronic state under collisionless conditions. The channels that produced NO as a product were studied and compared among the target molecules to gain a better understanding of the isomerization of the nitroalkanes prior to dissociation. Trends in the total translational energy and NO rotational temperatures obtained from the images are discussed.

  5. Combined Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation with Ultraviolet Photodissociation for Ubiquitin Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Mohammad A.; Girod, Marion; MacAleese, Luke; Lemoine, Jérôme; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Herein we report the successful implementation of the consecutive and simultaneous photodissociation with high (213 nm) and low (10.6 μm) energy photons (HiLoPD, high-low photodissociation) on ubiquitin in a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Absorption of high-energy UV photon is dispersed over the whole protein and stimulates extensive C-Cα backbone fragmentation, whereas low-energy IR photon gradually increases the internal energy and thus preferentially dissociates the most labile amide (C-N) bonds. We noticed that simultaneous irradiation of UV and IR lasers on intact ubiquitin in a single MS/MS experiment provides a rich and well-balanced fragmentation array of a/x, b/y, and z ions. Moreover, secondary fragmentation from a/x and z ions leads to the formation of satellite side-chain ions (d, v, and w) and can help to distinguish isomeric residues in a protein. Implementation of high-low photodissociation in a high-resolution mass spectrometer may offer considerable benefits to promote a comprehensive portrait of protein characterization.

  6. Photoleucine Survives Backbone Cleavage by Electron Transfer Dissociation. A Near-UV Photodissociation and Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation Action Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Christopher J.; Martens, Jonathan; Marek, Aleš; Oomens, Jos; Tureček, František

    2016-07-01

    We report a combined experimental and computational study aimed at elucidating the structure of N-terminal fragment ions of the c type produced by electron transfer dissociation of photo-leucine (L*) peptide ions GL*GGKX. The c 4 ion from GL*GGK is found to retain an intact diazirine ring that undergoes selective photodissociation at 355 nm, followed by backbone cleavage. Infrared multiphoton dissociation action spectra point to the absence in the c 4 ion of a diazoalkane group that could be produced by thermal isomerization of vibrationally hot ions. The c 4 ion from ETD of GL*GGK is assigned an amide structure by a close match of the IRMPD action spectrum and calculated IR absorption. The energetics and kinetics of c 4 ion dissociations are discussed.

  7. Fragmentation of singly, doubly, and triply charged hydrogen deficient peptide radical cations in infrared multiphoton dissociation and electron induced dissociation.

    PubMed

    Kalli, Anastasia; Hess, Sonja

    2012-02-01

    Gas phase fragmentation of hydrogen deficient peptide radical cations continues to be an active area of research. While collision induced dissociation (CID) of singly charged species is widely examined, dissociation channels of singly and multiply charged radical cations in infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron induced dissociation (EID) have not been, so far, investigated. Here, we report on the gas phase dissociation of singly, doubly and triply charged hydrogen deficient peptide radicals, [M + nH]((n+1)+·) (n=0, 1, 2), in MS(3) IRMPD and EID and compare the observed fragmentation pathways to those obtained in MS(3) CID. Backbone fragmentation in MS(3) IRMPD and EID was highly dependent on the charge state of the radical precursor ions, whereas amino acid side chain cleavages were largely independent of the charge state selected for fragmentation. Cleavages at aromatic amino acids, either through side chain loss or backbone fragmentation, were significantly enhanced over other dissociation channels. For singly charged species, the MS(3) IRMPD and EID spectra were mainly governed by radical-driven dissociation. Fragmentation of doubly and triply charged radical cations proceeded through both radical- and charge-driven processes, resulting in the formation of a wide range of backbone product ions including, a-, b-, c-, y-, x-, and z-type. While similarities existed between MS(3) CID, IRMPD, and EID of the same species, several backbone product ions and side chain losses were unique for each activation method. Furthermore, dominant dissociation pathways in each spectrum were dependent on ion activation method, amino acid composition, and charge state selected for fragmentation.

  8. Infrared multiphoton dissociation of small-interfering RNA anions and cations.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Myles W; Li, Na; Ellington, Andrew D; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2010-04-01

    Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer is applied for the sequencing of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Both single-strand siRNAs and duplex siRNA were characterized by IRMPD, and the results were compared with that obtained by traditional ion trap-based collision induced dissociation (CID). The single-strand siRNA anions were observed to dissociate via cleavage of the 5' P-O bonds yielding c- and y-type product ions as well as undergo neutral base loss. Full sequence coverage of the siRNA anions was obtained by both IRMPD and CID. While the CID mass spectra were dominated by base loss ions, accounting for approximately 25% to 40% of the product ion current, these ions were eliminated through secondary dissociation by increasing the irradiation time in the IRMPD mass spectra to produce higher abundances of informative sequence ions. With longer irradiation times, however, internal ions corresponding to cleavage of two 5' P-O bonds began to populate the product ion mass spectra as well as higher abundances of [a - Base] and w-type ions. IRMPD of siRNA cations predominantly produced c- and y-type ions with minimal contributions of [a - Base] and w-type ions to the product ion current; the presence of only two complementary series of product ions in the IRMPD mass spectra simplified spectral interpretation. In addition, IRMPD produced high abundances of protonated nucleobases, [G + H](+), [A + H](+), and [C + H](+), which were not detected in the CID mass spectra due to the low-mass cut-off associated with conventional CID in ion traps. CID and IRMPD using short irradiation times of duplex siRNA resulted in strand separation, similar to the dissociation trends observed for duplex DNA. With longer irradiation times, however, the individual single-strands underwent secondary dissociation to yield informative sequence ions not obtained by CID.

  9. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation of Peptide Cations in a Dual Pressure Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Myles W.; Smith, Suncerae I.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Madsen, James A.; Coon, Joshua J.; Schwartz, Jae C.; Stafford, George C.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    A dual pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer was modified to permit infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in each of the two cells - the first a high pressure cell operated at nominally 5 × 10-3 Torr and the second a low pressure cell operated at nominally 3 × 10-4 Torr. When IRMPD was performed in the high pressure cell, most peptide ions did not undergo significant photodissociation; however, in the low pressure cell peptide cations were efficiently dissociated with less than 25 ms of IR irradiation regardless of charge state. IRMPD of peptide cations allowed the detection of low m/z product ions including the y1 fragments and immonium ions which are not typically observed by ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID). Photodissociation efficiencies of ~100% and MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry) efficiencies of greater than 60% were observed for both multiply and singly protonated peptides. In general, higher sequence coverage of peptides was obtained using IRMPD over CID. Further, greater than 90% of the product ion current in the IRMPD mass spectra of doubly charged peptide ions was composed of singly charged product ions compared to the CID mass spectra in which the abundances of the multiply and singly charged product ions were equally divided. Highly charged primary product ions also underwent efficient photodissociation to yield singly charged secondary product ions, thus simplifying the IRMPD product ion mass spectra. PMID:19739654

  10. Modification of a tandem mass-spectrometer for infrared multi-photon dissociation (IRMPD) of gas-phase ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Julie M.; Osburn, Sandra M.; van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Corcovilos, Theodore A.

    2015-05-01

    Infrared multi-photon dissociation (IRMPD) is a method of fragmenting molecular ions for structural analysis of the parent molecule. The target ions absorb many photons, increasing the vibrational state of the excited bonds until the dissociation occurs. We have modified a commercial linear quadrupole trap tandem mass spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher LTQ) by installing a removable high-vacuum window in the rear accessory plate of the mass spectrometer. The window allows us to inject laser light into the ion trap. The shape of the injected laser beam is optimized to match the volume of the ion cloud within the ion trap, improving IRMPD efficiency. We present preliminary data of the IRMPD of weakly bound uranyl-acetone and uranyl-dimethyl sulfoxide clusters using a 20-W pulsed CO2 laser (wavelength 10 . 6 μm), showing previously undetected fragmentation products.

  11. Cascade Dissociations of Peptide Cation-Radicals. Part2. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation and Mechanistic Studies of z-Ions from Pentapeptides

    PubMed Central

    Ledvina, Aaron R.; Chung, Thomas W.; Hui, Renjie; Coon, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Dissociations of z4 ions from pentapeptides AAXAR, where X = H, Y, F, W, and V, produce dominant z2 ions that account for >50% of the fragment ion intensity. The dissociation has been studied in detail by experiment and theory and found to involve several isomerization and bond-breaking steps. Isomerizations in z4 ions proceed by amide transcis rotations followed by radical-induced transfer of a β-hydrogen atom from the side chain, forming stable Cβ radical intermediates. These undergo rate-determining cleavage of the Cα—CO bond at the X residue followed by loss of the neutral AX fragment, forming x2 intermediates. The latter were detected by energy-resolved resonant excitation collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) experiments. The x2 intermediates undergo facile loss of HNCO to form z2 fragment ions, as also confirmed by energy-resolved CAD and IRMPD MS4 experiments. The loss of HNCO from the x2 ion from AAHWR is kinetically hampered by the Trp residue that traps the OCNH radical group in a cyclic intermediate. PMID:22669762

  12. Cascade dissociations of peptide cation-radicals. Part 2. Infrared multiphoton dissociation and mechanistic studies of z-ions from pentapeptides.

    PubMed

    Ledvina, Aaron R; Chung, Thomas W; Hui, Renjie; Coon, Joshua J; Tureček, Frantisek

    2012-08-01

    Dissociations of z(4) ions from pentapeptides AAXAR where X=H, Y, F, W, and V produce dominant z(2) ions that account for >50 % of the fragment ion intensity. The dissociation has been studied in detail by experiment and theory and found to involve several isomerization and bond-breaking steps. Isomerizations in z(4) ions proceed by amide trans→cis rotations followed by radical-induced transfer of a β-hydrogen atom from the side chain, forming stable C(β) radical intermediates. These undergo rate-determining cleavage of the C(α)-CO bond at the X residue followed by loss of the neutral AX fragment, forming x(2) intermediates. The latter were detected by energy-resolved resonant excitation collision-induced dissociation (CID) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) experiments. The x(2) intermediates undergo facile loss of HNCO to form z(2) fragment ions, as also confirmed by energy-resolved CID and IRMPD MS(4) experiments. The loss of HNCO from the x(2) ion from AAHWR is kinetically hampered by the Trp residue that traps the OCNH radical group in a cyclic intermediate. PMID:22669762

  13. Multiphoton dissociative ionization of CS+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Jochim, Bethany; Zohrabi, M.; Betsch, K. J.; Ablikim, U.; Berry, Ben; Severt, T.; Summers, A. M.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; Esry, B. D.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2015-05-01

    We have studied the dissociative photoionization of a CS+ molecular ion beam in the strong-field regime using <50 fs IR laser pulses (λ ~ 790 nm) from a 10 kHz, ~2 mJ (per pulse) Ti:Sapphire laser system. A coincidence three-dimensional momentum imaging method was used to measure all ions and neutrals formed during this multiphoton process. Two prominent channels were observed: charge-symmetric dissociation, yielding C+ + S+, and charge-asymmetric dissociation, yielding C + S2+. The differences between these two channels with reference to their relative production probability, energetics, and angular distributions is the focus of this work. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. BJ is also supported by DOE-SCGF (DE-AC05-06OR23100).

  14. Combined infrared multiphoton dissociation and electron capture dissociation with a hollow electron beam in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tsybin, Youri O; Witt, Matthias; Baykut, Gökhan; Kjeldsen, Frank; Håkansson, Per

    2003-01-01

    An electron injection system based on an indirectly heated ring-shaped dispenser cathode has been developed and installed in a 7 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. This new hardware design allows high-rate electron capture dissociation (ECD) to be carried out by a hollow electron beam coaxial with the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) trap. Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) can also be performed with an on-axis IR-laser beam passing through a hole at the centre of the dispenser cathode. Electron and photon irradiation times of the order of 100 ms are required for efficient ECD and IRMPD, respectively. As ECD and IRMPD generate fragments of different types (mostly c, z and b, y, respectively), complementary structural information that improves the characterization of peptides and proteins by FTICR mass spectrometry can be obtained. The developed technique enables the consecutive or simultaneous use of the ECD and IRMPD methods within a single FTICR experimental sequence and on the same ensemble of trapped ions in multistage tandem (MS/MS/MS or MS(n)) mass spectrometry. Flexible changing between ECD and IRMPD should present advantages for the analysis of protein digests separated by liquid chromatography prior to FTICRMS. Furthermore, ion activation by either electron or laser irradiation prior to, as well as after, dissociation by IRMPD or ECD increases the efficiency of ion fragmentation, including the w-type fragment ion formation, and improves sequencing of peptides with multiple disulfide bridges. The developed instrumental configuration is essential for combined ECD and IRMPD on FTICR mass spectrometers with limited access into the ICR trap. PMID:12872281

  15. Scaling-up13C separation by infrared multiphoton dissociation of the CHClF2/Br2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. C.; Wu, B.; Liu, J. L.; Jing, Y.; Chu, M. X.; Xue, L. L.; Ma, P. H.

    1995-06-01

    13C separation at a laboratory scaled-up level by the13C-selective InfraRed MultiPhoton Dissociation (IRMPD) of CHClF2 in the presence of Br2 has been investigated in a flow reactor. With a complete scaled-up system including a flow reactor, an industrially reliable TEA CO2 laser with longer pulse duration and a product-separation set-up for13C separation, it has been attempted to optimize the parameters suitable for large-scale production of the carbon isotope. The optimization of13C separation parameters, such as laser fluence, laser frequency and the partial pressure of CHClF2 and Br2 was tested under static conditions. By irradiation with longer pulses, a lower optimum pressure for a high13C-production rate was determined. Furthermore, the separation process was scaled in the flow system to examine the13C-production rates,13C atomic fractions in the CBr2F2 products and13C depletions in the CHClF2 reactants at different flow rates and laser repetition frequencies. The data obtained from the flow tests demonstrated a 40 mg/h production rate for CBr2F2 at 65%13C by using a 40 W (4 J, 10 Hz) laser beam focused with a lens of 120 cm focal length. If the reliable TEA CO2 laser is operated with 100 W (10 J, 10 Hz) output, the production rate of CBr2F2 for13C at 60% of 200 mg/h can be attained. The measurements of the spatial profile of the focused laser beam imply a 2 g/h production rate for the 60%13C product for an incident power of 200 W (20 J, 10 Hz).

  16. Structural characterization of arginine-vasopressin and lysine-vasopressin by Fourier- transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and infrared multiphoton dissociation.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Battista, Fabio; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Amarena, Concetta G; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Guerrieri, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and lysine-vasopressin (LVP) were analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) electrospray ionization (ESI) in the positive ion mode. LVP and AVP exhibited the protonated adduct [M+H](+) as the predominant ion at m/z 1056.43965 and at m/z 1084.44561, respectively. Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), using a CO(2) laser source at a wavelength of 10.6 μm, was applied to protonated vasopressin molecules. The IRMPD mass spectra presented abundant mass fragments essential for a complete structural information. Several fragment ions, shared between two target molecules, are discussed in detail. Some previously unpublished fragments were identified unambiguously utilizing the high resolution and accurate mass information provided by the FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The opening of the disulfide loop and the cleavage of the peptide bonds within the ring were observed even under low-energy fragmentation conditions. Coupling the high-performance FT-ICR mass spectrometer with IRMPD as a contemporary fragmentation technique proved to be very promising for the structural characterization of vasopressin.

  17. A comparison of the infrared multiphoton dissociation of C 3H 5C(CH 3) 3 and C 3H 5Ge(CH 3) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitneva, G. P.

    1999-07-01

    The CO 2 laser-induced multiphoton dissociation (MPD) of C 3H 5X(CH 3) 3 molecules (X=C or Ge) in the gas phase was studied. Average energy absorbed by molecules with C at dissociation threshold is higher than that for Ge-containing molecules. The dependence of fragmentation probability of X(CH 3) 3, formed from MPD of C 3H 5X(CH 3) 3, on the laser fluence is different for molecules with C or Ge. The distinctions in MPD of these molecules can be attributed to the heavy-atom effect on the vibrational energy transfer over the molecule.

  18. Infrared multiphoton induced isomerization and dissociation of FCN, ClCN, and BrCN in liquid Ar: A classical simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ming; Gong Jiangbin; Ma Ao; Rice, Stuart A.

    2007-10-14

    We report the results of classical mechanics simulations of infrared multiphoton induced control of isomerization of FCN, ClCN, and BrCN in liquid Ar, using ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for the XCN molecules. The field induced isomerization and fragmentation dynamics of these molecules are found to be different from that of HCN in liquid Ar. In particular, the scheme that provides complete controlled conversion of HCN to CNH in liquid Ar fails to generate complete conversion of XCN to CNX in liquid Ar for X=F,Cl,Br. It is suggested that the sources of the differences in behavior arise from differences in the spectra of vibrational nonlinear resonances in HCN and XCN and to the occurrence of monodromy in the dynamics of the XCN molecules.

  19. Free electron laser-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry facility for obtaining infrared multiphoton dissociation spectra of gaseous ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, Jose J.; Eyler, John R.; Oomens, Jos; Moore, David T.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Helden, Gert von; Meijer, Gerard; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.; Blakney, Gregory T.

    2005-02-01

    A Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer has been installed at a free electron laser (FEL) facility to obtain infrared absorption spectra of gas phase ions by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). The FEL provides continuously tunable infrared radiation over a broad range of the infrared spectrum, and the FT-ICR mass spectrometer, utilizing a 4.7 Tesla superconducting magnet, permits facile formation, isolation, trapping, and high-mass resolution detection of a wide range of ion classes. A description of the instrumentation and experimental parameters for these experiments is presented along with preliminary IRMPD spectra of the singly-charged chromium-bound dimer of diethyl ether (Cr(C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O){sub 2}{sup +}) and the fluorene molecular ion (C{sub 13}H{sub 10}{sup +}). Also presented is a brief comparison of the fluorene cation spectrum obtained by the FT-ICR-FEL with an earlier spectrum recorded using a quadrupole ion trap (QIT)

  20. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation Spectroscopy of a Gas-Phase Complex of Uranyl and 3-Oxa-Glutaramide: An Extreme Red-Shift of the [O=U=O]²⁺ Asymmetric Stretch

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K.; Hu, Hanshi; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Li, Jun

    2015-04-09

    The gas-phase complex UO₂(TMOGA)₂²⁺ (TMOGA = tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide) prepared by electrospray ionization was characterized by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The IRMPD spectrum from 700–1800 cm⁻¹ was interpreted using a computational study based on density functional theory. The predicted vibrational frequencies are in good agreement with the measured values, with an average deviation of only 8 cm⁻¹ (<1%) and a maximum deviation of 21 cm⁻¹ (<2%). The only IR peak assigned to the linear uranyl moiety was the asymmetric ν₃ mode, which appeared at 965 cm⁻¹ and was predicted by DFT as 953 cm⁻¹. This ν₃ frequency is red-shifted relative to bare uranyl, UO₂²⁺, by ca. 150 cm⁻¹ due to electron donation from the TMOGA ligands. Based on the degree of red-shifting, it is inferred that two TMOGA oxygen-donor ligands have a greater effective gas basicity than the four monodentate acetone ligands in UO₂(acetone)₄²⁺. The uranyl ν₃ frequency was also computed for uranyl coordinated by two TMGA ligands, in which the central Oether of TMOGA has been replaced by CH₂. The computed ν₃ for UO₂(TMGA)₂²⁺, 950 cm⁻¹, is essentially the same as that for UO₂(TMOGA)₂²⁺, suggesting that electron donation to uranyl from the Oether of TMOGA is minor. The computed ν₃ asymmetric stretching frequencies for the three actinyl complexes, UO₂(TMOGA)₂²⁺, NpO₂(TMOGA)₂²⁺ and PuO₂(TMOGA)₂²⁺, are comparable. This similarity is discussed in the context of the relationship between ν₃ and intrinsic actinide-oxygen bond energies in actinyl complexes.

  1. Infrared multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy of a gas-phase complex of uranyl and 3-oxa-glutaramide: an extreme red-shift of the [O═U═O](2+) asymmetric stretch.

    PubMed

    Gibson, John K; Hu, Han-Shi; Van Stipdonk, Michael J; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Li, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The gas-phase complex UO2(TMOGA)2(2+) (TMOGA = tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide) prepared by electrospray ionization was characterized by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The IRMPD spectrum from 700-1800 cm(-1) was interpreted using a computational study based on density functional theory. The predicted vibrational frequencies are in good agreement with the measured values, with an average deviation of only 8 cm(-1) (<1%) and a maximum deviation of 21 cm(-1) (<2%). The only IR peak assigned to the linear uranyl moiety was the asymmetric ν3 mode, which appeared at 965 cm(-1) and was predicted by DFT as 953 cm(-1). This ν3 frequency is red-shifted relative to bare uranyl, UO2(2+), by ca. 150 cm(-1) due to electron donation from the TMOGA ligands. Based on the degree of red-shifting, it is inferred that two TMOGA oxygen-donor ligands have a greater effective gas basicity than the four monodentate acetone ligands in UO2(acetone)4(2+). The uranyl ν3 frequency was also computed for uranyl coordinated by two TMGA ligands, in which the central Oether of TMOGA has been replaced by CH2. The computed ν3 for UO2(TMGA)2(2+), 950 cm(-1), is essentially the same as that for UO2(TMOGA)2(2+), suggesting that electron donation to uranyl from the Oether of TMOGA is minor. The computed ν3 asymmetric stretching frequencies for the three actinyl complexes, UO2(TMOGA)2(2+), NpO2(TMOGA)2(2+) and PuO2(TMOGA)2(2+), are comparable. This similarity is discussed in the context of the relationship between ν3 and intrinsic actinide-oxygen bond energies in actinyl complexes.

  2. Identification of glucosinolates in capers by LC-ESI-hybrid linear ion trap with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-LTQ-FTICR MS) and infrared multiphoton dissociation.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Lelario, Filomena; Battista, Fabio Giuseppe; Bufo, Sabino A; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2012-09-01

    An liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method using electrospray ionization in negative ion mode coupled with a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was applied to characterize of intact glucosinolates (GLSs) in crude sample extracts of wild bud flowers of Capparis spinosa (Capparis species, family Capparaceae). Structural information of GLSs was obtained upon precursor ions' isolation within the FTICR trapping cell and subsequent fragmentation induced by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD). Such a fragmentation was found very useful in terms of chemical identification of all precursor ions [M-H](-) including sulfur-rich GLSs reported here for the first time. Along with most common GLSs already found in capers such as glucocapparin, isopropyl/n-propyl-GLS, mercapto-glucocapparin, and two indolic GLS, i.e., 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin, the occurrence of the uncommon glycinyl-glucocapparin as well as two sulfur-rich GLSs is reported. IRMPD showed an increased selectivity towards disulfide bond cleavages with thiol migration, suggesting the side chain structure of non-targeted compounds, i.e., disulfanyl-glucocapparin and trisulfanyl-glucocapparin. Glucocapparin [2.05 ± 0.25 mg/g, dry weight (dw)] was the most abundant GLS, followed by glucobrassicin (232 ± 18 µg/g, dw) and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin (89 ± 12 µg/g, dw). All other compounds were present at very low content ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 µg/g dw.

  3. Electron-nuclear energy sharing in above-threshold multiphoton dissociative ionization of H2.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Kunitski, M; Pitzer, M; Trinter, F; Schmidt, L Ph H; Jahnke, T; Magrakvelidze, M; Madsen, C B; Madsen, L B; Thumm, U; Dörner, R

    2013-07-12

    We report experimental observation of the energy sharing between electron and nuclei in above-threshold multiphoton dissociative ionization of H2 by strong laser fields. The absorbed photon energy is shared between the ejected electron and nuclei in a correlated fashion, resulting in multiple diagonal lines in their joint energy spectrum governed by the energy conservation of all fragment particles.

  4. Vibrationally resolved electron-nuclear energy sharing in above-threshold multiphoton dissociation of CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xufei; Li, Min; Shao, Yun; Liu, Ming-Ming; Xie, Xiguo; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; Liu, Yunquan

    2016-07-01

    We study the photon energy sharing between the photoelectron and the nuclei in the process of above-threshold multiphoton dissociative ionization of CO molecules by measuring the joint energy spectra. The experimental observation shows that the electron-nuclear energy sharing strongly depends on the vibrational state. The experimental observation shows that both the energy deposited to the nuclei of C O+ and the emitted photoelectron decrease with increasing the vibrational level. Through studying the vibrationally resolved nuclear kinetic energy release and photoelectron energy spectra at different laser intensities, for each vibrational level of C O+ , the nuclei always tend to take the same amount of energy in every vibrational level regardless of the laser intensity, while the energy deposited to the photoelectron varies with respect to the laser intensity because of the ponderomotive shifted energy and the distinct dissociative ionization mechanisms.

  5. Selective IR multiphoton dissociation of CF{sub 3}I in a nonequilibrium pressure shock

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Grigorii N; Mochalov, S A; Petin, A N

    2001-03-31

    The isotopically selective IR multiphoton dissociation of CF{sub 3}I is studied in a nonequilibrium pressure shock formed in the interaction of a pulsed gas-dynamically cooled molecular flow with a solid surface. The yield of a C{sub 2}F{sub 6} product and its enrichment factor by the {sup 13}C isotope were measured experimentally. The time-of-flight spectra of CF{sub 3}I were obtained in the flow interacting with the surface and in an unperturbed flow. The spectral dependences of the yield of a C{sub 2}F{sub 6} product in an unperturbed flow and in a pressure shock were studied along with the process selectivity. It was shown that the efficiency of isotopically selective molecule dissociation can be significantly increased due to the formation of a pressure shock. The origin of the results observed are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation of Protonated Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fentabil, Messele A.; Daneshfar, Rambod; Kitova, Elena N.; Klassen, John S.

    2011-12-01

    The dissociation pathways, kinetics, and energetics of protonated oligosaccharides in the gas phase were investigated using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD). Time-resolved BIRD measurements were performed on singly protonated ions of cellohexaose (Cel6), which is composed of β-(1 → 4)-linked glucopyranose rings, and five malto-oligosaccharides (Malx, where x = 4-8), which are composed of α-(1 → 4)-linked glucopyranose units. At the temperatures investigated (85-160 °C), the oligosaccharides dissociate at the glycosidic linkages or by the loss of a water molecule to produce B- or Y-type ions. The Y ions dissociate to smaller Y or B ions, while the B ions yield exclusively smaller B ions. The sequential loss of water molecules from the smallest B ions (B1 and B2) also occurs. Rate constants for dissociation of the protonated oligosaccharides and the corresponding Arrhenius activation parameters (Ea and A) were determined. The Ea and A-factors measured for protonated Malx (x > 4) are indistinguishable within error (~19 kcal mol-1, 1010 s-1), which is consistent with the ions being in the rapid energy exchange limit. In contrast, the Arrhenius parameters for protonated Cel6 (24 kcal mol-1, 1012 s-1) are significantly larger. These results indicate that both the energy and entropy changes associated with the glycosidic bond cleavage are sensitive to the anomeric configuration. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that formation of B and Y ions occurs through a common dissociation mechanism, with the position of the proton establishing whether a B or Y ion is formed upon glycosidic bond cleavage.

  7. The Effect of the Argon Carrier Gas in the Multiphoton Dissociation-Ionization of Tetracene

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Juan Carlos; Román, Alejandro San; Guerrero, Alfonso; Álvarez, Ignacio; Cisneros, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    The multiphoton dissociation-ionization of tetracene at 355 nm using 6.5 nanosecond laser pulses, with and without argon as a carrier gas (CG), has been studied and compared. Ion fragments were analyzed in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). The results show that the dynamic of photodissociation at ∼1010 W cm−2 intensities is strongly influenced by the CG. The suppression of fragmentation channels primarily those relating to the formation of the CHm+ (m = 2, 4), C2H4+ and C5H4+2 ions. CH5+ and CH6+ were observed which have not been reported before in photodissociation tetracene experiments. PMID:19325732

  8. Infrared multiphoton absorption and reaction of 2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Setser, D.W.; Lee, T.S.; Danen, W.C.

    1985-12-19

    The infrared multiphoton absorption and dissociation of CF/sub 3/CH/sub 2/Cl has been studied by measuring the dependence of the reaction probability and product distribution on the laser fluence and bath gas pressure. Absorption measurements were performed at two laser frequencies to establish the absorbed laser energy; the absorption measurements displayed Beer's law behavior except at very low laser fluence. Sensitized reactions with SiF/sub 4/ were conducted for comparison to the direct laser-induced process; the effective temperature within the irradiated volume for the SiF/sub 4/ experiments was determined as a function of incident laser energy. The three main reaction channels are four-centered HF elimination, three-centered HCl elimination, and C-Cl homolysis; the product ratios were very dependent on the incident laser fluence. The infrared laser-induced energy absorption and reaction processes of CF/sub 3/CH/sub 3/, CF/sub 3/CH/sub 2/Cl, and CF/sub 3/CH/sub 2/Br are compared. The data provide evidence for a fluence-dependent fractionation of absorbed laser energy producing a two-component energy distribution for the former two compounds. 24 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Spontaneous Raman and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy of Infrared Multiphoton-Excited Molecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    This thesis is a study of infrared multiphoton excitation using spontaneous and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. The spontaneous Raman measurements provide information on the intramolecular vibrational energy distribution over the different modes. This information is complemented by the CARS measurements which make it possible to perform state-specific studies of the vibrational and rotational distribution. For SF_6, the time-resolved spontaneous Raman measurements show complete equilibrium of energy from the pump mode to other vibrational modes. In contrast, for smaller molecules such as CF_2 Cl_2, a nonthermal energy distribution is observed after excitation. These measurements therefore disprove the general belief that the intramolecular energy distribution in infrared multiphoton molecules is always in equilibrium. The CARS measurements on bulk OCS provide values for the anharmonicities and for the energy transfer rates between modes. In addition the spectra show a very fast relaxation of the vibrational energy within the nu_2 mode. For SO_2 , the CARS measurements show that it is the nu_1 symmetric stretching mode and not the overtone excitation of the nu_2 bending mode that is pumped by the CO_2 laser. Moreover, it is shown that the hot bands of SO_2 have been incorrectly assigned up to now. Corrected values for the anharmonicities are given. In the second half of the thesis, a pulsed supersonic molecular beam is added to the infrared multiphoton excitation study. Combined with the state-specific CARS technique, the collisionless and internally cooled molecules in the beam open the door to a more detailed study of the excitation process. Pure rotational CARS is used to study the change in rotational distribution of ethylene due to infrared excitation in the beam. The appearance of rotational holes reveal which rotational states are pumped by the CO _2 laser. For OCS the evolution of the overtone population into a thermal distribution is studied

  10. Multiphoton infrared isotope separation using the MkIII FEL system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A. K.; Chesnokov, E. N.; Gorelik, S. R.; Molin, Yu. N.; Straub, K. D.; Szarmes, E. B.; Madey, J. M. J.

    1998-09-01

    The dissociation of polyatomic molecules induced by the absorption of multiple, infrared photons has been studied extensively beginning in the mid-1970's using multi-line molecular laser sources and tunable optical parametric oscillators. In 1995, we began a series of experiments to explore the use of the MkIII infrared FEL in studies of the dissociation of formic acid, nitromethane, ethyl chloride and chlorodifluoromethane in the gas phase, including measurements of isotopic selectivity [1-5].

  11. Multiphoton dissociation/ionization of CHCl3 and CFCl3 at 355 nm: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Vatsa, R K; Maity, D K; Kulshreshtha, S K

    2004-01-01

    Nonresonant laser-induced multiphoton dissociation/ionization studies have been conducted for trichloromethane (CHCl3) and trichlorofluoromethane (CFCl3) at 355 nm, using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). The molecular ion signal was found to be missing for both these compounds, and very similar fragmentation patterns were observed. Ab initio molecular electronic structure calculations were performed to help understand the fragmentation pattern of these molecules in the laser field. The energetics of different dissociation channels in the ground states of [CHCl3]+*, [CHCl2]+, [CFCl3]+* and [CFCl2]+, as well as neutral CHCl3, CHCl2*, CFCl3 and CFCl2* systems, were calculated. On comparing theoretical results with experimentally observed ion signals and their relative abundances in TOFMS, it is inferred that these molecules undergo sequential Cl atom elimination followed by photoionization of the fragments. The absence of [CFCl]+ has been interpreted on the basis of resonant A state-mediated two-photon absorption by CFCl, and the subsequent prompt photodissociation processes occurring for this state. PMID:15386631

  12. Engineering Studies of a Pilot Plant for Laser Isotope Separation of CARBON-13 by Multiphoton Dissociation of Chlorodifluoromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmetli, Bulent Ahmet

    Recent research in laser isotope separation by multiphoton dissociation (LISMPD) of ^{13 }C suggests that an LISMPD commercial process is more economical than the cryogenic CO distillation technology currently used to meet most of the world's ^ {13}C demand. In this dissertation, experimental studies of an engineering process for LISMPD of polyatomic molecules is examined. The experimental results have been obtained by MPD of chlorodifluoromethane (CF_2 HCl) to yield ^{13}C -enriched tetrafluoroethylene rm(C_2F _4). Emphasis is on research leading to the development of a practical chemical plant for the preparation of stable isotopes by this method. The experimental program has achieved the design, construction, and operation of a laboratory-scale ^{13}C separation apparatus and parametric dependences of enrichment factors and dissociated fractions. In this experiment, the reactant gas, industrial grade CF_2HCl, flows continuously along the axis of a stainless steel reaction cell. The beam of a commercial CO_2 TEA laser, delivering up to 3 J/pulse at a single wavelength, is focused into the cell to induce isotope-selective multiphoton dissociation. The ^{13}C-enriched reaction product, rm C_2F_4, is analyzed by mass spectroscopy for its isotopic content. Typical production rates of the setup are about 10 g/year ^{13}C at an enrichment of 15% or 1 g/year at an enrichment of 65%. The results of a detailed cost analysis, which takes into account different reaction conditions and laser types, showed that at production rates of 7,000 kg per year, the cost of ^{13}C can be as low as 4/g. This figure is about an order of magnitude less than the cost of ^13 C obtained by cryogenic distillation of CO. The design, construction, and operation of a CO _2 MOPA (Master Oscillator/ Power Amplifier) laser is proposed because a MOPA combines the advantages of favorable isotope separation reaction conditions of TEA lasers and the cheaper photons of cw discharges. Analytical

  13. Multiphoton dissociation of some volatile uranyl complexes. II. Frequency and isotopic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeberhardt, J. E.; Knott, R. B.; Pryor, A. W.

    1982-11-01

    Taking "discrimination" to mean the comparative dissociation rates observed in identical experiments on already separated isotopes. and "enrichment" to refer to the relative constitution of the dissociated product from an isotopic mixture, the following observations are made for the UO 2(hfacac) 2 compounds described in part I: (i) Both for ligand detachment and for permanent dissociation, the experimental frequency response is in agreement with expectations; this leads one to the prediction that, for 235U- 238U, the discrmination will be ≈2.0. For ligand detachment it is assumed that an enrichment of this order is attainable. (ii) For permanent dissociation, we have found that discrimination ≈2 is experirmentally observed. (iii) The phenomena of two-laser dissociation confirm the ligand-detachment hypothesis and slightly improve the discrimination. (iv) An extensive series of uranium enrichment experiments has indicated that enrichment was <1.10 under a wide range of conditions. (v) For mixed oxygen isotopes, where the isotopic variants are completely separated in excitation, the enrichment nevertheless remains low, even under conditions of very low sample pressure in a high bath pressure. (vi) These oxygen-isotope data cannot be explained by assuming that the reaction leading to permanent dissociation is unimolecular and a "chain reaction" is suggested.

  14. Simulated infrared spectra of triflic acid during proton dissociation.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Patrick; Beaudoin, Alexandre; Chapaton, Thomas; Spino, Claude; Soldera, Armand

    2012-05-01

    Vibrational analysis of triflic acid (TfOH) at different water uptakes was conducted. This molecule mimics the sulfonate end of the Nafion side-chain. As the proton leaves the sulfonic acid group, structural changes within the Nafion side-chain take place. They are revealed by signal shifts in the infrared spectrum. Molecular modeling is used to follow structural modifications that occur during proton dissociation. To confirm the accuracy of the proposed structures, infrared spectra were computed via quantum chemical modeling based on density functional theory. The requirement to use additional diffuse functions in the basis set is discussed. Comparison between simulated infrared spectra of 1 and 2 acid molecules with different water contents and experimental data was performed. An accurate description of infrared spectra for systems containing 2 TfOH was obtained.

  15. Signal flow graph approach to multiphoton analysis and transient characteristics of mode-locked far infrared lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.K.

    1981-01-01

    The signal flow graph application to the analysis of multiphoton interactions has been developed in this study. It is shown that the Schroedinger equation for the multiphoton interactions can be represented as signal flow graphs in the semiclassical limit. A few examples are given to illustrate the construction, manipulation and application of the graphs. Also, the generation of temporally short far infrared pulses and their evolution in time and space have been examined experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that the far infrared pulsewidth can be as short as one-half the pump pulsewidth which is already shorter than the molecular relaxation times. In particular, the far infrared pulse energy is found to be scaled in z as e..sqrt..gz, contrary to the Beer's law growth, e/sup gz/.

  16. ARTICLES: Isotope separation by multiphoton dissociation of molecules using high-power CO2 laser radiation. Scaling of the process for carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdushelishvili, G. I.; Avatkov, O. N.; Bagratashvili, Viktor N.; Baranov, V. Yu; Bakhtadze, A. B.; Velikhov, E. P.; Vetsko, V. M.; Gverdtsiteli, I. G.; Dolzhikov, V. S.; Esadze, G. G.; Kazakov, S. A.; Kolomiĭskiĭ, Yu R.; Letokhov, V. S.; Pigul'skiĭ, S. V.; Pis'mennyĭ, V. D.; Ryabov, Evgenii A.; Tkeshelashvili, G. I.

    1982-04-01

    Data are presented on multiphoton dissociation of halogenated methanes, CF3I and CF3Br, in a pulsed CO2 laser field in the single-pulse irradiation regime. It is shown that the high parameters of an elementary separation event (dissociation yield and selectivity, quantum efficiency) for these molecules can be used to achieve efficient laser separation of the carbon isotopes 12C and 13C. An analysis is made of problems involved in organizing the chemical cycle when the process is scaled up. A description is given of an apparatus for scaled-up laser isotope separation, including a pulse-periodic CO2 laser with a kilowatt average power, and a laser separation cell. Experiments carried out using this apparatus showed that the high parameters obtained in the single-pulse regime can also be achieved using this design and a yield rate comparable with that of traditional separation systems can be achieved for fairly low energy losses. These results make it possible to develop a commercial system for laser isotope separation using multiphoton dissociation of molecules.

  17. Separation of isotopes of carbon upon the multiphoton single-frequency dissociation of chlorodifluoromethane molecules in the presence of hydrogen iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Velichko, A.M.; Nadeikin, A.A.; Nikitin, A.I.; Pimenova, N.V.; Tal'roze, V.L.

    1987-11-01

    Chlorodifluoromethane (CF/sub 2/HCl) is considered to be one of the the promising substances for setting up the industrial process of the laser separation /sup 12/C and /sup 13/C isotopes. The secondary chemical processes accompanying the multiphoton dissociation of chlorodifluoromethane in the presence of hydrogen iodide have been investigated. The values of the separation coefficients of the isotopes of carbon in the products CF/sub 2/HI and CF/sub 2/H/sub 2/ have been obtained.

  18. Multiphoton absorption in germanium using pulsed infrared free-electron laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, D.; Gregory, J. M.; Feldman, L. C.; Tolk, N. H.; Cohen, P. I.

    2011-05-01

    We report wavelength- and intensity-dependent transmission measurements of intense mid-infrared radiation from the Vanderbilt free-electron laser in single-crystal Ge(100) in the wavelength range of 2.8-5.2 μm. This range accesses both the direct and indirect energy gaps in Ge, requiring in each case either two or three photons (2PA or 3PA) for absorption. Large changes in the multiphoton absorption rate are seen at the direct-to-indirect and 2PA-to-3PA transitions. Photon interactions are dominated by free-carrier absorption (FCA), primarily due to holes. The entire absorption process is modeled with the two- and three-photon absorption coefficients (β and γ) as fitting parameters. Using newly measured values of the low-intensity FCA cross sections, we find a best fit to the data at 2.8 μm that is in agreement with theory and previous measurements. We report a ratio of 175 for β across the direct-to-indirect transition, and a ratio of 5 across the same transition for γ. These ratios are independent of systematic variations in free-carrier cross sections and beam diameter.

  19. Infrared FEL photochemistry: Multiple-photon dissociation of Freon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Newnam, B.E.; Early, J.W.; Lyman, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Wavelength tunability, synchrotron sidebands, and picosecond pulse structure are inherent FEL characteristics that should be advantageous for photochemistry involving infrared multiple-photon photodissociation. Tuned to an absorption resonance, the FEL sideband structure will overlap the broad, excited-state spectral absorption and should lead to enhanced dissociation. The Los Alamos APEX FEL was operated with and without sidebands to test this hypothesis on CFCl{sub 3} (Freon 11), an inert chlorofluorocarbon widely used in refrigeration systems and one of the gases implicated as depleting the ozone in the Earth`s stratospheric layer. The FEL wavelength was set at the C-Cl stretch absorption resonance at 11.8-{mu}m, the oscillator cavity length was detuned first to minimize and then to maximize the spectral bandwidth, and the beam was focused through a pair of test cells (1.0 Torr Freon+1.7 Torr air). Comparison of final and initial absorbance spectra indicated the CFCl{sub 3} photodissociation yield was 1.2% for the cell exposed with sideband spectra (3% FWHM) and 9-ns micropulse separation. Negligible effect was seen without sidebands, albeit at lower total beam fluence. Although the result of this single experiment is not large enough to be conclusive, it does provide a basis for optimizing the FEL temporal and spectral parameters to attain higher photodissociation yield in future tests.

  20. All-near-infrared multiphoton microscopy interrogates intact tissues at deeper imaging depths than conventional single- and two-photon near-infrared excitation microscopes.

    PubMed

    Sarder, Pinaki; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Akers, Walter J; Tang, Rui; Sudlow, Gail P; Egbulefu, Christopher; Achilefu, Samuel

    2013-10-01

    The era of molecular medicine has ushered in the development of microscopic methods that can report molecular processes in thick tissues with high spatial resolution. A commonality in deep-tissue microscopy is the use of near-infrared (NIR) lasers with single- or multiphoton excitations. However, the relationship between different NIR excitation microscopic techniques and the imaging depths in tissue has not been established. We compared such depth limits for three NIR excitation techniques: NIR single-photon confocal microscopy (NIR SPCM), NIR multiphoton excitation with visible detection (NIR/VIS MPM), and all-NIR multiphoton excitation with NIR detection (NIR/NIR MPM). Homologous cyanine dyes provided the fluorescence. Intact kidneys were harvested after administration of kidney-clearing cyanine dyes in mice. NIR SPCM and NIR/VIS MPM achieved similar maximum imaging depth of ∼100 μm. The NIR/NIR MPM enabled greater than fivefold imaging depth (>500 μm) using the harvested kidneys. Although the NIR/NIR MPM used 1550-nm excitation where water absorption is relatively high, cell viability and histology studies demonstrate that the laser did not induce photothermal damage at the low laser powers used for the kidney imaging. This study provides guidance on the imaging depth capabilities of NIR excitation-based microscopic techniques and reveals the potential to multiplex information using these platforms.

  1. Femtosecond infrared intrastromal ablation and backscattering-mode adaptive-optics multiphoton microscopy in chicken corneas

    PubMed Central

    Gualda, Emilio J.; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Martínez-García, M. Carmen; Moreno, Pablo; Hernández-Toro, Juan; Roso, Luis; Artal, Pablo; Bueno, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of femtosecond (fs) laser intrastromal ablation was evaluated with backscattering-mode adaptive-optics multiphoton microscopy in ex vivo chicken corneas. The pulse energy of the fs source used for ablation was set to generate two different ablation patterns within the corneal stroma at a certain depth. Intrastromal patterns were imaged with a custom adaptive-optics multiphoton microscope to determine the accuracy of the procedure and verify the outcomes. This study demonstrates the potential of using fs pulses as surgical and monitoring techniques to systematically investigate intratissue ablation. Further refinement of the experimental system by combining both functions into a single fs laser system would be the basis to establish new techniques capable of monitoring corneal surgery without labeling in real-time. Since the backscattering configuration has also been optimized, future in vivo implementations would also be of interest in clinical environments involving corneal ablation procedures. PMID:22076258

  2. Specific local induction of DNA strand breaks by infrared multi-photon absorption

    PubMed Central

    Träutlein, D.; Deibler, M.; Leitenstorfer, A.; Ferrando-May, E.

    2010-01-01

    Highly confined DNA damage by femtosecond laser irradiation currently arises as a powerful tool to understand DNA repair in live cells as a function of space and time. However, the specificity with respect to damage type is limited. Here, we present an irradiation procedure based on a widely tunable Er/Yb : fiber femtosecond laser source that favors the formation of DNA strand breaks over that of UV photoproducts by more than one order of magnitude. We explain this selectivity with the different power dependence of the reactions generating strand breaks, mainly involving reactive radical intermediates, and the direct photochemical process leading to UV-photoproducts. Thus, localized multi-photon excitation with a wavelength longer than 1 µm allows for the selective production of DNA strand breaks at sub-micrometer spatial resolution in the absence of photosensitizers. PMID:19906733

  3. Picosecond dissociation of amyloid fibrils with infrared laser: A nonequilibrium simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang Viet, Man; Derreumaux, Philippe; Li, Mai Suan; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste; Nguyen, Phuong H.

    2015-10-01

    Recently, mid-infrared free-electron laser technology has been developed to dissociate amyloid fibrils. Here, we present a theoretical framework for this type of experiment based on laser-induced nonequilibrium all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the fibril is destroyed due to the strong resonance between its amide I vibrational modes and the laser field. The effects of laser irradiation are determined by a balance between fibril formation and dissociation. While the overall rearrangements of the fibril finish over short time scales, the interaction between the peptides and the solvent continues over much longer times indicating that the waters play an important role in the dissociation process. Our results thus provide new insights into amyloid fibril dissociation by laser techniques and open up new venues to investigate the complex phenomena associated with amyloidogenesis.

  4. Picosecond dissociation of amyloid fibrils with infrared laser: A nonequilibrium simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang Viet, Man; Roland, Christopher Sagui, Celeste; Derreumaux, Philippe; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-10-21

    Recently, mid-infrared free-electron laser technology has been developed to dissociate amyloid fibrils. Here, we present a theoretical framework for this type of experiment based on laser-induced nonequilibrium all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the fibril is destroyed due to the strong resonance between its amide I vibrational modes and the laser field. The effects of laser irradiation are determined by a balance between fibril formation and dissociation. While the overall rearrangements of the fibril finish over short time scales, the interaction between the peptides and the solvent continues over much longer times indicating that the waters play an important role in the dissociation process. Our results thus provide new insights into amyloid fibril dissociation by laser techniques and open up new venues to investigate the complex phenomena associated with amyloidogenesis.

  5. Infrared laser-based monitoring of the silane dissociation during deposition of silicon thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlome, R.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C.

    2009-05-18

    The silane dissociation efficiency, or depletion fraction, is an important plasma parameter by means of which the film growth rate and the amorphous-to-microcrystalline silicon transition regime can be monitored in situ. In this letter we implement a homebuilt quantum cascade laser-based absorption spectrometer to measure the silane dissociation efficiency in an industrial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This infrared laser-based diagnostic technique is compact, sensitive, and nonintrusive. Its resolution is good enough to resolve Doppler-broadened rotovibrational absorption lines of silane. The latter feature various absorption strengths, thereby enabling depletion measurements over a wide range of process conditions.

  6. Kinetics of Mo atom formation and consumption in UV multiphoton dissociation of Mo(CO)6 at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, A. V.; Gurentsov, E. V.; Musikhin, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study is devoted to the investigation of molybdenum atom formation and consumption after UV laser pulse photolysis of molybdenum hexacarbonyl vapor diluted by various bath gases. The processes of formation and consumption of Mo atoms were observed using atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy (ARAS) technique at the Mo-I resonance line (λ = 386.41 nm) providing the time profiles of molybdenum atoms concentration in the ground state. The increase of Mo atoms concentration was detected immediately after laser pulse and was determined mainly by spontaneous radiative quenching of excited Mo atoms produced in photolysis of molybdenum hexacarbonyl. It was found that collision quenching with bath gas molecules played a minor role. The following decrease of Mo atoms concentration after a maximum was attributed to the reactions of recombination, cluster formation and other secondary reactions. Based on the experimental data obtained, the kinetic mechanism of Mo atoms formation and consumption in photo-dissociation of Mo(CO)6 was developed. The rate constants of basic reactions responsible for this mechanism were estimated using the frequencies of gas-kinetics collisions or were extracted directly from experimental data by the fitting of measured and calculated time profiles of Mo atoms concentration.

  7. Ab initio non-Born-Oppenheimer simulations of rescattering dissociation of H2 in strong infrared laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Chao; He, Feng

    2014-11-01

    We simulate the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and observe the rescattering dissociation of H2 in strong infrared laser fields. Two dissociation pathways are identified, i.e., the dissociation of H2+ in the 2 p σu state and the dissociation of H2 in doubly excited states. The former accounts for larger proportions as the rescattering energy is larger. The kinetic energy release of dissociative fragments reflects the temporal internuclear distance at the moment the rescattering happens.

  8. Structural identification of electron transfer dissociation products in mass spectrometry using infrared ion spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Jonathan; Grzetic, Josipa; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry occupies a principle place among modern analytical methods and drives many developments in the ‘omics' sciences. Electron attachment induced dissociation methods, as alternatives for collision-induced dissociation have profoundly influenced the field of proteomics, enabling among others the top-down sequencing of entire proteins and the analysis of post-translational modifications. The technique, however, produces more complex mass spectra and its radical-driven reaction mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate the facile structural characterization of electron transfer dissociation generated peptide fragments by infrared ion spectroscopy using the tunable free-electron laser FELIX, aiding the elucidation of the underlying dissociation mechanisms. We apply this method to verify and revise previously proposed product ion structures for an often studied model tryptic peptide, [AlaAlaHisAlaArg+2H]2+. Comparing experiment with theory reveals that structures that would be assigned using only theoretical thermodynamic considerations often do not correspond to the experimentally sampled species. PMID:27277826

  9. Resonance multiphoton ionization and dissociation of dimethyl ether via the {\\skew1\\tilde{\\rm C}^{\\prime}}, {\\skew1\\tilde{\\rm C}} and \\tilde{\\rm B} states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Ospino, E.; García, G.; Guerrero, A.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.

    2005-01-01

    The three-photon resonance four-photon ionization and dissociation spectra of dimethyl ether (DME) are presented in the wavelength range 450-550 nm at 1 nm intervals. The (3+1) REMPI spectra show three prominent bands corresponding to the \\tildeB \\leftarrow \\skew1\\tildeX, {\\skew1\\tildeC} \\leftarrow \\skew1\\tildeX and {\\skew1\\tildeC^{\\prime}} \\leftarrow \\skew1\\tildeX transitions with origins at 61 457 cm-1 (7.615 eV), 59 055 cm-1 (7.322 eV) and 58 010 cm-1 (7.194 eV), respectively. Several ionized species, CH3+, CHnO+ (n = 1-3) and CH3OCH3+, are observed in the region of wavelengths studied here. In order to compare the results, a shorter wavelength multiphoton dissociation and ionization of DME at 355 nm is also presented. At this wavelength, DME undergoes neutral dissociation to CH3 and CH3O and each fragment is then ionized by multiphoton absorption. The fragmentation at 355 nm is very intense and only small fragments such as CH3+, CHO+, CH2+, CH+ and C+ ions are observed. The measurement of photoelectron energy allows us to establish that the DME ionization potential is at least 9.55 ± 0.15 eV. The experiments were performed using a Nd:YAG-OPO (optical parametric oscillator) tunable laser system coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a hemispherical electron energy analyser.

  10. MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    2002-07-05

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES was held at Tilton School, Tilton, NH. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  11. Infrared Ion Spectroscopy at Felix: Applications in Peptide Dissociation and Analytical Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomens, Jos

    2016-06-01

    Infrared free electron lasers such as those in Paris, Berlin and Nijmegen have been at the forefront of the development of infrared ion spectroscopy. In this contribution, I will give an overview of new developments in IR spectroscopy of stored ions at the FELIX Laboratory. In particular, I will focus on recent developments made possible by the coupling of a new commercial ion trap mass spectrometer to the FELIX beamline. The possibility to record IR spectra of mass-selected molecular ions and their reaction products has in recent years shed new light on our understanding of collision induced dissociation (CID) reactions of protonated peptides in mass spectrometry (MS). We now show that it is possible to record IR spectra for the products of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) reactions [M + nH]n+ + A- → [M + nH](n-1)+ + A → {dissociation of analyte} These reactions are now widely used in novel MS-based protein sequencing strategies, but involve complex radical chemistry. The spectroscopic results allow stringent verification of computationally predicted product structures and hence reaction mechanisms and H-atom migration. The sensitivity and high dynamic range of a commercial mass spectrometer also allows us to apply infrared ion spectroscopy to analytes in complex "real-life" mixtures. The ability to record IR spectra with the sensitivity of mass-spectrometric detection is unrivalled in analytical sciences and is particularly useful in the identification of small (biological) molecules, such as in metabolomics. We report preliminary results of a pilot study on the spectroscopic identification of small metabolites in urine and plasma samples.

  12. Dissociation Energetics and Mechanisms of Leucine Enkephalin (M + H)+ and (2M + X)+ Ions (X = H, Li, Na, K, and Rb) Measured by Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Schnier, Paul D.; Price, William D.; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Williams, Evan R.

    2005-01-01

    The dissociation kinetics of protonated leucine enkephalin and its proton and alkali metal bound dimers were investigated by blackbody infrared radiative dissociation in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. From the temperature dependence of the unimolecular dissociation rate constants, Arrhenius activation parameters in the zero-pressure limit are obtained. Protonated leucine enkephalin dissociates to form b4 and (M−H2O)+ ions with an average activation energy (Ea) of 1.1 eV and an A factor of 1010.5 s−1. The value of the A factor indicates that these dissociation processes are rearrangements. The b4 ions subsequently dissociate to form a4 ions via a process with a relatively high activation energy (1.3 eV), but one that is entropically favored. For the cationized dimers, the thermal stability decreases with increasing cation size, consistent with a simple electrostatic interaction in these noncovalent ion–molecule complexes. The Ea and A factors are indistinguishable within experimental error with values of ~1.5 eV and 1017 s−1, respectively. Although not conclusive, results from master equation modeling indicate that all these BIRD processes, except for b4 → a4, are in the rapid energy exchange limit. In this limit, the internal energy of the precursor ion population is given by a Boltzmann distribution and information about the energetics and dynamics of the reaction are obtained directly from the measured Arrhenius parameters. PMID:16554908

  13. Gas-Phase Structure of Amyloid-β (12 - 28) Peptide Investigated by Infrared Spectroscopy, Electron Capture Dissociation and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thi Nga; Poully, Jean Christophe; Lecomte, Frédéric; Nieuwjaer, Nicolas; Manil, Bruno; Desfrançois, Charles; Chirot, Fabien; Lemoine, Jerome; Dugourd, Philippe; van der Rest, Guillaume; Grégoire, Gilles

    2013-12-01

    The gas-phase structures of doubly and triply protonated Amyloid-β12-28 peptides have been investigated through the combination of ion mobility (IM), electron capture dissociation (ECD) mass spectrometry, and infrared multi-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy together with theoretical modeling. Replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to explore the conformational space of these protonated peptides, from which several classes of structures were found. Among the low-lying conformers, those with predicted diffusion cross-sections consistent with the ion mobility experiment were further selected and their IR spectra simulated using a hybrid quantum mechanical/semiempirical method at the ONIOM DFT/B3LYP/6-31 g(d)/AM1 level. In ECD mass spectrometry, the c/z product ion abundance (PIA) has been analyzed for the two charge states and revealed drastic differences. For the doubly protonated species, N - Cα bond cleavage occurs only on the N and C terminal parts, while a periodic distribution of PIA is clearly observed for the triply charged peptides. These PIA distributions have been rationalized by comparison with the inverse of the distances from the protonated sites to the carbonyl oxygens for the conformations suggested from IR and IM experiments. Structural assignment for the amyloid peptide is then made possible by the combination of these three experimental techniques that provide complementary information on the possible secondary structure adopted by peptides. Although globular conformations are favored for the doubly protonated peptide, incrementing the charge state leads to a conformational transition towards extended structures with 310- and α-helix motifs.

  14. Resonant Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy of Anionic Nucleotide Monophosphate Clusters.

    PubMed

    Ligare, Marshall R; Rijs, Anouk M; Berden, Giel; Kabeláč, Martin; Nachtigallova, Dana; Oomens, Jos; de Vries, Mattanjah S

    2015-06-25

    We report mid-infrared spectra and potential energy surfaces of four anionic, 2'-deoxynucleotide-5'-monophosphates (dNMPs) and the ionic DNA pairs [dGMP-dCMP-H](1-), [dAMP-dTMP-H](1-) with a total charge of the complex equal to -1. We recorded IR action spectra by resonant IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) using the FELIX free electron laser. The potential energy surface study employed an on-the-fly molecular dynamics quenching method (MD/Q), using a semiempirical AM1 method, followed by an optimization of the most stable structures using density functional theory. By employing infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in combination with high-level computational methods, we aim at a better understanding of the hydrogen bonding competition between the phosphate moieties and the nucleobases. We find that, unlike in multimer double stranded DNA structures, the hydrogen bonds in these isolated nucleotide pairs are predominantly formed between the phosphate groups. This intermolecular interaction appears to exceed the stabilization energy resulting from base pairing and directs the overall cluster structure and alignment.

  15. Infrared Multiple-Photon Dissociation spectroscopy of group II metal complexes with salicylate

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan P. Dain; Gary Gresham; Gary S. Groenewold; Jeffrey D. Steill; Jos Oomens; Michael J. van Stipdonk

    2011-07-01

    Ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation, and the combination of infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to characterize singly-charged, 1:1 complexes of Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ with salicylate. For each metal-salicylate complex, the CID pathways are: (a) elimination of CO2 and (b) formation of [MOH]+ where M=Ca2+, Sr2+ or Ba2+. DFT calculations predict three minima for the cation-salicylate complexes which differ in the mode of metal binding. In the first, the metal ion is coordinated by O atoms of the (neutral) phenol and carboxylate groups of salicylate. In the second, the cation is coordinated by phenoxide and (neutral) carboxylic acid groups. The third mode involves coordination by the carboxylate group alone. The infrared spectrum for the metal-salicylate complexes contains a number of absorptions between 1000 – 1650 cm-1, and the best correlation between theoretical and experimental spectra for the structure that features coordination of the metal ion by phenoxide and the carbonyl group of the carboxylic acid group, consistent with calculated energies for the respective species.

  16. Picosecond infrared laser-induced all-atom nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of dissociation of viruses.

    PubMed

    Hoang Man, Viet; Van-Oanh, Nguyen-Thi; Derreumaux, Philippe; Li, Mai Suan; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste; Nguyen, Phuong H

    2016-04-28

    Since the discovery of the plant pathogen tobacco mosaic virus as the first viral entity in the late 1800s, viruses traditionally have been mainly thought of as pathogens for disease-resistances. However, viruses have recently been exploited as nanoplatforms with applications in biomedicine and materials science. To this aim, a large majority of current methods and tools have been developed to improve the physical stability of viral particles, which may be critical to the extreme physical or chemical conditions that viruses may encounter during purification, fabrication processes, storage and use. However, considerably fewer studies are devoted to developing efficient methods to degrade or recycle such enhanced stability biomaterials. With this in mind, we carry out all-atom nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, inspired by the recently developed mid-infrared free-electron laser pulse technology, to dissociate viruses. Adopting the poliovirus as a representative example, we find that the primary step in the dissociation process is due to the strong resonance between the amide I vibrational modes of the virus and the tuned laser frequencies. This process is determined by a balance between the formation and dissociation of the protein shell, reflecting the highly plasticity of the virus. Furthermore, our method should provide a feasible approach to simulate viruses, which is otherwise too expensive for conventional equilibrium all-atom simulations of such very large systems. Our work shows a proof of concept which may open a new, efficient way to cleave or to recycle virus-based materials, provide an extremely valuable tool for elucidating mechanical aspects of viruses, and may well play an important role in future fighting against virus-related diseases.

  17. Alkali Metal-Glucose Interaction Probed with Infrared Pre-Dissociation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kregel, Steven J.; Marsh, Brett; Zhou, Jia; Garand, Etienne

    2015-06-01

    The efficient extraction of cellulose from biomass and its subsequent conversion to glucose derivatives is an attractive goal in the field of energy science. However, current industrial methods require high ionic strength and harsh conditions. Ionic liquids (IL's) are a class of "green" compounds that have been shown to dissolve cellulose in concentrations of up to 25 wt%. In order to understand IL's extraordinary cellulose dissolving power, a molecular level understanding of the IL-cellulose interaction is needed. Toward that end, we have acquired infrared pre-dissociation spectra of M+-glucose, where M+=Li+, Na+, or K+. Through comparisons with density functional theory calculations, we have determined the relative abundances of various M+-glucose binding motifs in both the thermodynamic and kinetic limits. These results provide insight on the hydrogen bonding dynamics of glucose and are a step towards a fuller understanding of cellulose interactions with ionic liquids.

  18. Time-resolved infrared-spectroscopic observation of relaxation and reaction processes during and after infrared-multiphoton excitation of 12CF3I and 13CF3I with shaped nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quack, Martin; Schwarz, René; Seyfang, Georg

    1992-06-01

    We have produced shaped infrared laser pulses of several kinds ranging from about 2-100 ns duration using a line tuned CO2 laser combined with intracavity absorbers and a CdTe electro-optical switch. The time-dependent infrared absorption of 12CF3I and 13CF3I during and after infrared-multiphoton excitation with these pulses was followed by means of a line tuned continuous wave-CO2 laser and a fast HgCdTe infrared detector (time resolution about 1 ns). The effective time-dependent absorption cross section shows fluence-dependent decay at large fluence with an effective exponential decay constant kI,σ≂1.12 cm2 J-1. This can be interpreted by first generation and then decay by further radiative pumping of highly excited levels of CF3I. The results have been analyzed by master equation modeling using a nonlinear case B/C master equation for multiphoton excitation and very simple models for the absorption properties of highly excited molecules. After nanosecond excitation to very high levels, one finds unimolecular decay CF3I→CF3+I with distinct rate constants (2±1)×108 and (5±4)×106 s-1, which corresponds to ensembles of molecules differing by one CO2 -laser quantum of energy, in agreement with unimolecular rate theory and master equation models. The most striking observation is a slow, collision-free intramolecular rovibrational redistribution process observed by real time spectroscopy on the nanosecond time scale for molecules excited by modest fluence corresponding to typical average energies of five CO2 laser quanta and somewhat more.

  19. Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation at low temperature: hydration of X2+(H2O)n, for X = Mg, Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Richard L.; Paech, Kolja; Williams, Evan R.

    2004-03-01

    A new apparatus for making blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) measurements at below ambient temperature is described, and its use for measuring threshold dissociation energies of weakly bound clusters is demonstrated. Hydration energies are determined for alkaline-earth metal water clusters, X2+(H2O)n, X=Mg, Ca and n=8-10. For n=8 and 9, the energies obtained from BIRD measurements are in excellent agreement with values reported previously, but for n=10, the energies are slightly lower than those determined previously using the high-pressure ion source mass spectrometry (HPMS) equilibrium method.

  20. Water binding energies of [Pb(amino acid-H)H2O]+ complexes determined by blackbody infrared radiative dissociation.

    PubMed

    Burt, Michael B; Decker, Sarah G A; Fridgen, Travis D

    2012-11-21

    The water binding energies (E(0)) of eight deprotonated Pb(2+)-amino acid (Aa) complexes of the form [Pb(Aa-H)H(2)O](+) (Aa = Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Phe, Glu, and Lys) were determined using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD). A Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer was used to trap ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) in a "zero"-pressure (~10(-10) torr) cell where dissociation can only occur by absorption of thermally generated photons. Since the [Pb(Aa-H)H(2)O](+) complexes have relatively few vibrational degrees of freedom (36-78) and are within the slow-exchange kinetic limit, the master equation was solved to extract meaningful threshold dissociation energies and thermal unimolecular dissociation rate constants (k(uni)). The master equation analysis uses variable reaction coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) to minimize the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) dissociation rate constants. The determined water binding energies range from 76.6 to 113.6 kJ mol(-1), and agree well with 0 K dissociation energies calculated using the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and MP2(full)/6-311++G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) methods. The relative strengths of the binding energies reflect the known structural isomers (A-, B-, C-, and D-type) of these [Pb(Aa-H)H(2)O](+) complexes.

  1. Wavelength dependence of nanosecond infrared laser-induced breakdown in water: Evidence for multiphoton initiation via an intermediate state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Norbert; Freidank, Sebastian; Liang, Xiao-Xuan; Vogelmann, Hannes; Trickl, Thomas; Vogel, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of the wavelength dependence (725-1025 nm) of the threshold for nanosecond optical breakdown in water revealed steps consistent with breakdown initiation by multiphoton ionization, with an initiation energy of about 6.6 eV. This value is considerably smaller than the autoionization threshold of about 9.5 eV, which can be regarded as band gap relevant for avalanche ionization. Breakdown initiation is likely to occur via excitation of a valence band electron into a solvated state, followed by rapid excitation into the conduction band. Theoretical analysis based on these assumptions suggests that the seed electron density required for initiating avalanche ionization amounts to 2.5 ×1015c m-3 at 725 nm and drops to 1.1 ×1012c m-3 at 1025 nm. These results demand changes of future breakdown modeling for water, including the use of a larger band gap than previously employed, the introduction of an intermediate energy level for initiation, and consideration of the wavelength dependence of seed electron density.

  2. Multiphoton ionization of Uracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Eladio; Martinez, Denhi; Guerrero, Alfonso; Alvarez, Ignacio; Cisneros, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    Multiphoton ionization and dissociation of Uracil using a Reflectron time of flight spectrometer was performed along with radiation from the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. Uracil is one of the four nitrogen bases that belong to RNA. The last years special interest has been concentrated on the study of the effects under UV radiation in nucleic acids1 and also in the role that this molecule could have played in the origin and development of life on our planet.2 The MPI mass spectra show that the presence and intensity of the resulting ions strongly depend on the density power. The identification of the ions in the mass spectra is presented. The results are compared with those obtained in other laboratories under different experimental conditions and some of them show partial agreement.3 The present work was supported by CONACYT-Mexico Grant 165410 and DGAPA UNAM Grant IN101215 and IN102613.

  3. Carcinogenic damage to deoxyribonucleic acid is induced by near-infrared laser pulses in multiphoton microscopy via combination of two- and three-photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Thomas, Giju; Van Voskuilen, Johan; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Gerritsen, Hans C.

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging modalities (multiphoton excited fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation) applied in vivo are increasingly promising for clinical diagnostics and the monitoring of cancer and other disorders, as they can probe tissue with high diffraction-limited resolution at near-infrared (IR) wavelengths. However, high peak intensity of femtosecond laser pulses required for two-photon processes causes formation of cyclobutane-pyrimidine-dimers (CPDs) in cellular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) similar to damage from exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) light. Inaccurate repair of subsequent mutations increases the risk of carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigate CPD damage that results in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro from imaging them with two-photon excited autofluorescence. The CPD levels are quantified by immunofluorescent staining. We further evaluate the extent of CPD damage with respect to varied wavelength, pulse width at focal plane, and pixel dwell time as compared with more pronounced damage from UV sources. While CPD damage has been expected to result from three-photon absorption, our results reveal that CPDs are induced by competing two- and three-photon absorption processes, where the former accesses UVA absorption band. This finding is independently confirmed by nonlinear dependencies of damage on laser power, wavelength, and pulse width.

  4. Structure Determination of Cisplatin-Amino Acid Analogues by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Action Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chenchen; Bao, Xun; Zhu, Yanlong; Strobehn, Stephen; Kimutai, Bett; Nei, Y.-W.; Chow, C. S.; Rodgers, M. T.; Gao, Juehan; Oomens, J.

    2015-06-01

    To gain a better understanding of the binding mechanism and assist in the optimization of relevant drug and chemical probe design, both experimental and theoretical studies were performed on a series of amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, including glycine-, lysine-, and ornithine-linked cisplatin, Gplatin, Kplatin, and Oplatin, respectively. Cisplatin, the first FDA-approved platinum-based anticancer drug, has been widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Its pharmacological mechanism has been identified as its ability to coordinate to genomic DNA, and guanine is its major target. In previous reports, cisplatin was successfully utilized as a chemical probe to detect solvent accessible sites in ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Among the amino-acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, Oplatin exhibits preference for adenine over guanine. The mechanism behind its different selectivity compared to cisplatin may relate to its potential of forming a hydrogen bond between the carboxylate group in Pt (II) complex and the 6-amino moiety of adenosine stabilizes A-Oplatin products. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis also indicates that different coordination sites of Oplatin on adenosine affect glycosidic bond stability. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy experiments were performed on all three amino acid-linked cisplatin to characterize their structures. An extensive theoretical study has been performed on Gplatin to guide the selection of the most effective theory and basis set based on its geometric information. The results for Gplatin provide the foundation for characterization of the more complex amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, Oplatin and Kplatin. Structural and energetic information elucidated for these compounds, particularly Oplatin reveal the reason for its alternative selectivity compared to cisplatin.

  5. Structure Determination of Ornithine-Linked Cisplatin by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Action Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chenchen; Kimutai, Bett; Hamlow, Lucas; Roy, Harrison; Nei, Y.-W.; Bao, Xun; Gao, Juehan; Martens, Jonathan K.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Maitre, Philippe; Steinmetz, Vincent; McNary, Christopher P.; Armentrout, Peter B.; Chow, C. S.; Rodgers, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    Cisplatin [(NH_3)_2PtCl_2], the first FDA-approved platinum-based anticancer drug, has been widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Its pharmacological mechanism has been identified as its ability to coordinate to genomic DNA with guanine as its major target. Amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives are being investigated as alternatives for cisplatin that may exhibit altered binding selectivity such as that found for ornithine-linked cisplatin (Ornplatin, [(Orn)PtCl_2]), which exhibits a preference for adenine over guanine in RNA. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy experiments and complementary electronic structure calculations are performed on a series of Ornplatin complexes to elucidate the nature of binding of the Orn amino acid to the Pt center and how that binding is influenced by the local environment. The complexes examined in the work include: [(Orn-H)PtCl_2]-, [(Orn)PtCl]+, [(Orn)Pt(H_2O)Cl]+, and [(Orn)PtCl_2+Na]+. In contrast to that found previously for the glycine-linked cisplatin complex (Glyplatin), which binds via the backbone amino and carboxylate groups, binding of Orn in these complexes is found to involve both the backbone and sidechain amino groups. Extensive broadening of the IRMPD spectrum for the [(Orn)Pt(H_2O)Cl]+ complex suggests that either multiple structures are contributing to the measured spectrum or strong intra-molecular hydrogen-binding interactions are present. The results for Ornplatin lead to an interesting discussion about the differences in selectivity and reactivity versus cisplatin.

  6. Multiphoton tomography for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2008-02-01

    Femtosecond laser multiphoton tomography has been employed in the field of tissue engineering to perform 3D high-resolution imaging of the extracellular matrix proteins elastin and collagen as well as of living cells without any fixation, slicing, and staining. Near infrared 80 MHz picojoule femtosecond laser pulses are able to excite the endogenous fluorophores NAD(P)H, flavoproteins, melanin, and elastin via a non-resonant two-photon excitation process. In addition, collagen can be imaged by second harmonic generation. Using a two-PMT detection system, the ratio of elastin to collagen was determined during optical sectioning. A high submicron spatial resolution and 50 picosecond temporal resolution was achieved using galvoscan mirrors and piezodriven focusing optics as well as a time-correlated single photon counting module with a fast microchannel plate detector and fast photomultipliers. Multiphoton tomography has been used to optimize the tissue engineering of heart valves and vessels in bioincubators as well as to characterize artificial skin. Stem cell characterization and manipulation are of major interest for the field of tissue engineering. Using the novel sub-20 femtosecond multiphoton nanoprocessing laser microscope FemtOgene, the differentiation of human stem cells within spheroids has been in vivo monitored with submicron resolution. In addition, the efficient targeted transfection has been demonstrated. Clinical studies on the interaction of tissue-engineered products with the natural tissue environment can be performed with in vivo multiphoton tomograph DermaInspect.

  7. Trajectory study of energy partition in CF 3CN → CF 3 + CN dissociation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Gunnar; Rynefors, Kjell; Hase, William L.

    1986-12-01

    The classical trajectory method has been used to study the internal dynamics and unimolecular dissociation of CF 3CN at energies consistent with infrared multiphoton excitation conditions. A model potential energy function consisting of Morse stretches and attenuated bending terms is used in the trajectory study. At an excitation energy of 150 kcal/mol the CN K. The vibrational and rotational distributions are approximately Boltzmann. This energy partitioning is in good agreement with recent experimental results. The trajectory unimolecular rate constants and lifetime distributions for CF 3CN dissociation are consistent with intrinsic RRKM behaviour.

  8. Application of mid-infrared free-electron laser tuned to amide bands for dissociation of aggregate structure of protein.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takayasu; Yaji, Toyonari; Ohta, Toshiaki; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A mid-infrared free-electron laser (FEL) is a linearly polarized, high-peak powered pulse laser with tunable wavelength within the mid-infrared absorption region. It was recently found that pathogenic amyloid fibrils could be partially dissociated to the monomer form by the irradiation of the FEL targeting the amide I band (C=O stretching vibration), amide II band (N-H bending vibration) and amide III band (C-N stretching vibration). In this study, the irradiation effect of the FEL on keratin aggregate was tested as another model to demonstrate an applicability of the FEL for dissociation of protein aggregates. Synchrotron radiation infrared microscopy analysis showed that the α-helix content in the aggregate structure decreased to almost the same level as that in the monomer state after FEL irradiation tuned to 6.06 µm (amide I band). Both irradiations at 6.51 µm (amide II band) and 8.06 µm (amide III band) also decreased the content of the aggregate but to a lesser extent than for the irradiation at the amide I band. On the contrary, the irradiation tuned to 5.6 µm (non-absorbance region) changed little the secondary structure of the aggregate. Scanning-electron microscopy observation at the submicrometer order showed that the angular solid of the aggregate was converted to non-ordered fragments by the irradiation at each amide band, while the aggregate was hardly deformed by the irradiation at 5.6 µm. These results demonstrate that the amide-specific irradiation by the FEL was effective for dissociation of the protein aggregate to the monomer form. PMID:26698057

  9. Coherent control of D2/H2 dissociative ionization by a mid-infrared two-color laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanie, Vincent; Ibrahim, Heide; Beaulieu, Samuel; Thiré, Nicolas; Schmidt, Bruno E.; Deng, Yunpei; Alnaser, Ali S.; Litvinyuk, Igor V.; Tong, Xiao-Min; Légaré, François

    2016-01-01

    Steering the electrons during an ultrafast photo-induced process in a molecule influences the chemical behavior of the system, opening the door to the control of photochemical reactions and photobiological processes. Electrons can be efficiently localized using a strong laser field with a well-designed temporal shape of the electric component. Consequently, many experiments have been performed with laser sources in the near-infrared region (800 nm) in the interest of studying and enhancing the electron localization. However, due to its limited accessibility, the mid-infrared (MIR) range has barely been investigated, although it allows to efficiently control small molecules and even more complex systems. To push further the manipulation of basic chemical mechanisms, we used a MIR two-color (1800 and 900 nm) laser field to ionize H2 and D2 molecules and to steer the remaining electron during the photo-induced dissociation. The study of this prototype reaction led to the simultaneous control of four fragmentation channels. The results are well reproduced by a theoretical model solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecular ion, identifying the involved dissociation mechanisms. By varying the relative phase between the two colors, asymmetries (i.e., electron localization selectivity) of up to 65% were obtained, corresponding to enhanced or equivalent levels of control compared to previous experiments. Experimentally easier to implement, the use of a two-color laser field leads to a better electron localization than carrier-envelope phase stabilized pulses and applying the technique in the MIR range reveals more dissociation channels than at 800 nm.

  10. Molecule formation and infrared emission in fast interstellar shocks. II - Dissociation speeds for interstellar shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D.; Mckee, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The postshock destruction of molecules is examined, including the processes of (1) collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms and molecules, (2) electronic collisions, and (3) neutral chemical reactions with atoms, particularly atomic hydrogen. By using conservative estimates of collisional dissociation rates from individual vibrational states, it is found that process (1) leads to the destruction of molecular hydrogen behind shocks with speeds equal to or greater than 25 km/s if the preshock molecular gas has hydrogen nucleus densities of equal to or greater than 10 to the 4th/cu cm. At lower densities (100 per cu cm), destruction occurs for shock speeds equal to or greater than 50 km/s and process (2) dominates. Dissociation of molecules such as CO, H2O, and O2 follows the destruction of H2, as the resultant hydrogen atoms chemically dissociate the metal atoms from their bonds (process 3) in the hot postshock gas. These results demonstrate that many of the observed high-speed interstellar molecules, if shock accelerated, must have dissociated and reformed in the postshock gas.

  11. Studies of atmospheric molecules by multiphoton spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.M.

    1991-10-01

    Carbon dioxide presents a great challenge to spectroscopy because of its propensity toward dissociation in all of its excited states. Multiphoton ionization spectroscopy is usually not applicable to the study of dissociating molecules because the dissociation competes effectively with ionization, resulting in no signal. We reasoned, however, that with high enough laser fluence, ionization could compete with dissociation in the longer lived states, exposing them for study from the continuous spectral background resulting from rapidly dissociating states. We describe the various spectroscopic and photophysical effects found through the multiphoton ionization and multiphoton photoelectron spectra. A recently developed variant of threshold ionization spectroscopy, usually called ZEKE, has shown a great deal of usefulness in providing the same information as traditional photoelectron spectroscopy but with higher resolution and much better signal-to-noise when using standard laboratory lasers. Threshold ionization techniques locate the states of an ion by scanning a light source across the ionization continuum of a neutral and somehow detecting when electrons are produced with no kinetic energy. We chose to develop our capabilities in threshold ionization spectroscopy using aromatic molecules because of their importance and because their electronic structure allows a pump-probe type of excitation scheme which avoids the use of vacuum ultraviolet laser beams. Among aromatics, the azines are noted for their small S{sub 1}-T{sub 1} energy gap which give them unique and interesting photophysical properties. We have continued our work on the multiphoton spectrum of metastable nitrogen produced by an electric discharge in supersonic beam. We have been able to assign more of the lines and simulated their rotational structure but many peaks remain unassigned.

  12. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  13. Picosecond pulsed infrared laser tuned to amide I band dissociates polyglutamine fibrils in cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takayasu; Ohori, Gaku; Chiba, Tomoyuki; Tsukiyama, Koichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Amyloid fibrils are causal substances for serious neurodegenerative disorders and amyloidosis. Among them, polyglutamine fibrils seen in multiple polyglutamine diseases are toxic to neurons. Although much efforts have been made to explore the treatments of polyglutamine diseases, there are no effective drugs to block progression of the diseases. We recently found that a free electron laser (FEL), which has an oscillation wavelength at the amide I band (C = O stretch vibration mode) and picosecond pulse width, was effective for conversion of the fibril forms of insulin, lysozyme, and calcitonin peptide into their monomer forms. However, it is not known if that is also the case in polyglutamine fibrils in cells. We found in this study that the fibril-specific β-sheet conformation of polyglutamine peptide was converted into nonfibril form, as evidenced by the infrared microscopy and scanning-electron microscopy after the irradiation tuned to 6.08 μm. Furthermore, irradiation at this wavelength also changed polyglutamine fibrils to their nonfibril state in cultured cells, as shown by infrared mapping image of protein secondary structure. Notably, infrared thermography analysis showed that temperature increase of the cells during the irradiation was within 1 K, excluding thermal damage of cells. These results indicate that the picosecond pulsed infrared laser can safely reduce amyloid fibril structure to the nonfibril form even in cells. PMID:27342599

  14. Picosecond pulsed infrared laser tuned to amide I band dissociates polyglutamine fibrils in cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takayasu; Ohori, Gaku; Chiba, Tomoyuki; Tsukiyama, Koichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Amyloid fibrils are causal substances for serious neurodegenerative disorders and amyloidosis. Among them, polyglutamine fibrils seen in multiple polyglutamine diseases are toxic to neurons. Although much efforts have been made to explore the treatments of polyglutamine diseases, there are no effective drugs to block progression of the diseases. We recently found that a free electron laser (FEL), which has an oscillation wavelength at the amide I band (C = O stretch vibration mode) and picosecond pulse width, was effective for conversion of the fibril forms of insulin, lysozyme, and calcitonin peptide into their monomer forms. However, it is not known if that is also the case in polyglutamine fibrils in cells. We found in this study that the fibril-specific β-sheet conformation of polyglutamine peptide was converted into nonfibril form, as evidenced by the infrared microscopy and scanning-electron microscopy after the irradiation tuned to 6.08 μm. Furthermore, irradiation at this wavelength also changed polyglutamine fibrils to their nonfibril state in cultured cells, as shown by infrared mapping image of protein secondary structure. Notably, infrared thermography analysis showed that temperature increase of the cells during the irradiation was within 1 K, excluding thermal damage of cells. These results indicate that the picosecond pulsed infrared laser can safely reduce amyloid fibril structure to the nonfibril form even in cells.

  15. RECENT PROGRESS IN MULTIFOCAL MULTIPHOTON MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    LIU, LIXIN; SHAO, YONGHONG; NIU, HANBEN

    2013-01-01

    Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) has recently become an important tool in biomedicine for performing three-dimensional fast fluorescence imaging. Using various beamsplitting techniques, MMM splits the near-infrared laser beam into multiple beamlets and produces a multifocal array on the sample for parallel multiphoton excitation and then records fluorescence signal from all foci simultaneously with an area array detector, which significantly improves the imaging speed of multiphoton microscopy and allows for high efficiency in use of the excitation light. In this paper, we discuss the features of several MMM setups using different beamsplitting devices, including a Nipkow spinning disk, a microlens array, a set of beamsplitting mirrors, or a diffractive optical element (DOE). In particular, we present our recent work on the development of an MMM using a spatial light modulator (SLM). PMID:24363782

  16. Current developments in clinical multiphoton tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Gregory, Axel; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer

    2010-02-01

    Two-photon microscopy has been introduced in 1990 [1]. 13 years later, CE-marked clinical multiphoton systems for 3D imaging of human skin with subcellular resolution have been launched by the JenLab company with the tomograph DermaInspectTM. In 2010, the second generation of clinical multiphoton tomographs was introduced. The novel mobile multiphoton tomograph MPTflexTM, equipped with a flexible articulated optical arm, provides an increased flexibility and accessibility especially for clinical and cosmetical examinations. The multiphoton excitation of fluorescent biomolecules like NAD(P)H, flavins, porphyrins, elastin, and melanin as well as the second harmonic generation of collagen is induced by picojoule femtosecond laser pulses from an tunable turn-key near infrared laser system. The ability for rapid highquality image acquisition, the user-friendly operation of the system, and the compact and flexible design qualifies this system to be used for melanoma detection, diagnostics of dermatological disorders, cosmetic research, and skin aging measurements as well as in situ drug monitoring and animal research. So far, more than 1,000 patients and volunteers have been investigated with the multiphoton tomographs in Europe, Asia, and Australia.

  17. Infrared spectrum analysis of the dissociated states of simple amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sebben, Damien; Pendleton, Phillip

    2014-11-11

    In this work, we present detailed analyses of the dissociation of dilute aqueous solutions of glycine and of lysine over the range 18 resulted in consistent pKa values for the amino acids.

  18. Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy of a Gas-Phase Oxo-Molybdenum Complex with 1,2-Dithiolene Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative ion mode was used to create anionic, gas-phase oxo-molybdenum complexes with dithiolene ligands. By varying ESI and ion transfer conditions, both doubly and singly charged forms of the complex, with identical formulas, could be observed. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dianion generated exclusively the monoanion, while fragmentation of the monoanion involved decomposition of the dithiolene ligands. The intrinsic structure of the monoanion and the dianion were determined by using wavelength-selective infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The IRMPD spectrum for the dianion exhibits absorptions that can be assigned to (ligand) C=C, C–S, C—C≡N, and Mo=O stretches. Comparison of the IRMPD spectrum to spectra predicted for various possible conformations allows assignment of a pseudo square pyramidal structure with C2v symmetry, equatorial coordination of MoO2+ by the S atoms of the dithiolene ligands, and a singlet spin state. A single absorption was observed for the oxidized complex. When the same scaling factor employed for the dianion is used for the oxidized version, theoretical spectra suggest that the absorption is the Mo=O stretch for a distorted square pyramidal structure and doublet spin state. A predicted change in conformation upon oxidation of the dianion is consistent with a proposed bonding scheme for the bent-metallocene dithiolene compounds [Lauher, J. W.; Hoffmann, R. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1976, 98, 1729−1742], where a large folding of the dithiolene moiety along the S···S vector is dependent on the occupancy of the in-plane metal d-orbital. PMID:24988369

  19. Dissociation dynamics of the CO2 molecule studied with XUV pump and near-infrared probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiri, Kanaka Raju; Malakar, Yu; Li, Xiang; Kaderiya, Balram; Pearson, Wright; Cao, Wei; Ben-Itzhak, Itzik; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Trapp, Philip; Trabert, Daniel; Wilhelm, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Ultrafast dynamics of ionic states of the CO2 molecule have recently been studied by employing a pump-probe technique using broadband ultrashort XUV-pump pulses containing the 11th to 17th harmonics of a near-infrared laser (NIR). Here, we present the results of a complimentary experiment employing longer (~100 fs) but narrowband, single harmonic (11th or 13th) pulses to excite molecular wave packets to specific states of CO2+,which are probed by NIR-induced dissociation. We employ a reaction microscope to measure energy- and angle-resolved yields of all charged reaction fragments as a function of XUV-NIR delay. In particular, the delay dependence of O+ and CO+ ion production for parallel and perpendicular NIR and XUV polarizations are contrasted with the data obtained by Timmers et al. using ultrashort broadband train of harmonics. This project is supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy. K. R. P. and W. L. P. are supported by National Foundation Award No. IIA-143049.

  20. Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) cationized serine complexes: infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and density functional theory investigations.

    PubMed

    Coates, Rebecca A; Boles, Georgia C; McNary, Christopher P; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Armentrout, P B

    2016-08-10

    The gas-phase structures of zinc and cadmium dications bound to serine (Ser) are investigated by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy using the free electron laser FELIX, in combination with ab initio calculations. To identify the structures of the experimentally observed species, [Zn(Ser-H)CH3CN](+) and CdCl(+)(Ser), the measured action spectra are compared to linear absorption spectra calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level for Zn(2+) containing complexes and B3LYP/def2-TZVP levels for Cd(2+) containing complexes. Good agreement between the observed IRMPD spectra and the predicted spectra allows identification of the isomers present. The intact amino acid interacting with cadmium chloride adopts a tridentate chelation involving the amino acid backbone amine and carbonyl groups as well as the hydroxyl group of the side-chain, [N,CO,OH]. The presence of two low-energy conformers is observed for the deprotonated serine-zinc complex, with the same tridentate coordination as for the cadmium complex but proton loss occurs at both the hydroxyl side-chain, [N,CO,O(-)], and the carboxylic acid of the amino acid backbone, [N,CO(-),OH]. These results are profitably compared with the analogous results previously obtained for comparable complexes with cysteine. PMID:27465924

  1. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of cationized methionine: effects of alkali-metal cation size on gas-phase conformation.

    PubMed

    Carl, Damon R; Cooper, Theresa E; Oomens, Jos; Steill, Jeff D; Armentrout, P B

    2010-04-14

    The gas-phase structures of alkali-metal cation complexes of the amino acid methionine (Met) as well as protonated methionine are investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser. Spectra of Li(+)(Met) and Na(+)(Met) are similar and relatively simple, whereas the spectra of K(+)(Met), Rb(+)(Met), and Cs(+)(Met) include distinctive new bands. Measured IRMPD spectra are compared to spectra calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory to identify the conformations present in the experimental studies. For Li(+) and Na(+) complexes, the only conformation present is a charge-solvated, tridentate structure that binds the metal cation to the amine and carbonyl groups of the amino acid backbone and the sulfur atom of the side chain, [N,CO,S]. In addition to the [N,CO,S] conformer, bands corresponding to alkali-metal cation binding to a bidentate zwitterionic structure, [CO(2)(-)], are clearly present for the K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) complexes. Theoretical calculations of the lowest energy conformations of Rb(+) and Cs(+) complexes suggest that the experimental spectra could also include contributions from two additional charge-solvated structures, tridentate [COOH,S] and bidentate [COOH]. For H(+)(Met), the IRMPD action spectrum is reproduced by multiple low-energy [N,CO,S] conformers, in which the protonated amine group hydrogen bonds to the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfur atom of the amino acid side chain. These [N,CO,S] conformers only differ in their side-chain orientations.

  2. Multiphoton electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Lingling; Kang, Hoonsoo; Zhu, Yifu; Wu, Ying

    2003-05-01

    We show that in multi-level atomic systems coupled by multiple laser fields, all linear and nonlinear absorptions may be completely suppressed, leading to the multiphoton electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Under suitable conditions, multiphoton EIT may be used to realize selective steady-state population inversion in coherently pumped atomic systems and achieve efficient nonlinear light generation at low light intensities. As examples, we will present studies of multiphoton EIT in five-level and six-level atomic systems, which demonstrate steady-state population inversion from selective nonlinear excitation. We will also present studies of resonant hyper-Raman and four-wave mixing processes that are enhanced via suppression of the lower-order linear and nonlinear absorptions, and are capable of generating short-wavelength, coherent light at low pump intensities.

  3. Multiphoton tomography to detect chemo- and biohazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    In vivo high-resolution multiphoton/CARS tomography provides optical biopsies with 300 nm lateral resolution with chemical fingerprints. Thousands of volunteers and patients have been investigated for early cancer diagnosis, evaluation of anti-ageing cosmetic products, and changes of cellular metabolism by UV exposure and decreased oxygen supply. The skin as the outermost and largest organ is also the major target of CB agents. Current UV-based sensors are useful for bio-aerosol sensing but not for evaluating exposed in vivo skin. Here we evaluate the use of 4D multiphoton/CARS tomographs based on near infrared femtosecond laser radiation, time-correlated single photon counting (FLIM) and white light generation by photonic crystal fibers to detect bio- and chemohazards in human in vivo skin using twophoton fluorescence, SHG, and Raman signals.

  4. Hybrid quadrupole mass filter/quadrupole ion trap/time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gulyuz, Kerim; Stedwell, Corey N.; Wang Da; Polfer, Nick C.

    2011-05-15

    We present a laboratory-constructed mass spectrometer optimized for recording infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of mass-selected ions using a benchtop tunable infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/A). The instrument is equipped with two ionization sources, an electrospray ionization source, as well as an electron ionization source for troubleshooting. This hybrid mass spectrometer is composed of a quadrupole mass filter for mass selection, a reduced pressure ({approx}10{sup -5} Torr) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) for OPO irradiation, and a reflectron time-of-flight drift tube for detecting the remaining precursor and photofragment ions. A helium gas pulse is introduced into the QIT to temporarily increase the pressure and hence enhance the trapping efficiency of axially injected ions. After a brief pump-down delay, the compact ion cloud is subjected to the focused output from the continuous wave OPO. In a recent study, we implemented this setup in the study of protonated tryptophan, TrpH{sup +}, as well as collision-induced dissociation products of this protonated amino acid [W. K. Mino, Jr., K. Gulyuz, D. Wang, C. N. Stedwell, and N. C. Polfer, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 299 (2011)]. Here, we give a more detailed account on the figures of merit of such IRMPD experiments. The appreciable photodissociation yields in these measurements demonstrate that IRMPD spectroscopy of covalently bound ions can be routinely carried out using benchtop OPO setups.

  5. Clinical multiphoton FLIM tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    This paper gives an overview on current clinical high resolution multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging in volunteers and patients. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) in Life Sciences was introduced in Jena/Germany in 1988/89 based on a ZEISS confocal picosecond dye laser scanning microscope equipped with a single photon counting unit. The porphyrin distribution in living cells and living tumor-bearing mice was studied with high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. Ten years later, time-gated cameras were employed to detect dental caries in volunteers based on one-photon excitation of autofluorescent bacteria with long fluorescence lifetimes. Nowadays, one-photon FLIM based on picosecond VIS laser diodes are used to study ocular diseases in humans. Already one decade ago, first clinical twophoton FLIM images in humans were taken with the certified clinical multiphoton femtosecond laser tomograph DermaInspectTM. Multiphoton tomographs with FLIM modules are now operating in hospitals at Brisbane, Tokyo, Berlin, Paris, London, Modena and other European cities. Multiple FLIM detectors allow spectral FLIM with a temporal resolution down to 20 ps (MCP) / 250 ps (PMT) and a spectral resolution of 10 nm. Major FLIM applications include the detection of intradermal sunscreen and tattoo nanoparticles, the detection of different melanin types, the early diagnosis of dermatitis and malignant melanoma, as well as the measurement of therapeutic effects in pateints suffering from dermatitis. So far, more than 1,000 patients and volunteers have been investigated with the clinical multiphoton FLIM tomographs DermaInspectTM and MPTflexTM.

  6. The Multiphoton Multiple Ionization of Molecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatherly, P. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The multiphoton multiple ionization of a number of molecular systems has been studied using the picosecond laser facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The laser produced 0.6ps pulses at 600nm, and 6ps at 248nm when used in conjunction with an excimer laser. The focused intensity in each case was >=q10 ^{15}W/cm^2 . A time of flight mass spectrometer designed and built at Reading University was capable of ion kinetic energy measurement, permitting the molecular dissociation dynamics to be investigated. One major question approached concerned the mode of multiphoton ionization of xenon. Specifically, does the ionization proceed in a sequential (single electron) or a collective (many electron) manner? To this end, experiments were performed with the isoelectronic molecule hydrogen iodide. The results, which were interpreted in terms of a Coulomb explosion mechanism, demonstrated the process to be sequential, rather than collective. Similar experiments on the isoelectronic pair, nitrogen and carbon monoxide tended to confirm this conclusion. These molecules were also studied at a number of laser wavelengths and pulse widths. Although the wavelength was found to have a minimal effect, the pulse width was of great importance. The results for hydrogen and deuterium contrasted with these results for other molecules, in that the energies could not be reconciled with a Coulomb explosion mechanism. Rather, dissociative autoionization or neutral dissociation followed by ionization of the atoms were considered to be the dominant processes. Finally, the existence of high energy protons (~eq100eV) from residual hydrocarbons in the vacuum chamber lead to a study of the alkanes from butane to dodecane. At 600nm, 0.6ps pulse width, the fragment energies were found to vary linearly with carbon chain length. At 248nm, 5ps though, only low energy protons were observed, independent of chain length.

  7. High-resolution multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    This review focuses on multimodal multiphoton tomography based on near infrared femtosecond lasers. Clinical multiphoton tomographs for 3D high-resolution in vivo imaging have been placed into the market several years ago. The second generation of this Prism-Award winning High-Tech skin imaging tool (MPTflex) was introduced in 2010. The same year, the world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph. In particular, non-fluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen has been imaged with submicron resolution in patients suffering from psoriasis. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution wide-field systems such as ultrasound, optoacoustical, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer, optimization of treatment strategies, and cosmetic research including long-term testing of sunscreen nanoparticles as well as anti-aging products.

  8. Generalized Multiphoton Quantum Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Max; Tan, Si-Hui; Stoeckl, Sarah E.; Sanders, Barry C.; de Guise, Hubert; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; Walther, Philip

    2015-10-01

    Nonclassical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. Here, we exploit tunable distinguishability to reveal the full spectrum of multiphoton nonclassical interference. We investigate this in theory and experiment by controlling the delay times of three photons injected into an integrated interferometric network. We derive the entire coincidence landscape and identify transition matrix immanants as ideally suited functions to describe the generalized case of input photons with arbitrary distinguishability. We introduce a compact description by utilizing a natural basis that decouples the input state from the interferometric network, thereby providing a useful tool for even larger photon numbers.

  9. A novel design of a temperature-controlled FT-ICR cell for low-temperature black-body infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) studies of hydrated ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaj, O. Petru; Berg, Christian B.; Reitmeier, Stephan J.; Bondybey, Vladimir E.; Beyer, Martin K.

    2009-01-01

    A novel design for a temperature-controlled ICR cell is described for use in black-body infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) studies of weakly bound systems like water clusters. Due to several improved design features, it provides a very uniform black-body radiation environment, and at the same time maintains efficient pumping for a low collision rate on the order of 10-2 s-1. At the lowest temperatures reached, nominally 89 K cell plate temperature, water evaporation effectively ceases, while intracluster reactions in V+(H2O)n with a small activation energy are still observed. BIRD rate constants for Ag+(H2O)n, n = 4-6, are shown in the temperature range T = 160-320 K. For n = 6, a linear Arrhenius plot with R2 = 0.9943 is obtained without any calibration, confirming the suitability of the cell for quantitative BIRD studies.

  10. Structures and Energetics of Protonated Clusters of Methylamine with Phenylalanine Analogs, Characterized by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Calculations.

    PubMed

    Kleisath, Elizabeth; Marta, Rick A; Martens, Sabrina; Martens, Jon; McMahon, Terry

    2015-06-25

    Gas-phase clusters of protonated methylamine and phenylalanine (Phe) derivatives have been studied using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in combination with electronic structure calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Experiments were performed on several Phe derivatives including 4-chloro-l-phenylalanine (4Chloro-Phe), 4-nitro-l-phenylalanine (4Nitro-Phe), 3-cyano-l-phenylalanine (3Cyano-Phe), and 3-trifluoromethyl-l-phenylalanine (3CF3-Phe). Through comparisons between experimental IRMPD spectra and stimulated spectra obtained by electronic structure calculations, charge-solvated structures were found to be prevalent in both 4Chloro-Phe and 4Nitro-Phe, whereas 3Cyano-Phe favored zwitterionic structures and 3-CF3-Phe likely have both zwitterionic and charge-solvated structures present.

  11. Studies of atmospheric molecules by multiphoton spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. M.

    1990-12-01

    Resonance ionization processes can play an important role in understanding molecules important in combustion processes. They are a reflection of the dynamic as well as the static properties of atomic and molecular species. Due to the sequential or quasisequential nature of photon absorption in resonant multiphoton events, the lifetimes of the intermediate states play an essential role in the overall cross-sections if they are short enough to be competitive with subsequent photon interactions. In molecules, this is particularly important because there are many dissociative and other radiationless pathways which can contribute to a competitive channel. Under those conditions it should be possible to obtain information about the nature of the dynamics of the intermediate state from the multiphoton ionization process. This will involve looking at not only the ionization cross-section but also other observables such as the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons and possibly the distribution of fragment ions produced in the ionization event. Whether the ionization amplitude is affected or not, the time scales of the dynamic events which alter the ionization path can vary over a large range from the femtoseconds of dissociation to the microseconds of some radiationless transitions in large molecules. When the competing channel has a time scale shorter than the laser pulse length, the kinetics of the ionization are intimately tied into the precise nature of the laser pulse. For time scales longer than the laser pulse, pump-probe ionization schemes in which one laser prepares a state while another does the ionization provide a particularly simple method for investigating the dynamics of the intermediate state. Here the author discusses examples from each of these regimes. CO2 and pyrazine are examined.

  12. Separation of deuterium by IR multiphoton decomposition of chlorodifluoromethane. IR multiphoton absorption by and decomposition of a CF 2DCl/CF 2HCl mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschke, K. O.; Gauthier, M.; Hackett, P. A.

    1983-08-01

    IR multiphoton absorption by various pressures of CF 2HCl or of 1??? CF 2DCl in CF 2HCl was studied at several 9P and 10R lines of the CO 2 laser using temporally unmodified pulses. Values of < n> for the individual molecules, and thus the optical selectivities, obtained from these data indicate that the molecule is not a promising candidate for deuterium separation in these frequency ranges. A measurement of D-isotope depletion during the multiphoton decomposition of the same mixture at 9P42 (1025.2 cm -1) gave a minimum estimate of the isotopic selectivity of the dissociation process of 35.

  13. Assignment of the stereochemistry and anomeric configuration of structurally informative product ions derived from disaccharides: infrared photodissociation of glycosyl-glycolaldehydes in the negative ion mode.

    PubMed

    Bendiak, Brad; Fang, Tammy T

    2010-11-01

    Using mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode, m/z 221 ions are frequently observed as product ion substructures derived from reducing disaccharides having 2, 4, or 6 linkages. The ions have been shown to be glycosyl-glycolaldehydes. All 16 stereochemical variants of their pyranosides were prepared and evaluated by infrared photodissociation, in addition to HexNAc-glycolaldehyde variants (m/z 262) of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose. The stereochemistry and anomeric configuration of these ions were differentiated in the gas phase using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer with infrared multiphoton dissociation at 10.6 μm. Results were compared to those obtained by collision-induced dissociation. In some cases, differentiation was far preferable using infrared photodissociation; in others, collision-induced dissociation was preferred. Using an instrument that interfaced a linear trap with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer, either dissociation technique could be used to optimally discriminate between isomers. With infrared photodissociation, spectral differences were highly statistically significant, even between pairs of isomers having spectra that appeared to be visually somewhat similar (p<1×10⁻⁹, student's t-test for key discriminatory ions). Comparisons among different instruments suggest that physical standards of the stereochemical variants of these ions will be required for their detailed structural assignments in unknowns, as some variation was observed among instruments, both using infrared photodissociation and collision-induced dissociation.

  14. Photodissociation of gaseous CH{sub 3}COSH at 248 nm by time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy: Observation of three dissociation channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, En-Lan; Tsai, Po-Yu; Fan, He; Lin, King-Chuen

    2013-01-07

    Upon one-photon excitation at 248 nm, gaseous CH{sub 3}C(O)SH is dissociated following three pathways with the products of (1) OCS + CH{sub 4}, (2) CH{sub 3}SH + CO, and (3) CH{sub 2}CO + H{sub 2}S that are detected using time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy. The excited state {sup 1}(n{sub O}, {pi}{sup *}{sub CO}) has a radiative lifetime of 249 {+-} 11 ns long enough to allow for Ar collisions that induce internal conversion and enhance the fragment yields. The rate constant of collision-induced internal conversion is estimated to be 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Among the primary dissociation products, a fraction of the CH{sub 2}CO moiety may undergo further decomposition to CH{sub 2}+ CO, of which CH{sub 2} is confirmed by reaction with O{sub 2} producing CO{sub 2}, CO, OH, and H{sub 2}CO. Such a secondary decomposition was not observed previously in the Ar matrix-isolated experiments. The high-resolution spectra of CO are analyzed to determine the ro-vibrational energy deposition of 8.7 {+-} 0.7 kcal/mol, while the remaining primary products with smaller rotational constants are recognized but cannot be spectrally resolved. The CO fragment detected is mainly ascribed to the primary production. A prior distribution method is applied to predict the vibrational distribution of CO that is consistent with the experimental findings.

  15. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies of proton transfer processes and the dissociation of Zn2+-bound water in alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Nadolny, C; Zundel, G

    1997-08-01

    The following complexes were investigated by Fourier transform difference spectroscopy: binary complexes of alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast (YADH) and horse liver (LADH) with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and adenosine (5')-diphospho(5)-beta-D-ribose (ADP-Rib); the binary complex of Zn2+-free YADH with NAD+, the ternary complex of LADH with NAD+ and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. After addition of NAD+ to YADH and LADH, protonation of the N1 atom of the adenine ring of NAD+ is observed. It is shown that this proton arises from the dissociation of the Zn2+-bound water. The interaction of the Zn2+ ion with water is very strong, since this interaction is not just an electrostatic interaction. If the Zn2+ ions are in a tetrahedral environment, a large covalent contribution also occurs. If ADP-Rib is present instead of NAD+, no protonation of the N1 atom of the adenine ring of ADP-Rib is found, which demonstrates that the positively charged nicotinamide ring favors the conduction of the positive charge. All these results confirm the mechanism of Brändén et al. (1975): the Zn2+-bound water is split and the arising (OH)- deprotonates the alcohol. In the case of the ternary complex of LADH with NAD+ and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, we demonstrate that the alcohol is deprotonated and the alcoholate ion is bound directly to the Zn2+ ion. The conduction of the proton from the active site to the N1 atom of adenine occurs via a hydrogen-bonded chain with large proton polarizability due to collective proton motion. The nature and mechanism of this pathway are discussed on the basis of data from previous studies.

  16. Multiphoton tomography of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Pietruszka, Anna; Bückle, Rainer; Gerlach, Nicole; Heinrich, Ulrike

    2015-03-01

    Weightlessness may impair the astronaut's health conditions. Skin impairments belong to the most frequent health problems during space missions. Within the Skin B project, skin physiological changes during long duration space flights are currently investigated on three European astronauts that work for nearly half a year at the ISS. Measurements on the hydration, the transepidermal water loss, the surface structure, elasticity and the tissue density by ultrasound are conducted. Furthermore, high-resolution in vivo histology is performed by multiphoton tomography with 300 nm spatial and 200 ps temporal resolution. The mobile certified medical tomograph with a flexible 360° scan head attached to a mechano-optical arm is employed to measure two-photon autofluorescence and SHG in the volar forearm of the astronauts. Modification of the tissue architecture and of the fluorescent biomolecules NAD(P)H, keratin, melanin and elastin are detected as well as of SHG-active collagen. Thinning of the vital epidermis, a decrease of the autofluoresence intensity, an increase in the long fluorescence lifetime, and a reduced skin ageing index SAAID based on an increased collagen level in the upper dermis have been found. Current studies focus on recovery effects.

  17. Quantitative multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada

    2014-02-01

    Certified clinical multiphoton tomographs for label-free multidimensional high-resolution in vivo imaging have been introduced to the market several years ago. Novel tomographs include a flexible 360° scan head attached to a mechanooptical arm for autofluorescence and SHG imaging as well as a CARS module. Non-fluorescent lipids and water, mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen can be imaged in vivo with submicron resolution in human skin. Sensitive and rapid detectors allow single photon counting and the construction of 3D maps where the number of detected photons per voxel is depicted. Intratissue concentration profiles from endogenous as well exogenous substances can be generated when the number of detected photons can be correlated with the number of molecules with respect to binding and scattering behavior. Furthermore, the skin ageing index SAAID based on the ratio elastin/collagen as well as the epidermis depth based on the onset of SHG generation can be determined.

  18. Evaluation of Hybrid Theoretical Approaches for Structural Determination of a Glycine-Linked Cisplatin Derivative via Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation (IRMPD) Action Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, C C; Kimutai, B; Bao, X; Hamlow, L; Zhu, Y; Strobehn, S F; Gao, J; Berden, G; Oomens, J; Chow, C S; Rodgers, M T

    2015-11-01

    To gain a better understanding of the binding mechanism and assist in the optimization of chemical probing and drug design applications, experimental and theoretical studies of a series of amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives are being pursued. Glyplatin (glycine-linked cisplatin) was chosen for its structural simplicity and to enable backbone effects to be separated from side-chain effects on the structure and reactivity of ornithine- and lysine-linked cisplatin (Ornplatin and Lysplatin, respectively). Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy experiments were performed on Glyplatin to characterize its structure and guide the selection of the most effective hybrid theoretical approach for determining its structure and IR spectrum. The simplicity of the Glyplatin system allows a wide variety of density functionals, treatments of the Pt center including the use of all-electron basis sets vs valence basis sets combined with an effective core potential (ECP), and basis sets for all other atoms to be evaluated at a reasonable computational cost. The results for Glyplatin provide the foundation for calculations of more complex amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives such as Ornplatin and Lysplatin. Present results suggest that the B3LYP/mDZP/def2-TZVP hybrid method can be effectively employed for structural and IR characterization of more complex amino acid-linked cisplatin complexes and their nucleic acid derivatives.

  19. Multiphoton microspectroscopy of biological specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bai-Ling; Kao, Fu-Jen; Cheng, Ping C.; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Chen, RangWu; Wang, YiMin; Chen, JianCheng; Wang, Yung-Shun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Huang, Mao-Kuo

    2000-07-01

    The non-linear nature of multi-photon fluorescence excitation restricts the fluorescing volume to the vicinity of the focal point. As a result, the technology has the capacity for micro- spectroscopy of biological specimen at high spatial resolution. Chloroplasts in mesophyll protoplast of Arabidopsis thaliana and maize stem sections were used to demonstrate the feasibility of multi-photon fluorescence micro-spectroscopy at subcellular compartments. Time-lapse spectral recording provides a means for studying the response of cell organelles to high intensity illumination.

  20. Dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation.

  1. Dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2014-08-01

    Dissociative amnesia is one of the most enigmatic and controversial psychiatric disorders. In the past two decades, interest in the understanding of its pathophysiology has surged. In this report, we review new data about the epidemiology, neurobiology, and neuroimaging of dissociative amnesia and show how advances in memory research and neurobiology of dissociation inform proposed pathogenetic models of the disorder. Dissociative amnesia is characterised by functional impairment. Additionally, preliminary data suggest that affected people have an increased and possibly underestimated suicide risk. The prevalence of dissociative amnesia differs substantially across countries and populations. Symptoms and disease course also vary, indicating a possibly heterogeneous disorder. The accompanying clinical features differ across cultural groups. Most dissociative amnesias are retrograde, with memory impairments mainly involving the episodic-autobiographical memory domain. Anterograde dissociative amnesia occurring without significant retrograde memory impairments is rare. Functional neuroimaging studies of dissociative amnesia with prevailing retrograde memory impairments show changes in the network that subserves autobiographical memory. At present, no evidence-based treatments are available for dissociative amnesia and no broad framework exists for its rehabilitation. Further research is needed into its neurobiology, course, treatment options, and strategies to improve differential diagnoses.

  2. Studies of atmospheric molecules by multiphoton spectroscopy. Progress report, July 15, 1989--October, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.M.

    1991-10-01

    Carbon dioxide presents a great challenge to spectroscopy because of its propensity toward dissociation in all of its excited states. Multiphoton ionization spectroscopy is usually not applicable to the study of dissociating molecules because the dissociation competes effectively with ionization, resulting in no signal. We reasoned, however, that with high enough laser fluence, ionization could compete with dissociation in the longer lived states, exposing them for study from the continuous spectral background resulting from rapidly dissociating states. We describe the various spectroscopic and photophysical effects found through the multiphoton ionization and multiphoton photoelectron spectra. A recently developed variant of threshold ionization spectroscopy, usually called ZEKE, has shown a great deal of usefulness in providing the same information as traditional photoelectron spectroscopy but with higher resolution and much better signal-to-noise when using standard laboratory lasers. Threshold ionization techniques locate the states of an ion by scanning a light source across the ionization continuum of a neutral and somehow detecting when electrons are produced with no kinetic energy. We chose to develop our capabilities in threshold ionization spectroscopy using aromatic molecules because of their importance and because their electronic structure allows a pump-probe type of excitation scheme which avoids the use of vacuum ultraviolet laser beams. Among aromatics, the azines are noted for their small S{sub 1}-T{sub 1} energy gap which give them unique and interesting photophysical properties. We have continued our work on the multiphoton spectrum of metastable nitrogen produced by an electric discharge in supersonic beam. We have been able to assign more of the lines and simulated their rotational structure but many peaks remain unassigned.

  3. A simple model of multiphoton micromachining in silk hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Matthew B.; Alonzo, Carlo; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2016-06-01

    High resolution three-dimensional voids can be directly written into transparent silk fibroin hydrogels using ultrashort pulses of near-infrared (NIR) light. Here, we propose a simple finite-element model that can be used to predict the size and shape of individual features under various exposure conditions. We compare predicted and measured feature volumes for a wide range of parameters and use the model to determine optimum conditions for maximum material removal. The simplicity of the model implies that the mechanism of multiphoton induced void creation in silk is due to direct absorption of light energy rather than diffusion of heat or other photoproducts, and confirms that multiphoton absorption of NIR light in silk is purely a 3-photon process.

  4. Stochastic scanning multiphoton multifocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jureller, Justin E; Kim, Hee Y; Scherer, Norbert F

    2006-04-17

    Multiparticle tracking with scanning confocal and multiphoton fluorescence imaging is increasingly important for elucidating biological function, as in the transport of intracellular cargo-carrying vesicles. We demonstrate a simple rapid-sampling stochastic scanning multifocal multiphoton microscopy (SS-MMM) fluorescence imaging technique that enables multiparticle tracking without specialized hardware at rates 1,000 times greater than conventional single point raster scanning. Stochastic scanning of a diffractive optic generated 10x10 hexagonal array of foci with a white noise driven galvanometer yields a scan pattern that is random yet space-filling. SS-MMM creates a more uniformly sampled image with fewer spatio-temporal artifacts than obtained by conventional or multibeam raster scanning. SS-MMM is verified by simulation and experimentally demonstrated by tracking microsphere diffusion in solution. PMID:19516485

  5. Multiphoton microscopy of atheroslcerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilledahl, Magnus B.; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Haugen, Olav A.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2007-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a techniques that fascilitates three dimensional imaging of intact, unstained tissue. Especially connective tissue has a relatively strong nonlinear optical response and can easily be imaged. Atherosclerosis is a disease where lipids accumulate in the vessel wall and there is a thickening of the intima by growth of a cap of connective tissue. The mechanical strength of this fibrous cap is of clinically importance. If the cap ruptures a thrombosis forms which can block a coronary vessel and therby causing myocardial infarction. Multiphoton microscopy can be used to image the fibrous cap and thereby determine the thickness of the cap and the structure of the connective fibres. This could possibly be developed into a diagnostic and clincal tool to monitor the vulnerability of a plaque and also to better understand the development of a plaque and effects of treatment. We have collected multiphoton microscopy images from atherosclerotic plaque in human aorta, both two photon excited fluorescens and second harmonic generated signal. The feasability of using this technique to determine the state of the plaque is explored.

  6. Multiple-photon excitation and dissociation of polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    This book is Volume 35 in Springer's Topics in Current Physics series designed to provide the interested reader perspective on a rapidly developing research field by gathering together review articles by major players. The editor has accurately highlighted the major results of the multiple-photon excitation (MPE) shock wave of research activity that propagated through the gas-phase chemical physics community during the 1970's. Throughout this period three questions intrigued the photochemists: (1) how is it possible that virtually any polyatomic molecule can efficiently absorb scores of infrared photons from a pulsed CO/sub 2/ TEA laser to achieve bond fission. (2) can insight into the dissociation dynamic be gained from this process, and in particular can bonds be made to break selectively. (3) could MPE be used to separate heavy isotopes. The answers to the first two questions are thoroughly examined and answered in the excellent review by Y.T. Lee et al., which itself is worth the price of the book. The question of isotope separation is discussed in two articles, one by Ambartzumian and the other by Cantrell. However, the recent glut of cheap uranium on world energy markets and the decision of DOE to develop atomic multiphoton ionization as the process of choice have resulted in a rapid deflation of interest in MPE separation schemes.

  7. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  8. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  9. Application of Multiphoton Microscopy in Dermatological Studies: a Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Elijah; Rowlands, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the historical and more recent developments of multiphoton microscopy, as applied to dermatology. Multiphoton microscopy offers several advantages over competing microscopy techniques: there is an inherent axial sectioning, penetration depths that compete well with confocal microscopy on account of the use of near-infrared light, and many two-photon contrast mechanisms, such as second-harmonic generation, have no analogue in one-photon microscopy. While the penetration depths of photons into tissue are typically limited on the order of hundreds of microns, this is of less concern in dermatology, as the skin is thin and readily accessible. As a result, multiphoton microscopy in dermatology has generated a great deal of interest, much of which is summarized here. The review covers the interaction of light and tissue, as well as the various considerations that must be made when designing an instrument. The state of multiphoton microscopy in imaging skin cancer and various other diseases is also discussed, along with the investigation of aging and regeneration phenomena, and finally, the use of multiphoton microscopy to analyze the transdermal transport of drugs, cosmetics and other agents is summarized. The review concludes with a look at potential future research directions, especially those that are necessary to push these techniques into widespread clinical acceptance. PMID:25075226

  10. Multiphoton Microscopy for Ophthalmic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Emily A.; Masihzadeh, Omid; Lei, Tim C.; Ammar, David A.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2011-01-01

    We review multiphoton microscopy (MPM) including two-photon autofluorescence (2PAF), second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), fluorescence lifetime (FLIM), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) with relevance to clinical applications in ophthalmology. The different imaging modalities are discussed highlighting the particular strength that each has for functional tissue imaging. MPM is compared with current clinical ophthalmological imaging techniques such as reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence imaging. In addition, we discuss the future prospects for MPM in disease detection and clinical monitoring of disease progression, understanding fundamental disease mechanisms, and real-time monitoring of drug delivery. PMID:21274261

  11. Multiphoton cryo microscope with sample temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, H. G.; Uchugonova, A.; König, K.

    2013-02-01

    We present a multiphoton microscope system which combines the advantages of multiphoton imaging with precise control of the sample temperature. The microscope provides online insight in temperature-induced changes and effects in plant tissue and animal cells with subcellular resolution during cooling and thawing processes. Image contrast is based on multiphoton fluorescence intensity or fluorescence lifetime in the range from liquid nitrogen temperature up to +600°C. In addition, micro spectra from the imaged regions can be recorded. We present measurement results from plant leaf samples as well as Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  12. Infrared and collision-induced fragmentation of iron ethoxide cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, D. A.; Stace, A. J.

    1997-12-01

    The multi-photon infrared photo-dissociation (MPD) of iron ethoxide cations of the general form Fe+(EtOH)m(EtO)n has been studied in an ion trap using a line tuneable CO2 laser. The ions exhibit very characteristic infrared absorption profiles which are shown to be quite different from those recorded for Fe+(EtOH)n cluster ions. From a comparison with solid state data, it is suggested that the mode responsible for absorption is a C---O stretch in the ethoxide group. To complement the interpretation of the MPD data, the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the same series of ions was promoted by the application of a tickle voltage to the end caps of the ion trap. Both MPD and CID generate the same fragment ions, but the relative intensities are different. A detailed study of Fe+(EtOH)(EtO) using isotopes reveals fragmentation pathways leading primarily to the loss of H2, CH2O and CH3CHO, all of which can be accounted for via a series of insertion and radical transfer steps. Central to many of the reactions is an initial insertion step which results in the formation of HFe+(EtO)2.

  13. MULTI-PHOTON PHOSPHOR FEASIBILITY RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    R. Graham; W. Chow

    2003-05-01

    Development of multi-photon phosphor materials for discharge lamps represents a goal that would achieve up to a doubling of discharge (fluorescent) lamp efficacy. This report reviews the existing literature on multi-photon phosphors, identifies obstacles in developing such phosphors, and recommends directions for future research to address these obstacles. To critically examine issues involved in developing a multi-photon phosphor, the project brought together a team of experts from universities, national laboratories, and an industrial lamp manufacturer. Results and findings are organized into three categories: (1) Multi-Photon Systems and Processes, (2) Chemistry and Materials Issues, and (3) Concepts and Models. Multi-Photon Systems and Processes: This category focuses on how to use our current understanding of multi-photon phosphor systems to design new phosphor systems for application in fluorescent lamps. The quickest way to develop multi-photon lamp phosphors lies in finding sensitizer ions for Gd{sup 3+} and identifying activator ions to red shift the blue emission from Pr{sup 3+} due to the {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 1}I{sub 6} transition associated with the first cascading step. Success in either of these developments would lead to more efficient fluorescent lamps. Chemistry and Materials Issues: The most promising multi-photon phosphors are found in fluoride hosts. However, stability of fluorides in environments typically found in fluorescent lamps needs to be greatly improved. Experimental investigation of fluorides in actual lamp environments needs to be undertaken while working on oxide and oxyfluoride alternative systems for backup. Concepts and Models: Successful design of a multi-photon phosphor system based on cascading transitions of Gd{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} depends critically on how the former can be sensitized and the latter can sensitize an activator ion. Methods to predict energy level diagrams and Judd-Ofelt parameters of multi-photon

  14. Differential Multiphoton Laser Scanning Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Field, Jeffrey J.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Chandler, Eric V.; Hoover, Erich E.; Young, Michael D.; Ding, Shi-you; Sylvester, Anne W.; Kleinfeld, David; Squier, Jeff A.

    2016-01-01

    Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) in the biological and medical sciences has become an important tool for obtaining high resolution images at video rates. While current implementations of MMM achieve very high frame rates, they are limited in their applicability to essentially those biological samples that exhibit little or no scattering. In this paper, we report on a method for MMM in which imaging detection is not necessary (single element point detection is implemented), and is therefore fully compatible for use in imaging through scattering media. Further, we demonstrate that this method leads to a new type of MMM wherein it is possible to simultaneously obtain multiple images and view differences in excitation parameters in a single shot. PMID:27390511

  15. Multiphoton entanglement concentration and quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Gabriel A; Simon, Christoph; Bouwmeester, Dik

    2002-05-01

    Multiphoton states from parametric down-conversion can be entangled both in polarization and photon number. Maximal high-dimensional entanglement can be concentrated postselectively from these states via photon counting. This makes them natural candidates for quantum key distribution, where the presence of more than one photon per detection interval has up to now been considered undesirable. We propose a simple multiphoton cryptography protocol for the case of low losses.

  16. Ultrafast multiphoton transient absorption of β-carotene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckup, Tiago; Weigel, Alexander; Hauer, Jürgen; Motzkus, Marcus

    2010-07-01

    Multiphoton spectroscopy is able to directly excite electronic states, which are one-photon forbidden. Under single photon conditions, such one-photon forbidden states are exclusively populated via internal relaxation. Hence, transient absorption with two-photon excitation has the potential of clarifying complex relaxation networks by using aimed excitation. In this work we exploited ultrafast two-photon spectroscopy to investigate the excitation of dark states of β-carotene in solution. After direct excitation of the vibronic manifold of S2Ag- from S 0 via two-photon transition, the characteristic internal conversion via hot-S 1 → S 1 → S 0 was observed in the respective spectral region. Additional slow dynamics in the blue-wing of excited-state absorption (ESA) and in the NIR were detected, which is not directly observable with one-photon excitation transient absorption. These features are associated here to resonant multiphoton processes, which lead simultaneously to ultrafast intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet systems as well as to excitation of doublet states. Furthermore, we identify a 340-400 fs relaxation component in the near-infrared region after two-photon resonant excitation and discuss the role of additional dark states ( 3Ag- and 1Bu-) in this process.

  17. Nanoparticle-assisted-multiphoton microscopy for in vivo brain imaging of mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Neuro/brain study has attracted much attention during past few years, and many optical methods have been utilized in order to obtain accurate and complete neural information inside the brain. Relying on simultaneous absorption of two or more near-infrared photons by a fluorophore, multiphoton microscopy can achieve deep tissue penetration and efficient light detection noninvasively, which makes it very suitable for thick-tissue and in vivo bioimaging. Nanoparticles possess many unique optical and chemical properties, such as anti-photobleaching, large multiphoton absorption cross-section, and high stability in biological environment, which facilitates their applications in long-term multiphoton microscopy as contrast agents. In this paper, we will introduce several typical nanoparticles (e.g. organic dye doped polymer nanoparticles and gold nanorods) with high multiphoton fluorescence efficiency. We further applied them in two- and three-photon in vivo functional brain imaging of mice, such as brain-microglia imaging, 3D architecture reconstruction of brain blood vessel, and blood velocity measurement.

  18. Electron Capture Dissociation of Divalent Metal-adducted Sulfated N-Glycans Released from Bovine Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Sulfated N-glycans released from bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) were ionized with the divalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Co by electrospray ionization (ESI). These metal-adducted species were subjected to infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) and the corresponding fragmentation patterns were compared. IRMPD generated extensive glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, but most product ions suffered from sulfonate loss. Internal fragments were also observed, which complicated the spectra. ECD provided complementary structural information compared with IRMPD, and all observed product ions retained the sulfonate group, allowing sulfonate localization. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of ECD towards metal-adducted sulfated N-glycans released from a glycoprotein. Due to the ability of IRMPD and ECD to provide complementary structural information, the combination of the two strategies is a promising and valuable tool for glycan structural characterization. The influence of different metal ions was also examined. Calcium adducts appeared to be the most promising species because of high sensitivity and ability to provide extensive structural information.

  19. Multi-photon excitation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Diaspro, Alberto; Bianchini, Paolo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario; Ramoino, Paola; Usai, Cesare

    2006-01-01

    Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase their impact in areas such biotechnology, neurobiology, embryology, tissue engineering, materials science where imaging can be coupled to the possibility of using the microscopes in an active way, too. As well, 2PE implementations in noninvasive optical bioscopy or laser-based treatments point out to the relevance in clinical applications. Here we report about some basic aspects related to the phenomenon, implications in three-dimensional imaging microscopy, practical aspects related to design and realization of MPE microscopes, and we only give a list of potential applications and variations on the theme in order to offer a starting point for advancing new applications and developments. PMID:16756664

  20. Multi-photon excitation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Diaspro, Alberto; Bianchini, Paolo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario; Ramoino, Paola; Usai, Cesare

    2006-01-01

    Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase their impact in areas such biotechnology, neurobiology, embryology, tissue engineering, materials science where imaging can be coupled to the possibility of using the microscopes in an active way, too. As well, 2PE implementations in noninvasive optical bioscopy or laser-based treatments point out to the relevance in clinical applications. Here we report about some basic aspects related to the phenomenon, implications in three-dimensional imaging microscopy, practical aspects related to design and realization of MPE microscopes, and we only give a list of potential applications and variations on the theme in order to offer a starting point for advancing new applications and developments.

  1. Multi-photon excitation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Diaspro, Alberto; Bianchini, Paolo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario; Ramoino, Paola; Usai, Cesare

    2006-01-01

    Multi-photon excitation (MPE) microscopy plays a growing role among microscopical techniques utilized for studying biological matter. In conjunction with confocal microscopy it can be considered the imaging workhorse of life science laboratories. Its roots can be found in a fundamental work written by Maria Goeppert Mayer more than 70 years ago. Nowadays, 2PE and MPE microscopes are expected to increase their impact in areas such biotechnology, neurobiology, embryology, tissue engineering, materials science where imaging can be coupled to the possibility of using the microscopes in an active way, too. As well, 2PE implementations in noninvasive optical bioscopy or laser-based treatments point out to the relevance in clinical applications. Here we report about some basic aspects related to the phenomenon, implications in three-dimensional imaging microscopy, practical aspects related to design and realization of MPE microscopes, and we only give a list of potential applications and variations on the theme in order to offer a starting point for advancing new applications and developments. PMID:16756664

  2. Clinical multiphoton and CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, H. G.; Weinigel, M.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; König, K.

    2012-03-01

    We report on clinical CARS imaging of human skin in vivo with the certified hybrid multiphoton tomograph CARSDermaInspect. The CARS-DermaInspect provides simultaneous imaging of non-fluorescent intradermal lipid and water as well as imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence from intrinsic molecules. Two different excitation schemes for CARS imaging have been realized: In the first setup, a combination of fs oscillator and optical parametric oscillator provided fs-CARS pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. In the second setup a fs oscillator was combined with a photonic crystal fiber which provided a broadband spectrum. A spectral range out of the broadband-spectrum was selected and used for CARS excitation in combination with the residual fs-oscillator output. In both setups, in addition to CARS, single-beam excitation was used for imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. Both CARS-excitation systems were successfully used for imaging of lipids inside the skin in vivo.

  3. Multi-focal multiphoton lithography.

    PubMed

    Ritschdorff, Eric T; Nielson, Rex; Shear, Jason B

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL) provides unparalleled capabilities for creating high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) materials from a broad spectrum of building blocks and with few limitations on geometry, qualities that have been key to the design of chemically, mechanically, and biologically functional microforms. Unfortunately, the reliance of MPL on laser scanning limits the speed at which fabrication can be performed, making it impractical in many instances to produce large-scale, high-resolution objects such as complex micromachines, 3D microfluidics, etc. Previously, others have demonstrated the possibility of using multiple laser foci to simultaneously perform MPL at numerous sites in parallel, but use of a stage-scanning system to specify fabrication coordinates resulted in the production of identical features at each focal position. As a more general solution to the bottleneck problem, we demonstrate here the feasibility for performing multi-focal MPL using a dynamic mask to differentially modulate foci, an approach that enables each fabrication site to create independent (uncorrelated) features within a larger, integrated microform. In this proof-of-concept study, two simultaneously scanned foci produced the expected two-fold decrease in fabrication time, and this approach could be readily extended to many scanning foci by using a more powerful laser. Finally, we show that use of multiple foci in MPL can be exploited to assign heterogeneous properties (such as differential swelling) to micromaterials at distinct positions within a fabrication zone.

  4. Multi-focal multiphoton lithography.

    PubMed

    Ritschdorff, Eric T; Nielson, Rex; Shear, Jason B

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL) provides unparalleled capabilities for creating high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) materials from a broad spectrum of building blocks and with few limitations on geometry, qualities that have been key to the design of chemically, mechanically, and biologically functional microforms. Unfortunately, the reliance of MPL on laser scanning limits the speed at which fabrication can be performed, making it impractical in many instances to produce large-scale, high-resolution objects such as complex micromachines, 3D microfluidics, etc. Previously, others have demonstrated the possibility of using multiple laser foci to simultaneously perform MPL at numerous sites in parallel, but use of a stage-scanning system to specify fabrication coordinates resulted in the production of identical features at each focal position. As a more general solution to the bottleneck problem, we demonstrate here the feasibility for performing multi-focal MPL using a dynamic mask to differentially modulate foci, an approach that enables each fabrication site to create independent (uncorrelated) features within a larger, integrated microform. In this proof-of-concept study, two simultaneously scanned foci produced the expected two-fold decrease in fabrication time, and this approach could be readily extended to many scanning foci by using a more powerful laser. Finally, we show that use of multiple foci in MPL can be exploited to assign heterogeneous properties (such as differential swelling) to micromaterials at distinct positions within a fabrication zone. PMID:22282105

  5. Resonance Enhanced Multi-photon Spectroscopy of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligare, Marshall Robert

    For over 50 years DNA has been studied to better understand its connection to life and evolution. These past experiments have led to our understanding of its structure and function in the biological environment but the interaction of DNA with UV radiation at the molecular level is still not very well understood. Unique mechanisms in nucleobase chromaphores protect us from adverse chemical reactions after UV absorption. Studying these processes can help develop theories for prebiotic chemistry and the possibility of alternative forms of DNA. Using resonance enhanced multi-photon spectroscopic techniques in the gas phase allow for the structure and dynamics of individual nucleobases to be studied in detail. Experiments studying different levels of structure/complexity with relation to their biological function are presented. Resonant IR multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy in conjunction with molecular mechanics and DFT calculations are used to determine gas phase structures of anionic nucleotide clusters. A comparison of the identified structures with known biological function shows how the hydrogen bonding of the nucleotides and their clusters free of solvent create favorable structures for quick incorporation into enzymes such as DNA polymerase. Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy techniques such as resonant two photon ionization (R2PI) and IR-UV double resonance are used to further elucidate the structure and excited state dynamics of the bare nucleobases thymine and uracil. Both exhibit long lived excited electronic states that have been implicated in DNA photolesions which can ultimately lead to melanoma and carcinoma. Our experimental data in comparison with many quantum chemical calculations suggest a new picture for the dynamics of thymine and uracil in the gas phase. A high probability of UV absorption from a vibrationally hot ground state to the excited electronic state shows that the stability of thymine and uracil comes from

  6. Multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Crawford, Darrell; Burczynski, Frank J.; Liu, Xin; Liau, Ian; Roberts, Michael S.

    2014-09-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is the preferred method when in vivo deep-tissue imaging is required. This review presents the application of multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function. In particular, multiphoton microscopy is useful in imaging intracellular events, such as mitochondrial depolarization and cellular metabolism in terms of NAD(P)H changes with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The morphology of hepatocytes can be visualized without exogenously administered fluorescent dyes by utilizing their autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signal of collagen, which is useful in diagnosing liver disease. More specific imaging, such as studying drug transport in normal and diseased livers are achievable, but require exogenously administered fluorescent dyes. If these techniques can be translated into clinical use to assess liver function, it would greatly improve early diagnosis of organ viability, fibrosis, and cancer.

  7. A pragmatic guide to multiphoton microscope design

    PubMed Central

    Young, Michael D.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Bartels, Randy A.; Squier, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged as a ubiquitous tool for studying microscopic structure and function across a broad range of disciplines. As such, the intent of this paper is to present a comprehensive resource for the construction and performance evaluation of a multiphoton microscope that will be understandable to the broad range of scientific fields that presently exploit, or wish to begin exploiting, this powerful technology. With this in mind, we have developed a guide to aid in the design of a multiphoton microscope. We discuss source selection, optical management of dispersion, image-relay systems with scan optics, objective-lens selection, single-element light-collection theory, photon-counting detection, image rendering, and finally, an illustrated guide for building an example microscope. PMID:27182429

  8. New developments in multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    80 years ago, the PhD student Maria Goeppert predicted in her thesis in Goettingen, Germany, two-photon effects. It took 30 years to prove her theory, and another three decades to realize the first two-photon microscope. With the beginning of this millennium, first clinical multiphoton tomographs started operation in research institutions, hospitals, and in the cosmetic industry. The multiphoton tomograph MPTflexTM with its miniaturized flexible scan head became the Prism-Award 2010 winner in the category Life Sciences. Multiphoton tomographs with its superior submicron spatial resolution can be upgraded to 5D imaging tools by adding spectral time-correlated single photon counting units. Furthermore, multimodal hybrid tomographs provide chemical fingerprinting and fast wide-field imaging. The world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph in spring 2010. In particular, nonfluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen have been imaged in patients with dermatological disorders. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution imaging tools such as ultrasound, optoacoustic, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer (malignant melanoma), optimization of treatment strategies (wound healing, dermatitis), and cosmetic research including long-term biosafety tests of ZnO sunscreen nanoparticles and the measurement of the stimulated biosynthesis of collagen by anti-ageing products.

  9. Quantum cryptography with perfect multiphoton entanglement.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuhui; Chan, Kam Tai

    2005-05-01

    Multiphoton entanglement in the same polarization has been shown theoretically to be obtainable by type-I spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), which can generate bright pulses more easily than type-II SPDC. A new quantum cryptographic protocol utilizing polarization pairs with the detected type-I entangled multiphotons is proposed as quantum key distribution. We calculate the information capacity versus photon number corresponding to polarization after considering the transmission loss inside the optical fiber, the detector efficiency, and intercept-resend attacks at the level of channel error. The result compares favorably with all other schemes employing entanglement.

  10. Multiphoton polymerization using optical trap assisted nanopatterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitz, Karl-Heinz; Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Flad, Florian; Schäffer, Eike; Quentin, Ulf; Alexeev, Ilya; Fardel, Romain; Arnold, Craig B.; Schmidt, Michael

    2013-06-01

    In this letter, we show the combination of multiphoton polymerization and optical trap assisted nanopatterning (OTAN) for the additive manufacturing of structures with nanometer resolution. User-defined patterns of polymer nanostructures are deposited on a glass substrate by a 3.5 μm polystyrene sphere focusing IR femtosecond laser pulses, showing minimum feature sizes of λ/10. Feature size depends on the applied laser fluence and the bead surface spacing. A finite element model describes the intensity enhancement in the microbead focus. The results presented suggest that OTAN in combination with multiphoton processing is a viable technique for additive nanomanufacturing with sub-diffraction-limited resolution.

  11. Studies on wide-field-of-view multiphoton imaging using the flexible clinical multiphoton tomograph MPTflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; König, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton imaging systems are capable of high-resolution 3-D image acquisition of deep tissue. A first commercially available CE-certified biomedical system for subcelluar resolution of human skin has been launched by JenLab company with the DermaInspectR in 2002. The demand for more flexibility caused the development of the MPTflexR, which provides an increased flexibility and accessibility especially for clinical and cosmetic examinations. However the high resolution of clinical multiphoton tomographs are adherent with a small field-of-view (FOV) of about 360×360μm2. Especially time-consuming is the relocation of areas of interest (AOI) like lesions, sweat glands or hair shafts during a multiphoton examination. This limitation can be be overcome by macroscopic large-area (wide-field-ofview) multiphoton tomography, which is tested first within this work.

  12. Stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence reveals a new method of melanoma imaging for dermatologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Lian, Christine; Ma, Jie; Yu, Jingyi; Gu, Zetong; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has shown that the stepwise multi-photon activated fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin, activated by a continuous-wave (CW) mode near infrared (NIR) laser, is a low cost and reliable method of detecting melanin. SMPAF images of melanin in a mouse hair and a formalin fixed mouse melanoma were compared with conventional multiphoton fluorescence microscopy (MPFM) images and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) images, all of which were acquired at an excitation wavelength of 920 nm, to further prove the effectiveness of SMPAF in detecting melanin. SMPAF images add specificity for melanin detection to MPFM images and CRM images. Melanin SMPAF can be a promising technology to enable melanoma imaging for dermatologists.

  13. Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder (DID). The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) was administered to 34 patients with DID, 23 patients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS), 52 patients with mixed psychiatric disorders, and 58 normal individuals. DID patients obtained significantly higher scores than the other three groups on 27 dissociation-related variables. DDNOS patients had significantly higher scores than normals and mixed psychiatric patients on 17 and 15 dissociation-related variables, respectively. The findings of the present study are virtually identical to a large body of replicated findings about the dissociative phenomenology of DID. This broad range of dissociation-related phenomena, which routinely occurs in individuals with DID, is largely absent from the DSM-IV-TR account of DID. Factor analysis of the 11 dimensions of dissociation that are measured by the MID extracted only one factor that accounted for 85% of the variance. It was concluded that dissociation is a unifactorial taxon or natural type that has different aspects or epiphenomena (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization, voices, trance, etc.).

  14. X-ray FEL induced multiphton ionization and molecular dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li

    2014-05-01

    X-ray Free electron lasers (FELs) enable multiphoton absorption at the core levels which is not possible with conventional light sources. Multiphoton ionization and the subsequent core-hole states relaxation lead to dramatic dynamics of the molecules. We present our experimental as well as theoretical results on multiphoton ionization and molecular fragmentation dynamics with the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Laboratory. We investigated simple diatomic system, N2 molecules, where we used multiphoton ionization as an internal clock for imaging the dynamics in time and the internuclear separation domain. We observed the modification of the ionization dynamic by varying the x-ray beam parameters and the effect of the spatial distribution on the ionization. We also investigated a complex system, C60, where we developed a full model to simulate the multiphoton ionization that results in various molecular ions and atomic carbon ions up to charge 6+. The calculation agrees well with our experimental results in ion kinetic energy distribution and charge state distribution. Moreover, our model provides further insights into the photoionization and dissociation dynamics as a function of time and molecular size. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Thank T. Osipov, B. Murphy, Z. Jurek, S.-K. Son, R. Santra, and N. Berrah, M. Hoener, O. Gessner, F. Tarantelli, S.T. Pratt, O. Kornilov, C. Buth, M. Güehr, E. Kanter, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Chen, R. Coffee, J. Cryan, L. DiMauro, M. Glownia, E. Kukk, S.R. Leone, L. Avaldi, P. Bolognesi, J. Eland, J. Farrell, R. Feifel, L. Frasinski, D.T. Ha, K. Hoffmann, B. McFarland, C. Miron, M. Mucke, R. Squibb, K. Ueda for their contributions to this work.

  15. Unexpected linear ion trap collision-induced dissociation and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance infrared multi-photon dissociation fragmentation of a hydrated C-glycoside of 5-fluorouridine formed by the action of the pseudouridine synthases RluA and TruB.

    PubMed

    Miracco, Edward J; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Mueller, Eugene G

    2011-09-30

    As part of the investigation of the pseudouridine synthases, 5-fluorouridine in RNA was employed as a mechanistic probe. The hydrated, rearranged product of 5-fluorouridine was isolated as part of a dinucleotide and found to undergo unusual fragmentation during mass spectrometry, with the facile loss of HNCO from the product pyrimidine ring favored over phosphodiester bond rupture. Although the loss of HNCO from uridine and pseudouridine is well established, the pericyclic process leading to their fragmentation cannot operate with the saturated pyrimidine ring in the product of 5-fluorouridine. Based on the MS(n) results and calculations reported here, a new mechanism relying on the peculiar disposition of the functional groups of the product pyrimidine ring is proposed to account for the unusually facile fragmentation.

  16. Unexpected linear ion trap collision-induced dissociation and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance infrared multi-photon dissociation fragmentation of a hydrated C-glycoside of 5-fluorouridine formed by the action of the pseudouridine synthases RluA and TruB.

    PubMed

    Miracco, Edward J; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Mueller, Eugene G

    2011-09-30

    As part of the investigation of the pseudouridine synthases, 5-fluorouridine in RNA was employed as a mechanistic probe. The hydrated, rearranged product of 5-fluorouridine was isolated as part of a dinucleotide and found to undergo unusual fragmentation during mass spectrometry, with the facile loss of HNCO from the product pyrimidine ring favored over phosphodiester bond rupture. Although the loss of HNCO from uridine and pseudouridine is well established, the pericyclic process leading to their fragmentation cannot operate with the saturated pyrimidine ring in the product of 5-fluorouridine. Based on the MS(n) results and calculations reported here, a new mechanism relying on the peculiar disposition of the functional groups of the product pyrimidine ring is proposed to account for the unusually facile fragmentation. PMID:23657957

  17. Conformer specific dissociation dynamics of iodocyclohexane studied by velocity map imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaouris, D. K.; Wenge, A. M.; Murdock, D.; Oliver, T. A. A.; Richmond, G.; Ritchie, G. A. D.; Dixon, R. N.; Ashfold, M. N. R.

    2011-09-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of iodocyclohexane has been studied using velocity map imaging following excitation at many wavelengths within its A-band (230 ≤ λ ≤ 305 nm). This molecule exists in two conformations (axial and equatorial), and one aim of the present experiment was to explore the extent to which conformer-specific fragmentation dynamics could be distinguished. Ground (I) and spin-orbit excited (I*) state iodine atom products were monitored by 2 + 1 resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization, and total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra and angular distributions derived from analysis of images recorded at all wavelengths studied. TKER spectra obtained at the longer excitation wavelengths show two distinct components, which can be attributed to the two conformers and the different ways in which these partition the excess energy upon C-I bond fission. Companion calculations based on a simple impulsive model suggest that dissociation of the equatorial (axial) conformer preferentially yields vibrationally (rotationally) excited cyclohexyl co-fragments. Both I and I* products are detected at the longest parent absorption wavelength (λ ˜ 305 nm), and both sets of products show recoil anisotropy parameters, β > 1, implying prompt dissociation following excitation via a transition whose dipole moment is aligned parallel to the C-I bond. The quantum yield for forming I* products, ΦI*, has been determined by time resolved infrared diode laser absorption methods to be 0.14 ± 0.02 (at λ = 248 nm) and 0.22 ± 0.05 (at λ = 266 nm). Electronic structure calculations indicate that the bulk of the A-band absorption is associated with transition to the 4A' state, and that the (majority) I atom products arise via non-adiabatic transfer from the 4A' potential energy surface (PES) via conical intersection(s) with one or more PESs correlating with ground state products.

  18. RAIRS observation of photoinduced dissociation of NO on Ni(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magkoev, Tamerlan T.; Song, Moon-Bong; Fukutani, Katsuyuki; Murata, Yoshitada

    1995-06-01

    The properties of the {NO}/{Ni(111) } system under nanosecond ultraviolet laser light irradiation are studied by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. It is found that adsorbed NO molecules are dissociated by laser light. Dissociation proceeds effectively in a dilute NO layer, whereas it is suppressed in a saturated overlayer.

  19. Dissociated Vertical Deviation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dissociated Vertical Deviation En Español Read in Chinese What is Dissociated Vertical Deviation (DVD)? DVD is ...

  20. Multiphoton Microscopy for Visualizing Lipids in Tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Martin; Serrels, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing the appearance of fat droplets and adipocytes in tissue can be realized using a label-free imaging method known as coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). CARS is a nonlinear optical technique that allows label-free imaging of a material with contrast based on the same vibrational signatures of molecules found in Raman spectroscopy. CARS can be combined with other single and multiphoton imaging modes such as second harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence to image a broad variety of biological structures.Here we describe the construction of a multiphoton microscope that will enable the study of both fluorescently labeled and unlabeled tissue. This has been used to monitor the contribution of Wt1 expressing cells towards the visceral fat depots during gestation. PMID:27417963

  1. Multiphoton tomography of intratissue tattoo nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2012-02-01

    Most of today's intratissue tattoo pigments are unknown nanoparticles. So far, there was no real control of their use due to the absence of regulations. Some of the tattoo pigments contain carcinogenic amines e.g. azo pigment Red 22. Nowadays, the European Union starts to control the administration of tattoo pigments. There is an interest to obtain information on the intratissue distribution, their interaction with living cells and the extracellular matrix, and the mechanisms behind laser tattoo removal. Multiphoton tomographs are novel biosafety and imaging tools that can provide such information non-invasively and without further labeling. When using the spectral FLIM module, spatially-resolved emission spectra, excitation spectra, and fluorescence lifetimes can pr provided. Multiphoton tomographs are used by all major cosmetic comapanies to test the biosafety of sunscreen nanoparticles.

  2. Assessing and benchmarking multiphoton microscopes for biologists.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Kaitlin; Pinkard, Henry; Peck, Sebastian; Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F

    2014-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has become staple tool for tracking cells within tissues and organs due to superior depth of penetration, low excitation volumes, and reduced phototoxicity. Many factors, ranging from laser pulse width to relay optics to detectors and electronics, contribute to the overall ability of these microscopes to excite and detect fluorescence deep within tissues. However, we have found that there are few standard ways already described in the literature to distinguish between microscopes or to benchmark existing microscopes to measure the overall quality and efficiency of these instruments. Here, we discuss some simple parameters and methods that can either be used within a multiphoton facility or by a prospective purchaser to benchmark performance. This can both assist in identifying decay in microscope performance and in choosing features of a scope that are suited to experimental needs.

  3. First multiphoton tomography of brain in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Kantelhardt, Sven R.; Kalasauskas, Darius; Kim, Ella; Giese, Alf

    2016-03-01

    We report on the first two-photon in vivo brain tissue imaging study in man. High resolution in vivo histology by multiphoton tomography (MPT) including two-photon FLIM was performed in the operation theatre during neurosurgery to evaluate the feasibility to detect label-free tumor borders with subcellular resolution. This feasibility study demonstrates, that MPT has the potential to identify tumor borders on a cellular level in nearly real-time.

  4. In vitro characterization of corneal wound healing using multiphoton autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yen; Lo, Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang; Teng, Shu-Wen; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to characterize corneal wound healing under in vitro conditions. Multiphoton autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy will be used to visualize cells and collagen fibers associated with corneal wound healing. Using the near-infrared excitation source from a titanium-sapphire laser pumped by a diode-pumped, solid state (DPSS) laser system, we can induce and simultaneously acquire multiphoton autofluorescence and SHG signals from the cornea specimens. A home-modified commercial microscope system with specified optical components is used for optimal signal detection. To acquire both high resolution and tissue-level information of the specimen, a sample positioning stage is used in conjunction with the beam scanning system. Finally, the organ level image can be assembled from individual area scans. The in vitro samples we used are cornea buttons acquired from porcine eyes. Localized wounds will be induced by #11 blade and imaged using multiphoton microscopy. Based on these results, we envision the in vitro imaging chamber to be able to follow the wound healing process without damaging histological procedures. We envision this approach will enable us to further understand wound healing process associated with corneal scar and can lead to in vivo methodology for diagnosing cornea damage.

  5. Multiphoton harvesting metal–organic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Quah, Hong Sheng; Chen, Weiqiang; Schreyer, Martin K.; Yang, Hui; Wong, Ming Wah; Ji, Wei; Vittal, Jagadese J.

    2015-01-01

    Multiphoton upconversion is a process where two or more photons are absorbed simultaneously to excite an electron to an excited state and, subsequently, the relaxation of electron gives rise to the emission of a photon with frequency greater than those of the absorbed photons. Materials possessing such property attracted attention due to applications in biological imaging, photodynamic therapy, three-dimensional optical data storage, frequency-upconverted lasing and optical power limiting. Here we report four-photon upconversion in metal–organic frameworks containing the ligand, trans, trans-9,10-bis(4-pyridylethenyl)anthracene. The ligand has a symmetrical acceptor–π–donor–π–acceptor structure and a singlet biradical electronic ground state, which boosted its multiphoton absorption cross-sections. We demonstrate that the upconversion efficiency can be enhanced by Förster resonance energy transfer within host–guest metal–organic frameworks consisting of encapsulated high quantum yielding guest molecules. Using these strategies, metal–organic framework materials, which can exhibit frequency-upconverted photoluminescence excited by simultaneous multiphoton absorption, can be rationally designed and synthesized. PMID:26245741

  6. Multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of the sodium dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Weiner, John

    1984-07-01

    We report an investigation of the role of molecular multiphoton ionization in the production of Na+2 when sodium vapor is subjected to intense optical radiation. Previous authors attribute the source of much of the ion dimer signal to laser-induced associative ionization of atom sodium. In this experiment, we distinguish the molecular process from atomic collisional mechanisms by producing an intense molecular beam created through free-jet expansion of the metal vapor. The beam of nearly 50% dimers cooled to their low rotational and vibrational states allow us to obtain a simplified three-photon ionization spectrum. We find that the spectrum displays two-photon resonances corresponding to known Rydberg level transitions and that the A state, acting as virtual intermediate, plays a crucial role in the large peak-to-peak intensity variations. We employ a simple model of multiphoton ionization which uses a rate-equation approach to generate a calculated spectrum. Based on the experimental results and the success of the model in reflecting them, we conclude that much of the highly structured component of the dimer ion signal reported previously under different experimental conditions is probably due to molecular multiphoton ionization but that this structure rides on a slowly varying broad signal envelope due to laser-induced associative ionization.

  7. Multiphoton harvesting metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quah, Hong Sheng; Chen, Weiqiang; Schreyer, Martin K.; Yang, Hui; Wong, Ming Wah; Ji, Wei; Vittal, Jagadese J.

    2015-08-01

    Multiphoton upconversion is a process where two or more photons are absorbed simultaneously to excite an electron to an excited state and, subsequently, the relaxation of electron gives rise to the emission of a photon with frequency greater than those of the absorbed photons. Materials possessing such property attracted attention due to applications in biological imaging, photodynamic therapy, three-dimensional optical data storage, frequency-upconverted lasing and optical power limiting. Here we report four-photon upconversion in metal-organic frameworks containing the ligand, trans, trans-9,10-bis(4-pyridylethenyl)anthracene. The ligand has a symmetrical acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor structure and a singlet biradical electronic ground state, which boosted its multiphoton absorption cross-sections. We demonstrate that the upconversion efficiency can be enhanced by Förster resonance energy transfer within host-guest metal-organic frameworks consisting of encapsulated high quantum yielding guest molecules. Using these strategies, metal-organic framework materials, which can exhibit frequency-upconverted photoluminescence excited by simultaneous multiphoton absorption, can be rationally designed and synthesized.

  8. Waveguide-integrated single- and multi-photon detection at telecom wavelengths using superconducting nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, Simone; Kahl, Oliver; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N.; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.

    2015-04-13

    We investigate single- and multi-photon detection regimes of superconducting nanowire detectors embedded in silicon nitride nanophotonic circuits. At near-infrared wavelengths, simultaneous detection of up to three photons is observed for 120 nm wide nanowires biased far from the critical current, while narrow nanowires below 100 nm provide efficient single photon detection. A theoretical model is proposed to determine the different detection regimes and to calculate the corresponding internal quantum efficiency. The predicted saturation of the internal quantum efficiency in the single photon regime agrees well with plateau behavior observed at high bias currents.

  9. In vivo stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence imaging of melanin in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Gu, Zetong; Abbas, Saleh; Lowe, Jared; Sierra, Heidy; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The stepwise multi-photon activated fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin is a low cost and reliable method of detecting melanin because the activation and excitation can be a continuous-wave (CW) mode near infrared (NIR) laser. Our previous work has demonstrated the melanin SMPAF images in sepia melanin, mouse hair, and mouse skin. In this study, we show the feasibility of using SMPAF to detect melanin in vivo. in vivo melanin SMPAF images of normal skin and benign nevus are demonstrated. SMPAF images add specificity for melanin detection than MPFM images and CRM images. Melanin SMPAF is a promising technology to enable early detection of melanoma for dermatologists.

  10. Some simple mechanisms of multiphoton excitation in many - level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donley, E. A.; Marquardt, R.; Quack, M.; Stohner, J.; Thanopulos, I.; Wallenborn, E.-U.

    Results are reported on coherent monochromatic multiphoton excitation in many-level systems, which are representative for some of the basic mechanisms for atomic and molecular multiphoton processes. Numerical solutions are discussed that use the Floquet and quasiresonant approximations in the framework of the URIMIR program package. The excitation schemes include direct three-photon excitation, two-photon excitation with diagonal coupling, Göppert-Mayer-type two-photon processes, multiphoton excitation with off-resonant intermediates, and practically irreversible coherent excitation into dense spectral structures. Several interesting phenomena are observed, such as nonlinear line shifts and broadenings of multiphoton resonances of relevance for multiphoton spectroscopy and almost constant intermediate population inversions, potentially useful for laser design. The accurate numerical results are compared with approximate solutions from perturbation theory, and with simple analytical solutions from Rabi-type formulae.

  11. Multi-photon processes in alkali metal vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Baodong; Hu, Shu; Li, Hui; Shi, Zhe; Cai, Xianglong; Guo, Jingwei; Tan, Yannan; Liu, Wanfa; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    Achieving population inversion through multi-photon cascade pumping is almost always difficult, and most laser medium work under 1-photon excitation mechanism. But for alkali atoms such as cesium, relatively large absorption cross sections of several low, cascading energy levels enable them properties such as up conversion. Here we carried out research on two-photon excitation alkali fluorescence. Two photons of near infrared region are used to excite alkali atoms to n 2 D5/2, n 2 D3/2 or higher energy levels, then the blue fluorescence of (n+1) 2 P3/2,(n+1) 2 P1/2-->n 2 S1/2 are observed. Different pumping paths are tried and by the recorded spectra, transition routes of cesium are deducted and concluded. Finally the possibility of two-photon style DPALs (diode pumped alkali laser) are discussed, such alkali lasers can give output wavelengths in the shorter end of visual spectroscopy (400-460 nm) and are expected to get application in underwater communication and material laser processing.

  12. Compact fixed wavelength femtosecond oscillators for multi-photon imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakulinen, T.; Klein, J.; Zadoyan, R.; Baldacchini, T.; Franke, T.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years two-photon microscopy with fixed-wavelength has raised increasing interest in life-sciences: Two-photon (2P) absorption spectra of common dyes are broader than single-photon ones. Therefore, excitation of several dyes simultaneously with a single IR laser wavelength is feasible and could be seen as an advantage in 2P microscopy. We used pulsed fixed-wavelength infrared lasers with center wavelength at 1040 nm, for two-photon microscopy in a variety of biologically relevant samples, among these a mouse brain sample, a mouse artery (within the animal, acute preparation), and a preparation of mouse bladder. The 1040 nm laser proved to be efficient not only in exciting fluorescence from yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and red fluorescent dyes, but also for second harmonic generation (SHG) signals from muscle tissue and collagen. With this work we demonstrate that economical, small-footprint fixedwavelength lasers can present an interesting alternative to tunable lasers that are commonly used in multiphoton microscopy.

  13. Characterization of powdered epidermal vaccine delivery with multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, William J.; Kendall, Mark A. F.; White, Nick; Bellhouse, Brian J.

    2004-11-01

    Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) has been adapted to non-invasively characterize hand-held powdered epidermal vaccine delivery technology. A near infrared femtosecond pulsed laser, wavelength at approximately 920 nm, was used to evoke autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores within ex vivo porcine and human skin. Consequently, sub cellular resolution three-dimensional images of stratum corneum and viable epidermal cells were acquired and utilized to observe the morphological deformation of these cells as a result of micro-particle penetration. Furthermore, the distributional pattern of micro-particles within the specific skin target volume was quantified by measuring the penetration depth as revealed by serial optical sections in the axial plane obtained with MPLSM. Additionally, endogenous fluorescence contrast images acquired at the supra-basal layer reveal cellular structures that may pertain to dendritic Langerhans cells of the epidermis. These results show that MPLSM has advantages over conventional histological approaches, since three-dimensional functional images with sub-cellular spatial resolution to depths beyond the epidermis can be acquired non-invasively. Accordingly, we propose that MPLSM is ideal for investigations of powdered epidermal vaccine delivery.

  14. Achieving molecular selectivity in imaging using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Holtom, Gary R. ); Thrall, Brian D. ); Chin, Beek Yoke ); Wiley, H Steven ); Colson, Steven D. )

    2000-12-01

    In the case of most imaging methods, contrast is generated either by physical properties of the sample (Differential Image Contrast, Phase Contrast), or by fluorescent labels that are localized to a particular protein or organelle. Standard Raman and infrared methods for obtaining images are based upon the intrinsic vibrational properties of molecules, and thus obviate the need for attached flurophores. Unfortunately, they have significant limitations for live-cell imaging. However, an active Raman method, called Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), is well suited for microscopy, and provides a new means for imaging specific molecules. Vibrational imaging techniques, such as CARS, avoid problems associated with photobleaching and photo-induced toxicity often associated with the use of fluorescent labels with live cells. Because the laser configuration needed to implement CARS technology is similar to that used in other multiphoton microscopy methods, such as two -photon fluorescence and harmonic generation, it is possible to combine imaging modalities, thus generating simultaneous CARS and fluorescence images. A particularly powerful aspect of CARS microscopy is its ability to selectively image deuterated compounds, thus allowing the visualization of molecules, such as lipids, that are chemically indistinguishable from the native species.

  15. Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayindir, Z.; Sun, Y.; Naughton, M. J.; LaFratta, C. N.; Baldacchini, T.; Fourkas, J. T.; Stewart, J.; Saleh, B. E. A.; Teich, M. C.

    2005-02-01

    We have used multiphoton absorption polymerization to fabricate a series of microscale polymer cantilevers. Atomic force microscopy has been used to characterize the mechanical properties of microcantilevers with spring constants that were found to span more than four decades. From these data, we extracted a Young's modulus of E =0.44GPa for these microscale cantilevers. The wide stiffness range and relatively low elastic modulus of the microstructures make them attractive candidates for a range of microcantilever applications, including measurements on soft matter.

  16. In vivo non-invasive multiphoton tomography of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Ehlers, Alexander; Le Harzic, Ronan

    2005-10-01

    High resolution non-invasive 3D imaging devices are required to detect pathogenic microorganisms such as Anthrax spores, bacteria, viruses, fungi and chemical agents entering biological tissues such as the epidermis. Due to the low light penetration depth and the biodamage potential, ultraviolet light sources can not be employed to realize intratissue imaging of bio- and chemohazards. We report on the novel near infrared laser technology multiphoton tomography and the high resolution 4D imaging tool DermaInspect for non-invasive detection of intratissue agents and their influence on cellular metabolism based on multiphoton autofluorescence imaging (MAI) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Femtosecond laser pulses in the spectral range of 750 nm to 850 nm have been used to image in vivo human skin with subcellular spatial and picosecond temporal resolution. The non-linear induced autofluorescence of both, skin tissues and microorganisms, originates mainly from naturally endogenous fluorophores/protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, keratin, collagen, elastin, porphyrins and melanin. Bacteria emit in the blue/green spectral range due to NAD(P)H and flavoproteins and, in certain cases, in the red spectral range due to the biosynthesis of Zn-porphyrins, coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin. Collagen and exogenous non-centrosymmetric molecules can be detected by SHG signals. The system DermaInspect consists of a wavelength-tunable compact 80/90 MHz Ti:sapphire laser, a scan module with galvo scan mirrors, piezo-driven objective, fast photon detector and time-resolved single photon counting unit. It can be used to perform optical sectioning and 3D autofluorescence lifetime imaging (τ-mapping) with 1 μm spatial resolution and 270 ps temporal resolution. The parameter fluorescence lifetime depends on the type of fluorophore and its microenvironment and can be used to distinguish bio- and chemohazards from cellular background and to gain information for pathogen

  17. Multiphoton ionization of large water clusters.

    PubMed

    Apicella, B; Li, X; Passaro, M; Spinelli, N; Wang, X

    2014-05-28

    Water clusters are multimers of water molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. In the present work, multiphoton ionization in the UV range coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry has been applied to water clusters with up to 160 molecules in order to obtain information on the electronic states of clusters of different sizes up to dimensions that can approximate the bulk phase. The dependence of ion intensities of water clusters and their metastable fragments produced by laser ionization at 355 nm on laser power density indicates a (3+1)-photon resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization process. It also explains the large increase of ionization efficiency at 355 nm compared to that at 266 nm. Indeed, it was found, by applying both nanosecond and picosecond laser ionization with the two different UV wavelengths, that no water cluster sequences after n = 9 could be observed at 266 nm, whereas water clusters up to m/z 2000 Th in reflectron mode and m/z 3000 Th in linear mode were detected at 355 nm. The agreement between our findings on clusters of water, especially true in the range with n > 10, and reported data for liquid water supports the hypothesis that clusters above a critical dimension can approximate the liquid phase. It should thus be possible to study clusters just above 10 water molecules, for getting information on the bulk phase structure.

  18. Multiphoton ionization of large water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Apicella, B.; Li, X.; Passaro, M.; Spinelli, N.; Wang, X.

    2014-05-28

    Water clusters are multimers of water molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. In the present work, multiphoton ionization in the UV range coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry has been applied to water clusters with up to 160 molecules in order to obtain information on the electronic states of clusters of different sizes up to dimensions that can approximate the bulk phase. The dependence of ion intensities of water clusters and their metastable fragments produced by laser ionization at 355 nm on laser power density indicates a (3+1)-photon resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization process. It also explains the large increase of ionization efficiency at 355 nm compared to that at 266 nm. Indeed, it was found, by applying both nanosecond and picosecond laser ionization with the two different UV wavelengths, that no water cluster sequences after n = 9 could be observed at 266 nm, whereas water clusters up to m/z 2000 Th in reflectron mode and m/z 3000 Th in linear mode were detected at 355 nm. The agreement between our findings on clusters of water, especially true in the range with n > 10, and reported data for liquid water supports the hypothesis that clusters above a critical dimension can approximate the liquid phase. It should thus be possible to study clusters just above 10 water molecules, for getting information on the bulk phase structure.

  19. Multimodal optoacoustic and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sela, Gali; Razansky, Daniel; Shoham, Shy

    2013-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a powerful imaging modality that enables structural and functional imaging with cellular and sub-cellular resolution, deep within biological tissues. Yet, its main contrast mechanism relies on extrinsically administered fluorescent indicators. Here we developed a system for simultaneous multimodal optoacoustic and multiphoton fluorescence 3D imaging, which attains both absorption and fluorescence-based contrast by integrating an ultrasonic transducer into a two-photon laser scanning microscope. The system is readily shown to enable acquisition of multimodal microscopic images of fluorescently labeled targets and cell cultures as well as intrinsic absorption-based images of pigmented biological tissue. During initial experiments, it was further observed that that detected optoacoustically-induced response contains low frequency signal variations, presumably due to cavitation-mediated signal generation by the high repetition rate (80MHz) near IR femtosecond laser. The multimodal system may provide complementary structural and functional information to the fluorescently labeled tissue, by superimposing optoacoustic images of intrinsic tissue chromophores, such as melanin deposits, pigmentation, and hemoglobin or other extrinsic particle or dye-based markers highly absorptive in the NIR spectrum.

  20. Multiphoton imaging with a nanosecond supercontinuum source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, Claire; O'Connor, Rodney P.; Blanquet, Véronique; Baraige, Fabienne; Tombelaine, Vincent; Lévêque, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Leproux, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a well-established technique for biological imaging of several kinds of targets. It is classically based on multiphoton processes allowing two means of contrast simultaneously: two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Today, the quasi exclusive laser technology used in that aim is femtosecond titanium sapphire (Ti: Sa) laser. We experimentally demonstrate that a nanosecond supercontinuum laser source (STM-250-VIS-IR-custom, Leukos, France; 1 ns, 600-2400 nm, 250 kHz, 1 W) allows to obtain the same kind of image quality in the case of both TPF and SHG, since it is properly filtered. The first set of images concerns the muscle of a mouse. It highlights the simultaneous detection of TPF and SHG. TPF is obtained thanks to the labelling of alpha-actinin with Alexa Fluor® 546 by immunochemistry. SHG is created from the non-centrosymmetric organization of myosin. As expected, discs of actin and myosin are superimposed alternatively. The resulting images are compared with those obtained from a standard femtosecond Ti: Sa source. The physical parameters of the supercontinuum are discussed. Finally, all the interest of using an ultra-broadband source is presented with images obtained in vivo on the brain of a mouse where tumor cells labeled with eGFP are grafted. Texas Red® conjugating Dextran is injected into the blood vessels network. Thus, two fluorophores having absorption wavelengths separated by 80 nm are imaged simultaneously with a single laser source.

  1. New infrared photon absorption processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bayfield, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    The fast ionization of atoms by very short laser pulses, and its possible suppression at extreme pulse intensities, is an active new field of investigation at present. Described is an investigation of whether past techniques for infrared laser multiphoton ionization of excited hydrogen atoms and of one-dimensional microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms can be combined and extended to address the new issues. Although technically difficult and requiring further improvement of apparatus, intense-field infrared laser experiments on excited hydrogen atoms are possible and can directly test theoretical and numerical results.

  2. R-matrix Floquet theory of molecular multiphoton processes: II. Multiphoton ionization of H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, J.; Glass, D. H.; Higgins, K.; Burke, P. G.

    2001-06-01

    Multiphoton ionization rates for H2 immersed in an intense linearly polarized laser field are calculated using the recently developed R-matrix Floquet theory of molecular multiphoton processes. We assume that the H2 molecule is aligned along the laser polarization direction and we adopt the fixed-nuclei approximation, in which the motion of the target electrons is calculated in the laser field and in the field of the nuclei, which are assumed to be fixed in space. An accurate multi-state wavefunction is employed to calculate one-, two- and four-photon ionization rates for H2 at several internuclear separations over a range of frequencies and intensities. Analysis of the ionization rates reveals the important role played both by resonances corresponding to Rydberg bound states converging to the H2+ ion ground state and by doubly excited states converging to the H2+ ion first excited state. These resonances give rise to resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization peaks in many of the ionization rates studied in this paper, and their possible role in controlling the vibrational population of the final H2+ ion is discussed.

  3. The dissociative bond.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nirit

    2013-01-01

    Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other.

  4. The dissociative bond.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nirit

    2013-01-01

    Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other. PMID:23282044

  5. Multiphoton imaging of biological samples during freezing and heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, H. G.; Uchugonova, A.; König, K.

    2014-02-01

    We applied multiphoton microscopic imaging to observe freezing and heating effects in plant- and animal cell samples. The experimental setups consisted of a multiphoton imaging system and a heating and cooling stage which allows for precise temperature control from liquid nitrogen temperature (-196°C 77 K) up to +600°C (873 K) with heating/freezing rates between 0.01 K/min and 150 K/min. Two multiphoton imaging systems were used: a system based on a modified optical microscope and a flexible mobile system. To illustrate the imaging capabilities, plant leafs as well as animal cells were microscopically imaged in vivo during freezing based on autofluorescence lifetime and intensity of intrinsic molecules. The measurements illustrate the usefulness of multiphoton imaging to investigate freezing effects on animal and plant cells.

  6. Widefield multiphoton microscopy with image-based adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.-Y.; Cheng, L.-C.; Su, H.-W.; Yen, W.-C.; Chen, S.-J.

    2012-10-01

    Unlike conventional multiphoton microscopy according to pixel by pixel point scanning, a widefield multiphoton microscope based on spatiotemporal focusing has been developed to provide fast optical sectioning images at a frame rate over 100 Hz. In order to overcome the aberrations of the widefield multiphoton microscope and the wavefront distortion from turbid biospecimens, an image-based adaptive optics system (AOS) was integrated. The feedback control signal of the AOS was acquired according to locally maximize image intensity, which were provided by the widefield multiphoton excited microscope, by using a hill climbing algorithm. Then, the control signal was utilized to drive a deformable mirror in such a way as to eliminate the aberration and distortion. A R6G-doped PMMA thin film is also increased by 3.7-fold. Furthermore, the TPEF image quality of 1 μm fluorescent beads sealed in agarose gel at different depths is improved.

  7. Single and Multiphoton Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelley D.; Majewska, Ania K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a microscopy technique for measuring the kinetics of fluorescently labeled molecules, and can be applied both in vitro and in vivo for two-and three-dimensional systems. This chapter discusses the three basic FRAP methods: traditional FRAP, multi-photon FRAP (MPFRAP), and FRAP with spatial Fourier analysis (SFA-FRAP). Each discussion is accompanied by a description of the appropriate mathematical analysis appropriate for situations in which the recovery kinetics are dictated by free diffusion. In some experiments, the recovery kinetics are dictated by the boundary conditions of the system, and FRAP is then used to quantify the connectivity of various compartments. Since the appropriate mathematical analysis is independent of the bleaching method, the analysis of compartmental connectivity is discussed last, in a separate section. PMID:25561627

  8. Multiphoton microscopy of cleared mouse organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Sonia G.; Chia, Thomas H.; Zinter, Joseph P.; Levene, Michael J.

    2010-05-01

    Typical imaging depths with multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are limited to less than 300 μm in many tissues due to light scattering. Optical clearing significantly reduces light scattering by replacing water in the organ tissue with a fluid having a similar index of refraction to that of proteins. We demonstrate MPM of intact, fixed, cleared mouse organs with penetration depths and fields of view in excess of 2 mm. MPM enables the creation of large 3-D data sets with flexibility in pixel format and ready access to intrinsic fluorescence and second-harmonic generation. We present high-resolution images and 3-D image stacks of the brain, small intestine, large intestine, kidney, lung, and testicle with image sizes as large as 4096×4096 pixels.

  9. Intravital multiphoton microscopy for imaging hepatobiliary function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Chieh; Sun, Tzu-Lin; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Yang, Shu-Mei; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    Liver is the chemical factory in body responsible for important functions such as metabolism and detoxification. When liver can not be regenerated in time to amend damages that has occurred, failure of hepatic functions can result. Traditionally, the study of liver pathology has depended on histological techniques, but such methods are limited to ex-vivo observation. In order to study hepatic metabolism in vivo, we have designed a hepatic imaging chamber made of biocompatible titanium alloy (6V4Al-Ti, ELI grade). In combination with multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy, our approach allows the intravital observation of hepatic intravital activities to be achieved. Processes such as hepatic metabolism and disease progression can be studied using this methodology.

  10. Multi-photon entanglement in high dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Mehul; Erhard, Manuel; Huber, Marcus; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Forming the backbone of quantum technologies today, entanglement has been demonstrated in physical systems as diverse as photons, ions and superconducting circuits. Although steadily pushing the boundary of the number of particles entangled, these experiments have remained in a two-dimensional space for each particle. Here we show the experimental generation of the first multi-photon entangled state where both the number of particles and dimensions are greater than two. Two photons in our state reside in a three-dimensional space, whereas the third lives in two dimensions. This asymmetric entanglement structure only appears in multiparticle entangled states with d > 2. Our method relies on combining two pairs of photons, high-dimensionally entangled in their orbital angular momentum. In addition, we show how this state enables a new type of ‘layered’ quantum communication protocol. Entangled states such as these serve as a manifestation of the complex dance of correlations that can exist within quantum mechanics.

  11. Multiphoton imaging with high peak power VECSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkhanov, Shamil; Quarterman, Adrian H.; Swift, Samuel; Praveen, Bavishna B.; Smyth, Conor J. C.; Wilcox, Keith G.

    2016-03-01

    Multiphoton imaging (MMPI) has become one of thee key non-invasive light microscopy techniques. This technique allows deep tissue imaging with high resolution and less photo-damage than conventional confocal microscopy. MPI is type of laser-scanning microscopy that employs localized nonlinear excitation, so that fluorescence is excited only with is scanned focal volume. For many years, Ti: sapphire femtosecond lasers have been the leading light sources for MPI applications. However, recent developments in laser sources and new types of fluorophores indicate that longer wavelength excitation could be a good alternative for these applications. Mode-locked VECSEELs have the potential to be low cost, compact light sources for MPI systems, with the additional advantage of broad wavelength coverage through use of different semiconductor material systems. Here, we use a femtosecond fibber laser to investigate the effect average power and repetition rate has on MPI image quality, to allow us to optimize our mode-locked VVECSELs for MPI.

  12. Point spread function engineering with multiphoton SPIFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernsing, Keith A.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Domingue, Scott R.; Allende-Motz, Alyssa M.; DeLuca, Keith F.; Levi, Dean H.; DeLuca, Jennifer G.; Young, Michael D.; Squier, Jeff A.; Bartels, Randy A.

    2016-03-01

    MultiPhoton SPatIal Frequency modulated Imaging (MP-SPIFI) has recently demonstrated the ability to simultaneously obtain super-resolved images in both coherent and incoherent scattering processes -- namely, second harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence, respectively.1 In our previous analysis, we considered image formation produced by the zero and first diffracted orders from the SPIFI modulator. However, the modulator is a binary amplitude mask, and therefore produces multiple diffracted orders. In this work, we extend our analysis to image formation in the presence of higher diffracted orders. We find that tuning the mask duty cycle offers a measure of control over the shape of super-resolved point spread functions in an MP-SPIFI microscope.

  13. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Daniel H. Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  14. Evaluation of Barrett Esophagus by Multiphoton Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianxin; Wong, Serena; Nathanson, Michael H.; Jain, Dhanpat

    2014-01-01

    Context Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on 2-photon excitation fluorescence and second-harmonic generation allows simultaneous visualization of cellular details and extracellular matrix components of fresh, unfixed, and unstained tissue. Portable multiphoton microscopes, which could be placed in endoscopy suites, and multiphoton endomicroscopes are in development, but their clinical utility is unknown. Objectives To examine fresh, unfixed endoscopic biopsies obtained from the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction to (1) define the MPM characteristics of normal esophageal squamous mucosa and gastric columnar mucosa, and (2) evaluate whether diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia/Barrett esophagus (BE) could be made reliably with MPM. Design The study examined 35 untreated, fresh biopsy specimens from 25 patients who underwent routine upper endoscopy. A Zeiss LSM 710 Duo microscope (Carl Zeiss, Thornwood, New York) coupled to a Spectra-Physics (Mountain View, California) Tsunami Ti:sapphire laser was used to obtain a MPM image within 4 hours of fresh specimen collection. After obtaining MPM images, the biopsy specimens were placed in 10% buffered formalin and submitted for routine histopathologic examination. Then, the MPM images were compared with the findings in the hematoxylin-eosin–stained, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. The MPM characteristics of the squamous, gastric-type columnar and intestinal-type columnar epithelium were analyzed. In biopsies with discrepancy between MPM imaging and hematoxylin-eosin–stained sections, the entire tissue block was serially sectioned and reevaluated. A diagnosis of BE was made when endoscopic and histologic criteria were satisfied. Results Based on effective 2-photon excitation fluorescence of cellular reduced pyridine nucleotides and flavin adenine dinucleotide and lack of 2-photon excitation fluorescence of mucin and cellular nuclei, MPM could readily identify and distinguish among squamous

  15. Multiphoton double ionization of the He atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Pindzola, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    Time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) calculations are made for the multiphoton double ionization of the He atom under the influence of a fast pulse XUV laser. One set of TDCC calculations employs l1m1l2m2 coupling on a 2D (r1 ,r2) numerical lattice, a second set of TDCC calculations employs m1m2 coupling on a 4D (r1 ,θ1 ,r2 ,θ2) numerical lattice, and a third set of TDCC calculations employs m1m2 coupling on a 4D (ρ1 ,z1 ,ρ2 ,z2) numerical lattice. Studies are made to see which TDCC method is the most efficient at explaining measurements as the number of photons absorbed is increased. Work supported in part by Grants from NASA, NSF, and DOE.

  16. Generation of High-Order Squeezing in Multiphoton Micromaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fu-Li; Huang, Qing

    1996-01-01

    The generation of steady state higher-order squeezing in the sense of Hong and Mandel and also of Hillery in a multiphoton micromaser is studied. The results show that the cotangent state which is generated by the coherent trapping scheme in a multiphoton micromaser can exhibit not only second-order squeezing but also fourth-order and squared field amplitude squeezings. The influence of the cavity loss on the squeezings is investigated.

  17. Generalised dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S N; Jena, S; Saxena, S

    1993-12-01

    A case of generalised dissociative amnesia is presented, which illustrates several characteristic features of this uncommon condition. The case showed poor response to thiopentone interviews and in vivo cueing. Amnesia had persisted at six months follow up.

  18. Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Masters, B R; So, P T; Gratton, E

    1998-02-01

    Two-photon excitation microscopy has the potential as an effective, noninvasive, diagnostic tool for in vivo examination of human deep tissue structure at the subcellular level. By using infrared photons as the excitation source in two-photon microscopy, a significant improvement in penetration depth can be achieved because of the much lower tissue scattering and absorption coefficients in the infrared wavelengths. Two-photon absorption occurs primarily at the focal point and provides the physical basis for optical sectioning. Multiphoton excitation microscopy at 730 nm was used to image in vivo human skin autofluorescence from the surface to a depth of about 200 microns. The spectroscopic data suggest that reduced pyridine nucleotides, NAD(P)H, are the primary source of the skin autofluorescence using 730 nm excitation. This study demonstrates the use of multiphoton excitation microscopy for functional imaging of the metabolic states of in vivo human skin cells and provides a functional and morphological optical biopsy.

  19. Stepwise multiphoton activation fluorescence reveals a new method of melanin detection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhenhua; Kerimo, Josef; Mega, Yair; Dimarzio, Charles A

    2013-06-01

    The stepwise multiphoton activated fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin, activated by a continuous-wave mode near infrared (NIR) laser, reveals a broad spectrum extending from the visible spectra to the NIR and has potential application for a low-cost, reliable method of detecting melanin. SMPAF images of melanin in mouse hair and skin are compared with conventional multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM). By combining CRM with SMPAF, we can locate melanin reliably. However, we have the added benefit of eliminating background interference from other components inside mouse hair and skin. The melanin SMPAF signal from the mouse hair is a mixture of a two-photon process and a third-order process. The melanin SMPAF emission spectrum is activated by a 1505.9-nm laser light, and the resulting spectrum has a peak at 960 nm. The discovery of the emission peak may lead to a more energy-efficient method of background-free melanin detection with less photo-bleaching.

  20. Stepwise multiphoton activation fluorescence reveals a new method of melanin detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Kerimo, Josef; Mega, Yair; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-06-01

    The stepwise multiphoton activated fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin, activated by a continuous-wave mode near infrared (NIR) laser, reveals a broad spectrum extending from the visible spectra to the NIR and has potential application for a low-cost, reliable method of detecting melanin. SMPAF images of melanin in mouse hair and skin are compared with conventional multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM). By combining CRM with SMPAF, we can locate melanin reliably. However, we have the added benefit of eliminating background interference from other components inside mouse hair and skin. The melanin SMPAF signal from the mouse hair is a mixture of a two-photon process and a third-order process. The melanin SMPAF emission spectrum is activated by a 1505.9-nm laser light, and the resulting spectrum has a peak at 960 nm. The discovery of the emission peak may lead to a more energy-efficient method of background-free melanin detection with less photo-bleaching.

  1. Insights on proximity effect and multiphoton induced luminescence from gold nanospheres in far field optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Borglin, Johan; Guldbrand, Stina; Evenbratt, Hanne; Kirejev, Vladimir; Ericson, Marica B.; Grönbeck, Henrik

    2015-12-07

    Gold nanoparticles can be visualized in far-field multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy (MPM) based on the phenomena of multiphoton induced luminescence (MIL). This is of interest for biomedical applications, e.g., for cancer diagnostics, as MPM allows for working in the near-infrared (NIR) optical window of tissue. It is well known that the aggregation of particles causes a redshift of the plasmon resonance, but its implications for MIL applying far-field MPM should be further exploited. Here, we explore MIL from 10 nm gold nanospheres that are chemically deposited on glass substrates in controlled coverage gradients using MPM operating in NIR range. The substrates enable studies of MIL as a function of inter-particle distance and clustering. It was shown that MIL was only detected from areas on the substrates where the particle spacing was less than one particle diameter, or where the particles have aggregated. The results are interpreted in the context that the underlying physical phenomenon of MIL is a sequential two-photon absorption process, where the first event is driven by the plasmon resonance. It is evident that gold nanospheres in this size range have to be closely spaced or clustered to exhibit detectable MIL using far-field MPM operating in the NIR region.

  2. Photon-momentum transfer in multiphoton ionization and in time-resolved holography with photoelectrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.; Corkum, Paul B.

    2015-11-01

    In most models and theoretical calculations describing multiphoton ionization by infrared light, the dipole approximation is used. This is equivalent to setting the very small photon momentum to zero. Using numerical solutions of the two-dimensional (2-D) time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron (H-like) systems, we show that, for linear polarization, the radiation pressure on photoelectrons is very sensitive to the details of the ionization mechanism. The directly ionized photoelectrons, those that never recollide with the parent ion, are driven in the direction of the laser photon momentum, whereas a fraction of slower photoelectrons are pushed in the opposite direction, leading to the counterintuitive shifts observed in recent experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 243001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.243001]. This complex response is due to the interplay between the Lorentz force and the Coulomb attraction from the ion. On average, however, the photoelectron momentum is in the direction of the photon momentum as in the case of circular polarization. The influence of the photon momentum is shown to be discernible in the holographic patterns of time-resolved atomic and molecular holography with photoelectrons, thus suggesting a new research subject in multiphoton ionization.

  3. Development of a portable multiphoton photo-acoustic spectroscopy system for tumor diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekharan, Nirmala; Kiser, John B.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a novel fiber optic probe for subsurface tumor diagnostics, based on non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS). In this technique, endogenous biomarkers present in tissues are irradiated in the near infrared, using a tunable high-power laser. The resulting multiphoton excitation events are detected as an acoustic (i.e. ultrasonic) signal, using an ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer. The signal from the piezoelectric transducer is then corrected for laser power fluctuations by normalizing the NMPPAS signal at each wavelength with the laser intensity recorded, from an optical diode. By scanning the laser excitation over the appropriate wavelength range for the tissue of interest, absorption differences between normal and tumor tissues can be measured and analyzed. The fiber optic probe was characterized and optimized for transmission efficiency as well as its time dependent response to high power laser pulses. The focusing optics were optimized and a piezoelectric transducer film detector chosen based on its sensitivity in the ultrasonic frequency range of interest. Using this probe system NMPPAS measurements were performed on several common fluorescent dyes including rhodamine 6G as well as well-characterized biomarkers like tryptophan. Furthermore, the technique was further successfully applied to the differentiation of tumorous and healthy human brain tissues.

  4. Multiphoton absorption is probably not the primary threshold damage mechanism for femtosecond laser pulse exposures in the retinal pigment epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2004-07-01

    Laser induced breakdown has the lowest energy threshold in the femtosecond domain, and is responsible for production of threshold ocular lesions. It has been proposed that multiphoton absorption may also contribute to ultrashort-pulse tissue damage, based on the observation that 33 fs, 810 nm pulse laser exposures caused more DNA breakage in cultured, primary RPE cells, compared to CW laser exposures delivering the same average power. Subsequent studies, demonstrating two-photon excitation of fluorescence in isolated RPE melanosomes, appeared to support the role of multiphoton absorption, but mainly at suprathreshold irradiance. Additional experiments have not found a consistent difference in the DNA strand breakage produced by ultrashort and CW threshold exposures. DNA damage appears to be dependent on the amount of melanin pigmentation in the cells, rather than the pulsewidth of the laser; current studies have found that, at threshold, CW and ultrashort pulse laser exposures produce almost identical amounts of DNA breakage. A theoretical analysis suggest that the number of photons delivered to the RPE melanosome during a single 33-fsec pulse at the ED50 irradiance is insufficient to produce multiphoton excitation. This result appears to exclude the melanosome as a locus for two- or three-photon excitation; however, a structure with a larger effective absorption cross-section than the melanosome may interact with the laser pulses. One possibility is that the nuclear chromatin acts as a unit absorber of photons resulting in DNA damage, but this does not explain the near equivalence of ultrashort and CW exposures in the comet assay model. This equivalence indicated that multiphoton absorption is not a major contributor to the ultrashort pulse laser damage threshold in the near infrared.

  5. Dissociation as complex adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sel, R

    1997-03-01

    In this article the general theory of complex adaptive systems, substantiated by non-linear dynamics, will be used to put the dissociative disorders into a theoretical framework and clarify their genesis and presentation. When a system is far out of equilibrium, dissipative structures may be formed ('order out of chaos', as Prigogine (1) has put it). These structures provide the starting point for further evolution and co-evolution of competing groups of functional schemata divided on a bifurcation surface. Complex adaptation is almost inevitable in a complicated system (such as the brain) driven by non-linear dynamics. Dissociation is thus regarded as a consequence of adaptation to a chaotic environment rich in contrasts. In a sufficiently complex environment a person with dissociative identity disorder is more adapted and thus more likely to occur than a 'normal' monopersonality individual.

  6. The multiphoton ionization of uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.P. . UEO Enrichment Technical Operations Div.)

    1992-05-01

    Multiphoton ionization (MPI) time-of-flight mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy studies of UF{sub 6} have been conducted using focused light from the Nd:YAG laser fundamental ({lambda}=1064 nm) and its harmonics ({lambda}=532, 355, or 266 nm), as well as other wavelengths provided by a tunable dye laser. The MPI mass spectra are dominated by the singly and multiply charged uranium ions rather than by the UF{sub x}{sup +} fragment ions even at the lowest laser power densities at which signal could be detected. The laser power dependence of U{sup n+} ions signals indicates that saturation can occur for many of the steps required for their ionization. In general, the doubly-charged uranium ion (U{sup 2+}) intensity is much greater than that of the singly-charged uranium ion (U{sup +}). For the case of the tunable dye laser experiments, the U{sup n+} (n = 1- 4) wavelength dependence is relatively unstructured and does not show observable resonance enhancement at known atomic uranium excitation wavelengths. The dominance of the U{sup 2+} ion and the absence or very small intensities of UF{sub x}{sup +} fragments, along with the unsaturated wavelength dependence, indicate that mechanisms may exist other than ionization of bare U atoms after the stepwise photodissociation of F atoms from the parent molecule.

  7. Unconditionally secure key distillation from multiphotons

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2006-01-15

    In this paper, we prove that the unconditionally secure key can be surprisingly extracted from multiphoton emission part in the photon polarization-based quantum key distribution. One example is shown by explicitly proving that one can indeed generate an unconditionally secure key from Alice's two-photon emission part proposed by Scarani [et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901 (2004)]. Which is called the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) protocol. This protocol uses the same four states as in Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) and differs only in the classical postprocessing protocol. It is, thus, interesting to see how the classical postprocessing of quantum key distribution might qualitatively change its security. We also show that one can generate an unconditionally secure key from the single to the four-photon part in a generalized SARG04 protocol that uses six states. Finally, we also compare the bit error rate threshold of these protocols with the one in the BB84 protocol and the original six-state protocol assuming a depolarizing channel.

  8. Coherent Control of Multiphoton Transitions in the Gas and Condensed Phases with Shaped Ultrashort Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Marcos Dantus

    2008-09-23

    Controlling laser-molecule interactions has become an integral part of developing devices and applications in spectroscopy, microscopy, optical switching, micromachining and photochemistry. Coherent control of multiphoton transitions could bring a significant improvement of these methods. In microscopy, multi-photon transitions are used to activate different contrast agents and suppress background fluorescence; coherent control could generate selective probe excitation. In photochemistry, different dissociative states are accessed through two, three, or more photon transitions; coherent control could be used to select the reaction pathway and therefore the yield-specific products. For micromachining and processing a wide variety of materials, femtosecond lasers are now used routinely. Understanding the interactions between the intense femtosecond pulse and the material could lead to technologically important advances. Pulse shaping could then be used to optimize the desired outcome. The scope of our research program is to develop robust and efficient strategies to control nonlinear laser-matter interactions using ultrashort shaped pulses in gas and condensed phases. Our systematic research has led to significant developments in a number of areas relevant to the AMO Physics group at DOE, among them: generation of ultrashort phase shaped pulses, coherent control and manipulation of quantum mechanical states in gas and condensed phases, behavior of isolated molecules under intense laser fields, behavior of condensed phase matter under intense laser field and implications on micromachining with ultrashort pulses, coherent control of nanoparticles their surface plasmon waves and their nonlinear optical behavior, and observation of coherent Coulomb explosion processes at 10^16 W/cm^2. In all, the research has resulted in 36 publications (five journal covers) and nine invention disclosures, five of which have continued on to patenting

  9. The stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence guided ablation of melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Gu, Zetong; DiMarzio, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has shown that the stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin, activated and excited by a continuous-wave (CW) mode near infrared (NIR) laser, is a low-cost and reliable method for detecting melanin. We have developed a device utilizing the melanin SMPAF to guide the ablation of melanin with a 975 nm CW laser. This method provides the ability of targeting individual melanin particles with micrometer resolution, and enables localized melanin ablation to be performed without collateral damage. Compared to the traditional selective photothermolysis, which uses pulsed lasers for melanin ablation, this method demonstrates higher precision and lower cost. Therefore, the SMPAF guided selective ablation of melanin is a promising tool of melanin ablation for both medical and cosmetic purposes.

  10. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture. Laser tweezers and multiphoton microscopes in life sciences.

    PubMed

    König, K

    2000-08-01

    Near infrared (NIR) laser microscopy enables optical micromanipulation, piconewton force determination, and sensitive fluorescence studies by laser tweezers. Otherwise, fluorescence images with high spatial and temporal resolution of living cells and tissues can be obtained via non-resonant fluorophore excitation with multiphoton NIR laser scanning microscopes. Furthermore, NIR femtosecond laser pulses at TW/cm2 intensities can be used to realize non-invasive contact-free surgery of nanometer-sized structures within living cells and tissues. Applications of these novel versatile NIR laser-based tools for the determination of motility forces, coenzyme and chlorophyll imaging, three-dimensional multigene detection, non-invasive optical sectioning of tissues ("optical biopsy"), functional protein imaging, and nanosurgery of chromosomes are described.

  11. Compact multiphoton/single photon laser scanning microscope for spectral imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Volker; Fischer, Peter; Riemann, Iris; Königt, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    An inverted fluorescence microscope was upgraded into a compact three-dimensional laser scanning microscope (LSM) of 65 x 62 x 48 cm dimensions by means of a fast kHz galvoscanner unit, a piezodriven z-stage, and a picosecond (ps) 50 MHz laser diode at 405 nm. In addition, compact turn-key near infrared femtosecond lasers have been employed to perform multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. To expand the features of the compact LSM, a time-correlated single photon counting unit as well as a Sagnac interferometer have been added to realize fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and spectral imaging. Using this unique five-dimensional microscope, TauMap, single-photon excited (SPE), and two-photon excited (TPE) cellular fluorescence as well as intratissue autofluorescence of water plant leaves have been investigated with submicron spatial resolution, <270 ps temporal resolution, and 10 nm spectral resolution. PMID:15536977

  12. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture. Laser tweezers and multiphoton microscopes in life sciences.

    PubMed

    König, K

    2000-08-01

    Near infrared (NIR) laser microscopy enables optical micromanipulation, piconewton force determination, and sensitive fluorescence studies by laser tweezers. Otherwise, fluorescence images with high spatial and temporal resolution of living cells and tissues can be obtained via non-resonant fluorophore excitation with multiphoton NIR laser scanning microscopes. Furthermore, NIR femtosecond laser pulses at TW/cm2 intensities can be used to realize non-invasive contact-free surgery of nanometer-sized structures within living cells and tissues. Applications of these novel versatile NIR laser-based tools for the determination of motility forces, coenzyme and chlorophyll imaging, three-dimensional multigene detection, non-invasive optical sectioning of tissues ("optical biopsy"), functional protein imaging, and nanosurgery of chromosomes are described. PMID:11052257

  13. Effects of non-adiabatic coupling in photofragmentation of CO(2) using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmasena, Kushlani Chandima

    1997-07-01

    We observed Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) spectra of nf2ΠΩ Rydberg states of CO2 for n=4 to 8. In addition, we also did a laser power dependence study of these states for n=5 to 7. We compared our results to two other studies by Johnson and coworkers and Dobber and coworkers. In the present study we observed that dissociation rate increased with increasing frequency. Also, we observed a clear difference in rates of dissociation for the two spin-orbit components of each nf state. This difference was not consistent, in some states the /Omega=1/2 component dissociated more while in the others /Omega=3/2 dissociated more. When comparing with Dobber and coworkers' REMPI-Photoelectron Spectra (REMPI-PES), a good correlation between the observed symmetric vibrational progressions and our dissociation rates was noticed. We also found that these rates stayed remarkably constant for different powers of the laser even though the production of CO+ ions required more photons than CO2+ ions. From this observation we came to the conclusion that the two-photon transition was saturated. What was surprising was, the amount of CO2+ ions observed despite the fact that the two-photon transition X 2Πg/to/to[ C]2Σg+ was saturated. The observed ratio of CO+/CO2+ ratio never was lower than 6. These observations led us to believe that CO+ ions were predominantly made by predissociation rather than direct dissociation. We propose that the two- photon transition is X 2Πg/to/to[ C]2Σg+ followed by predissociation of the C2ΣG+ state. In our model, predissociation must occur through a potential barrier in the C2Σg+ state which is on the order of an electron volt above the dissociation limit. We estimated the mean lifetime of this state to be about 600 psec by using the ratio of CO+/CO2+ from our spectra. This model explains two other phenomena observed in REMPI spectra. First is the observation of increased dissociation with increasing principal quantum number in the

  14. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-09-07

    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems.

  15. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-09-01

    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems.

  16. High-intensity laser heating in liquids: Multiphoton absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    At high laser intensities, otherwise transparent liquids can absorb strongly by the mechanism of multiphoton absorption, resulting in absorption and heating several orders of magnitude greater than classical, low-intensity mechanisms. The use of multiphoton absorption provides a new mechanism for strong, controlled energy deposition in liquids without bulk plasma formation, shock waves, liquid ejection, etc., which is of interest for many laser-liquid applications, including laser desorption of liquid films, laser particle removal, and laser water removal from microdevices. This work develops a microscopically based model of the heating during multiphoton absorption in liquids. The dependence on pulse duration, intensity, wavelength, repetition rate, and liquid properties is discussed. Pure water exposed to 266 nm laser radiation is investigated, and a novel heating mechanism for water is proposed that uses multiple-wavelength laser pulses.

  17. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems. PMID:27599635

  18. Post conductive keratoplasty visualization of rabbit cornea by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wen; Wang, Tsung-Jen; Hu, Fung-Rong; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    Conductive keratoplasty (CK) is a new refractive surgery for presbyopia and hyperopia patients. By applying radio frequency current at the peripheral regions of cornea, collagen, the most abundant composition of corneal stroma, shrinks due to the heat generated. The shrinkage at the periphery alters the corneal architecture and achieves clearer focus for near vision. In this work we use multiphoton microscopy to observe the post surgery structure variation at both submicron resolution and over a large region within the tissue. Since collagen can be induced to generate strong second harmonic generation (SHG) signal, multiphoton excitation provide direct visualization of collagen orientation within corneal stroma. In addition, since the SHG intensity of collagen tissue deteriorates with increasing thermal damage [1-3], our methodology can be used to characterize the extent of corneal stroma damage from the CK procedure. Finally, the influence of CK on the morphology and distribution of keratocytes can also be investigated by detecting multiphoton excited autofluorescence from the cells.

  19. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems. PMID:27599635

  20. Evaluation of multiphoton effects in down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Koshino, Kazuki

    2010-04-15

    Multiphoton effects in down-conversion are investigated based on the full-quantum multimode formalism by considering a three-level system as a prototype nonlinear system. We analytically derive the three-photon output wave function for two input photons, where one of the two input photons is down-converted and the other one is not. Using this output wave function, we calculate the down-conversion probability, the purity, and the fidelity to evaluate the entanglement between a down-converted photon pair and a non-down-converted photon. It is shown that the saturation effect occurs by multiphoton input and that it affects both the down-conversion probability and the quantum correlation between the down-converted photon pair and the non-down-converted photon. We also reveal the necessary conditions for multiphoton effects to be strong.

  1. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  2. Dissociation: the clinical realities.

    PubMed

    Frankel, F H

    1996-07-01

    An attempt was made by the authors of DSM-III to restrict its focus to the experimental, the observable, and the measurable. The intention was to free the nosology from the influence of unproven theories, and the philosophy was driven largely by the importance of research being able to identify diagnostic categories to facilitate the study of homogeneous groups. So it is of interest that the authors accepted dissociation-an ambiguous event linked to an explicit theoretical concept that had been introduced by Janet-as the basis for classification of clinical presentations that were formerly included under the rubric of hysteria, a similarly unclear category. Since DSM-III, there have been an increasing number of reports of dissociative experiences and dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder), but neither of these clinical presentations seems able to withstand the concern that it is dramatically influenced by environmental cues, e.g., the expectations of the therapist. Thus, a restricted phenomenological perspective does not fully appreciate the distorting potential of suggestibility and imagination on the nature of the emerging clinical picture. These factors might well have contributed to and laid the conceptual groundwork for the growth in the number of reports of dissociation.

  3. Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients with the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; DID patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised. DID patients obtained significantly (a) higher dissociation scores; (b) higher passive-influence scores (first-rank symptoms); and (c) higher scores on scales that measure child voices, angry voices, persecutory voices, voices arguing, and voices commenting. Schizophrenia patients obtained significantly higher delusion scores than did DID patients. What is odd is that the dissociation scores of schizophrenia patients were unrelated to their reports of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 81% of the variance in DID patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Ego-Alien Experiences Scale, whereas 92% of the variance in schizophrenia patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Voices Scale. We propose that schizophrenia patients' responses to the MID do not index the same pathology as do the responses of DID patients. We argue that neither phenomenological definitions of dissociation nor the current generation of dissociation instruments (which are uniformly phenomenological in nature) can distinguish between the dissociative phenomena of DID and what we suspect are just the dissociation-like phenomena of schizophrenia.

  4. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  5. Fibre-coupled multiphoton microscope with adaptive motion compensation.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, Ben; Warren, Sean; Stone, James; Neil, Mark; Paterson, Carl; Knight, Jonathan; French, Paul; Dunsby, Chris

    2015-05-01

    To address the challenge of sample motion during in vivo imaging, we present a fibre-coupled multiphoton microscope with active axial motion compensation. The position of the sample surface is measured using optical coherence tomography and fed back to a piezo actuator that adjusts the axial location of the objective to compensate for sample motion. We characterise the system's performance and demonstrate that it can compensate for axial sample velocities up to 700 µm/s. Finally we illustrate the impact of motion compensation when imaging multiphoton excited autofluorescence in ex vivo mouse skin.

  6. Effect of multiphoton ionization on performance of crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Kishor; Strickland, D; Campbell, M C W; Sharma, R P

    2014-12-15

    This Letter presents a model for propagation of a laser pulse in a human crystalline lens. The model contains a transverse beam diffraction effect, laser-induced optical breakdown for the creation of plasma via a multiphoton ionization process, and the gradient index (GRIN) structure. Plasma introduces the nonlinearity in the crystalline lens which affects the propagation of the beam. The multiphoton ionization process generates plasma that changes the refractive index and hence leads to the defocusing of the laser beam. The Letter also points out the relevance of the present investigation to cavitation bubble formation for restoring the elasticity of the eyes.

  7. New insights and system designs for temporally focused multiphoton optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayblum, Tom; Schejter, Adi; Dana, Hod; Shoham, Shy

    2015-03-01

    Temporal focusing (TF) multiphoton systems constitute a powerful solution for cellular resolution optogenetic stimulation and recording in three-dimensional, scattering tissue. Here, we address two fundamental aspects in the design of such systems: first, we examine the design of TF systems with specific optical sectioning by comparatively analyzing previously published results. Next, we develop a solution for obtaining TF in a flexible three-dimensional pattern of cellmatched focal spots. Our solution employs spatio-temporal focusing (SSTF) in a unique optical system design that can be integrated before essentially any multiphoton imaging or stimulation system.

  8. Fibre-coupled multiphoton microscope with adaptive motion compensation

    PubMed Central

    Sherlock, Ben; Warren, Sean; Stone, James; Neil, Mark; Paterson, Carl; Knight, Jonathan; French, Paul; Dunsby, Chris

    2015-01-01

    To address the challenge of sample motion during in vivo imaging, we present a fibre-coupled multiphoton microscope with active axial motion compensation. The position of the sample surface is measured using optical coherence tomography and fed back to a piezo actuator that adjusts the axial location of the objective to compensate for sample motion. We characterise the system’s performance and demonstrate that it can compensate for axial sample velocities up to 700 µm/s. Finally we illustrate the impact of motion compensation when imaging multiphoton excited autofluorescence in ex vivo mouse skin. PMID:26137387

  9. Hybrid reflecting objectives for functional multiphoton microscopy in turbid media

    PubMed Central

    Vučinić, Dejan; Bartol, Thomas M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    Most multiphoton imaging of biological specimens is performed using microscope objectives optimized for high image quality under wide-field illumination. We present a class of objectives designed de novo without regard for these traditional constraints, driven exclusively by the needs of fast multiphoton imaging in turbid media: the delivery of femtosecond pulses without dispersion and the efficient collection of fluorescence. We model the performance of one such design optimized for a typical brain-imaging setup and show that it can greatly outperform objectives commonly used for this task. PMID:16880851

  10. Effect of multiphoton ionization on performance of crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Kishor; Strickland, D; Campbell, M C W; Sharma, R P

    2014-12-15

    This Letter presents a model for propagation of a laser pulse in a human crystalline lens. The model contains a transverse beam diffraction effect, laser-induced optical breakdown for the creation of plasma via a multiphoton ionization process, and the gradient index (GRIN) structure. Plasma introduces the nonlinearity in the crystalline lens which affects the propagation of the beam. The multiphoton ionization process generates plasma that changes the refractive index and hence leads to the defocusing of the laser beam. The Letter also points out the relevance of the present investigation to cavitation bubble formation for restoring the elasticity of the eyes. PMID:25502994

  11. Optical clearing and multiphoton imaging of paraffin-embedded specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Degan, Simone; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.

    2013-02-01

    New labeling, imaging, or analysis tools could provide new retrospective insights when applied to archived, paraffin-embedded samples. Deep-tissue multiphoton microscopy of paraffin-embedded specimens is achieved using optical clearing with mineral oil. We tested a variety of murine tissue specimens including skin, lung, spleen, kidney, and heart, acquiring multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation, and pump-probe images This technique introduces the capability for non-destructive 3-dimensional microscopic imaging of existing archived pathology specimens, enabling retrospective studies.

  12. Efficient production of13C2F4 in the infrared laser photolysis of CHClF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, M.; Cureton, C. G.; Hackett, P. A.; Willis, C.

    1982-05-01

    We report the isotopically selective decomposition of chlorodifluoromethane. Chlorodifluoromethane is used industrially in high volume for the production of tetrafluoroethylene and its polymers; thereby it is an attractive working substrate for a medium scale isotope separation process, both in terms of its price and availability. We have studied the infrared multiphoton decomposition of carbon-13 substituted chlorodifluoromethane molecules present at their natural abundance (1.11%). A well defined CO2 laser pulse (80 ns FWHM) was used and both the yield of carbon-13 enriched product and the net absorption of laser radiation were measured. These measurements were made as a function of substrate pressure (10-800 Torr), CO2 laser line (9P 12 9P 32) and fluence (2 8 J cm-2) and were used to determine the energy expenditure per carbon atom produced (ɛ) at specified product carbon-13 content in the range 30% 96%. The results of these parametric studies were interpreted in terms of the kinetics of multiphoton absorption and dissociation, and allowed an initial optimization of the experimental conditions to minimize ɛ. Optimum results were obtained at 1046.9 cm-1, 69 cm-1 to the red of the12CHClF2 v 9 band center. Irradiation of 100 Torr of chlorodifluoromethane at 3.5 J cm-2 gave tetrafluoroethylene containing 50% carbon-13 for an absorption of 140 photons (0.017 keV) per carbon atom produced. This efficiency compares favourably with existing carbon-13 enrichment technologies and would require an absorption pathlength of only 2 m to absorb half the incident photons.

  13. A novel flexible clinical multiphoton tomograph for early melanoma detection, skin analysis, testing of anti-age products, and in situ nanoparticle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Gregory, Axel; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; König, Karsten

    2010-02-01

    High-resolution 3D microscopy based on multiphoton induced autofluorescence and second harmonic generation have been introduced in 1990. 13 years later, CE-marked clinical multiphoton systems for 3D imaging of human skin with subcellular resolution have first been launched by JenLab company with the tomography DermaInspect®. This year, the second generation of clinical multiphoton tomographs was introduced. The novel multiphoton tomograph MPTflex, equipped with a flexible articulated optical arm, provides an increased flexibility and accessibility especially for clinical and cosmetical examinations. Improved image quality and signal to noise ratio (SNR) are achieved by a very short source-drain spacing, by larger active areas of the detectors and by single photon counting (SPC) technology. Shorter image acquisition time due to improved image quality reduces artifacts and simplifies the operation of the system. The compact folded optical design and the light-weight structure of the optical head eases the handling. Dual channel detectors enable to distinguish between intratissue elastic fibers and collagenous structures simultaneously. Through the use of piezo-driven optics a stack of optical cross-sections (optical sectioning) can be acquired and 3D imaging can be performed. The multiphoton excitation of biomolecules like NAD(P)H, flavins, porphyrins, elastin, and melanin is done by picojoule femtosecond laser pulses from an tunable turn-key femtosescond near infrared laser system. The ability for rapid high-quality image acquisition, the user-friendly operation of the system and the compact and flexible design qualifies this system to be used for melanoma detection, diagnostics of dermatological disorders, cosmetic research and skin aging measurements as well as in situ drug monitoring and animal research.

  14. Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation extracted 3 factors from the 42 memory and amnesia items of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) database (N = 2,569): Discovering Dissociated Actions, Lapses of Recent Memory and Skills, and Gaps in Remote Memory. The 3 factors' shared variance ranged from 36% to 64%. Construed as scales, the 3 factor scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .96, .94, and .93, respectively. The scales correlated strongly with mean Dissociative Experiences Scale scores, mean MID scores, and total scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R). What is interesting is that the 3 amnesia factors exhibited a range of correlations with SCID-D-R Amnesia scores (.52, .63, and .70, respectively), suggesting that the SCID-D-R Amnesia score emphasizes gaps in remote memory over amnesias related to dissociative identity disorder. The 3 amnesia factor scales exhibited a clinically meaningful pattern of significant differences among dissociative identity disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified-1, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, and nonclinical participants. The 3 amnesia factors may have greater clinical utility for frontline clinicians than (a) amnesia as discussed in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nosology of the dissociative disorders or (b) P. Janet's (1893/1977 ) 4-fold classification of dissociative amnesia. The author recommends systematic study of the phenomenological differences within specific dissociative symptoms and their differential relationship to specific dissociative disorders. PMID:23282045

  15. Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation extracted 3 factors from the 42 memory and amnesia items of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) database (N = 2,569): Discovering Dissociated Actions, Lapses of Recent Memory and Skills, and Gaps in Remote Memory. The 3 factors' shared variance ranged from 36% to 64%. Construed as scales, the 3 factor scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .96, .94, and .93, respectively. The scales correlated strongly with mean Dissociative Experiences Scale scores, mean MID scores, and total scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R). What is interesting is that the 3 amnesia factors exhibited a range of correlations with SCID-D-R Amnesia scores (.52, .63, and .70, respectively), suggesting that the SCID-D-R Amnesia score emphasizes gaps in remote memory over amnesias related to dissociative identity disorder. The 3 amnesia factor scales exhibited a clinically meaningful pattern of significant differences among dissociative identity disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified-1, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, and nonclinical participants. The 3 amnesia factors may have greater clinical utility for frontline clinicians than (a) amnesia as discussed in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nosology of the dissociative disorders or (b) P. Janet's (1893/1977 ) 4-fold classification of dissociative amnesia. The author recommends systematic study of the phenomenological differences within specific dissociative symptoms and their differential relationship to specific dissociative disorders.

  16. Dissociative ionization of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Winifred

    2004-09-01

    Dissociative ionization (DI) by electron impact plays a role in many different applications, including low-temperature plasma processing, the study of space and astrophysical plasmas, and the study of biological damages by high-energy radiation. In the present study, our goal is to understand the health hazard to humans from exposure to radiation during an extended space flight. DI by secondary electrons can damage the DNA, either directly by causing a DNA lesion, or indirectly by producing radicals and cations that attack the DNA. The theoretical model employed makes use of the fact that electronic motion is much faster than nuclear motion, allowing DI to be treated as a two-step process. The first step is electron-impact ionization resulting in a dissociative state of the molecular ion with the same geometry as the neutral molecule. In the second step the ion relaxes from the initial geometry and undergoes unimolecular dissociation. Thus the DI cross section is given by the product of the ionization cross section and the dissociation probability. For the ionization process we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. For unimolecular dissociation, we use the multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) method to determine the minimum energy pathways to possible product channels. This model has been applied to study the DI of H_2O, NH_3, and CH_4, and the results are in good agreement with experiment. The DI from the low-lying channels of benzene has also been studied and the dissociation products are compared with photoionization measurements. The DI of the DNA bases guanine and cytosine are then discussed. Of the four DNA bases, guanine has the largest ionization cross section and cytosine has the smallest. The guanine radical cation is considered to be one of the precursors to the primary, direct-type lesions formed in DNA when it is irradiated. Comparison of DI products of guanine and cytosine will be made to understand the differences in

  17. Dissociation energy and dynamics of water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch'ng, Lee Chiat

    The state-to-state vibrational predissociation (VP) dynamics of water clusters were studied following excitation of a vibrational mode of each cluster. Velocity-map imaging (VMI) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) were used to determine pair-correlated center-of-mass translational energy distributions. Product energy distributions and dissociation energies were determined. Following vibrational excitation of the HCl stretch fundamental of the HCl-H2O dimer, HCl fragments were detected by 2 + 1 REMPI via the f 3□2(nu' = 0) ← X 1Sigma+(nu'' = 0) and V1Sigma + (nu' = 11 and 12) ← X1Sigma+ (nu'' = 0) transitions. REMPI spectra clearly show HCl from dissociation produced in the ground vibrational state with J'' up to 11. The fragments' center-of-mass translational energy distributions were determined from images of selected rotational states of HCl and were converted to rotational state distributions of the water cofragment. All the distributions could be fit well when using a dimer dissociation energy of bond dissociation energy D0 = 1334 +/- 10 cm--1. The rotational distributions in the water cofragment pair-correlated with specific rotational states of HCl appear nonstatistical when compared to predictions of the statistical phase space theory. A detailed analysis of pair-correlated state distributions was complicated by the large number of water rotational states available, but the data show that the water rotational populations increase with decreasing translational energy. H2O fragments of this dimer were detected by 2 + 1 REMPI via the C˜1B1(000) ← X˜1A1(000) transition. REMPI clearly shows that H2O from dissociation is produced in the ground vibrational state. The fragment's center-of-mass translational energy distributions were determined from images of selected rotational states of H2O and were converted to rotational state distributions of the HCl cofragment. The distributions gave D0 = 1334 +/- 10 cm --1 and show a clear

  18. Development and characterization of non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS) for brain tumor margining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Sudhir

    During tumor removal surgery, due to the problems associated with obtaining high-resolution, real-time chemical images of where exactly the tumor ends and healthy tissue begins (tumor margining), it is often necessary to remove a much larger volume of tissue than the tumor itself. In the case of brain tumor surgery, however, it is extremely unsafe to remove excess tissue. Therefore, without an accurate image of the tumor margins, some of the tumor's finger-like projections are inevitably left behind in the surrounding parenchyma to grow again. For this reason, the development of techniques capable of providing high-resolution real-time images of tumor margins up to centimeters below the surface of a tissue is ideal for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors, as well as surgical guidance during brain tumor excision. A novel spectroscopic technique, non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS), is being developed with the capabilities of obtaining high-resolution subsurface chemical-based images of underlying tumors. This novel technique combines the strengths of multiphoton tissue spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy into a diagnostic methodology that will, ultimately, provide unparalleled chemical information and images to provide the state of sub-surface tissues. The NMPPAS technique employs near-infrared light (in the diagnostic window) to excite ultraviolet and/or visible light absorbing species deep below the tissue's surface. Once a multiphoton absorption event occurs, non-radiative relaxation processes generates a localized thermal expansion and subsequent acoustic wave that can be detected using a piezoelectric transducer. Since NMPPAS employs an acoustic detection modality, much deeper diagnoses can be performed than that is possible using current state of the art high-resolution chemical imaging techniques such as multiphoton fluorescence spectroscopy. NMPPAS was employed to differentiate between excised brain tumors (astrocytoma III

  19. [A dissociative patient].

    PubMed

    de Jongh, A; Abkhezr, S; Broers, D L M

    2009-08-01

    A 45-year-old woman attended a centre for special dental care. Initially, it seemed that the patient suffered from an extreme form of dental anxiety. However, the fact that she displayed 'dissociations' suggested that she had a severe psychiatric disorder, in this case Dissociative Identity Disorder. The key feature of this condition is a dysfunction of the normal integrative functions of identity, memory and consciousness. In such instances it is recommended to contact a psychologist or psychiatrist and the referring care provider to consider the consequences of the psychiatric condition regarding informed consent, treatment plan and actual treatment. Because it was not likely that the patient would respond to an intervention specifically aimed to reduce anxiety in the dental setting, dental treatment under general anesthesia was the best suited option.

  20. Dissociation and psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Steingard, S; Frankel, F H

    1985-08-01

    The literature on hysterical or brief reactive psychosis reflects great diversity both in clinical description and theoretical formulation. The authors describe the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, rapid cycling type, but who, in fact, was experiencing dissociative episodes manifested as psychotic states. The patient's successful treatment with hypnosis is described, along with the clinical and theoretical implications of the case.

  1. Dissociation of H{sub 2}{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +} in an intense laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, J.; Rottke, H.; Sandner, W.

    1997-09-01

    We report experimental investigations on dissociation of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} in intense subpicosecond laser pulses at 1053 and 526.5 nm. Intensities in the range from {approx}5{times}10{sup 13} up to {approx}5{times}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} were applied. The kinetic-energy distributions of the photoions H{sup +} and D{sup +}, which change dramatically with the light pulse peak intensity, give a detailed insight into the dissociation mechanisms. At 526.5 nm and low light intensity, ions from bond-softening dissociation and probably seven-photon resonant dissociative multiphoton ionization dominate the spectra. The resonant intermediate states are Rydberg states of the neutral molecules. At 1053 nm, above-threshold dissociation makes the main contribution to the spectra. Independent of the excitation wavelength, Coulomb explosion dissociation is found in the high-intensity limit. H{sub 2}{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +} photoionization, triggering this process, proceeds in the quasistatic limit by preferred tunnel or above-barrier ionization in a limited range of internuclear separations around 7.5 a.u. The ion kinetic-energy distributions seem to indicate that at 526.5 nm ionization starts from molecular ions light stabilized in a certain range of internuclear distances. In contrast, at 1053 nm, ionization seems to start from dissociating molecular ions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Infrared vibrational spectra as a structural probe of gaseous ions formed by caffeine and theophylline.

    PubMed

    Marta, Richard A; Wu, Ronghu; Eldridge, Kris R; Martens, Jonathan K; McMahon, Terry B

    2010-04-14

    Ionic hydrogen bond (IHB) interactions, resulting from the association of ammonia and the two protonated methylxanthine derivatives, caffeine and theophylline, have been characterized using infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. The proton-bound dimer (PBD) of caffeine and ammonia exhibits a low binding energy and was found to be elusive under the experimental conditions due, most probably, to collision-induced dissociation of the complex with helium buffer gas before IRMPD irradiation. The IRMPD spectrum of a PBD of theophylline and ammonia was obtained and revealed bidentate IHB formation within the complex, which greatly increased the binding energy relative to the most stable isomer of the PBD of caffeine and ammonia. The IRMPD spectra of the protonated forms of caffeine and theophylline have also been obtained. The spectrum of protonated caffeine showed dominant protonation at the N(9) site, whereas the spectrum of protonated theophylline showed a mixture of two isomers. The first protonated isomer of theophylline exhibits protonation at the N(9) site and the second isomer demonstrated protonation at the C(6) carbonyl oxygen. The protonated carbonyl isomer of theophylline cannot be produced as a result of direct protonation and is thus suggested to be a consequence of proton-transport catalysis (PTC) initiated by the electrostatic interaction between water and N(9) protonated theophylline. Calculated anharmonic spectra have been simulated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. It is shown that calculated anharmonic frequencies significantly outperform calculated harmonic frequencies in providing simulated IRMPD spectra in all cases.

  3. Acousto-optic multiphoton laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton photon counting spectroscopy: Applications and implications for optical neurobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Vijay

    Multiphoton excitation of molecular probes has become an important tool in experimental neurobiology owing to the intrinsic optical sectioning and low light scattering it affords. Using molecular functional indicators, multiphoton excitation allows physiological signals within single neurons to be observed from within living brain tissue. Ideally, it would be possible to record from multiple sites located throughout the elaborately branching dendritic arbors, in order to study the correlations of structure and function both within and across experiments. However, existing multiphoton microscope systems based on scanning mirrors do not allow optical recordings to be obtained from more than a handful of sites simultaneously at the high rates required to capture the fast physiological signals of interest (>100Hz for Ca2+ signals, >1kHz for membrane potential transients). In order to overcome this limitation, two-dimensional acousto-optic deflection was employed, to allow an ultrafast laser beam suited for multiphoton excitation to be rapidly repositioned with low latency (˜15mus). This supports a random-access scanning mode in which the beam can repeatedly visit a succession of user-selected sites of interest within the microscope's field-of-view at high rates, with minimal sacrifice of pixel dwell time. This technique of acousto-optic multiphoton laser scanning microscope (AO-MPLSM) was demonstrated to allow the spatial profile of signals arising in response to physiological stimulation to be rapidly mapped. Means to compensate or avoid problems of dispersion which have hampered AO-MPLSM in the past are presented, with the latter being implemented. Separately, the combination of photon counting detection with multiphoton excitation, termed generally multiphoton photon counting spectroscopy (MP-PCS), was also considered, with particular emphasis on the technique of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). MP-PCS was shown to allow information about molecular

  4. Infrared study of the bacterial autoinducer N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) in the gas-phase, water, and octanol solutions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiah; Kim, Seong Keun; Grégoire, Gilles; Manil, Bruno; Schermann, Jean Pierre

    2011-08-25

    The N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) molecule has been investigated by means of infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) under different conditions in an attempt to mimic biological situations encountered in communication between bacteria for quorum sensing. The protonated molecular ion was studied in the gas-phase that corresponds to a solvent-free situation somewhat analogous to that encountered in the receptor. The simulation of the IRMPD spectrum of the isolated ion was then conducted by means of quantum chemistry calculations in vacuum. In the case of the neutral species, the FT-IR spectra were recorded in D(2)O, mimicking the cytosolic and extracellular media as well as in 1-octanol that is often used for simulation of cell membranes. The interpretation was conducted by considering a C6-HSL molecule in its endo or exo conformation hydrogen-bonded to, respectively, six D(2)O and four 1-octanol molecules. A satisfying agreement with the experimental FT-IR studies conducted in solution at room temperature was obtained as long as a continuum IEFPCM model was added to the explicit solvent environment.

  5. Intramolecular motion in DIET: Desorption and dissociation of chemisorbed ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, A. R.; Stechel, E. B.; Jennison, D. R.

    1995-06-01

    We show that quantum-specific detection of DIET processes of polyatomic adsorbates reveals the multidimensional dynamics of intramolecular motion. Specifically, we present an analysis of the 6-350 eV electron-induced desorption and dissociation of chemisorbed NH 3 and ND 3 on Pt(1 1 1). State-selective detection of the neutral DIET products is accomplished by 2 + 1 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). Desorption and dissociation occur as a result of distinct electronic excitations that result in different, uncoupled, modes of intramolecular motion. We find that desorption results from 3a 1-1-induced inversion motion. Trajectories on a two-dimensional potential energy surface reveal that the excited molecule fully inverts; upon deexcitation, the inverted molecule is sufficiently high on the hard wall of the substrate interaction to have enough energy to desorb. Given the short excitation lifetime, the time scale in which the (H) D atoms reach the inversion geometry directly affects the desorption yield and results in an appreciable enhancement of NH 3 desorption over that of ND 3. In general, multidimensional molecule-surface potential energy surfaces should be considered in DIET processes involving molecular adsorbates.

  6. Multiphoton imaging of excised normal skin and keloid scar: preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Michael B.; Yeh, Alvin T.; Torkian, Behrooz; Sun, Chung-Ho; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Wong, Brian J.

    2004-07-01

    Wound healing is a physiologic process that acts to repair disruptions in the continuity of tissue caused by injury or surgical incision. Keloids and hypertrophic scars are forms of aberrant wound healing, which are characterized by the overproduction of collagen, resulting in an excessive amount of scar tissue. Keloid tumors, by definition, grow outside the boundary of the original tissue damage. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is an imaging technique which allows imaging of living specimens, without the use of fixation or stains. Images of collagen fibers are produced by the second harmonic signal intensity generated by endogenous fluorescence through excitation by infrared laser light. A postauricular keloid tumor was excised from a patient. The tissue was dissected, and a portion was imaged using MPM. Normal skin tissue was isolated from a patient undergoing a facelift. A portion of this tissue was also dissected and imaged using MPM. MPM images were taken using a 63X water immersion objective lens on a two-photon microscope and a titanium-sapphire laser. Images were taken beginning at the surface of the tissue and moving in at intervals of 200 nm to a final depth of 30 μm. The two-photon images were used to reconstruct three-dimensional representations of the collagen matrix within the tissues, which are readily contrasted. Density of the collagen within each tissue was also ascertained using depth dependant decay of the image intensity. Multiphoton imaging was successfully used to image the collagen matrix of normal skin and a keloid scar, demonstrating differences in their microstructures.

  7. Recurrent dissociative fugue.

    PubMed

    Mamarde, Abhishek; Navkhare, Praveen; Singam, Amrita; Kanoje, Akash

    2013-10-01

    Dissociative fugue is a rarely reported diagnostic entity. It is one of the least understood and yet clinically one of the most fascinating disorders in mental health. Here, we describe a case of fugue in a 32-year-old man who was brought to mental hospital with complete loss of memory for events pertaining to identity of self. This case illustrates the nature of presentation in hospital setting like mental hospital and effort taken to reintegrate his identity and reunite with his family. PMID:24379504

  8. Recurrent dissociative fugue.

    PubMed

    Mamarde, Abhishek; Navkhare, Praveen; Singam, Amrita; Kanoje, Akash

    2013-10-01

    Dissociative fugue is a rarely reported diagnostic entity. It is one of the least understood and yet clinically one of the most fascinating disorders in mental health. Here, we describe a case of fugue in a 32-year-old man who was brought to mental hospital with complete loss of memory for events pertaining to identity of self. This case illustrates the nature of presentation in hospital setting like mental hospital and effort taken to reintegrate his identity and reunite with his family.

  9. Recurrent Dissociative Fugue

    PubMed Central

    Mamarde, Abhishek; Navkhare, Praveen; Singam, Amrita; Kanoje, Akash

    2013-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is a rarely reported diagnostic entity. It is one of the least understood and yet clinically one of the most fascinating disorders in mental health. Here, we describe a case of fugue in a 32-year-old man who was brought to mental hospital with complete loss of memory for events pertaining to identity of self. This case illustrates the nature of presentation in hospital setting like mental hospital and effort taken to reintegrate his identity and reunite with his family. PMID:24379504

  10. THE DISSOCIATIVE TURN IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Itzkowitz, Sheldon

    2015-06-01

    In his response to the Roundtable Discussions on what is effective in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, the author focuses on the renewed interest in the concept of dissociation that began to emerge toward the end of the 20th century. A contemporary psychoanalytic position informed by the impact of developmental trauma has led to an understanding of and interest in the dissociative mind. The actuality of trauma during infancy and early childhood is recognized as a key factor leading to the emergence of dissociative processes, the potential dissociative structuring of the mind, and mind being characterized by multiple, discontinuous, centers of consciousness. The therapeutic goal in the psychoanalytic work with fragmented patients is to establish communication and understanding between the dissociated self-states. The author offers two brief clinical examples of working with dissociated self-states.

  11. Controlled Au-Polymer Nanostructures for Multiphoton Imaging, Prodrug Delivery, and Chemo-Photothermal Therapy Platforms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chia; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-11-18

    We have successfully introduced a proton-induced controlled reaction of HAuCl4 and poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) sodium salt to prepare triangular and multicore Au@polymer nanoparticles (NPs). The interparticle interactions in the core gave rise to an absorption band at the near-infrared wavelength. The near-infrared optical properties of the resulting Au-polymer nanostructures are highly stable in a physiological environment, which offered strong photo-to-thermal conversion by a moderate continuous-wave 808 nm laser and exhibited multiphoton fluorescence for imaging using a 1230 nm light excitation (femtosecond laser). Exposure of the carboxylate groups at the polymer shell made the surface structure of the Au multicore @polymer NPs directly conjugate Pt(II)-/Pt(IV)-based drugs, which possessed the elimination of the immediate toxicity over the short time and resulted in an anticancer effect after 3 days. A synergistic effect of the chemo-photothermal therapy showed a moderate hyperthermia assistance (<1 W/cm(2)) and better anticancer performance over time compared with the individual treatments. We demonstrated that such PSMA-based methodology not only enables a broad range of chemical material synthesis in the kinetic control to form Au nano-octahedrons and nanotriangles using Br(-)/I(-) ions additives but also could be extended to form Au/Fe3O4@polymer nanocomposites via proton-assisted PSMA self-assembly. PMID:26501876

  12. Dissociative state and competence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Liu, Shi-Kai

    2007-10-01

    This report presents the results of forensic evaluation of the civil competence of a case of alleged dissociative identity disorder (DID) and discusses whether such dissociative states substantially jeopardize civil competence. A 40-year-old woman claimed that she had had many personalities since her college days. From the age of 37 to 40, she shopped excessively, which left her with millions of dollars of debt. She ascribed her shopping to a certain identity state, over which she had no control. (In this article, we use the term identity state to replace personality as an objective description of a mental state.) She thus raised the petition of civil incompetence. During the forensic evaluation, it was found that the identity states were relatively stable and mutually aware of each other. The switch into another identity state was sometimes under voluntary control. The subject showed consistency and continuity in behavioral patterns across the different identity states, and no matter which identity state she was in, there was no evidence of impairment in her factual knowledge of social situations and her capacity for managing personal affairs. We hence concluded that she was civilly competent despite the claimed DID. Considering that the existence and diagnosis of DID are still under dispute and a diagnosis of DID alone is not sufficient to interdict a persons civil right, important clinical and forensic issues remain to be answered.

  13. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  14. DIFFRACTION DISSOCIATION - 50 YEARS LATER.

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, S.N.

    2005-04-27

    The field of Diffraction Dissociation, which is the subject of this workshop, began 50 years ago with the analysis of deuteron stripping in low energy collisions with nuclei. We return to the subject in a modern context- deuteron dissociation in {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV d-Au collisions recorded during the 2003 RHIC run in the PHENIX experiment. At RHIC energy, d {yields} n+p proceeds predominantly (90%) through Electromagnetic Dissociation and the remaining fraction via the hadronic shadowing described by Glauber. Since the dissociation cross section has a small theoretical error we adopt this process to normalize other cross sections measured in RHIC.

  15. Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D.

    1997-04-01

    When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3}) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} 2CH{sub 3} + SO; (2a) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} CH{sub 3} + SOCH{sub 3}; and (2b) SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} SO + CH{sub 3}. Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH{sub 3} and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1. The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2.

  16. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder) in an elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Dushad; Ashoka, H. G; Gowdappa, Basavnna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed. PMID:26286620

  17. Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Taejun; Jang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Seunghun; Yoon, Calvin J.; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Bumju; Hwang, Sekyu; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Yoon, Yeoreum; Lee, Gilgu; Le, Viet-Hoan; Bok, Seoyeon; Ahn, G-One; Lee, Jaewook; Gho, Yong Song; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Sungjee; Jang, Myoung Ho; Myung, Seung-Jae; Kim, Myoung Joon; So, Peter T. C.; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a nonlinear fluorescence microscopic technique widely used for cellular imaging of thick tissues and live animals in biological studies. However, MPM application to human tissues is limited by weak endogenous fluorescence in tissue and cytotoxicity of exogenous probes. Herein, we describe the applications of moxifloxacin, an FDA-approved antibiotic, as a cell-labeling agent for MPM. Moxifloxacin has bright intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence, good tissue penetration and high intracellular concentration. MPM with moxifloxacin was demonstrated in various cell lines, and animal tissues of cornea, skin, small intestine and bladder. Clinical application is promising since imaging based on moxifloxacin labeling could be 10 times faster than imaging based on endogenous fluorescence. PMID:27283889

  18. Hybrid label-free multiphoton and optoacoustic microscopy (MPOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Dominik; Tserevelakis, George J.; Omar, Murad; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-07-01

    Many biological applications require a simultaneous observation of different anatomical features. However, unless potentially harmful staining of the specimens is employed, individual microscopy techniques do generally not provide multi-contrast capabilities. We present a hybrid microscope integrating optoacoustic microscopy and multiphoton microscopy, including second-harmonic generation, into a single device. This combined multiphoton and optoacoustic microscope (MPOM) offers visualization of a broad range of structures by employing different contrast mechanisms and at the same time enables pure label-free imaging of biological systems. We investigate the relative performance of the two microscopy modalities and demonstrate their multi-contrast abilities through the label-free imaging of a zebrafish larva ex vivo, simultaneously visualizing muscles and pigments. This hybrid microscopy application bears great potential for developmental biology studies, enabling more comprehensive information to be obtained from biological specimens without the necessity of staining.

  19. Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Taejun; Jang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Seunghun; Yoon, Calvin J.; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Bumju; Hwang, Sekyu; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Yoon, Yeoreum; Lee, Gilgu; Le, Viet-Hoan; Bok, Seoyeon; Ahn, G.-One; Lee, Jaewook; Gho, Yong Song; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Sungjee; Jang, Myoung Ho; Myung, Seung-Jae; Kim, Myoung Joon; So, Peter T. C.; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-06-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a nonlinear fluorescence microscopic technique widely used for cellular imaging of thick tissues and live animals in biological studies. However, MPM application to human tissues is limited by weak endogenous fluorescence in tissue and cytotoxicity of exogenous probes. Herein, we describe the applications of moxifloxacin, an FDA-approved antibiotic, as a cell-labeling agent for MPM. Moxifloxacin has bright intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence, good tissue penetration and high intracellular concentration. MPM with moxifloxacin was demonstrated in various cell lines, and animal tissues of cornea, skin, small intestine and bladder. Clinical application is promising since imaging based on moxifloxacin labeling could be 10 times faster than imaging based on endogenous fluorescence.

  20. Characteristics of subgingival calculus detection by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Oi-Hong; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin; Chen, How-Foo

    2011-06-01

    Subgingival calculus has been recognized as a major cause of periodontitis, which is one of the main chronic infectious diseases of oral cavities and a principal cause of tooth loss in humans. Bacteria deposited in subgingival calculus or plaque cause gingival inflammation, function deterioration, and then periodontitis. However, subgingival calculus within the periodontal pocket is a complicated and potentially delicate structure to be detected with current dental armamentaria, namely dental x-rays and dental probes. Consequently, complete removal of subgingival calculus remains a challenge to periodontal therapies. In this study, the detection of subgingival calculus employing a multiphoton autofluorescence imaging method was characterized in comparison with a one-photon confocal fluorescence imaging technique. Feasibility of such a system was studied based on fluorescence response of gingiva, healthy teeth, and calculus with and without gingiva covered. The multiphoton fluorescence technology perceived the tissue-covered subgingival calculus that cannot be observed by the one-photon confocal fluorescence method.

  1. Experimental Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) studies of small molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehmer, J. L.; Dehmer, P. M.; Pratt, S. T.; Ohalloran, M. A.; Tomkins, F. S.

    1987-01-01

    Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) utilizes tunable dye lasers to ionize an atom or molecule by first preparing an excited state by multiphoton absorption and then ionizing that state before it can decay. This process is highly selective with respect to both the initial and resonant intermediate states of the target, and it can be extremely sensitive. In addition, the products of the REMPI process can be detected as needed by analyzing the resulting electrons, ions, fluorescence, or by additional REMPI. This points to a number of exciting opportunities for both basic and applied science. On the applied side, REMPI has great potential as an ultrasensitive, highly selective detector for trace, reactive, or transient species. On the basic side, REMPI affords an unprecedented means of exploring excited state physics and chemistry at the quantum-state-specific level. An overview of current studies of excited molecular states is given to illustrate the principles and prospects of REMPI.

  2. Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Li, Feng-Chieh; Wu, Ruei-Jhih; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Lin, Wei-Chou; Lin, Sung-Jan; So, Peter T. C.; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2009-07-01

    We utilize multiphoton microscopy for the label-free diagnosis of noncancerous, lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues from humans. Our results show that the combination of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton excited autofluorescence (MAF) signals may be used to acquire morphological and quantitative information in discriminating cancerous from noncancerous lung tissues. Specifically, noncancerous lung tissues are largely fibrotic in structure, while cancerous specimens are composed primarily of tumor masses. Quantitative ratiometric analysis using MAF to SHG index (MAFSI) shows that the average MAFSI for noncancerous and LAC lung tissue pairs are 0.55+/-0.23 and 0.87+/-0.15, respectively. In comparison, the MAFSIs for the noncancerous and SCC tissue pairs are 0.50+/-0.12 and 0.72+/-0.13, respectively. Our study shows that nonlinear optical microscopy can assist in differentiating and diagnosing pulmonary cancer from noncancerous tissues.

  3. In vivo multiphoton imaging of obstructive cholestasis in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Chieh; Lee, Yu Yang; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    Combining multiphoton microscopy with a newly designed hepatic imaging window, we acquired in vivo images of mice obstructive cholestasis. We observed that in mice with bile duct ligation, bile canaliculi failed to appear during the whole observation period over 100 minutes following carboxyfluorescein diacetate injection, whereas the fluorescence was retained much longer within sinusoids. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensities in sinusoids were persistently higher than in hepatocytes during the course.

  4. Relaxation channels of multi-photon excited xenon clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Serdobintsev, P. Yu.; Melnikov, A. S.; Rakcheeva, L. P. Murashov, S. V.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.; Lyubchik, S.; Timofeev, N. A.; Pastor, A. A.

    2015-09-21

    The relaxation processes of the xenon clusters subjected to multi-photon excitation by laser radiation with quantum energies significantly lower than the thresholds of excitation of atoms and ionization of clusters were studied. Results obtained by means of the photoelectron spectroscopy method showed that desorption processes of excited atoms play a significant role in the decay of two-photon excited xenon clusters. A number of excited states of xenon atoms formed during this process were discovered and identified.

  5. Influence of Vacuum Cooling on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infiltration in Fresh Leafy Greens via a Multiphoton-Imaging Approach.

    PubMed

    Vonasek, Erica; Nitin, Nitin

    2015-10-16

    Microbial pathogen infiltration in fresh leafy greens is a significant food safety risk factor. In various postharvest operations, vacuum cooling is a critical process for maintaining the quality of fresh produce. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of vacuum cooling-induced infiltration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce using multiphoton microscopy. Multiphoton imaging was chosen as the method to locate E. coli O157:H7 within an intact lettuce leaf due to its high spatial resolution, low background fluorescence, and near-infrared (NIR) excitation source compared to those of conventional confocal microscopy. The variables vacuum cooling, surface moisture, and leaf side were evaluated in a three-way factorial study with E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce. A total of 188 image stacks were collected. The images were analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 association with stomata and E. coli O157:H7 infiltration. The quantitative imaging data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicate that the low-moisture condition led to an increased risk of microbial association with stomata (P < 0.05). Additionally, the interaction between vacuum cooling levels and moisture levels led to an increased risk of infiltration (P < 0.05). This study also demonstrates the potential of multiphoton imaging for improving sensitivity and resolution of imaging-based measurements of microbial interactions with intact leaf structures, including infiltration.

  6. Influence of Vacuum Cooling on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infiltration in Fresh Leafy Greens via a Multiphoton-Imaging Approach.

    PubMed

    Vonasek, Erica; Nitin, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogen infiltration in fresh leafy greens is a significant food safety risk factor. In various postharvest operations, vacuum cooling is a critical process for maintaining the quality of fresh produce. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of vacuum cooling-induced infiltration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce using multiphoton microscopy. Multiphoton imaging was chosen as the method to locate E. coli O157:H7 within an intact lettuce leaf due to its high spatial resolution, low background fluorescence, and near-infrared (NIR) excitation source compared to those of conventional confocal microscopy. The variables vacuum cooling, surface moisture, and leaf side were evaluated in a three-way factorial study with E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce. A total of 188 image stacks were collected. The images were analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 association with stomata and E. coli O157:H7 infiltration. The quantitative imaging data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicate that the low-moisture condition led to an increased risk of microbial association with stomata (P < 0.05). Additionally, the interaction between vacuum cooling levels and moisture levels led to an increased risk of infiltration (P < 0.05). This study also demonstrates the potential of multiphoton imaging for improving sensitivity and resolution of imaging-based measurements of microbial interactions with intact leaf structures, including infiltration. PMID:26475109

  7. FDTD/TDSE study of surface-enhanced infrared absorption by metal nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-H.; Schatz, G. C.; Gray, S. K.; Chemistry; Northwestern Univ.; National Cheng-Kung Univ.

    2006-01-01

    We study surface-enhanced infrared absorption, including multiphoton processes, due to the excitation of surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation and finite-difference time-domain method are self-consistently coupled to treat the problem.

  8. Development of a spectrally resolved multifocal multiphoton microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixin; Shao, Yonghong; Qu, Junle; Li, Heng; Guo, Baoping; Liu, Wenqing; Niu, Hanben

    2008-12-01

    Multifocal Multiphoton Microscopy (MMM) can acquire three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence microscopic images of samples by multiphoton excitation with the advantages of high speed, reduced photobleaching, enhanced penetration depth and high signal-to-noise ratio. As fluorescence spectrum can provide information about the components of the sample, it is becoming increasingly popular in biomedicine to combine fluorescence spectrum measurement with multidimensional fluorescence microscopy. In this paper, we present the development of a spectrally resolved multifocal multiphoton microscope (SR-MMM). A microlens array is employed in the MMM system to produce 2D excitation foci on the sample for simultaneous two-photon excitation and a pair of galvo mirrors is used to scan the excitation foci across the sample. A liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) is mounted in front of a high-speed cooled CCD camera and is used to change the detection wavelength of the MMM system. Depth-resolved and spectrum-resolved two-photon excitation fluorescence images of a few samples are obtained with the SR-MMM system.

  9. Controlled Damage in Thick Specimens by Multiphoton ExcitationV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, James A.; Terasaki, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Controlled damage by light energy has been a valuable tool in studies of cell function. Here, we show that the Ti:Sapphire laser in a multiphoton microscope can be used to cause localized damage within unlabeled cells or tissues at greater depths than previously possible. We show that the damage is due to a multiphoton process and made wounds as small as 1 μm in diameter 20 μm from the surface. A characteristic fluorescent scar allows monitoring of the damage and identifies the wound site in later observations. We were able to lesion a single axon within a bundle of nerves, locally interrupt organelle transport within one axon, cut dendrites in a zebrafish embryo, ablate a mitotic pole in a sea urchin egg, and wound the plasma membrane and nuclear envelope in starfish oocytes. The starfish nucleus collapsed ∼1 h after wounding, indicating that loss of compartmentation barrier makes the structure unstable; surprisingly, the oocyte still completed meiotic divisions when exposed to maturation hormone, indicating that the compartmentalization and translocation of cdk1 and its regulators is not required for this process. Multiphoton excitation provides a new means for producing controlled damage deep within tissues or living organisms. PMID:12802057

  10. Multicolor multiphoton microscopy based on a nanosecond supercontinuum laser source.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Claire; O'Connor, Rodney P; Blanquet, Véronique; Magnol, Laetitia; Kano, Hideaki; Tombelaine, Vincent; Lévêque, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Leproux, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Multicolor multiphoton microscopy is experimentally demonstrated for the first time on a spectral bandwidth of excitation of 300 nm (full width half maximum) thanks to the implementation a nanosecond supercontinuum (SC) source compact and simple with a low repetition rate. The interest of such a wide spectral bandwidth, never demonstrated until now, is highlighted in vivo: images of glioma tumor cells stably expressing eGFP grafted on the brain of a mouse and its blood vessels network labelled with Texas Red(®) are obtained. These two fluorophores have a spectral bandwidth covering the whole 300 nm available. In parallel, a similar image quality is obtained on a sample of mouse muscle in vitro when excited with this nanosecond SC source or with a classical high rate, femtosecond and quasi monochromatic laser. This opens the way for (i) a simple and very complete biological characterization never performed to date with multiphoton processes, (ii) multiple means of contrast in nonlinear imaging allowed by the use of numerous fluorophores and (iii) other multiphoton processes like three-photon ones. PMID:26872004

  11. Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Li, Feng-Chieh; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Lin, Wei-Chou; Lin, Sung-Jan; So, Peter T. C.; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we utilized multiphoton microscopy for the label-free diagnosis of non-cancerous, lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues from human. Our results show that the combination of second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton excited autofluorescence (MAF) signals may be used to acquire morphological and quantitative information in discriminating cancerous from non-cancerous lung tissues. Specifically, non-cancerous lung tissues are largely fibrotic in structure while cancerous specimens are composed primarily of tumor masses. Quantitative ratiometric analysis using MAF to SHG index (MAFSI or SAAID) shows that the average MAFSI for noncancerous and LAC lung tissue pairs are 0.55 +/-0.23 and 0.87+/-0.15 respectively. In comparison, the MAFSIs for the noncancerous and SCC tissue pairs are 0.50+/-0.12 and 0.72+/-0.13 respectively. Intrinsic fluorescence ratio (FAD/NADH) of SCC and non-cancerous tissues are 0.40+/-0.05 and 0.53+/-0.05 respectively, the redox ratio of SCC diminishes significantly, indicating that increased cellular metabolic activity. Our study shows that nonlinear optical microscopy can assist in differentiating and diagnosing pulmonary cancer from non-cancerous tissues. With additional development, multiphoton microscopy may be used for the clinical diagnosis of lung cancers.

  12. Dissociative States and Neural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bob, Petr; Svetlak, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that neural mechanisms of consciousness are related to integration of distributed neural assemblies. This neural integration is particularly vulnerable to past stressful experiences that can lead to disintegration and dissociation of consciousness. These findings suggest that dissociation could be described as a level of…

  13. Dissociation Patterns in Evolving Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F. J.; Hernández, J. A.; Sánchez, F.

    2011-09-01

    The recent explosion and availability of mobility based technologies such as geographic information systems, cell phones equipped with built-in GPS, among others, are a valuable source of spatio-temporal data. However, only recently there have been works focused on identifying movement patterns in groups of moving entities. We focus on a particular movement pattern: dissociation. A dissociation pattern occurs when an entity that was once associated to a population, eventually separated from it and subsequently reintegrated it again. The backwarding and forwarding patterns are a type of dissociation where an entity stays behind or ahead of another entity, respectively. Dissociation really is a diversity generator, so instead avoiding it, taking advantage could be better to prevent premature convergence in evolutionary algorithms. In this work, we present formal mathematical definitions for these patterns. A discussion of how to use dissociation patterns as a mean to preserve diversity in evolutionary algorithms is also shown.

  14. Electron photodetachment dissociation for structural characterization of synthetic and bio-polymer anions.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Rodolphe; Lemoine, Jérôme; Dugourd, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) is a generic term evoking techniques dedicated to structural analysis, detection or quantification of molecules based on dissociation of a precursor ion into fragments. Searching for the most informative fragmentation patterns has led to the development of a vast array of activation modes that offer complementary ion reactivity and dissociation pathways. Collisional activation of ions using atoms, molecules or surface resulting in unimolecular dissociation of activated ions still plays a key role in tandem mass spectrometry. The discovery of electron capture dissociation (ECD) and then the development of other electron-ion or ion/ion reaction methods, constituted a significant breakthrough, especially for structural analysis of large biomolecules. Similarly, photon activation opened promising new frontiers in ion fragmentation owing to the ability of tightly controlled internal energy deposition and easy implementation on commercial instruments. Ion activation by photons includes slow heating methods such as infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) and black-body infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) and higher energy methods like ultra-violet photodissociation (UVPD) and electron photo detachment dissociation (EPD). EPD occurs after UV irradiation of multiply negatively charged ions resulting in the formation of oxidized radical anions. The present paper reviews the hypothesis regarding the mechanisms of electron photo-detachment, radical formation and direct or activated dissociation pathways that support the observation of odd and even electron product ions. Finally, the value of EPD as a complementary structural analysis tool is illustrated through selected examples of synthetic polymers, oligonucleotides, polypeptides, lipids, and polysaccharides.

  15. The dissociative disorders. Rarely considered and underdiagnosed.

    PubMed

    Coons, P M

    1998-09-01

    A wide variety of dissociative disorders, including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and various forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. In many instances, these disorders are either underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed secondary to the clinician's mistaken belief that dissociative disorders are rare. Recent research shows that dissociative disorders may comprise 5% to 10% of psychiatric populations. This article reviews the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology of these disorders. In addition, various screening and diagnostic instruments, such as the DES, Structured Clinical Interview for Dissociative Disorders, and MMPI, are discussed.

  16. High contrast in vivo bioimaging using multiphoton upconversion in novel rare-earth-doped fluoride upconversion nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guanying; Yang, Chunhui; Prasad, Paras N.

    2013-02-01

    Upconversion in rare-earth ions is a sequential multiphoton process that efficiently converts two or more low-energy photons, which are generally near infrared (NIR) light, to produce anti-Stokes emission of a higher energy photon (e.g., NIR, visible, ultraviolet) using continuous-wave (cw) diode laser excitation. Here, we show the engineering of novel, efficient, and biocompatible NIRin-to-NIRout upconversion nanoparticles for biomedical imaging with both excitation and emission being within the "optical transparency window" of tissues. The small animal whole-body imaging with exceptional contrast (signal-to-noise ratio of 310) was shown using BALB/c mice intravenously injected with aqueously dispersed nanoparticles. An imaging depth as deep as 3.2-cm was successfully demonstrated using thick animal tissue (pork) under cw laser excitation at 980 nm.

  17. Are major dissociative disorders characterized by a qualitatively different kind of dissociation?

    PubMed

    Rodewald, Frauke; Dell, Paul F; Wilhelm-Gossling, Claudia; Gast, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    A total of 66 patients with a major dissociative disorder, 54 patients with nondissociative disorders, and 30 nonclinical controls were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation, and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Dissociative patients reported significantly more dissociative and nondissociative symptoms than did nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls. When general psychopathology was controlled, the dissociation scores of dissociative patients were still significantly higher than those of both other groups, whereas the dissociation scores of nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls no longer differed. These findings appear to be congruent with a typological model of dissociation that distinguishes between 2 qualitatively different kinds of dissociation. Specifically, the results of this study suggest that the dissociation that occurs in major dissociative disorders (i.e., dissociative identity disorder [DID] and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, Type 1 [DDNOS-1]) is qualitatively different from the dissociation that occurs in persons who do not have a dissociative disorder. In contrast to previous research, the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder is not limited to absorption; it covers a much wider range of phenomena. The authors hypothesize that different mechanisms produce the dissociation of persons with DID and DDNOS-1 as opposed to the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder.

  18. Recurrent Episodes of Dissociative Fugue

    PubMed Central

    Angothu, Hareesh; Pabbathi, Lokeswar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is rare entity to encounter with possible differentials of epilepsy and malingering. It is one of the dissociative disorders rarely seen in clinical practice more often because of the short lasting nature of this condition. This might also be because of organized travel of the individuals during the episodes and return to their families after the recovery from episodes. This is a case description of a patient who has experienced total three episodes of dissociative fugue. The patient has presented during the third episode and two prior episodes were diagnosed as fugue episodes retrospectively based on the history. Planned travel in this case by the patient to a distant location was prevented because of early diagnosis and constant vigilance till the recovery. As in this case, it may be more likely that persons with Dissociative fugue may develop similar episodes if they encounter exceptional perceived stress. However, such conclusions may require follow-up studies. PMID:27114633

  19. Photodynamic therapy and knocking out of single tumor cells by multiphoton excitation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Koenig, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    Near infrared (NIR) ultrashort laser pulses of 780 nm have been used to induce intracellular photodynamic reactions by nonlinear excitation of porphyrin photosensitizers. Intracellular accumulation and photobleaching of the fluorescent photosensitizers protoporphyrin IX and Photofrin (PF) have been studied by non-resonant two-photon fluorescence excitation of PF and aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-labeled Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To testify the efficacy of both substrates to induce irreversible destructive effects, the cloning efficiency (CE) of cells exposed to femtosecond pulses of a multiphoton laser scanning microscope (40x/1.3) was determined. In the case of Photofrin accumulation, CEs of 50% and 0% were obtained after 17 laserscans (2 mW?, 16 s/ frame) and 50 scans, respectively. All cells exposed to 50 scans died within 48h after laser exposure. 100 scans were required to induce lethal effects in ALA labeled cells. Sensitizer-free control cells could be scanned 250 times (1.1 h) and more without impact on the reproduction behavior, morphology, and vitality. In addition to the slow phototoxic effect by photooxidation processes, another destructive but immediate effect based on optical breakdown was induced when employing high intense NIR femtosecond laser beams. This was used to optically knock out single tumor cells in living mice (solid Ehrlich-Carcinoma) in a depth of 10 to 100 μm.

  20. Multiphoton ionization of hydrogen by a strong multimode field

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, S.; Trombetta, F.; Ferrante, G.; Burlon, R.; Leone, C.

    1988-02-01

    Multiphoton ionization of hydrogen atoms by a strong multimode field when several final continuum states are populated is treated theoretically within a model based on the S-matrix formalism. The field is taken in dipole approximation, with zero bandwidth. Field-dressed Coulomb wave functions are used for the electron final states. Ionization rates are calculated for different numbers of photons absorbed in excess of the minimum number required to go into the continuum. In general, the calculated quantities are in good qualitative agreement with the corresponding experimental observations.

  1. Robust distant entanglement generation using coherent multiphoton scattering.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ching-Kit; Sham, L J

    2013-02-15

    We describe a protocol to entangle two qubits at a distance by using resonance fluorescence. The scheme makes use of the postselection of large and distinguishable fluorescence signals corresponding to entangled and unentangled qubit states and has the merits of both high success probability and high entanglement fidelity owing to the multiphoton nature. Our result shows that the entanglement generation is robust against photon fluctuations in the fluorescence signals for a wide range of driving fields. We also demonstrate that this new protocol has an average entanglement duration within the decoherence time of corresponding qubit systems, based on current experimental photon efficiency.

  2. Anomalous multiphoton photoelectric effect in ultrashort time scales.

    PubMed

    Kupersztych, J; Raynaud, M

    2005-09-30

    In a multiphoton photoelectric process, an electron needs to absorb a given number of photons to escape the surface of a metal. It is shown for the first time that this number is not a constant depending only on the characteristics of the metal and light, but varies with the interaction duration in ultrashort time scales. The phenomenon occurs when electromagnetic energy is transferred, via ultrafast excitation of electron collective modes, to conduction electrons in a duration less than the electron energy damping time. It manifests itself through a dramatic increase of electron production.

  3. The nature of multiphoton fluorescence from red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saytashev, Ilyas; Murphy, Michael; Osseiran, Sam; Spence, Dana M.; Evans, Conor L.; Dantus, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    We report on the nature of multiphoton excited fluorescence observed from human erythrocytes (red blood cells RBC's) and their "ghosts" following 800nm sub-15 fs excitation. The detected optical signal is assigned as two-photon excited fluorescence from hemoglobin. Our findings are supported by wavelength-resolved fluorescence lifetime decay measurements using time-correlated single photon counting system from RBC's, their ghosts as well as in vitro samples of various fluorophores including riboflavin, NADH, NAD(P)H, hemoglobin. We find that low-energy and short-duration pulses allow two-photon imaging of RBC's, but longer more intense pulses lead to their destruction.

  4. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  5. Quantum radiation reaction effects in multiphoton Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    Di Piazza, A; Hatsagortsyan, K Z; Keitel, C H

    2010-11-26

    Radiation reaction effects in the interaction of an electron and a strong laser field are investigated in the realm of quantum electrodynamics. We identify the quantum radiation reaction with the multiple photon recoils experienced by the laser-driven electron due to consecutive incoherent photon emissions. After determining a quantum radiation dominated regime, we demonstrate how in this regime quantum signatures of the radiation reaction strongly affect multiphoton Compton scattering spectra and that they could be measurable in principle with presently available laser technology.

  6. Multiphoton ionization of ions, neutrals, and clusters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, J.

    1995-12-28

    A multiyear research program investigating molecular detection methods based on multiphoton spectroscopy has been completed under DOE sponsorship. A number of new laser-based spectroscopic methods were developed and applied to a variety of aromatic hydrocarbons, including monomer and cluster species. The objectives of sensitivities approaching single molecule detection combined with high selectivity were achieved. This report references the status of the field at the beginning of this work and summarizes the significant progress during the period from 1987 onward. Detailed scientific findings from the studies are presented in the published literature referenced throughout this report.

  7. Multiphoton ionization of ions, neutrals, and clusters. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, J.

    1991-06-28

    Scientific results are summarized from a three year research program on multiphoton ionization in aromatic molecules, clusters, and their ions. As originally proposed, the studies elucidated a new cluster ionization mechanism, characterized properties of long range intermolecular interactions, and investigated electronic transitions of aromatic cations cooled in a supersonic beam. The studies indicate that the new cluster ionization mechanism is highly efficient and dominates conventional 1 + 1 resonant ionization. In the case of the dimer of the large aromatic molecule fluorene, the results suggest that excimer formation competes with a direct ionization process. Highly selective excitonic spectra have been identified for several cluster species.

  8. Integrated spectrometer design with application to multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Eric V; Durfee, Charles G; Squier, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    We present a prism-based spectrometer integrated into a multifocal, multiphoton microscope. The multifocal configuration facilitates interrogation of samples under different excitation conditions. Notably, the image plane of the microscope and the image plane of the spectrometer are coincident eliminating the need for an intermediate image plane containing an entrance slit. An EM-CCD detector provides sufficient gain for spectral interrogation of single-emitters. We employ this spectrometer to observe spectral shifts in the two-photon excitation fluorescence emission of single CdSe nanodots as a function of excitation polarization. PMID:21263548

  9. Quantum Radiation Reaction Effects in Multiphoton Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Di Piazza, A.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.

    2010-11-26

    Radiation reaction effects in the interaction of an electron and a strong laser field are investigated in the realm of quantum electrodynamics. We identify the quantum radiation reaction with the multiple photon recoils experienced by the laser-driven electron due to consecutive incoherent photon emissions. After determining a quantum radiation dominated regime, we demonstrate how in this regime quantum signatures of the radiation reaction strongly affect multiphoton Compton scattering spectra and that they could be measurable in principle with presently available laser technology.

  10. Inherent contradictions in the tunneling-multiphoton dichotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, H. R.

    2007-03-15

    Strong-field phenomena are currently described as being multiphoton or tunneling, based on whether the Keldysh parameter {gamma} is greater than or less than unity. There are disqualifying features in this categorization. It is specific to the length gauge, dependent on only one intensity parameter, and backward in the sense that ionization with {gamma}>>1 can occur only by tunneling, and ionization with {gamma}<<1 must be over the barrier, and hence is not achieved by tunneling. As {gamma} becomes smaller, ionization becomes increasingly distant from tunneling, and eventually reaches conditions where the dipole approximation fails and there is no meaningful scalar-potential diagram at all.

  11. Exploration of multiphoton entangled states by using weak nonlinearities

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying-Qiu; Ding, Dong; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    We propose a fruitful scheme for exploring multiphoton entangled states based on linear optics and weak nonlinearities. Compared with the previous schemes the present method is more feasible because there are only small phase shifts instead of a series of related functions of photon numbers in the process of interaction with Kerr nonlinearities. In the absence of decoherence we analyze the error probabilities induced by homodyne measurement and show that the maximal error probability can be made small enough even when the number of photons is large. This implies that the present scheme is quite tractable and it is possible to produce entangled states involving a large number of photons. PMID:26751044

  12. Multifocal multiphoton microscopy based on a spatial light modulator

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Y.; Qin, W.; Liu, H.; Peng, X.; Niu, H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new multifocal multiphoton microscope that employs a programmable spatial light modulator to generate dynamic multifocus arrays which can be rapidly scanned by changing the incident angle of the laser beam using a pair of galvo scanners. Using this microscope, we can rapidly select the number and the spatial density of focal points in a multifocus array, as well as the locations and shapes of arrays according to the features of the areas of interest in the field of view without any change to the hardware. PMID:23894222

  13. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity. PMID:23394228

  14. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  15. Deuterium enrichment by selective photoinduced dissociation of a multihalogenated organic compound

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.; Herman, Irving P.

    1981-01-01

    A method for deuterium enrichment by photoinduced dissociation which uses as the deuterium source a multihalogenated organic compound selected from the group consisting of a dihalomethane, a trihalomethane, a 1,2-dihaloethene, a trihaloethene, a tetrahaloethane and a pentahaloethane. The multihalogenated organic compound is subjected to intense infrared radiation at a preselected wavelength to selectively excite and thereby induce dissociation of substantially only those molecules containing deuterium to provide a deuterium enriched dissociation product. The deuterium enriched product may be combusted with oxygen to provide deuterium enriched water. The deuterium depleted undissociated molecules may be redeuterated by treatment with a deuterium source such as water.

  16. Deuterium enrichment by selective photo-induced dissociation of an organic carbonyl compound

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing a deuterium enriched material by photoinduced dissociation which uses as the working material a gas phase photolytically dissociable organic carbonyl compound containing at least one hydrogen atom bonded to an atom which is adjacent to a carbonyl group and consisting of molecules wherein said hydrogen atom is present as deuterium and molecules wherein said hydrogen atom is present as another isotope of hydrogen. The organic carbonyl compound is subjected to intense infrared radiation at a preselected wavelength to selectively excite and thereby induce dissociation of the deuterium containing species to yield a deuterium enriched stable molecular product. Undissociated carbonyl compound, depleted in deuterium, is preferably redeuterated for reuse.

  17. Global functioning and disability in dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Rufibach, Kaspar; Perron, Noelle; Wyss, Daniela; Kuenzler, Cornelia; Prezewowsky, Cornelia; Pitman, Roger K; Rufer, Michael

    2012-12-30

    Dissociative disorders are frequent comorbid conditions of other mental disorders. Yet, there is controversy about their clinical relevance, and little systematic research has been done on how they influence global functioning. Outpatients and day care patients (N=160) of several psychiatric units in Switzerland were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II. The association between subjects with a dissociative disorder (N=30) and functional impairment after accounting for non-dissociative axis I disorders was evaluated by linear regression models. We found a proportion of 18.8% dissociative disorders (dissociative amnesia=0%, dissociative fugue=0.6%, depersonalization disorder=4.4%, dissociative identity disorder=7.5%, dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified=6.3%) across treatment settings. Adjusted for other axis I disorders, subjects with a comorbid dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified had a median global assessment of functioning score that was 0.86 and 0.88 times, respectively, the score of subjects without a comorbid dissociative disorder. These findings support the hypothesis that complex dissociative disorders, i.e., dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified, contribute to functional impairment above and beyond the impact of co-existing non-dissociative axis I disorders, and that they qualify as "serious mental illness".

  18. Unusual photofragmentation dynamics in the multiphoton ionization of Cr(CO)6 /methanol van der Waals heteroclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peifer, William R.; Garvey, James F.

    1991-04-01

    Mixed van der Waals clusters containing Cr(CO)6 and methanol are generated in the free-jet expansion of a pulsed beam of seeded helium and subjected to 248 nm multiphoton ionization (MPI) at moderate laser fluence, and the product ions are analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We find that the multiphoton dissociation and ionization dynamics of solvated Cr(CO)6 are strikingly different from those of the naked molecule. Two principal sequences of heterocluster ions are identified in the mass spectrum. A major sequence with the empirical formula SnCr(CO)+x (x=0,1,2), where S is a methanol molecule, first appears in the mass spectrum at n+x=6. A minor sequence with the empirical formula SnCr(CO)+x (x=5,6), first appears in the mass spectrum at n+x=7. We discuss two possible dynamical schemes for MPI of Cr(CO)6 /methanol heteroclusters: One scheme, in which initial photoionization of neutral Cr(CO)6 -containing clusters gives rise to solvated Cr(CO)+6 primary photoions, which subsequently photodissociate to yield the observed coordinatively unsaturated daughter fragments; and an alternative scheme, in which initial photodissociation in the neutral manifold gives rise to one or more coordinatively unsaturated primary photoproducts, each of which subsequently undergoes photoionization. We consider, in a qualitative fashion, the mass spectral fragmentation patterns predicted by these two alternative schemes under conditions of extremely high laser fluence (where essentially all one-photon processes are saturated), and compare these predictions with the observed MPI mass spectra following high-fluence irradiation at both 248 and 350 nm. Assuming that any secondary photodissociation in the ionic manifold occurs statistically, our high-fluence results are inconsistent with a dynamical scheme in which MPI precedes photodissociation. We suggest that the dynamics are correctly described by initial photodissociation in the neutral manifold, followed by MPI of the

  19. Multiphoton microscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging and optical spectroscopy for the diagnosis of neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skala, Melissa Caroline

    2007-12-01

    Cancer morbidity and mortality is greatly reduced when the disease is diagnosed and treated early in its development. Tissue biopsies are the gold standard for cancer diagnosis, and an accurate diagnosis requires a biopsy from the malignant portion of an organ. Light, guided through a fiber optic probe, could be used to inspect regions of interest and provide real-time feedback to determine the optimal tissue site for biopsy. This approach could increase the diagnostic accuracy of current biopsy procedures. The studies in this thesis have characterized changes in tissue optical signals with carcinogenesis, increasing our understanding of the sensitivity of optical techniques for cancer detection. All in vivo studies were conducted on the dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene treated hamster cheek pouch model of epithelial carcinogenesis. Multiphoton microscopy studies in the near infrared wavelength region quantified changes in tissue morphology and fluorescence with carcinogenesis in vivo. Statistically significant morphological changes with precancer included increased epithelial thickness, loss of stratification in the epithelium, and increased nuclear diameter. Fluorescence changes included a statistically significant decrease in the epithelial fluorescence intensity per voxel at 780 nm excitation, a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, an electron donor in oxidative phosphorylation), and an increase in the fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, an electron acceptor in oxidative phosphorylation) with precancer. The redox ratio (fluorescence intensity of FAD/NADH, a measure of the cellular oxidation-reduction state) did not significantly change with precancer. Cell culture experiments (MCF10A cells) indicated that the decrease in protein-bound NADH with precancer could be due to increased levels of glycolysis. Point measurements of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectra in

  20. Multimodal microscopy and the stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence of melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhenhua

    The author's work is divided into three aspects: multimodal microscopy, stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin, and customized-profile lenses (CPL) for on-axis laser scanners, which will be introduced respectively. A multimodal microscope provides the ability to image samples with multiple modalities on the same stage, which incorporates the benefits of all modalities. The multimodal microscopes developed in this dissertation are the Keck 3D fusion multimodal microscope 2.0 (3DFM 2.0), upgraded from the old 3DFM with improved performance and flexibility, and the multimodal microscope for targeting small particles (the "Target" system). The control systems developed for both microscopes are low-cost and easy-to-build, with all components off-the-shelf. The control system have not only significantly decreased the complexity and size of the microscope, but also increased the pixel resolution and flexibility. The SMPAF of melanin, activated by a continuous-wave (CW) mode near-infrared (NIR) laser, has potential applications for a low-cost and reliable method of detecting melanin. The photophysics of melanin SMPAF has been studied by theoretical analysis of the excitation process and investigation of the spectra, activation threshold, and photon number absorption of melanin SMPAF. SMPAF images of melanin in mouse hair and skin, mouse melanoma, and human black and white hairs are compared with images taken by conventional multi-photon fluorescence microscopy (MPFM) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM). SMPAF images significantly increase specificity and demonstrate the potential to increase sensitivity for melanin detection compared to MPFM images and CRM images. Employing melanin SMPAF imaging to detect melanin inside human skin in vivo has been demonstrated, which proves the effectiveness of melanin detection using SMPAF for medical purposes. Selective melanin ablation with micrometer resolution has been presented using the Target system

  1. Femtosecond laser pulse optimization for multiphoton cytometry and control of fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkaczyk, Eric Robert

    This body of work encompasses optimization of near infrared femtosecond laser pulses both for enhancement of flow cytometry as well as adaptive pulse shaping to control fluorescence. A two-photon system for in vivo flow cytometry is demonstrated, which allows noninvasive quantification of circulating cell populations in a single live mouse. We monitor fluorescently-labeled red blood cells for more than two weeks, and are also able to noninvasively measure circulation times of two distinct populations of breast cancer cells simultaneously in a single mouse. We build a custom laser excitation source in the form of an extended cavity mode-locked oscillator, which enables superior detection in whole blood or saline of cell lines expressing fluorescent proteins including the green fluorescent protein (GFP), tdTomato and mPlum. A mathematical model explains unique features of the signals. The ability to distinguish different fluorescent species is central to simultaneous measurement of multiple molecular targets in high throughput applications including the multiphoton flow cytometer. We demonstrate that two dyes which are not distinguishable to one-photon measurements can be differentiated and in fact quantified in mixture via phase-shaped two-photon excitation pulses found by a genetic algorithm. We also selectively enhance or suppress two-photon fluorescence of numerous common dyes with tailored pulse shapes. Using a multiplicative (rather than ratiometric) fitness parameter, we are able to control the fluorescence while maintaining a strong signal. With this method, we control the two-photon fluorescence of the blue fluorescent protein (BFP), which is of particular interest in investigations of protein-protein interactions, and has frustrated previous attempts of control. Implementing an acousto-optic interferometer, we use the same experimental setup to measure two-photon excitation cross-sections of dyes and prove that photon-photon interferences are the

  2. Dissociative experiences and dissociative minds: Exploring a nomological network of dissociative functioning.

    PubMed

    Schimmenti, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the psychometric properties of the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) were tested in a sample of Italian adults, and a nomological network of dissociative functioning based on current psychodynamic research was examined. A total of 794 participants (55% females) ranging in age from 18 to 64 completed the DES-II and other measures of theory of mind, alexithymia, attachment style, and empathy. The Italian translation of the DES-II showed high internal consistency, adequate item-to-scale homogeneity, and good split-half reliability. A single-factor solution including the 8 items of pathological dissociation (DES-T) adequately fit the data. Participants who reported higher levels of dissociative experiences showed significantly lower scores on theory of mind and empathy than other participants. They also showed significantly higher scores on alexithymia, preoccupied attachment, and fearful attachment. Results of the study support the view that people who suffer from severe dissociative experiences may also have difficulties mentalizing and regulating affects and that they may feel uncomfortable in close relationships because they have a negative view of the self. This can inform clinical work with dissociative individuals, who could benefit from therapies that consider their potential problems with mentalization, empathy, affect regulation, and attachment.

  3. Scaling up multiphoton neural scanning: the SSA algorithm.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Renaud; Annecchino, Luca A; Schultz, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    In order to reverse-engineer the information processing capabilities of the cortical circuit, we need to densely sample neural circuit; it may be necessary to sample the activity of thousands of neurons simultaneously. Frame scanning techniques do not scale well in this regard, due to the time "wasted" scanning extracellular space. For scanners in which inertia can be neglected, path length minimization strategies enable large populations to be imaged at relatively high sampling rates. However, in a standard multiphoton microscope, the scanners responsible for beam deflection are inertial, indicating that an optimal solution should take rotor and mirror momentum into account. We therefore characterized the galvanometric scanners of a commercial multiphoton microscope, in order to develop and validate a MATLAB model of microscope scanning dynamics. We tested the model by simulating scan paths across pseudo-randomly positioned neuronal populations of differing neuronal density and field of view. This model motivated the development of a novel scanning algorithm, Adaptive Spiral Scanning (SSA), in which the radius of a circular trajectory is constantly updated such that it follows a spiral trajectory scanning all the cells. Due to the kinematic efficiency of near-circular trajectories, this algorithm achieves higher sampling rates than shortest path approaches, while retaining a relatively efficient coverage fraction in comparison to raster or resonance based frame-scanning approaches. PMID:25570582

  4. Rigid and high NA multiphoton fluorescence GRIN-endoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkl, Selma; Ehlers, Alexander; Le Harzic, Ronan; Stark, Martin; Riemann, Iris; Messerschmidt, Bernhard; Kaatz, Martin; König, Karsten

    2007-07-01

    Multiphoton autofluorescence imaging offers minimal-invasive examination of cells without the need of staining and complicated confocal detection systems. Therefore, it is especially interesting for non-invasive clinical diagnostics. To extend this sophisticated technique from superficial regions to deep lying cell layers, internal body parts and specimens difficult of access, the bulky optics need to be reduced in diameter. This is done by tiny GRIN-optics, based on a radial gradient in the reflective index. Of especial interest for multi-photon applications is the newly developed GRIN-lens assembly with increased numerical aperture. High resolution images of plant tissue, hair and cells show the improved image quality,compared to classical GRIN-lenses. The rigid GRIN-endoscopes are already applied in wound healing studies. Here, the GRIN-lenses with diameters smaller than 3 mm enter small skin depressions. They reproduce the focus of a conventional laser scanning tomograph tens of mm apart in the specimen under study. We present first clinical measurements of elastin and SHG of collagen of in-vivo human skin of venous ulcers (ulcer curis).

  5. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Ina; Hume, Kelly R.; Yazinski, Stephanie A.; Peters, Rachel M.; Weiss, Robert S.; Webb, Watt W.

    2010-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading killer among all cancers for both men and women in the US, and is associated with one of the lowest 5-year survival rates. Current diagnostic techniques, such as histopathological assessment of tissue obtained by computed tomography guided biopsies, have limited accuracy, especially for small lesions. Early diagnosis of lung cancer can be improved by introducing a real-time, optical guidance method based on the in vivo application of multiphoton microscopy (MPM). In particular, we hypothesize that MPM imaging of living lung tissue based on twophoton excited intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation can provide sufficient morphologic and spectroscopic information to distinguish between normal and diseased lung tissue. Here, we used an experimental approach based on MPM with multichannel fluorescence detection for initial discovery that MPM spectral imaging could differentiate between normal and neoplastic lung in ex vivo samples from a murine model of lung cancer. Current results indicate that MPM imaging can directly distinguish normal and neoplastic lung tissues based on their distinct morphologies and fluorescence emission properties in non-processed lung tissue. Moreover, we found initial indication that MPM imaging differentiates between normal alveolar tissue, inflammatory foci, and lung neoplasms. Our long-term goal is to apply results from ex vivo lung specimens to aid in the development of multiphoton endoscopy for in vivo imaging of lung abnormalities in various animal models, and ultimately for the diagnosis of human lung cancer.

  6. Multiphoton imaging: a view to understanding sulfur mustard lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werrlein, Robert J. S.; Madren-Whalley, Janna S.

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that topical exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) produces persistent, incapacitating blisters of the skin. However, the primary lesions effecting epidermal-dermal separation and disabling of mechanisms for cutaneous repair remain uncertain. Immunofluorescent staining plus multiphoton imaging of human epidermal tissues and keratinocytes exposed to SM (400 μM x 5 min)have revealed that SM disrupts adhesion-complex molecules which are also disrupted by epidermolysis bullosa-type blistering diseases of the skin. Images of keratin-14 showed early, progressive, postexposure collapse of the K5/K14 cytoskeleton that resulted in ventral displacement of the nuclei beneath its collapsing filaments. This effectively corrupted the dynamic filament assemblies that link basal-cell nuclei to the extracellular matrix via α6β4-integrin and laminin-5. At 1 h postexposure, there was disruption in the surface organization of α6β4 integrins, associated displacement of laminin-5 anchoring sites and a concomitant loss of functional asymmetry. Accordingly, our multiphoton images are providing compelling evidence that SM induces prevesicating lesions that disrupt the receptor-ligand organization and cytoskeletal systems required for maintaining dermal-epidermal attachment, signal transduction, and polarized mobility.

  7. Multifunctional gold nanorod theragnostics probed by multi-photon imaging.

    PubMed

    Book Newell, Brittany; Wang, Yuling; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    This study exhibits the fabrication of target-specific Gold nanorods (GNRs) coupled with an anti-tumorigenic apoptotic drug and provides tracking of the labeled particles as they migrate through cells and release their drug-load to targeted cancer cells. We utilize the photoluminescence property of GNRs and their ability to be conjugated with multiple agents to transform facile rods to a targeted drug delivery vehicle. GNRs of aspect ratio 2.8 were conjugated with a targeting ligand, folic acid and an anthracycline drug, Doxorubicin. The multifunctional nanorods were then used to target folate receptor expressing cancers cells for the delivery of a concentration dependent dosage of Doxorubicin (DOX). By utilizing the photoluminescence of GNRs and the innate fluorescence of DOX, multi-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging was utilized to monitor the uptake of functionalized nanorods, the release of the drug and its localization in living cells. We show that these nano-vehicles successfully targeted cancer cells over expressing folate receptors and showed low toxicity to control cell lines. Release of DOX was observed in the cytoplasmic region and after 16 h was found to be redistributed in the nucleus resulting in cell death. Our theragnostic approach demonstrates the fabrication of multifunctional GNRs for targeted drug delivery and monitoring of the drug and the vehicle by multi-photon microscopy using fluorescence intensity and lifetime imaging.

  8. Subunit dissociation in fish hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, S J; McEwen, B; Gibson, Q H

    1976-12-10

    The tetramer-dimer dissociation equilibria (K 4,2) of several fish hemoglobins have been examined by sedimentation velocity measurements with a scanner-computer system for the ultracentrifuge and by flash photolysis measurements using rapid kinetic methods. Samples studied in detail included hemoglobins from a marine teleost, Brevoortia tyrannus (common name, menhaden); a fresh water teleost, Cyprinus carpio, (common name, carp); and an elasmobranch Prionace glauca (common name, blue shark). For all three species in the CO form at pH 7, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, sedimentation coefficients of 4.3 S (typical of tetrameric hemoglobin) are observed in the micromolar concentration range. In contrast, mammalian hemoglobins dissociate appreciably to dimers under these conditions. The inability to detect dissociation in three fish hemoglobins at the lowest concentrations examined indicates that K 4,2 must have a value of 10(-8) M or less. In flash photolysis experiments on very dilute solutions in long path length cells, two kinetic components were detected with their proportions varying as expected for an equilibrium between tetramers (the slower component) and dimers (the faster component); values of K 4,2 for the three fish hemoglobins in the range 10(-9) to 10(-8) M were calculated from these data. Thus, the values of K 4,2 for liganded forms of the fish hemoglobins appear to be midway between the value for liganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-6) M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-12) M). This conclusion is supported by measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride to enhance the degree of dissociation. All three fish hemoglobins are appreciably dissociated at guanidine concentrations of about 0.8 M, which is roughly midway between the guanidine concentrations needed to cause comparable dissociation of liganded human hemoglobin (about 0.4 M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (about 1.6 M). Kinetic measurements on

  9. Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larson, Daniel R; Zipfel, Warren R; Williams, Rebecca M; Clark, Stephen W; Bruchez, Marcel P; Wise, Frank W; Webb, Watt W

    2003-05-30

    The use of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) as fluorescent labels for multiphoton microscopy enables multicolor imaging in demanding biological environments such as living tissue. We characterized water-soluble cadmium selenide-zinc sulfide quantum dots for multiphoton imaging in live animals. These fluorescent probes have two-photon action cross sections as high as 47,000 Goeppert-Mayer units, by far the largest of any label used in multiphoton microscopy. We visualized quantum dots dynamically through the skin of living mice, in capillaries hundreds of micrometers deep. We found no evidence of blinking (fluorescence intermittency) in solution on nanosecond to millisecond time scales.

  10. Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Daniel R.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Clark, Stephen W.; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Wise, Frank W.; Webb, Watt W.

    2003-05-01

    The use of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) as fluorescent labels for multiphoton microscopy enables multicolor imaging in demanding biological environments such as living tissue. We characterized water-soluble cadmium selenide-zinc sulfide quantum dots for multiphoton imaging in live animals. These fluorescent probes have two-photon action cross sections as high as 47,000 Goeppert-Mayer units, by far the largest of any label used in multiphoton microscopy. We visualized quantum dots dynamically through the skin of living mice, in capillaries hundreds of micrometers deep. We found no evidence of blinking (fluorescence intermittency) in solution on nanosecond to millisecond time scales.

  11. Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larson, Daniel R; Zipfel, Warren R; Williams, Rebecca M; Clark, Stephen W; Bruchez, Marcel P; Wise, Frank W; Webb, Watt W

    2003-05-30

    The use of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) as fluorescent labels for multiphoton microscopy enables multicolor imaging in demanding biological environments such as living tissue. We characterized water-soluble cadmium selenide-zinc sulfide quantum dots for multiphoton imaging in live animals. These fluorescent probes have two-photon action cross sections as high as 47,000 Goeppert-Mayer units, by far the largest of any label used in multiphoton microscopy. We visualized quantum dots dynamically through the skin of living mice, in capillaries hundreds of micrometers deep. We found no evidence of blinking (fluorescence intermittency) in solution on nanosecond to millisecond time scales. PMID:12775841

  12. Fringe-free, Background-free, Collinear Third Harmonic Generation FROG Measurements for Multiphoton Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, R; Spahr, E; Squier, J A; Durfee, C G; Walker, B C; Fittinghoff, D N

    2006-07-21

    Collinear pulse measurement tools useful at the full numerical aperture (NA) of multiphoton microscope objectives are a necessity for a quantitative characterization of the femtosecond pulses focused by these systems. In this letter, we demonstrate a simple new technique, for characterizing the pulse at the focus in a multiphoton microscope. This technique, a background-free, fringe-free, form of frequency-resolved optical gating, uses the third harmonic signal generated from a glass coverslip. Here it is used to characterize 100 fs pulses (typical values for a multiphoton microscope) at the focus of a 0.65 NA objective.

  13. Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction approach to multiphoton scattering in coupled-resonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, T.; Sun, C. P.

    2009-05-01

    We present a quantum field theoretical approach based on the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction for the multiphoton scattering process in a nanoarchitecture consisting of the coupled-resonator arrays (CRA), which are also coupled to some artificial atoms as a controlling quantum node. By making use of this approach, we find the bound states of a single photon for an elementary unit, the T -type CRA, and explicitly obtain its multiphoton scattering S matrix in various situations. We also use this method to calculate the multiphoton S matrices for the more complex quantum network constructed with main T -type CRAs, such as a H -type CRA waveguide.

  14. Infrared Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lascours, Jean; Albe, Virginie

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of simple and nontraditional experiments that enable students to discover the properties of infrared radiation by studying the propagation, reflection, diffusion, and refraction of infrared. The experiments rely on two modules, an infrared transmitter and an infrared receiver. (SAH)

  15. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    PubMed

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  16. Application of parametric equations of motion to study the laser induced multiphoton dissociation of H2+ in intense laser field.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Dhruba J; Rao, Akshay; Rajvanshi, Ishir; Gupta, Ashish K

    2011-06-14

    We have applied parametric equations of motion (PEM) to study photodissociation dynamics of H(2)(+). The resonances are extracted using smooth exterior scaling method. This is the first application of PEM to non-Hermitian Hamiltonian that includes resonances and the continuum. Here, we have studied how the different resonance states behave with respect to the change in field amplitude. The advantage of this method is that one can easily trace the different states that are changing as the field parameter changes.

  17. Multi-photon ionization and fragmentation of uracil: Neutral excited-state ring opening and hydration effects

    SciTech Connect

    Barc, B.; Ryszka, M.; Spurrell, J.; Dampc, M.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Parajuli, R.; Mason, N. J.; Eden, S.

    2013-12-28

    Multi-photon ionization (MPI) of the RNA base uracil has been studied in the wavelength range 220–270 nm, coinciding with excitation to the S{sub 2}(ππ*) state. A fragment ion at m/z = 84 was produced by 2-photon absorption at wavelengths ≤232 nm and assigned to C{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}O{sup +} following CO abstraction. This ion has not been observed in alternative dissociative ionization processes (notably electron impact) and its threshold is close to recent calculations of the minimum activation energy for a ring opening conical intersection to a σ(n-π)π* closed shell state. Moreover, the predicted ring opening transition leaves a CO group at one end of the isomer, apparently vulnerable to abstraction. An MPI mass spectrum of uracil-water clusters is presented for the first time and compared with an equivalent dry measurement. Hydration enhances certain fragment ion pathways (particularly C{sub 3}H{sub 3}NO{sup +}) but represses C{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}O{sup +} production. This indicates that hydrogen bonding to water stabilizes uracil with respect to neutral excited-state ring opening.

  18. Multi-photon ionization and fragmentation of uracil: Neutral excited-state ring opening and hydration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barc, B.; Ryszka, M.; Spurrell, J.; Dampc, M.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Parajuli, R.; Mason, N. J.; Eden, S.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-photon ionization (MPI) of the RNA base uracil has been studied in the wavelength range 220-270 nm, coinciding with excitation to the S2(ππ*) state. A fragment ion at m/z = 84 was produced by 2-photon absorption at wavelengths ≤232 nm and assigned to C3H4N2O+ following CO abstraction. This ion has not been observed in alternative dissociative ionization processes (notably electron impact) and its threshold is close to recent calculations of the minimum activation energy for a ring opening conical intersection to a σ(n-π)π* closed shell state. Moreover, the predicted ring opening transition leaves a CO group at one end of the isomer, apparently vulnerable to abstraction. An MPI mass spectrum of uracil-water clusters is presented for the first time and compared with an equivalent dry measurement. Hydration enhances certain fragment ion pathways (particularly C3H3NO+) but represses C3H4N2O+ production. This indicates that hydrogen bonding to water stabilizes uracil with respect to neutral excited-state ring opening.

  19. Nonperturbative methods in the problem of multiphoton excitation of atom by squeezed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belousov, A. V.; Kovarsky, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Multiphoton detectors for the strong squeezed light vacuum are considered. The result is compared with the perturbation theory. It is shown that as the degree of squeezing is increased the statistical factor decreases.

  20. Multiphoton FLIM: a reliable FRET detection tool in cell biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Ramanujan V.; Biener, Eva; Centonze, Victoria E.; Gertler, Arieh; Herman, Brian A.

    2004-06-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using multiphoton excitation is emerging as a reliable quantitative tool for measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in living cells. By virtue of being free from spectroscopic artifacts encountered in conventional FRET detection methods, multiphoton FLIM methods offer the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution, faster data acquisition and data analysis. We compare the FRET results obtained by two different methods namely (i) multiphoton excitation lifetime-based FRET and (ii) single photon excitation intensity-based acceptor photobleaching FRET. Using the same biological samples, we apply these two different methods in understanding the growth hormone receptor dimerization kinetics at the cell surface of human embryonic kidney cells. We conclude that the multiphoton FLIM using the streak-camera approach provides the best ability to monitor FRET in dynamic situations where high temporal and spatial resolution are required with minimal photodamage/phototoxicity.

  1. High-throughput multiphoton-induced three-dimensional ablation and imaging for biotissues

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Li, Pei-Kao; Cheng, Li-Chung; Li, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Dong, Chen Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a temporal focusing-based high-throughput multiphoton-induced ablation system with axially-resolved widefield multiphoton excitation has been successfully applied to rapidly disrupt biotissues. Experimental results demonstrate that this technique features high efficiency for achieving large-area laser ablation without causing serious photothermal damage in non-ablated regions. Furthermore, the rate of tissue processing can reach around 1.6 × 106 μm3/s in chicken tendon. Moreover, the temporal focusing-based multiphoton system can be efficiently utilized in optical imaging through iterating high-throughput multiphoton-induced ablation machining followed by widefield optical sectioning; hence, it has the potential to obtain molecular images for a whole bio-specimen. PMID:25780739

  2. Invited Review Article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carriles, Ramón; Schafer, Dawn N.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Cisek, Richard; Barzda, Virginijus; Sylvester, Anne W.; Squier, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    We review the current state of multiphoton microscopy. In particular, the requirements and limitations associated with high-speed multiphoton imaging are considered. A description of the different scanning technologies such as line scan, multifoci approaches, multidepth microscopy, and novel detection techniques is given. The main nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms employed in microscopy are reviewed, namely, multiphoton excitation fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation. Techniques for optimizing these nonlinear mechanisms through a careful measurement of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the focal volume are discussed, and a brief summary of photobleaching effects is provided. Finally, we consider three new applications of multiphoton microscopy: nonlinear imaging in microfluidics as applied to chemical analysis and the use of two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation as contrast mechanisms applied to imaging problems in the medical sciences. PMID:19725639

  3. [Traditional and modern views of dissociation].

    PubMed

    Merza, Katalin; Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2012-01-01

    Dissociation is a failure to integrate aspects of identity, memory, perception, and consciousness. Dissociation is conceptualized as a dimensional process existing along a continuum from normal and relatively common dissociative experiences to severe and clinically relevant forms. There is a growing body of clinical and empirical evidence that dissociation may occur especially as a defense during trauma. In case of traumatic events dissociation considered as an attempt to maintain mental control just as physical control is lost. Dissociation can be either a symptom of some complex mental disorder or a distinct clinical entity categorized among dissociative and somatoform disorders in DSM-IV. The article describes the conceptual issues of dissociation and presents a new classification by Nijenhuis where the so-called somatoform dissociative symptoms are included as well in the list of dissociative symptoms. Finally, this paper summarizes the measures of dissociative phenomena and the cognitive-behavioral approaches of dissociation, and highlights the main features of the new structural dissociation model.

  4. High-Resolution Multiphoton Imaging of Tumors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Entenberg, David; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the individual steps in metastasis is crucial if insights at the molecular level are to be linked to the cell biology of cancer. A technical hurdle to achieving the analysis of the individual steps of metastasis is the fact that, at the gross level, tumors are heterogeneous in both animal models and patients. Human primary tumors show extensive variation in all properties ranging from growth and morphology of the tumor through tumor-cell density in the blood and formation and growth of metastases. Methods capable of the direct visualization and analysis of tumor-cell behavior at single-cell resolution in vivo have become crucial in advancing the understanding of mechanisms of metastasis, the definition of microenvironment, and the markers related to both. This article discusses the use of high-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors (specifically breast tumors in mice) in vivo. PMID:21969629

  5. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources

    PubMed Central

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400

  6. Features of multiphoton-stimulated bremsstrahlung in a quantized field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenkov, Ivan A.; Tikhonova, Olga V.

    2010-12-01

    The process of absorption and emission of external field quanta by a free electron during the scattering on a potential centre is investigated in the case of interaction with a quantized electromagnetic field. The analytical expression for differential cross-sections and probabilities of different multiphoton channels are obtained. We demonstrate that in the case of a non-classical 'squeezed vacuum' initial field state the probability for the electron to absorb a large number of photons appears to be larger by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the classical field and leads to the formation of the high-energy plateau in the electron energy spectrum. The generalization of the Marcuse effect to the case of the quantized field is worked out. The total probability of energy absorption by electron from the non-classical light is analysed.

  7. Monitoring wound healing by multiphoton tomography/endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Bückle, Rainer; Kaatz, Martin; Hipler, Christina; Zens, Katharina; Schneider, Stefan W.; Huck, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Certified clinical multiphoton tomographs are employed to perform rapid label-free high-resolution in vivo histology. Novel tomographs include a flexible 360° scan head attached to a mechano-optical arm for autofluorescence and SHG imaging as well as rigid two-photon GRIN microendoscope. Mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen can be imaged with submicron resolution in human skin. The system was employed to study the healing of chronic wounds (venous leg ulcer) and acute wounds (curettage of actinic or seborrheic keratosis) on a subcellular level. Furthermore, a flexible sterile foil as interface between wound and focusing optic was tested.

  8. Multiphoton Microscopy and Interaction of Intense Light Pulses with Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guay, Jean-Michel

    2011-07-01

    The nanoscale manipulation of soft-matter, such as biological tissues, in its native environment has promising applications in medicine to correct for defects (eg. eye cataracts) or to destroy malignant regions (eg. cancerous tumours). To achieve this we need the ability to first image and then do precise ablation with sub-micron resolution with the same setup. For this purpose, we designed and built a multiphoton microscope and tested it on goldfish gills and bovine cells. We then studied light-matter interaction on a hard polymer (PMMA) because the nature of ablation of soft-matter in its native environment is complex and not well understood. Ablation and modification thresholds for successive laser shots were obtained. The ablation craters revealed 3D nanostructures and polarization dependent orientation. The interaction also induced localized porosity in PMMA that can be controlled.

  9. Performance evaluation of a sensorless adaptive optics multiphoton microscope.

    PubMed

    Skorsetz, Martin; Artal, Pablo; Bueno, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    A wavefront sensorless adaptive optics technique was combined with a custom-made multiphoton microscope to correct for specimen-induced aberrations. A liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) modulator was used to systematically generate Zernike modes during image recording. The performance of the instrument was evaluated in samples providing different nonlinear signals and the benefit of correcting higher order aberrations was always noticeable (in both contrast and resolution). The optimum aberration pattern was stable in time for the samples here involved. For a particular depth location within the sample, the wavefront to be precompensated was independent on the size of the imaged area (up to ∼ 360 × 360 μm(2)). The mode combination optimizing the recorded image depended on the Zernike correction control sequence; however, the final images hardly differed. At deeper locations, a noticeable dominance of spherical aberration was found. The influence of other aberration terms was also compared to the effect of the spherical aberration.

  10. Molecule-specific darkfield and multiphoton imaging using gold nanocages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powless, Amy J.; Jenkins, Samir V.; McKay, Mary Lee; Chen, Jingyi; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Due to their robust optical properties, biological inertness, and readily adjustable surface chemistry, gold nanostructures have been demonstrated as contrast agents in a variety of biomedical imaging applications. One application is dynamic imaging of live cells using bioconjugated gold nanoparticles to monitor molecule trafficking mechanisms within cells; for instance, the regulatory pathway of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) undergoing endocytosis. In this paper, we have demonstrated a method to track endocytosis of EGFR in MDA-MB-468 breast adenocarcinoma cells using bioconjugated gold nanocages (AuNCs) and multiphoton microscopy. Dynamic imaging was performed using a time series capture of 4 images every minute for one hour. Specific binding and internalization of the bioconjugated AuNCs was observed while the two control groups showed non-specific binding at fewer surface sites, leading to fewer bound AuNCs and no internalization.

  11. High-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Entenberg, David; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of the individual steps in metastasis is crucial if insights at the molecular level are to be linked to the cell biology of cancer. A technical hurdle to achieving the analysis of the individual steps of metastasis is the fact that, at the gross level, tumors are heterogeneous in both animal models and patients. Human primary tumors show extensive variation in all properties ranging from growth and morphology of the tumor through tumor-cell density in the blood and formation and growth of metastases. Methods capable of the direct visualization and analysis of tumor-cell behavior at single-cell resolution in vivo have become crucial in advancing the understanding of mechanisms of metastasis, the definition of microenvironment, and the markers related to both. This article discusses the use of high-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors (specifically breast tumors in mice) in vivo.

  12. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; de Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-11-01

    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources.

  13. Optimization-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics for multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Antonello, Jacopo; van Werkhoven, Tim; Verhaegen, Michel; Truong, Hoa H; Keller, Christoph U; Gerritsen, Hans C

    2014-06-01

    Optical aberrations have detrimental effects in multiphoton microscopy. These effects can be curtailed by implementing model-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics, which only requires the addition of a wavefront shaping device, such as a deformable mirror (DM) to an existing microscope. The aberration correction is achieved by maximizing a suitable image quality metric. We implement a model-based aberration correction algorithm in a second-harmonic microscope. The tip, tilt, and defocus aberrations are removed from the basis functions used for the control of the DM, as these aberrations induce distortions in the acquired images. We compute the parameters of a quadratic polynomial that is used to model the image quality metric directly from experimental input-output measurements. Finally, we apply the aberration correction by maximizing the image quality metric using the least-squares estimate of the unknown aberration.

  14. Live-Animal Imaging of Renal Function by Multiphoton Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kenneth W.; Sutton, Timothy A.; Sandoval, Ruben M.

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy, microscopy of living animals, is a powerful research technique that combines the resolution and sensitivity found in microscopic studies of cultured cells with the relevance and systemic influences of cells in the context of the intact animal. The power of intravital microscopy has recently been extended with the development of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy systems capable of collecting optical sections from deep within the kidney at subcellular resolution, supporting high-resolution characterizations of the structure and function of glomeruli, tubules, and vasculature in the living kidney. Fluorescent probes are administered to an anesthetized, surgically prepared animal, followed by image acquisition for up to 3 hr. Images are transferred via a high-speed network to specialized computer systems for digital image analysis. This general approach can be used with different combinations of fluorescent probes to evaluate processes such as glomerular permeability, proximal tubule endocytosis, microvascular flow, vascular permeability, mitochondrial function, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis. PMID:23042524

  15. Reassignment of scattered emission photons in multifocal multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae Won; Singh, Vijay Raj; Kim, Ki Hean; Subramanian, Jaichandar; Peng, Qiwen; Yu, Hanry; Nedivi, Elly; So, Peter T C

    2014-06-05

    Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) achieves fast imaging by simultaneously scanning multiple foci across different regions of specimen. The use of imaging detectors in MMM, such as CCD or CMOS, results in degradation of image signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) due to the scattering of emitted photons. SNR can be partly recovered using multianode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMT). In this design, however, emission photons scattered to neighbor anodes are encoded by the foci scan location resulting in ghost images. The crosstalk between different anodes is currently measured a priori, which is cumbersome as it depends specimen properties. Here, we present the photon reassignment method for MMM, established based on the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation, for quantification of crosstalk between the anodes of MAPMT without a priori measurement. The method provides the reassignment of the photons generated by the ghost images to the original spatial location thus increases the SNR of the final reconstructed image.

  16. In vivo multiphoton imaging of bile duct ligation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Feng-Chieh; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Chang, Po-shou; Yang, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    Bile is the exocrine secretion of liver and synthesized by hepatocytes. It is drained into duodenum for the function of digestion or drained into gallbladder for of storage. Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. However, Bile duct ligation results in the changes of bile acids in serum, liver, urine, and feces1, 2. In this work, we demonstrate a novel technique to image this pathological condition by using a newly developed in vivo imaging system, which includes multiphoton microscopy and intravital hepatic imaging chamber. The images we acquired demonstrate the uptake, processing of 6-CFDA in hepatocytes and excretion of CF in the bile canaliculi. In addition to imaging, we can also measure kinetics of the green fluorescence intensity.

  17. Watching stem cells at work with a flexible multiphoton tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Hoffmann, Robert; Weinigel, Martin; König, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    There is a high demand for non-invasive imaging techniques that allow observation of stem cells in their native environment without significant input on cell metabolism, reproduction, and behavior. Easy accessible hair follicle pluripotent stem cells in the bulge area and dermal papilla are potential sources for stem cell based therapy. It has been shown that these cells are able to generate hair, non-follicle skin cells, nerves, vessels, smooth muscles etc. and may participate in wound healing processes. We report on the finding of nestin-GFP expressing stem cells in their native niche in the bulge of the hair follicle of living mice by using high-resolution in-vivo multiphoton tomography. The 3D imaging with submicron resolution was based on two-photon induced fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) of collagen. Migrating stem cells from the bulge to their microenvironment have been detected inside the skin during optical deep tissue sectioning.

  18. Design of a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy handheld probe

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Sheng, Mingyu; Huang, Lin; Tang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system with handheld probe using femtosecond fiber laser. Here we present the detailed optical design and analysis of the handheld probe. The optical systems using Lightpath 352140 and 352150 as objective lens were analyzed. A custom objective module that includes Lightpath 355392 and two customized corrective lenses was designed. Their performances were compared by wavefront error, field curvature, astigmatism, F-θ error, and tolerance in Zemax simulation. Tolerance analysis predicted the focal spot size to be 1.13, 1.19 and 0.83 µm, respectively. Lightpath 352140 and 352150 were implemented in experiment and the measured lateral resolution was 1.22 and 1.3 µm, respectively, which matched with the prediction. MPM imaging by the handheld probe were conducted on leaf, fish scale and rat tail tendon. The MPM resolution can potentially be improved by the custom objective module.

  19. Multiphoton intravital microscopy setup to visualize the mouse mammary gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Javier; Herrera Torres, Ana M.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Baratti, Mariana O.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, light microscopy-based techniques have been extended to live mammalian models leading to the development of a new imaging approach called intravital microscopy (IVM). Although IVM has been introduced at the beginning of the last century, its major advancements have occurred in the last twenty years with the development of non-linear microscopy that has enabled performing deep tissue imaging. IVM has been utilized to address many biological questions in basic research and is now a fundamental tool that provide information on tissues such as morphology, cellular architecture, and metabolic status. IVM has become an indispensable tool in numerous areas. This study presents and describes the practical aspects of IVM necessary to visualize epithelial cells of live mouse mammary gland with multiphoton techniques.

  20. Design of a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy handheld probe

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Sheng, Mingyu; Huang, Lin; Tang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system with handheld probe using femtosecond fiber laser. Here we present the detailed optical design and analysis of the handheld probe. The optical systems using Lightpath 352140 and 352150 as objective lens were analyzed. A custom objective module that includes Lightpath 355392 and two customized corrective lenses was designed. Their performances were compared by wavefront error, field curvature, astigmatism, F-θ error, and tolerance in Zemax simulation. Tolerance analysis predicted the focal spot size to be 1.13, 1.19 and 0.83 µm, respectively. Lightpath 352140 and 352150 were implemented in experiment and the measured lateral resolution was 1.22 and 1.3 µm, respectively, which matched with the prediction. MPM imaging by the handheld probe were conducted on leaf, fish scale and rat tail tendon. The MPM resolution can potentially be improved by the custom objective module. PMID:27699109

  1. Plasma induced by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization in inert gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Zhang Zhili; Miles, Richard B.

    2007-12-15

    We present a detailed model for the evolution of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) produced plasma during and after the ionizing laser pulse in inert gas (argon, as an example) at arbitrary pressures. Our theory includes the complete process of the REMPI plasma generation and losses, together with the changing gas thermodynamic parameters. The model shows that the plasma expansion follows a classical ambipolar diffusion and that gas heating results in a weak shock or acoustic wave. The gas becomes involved in the motion not only from the pressure gradient due to the heating, but also from the momentum transfer from the charged particles to gas atoms. The time dependence of the total number of electrons computed in theory matches closely with the results of coherent microwave scattering experiments.

  2. Multiphoton ionization and third-harmonic generation in atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) provides a powerful new method for investigating atomic and molecular energy levels. The method is particularly useful in discovering and characterizing certain optically forbidden transitions. The method is particularly well suited for studying Rydberg transitions in molecules and is experimentally easier than the traditional use of far ultraviolet radiation in conventional spectroscopy. Research on multiphoton ionization and third-harmonic generation is reviewed. (WHK)

  3. High (1 GHz) repetition rate compact femtosecond laser: A powerful multiphoton tool for nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, A.; Riemann, I.; Martin, S.; Le Harzic, R.; Bartels, A.; Janke, C.; König, K.

    2007-07-01

    Multiphoton tomography of human skin and nanosurgery of human chromosomes have been performed with a 1GHz repetition rate laser by the use of the commercially available femtosecond multiphoton laser tomograph DermaInspect as well as a compact galvoscanning microscope. We performed the autofluorescence tomography up to 100μm in the depth of human skin. Submicron cutting lines and hole drillings have been conducted on labeled human chromosomes.

  4. Quantum random walks with multiphoton interference and high order correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gard, Bryan; Cross, Robert; Anisimov, Petr; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    We show a simulation of quantum random walks with multiple photons using a staggered array of 50/50 beam splitters with a bank of detectors at any desired level. We discuss the multiphoton interference effects that are inherent to this setup, and introduce one, two, and threefold coincidence detection schemes. The use of Feynman diagrams are used to intuitively explain the unique multiphoton interference effects of these quantum random walks.

  5. Quantum secure communication using a multi-photon tolerant protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rifai, Mayssaa; Verma, Pramode K.

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a quantum secure communication protocol using multiple photons to represent each bit of a message to be shared. The multi-photon tolerant approach to quantum cryptography provides a quantum level security while using more than a single photon per transmission. The protocol proposed is a multi-stage protocol; an explanation of its operation and implementation are provided. The multi-stage protocol is based on the use of unitary transformations known only to Alice and Bob. This paper studies the security aspects of the multi-stage protocol by assessing its vulnerability to different attacks. It is well known that as the number of photons increases, the level of vulnerability of the multi-stage protocol increases. This paper sets a limit on the number of photons that can be used while keeping the multi-stage protocol a multi-photon tolerant quantum secure method for communication. The analysis of the number of photons to be used is based on the probability of success of a Helstrom discrimination done by an eavesdropper on the channel. Limiting the number of photons up to certain threshold per stage makes it impossible for an eavesdropper to decipher the message sent over the channel. The proposed protocol obviates the disadvantages associated with single photon implementations, such as limited data rates and distances along with the need to have no more than a single photon per time slot. The multi-stage protocol is a step toward direct quantum communication rather than quantum key distribution associated with single photon approaches.

  6. In vivo multiphoton microscopy associated to 3D image processing for human skin characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldeweck, T.; Tancrède, E.; Dokladal, P.; Koudoro, S.; Morard, V.; Meyer, F.; Decencière, E.; Pena, A.-M.

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising non-invasive skin imaging technique. The aim of this study was to assess whether multiphoton microscopy coupled to specific 3D image processing tools could provide new insights into the organization of different skin components and their age-related changes. For that purpose, we performed a clinical trial on 15 young and 15 aged human female volunteers on the ventral and dorsal side of the forearm using the DermaInspectR medical imaging device. We visualized the skin by taking advantage of intrinsic multiphoton signals from cells, elastic and collagen fibers. We also developed 3D image processing algorithms adapted to in vivo multiphoton images of human skin in order to extract quantitative parameters in each layer of the skin (epidermis and superficial dermis). The results show that in vivo multiphoton microscopy is able to evidence several skin alterations due to skin aging: morphological changes in the epidermis and modifications in the quantity and organization of the collagen and elastic fibers network. In conclusion, the association of multiphoton microscopy with specific image processing allows the three-dimensional organization of skin components to be visualized and quantified thus providing a powerful tool for cosmetic and dermatological investigations.

  7. Improving Signal Levels in Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy using an Objective Correction Collar.

    PubMed

    Muriello, Pamela A; Dunn, Kenneth W

    2008-04-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has enabled biologists to collect high-resolution images hundreds of microns into biological tissues, including tissues of living animals. While the depth of imaging exceeds that possible from any other form of light microscopy, multiphoton microscopy is nonetheless generally limited to depths of less than a millimeter. Many of the advantages of multiphoton microscopy for deep tissue imaging accrue from the unique nature of multiphoton fluorescence excitation. However, the quadratic relationship between illumination level and fluorescence excitation makes multiphoton microscopy especially susceptible to factors that degrade the illumination focus. Here we examine the effect of spherical aberration on multiphoton microscopy in fixed kidney tissues and in the kidneys of living animals. We find that spherical aberration, as evaluated from axial asymmetry in the point spread function, can be corrected by adjustment of the correction collar of a water immersion objective lens. Introducing a compensatory positive spherical aberration into the imaging system decreased the depth-dependence of signal levels in images collected from living animals, increasing signal by up to 50%.

  8. Improving Signal Levels in Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy using an Objective Correction Collar

    PubMed Central

    Muriello, Pamela A.; Dunn, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has enabled biologists to collect high-resolution images hundreds of microns into biological tissues, including tissues of living animals. While the depth of imaging exceeds that possible from any other form of light microscopy, multiphoton microscopy is nonetheless generally limited to depths of less than a millimeter. Many of the advantages of multiphoton microscopy for deep tissue imaging accrue from the unique nature of multiphoton fluorescence excitation. However, the quadratic relationship between illumination level and fluorescence excitation makes multiphoton microscopy especially susceptible to factors that degrade the illumination focus. Here we examine the effect of spherical aberration on multiphoton microscopy in fixed kidney tissues and in the kidneys of living animals. We find that spherical aberration, as evaluated from axial asymmetry in the point spread function, can be corrected by adjustment of the correction collar of a water immersion objective lens. Introducing a compensatory positive spherical aberration into the imaging system decreased the depth-dependence of signal levels in images collected from living animals, increasing signal by up to 50%. PMID:19343075

  9. Study of the dissociation of molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, R. F. C.

    1981-01-01

    Dissociators used to obtain an RF plasma discharge for hydrogen masers and the test system used for operation and evaluation of the dissociators are described. A compact sorption cartridge using a graphite matrix is tested as part of a hydrogen scavenging system. Testing of a vacuum enclosed hydrogen dissociator suitable for long term operation in space is described.

  10. Two-temperature models for nitrogen dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. Lino; Guerra, V.; Loureiro, J.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate sets of nitrogen state-resolved dissociation rates have been reduced to two-temperature (translational T and vibrational Tv) dissociation rates. The analysis of such two-temperature dissociation rates shows evidence of two different dissociation behaviors. For Tv < 0.3 T dissociation proceeds predominantly from the lower-lying vibrational levels, whereas for Tv > 0.3 T dissociation proceeds predominantly form the near-dissociative vibrational levels, with an abrupt change of behavior at Tv = 0.3 T. These two-temperature sets have then been utilized as a benchmark for the comparison against popular multitemperature dissociation models (Park, Hansen, Marrone-Treanor, Hammerling, Losev-Shatalov, Gordiets, Kuznetsov, and Macheret-Fridman). This has allowed verifying the accuracy of each theoretical model, and additionally proposing adequate values for any semi-empirical parameters present in the different theories. The Macheret-Fridman model, who acknowledges the existence of the two aforementioned dissociation regimes, has been found to provide significantly more accurate results than the other models. Although these different theoretical approaches have been tested and validated solely for nitrogen dissociation processes, it is reasonable to expect that the general conclusions of this work, regarding the adequacy of the different dissociation models, could be extended to the description of arbitrary diatomic dissociation processes.

  11. Dissociative Functions in the Normal Mourning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Sees dissociative functions in mourning process as occurring in conjunction with integrative trends. Considers initial shock reaction in mourning as model of normal dissociation in mourning process. Dissociation is understood to be related to traumatic significance of death in human consciousness. Discerns four psychological categories of…

  12. Brain heating induced by near-infrared lasers during multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Podgorski, Kaspar; Ranganathan, Gayathri

    2016-09-01

    Two-photon imaging and optogenetic stimulation rely on high illumination powers, particularly for state-of-the-art applications that target deeper structures, achieve faster measurements, or probe larger brain areas. However, little information is available on heating and resulting damage induced by high-power illumination in the brain. In the current study we used thermocouple probes and quantum dot nanothermometers to measure temperature changes induced by two-photon microscopy in the neocortex of awake and anaesthetized mice. We characterized heating as a function of wavelength, exposure time, and distance from the center of illumination. Although total power is highest near the surface of the brain, heating was most severe hundreds of micrometers below the focal plane, due to heat dissipation through the cranial window. Continuous illumination of a 1-mm(2) area produced a peak temperature increase of ∼1.8°C/100 mW. Continuous illumination with powers above 250 mW induced lasting damage, detected with immunohistochemistry against Iba1, glial fibrillary acidic protein, heat shock proteins, and activated caspase-3. Higher powers were usable in experiments with limited duty ratios, suggesting an approach to mitigate damage in high-power microscopy experiments. PMID:27281749

  13. [Dis-social personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, E; Herpertz, S C

    2006-05-01

    Deviant behavior is gaining in clinical importance if it is founded on stable, characteristic, and enduring patterns of psychopathologically relevant personality traits which have their onset in childhood or adolescence. The classification of these traits shows variations, so that a distinction between the ICD-10 diagnosis of dis-social personality disorder, DSM-IV diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and the concept "psychopathy" is necessary. Our knowledge about the biological basis of antisocial behavior includes neurophysiologic, psychophysiologic, and genetic findings. Also relevant are results of neurotransmitter studies and structural resp. functional neuroimaging findings. Psychosocial risk factors include parental deficits, rejection, disregard, unstable relations, and abuse. Efficient psychotherapeutic treatment is cognitive-behavioral. Pharmacologic treatment is largely "off-label". The diagnosis of antisocial and dis-social personality disorders allows no conclusions on criminal responsibility. In addition to psychiatric diagnostics, considerations on the severity of the disorder and its effects on the ability to inhibit actions are necessary.

  14. Mitigating Phototoxicity during Multiphoton Microscopy of Live Drosophila Embryos in the 1.0–1.2 µm Wavelength Range

    PubMed Central

    Débarre, Delphine; Olivier, Nicolas; Supatto, Willy; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Light-induced toxicity is a fundamental bottleneck in microscopic imaging of live embryos. In this article, after a review of photodamage mechanisms in cells and tissues, we assess photo-perturbation under illumination conditions relevant for point-scanning multiphoton imaging of live Drosophila embryos. We use third-harmonic generation (THG) imaging of developmental processes in embryos excited by pulsed near-infrared light in the 1.0–1.2 µm range. We study the influence of imaging rate, wavelength, and pulse duration on the short-term and long-term perturbation of development and define criteria for safe imaging. We show that under illumination conditions typical for multiphoton imaging, photodamage in this system arises through 2- and/or 3-photon absorption processes and in a cumulative manner. Based on this analysis, we derive general guidelines for improving the signal-to-damage ratio in two-photon (2PEF/SHG) or THG imaging by adjusting the pulse duration and/or the imaging rate. Finally, we report label-free time-lapse 3D THG imaging of gastrulating Drosophila embryos with sampling appropriate for the visualisation of morphogenetic movements in wild-type and mutant embryos, and long-term multiharmonic (THG-SHG) imaging of development until hatching. PMID:25111506

  15. Paraphilia from a dissociative perspective.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2008-12-01

    A dissociative structural model of the psyche can account for a wide range of symptoms across many DSM-IV categories, including sexual compulsions and addictions. The model leads to a distinct overall plan of treatment and a set of operationalized interventions aimed at integration of the self, rather than suppression of impulses. The model could be tested first in epidemiological studies and later in treatment outcome studies.

  16. Dissociative Photoionization of Diethyl Ether.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Krisztina; Mozaffari Easter, Chrissa M; Covert, Kyle J; Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick; Sztáray, Bálint

    2015-10-29

    The dissociative photoionization of internal energy selected diethyl ether ions was investigated by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. In a large, 5 eV energy range Et2O(+) cations decay by two parallel and three sequential dissociative photoionization channels, which can be modeled well using statistical theory. The 0 K appearance energies of the CH3CHOCH2CH3(+) (H-loss, m/z = 73) and CH3CH2O═CH2(+) (methyl-loss, m/z = 59) fragment ions were determined to be 10.419 ± 0.015 and 10.484 ± 0.008 eV, respectively. The reemergence of the hydrogen-loss ion above 11 eV is attributed to transition-state (TS) switching, in which the second, outer TS is rate-determining at high internal energies. At 11.81 ± 0.05 eV, a secondary fragment of the CH3CHOCH2CH3(+) (m/z = 73) ion, protonated acetaldehyde, CH3CH═OH(+) (m/z = 45) appears. On the basis of the known thermochemical onset of this fragment, a reverse barrier of 325 meV was found. Two more sequential dissociation reactions were examined, namely, ethylene and formaldehyde losses from the methyl-loss daughter ion. The 0 K appearance energies of 11.85 ± 0.07 and 12.20 ± 0.08 eV, respectively, indicate no reverse barrier in these processes. The statistical model of the dissociative photoionization can also be used to predict the fractional ion abundances in threshold photoionization at large temperatures, which could be of use in, for example, combustion diagnostics. PMID:26444101

  17. Dissociative symptoms and REM sleep.

    PubMed

    van Heugten-van der Kloet, Dalena; Merckelbach, Harald; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn has written a fascinating article about rapid eye movement (REM) dreams and how they promote the elaborative encoding of recent memories. The main message of her article is that hyperassociative and fluid cognitive processes during REM dreaming facilitate consolidation. We consider one potential implication of this analysis: the possibility that excessive or out-of-phase REM sleep fuels dissociative symptomatology. Further research is warranted to explore the psychopathological ramifications of Llewellyn's theory. PMID:24304772

  18. [Differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders includes many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (especially bipolar II disorder), depressive disorder (especially atypical depression), epilepsy, Asperger syndrome, and borderline personality disorder. The theme of this paper is the differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia are common in dissociative disorders, especially in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Many DID patients have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenics and treated with neuroleptics. We compared and examined Schneiderian symptoms of schizophrenia and those of dissociative disorders from a structural viewpoint. In dissociative disorders, delusional perception and somatic passivity are not seen. "Lateness" and "Precedence of the Other" originated from the concept of "Pattern Reversal" (H. Yasunaga)" is characteristic of schizophrenia. It is important to check these basic structure of schizophrenia in subjective experiences in differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia.

  19. [Clinical Handling of Patients with Dissociative Disorders].

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the way informed psychiatrists are expected to handle dissociative patients in clinical situations, with a specific focus on dissociative identity disorders and dissociative fugue. On the initial interview with dissociative patients, information on their history of trauma and any nascent dissociative symptoms in their childhood should be carefully obtained. Their level of stress in their current life should also be assessed in order to understand their symptomatology, as well as to predict their future clinical course. A psychoeducational approach is crucial; it might be helpful to give information on dissociative disorder to these patients as well as their family members in order to promote their adherence to treatment. Regarding the symptomatology of dissociative disorders, detailed symptoms and the general clinical course are presented. It was stressed that dissociative identity disorder and dissociative fugue, the most high-profile dissociative disorders, are essentially different in their etiology and clinical presentation. Dissociative disorders are often confused with and misdiagnosed as psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. Other conditions considered in terms of the differential diagnosis include borderline personality disorder as well as temporal lobe epilepsy. Lastly, the therapeutic approach to dissociative identity disorder is discussed. Each dissociative identity should be understood as potentially representing some traumatically stressful event in the past. The therapist should be careful not to excessively promote the creation or elaboration of any dissociative identities. Three stages are proposed in the individual psychotherapeutic process. In the initial stage, a secure environment and stabilization of symptoms should be sought. The second stage consists of aiding the "host" personality to make use of other more adaptive coping skills in their life. The third stage involves coaching as well as continuous awareness of

  20. [Clinical Handling of Patients with Dissociative Disorders].

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the way informed psychiatrists are expected to handle dissociative patients in clinical situations, with a specific focus on dissociative identity disorders and dissociative fugue. On the initial interview with dissociative patients, information on their history of trauma and any nascent dissociative symptoms in their childhood should be carefully obtained. Their level of stress in their current life should also be assessed in order to understand their symptomatology, as well as to predict their future clinical course. A psychoeducational approach is crucial; it might be helpful to give information on dissociative disorder to these patients as well as their family members in order to promote their adherence to treatment. Regarding the symptomatology of dissociative disorders, detailed symptoms and the general clinical course are presented. It was stressed that dissociative identity disorder and dissociative fugue, the most high-profile dissociative disorders, are essentially different in their etiology and clinical presentation. Dissociative disorders are often confused with and misdiagnosed as psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. Other conditions considered in terms of the differential diagnosis include borderline personality disorder as well as temporal lobe epilepsy. Lastly, the therapeutic approach to dissociative identity disorder is discussed. Each dissociative identity should be understood as potentially representing some traumatically stressful event in the past. The therapist should be careful not to excessively promote the creation or elaboration of any dissociative identities. Three stages are proposed in the individual psychotherapeutic process. In the initial stage, a secure environment and stabilization of symptoms should be sought. The second stage consists of aiding the "host" personality to make use of other more adaptive coping skills in their life. The third stage involves coaching as well as continuous awareness of

  1. Ultraviolet photolysis of adenine: Dissociation via the {sup 1}{pi}{sigma}{sup *} state

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, Michael G. D.; Devine, Adam L.; Cronin, Brid; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2007-03-28

    High resolution total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra of the H atom fragments resulting from photodissociation of jet-cooled adenine molecules at 17 wavelengths in the range 280>{lambda}{sub phot}>214 nm are reported. TKER spectra obtained at {lambda}{sub phot}>233 nm display broad, isotropic profiles that peak at low TKER ({approx}1800 cm{sup -1}) and are largely insensitive to the choice of excitation wavelength. The bulk of these products is attributed to unintended multiphoton dissociation processes. TKER spectra recorded at {lambda}{sub phot}{<=}233 nm display additional fast structure, which is attributed to N{sub 9}-H bond fission on the {sup 1}{pi}{sigma}{sup *} potential energy surface (PES). Analysis of the kinetic energies and recoil anisotropies of the H atoms responsible for the fast structure suggests excitation to two {sup 1}{pi}{pi}{sup *} excited states (the {sup 1}L{sub a} and {sup 1}B{sub b} states) at {lambda}{sub phot}{approx}230 nm, both of which dissociate to yield H atoms together with ground state adeninyl fragments by radiationless transfer through conical intersections with the {sup 1}{pi}{sigma}{sup *} PES. Parallels with the photochemistry exhibited by other, smaller heteroaromatics (pyrrole, imidazole, phenol, etc.) are highlighted, as are inconsistencies between the present conclusions and those reached in two other recent studies of excited state adenine molecules.

  2. Dissociative energy flow, vibrational energy redistribution, and conformeric structural dynamics in bifunctional amine model systems.

    PubMed

    Bush, Joseph C; Minitti, Michael P; Weber, Peter M

    2010-10-28

    Time-resolved multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry coupled with Rydberg Fingerprint Spectroscopy (RFS) has been used to analyze the structural and electronic dynamics of N,N-dimethylphenethylamine (PENNA) and N,N-dimethylcyclohexethylamine (CENNA). In PENNA, the molecule converts from 3p to 3s on a time scale of 149 fs, a process that is reflected in the mass spectrum as the onset of fragmentation. Once in 3s, the overall signal intensity of the PENNA 3s signal shows biexponential decay kinetics, which is attributed to the electronic curve crossing from the Rydberg state to a dissociative antibonding orbital of the ethylenic bridge. This curve crossing exemplifies a possible fragmentation pathway observed in electron capture dissociation of proteins. The initially fast reaction (1.3 ps) is greatly slowed down as a result of an apparent relaxation process with a 5.6 ps time constant. The electron binding energy of the 3s Rydberg state of PENNA is observed to shift with a time constant of 4.8 ps, which is correlated to a cation-π interaction driven conformeric rearrangement.

  3. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n -mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [

    F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004)
    ], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization.

  4. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n-mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004)], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization.

  5. The multiphoton ionization of uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.P.

    1992-05-01

    Multiphoton ionization (MPI) time-of-flight mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy studies of UF{sub 6} have been conducted using focused light from the Nd:YAG laser fundamental ({lambda}=1064 nm) and its harmonics ({lambda}=532, 355, or 266 nm), as well as other wavelengths provided by a tunable dye laser. The MPI mass spectra are dominated by the singly and multiply charged uranium ions rather than by the UF{sub x}{sup +} fragment ions even at the lowest laser power densities at which signal could be detected. The laser power dependence of U{sup n+} ions signals indicates that saturation can occur for many of the steps required for their ionization. In general, the doubly-charged uranium ion (U{sup 2+}) intensity is much greater than that of the singly-charged uranium ion (U{sup +}). For the case of the tunable dye laser experiments, the U{sup n+} (n = 1- 4) wavelength dependence is relatively unstructured and does not show observable resonance enhancement at known atomic uranium excitation wavelengths. The dominance of the U{sup 2+} ion and the absence or very small intensities of UF{sub x}{sup +} fragments, along with the unsaturated wavelength dependence, indicate that mechanisms may exist other than ionization of bare U atoms after the stepwise photodissociation of F atoms from the parent molecule.

  6. Superresolved multiphoton microscopy with spatial frequency-modulated imaging.

    PubMed

    Field, Jeffrey J; Wernsing, Keith A; Domingue, Scott R; Allende Motz, Alyssa M; DeLuca, Keith F; Levi, Dean H; DeLuca, Jennifer G; Young, Michael D; Squier, Jeff A; Bartels, Randy A

    2016-06-14

    Superresolved far-field microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for investigating the structure of objects with resolution well below the diffraction limit of light. Nearly all superresolution imaging techniques reported to date rely on real energy states of fluorescent molecules to circumvent the diffraction limit, preventing superresolved imaging with contrast mechanisms that occur via virtual energy states, including harmonic generation (HG). We report a superresolution technique based on spatial frequency-modulated imaging (SPIFI) that permits superresolved nonlinear microscopy with any contrast mechanism and with single-pixel detection. We show multimodal superresolved images with two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) from biological and inorganic media. Multiphoton SPIFI (MP-SPIFI) provides spatial resolution up to 2η below the diffraction limit, where η is the highest power of the nonlinear intensity response. MP-SPIFI can be used to provide enhanced resolution in optically thin media and may provide a solution for superresolved imaging deep in scattering media. PMID:27231219

  7. Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states. PMID:27383014

  8. Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-07-07

    Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states.

  9. The polarization effect of a laser in multiphoton Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guo-Hua; Lü, Qing-Zheng; Teng, Ai-Ping; Li, Ying-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The multiphoton Compton scattering in a high-intensity laser beam is studied by using the laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics (QED) method, which is a non-perturbative theory for the interaction between a plane electromagnetic field and a charged particle. In order to analyze in the real experimental condition, a Lorentz transformation for the cross section of this process is derived between the laboratory frame and the initial rest frame of electrons. The energy of the scattered photon is analyzed, as well as the cross sections for different laser intensities and polarizations and different electron velocities. The angular distribution of the emitted photon is investigated in a special velocity of the electron, in which for a fixed number of absorbed photons, the electron energy will not change after the scattering in the lab frame. We obtain the conclusion that higher laser intensities suppress few-laser-photon absorption and enhance more-laser-photon absorption. A comparison between different polarizations is also made, and we find that the linearly polarized laser is more suitable to generate nonlinear Compton scattering.

  10. Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states. PMID:27383014

  11. Multiphoton imaging the disruptive nature of sulfur mustard lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werrlein, Robert J.; Braue, Catherine R.; Dillman, James F.

    2005-03-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide] is a vesicating agent first used as a weapon of war in WWI. It causes debilitating blisters at the epidermal-dermal junction and involves molecules that are also disrupted by junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and other blistering skin diseases. Despite its recurring use in global conflicts, there is still no completely effective treatment. We have shown by imaging human keratinocytes in cell culture and in intact epidermal tissues that the basal cells of skin contain well-organized molecules (keratins K5/K14, α6β4 integrin, laminin 5 and α3β1 integrin) that are early targets of sulfur mustard. Disruption and collapse of these molecules is coincident with nuclear displacement, loss of functional asymmetry, and loss of polarized mobility. The progression of this pathology precedes basal cell detachment by 8-24 h, a time equivalent to the "clinical latent phase" that defines the extant period between agent exposure and vesication. Our images indicate that disruption of adhesion-complex molecules also impairs cytoskeletal proteins and the integration of structures required for signal transduction and tissue repair. We have recently developed an optical system to test this hypothesis, i.e., to determine whether and how the early disruption of target molecules alters signal transduction. This environmentally controlled on-line system provides a nexus for real-time correlation of imaged lesions with DNA microarray analysis, and for using multiphoton microscopy to facilitate development of more effective treatment strategies.

  12. Dynamics of cavityless lasing generated by ultrafast multiphoton excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimberg, Victor; Polyutov, Sergey; Gel'Mukhanov, Faris; Ågren, Hans; Baev, Alexander; Zheng, Qingdong; He, Guang S.

    2006-09-01

    A dynamical theory is developed with the purpose of explaining recent experimental results on multiphoton-excited amplified stimulated emission (ASE). Several conspicuous features of this experiment are analyzed, like the threshold dependence of the spectral profile on the pump intensity, and spectral shifts of the ASE pulses co- and counterpropagating relative to the pump pulse. Two models are proposed and evaluated, one based on the isolated molecule and another which involves solvent interaction. The spectral shift between the forward and backward ASE pulses arises in the first model through the competition between the ASE transitions from the pumped vibrational levels and from the bottom of the excited-state well, while in the solvent-related model the dynamical solute-solvent interaction leads to a relaxed excited state, producing an additional ASE channel. In the latter model the additional redshifted ASE channel makes the dynamics of ASE essentially different from that in the molecular model because the formation of the relaxed state takes a longer time. The variation of the pump intensity influences strongly the relative intensities of the different ASE channels and, hence, the spectral shape of ASE in both models. The regime of ASE changes character when the pump intensity crosses a threshold value. Such a phase transition occurs when the ASE rate approaches the rate of vibrational relaxation or the rate of solute-solvent relaxation in the first excited state.

  13. Intravital Multiphoton Imaging of the Kidney: Tubular Structure and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Small, David M; Sanchez, Washington Y; Gobe, Glenda C

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) allows the visualization of dynamic pathophysiological events in real time in live animals. Intravital imaging can be applied to investigate novel mechanisms and treatments of different forms of kidney disease as well as improve our understanding of normal kidney physiology. Using rodent models, in conjunction with endogenous fluorescence and infused exogenous fluorescent dyes, measurement can be made of renal processes such as glomerular permeability, juxtaglomerular apparatus function, interactions of the tubulointerstitium, tubulovascular interactions, vascular flow rate, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Subcellular processes including mitochondrial dynamics, reactive oxygen species production, cytosolic ion concentrations, and death processes of apoptosis and necrosis can also be seen and measured by MPM. The current methods chapter presents an overview of MPM with a focus on techniques for intravital kidney imaging and gives examples of instances where intravital MPM has been utilized to study renal pathophysiology. Suggestions are provided for MPM methods within the confines of intravital microscopy and selected kidney structure. MPM is undoubtedly a powerful new technique for application in experimental nephrology, and we believe it will continue to create new paradigms for understanding and treating kidney disease.

  14. Performance evaluation of a sensorless adaptive optics multiphoton microscope.

    PubMed

    Skorsetz, Martin; Artal, Pablo; Bueno, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    A wavefront sensorless adaptive optics technique was combined with a custom-made multiphoton microscope to correct for specimen-induced aberrations. A liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) modulator was used to systematically generate Zernike modes during image recording. The performance of the instrument was evaluated in samples providing different nonlinear signals and the benefit of correcting higher order aberrations was always noticeable (in both contrast and resolution). The optimum aberration pattern was stable in time for the samples here involved. For a particular depth location within the sample, the wavefront to be precompensated was independent on the size of the imaged area (up to ∼ 360 × 360 μm(2)). The mode combination optimizing the recorded image depended on the Zernike correction control sequence; however, the final images hardly differed. At deeper locations, a noticeable dominance of spherical aberration was found. The influence of other aberration terms was also compared to the effect of the spherical aberration. PMID:26469361

  15. Security of quantum key distribution with multiphoton components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Mao, Yingqiu; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-07-01

    Most qubit-based quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols extract the secure key merely from single-photon component of the attenuated lasers. However, with the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, the unconditionally secure key can be extracted from the two-photon component by modifying the classical post-processing procedure in the BB84 protocol. Employing the merits of SARG04 QKD protocol and six-state preparation, one can extract secure key from the components of single photon up to four photons. In this paper, we provide the exact relations between the secure key rate and the bit error rate in a six-state SARG04 protocol with single-photon, two-photon, three-photon, and four-photon sources. By restricting the mutual information between the phase error and bit error, we obtain a higher secure bit error rate threshold of the multiphoton components than previous works. Besides, we compare the performances of the six-state SARG04 with other prepare-and-measure QKD protocols using decoy states.

  16. Laser multiphoton ionization of tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene.

    PubMed

    Smith, Byron H; Compton, Robert N

    2014-09-01

    The tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene (TDAE) molecule possesses the lowest known molecular ionization potential (<5.4 eV) and exhibits an intense Rydberg series between the first and second ionization limit (∼14 eV). The ionization of TDAE using multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out using laser light at a variety of wavelengths with a hemispherical energy analyzer. Interestingly, photoelectron signal due to direct two-photon ionization was not seen, rather ionization from a fluorescent charge-transfer state located ∼2.5 eV below the ionization limit was evident and in general agreement with a previous study. In addition, a second intense peak exists corresponding to thermal energy electrons. Measurements of the angular distribution for the electrons due to photoionization from the intermediate state are peaked along the electric field vector of the laser and the thermal electrons direction is independent of this angle. From this, we propose that the thermal peak is most likely due to thermionic emission initiated through excitation of a known long-lived Rydberg state at ∼6.5 eV. Alternately, we speculate that excitation leading to thermionic emission could result from a "collective" excitation mechanism.

  17. Dynamics of cavityless lasing generated by ultrafast multiphoton excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberg, Victor; Polyutov, Sergey; Gel'mukhanov, Faris; A ring gren, Hans; Baev, Alexander; Zheng Qingdong; He, Guang S.

    2006-09-15

    A dynamical theory is developed with the purpose of explaining recent experimental results on multiphoton-excited amplified stimulated emission (ASE). Several conspicuous features of this experiment are analyzed, like the threshold dependence of the spectral profile on the pump intensity, and spectral shifts of the ASE pulses co- and counterpropagating relative to the pump pulse. Two models are proposed and evaluated, one based on the isolated molecule and another which involves solvent interaction. The spectral shift between the forward and backward ASE pulses arises in the first model through the competition between the ASE transitions from the pumped vibrational levels and from the bottom of the excited-state well, while in the solvent-related model the dynamical solute-solvent interaction leads to a relaxed excited state, producing an additional ASE channel. In the latter model the additional redshifted ASE channel makes the dynamics of ASE essentially different from that in the molecular model because the formation of the relaxed state takes a longer time. The variation of the pump intensity influences strongly the relative intensities of the different ASE channels and, hence, the spectral shape of ASE in both models. The regime of ASE changes character when the pump intensity crosses a threshold value. Such a phase transition occurs when the ASE rate approaches the rate of vibrational relaxation or the rate of solute-solvent relaxation in the first excited state.

  18. Multiphoton and photothermal imaging of molecular events in cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skala, Melissa

    2010-10-01

    Optical techniques are attractive for monitoring disease processes in living tissues because they are relatively cheap, non-invasive and provide a wealth of functional information. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) are two types of three-dimensional optical imaging modalities that have demonstrated great utility in pre-clinical models of disease. These techniques are particularly useful for identifying metabolic and molecular biomarkers in cancer. These biomarkers can be used to identify the mechanisms of tumor growth, and to predict the response of a particular tumor to treatment. Specifically, MPM of the co-enzymes NADH and FAD was used to quantify metabolic changes associated with developing cancers in vivo. This imaging technique exploits intrinsic sources of tissue contrast and thus does not require contrast agents. Ongoing work combines this metabolic imaging technique with vascular imaging to provide a comprehensive picture of oxygen supply and demand with tumor therapy. Molecular signaling represents a third critical component in tumor physiology. To this end we have recently developed photothermal OCT, which combines coherent detection with laser-heated gold nanoparticles to achieve high-resolution molecular contrast at deeper depths than MPM. This multi-functional imaging platform will provide unprecedented insight into oxygen supply and demand, and molecular signaling in response to tumor growth and targeted cancer therapies in pre-clinical models.

  19. The analysis of aging skin based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoman; Li, Zhifang; Xu, Shufei

    2010-11-01

    Aging is a very important issue not only in dermatology, but also in cosmetic science. Cutaneous aging involves both chronological and photoaging aging process. The chronological aging is induced with the passage of time. And the photoaging skin is the extrinsic aging caused by sun exposure. The aim of this study is to use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in vivo to assess intrinsic-age-related and photo-age-related difference. The changes of dermal collagen are measured in quantitively. The algorithm that we used automatically produced the transversal dermal map from MPM. Others, the texture of dermis are analyzed by Fourier transform and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix. And the object extraction in textured images is proposed based on the method in object edge extraction, and the aim of it is to detect the object hidden in the skin texture in difference aging skin. The result demonstrates that the approach is effective in detecting the object in epidermis and dermis textured image in different aging skin. It could help to further understand the aging mechanism.

  20. Multiphoton catalysis with coherent state input: nonclassicality and decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li-Yun; Wu, Jia-Ni; Liao, Zeyang; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-09-01

    We propose a scheme to generate a new kind of non-Gaussian state—the Laguerre polynomial excited coherent state (LPECS)—by using multiphoton catalysis with coherent state input. The nonclassical properties of the LPECS are studied in terms of nonclassical depth, Mandel’s parameter, second-order correlation, quadrature squeezing, and the negativity of the Wigner function (WF). It is found that the LPECS is highly nonclassical and its nonclassicality depends on the amplitude of the coherent state, the catalysis photon number, and the parameters of the unbalanced beam splitter (BS). In particular, the maximum degree of squeezing can be enhanced by increasing the catalysis photon number. In addition, we examine the effect of decoherence using the WF, which shows that the negative region, the characteristic time of decoherence, and the structure of the WF are affected by catalysis photon number and the parameters of the unbalanced BS. Our work provides general analysis on how to prepare polynomial quantum states, which may be useful in the fields of quantum information and quantum computation.

  1. Direct trabecular meshwork imaging in porcine eyes through multiphoton gonioscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masihzadeh, Omid; Ammar, David A.; Kahook, Malik Y.; Gibson, Emily A.; Lei, Tim C.

    2013-03-01

    The development of technologies to characterize the ocular aqueous outflow system (AOS) is important for the understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) offers the advantage of high-resolution, label-free imaging with intrinsic image contrast because the emitted signals result from the specific biomolecular content of the tissue. Previous attempts to use MPM to image the murine irido-corneal region directly through the sclera have suffered from degradation in image resolution due to scattering of the focused laser light. As a result, transscleral MPM has limited ability to observe fine structures in the AOS. In this work, the porcine irido-corneal angle was successfully imaged through the transparent cornea using a gonioscopic lens to circumvent the highly scattering scleral tissue. The resulting high-resolution images allowed the detailed structures in the trabecular meshwork (TM) to be observed. Multimodal imaging by two-photon autofluorescence and second harmonic generation allowed visualization of different features in the TM without labels and without disruption of the TM or surrounding tissues. MPM gonioscopy is a promising noninvasive imaging tool for high-resolution studies of the AOS, and research continues to explore the potential for future clinical applications in humans.

  2. Multiphoton gonioscopy to image the trabecular meshwork of porcine eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masihzadeh, Omid; Ammar, David A.; Kahook, Malik Y.; Gibson, Emily A.; Lei, Tim C.

    2013-03-01

    The aqueous outflow system (AOS), including the trabecular meshwork (TM), the collector channels (CC) and the Schlemm's canal (SC), regulates intraocular pressure (IOP) through the drainage of the aqueous humor (AH). Abnormal IOP elevation leads to increased pressure stress to retinal ganglion cells, resulting in cell loss that can ultimately lead to complete loss of eyesight. Therefore, development of imaging tools to detect abnormal structural and functional changes of the AOS is important in early diagnosis and prevention of glaucoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM), including twophoton autofluorescence (TPAF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), is a label-free microscopic technique that allows molecular specific imaging of biological tissues like the TM. Since the TM and other AOS structures are located behind the highly scattering scleral tissue, transscleral imaging of the TM does not provide enough optical resolution. In this work, a gonioscopic lens is used to allow direct optical access of the TM through the cornea for MPM imaging. Compared to transscleral imaging, the acquired MPM images show improved resolution as individual collagen fiber bundles of the TM can be observed. MPM gonioscopy may have the potential to be developed as a future clinical imaging tool for glaucoma diagnostics.

  3. Dissociative Tendencies and Facilitated Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Oathes, Desmond J.; Ray, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Dissociation is a process linked to lapses of attention, history of abuse or trauma, compromised emotional memory, and a disintegrated sense of self. It is theorized that dissociation stems from avoiding emotional information, especially negative emotion, to protect a fragile psyche. The present study tested whether or not dissociaters do actually avoid processing emotion by asking groups scoring high or low on the Dissociative Experiences Scale to judge the affective valence of several types of emotional stimuli. Manipulations of valence, modality (pictures or words), task complexity, and personal relevance lead to results suggesting that dissociation is linked to facilitated rather than deficient emotional processing. Our results are consistent with a theory that sensitivity to emotional material may be a contributing factor in subsequent dissociation to avoid further elaboration of upsetting emotion in these individuals. The findings for dissociation further exemplify the influence of individual differences in the link between cognition and emotion. PMID:18837615

  4. Dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on the ZrB2(0001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkosz, Weronika; Manandhar, Kedar; Trenary, Michael; Otani, Shigeki; Zapol, Peter

    2012-12-01

    We have studied the dissociation of H2 on the ZrB2(0001) surface using density functional theory and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Our results show that H2 readily dissociates on the Zr-terminated (0001) surface up to a H coverage of 1/2 ML. Furthermore, we show that H is very mobile on the surface and that it desorbs between 545 and 625 K. The calculated vibrational frequencies for the adsorbed H are in excellent agreement with our RAIRS measurements and with previously reported high resolution electron energy loss spectra.

  5. Attosecond control of dissociative ionization of O{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, W.; Kelkensberg, F.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Dowek, D.; Lucchini, M.; Calegari, F.; De Giovannini, U.; Rubio, A.; Lucchese, R. R.; Kono, H.; Lepine, F.

    2011-12-15

    We demonstrate that dissociative ionization of O{sub 2} can be controlled by the relative delay between an attosecond pulse train (APT) and a copropagating infrared (IR) field. Our experiments reveal a dependence of both the branching ratios between a range of electronic states and the fragment angular distributions on the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to IR time delay. The observations go beyond adiabatic propagation of dissociative wave packets on IR-induced quasistatic potential energy curves and are understood in terms of an IR-induced coupling between electronic states in the molecular ion.

  6. Possibility of efficient generation of multiphoton entangled states using a one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Yunxia; Zhang Xiangdong

    2010-03-15

    A rigorous quantum theory for the generation of multiphoton entangled states based on two consecutive three-frequency interactions of waves in a one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal is developed using the field expansion and differentiation methods. The three-photon correlation coefficient and the average photon numbers generated in the structure are calculated. All order expansion terms are included in the calculation. The generation conditions for multiphoton entangled states in such a structure are also analyzed. It is shown that the created photons in the present structures obey the super-Poisson statistics at the interacting frequencies and are in a multiparticle entangled state. This means the nonlinear photonic crystal can be applied as a highly efficient source of an entangled multiphoton for highly integrated all-optical circuits.

  7. Label-free multiphoton imaging and photoablation of preinvasive cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Wu, Guizhu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Xingshan; Xie, Shusen

    2012-01-01

    Detection and treatment of early lesions in epithelial tissue offer several possibilities for curing cancer, but it is challenging. Here, we present an optical technique, the combination of multiphoton imaging and absorption, to label-freely detect and ablate preinvasive cancer cells in epithelial tissue. We find that multiphoton imaging can label-freely visualize the principal features of nuclear atypia associated with epithelial precancerous lesions, and the spatial localization of multiphoton absorption can perform targeted ablation of preinvasive cancer cells with micrometer-sized volume precision. These results indicate that this optical technique has the capability to label-freely visualize and remove preinvasive cancer cells in epithelial tissue. This study highlights the potential of this technique as a "seek-and-treat" tool for early lesions in epithelial tissue.

  8. Distinguishing human normal or cancerous esophagus tissue ex vivo using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G. N.; Wu, S. S.; Chen, R.

    2014-02-01

    Application of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to clinical cancer research has greatly developed over the last few years. In this paper, we mainly focus on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) for investigating esophageal cancer. We chiefly discuss the SHG/TPEF image and spectral characteristics of normal and cancerous esophagus submucosa with the combined multi-channel imaging mode and Lambda mode of a multiphoton microscope (LSM 510 META). Great differences can be detected, such as collagen content and morphology, glandular-shaped cancer cells, TPEF/SHG intensity ratio, and so on, which demonstrate that the multiphoton imaging technique has the potential ability for minimally-invasive early cancer diagnosis.

  9. Multifocal multiphoton excitation and time correlated single photon counting detection for 3-D fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Dunsby, C; De Beule, P A A; Owen, D M; Anand, U; Lanigan, P M P; Benninger, R K P; Davis, D M; Neil, M A A; Anand, P; Benham, C; Naylor, A; French, P M W

    2007-10-01

    We report a multifocal multiphoton time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscope system that uses a 16 channel multi-anode PMT detector. Multiphoton excitation minimizes out-of-focus photobleaching, multifocal excitation reduces non-linear in-plane photobleaching effects and TCSPC electronics provide photon-efficient detection of the fluorescence decay profile. TCSPC detection is less prone to bleaching- and movement-induced artefacts compared to wide-field time-gated or frequency-domain FLIM. This microscope is therefore capable of acquiring 3-D FLIM images at significantly increased speeds compared to single beam multiphoton microscopy and we demonstrate this with live cells expressing a GFP tagged protein. We also apply this system to time-lapse FLIM of NAD(P)H autofluorescence in single live cells and report measurements on the change in the fluorescence decay profile following the application of a known metabolic inhibitor. PMID:19550524

  10. Multiphoton microscopy based cryo-imaging of inflated frozen human lung sections at -60°C in healthy and COPD lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Thomas; Kayra, Damian; Zhang, Angela; Suzuki, Masaru; McDonough, John; Elliott, W. M.; Cooper, Joel D.; Hogg, James C.

    2013-02-01

    Lung is a complex gas exchanger with interfacial area (where the gas exchange takes place) is about the size of a tennis court. Respiratory function is linked to the biomechanical stability of the gas exchange or alveolar regions which directly depends on the spatial distributions of the extracellular matrix fibers such fibrillar collagens and elastin fibers. It is very important to visualize and quantify these fibers at their native and inflated conditions to have correct morphometric information on differences between control and diseased states. This can be only achieved in the ex vivo states by imaging directly frozen lung specimens inflated to total lung capacity. Multiphoton microscopy, which uses ultra-short infrared laser pulses as the excitation source, produces multiphoton excitation fluorescence (MPEF) signals from endogenously fluorescent proteins (e.g. elastin) and induces specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signals from non-centrosymmetric proteins such as fibrillar collagens in fresh human lung tissues [J. Struct. Biol. (2010)171,189-196]. Here we report for the first time 3D image data obtained directly from thick frozen inflated lung specimens (~0.7- 1.0 millimeter thick) visualized at -60°C without prior fixation or staining in healthy and diseased states. Lung specimens donated for transplantation and released for research when no appropriate recipient was identified served as controls, and diseased lung specimens donated for research by patients receiving lung transplantation for very severe COPD (n=4) were prepared as previously described [N. Engl. J. Med. (2011) 201, 1567]. Lung slices evenly spaced between apex and base were examined using multiphoton microscopy while maintained at -60°C using a temperature controlled cold stage with a temperature resolution of 0.1°C. Infrared femto-second laser pulses tuned to 880nm, dry microscopic objectives, and non-de-scanned detectors/spectrophotometer located in the reflection geometry were

  11. Dissociative identity disorder: Medicolegal challenges.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Helen M

    2011-01-01

    Persons with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often present in the criminal justice system rather than the mental health system and perplex experts in both professions. DID is a controversial diagnosis with important medicolegal implications. Defendants have claimed that they committed serious crimes, including rape or murder, while they were in a dissociated state. Asserting that their alter personality committed the bad act, defendants have pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). In such instances, forensic experts are asked to assess the defendant for DID and provide testimony in court. Debate continues over whether DID truly exists, whether expert testimony should be allowed into evidence, and whether it should exculpate defendants for their criminal acts. This article reviews historical and theoretical perspectives on DID, presents cases that illustrate the legal implications and controversies of raising an insanity defense based on multiple personalities, and examines the role of forensic experts asked to comment on DID with the goal of assisting clinicians in the medicolegal assessment of DID in relation to crimes.

  12. Dissociative recombination in planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionization in planetary atmospheres can be produced by solar photoionization, photoelectron impact ionization, and, in auroral regions, by impact of precipitating particles. This ionization is lost mainly in dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions. Although atomic ions cannot undergo DR, they can be transformed locally through ion-molecule reactions into molecular ions, or they may be transported vertically or horizontally to regions of the atmosphere where such transformations are possible. Because DR reactions tend to be very exothermic, they can be an important source of kinetically or internally excited fragments. In interplanetary thermospheres, the neutral densities decrease exponentially with altitude. Below the homopause (or turbopause), the atmosphere is assumed to be throughly mixed by convection and/or turbulence. Above the homopause, diffusion is the major transport mechanism, and each species is distributed according to its mass, with the logarithmic derivative of the density with repect to altitude given approximately by -1/H, where H = kT/mg is the scale height. In this expression, T is the neutral temperature, g is the local acceleratiion of gravity, and m is the mass of the species. Thus lighter species become relatively more abundant, and heavier species less abundant, as the altitude increases. This variation of the neutral composition can lead to changes in the ion composition; furthermore, as the neutral densities decrease, dissociative recombination becomes more important relative to ion-neutral reactions as a loss mechanism for molecular ions.

  13. Real-time optical diagnosis of gastric cancer with serosal invasion using multiphoton imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Zheng, Yu; Zheng, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhangyuanzhu; Liu, Wenju; Chen, Dexin; Dong, Xiaoyu; Li, Kai; Liu, Xiumin; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Li, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    A real-time optical biopsy, which could determine tissue histopathology, would be of extraordinary benefit to staging laparoscopy for gastric cancer with serosal invasion (T4) that requires downstage treatment. We investigated the feasibility of using multiphoton imaging to perform a real-time optical diagnosis of gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion. First, a pilot study was performed to establish the optical diagnostic features of gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion using multiphoton imaging compared with hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome staining. Second, a blinded study was performed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of multiphoton imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for T4 gastric cancer. In the pilot study, multiphoton imaging revealed collagen loss and degradation and cellular and nuclear pleomorphism in gastric cancer with serosal invasion. The collagen content in gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion was 0.36 ± 0.18 and 0.79 ± 0.16 (p < 0.001), respectively. In the blinded study, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of EUS and multiphoton imaging for T4 gastric cancer were 70% and 90% (p = 0.029), 66.67% and 96.67% (p = 0.003), and 68.33% and 93.33% (p = 0.001), respectively. It is feasible to use multiphoton imaging to make a real-time optical diagnosis of gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion. PMID:27499365

  14. Mirror writing and a dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Le, Catherine; Smith, Joyce; Cohen, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam-mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror writing had a deeper level of meaning; however, it does emphasize the idiosyncratic nature of dissociative identity disorder.

  15. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  16. Zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy of jet cooled benzo[a]pyrene from resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Harthcock, Colin; Han, Fangyuan; Kong, Wei

    2011-12-01

    We report zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) via resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). Our analysis concentrates on the vibrational modes of the first excited state (S1) and those of the ground cationic state (D0). Similar to pyrene, another peri-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon we have investigated, the first two electronically excited states of BaP exhibit extensive configuration interactions. However, the two electronic states are of the same symmetry, hence vibronic coupling does not introduce any out-of-plane modes in the REMPI spectrum, and Franck-Condon analysis is qualitatively satisfactory. The ZEKE spectra from the in-plane modes observed in the REMPI spectrum demonstrate strong propensity in preserving the vibrational excitation of the intermediate state. Although several additional bands in combination with the vibrational mode of the intermediate state are identifiable, they are much lower in intensity. This observation implies that the molecular structure of BaP has a tremendous capability to accommodate changes in charge density. All observed bands of the cation are IR active, establishing the role of ZEKE spectroscopy in mapping out far infrared bands for astrophysical applications.

  17. Infrared Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    This review on infrared spectrometry covering the period from late 1981 to late 1983, is divided into nine sections. Topic areas include: books; reviews; analytical applications; biochemical applications; environmental applications; polymer applications; infrared instrumentation; sampling techniques; and software and algorithms. (JN)

  18. Enhancement of molecular ions in mass spectrometry using an ultrashort optical pulse in multiphoton ionization.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takashi; Watanabe-Ezoe, Yuka; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tsukatani, Hiroko; Imasaka, Tomoko; Zaitsu, Shin-Ichi; Uchimura, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Totaro

    2010-05-01

    The spectral domain of an ultraviolet femtosecond laser was expanded by stimulated Raman scattering/four-wave Raman mixing, and the resulting laser pulse was compressed using a pair of gratings. The pulse width was then measured using an autocorrelator comprised of a Michelson interferometer equipped with a multiphoton ionization/mass spectrometer which was used as a two-photon detector. A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer was employed to analyze triacetone triperoxide (TATP), and the molecular ion induced by multiphoton ionization was substantially enhanced by decreasing the laser pulse width. PMID:20364824

  19. Diagrammatic analysis of multiphoton processes in a ladder-type three-level atomic system

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Moon, Han Seb

    2011-11-15

    We present a diagrammatic method for complete characterization of multiphoton processes in three-level atomic systems. By considering the interaction routes of the coupling and probe photons for a ladder-type, three-level, noncycling (or cycling) atomic system, we are able to completely discriminate between the pure one-photon and the pure two-photon resonance effects, and the effect of their combination in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using our diagrammatic method. We show that the proposed diagrammatic method is very useful for the analysis of multiphoton processes in ladder-type EIT.

  20. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yesılyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fatıh

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process.

  1. Large field of view multiphoton microscopy of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Mihaela; Mikami, Hideharu; Hou, Jue; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-03-01

    Clinical examination crucially relies on the ability to quickly examine large tissue areas and rapidly zoom in to regions of interest. Skin lesions often show irregularity in color and appearance in general, especially when they start to progress towards malignancy. Large field of view (FOV) and automatic translation of the imaging area are critical in the assessment of the entire lesion. Imaging of limited FOVs of the lesion can easily result in false negative diagnosis. We present a multiphoton microscope based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation that images FOVs of about 0.8 mm2 (without stitching adjacent FOVs) at speeds of 10 frames/second (800 x 800 pixels) with lateral and axial resolutions of 0.5 μm and 2.5 μm, respectively. The main novelty of this instrument is the design of the scan head, which includes a fast galvanometric scanner, relay optics, a beam expander and a high NA objective lens. We optimized the system based on the Olympus 25x, 1.05NA water immersion lens, that features a long working distance of 1 mm. Proper tailoring of the beam expander, which consists of the scan and tube lens elements, enables scaling of the FOV. The design criteria include a flat wavefront of the beam, minimum field curvature, and suppressed spherical aberrations. All aberrations in focus are below the Marechal criterion of 0.07λ rms for diffraction-limited performance. We demonstrate the practical utility of this microscope by ex-vivo imaging of wide FOVs in normal human skin.

  2. Multiphoton microscopy in the evaluation of human bladder biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manu; Robinson, Brian D.; Scherr, Douglas S.; Sterling, Joshua; Lee, Ming-Ming; Wysock, James; Rubin, Mark A.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Webb, Watt W.; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2013-01-01

    Context Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a nonlinear imaging approach, providing cellular and subcellular details from fresh (unprocessed) tissue by exciting intrinsic tissue emissions. With miniaturization and substantially decreased cost on the horizon, MPM is an emerging in vivo imaging technique with many potential clinical applications. Objective To assess the imaging ability and diagnostic accuracy of MPM for human bladder biopsies. Design Seventy-seven fresh bladder biopsies were imaged by MPM and subsequently submitted for routine surgical pathology diagnosis. Twelve cases were excluded due to extensive cautery artifact that prohibited definitive diagnosis. Comparison was made between MPM imaging and gold standard hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections of each specimen. Results In 57/65 cases (88%), accurate MPM diagnoses (benign or neoplastic) were given based upon the architecture and/or cytologic grade. The sensitivity and specificity of MPM in our study were 90.4% and 76.9%, respectively. A positive (neoplastic) diagnosis on MPM had a high predictive value (94%), and negative (benign) diagnoses were sustained on histopathology in two-thirds of cases. Architecture (papillary vs. flat) was correctly determined in 56/65 cases (86%), and cytologic grade (benign/low vs. high grade) was assigned correctly in 38/56 cases (68%). Conclusions MPM images alone provide sufficient detail to classify most lesions as either benign or neoplastic using the same basic diagnostic criteria as histopathology (architecture and cytologic grade). Future developments in MPM technology may provide urologists and pathologists with additional screening and diagnostic tools for early detection of bladder cancer. Additional applications of such emerging technologies warrant exploration. PMID:22540300

  3. In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Balu, Mihaela; Zachary, Christopher B.; Harris, Ronald M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; König, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Kelly, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are diagnosed by clinical evaluation, which can include dermoscopic evaluation, biopsy, and histopathologic examination. Recent translation of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to clinical practice raises the possibility of noninvasive, label-free in vivo imaging of BCCs that could reduce the time from consultation to treatment. Objectives To demonstrate the capability of MPM to image in vivo BCC lesions in human skin, and to evaluate if histopathologic criteria can be identified in MPM images. Design, Setting, and Participants Imaging in patients with BCC was performed at the University of California–Irvine Health Beckman Laser Institute & Medical Clinic, Irvine, between September 2012 and April 2014, with a clinical MPM-based tomograph. Ten BCC lesions were imaged in vivo in 9 patients prior to biopsy. The MPM images were compared with histopathologic findings. Main Outcomes and Measures MPM imaging identified in vivo and noninvasively the main histopathologic feature of BCC lesions: nests of basaloid cells showing palisading in the peripheral cell layer at the dermoepidermal junction and/or in the dermis. Results The main MPM feature associated with the BCC lesions involved nests of basaloid cells present in the papillary and reticular dermis. This feature correlated well with histopathologic examination. Other MPM features included elongated tumor cells in the epidermis aligned in 1 direction and parallel collagen and elastin bundles surrounding the tumors. Conclusions and Relevance This study demonstrates, in a limited patient population, that noninvasive in vivo MPM imaging can provide label-free contrast that reveals several characteristic features of BCC lesions. Future studies are needed to validate the technique and correlate MPM performance with histopathologic examination. PMID:25909650

  4. The multidimensional inventory of dissociation (MID): A comprehensive measure of pathological dissociation.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). The MID is a 218-item, self-administered, multiscale instrument that comprehensively assesses the phenomenological domain of pathological dissociation and diagnoses the dissociative disorders. The MID measures 14 major facets of pathological dissociation; it has 23 dissociation diagnostic scales that simultaneously operationalize (1) the subjective/ phenomenological domain of pathological dissociation and (2) the hypothesized dissociative symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (Dell, 2001a). The MID was designed for clinical research and for diagnostic assessment of patients who present with a mixture of dissociative, posttraumatic, and borderline symptoms. The MID demonstrated internal reliability, temporal stability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and construct validity. The MID also exhibited incremental validity over the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) by predicting an additional 18% of the variance in weighted abuse scores on the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire (TEQ). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) did not support a one-factor model of the MID's clinical scales (i.e., the 14 facets and the 23 diagnostic symptoms). In contrast, however, CFA of the MID's factor scales (Dell & Lawson, 2005) has strongly supported a one-factor model. It was concluded that both the MID's 168 dissociation items and the construct of pathological dissociation have a second-order, unifactorial structure.

  5. The differential diagnosis of epilepsy, pseudoseizures, dissociative identity disorder, and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Bowman, E S; Coons, P M

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the co-occurrences of dissociative symptoms and disorders with epilepsy and pseudo-seizures and examine newer diagnostic instruments that assist in accurate diagnosis of persons with concomitant seizure behaviors and dissociative symptoms. They also review seizure behaviors and electroencephalographic findings in persons with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) and dissociative symptoms in persons with epilepsy and with pseudoseizures. Dissociative symptoms in 15 patients with epilepsy and 15 with pseudo-seizures were examined using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D). On the SCID-D, pseudo-seizure patients had significantly higher dissociative symptom scores than epileptic patients, but DES scores did not reliably distinguish epileptic and pseudo-seizure patients. Misdiagnosis of persons with seizures and dissociative symptoms can be avoided by careful adherence to DSM dissociative disorder criteria, the use of video-EEG monitoring, and systematic assessment of dissociative symptoms with the SCID-D.

  6. Promising new wavelengths for multi-photon microscopy: thinking outside the Ti:Sapphire box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Greg; Amor, Rumelo; Dempster, John; Amos, William B.; McConnell, Gail

    2013-02-01

    Multi-photon excitation (MPE) imaging is dominated by the Ti:Sapphire laser as the source for excitation. However, it is limited when considering 3PE of common fluorophores and efficient 2PE of UV dyes which require wavelengths beyond the range of the Ti:Sapphire. Two ultra-short pulsed sources are presented as alternatives: a novel optical parametric oscillator (OPO) geometry (1400-1600nm) and the sum-frequency mixing of an OPO and Yb-doped fibre laser, providing a tunable output (626-635nm). For long wavelengths, we report three-photon laser scanning microscopy (3PLSM) using a bi-directional pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with signal wavelength output at 1500 nm. This novel laser was used to overcome the high optical loss in the infrared spectral region observed in laser scanning microscopes and objective lenses that renders them otherwise difficult to use for imaging. To test our system, we performed 3PLSM auto-fluorescence imaging of live plant cells at 1500 nm, specifically Spirogyra, and compared performance with two-photon excitation (2PLSM) imaging using a femtosecond pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser at 780 nm. Analysis of cell viability based on cytoplasmic organelle streaming and structural changes of cells revealed that at similar peak powers, 2PLSM caused gross cell damage after 5 minutes but 3PLSM showed little or no interference with cell function after 15 minutes. The 1500 nm OPO was thus shown to be a practical laser source for live cell imaging. For short wavelengths, we report the use of an all-solid-state ultra-short pulsed source specifically for two-photon microscopy at wavelengths shorter than those of the conventional Ti:Sapphire laser. Our approach involved sumfrequency mixing of the output from the long-wavelength OPO described above with residual pump radiation to generate fs-pulsed output in the red spectral region. We demonstrated the performance of our ultra-short pulsed system using fluorescently labelled and autofluorescent tissue

  7. New infrared photon absorption processes. Final technical progress report, August 1, 1988--February 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bayfield, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    The fast ionization of atoms by very short laser pulses, and its possible suppression at extreme pulse intensities, is an active new field of investigation at present. Described is an investigation of whether past techniques for infrared laser multiphoton ionization of excited hydrogen atoms and of one-dimensional microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms can be combined and extended to address the new issues. Although technically difficult and requiring further improvement of apparatus, intense-field infrared laser experiments on excited hydrogen atoms are possible and can directly test theoretical and numerical results.

  8. Molecular dissociation in dilute gas

    SciTech Connect

    Renfrow, S.N.; Duggan, J.L.; McDaniel, F.D. |

    1999-06-01

    The charge state distributions (CSD) produced during molecular dissociation are important to both Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) and the ion implantation industry. The CSD of 1.3{endash}1.7 MeV SiN{sup +}, SiMg{sup +}, SiMn{sup +}, and SiZn{sup +} molecules have been measured for elements that do not form atomic negative ions (N, Mg, Mn, and Zn) using a NEC Tandem Pelletron accelerator. The molecules were produced in a Cs sputter negative ion source, accelerated, magnetically analyzed, and then passed through an N{sub 2} gas cell. The neutral and charged breakups where analyzed using an electrostatic deflector and measured with particle detectors. Equilibrium CSD were determined and comparisons made between molecular and atomic ion data. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. The Dissociative Recombination of OH(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical quantum chemical calculations of the cross sections and rates for the dissociative recombination of the upsilon = 0 level of the ground state of OH(+) show that recombination occurs primarily along the 2 (2)Pi diabatic route. The products are 0((1)D) and a hot H atom with 6.1 eV kinetic energy. The coupling to the resonances is very small and the indirect recombination mechanism plays only a minor role. The recommended value for the rate coefficient is (6.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(exp -9)x (T(e)/1300)(exp -0.48) cu.cm/s for 10 less than T(e) less than 1000 K.

  10. Dissociative depression among women in the community.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Oztürk, Erdinç; Alioğlu, Firdevs

    2013-01-01

    This study screened the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among depressive women in the general population. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The prevalence of current major depressive episode was 10.0%. Of the women, 26 (40.6%) had the lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV, dissociative disorder, yielding a prevalence of 4.1% for dissociative depression. This group was younger (mean age = 30.7 years) than the nondissociative depression women (mean age = 39.6 years). There was no difference between the 2 groups on comorbid somatization disorder, PTSD, or borderline personality disorder. Besides suicide attempts, the dissociative group was characterized by secondary features of dissociative identity disorder; Schneiderian symptoms; borderline personality disorder criteria; and extrasensory perceptions, including possession experiences. They reported suicidality, thoughts of guilt and worthlessness, diminished concentration and indecisiveness, and appetite and weight changes more frequently than the nondissociative group. Early cessation of school education and childhood sexual abuse were frequently reported by the dissociative depression group. With its distinct features, the concept of dissociative depression may facilitate understanding of treatment resistance in, development of better psychotherapy strategies for, and new thinking on the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders. PMID:23796173

  11. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  12. Dissociative depression among women in the community.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Oztürk, Erdinç; Alioğlu, Firdevs

    2013-01-01

    This study screened the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among depressive women in the general population. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The prevalence of current major depressive episode was 10.0%. Of the women, 26 (40.6%) had the lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV, dissociative disorder, yielding a prevalence of 4.1% for dissociative depression. This group was younger (mean age = 30.7 years) than the nondissociative depression women (mean age = 39.6 years). There was no difference between the 2 groups on comorbid somatization disorder, PTSD, or borderline personality disorder. Besides suicide attempts, the dissociative group was characterized by secondary features of dissociative identity disorder; Schneiderian symptoms; borderline personality disorder criteria; and extrasensory perceptions, including possession experiences. They reported suicidality, thoughts of guilt and worthlessness, diminished concentration and indecisiveness, and appetite and weight changes more frequently than the nondissociative group. Early cessation of school education and childhood sexual abuse were frequently reported by the dissociative depression group. With its distinct features, the concept of dissociative depression may facilitate understanding of treatment resistance in, development of better psychotherapy strategies for, and new thinking on the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders.

  13. Childhood Stuttering and Dissociations across Linguistic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie D.; Pellowski, Mark W.; Conture, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possible presence of dissociations in the speech and language skills of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) using a correlation-based statistical procedure [Bates, E., Appelbaum, M., Salcedo, J., Saygin, A. P., & Pizzamiglio, L. (2003). Quantifying dissociations in…

  14. [Dissociative disorder and self-injury].

    PubMed

    Noma, Shun'ichi

    2011-01-01

    Both the number of patients with dissociative disorder and that of those with self-injury have been increasing since the end of the twentieth century, suggesting that dissociation and self-injury might be closely related. When dissociative disorder coexists with self-injury, it implies self-punishment and a wish to be understood by others. Although many cases of self-injury observed since 2000 lacked traumatic experiences and were not accompanied by pathological dissociative symptoms, the patients did have dissociative tendencies. According to the results of our study examining self-injury in patients with eating disorders, we observed that self-injury, dissociative tendency and insulation from others are related to each other. This suggests that affects, sensations and representations are dissociated, losing their normal response order, and that the pervasive idea that "pain=secure" is formed in a patient from childhood based on influence from their parents. Self-injury appears to be an activation of this pervasive idea that is triggered by a stressful situation, when the dissociative psychological segmentation of effects and their representations are present in the background.

  15. Cognitive and dissociative manifestations in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Frank; Katz, Robert S; Mills, Megan; Heard, Amy R

    2002-04-01

    Memory decline and mental confusion frequently complicate the clinical presentation of fibromyalgia; however, formal cognitive examination often does not support deterioration. This paradox was examined in the context of dissociation, a condition with many cognitive similarities. Dissociation refers to the separation of parts of experience from the mainstream of consciousness. A common example is highway hypnosis. Eighty-nine fibromyalgia (FM) patients and 64 other rheumatic disease patients were screened for memory decline and mental confusion using a questionnaire format. Pain, dissociation, affective distress, fatigue, sleep difficulty, and mental confusion were also assessed. Cognitive complaints (76.4%-43.8%) and dissociative symptoms (37.1%-1.9%) were overrepresented in patients with FM. Among FM patients with high dissociation, cognitive difficulties were reported by 95%; 100% of these cases reported that both memory and mental clarity were affected, a condition referred to as fibrofog. Dissociation in combination with fibrofog was associated with higher levels of FM symptom intensity and decreased mental well being. These findings suggest that dissociation may play a role in FM symptom amplification and may aid in comprehending the regularity of cognitive symptoms. Separating cases of fibrofog from cognitive conditions with actual brain damage is important. It may be prudent to add a test of dissociation as an adjunct to the evaluation of FM patients in cases of suspected fibrofog. Otherwise, test results may prove normal even in patients with disabling cognitive symptoms.

  16. A Hierarchical Process-Dissociation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Lu, Jun; Morey, Richard D.; Sun, Dongchu; Speckman, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    In fitting the process-dissociation model (L. L. Jacoby, 1991) to observed data, researchers aggregate outcomes across participant, items, or both. T. Curran and D. L. Hintzman (1995) demonstrated how biases from aggregation may lead to artifactual support for the model. The authors develop a hierarchical process-dissociation model that does not…

  17. Infrared Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Jet Propulsion Laboratory Technical Support Package (TSP) describing a technique for processing data from an infrared radiometer assisted a manufacturer of laminates for printed circuit boards. To reduce emissions and lower the cost of producing prepreg (a continuous glass cloth, or web, impregnated with epoxy resin and partially cured by applying heat), Norplex Oak switched to infrared treating towers. The TSP confirmed the company's computer prediction of heat flux patterns, provided information that allowed the company to modify infrared treaters for consistency, and furnished a basis for development of optimal heater placements. The treaters are now successfully operating at increased speeds with improved product consistency.

  18. The expectancy of threat and peritraumatic dissociation

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Pamela; Bryant, Richard A.; Silove, Derrick; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; McFarlane, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Peritraumatic dissociation is one of the most critical acute responses to a traumatic experience, partly because it predicts subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite this, there is little understanding about the factors that influence peritraumatic dissociation. This study investigated the extent to which peritraumatic dissociation is predicted by the amount of perceived warning that participants had of the impact of the trauma. Method Randomized eligible admissions to four major trauma hospitals (N=243) were assessed during hospital admission with the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) and the perceived warning that participants had before the trauma impact occurred. Results Whereas female gender predicted both Awareness and Derealization subscale scores on the PDEQ, perceived warning also predicted scores on the Derealization subscale. Conclusions This finding suggests that the degree of anticipated threat may contribute to peritraumatic dissociation. PMID:24363835

  19. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    PubMed Central

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  20. Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of the Dissociative Encoding Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review, we summarize the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus, initial evidence points more toward a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation. PMID:22348400

  1. Why Infrared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses applications of techniques developed for the remote sensing of infrared radiation. In addition to military applications, remote sensing has become important in collecting environmental data and detecting ecological problems. (JR)

  2. Semiclassical analysis of long-wavelength multiphoton processes: The Rydberg atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela-Arevalo, Luz V.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2004-06-01

    We study the problem of multiphoton processes for intense, long-wavelength irradiation of atomic and molecular electrons. An exact, nonperturbative approach is applied to the standard vector potential coupling Hamiltonian for a three-dimensional hydrogenlike atom in a microwave field treated semiclassically. Multiphoton probability exchange is calculated in both the velocity and the length gauges, by applying the Goeppert-Mayer gauge transformation. The expansion of the time-dependent solution in terms of Floquet states delineates the mechanism of multiphoton transitions. A detailed analysis of the Floquet states and quasienergies as functions of the field parameters allows us to describe the relation between avoided quasienergy crossings and multiphoton probability exchange. We formulate analytical expressions for the variation of quasienergies and Floquet states with respect to the field parameters, and demonstrate that avoided quasienergy crossings are accompanied by dramatic changes in the Floquet states. Analysis of the Floquet states, for small values of the field strength, yields selection rules for the avoided quasienergy crossings. In the case of strong fields, the simultaneous choice of frequency and strength of the field producing an avoided crossing results in improved ionization probability.

  3. Multi-photon transitions and Rabi resonance in continuous wave EPR.

    PubMed

    Saiko, Alexander P; Fedaruk, Ryhor; Markevich, Siarhei A

    2015-10-01

    The study of microwave-radiofrequency multi-photon transitions in continuous wave (CW) EPR spectroscopy is extended to a Rabi resonance condition, when the radio frequency of the magnetic-field modulation matches the Rabi frequency of a spin system in the microwave field. Using the non-secular perturbation theory based on the Bogoliubov averaging method, the analytical description of the response of the spin system is derived for all modulation frequency harmonics. When the modulation frequency exceeds the EPR linewidth, multi-photon transitions result in sidebands in absorption EPR spectra measured with phase-sensitive detection at any harmonic. The saturation of different-order multi-photon transitions is shown to be significantly different and to be sensitive to the Rabi resonance. The noticeable frequency shifts of sidebands are found to be the signatures of this resonance. The inversion of two-photon lines in some spectral intervals of the out-of-phase first-harmonic signal is predicted under passage through the Rabi resonance. The inversion indicates the transition from absorption to stimulated emission or vice versa, depending on the sideband. The manifestation of the primary and secondary Rabi resonance is also demonstrated in the time evolution of steady-state EPR signals formed by all harmonics of the modulation frequency. Our results provide a theoretical framework for future developments in multi-photon CW EPR spectroscopy, which can be useful for samples with long spin relaxation times and extremely narrow EPR lines. PMID:26295168

  4. Multiphoton ionization studies of WF{sub 6} and UF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Harkins, D.A.; Armstrong, D.P.; Compton, R.N.; Ding, Dajun

    1993-07-01

    Multiphoton ionization of UF{sub 6} and WF{sub 6} has been studied from low ({approximately} 10{sup 5}) to high ({approximately}10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}) power density. The role of ``collective states`` in MPI is considered.

  5. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. II. Bipartite systems, physical processes, and heterodyne squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    Extending the scheme developed for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the preceding paper [

    F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033812 (2004)
    ], we introduce two-mode nonlinear canonical transformations depending on two heterodyne mixing angles. They are defined in terms of Hermitian nonlinear functions that realize heterodyne superpositions of conjugate quadratures of bipartite systems. The canonical transformations diagonalize a class of Hamiltonians describing nondegenerate and degenerate multiphoton processes. We determine the coherent states associated with the canonical transformations, which generalize the nondegenerate two-photon squeezed states. Such heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states are defined as the simultaneous eigenstates of the transformed, coupled annihilation operators. They are generated by nonlinear unitary evolutions acting on two-mode squeezed states. They are non-Gaussian, highly nonclassical, entangled states. For a quadratic nonlinearity the heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states define two-mode cubic phase states. The statistical properties of these states can be widely adjusted by tuning the heterodyne mixing angles, the phases of the nonlinear couplings, as well as the strength of the nonlinearity. For quadratic nonlinearity, we study the higher-order contributions to the susceptibility in nonlinear media and we suggest possible experimental realizations of multiphoton conversion processes generating the cubic-phase heterodyne squeezed states.

  6. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. II. Bipartite systems, physical processes, and heterodyne squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    Extending the scheme developed for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the preceding paper [F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033812 (2004)], we introduce two-mode nonlinear canonical transformations depending on two heterodyne mixing angles. They are defined in terms of Hermitian nonlinear functions that realize heterodyne superpositions of conjugate quadratures of bipartite systems. The canonical transformations diagonalize a class of Hamiltonians describing nondegenerate and degenerate multiphoton processes. We determine the coherent states associated with the canonical transformations, which generalize the nondegenerate two-photon squeezed states. Such heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states are defined as the simultaneous eigenstates of the transformed, coupled annihilation operators. They are generated by nonlinear unitary evolutions acting on two-mode squeezed states. They are non-Gaussian, highly nonclassical, entangled states. For a quadratic nonlinearity the heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states define two-mode cubic phase states. The statistical properties of these states can be widely adjusted by tuning the heterodyne mixing angles, the phases of the nonlinear couplings, as well as the strength of the nonlinearity. For quadratic nonlinearity, we study the higher-order contributions to the susceptibility in nonlinear media and we suggest possible experimental realizations of multiphoton conversion processes generating the cubic-phase heterodyne squeezed states.

  7. The Multiphoton Interaction of Lambda Model Atom and Two-Mode Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tang-Kun

    1996-01-01

    The system of two-mode fields interacting with atom by means of multiphotons is addressed, and the non-classical statistic quality of two-mode fields with interaction is discussed. Through mathematical calculation, some new rules of non-classical effects of two-mode fields which evolue with time, are established.

  8. Clinical combination of multiphoton tomography and high frequency ultrasound imaging for evaluation of skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, K.; Speicher, M.; Koehler, M. J.; Scharenberg, R.; Elsner, P.; Kaatz, M.

    2010-02-01

    For the first time, high frequency ultrasound imaging, multiphoton tomography, and dermoscopy were combined in a clinical study. Different dermatoses such as benign and malign skin cancers, connective tissue diseases, inflammatory skin diseases and autoimmune bullous skin diseases have been investigated with (i) state-of-the-art and highly sophisticated ultrasound systems for dermatology, (ii) the femtosecond-laser multiphoton tomograph DermaInspectTM and (iii) dermoscopes. Dermoscopy provides two-dimensional color imaging of the skin surface with a magnification up to 70x. Ultrasound images are generated from reflections of the emitted ultrasound signal, based on inhomogeneities of the tissue. These echoes are converted to electrical signals. Depending on the ultrasound frequency the penetration depth varies from about 1 mm to 16 mm in dermatological application. The 100-MHz-ultrasound system provided an axial resolution down to 16 μm and a lateral resolution down to 32 μm. In contrast to the wide-field ultrasound images, multiphoton tomography provided horizontal optical sections of 0.36×0.36 mm2 down to 200 μm tissue depth with submicron resolution. The autofluorescence of mitochondrial coenzymes, melanin, and elastin as well as the secondharmonic- generation signal of the collagen network were imaged. The combination of ultrasound and multiphoton tomography provides a novel opportunity for diagnostics of skin disorders.

  9. Multiphoton imaging microscopy at deeper layers with adaptive optics control of spherical aberration.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Juan M; Skorsetz, Martin; Palacios, Raquel; Gualda, Emilio J; Artal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the inherent confocality and optical sectioning capabilities of multiphoton microscopy, three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of thick samples is limited by the specimen-induced aberrations. The combination of immersion objectives and sensorless adaptive optics (AO) techniques has been suggested to overcome this difficulty. However, a complex plane-by-plane correction of aberrations is required, and its performance depends on a set of image-based merit functions. We propose here an alternative approach to increase penetration depth in 3-D multiphoton microscopy imaging. It is based on the manipulation of the spherical aberration (SA) of the incident beam with an AO device while performing fast tomographic multiphoton imaging. When inducing SA, the image quality at best focus is reduced; however, better quality images are obtained from deeper planes within the sample. This is a compromise that enables registration of improved 3-D multiphoton images using nonimmersion objectives. Examples on ocular tissues and nonbiological samples providing different types of nonlinear signal are presented. The implementation of this technique in a future clinical instrument might provide a better visualization of corneal structures in living eyes.

  10. Simultaneous resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization and electron avalanche ionization in gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Zhang Zhili; Miles, Richard B.

    2008-07-15

    Resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and electron avalanche ionization (EAI) are measured simultaneously in Ar:Xe mixtures at different partial pressures of mixture components. A simple theory for combined REMPI+EAI in gas mixture is developed. It is shown that the REMPI electrons seed the avalanche process, and thus the avalanche process amplifies the REMPI signal. Possible applications are discussed.

  11. Electron energy spectrum and maximum disruption angle under multi-photon beamstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoya, Kaoru; Chen, Pisin

    1989-03-01

    The final electron energy spectrum under multi-photon beamstrahlung process is derived analytically in the classical and the intermediate regimes. The maximum disruption angle from the low energy tail of the spectrum is also estimated. The results are then applied to the TLC and the CLIC parameters. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Fluorescence excitation and multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of 3-methylindole in a supersonic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, T. R.; Henke, W. E.; Selzle, H. L.; Schlag, E. W.

    1983-05-01

    The fluorescence excitation and multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of 3-methylindole (skatole) is reported. One electronic origin ( 1L b) is assigned at 34875 cm -1, the second ( 1L a) suspected at 35483 cm -1. Some 1L b vibrational assignments are also made. Complex formation between skatole and some small molecules is indicated but not directly observed.

  13. A multiphoton ionization technique for the determination of the ionization threshold of molecules in fluid media

    SciTech Connect

    Faidas, H.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    A new laser-induced multiphoton conductivity technique for the determination of the ionization threshold of molecules in fluids (liquids and dense gases) is described. Results are presented and discussed on aromatic molecules in nonpolar fluids. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Experimental measurements of multiphoton enhanced air breakdown by a subthreshold intensity excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Way, Jesse; Hummelt, Jason; Scharer, John

    2009-10-15

    This work presents density, spectroscopic temperature, and shockwave measurements of laser induced breakdown plasma in atmospheric air by subthreshold intensity (5.5x10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}) 193 nm laser radiation. Using molecular spectroscopy and two-wavelength interferometry, it is shown that substantial ionization (>10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) occurs that is not predicted by collisional cascade (CC) breakdown theory. While the focused laser irradiance is three orders of magnitude below the theoretical collisional breakdown threshold, the substantial photon energy at 193 nm (6.42 eV/photon) compared with the ionization potential of air (15.6 eV) significantly increases the probability of multiphoton ionization effects. By spectroscopically monitoring the intensity of the N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative system (B {sup 2}SIGMA{sub u}{sup +}-X {sup 2}SIGMA{sub g}{sup +}) vibrational bandhead (v{sup '}=0,v{sup ''}=0) at low pressure (20 Torr) where multiphoton effects are dominant, it is shown that two photon excitation, resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization is the primary mechanism for quantized ionization of N{sub 2} to the N{sub 2}{sup +}(B {sup 2}SIGMA{sub u}{sup +}) state. This multiphoton effect then serves to amplify the collisional breakdown process at higher pressures by electron seeding, thereby reducing the threshold intensity from that required via CC processes for breakdown and producing high density laser formed plasmas.

  15. Ex vivo applications of multiphoton microscopy in urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Manu; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2016-03-01

    Background: Routine urological surgery frequently requires rapid on-site histopathological tissue evaluation either during biopsy or intra-operative procedure. However, resected tissue needs to undergo processing, which is not only time consuming but may also create artifacts hindering real-time tissue assessment. Likewise, pathologist often relies on several ancillary methods, in addition to H&E to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. Although, helpful these techniques are tedious and time consuming and often show overlapping results. Therefore, there is a need for an imaging tool that can rapidly assess tissue in real-time at cellular level. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is one such technique that can generate histology-quality images from fresh and fixed tissue solely based on their intrinsic autofluorescence emission, without the need for tissue processing or staining. Design: Fresh tissue sections (neoplastic and non-neoplastic) from biopsy and surgical specimens of bladder and kidney were obtained. Unstained deparaffinized slides from biopsy of medical kidney disease and oncocytic renal neoplasms were also obtained. MPM images were acquired using with an Olympus FluoView FV1000MPE system. After imaging, fresh tissues were submitted for routine histopathology. Results: Based on the architectural and cellular details of the tissue, MPM could characterize normal components of bladder and kidney. Neoplastic tissue could be differentiated from non-neoplastic tissue and could be further classified as per histopathological convention. Some of the tumors had unique MPM signatures not otherwise seen on H&E sections. Various subtypes of glomerular lesions were identified as well as renal oncocytic neoplasms were differentiated on unstained deparaffinized slides. Conclusions: We envision MPM to become an integral part of regular diagnostic workflow for rapid assessment of tissue. MPM can be used to evaluate the adequacy of biopsies and triage tissues for ancillary studies

  16. Dissociation dynamics in the dissociative electron attachment to carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2015-05-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to gas phase CO2 has been probed using a velocity slice imaging technique. DEA to CO2 produces only an O- ionic fragment and shows two major resonances located at 4.4 and 8.2 eV, respectively. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of the O- ions are measured around the second resonance with higher efficiency and sensitivity that provide details of the DEA dynamics. The kinetic energy distributions are in good agreement with the previous reports. However, the distinct angular distributions show substantial difference from the two recent studies within the limited electron energies. Our angular distribution results show two negative ion resonant states are involved in the underlying DEA process at the entire electron energies over the second resonance. We discussed the recent conflicting findings in the angular distribution results. The forward-backward asymmetry observed in the angular distributions is explained due to the interference effect of different partial waves associated with the attaching electron.

  17. From state dissociation to status dissociatus.

    PubMed

    Antelmi, Elena; Ferri, Raffaele; Iranzo, Alex; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves; Bhatia, Kailash P; Liguori, Rocco; Schenck, Carlos H; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The states of being are conventionally defined by the simultaneous occurrence of behavioral, neurophysiological and autonomic descriptors. State dissociation disorders are due to the intrusion of features typical of a different state into an ongoing state. Disorders related to these conditions are classified according to the ongoing main state and comprise: 1) Dissociation from prevailing wakefulness as seen in hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, automatic behaviors, sleep drunkenness, cataplexy and sleep paralysis 2) Dissociation from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as seen in REM sleep behavior disorder and lucid dreaming and 3) Dissociation from NREM sleep as seen in the disorders of arousal. The extreme expression of states dissociation is characterized by the asynchronous occurrence of the various components of the different states that prevents the recognition of any state of being. This condition has been named status dissociatus. According to the underlying disorders/diseases and to their severity, among status dissociatus we may recognize disorders in which such an extreme dissociation occurs only at night time or intermittently (i.e., autoimmune encephalopathies, narcolepsy type 1 and IgLON5 parasomnia), and others in which it occurs nearly continuously with complete loss of any conventionally defined state of being, and of the circadian pattern (agrypnia excitata). Here, we render a comprehensive review of all diseases/disorders associated with state dissociation and status dissociatus and propose a critical classification of this complex scenario. PMID:26431902

  18. From state dissociation to status dissociatus.

    PubMed

    Antelmi, Elena; Ferri, Raffaele; Iranzo, Alex; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves; Bhatia, Kailash P; Liguori, Rocco; Schenck, Carlos H; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The states of being are conventionally defined by the simultaneous occurrence of behavioral, neurophysiological and autonomic descriptors. State dissociation disorders are due to the intrusion of features typical of a different state into an ongoing state. Disorders related to these conditions are classified according to the ongoing main state and comprise: 1) Dissociation from prevailing wakefulness as seen in hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, automatic behaviors, sleep drunkenness, cataplexy and sleep paralysis 2) Dissociation from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as seen in REM sleep behavior disorder and lucid dreaming and 3) Dissociation from NREM sleep as seen in the disorders of arousal. The extreme expression of states dissociation is characterized by the asynchronous occurrence of the various components of the different states that prevents the recognition of any state of being. This condition has been named status dissociatus. According to the underlying disorders/diseases and to their severity, among status dissociatus we may recognize disorders in which such an extreme dissociation occurs only at night time or intermittently (i.e., autoimmune encephalopathies, narcolepsy type 1 and IgLON5 parasomnia), and others in which it occurs nearly continuously with complete loss of any conventionally defined state of being, and of the circadian pattern (agrypnia excitata). Here, we render a comprehensive review of all diseases/disorders associated with state dissociation and status dissociatus and propose a critical classification of this complex scenario.

  19. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment.

  20. Wavepacket theory of collisional dissociation in molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kulander, K.

    1980-01-01

    An explicit integration scheme is used to solve the time dependent Schroedinger equation for wavepackets which model collisions in the collinear H + H/sub 2/ system. A realistic LEPS-type potential energy surface is used. Collision energies considered are above the dissociation threshold and probabilities for collision induced dissociation are reported. Also quantum mechanical state-to-state transition probabilities are generated. These results are compared to extensive classical trajectory calculations performed on this same system. The time evolution of the wavepacket densities is studied to understand the dynamics of the collinear collisional dissociation process.

  1. Dissociative Ionization of Pyridine by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher; Huo, Winifred; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand the damage of biomolecules by electrons, a process important in radiation damage, we undertake a study of the dissociative ionization (DI) of pyridine (C5H5N) from the low-lying ionization channels. The methodology used is the same as in the benzene study. While no experimental DI data are available, we compare the dissociation products from our calculations with the dissociative photoionization measurements of Tixier et al. using dipole (e, e(+) ion) coincidence spectroscopy. Comparisons with the DI of benzene is also made so as to understand the difference in DI between a heterocyclic and an aromatic molecule.

  2. Products of Dissociative Recombination in the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosby, Philip

    1996-01-01

    SRI International undertook a novel experimental measurement of the product states formed by dissociative ro-combination (DR) of C2(+), NO(+), and N2(+) as a function of both electron energy and reactant ion vibrational level. For these measurements we used a recently developed experimental technique for measuring dissociation product distributions that allows both the branching ratios to be accurately determined and the electronic and ro-vibrational state composition of the reactant ions to be specified. DR is the dominant electron loss mechanism in all regions of the ionosphere. In this process, electron attachment to the molecular ion produces an unstable neutral molecule that rapidly dissociates.

  3. Theory of dissociative tunneling ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensmark, Jens; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the dissociative tunneling ionization process. Analytic expressions for the nuclear kinetic energy distribution of the ionization rates are derived. A particularly simple expression for the spectrum is found by using the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation in conjunction with the reflection principle. These spectra are compared to exact non-BO ab initio spectra obtained through model calculations with a quantum mechanical treatment of both the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. In the regime where the BO approximation is applicable, imaging of the BO nuclear wave function is demonstrated to be possible through reverse use of the reflection principle, when accounting appropriately for the electronic ionization rate. A qualitative difference between the exact and BO wave functions in the asymptotic region of large electronic distances is shown. Additionally, the behavior of the wave function across the turning line is seen to be reminiscent of light refraction. For weak fields, where the BO approximation does not apply, the weak-field asymptotic theory describes the spectrum accurately.

  4. Dissociative recombination of CH4(+).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard D; Kashperka, Iryna; Vigren, E; Geppert, Wolf D; Hamberg, Mathias; Larsson, Mats; af Ugglas, Magnus; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali

    2013-10-01

    CH4(+) is an important molecular ion in the astrochemistry of diffuse clouds, dense clouds, cometary comae, and planetary ionospheres. However, the rate of one of the common destruction mechanisms for molecular ions in these regions, dissociative recombination (DR), is somewhat uncertain. Here, we present absolute measurements for the DR of CH4(+) made using the heavy ion storage ring CRYRING in Stockholm, Sweden. From our collision-energy dependent cross-sections, we infer a thermal rate constant of k(Te) = 1.71(±0.02) × 10(–6)(Te/300)(−0.66(±0.02)) cm3 s(–1) over the region of electron temperatures 10 ≤ Te ≤ 1000 K. At low collision energies, we have measured the branching fractions of the DR products to be CH4 (0.00 ± 0.00); CH3 + H (0.18 ± 0.03); CH2 + 2H (0.51 ± 0.03); CH2 + H2 (0.06 ± 0.01); CH + H2 + H (0.23 ± 0.01); and CH + 2H2 (0.02 ± 0.01), indicating that two or more C–H bonds are broken in 80% of all collisions.

  5. Taming microwave plasma to beat thermodynamics in CO2 dissociation.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, G J; van den Bekerom, D C M; den Harder, N; Minea, T; Berden, G; Bongers, W A; Engeln, R; Graswinckel, M F; Zoethout, E; van de Sanden, M C M

    2015-01-01

    The strong non-equilibrium conditions provided by the plasma phase offer the opportunity to beat traditional thermal process energy efficiencies via preferential excitation of molecular vibrations. Simple molecular physics considerations are presented to explain potential dissociation pathways in plasma and their effect on energy efficiency. A common microwave reactor approach is evaluated experimentally with Rayleigh scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to assess gas temperatures (exceeding 10(4) K) and conversion degrees (up to 30%), respectively. The results are interpreted on a basis of estimates of the plasma dynamics obtained with electron energy distribution functions calculated with a Boltzmann solver. It indicates that the intrinsic electron energies are higher than is favorable for preferential vibrational excitation due to dissociative excitation, which causes thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry to dominate. The highest observed energy efficiencies of 45% indicate that non-equilibrium dynamics had been at play. A novel approach involving additives of low ionization potential to tailor the electron energies to the vibrational excitation regime is proposed.

  6. [Significance of and considerations relating to the diagnosis of dissociation].

    PubMed

    Koreki, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    Dissociation involves a variety of clinical concepts, and some disorders are also similar to but not the same as dissociation. Dissociative disorder is considered to be a pathological phenomenon based on a psychological mechanism. Accurate diagnosis is very important to ensure that patients receive adequate treatment, although such consideration is not unique to dissociative disorder. Accordingly, there is a need to carefully distinguish dissociation from other disorders. In this article, we outline a number of dissociative and dissociative-like states from the symptoms of amnesia, depersonalization and switching. In particular, we highlight the differences between transient global amnesia and dissociative amnesia, and imaginary companions and dissociative alter personality. Additionally, as the symptoms of conditions such as dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder are easily confused, we also made efforts to organize them.

  7. Infrared Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive infrared camera that observes the blazing plumes from the Space Shuttle or expendable rocket lift-offs is capable of scanning for fires, monitoring the environment and providing medical imaging. The hand-held camera uses highly sensitive arrays in infrared photodetectors known as quantum well infrared photo detectors (QWIPS). QWIPS were developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Center for Space Microelectronics Technology in partnership with Amber, a Raytheon company. In October 1996, QWIP detectors pointed out hot spots of the destructive fires speeding through Malibu, California. Night vision, early warning systems, navigation, flight control systems, weather monitoring, security and surveillance are among the duties for which the camera is suited. Medical applications are also expected.

  8. Infrared Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Diatek Corporation, San Diego, CA and the Jet Propulsion Lab developed the Diatek Model 7000 aural thermometer which weighs only eight ounces, and measures temperature in less than two seconds using infrared astronomy technology to measure the amount of infrared energy emitted by the eardrum (the same way temperature of stars and planets is measured). This method avoids contact with mucous membranes, virtually eliminating the possibility of cross infection, and permits temperature measurement of newborn, critically ill, or incapacitated patients. Diatek Corporation was purchased by Welch Allyn Inc. The Diatek Model 7000 is now marketed as SureTemp.

  9. Infrared Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Earth objects emit natural radiation invisible to the unaided human eye, but visible to infrared scanning devices such as the device developed by Inframetrics, Inc. Such devices serve a number of purposes ranging from detection of heat loss in buildings for energy conservation measures, to examining heat output of industrial machinery for trouble shooting and preventive maintenance. Representative of system is Model 525, a small, lightweight field instrument that scans infrared radiation and translates its findings to a TV picture of the temperature pattern in the scene being viewed. An accessory device permits viewing the thermal radiation in color.

  10. Infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

  11. Collision-induced gas phase dissociation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. Frederick

    1990-01-01

    The Landau-Zener theory of reactive cross sections was applied to diatomic molecules dissociating from a ladder of vibrational states. The result predicts a dissociation rate that is quite well duplicated by an Arrhenius function having a preexponential temperature dependence of about T(sub -1/2), at least for inert collision partners. This relation fits experimental data reasonably well. The theory is then used to calculate the effect of vibrational nonequilibrium on dissociation rate. For Morse oscillators, the results are about the same as given by Hammerling, Kivel, and Teare in their analytic approximation for harmonic oscillators, though at very high temperature a correction for the partition function limit is included. The empirical correction for vibration nonequilibrium proposed by Park, which is a convenient algorithm for CFD calculations, is modified to prevent a drastic underestimation of dissociation rates that occurs with this method when vibrational temperature is much smaller than the kinetic temperature of the gas.

  12. Research Reports: Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in bizarre or dangerous behavior. Hallucinogens such as LSD, psilocybin, peyote, DMT, and ayahuasca cause emotions to ... Take Hallucinogenic or Dissociative Drugs? How Do Hallucinogens (LSD, Psilocybin, Peyote, DMT, and Ayahuasca) Affect the Brain ...

  13. Dissociative identity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Aydemir, Ertugrul H; Oguz, Oya

    2006-06-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rare psychiatric condition characterized by rubbing of skin blisters and denial of self-infliction. Dissociation may be comorbid with self-injurious behavior. A background of emotional disturbances during formative years and in later life often results in feelings of isolation and insecurity, which can lead to dissociation as a primary defense mechanism used to overcome traumatic events. In this case report, we describe a female patient with dermatitis artefacta associated with dissociative identity disorder. The patient was a 14-year-old girl. Multiple large, deep ulcerations with unnatural shapes were seen on her left forearm. The ulcerations were thought to be self-inflicted. Psychiatric examination revealed that she had a different identity, and inflicted the lesions when this was assumed. This case leads us to suggest that patients with dermatitis artefacta might have comorbid dissociative experiences, which cannot be identified easily.

  14. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  15. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  16. The relational treatment of dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Burton, N; Lane, R C

    2001-03-01

    The intent of this paper is to review the literature pertaining to the transference and countertransference components in the treatment of dissociative identity disorder. Aspects of transference and countertransference are presented and discussed within the relational psychoanalytic model. The functions of empathy, enactment, projective identification, and transitional objects are reviewed. Specific attitudes in the transference and countertransference are illuminated and major transference themes are discussed. Finally, a case vignette illustrates some of the central issues involved in the treatment of dissociative identity disorder.

  17. The tactical-integration model for the treatment of dissociative identity disorder and allied dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Fine, C G

    1999-01-01

    The ebb and flow of the diagnosis of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and other dissociative conditions has led to the evolution of theories and treatment modalities to resolve the fluctuating and ephemerous symptoms of these conditions. This paper summarizes the structured cognitive-behavioral-based treatment of dissociative disorders that will foster not only symptom relief but also an integration of the personalities and/or ego states into one mainstream of consciousness. This model of DID therapy is called the tactical integration model; it promotes proficiency over posttraumatic and dissociative symptoms, is collaborative and exploratory, and conveys a consistent message of empowerment to the patient.

  18. Subunit dissociations in natural and recombinant hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Manning, L R; Jenkins, W T; Hess, J R; Vandegriff, K; Winslow, R M; Manning, J M

    1996-04-01

    A precise and rapid procedure employing gel filtration on Superose-12 to measure the tetramer-dimer dissociation constants of some natural and recombinant hemoglobins in the oxy conformation is described. Natural sickle hemoglobin was chosen to verify the validity of the results by comparing the values with those reported using an independent method not based on gel filtration. Recombinant sickle hemoglobin, as well as a sickle double mutant with a substitution at the Val-6(beta) receptor site, had approximately the same dissociation constant as natural sickle hemoglobin. Of the two recombinant hemoglobins with amino acid replacements in the alpha 1 beta 2 subunit interface, one was found to be extensively dissociated and the other completely dissociated. In addition, the absence of an effect of the allosteric regulators DPG and IHP on the dissociation constant was demonstrated. Thus, a tetramer dissociation constant can now be determined readily and used together with other criteria for characterization of hemoglobins and their interaction with small regulatory molecules. PMID:8845768

  19. Dissociative Ionization of Benzene by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred; Dateo, Christopher; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of the dissociative ionization (DI) of benzene from the low-lying ionization channels. Our approach makes use of the fact that electron motion is much faster than nuclear motion and DI is treated as a two-step process. The first step is electron-impact ionization resulting in an ion with the same nuclear geometry as the neutral molecule. In the second step the nuclei relax from the initial geometry and undergo unimolecular dissociation. For the ionization process we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. For the unimolecular dissociation step, we study the steepest descent reaction path to the minimum of the ion potential energy surface. The path is used to analyze the probability of unimolecular dissociation and to determine the product distributions. Our analysis of the dissociation products and the thresholds of the productions are compared with the result dissociative photoionization measurements of Feng et al. The partial oscillator strengths from Feng et al. are then used in the iBED cross section calculations.

  20. Unimolecular dissociation of cyclopentadiene and indene

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, W.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Bersohn, R. )

    1991-05-01

    The dissociation of hydrogen atoms from the methylene group of cyclopentadiene (CP) and indene (ID) excited with a 193 nm photon has been studied by hydrogen atom laser induced fluorescence. The rate of dissociation of IND was 7.4{times}10{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1} but that of CP was too fast to measure. The ratio of H atoms to D atoms generated from 5-deuteriocyclopentadiene (5-dCP) was 3.91{plus minus}0.46. Rice--Ramsberger--Kassel--Marcus theory was used to calculate the rates of dissociation of CP and 5-dCP. The quantum yield for dissociating H atoms from CP was 0.85{plus minus}0.07. The ejected H atoms have a Maxwell velocity distribution with temperatures which are equal to the vibrational temperatures, 3690 and 2479 K for CP and IND, respectively. The most important result of the work is this confirmation of an earlier finding on a different set of molecules that the translational temperature of the fragments {ital after} the dissociation is equal to the vibrational temperature {ital before} the dissociation. This is explained by the assumption that the motion of the fast, light hydrogen atom is partly decoupled from that of the heavier, slower atoms.

  1. Fast kinetics of calcium dissociation from calsequestrin.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Marianela; Barrientos, Genaro; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    We measured the kinetics of calcium dissociation from calsequestrin in solution or forming part of isolated junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes by mixing calsequestrin equilibrated with calcium with calcium-free solutions in a stopped-flow system. In parallel, we measured the kinetics of the intrinsic fluorescence changes that take place following calcium dissociation from calsequestrin. We found that at 25 degrees C calcium dissociation was 10-fold faster for calsequestrin attached to junctional membranes (k = 109 s(-1)) than in solution. These results imply that calcium dissociation from calsequestrin in vivo is not rate limiting during excitation-contraction coupling. In addition, we found that the intrinsic fluorescence decrease for calsequestrin in solution or forming part of junctional membranes was significantly slower than the rates of calcium dissociation. The kinetics of intrinsic fluorescence changes had two components for calsequestrin associated to junctional membranes and only one for calsequestrin in solution; the faster component was 8-fold faster (k = 54.1 s(-1)) than the slower component (k = 6.9 s(-1)), which had the same k value as for calsequestrin in solution. These combined results suggest that the presence of calsequestrin at high concentrations in a restricted space, such as when bound to the junctional membrane, accelerates calcium dissociation and the resulting structural changes, presumably as a result of cooperative molecular interactions. PMID:17106581

  2. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  3. Infrared Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefers, John

    2006-01-01

    An infrared (IR) thermometer lab offers the opportunity to give science students a chance to measure surface temperatures, utilizing off-the-shelf technology. Potential areas of study include astronomy (exoplanets), electromagnetic spectrum, chemistry, evaporation rates, anatomy, crystal formation, and water or liquids. This article presents one…

  4. Discriminating among diagnostic categories using the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A; Ellason, Joan Weathersbee

    2005-04-01

    The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 1,308 subjects in eight diagnostic categories, including 296 with dissociative identity disorder. The study tested three hypotheses: (1) the Mahalanobis distance between dissociative identity disorder and each of seven other diagnostic categories would be large, (2) the closest diagnostic category to dissociative identity disorder would be dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and (3) nondissociative diagnostic categories would be closer to each other than any one to dissociative identity disorder. All three hypotheses were confirmed by these data. The findings support the conclusion that dissociative identity disorder is a discrete category or taxon.

  5. High-fidelity spatially resolved multiphoton counting for quantum imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2014-09-01

    We present a method for spatially resolved multiphoton counting based on an intensified camera with the retrieval of multimode photon statistics fully accounting for nonlinearities in the detection process. The scheme relies on one-time quantum tomographic calibration of the detector. Faithful, high-fidelity reconstruction of single- and two-mode statistics of multiphoton states is demonstrated for coherent states and their statistical mixtures. The results consistently exhibit classical values of the Mandel parameter and the noise reduction factor in contrast to raw statistics of camera photo-events. Detector operation is reliable for illumination levels up to the average of one detected photon per an event area-substantially higher than in previous approaches to characterize quantum statistical properties of light with spatial resolution. PMID:25166081

  6. Semiclassical analysis of long-wavelength multiphoton processes: The periodically driven harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Ronald F.; Vela-Arevalo, Luz V.

    2002-11-01

    The problem of multiphoton processes for intense, long-wavelength irradiation of atomic and molecular electrons is presented. The recently developed method of quasiadiabatic time evolution is used to obtain a nonperturbative analysis. When applied to the standard vector potential coupling, an exact auxiliary equation is obtained that is in the electric dipole coupling form. This is achieved through application of the Goeppert-Mayer gauge. While the analysis to this point is general and aimed at microwave irradiation of Rydberg atoms, a Floquet analysis of the auxiliary equation is presented for the special case of the periodically driven harmonic oscillator. Closed form expressions for a complete set of Floquet states are obtained. These are used to demonstrate that for the oscillator case there are no multiphoton resonances.

  7. Nonperturbative treatments of nonresonant multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom: weak field limit

    SciTech Connect

    Trombetta, F.; Basile, S.; Ferrante, G.

    1989-04-01

    A nonperturbative treatment of the multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom based on the S matrix and devised for nonresonant strong-field situations is analyzed in the weak-field limit. Comparisons are presented with other S matrices as well as other nonperturbative approaches. Our treatment is found to perform generally better than similar S-matrix treatments. The usual perturbative results are recovered provided that the photon wavelengths are sufficiently short and are off resonance with the atomic transitions. Important indications are obtained as to the role of the atomic structure, the relevance of the gauge consistency, and the reliability and improvement of the present nonperturbative treatment. The results represent a significant step toward an assessment of the S-matrix-based treatments of multiphoton ionization.

  8. Longer wavelengths require lower intensity in multiphoton detachment of negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, M. D.; Schumacher, D. W.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Muller, H. G.; van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.

    1992-12-01

    Negative chlorine ions, held in a Penning ion trap, are irradiated by intense (up to 2×1016 W/m2) Raman-shifted light of a Nd:YAlG laser with a wavelength of 1098 nm and a pulse duration of 30 ps. Electron-energy spectra are obtained showing up to 11-photon absorption. In the case of circularly polarized light suppression of the low-energy channels is observed. A saturation intensity of (8.5+/-2.5)×1015 W/m2 is found for multiphoton detachment of Cl- by 1908-nm light. This result is counterintuitive because it is lower than the saturation intensity for multiphoton detachment at 1064 nm.

  9. Multiphoton microscopy with clearing for three dimensional histology of kidney biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Eben; Levene, Michael J.; Torres, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present a multiphoton microscopy approach with clearing optimized for pathology evaluation producing image quality comparable to traditional histology. Use of benzyl alcohol/benzyl benzoate with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and eosin in an optimized imaging setup results in optical sections nearly indistinguishable from traditionally-cut sections. Application to human renal tissue demonstrates diagnostic-level image quality can be maintained through 1 millimeter of tissue. Three dimensional perspectives reveal changes of glomerular capsule cells not evident on single sections. Collagen-derived second harmonic generation can be visualized through entire biopsies. Multiphoton microscopy with clearing has potential for increasing the yield of histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens. PMID:27570700

  10. Effect of Size-Dependent Photodestructive Efficacy by Gold Nanomaterials with Multiphoton Laser.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Tsan; Chen, Shean-Jen; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Hsien; Chen, Chang-Hsin; Yang, Chen-Han; Chou, Lawrence Chao-Shan; Chang, Jui-Cheng; Cheng, Li-Chung; Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Wang, Jiu-Yao

    2015-08-12

    The photostability, photodestructive efficacy, two-photon excitation cross section, and two-photon fluorescence of gold nanoparticles conjugated with a hydrophilic photosensitizer, indocyanine green, via multiphoton laser exhibited an increased size effect in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and A549 cancer cells that was dependent on the size of multifunctional gold nanomaterials, but the effect only occurred when nanomaterials within 100 nm in diameter were used. Besides, the enhanced effectiveness of photodestruction, photostability, and contrast probe indicated an additive effect in the therapeutic and imaging efficiency of multifunctional gold nanomaterials. Consequently, the preparation of the multifunctional gold nanomaterials and their use in biomedical applications via multiphoton laser is an alternative and potential therapeutic approach for killing bacteria and for ablating cancer cells.

  11. Enabling Multiphoton and Second Harmonic Generation Imaging in Paraffin-Embedded and Histologically Stained Sections

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Michael G.; Kroll, Sebastian; Brucker, Sara Y.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear microscopy, namely multiphoton imaging and second harmonic generation (SHG), is an established noninvasive technique useful for the imaging of extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, measurements are performed in vivo on freshly excised tissues or biopsies. In this article, we describe the effect of rehydrating paraffin-embedded sections on multiphoton and SHG emission signals and the acquisition of nonlinear images from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections before and after a destaining protocol. Our results reveal that bringing tissue sections to a physiological state yields a significant improvement in nonlinear signals, particularly in SHG. Additionally, the destaining of sections previously processed with H&E staining significantly improves their SHG emission signals during imaging, thereby allowing sufficient analysis of collagen in these sections. These results are important for researchers and pathologists to obtain additional information from paraffin-embedded tissues and archived samples to perform retrospective analysis of the ECM or gain additional information from rare samples. PMID:27018844

  12. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Zhifen; Kang, Deyong; li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections.

  13. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G.; Wei, J.; Zheng, Z.; Ye, J.; Zeng, S.

    2014-06-01

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM.

  14. Label-free discrimination of normal and pulmonary cancer tissues using multiphoton fluorescence ratiometric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Yang-Fang; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-07-01

    We performed multiphoton excited autofluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for the distinction of normal, lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) specimens. In addition to morphological distinction, we derived quantitative metrics of cellular redox ratios for cancer discrimination. Specifically, the redox ratios of paired normal/SCC and normal/LAC specimens were found to be 0.53±0.05/0.41±0.06 and 0.56±0.02/0.35±0.06, respectively. The lower redox ratios in cancer specimens, indicating an increase in metabolic activity. These results show that the combination of morphological multiphoton imaging along with redox ratio indices can be used for the discrimination of normal and pulmonary cancer tissues.

  15. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  16. Twofold symmetric angular distributions in multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, S.; Trombetta, F.; Ferrante, G.

    1988-11-21

    The angular distributions of electrons in multiphoton multichannel ionization of hydrogen for the case of elliptically polarized laser light are calculated within a nonperturbative theoretical model taking into account the Coulomb interaction in the final state. It is found that the ellipticity of the radiation not only modifies the shape but also lowers the fourfold rotational symmetry occurring in linear polarization to a twofold one.

  17. Influence of the ac Stark effect on multiphoton transitions in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerts, W. Leo; Ozier, Irving; Hougen, Jon T.

    1989-05-01

    A multiphoton mechanism for molecular beam transitions is presented which relies on a large first-order ac Stark effect to modulate the energy separation of the initial and final states of the multiphoton transition, but which does not require the presence of any intermediate level(s). The theoretical formalism uses ideas from the laser multiphoton literature for a two-level system interacting with a monochromatic electromagnetic radiation field, together with a close analog of the rotating wave approximation. The diagonal matrix elements of the Hamiltonian operator corresponding to the large ac Stark effect are removed by a mathematical substitution which in effect transforms appropriate differences of these diagonal elements into transition moments involving higher harmonics of the frequency of the monochromatic radiation field. The electric field strength of the true monochromatic radiation field is ``distributed'' among the higher harmonics of the effective field according to an expression involving Bessel functions. Because these Bessel functions are bounded, there exists for a given time t of exposure to the radiation, a threshold for the magnitude of the transition dipole matrix element coupling the two levels: Below this threshold, the transition probability in a traditional one-photon molecular beam electric resonance experiment cannot be made unity simply by increasing the amplitude of the radiation field. In fact, if the coupling matrix element is small enough, the molecular beam electric resonance signal cannot be detected within exposure time t. The algebraic formalism described above is checked by computer solution of an initial value problem involving four real coupled linear differential equations. It is then used to explain the multiphoton transitions previously observed in molecular beam electric resonance studies on the two symmetric top molecules OPF3 and CH3 CF3, where the number of photons involved in a given transition varies from 1

  18. Multiphoton Process and Anomalous Potential of Cell Membrane by Laser Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Kaixi; Zhao, Qingxun; Cui, Zhiyun; Zhar, Ping; Dong, Lifang

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, by the use of quantum biology and quantum optics, the laser induced potential variation of cell membrane has been studied. Theoretically, we have found a method of calculating the monophoton and multiphoton processes in the formation of the anomalous potential of cell membrane. In contrast with the experimental results, our numerical result is in the same order. Therefore, we have found the possibility of cancer caused by the laser induced anomalous cell potential.

  19. Multiphoton lasing in atomic potassium: Steady-state and dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Font, J. L.; Fernandez-Soler, J. J.; Vilaseca, R.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2005-12-15

    We show theoretically that it is possible to generate laser light based on two-photon and other high-order multiphoton processes when an atomic beam of optically driven potassium atoms crosses a high-finesse optical cavity. We use a rigorous model that takes into account all the atomic substates involved in the optical interactions and is valid for any drive and lasing field intensities. The polarizations of the drive and lasing fields are assumed to be fixed. Stable and unstable laser emission branches are obtained, which are represented as a function of cavity detuning and are analyzed in terms of the fundamental quantum processes yielding them. Closed-curve laser-emission profiles are obtained for multiphoton lasing based on processes involving more than one lasing photon. Two-photon laser emission branches show relatively long segments of stationary emission, combined in general with some segments of nonstationary emission, or with segments of mixture with three-photon emission processes. Rayleigh and hyper-Rayleigh processes can become simultaneously resonant, entailing in such case a large and fast transfer of population from the atomic initial ground sublevel to other ground sublevels with different z components of the total angular momentum. They could be useful in generating multiphoton correlated field states. In all cases the largest laser emission intensities are obtained from the highest-order processes, rather than the lowest. These results open the way to the understanding of experiments performed in the past years and suggest possibilities for more efficient and varied types of multiphoton laser operation.

  20. NI-78LABEL-FREE MULTIPHOTON MICROSCOPY: A NOVEL TOOL FOR THE IMAGING OF BRAIN TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Uckermann, Ortrud; Galli, Roberta; Geiger, Kathrin; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Changes in tissue composition caused by brain tumor growth involve a series of complex biochemical alterations which can be imaged on unstained native tissue using multiphoton microscopy: We used coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging that resonantly excites the symmetric stretching vibration of CH2 groups at 2850 cm−1 and visualizes lipid content in combination with imaging of endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) to discern different types of tumors from normal tissue in unstained, native brain samples. Experimental brain tumors were induced in nude mice NMRI nu/nu (n = 25) by stereotactic implantation of glioblastoma (U87), melanoma (A375) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. Label-free multiphoton microscopy of brain cryosections provided exhaustive information of the tumor morphochemistry. The tumor border was defined with cellular resolution by a strong reduction of CARS signal intensity to 61% (glioblastoma), 71% (melanoma) and 68% (breast cancer). This reduction of lipid content within the tumor was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Micrometastases infiltrating normal tissue (size 50 - 200 µm) were identified in glioblastoma and melanoma. Additionally, multiphoton microscopy proved a reduction of CARS signal intensity in all human glioblastoma samples analyzed (to 72%, n = 6). Additionally, relevant SHG and TPEF signals were detected in human primary and secondary brain tumor samples and enabled to image variations in tumor associated vasculature, fibrosis, necrosis and nuclear size and density. All primary or secondary brain tumors investigated were characterized by a lower intensity of the CARS signal, therefore offering a simple tool for objective tumor detection and delineation. The combination of techniques allows retrieving a quantity of information on native unstained tissue which is comparable to H&E staining. Therefore, label-free multiphoton microscopy has the potential to become a

  1. K*-charmonium dissociation cross sections and charmonium dissociation rates in hadronic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng-Rong; Ji, Shi-Tao; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-08-01

    K*-charmonium dissociation reactions in hadronic matter are studied in the Born approximation, in the quark-interchange mechanism, and with a temperature-dependent quark potential. We obtain the temperature dependence of the unpolarized cross sections for the reactions K^* J/ψ to bar DD_s^ + ,bar D^* D_s^ + ,bar DD_s^{* + } , and bar D^* D_s^{* + } ; K^* χ _c to bar DD_s^ + ,bar D^* D_s^ + ,bar DD_s^{* + } , and bar D^* D_s^{* + } . We use the cross sections for charmonium dissociation in collisions with pions, ρ mesons, kaons, vector kaons, and η mesons to calculate the dissociation rates of charmonium with five types of mesons. Because of the temperature dependence of the meson masses, dissociation cross sections, and meson distribution functions, the charmonium dissociation rates generally increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing charmonium momentum from 2.2 GeV/c. We find that the first derivative of the dissociation rate with respect to the charmonium momentum is zero when the charmonium is at rest. While the η + ψ' and the η + χ c dissociation reactions can be neglected, the J/ ψ, ψ', and χ c dissociations are caused by collisions with pions, ρ mesons, kaons, vector kaons, and η mesons.

  2. Dissociation and vulnerability to psychotic experience. The Dissociative Experiences Scale and the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Allen, J G; Coyne, L

    1995-10-01

    Prior research on the MMPI has cautioned against misdiagnosing schizophrenia in patients with dissociative identity disorder. The present study examined the full spectrum of the dissociative experience in relation to MMPI-2 profiles. Ninety-eight women in treatment for trauma-related disorders completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the MMPI-2 in routine inpatient diagnostic evaluations. Consistent with prior research, severe dissociation was associated with high elevations on MMPI-2 scales typically associated with psychotic symptoms. Contrary to hypotheses, the ostensibly most benign form of dissociation, absorption and imaginative involvement, was somewhat more strongly related to MMPI-2 scores than the more pathognomonic forms of dissociation, depersonalization and amnesia. Although it should not be misdiagnosed, severe impairment on the MMPI in conjunction with dissociation should be taken seriously as suggesting vulnerability to psychotic experience. The dissociative retreat from the stressors of outer reality opens the door to the inner world of traumatic images and affects, along with compromised reality testing and disorganized thinking.

  3. Dissociation in borderline personality disorder: a detailed look.

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, Marilyn I; Dell, Paul F; Links, Paul S; Thabane, Lehana; Fougere, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess in detail the whole spectrum of normal and pathological dissociative experiences and dissociative disorder (DD) diagnoses in borderline personality disorder (BPD) as diagnosed with the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Dissociation was measured comprehensively in 21 BPD outpatients using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised, the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID), the Dissociative Experiences Scale pathological taxon analysis, and the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. The frequencies of DDs in this BPD sample were as follows: 24% no DD, 29% mild DD (dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder), 24% DD Not Otherwise Specified (DDNOS), and 24% dissociative identity disorder. With regard to the dissociative experiences endorsed, almost all patients reported identity confusion, unexplained mood changes, and depersonalization. Even those BPD patients with mild DD reported derealization, depersonalization, and dissociative amnesia. BPD patients with DDNOS reported frequent depersonalization, frequent amnesia, and notable experiences of identity alteration. BPD patients with dissociative identity disorder endorsed severe dissociative symptoms in all categories. Analysis of the MID pathological dissociation items revealed that 32% of the items were endorsed at a clinically significant level of frequency by more than 50% of our BPD patients. In conclusion, the frequencies of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) DDs in these patients with BPD were surprisingly high. Likewise, the "average" BPD patient endorsed a wide variety of recurrent pathological dissociative symptoms.

  4. In vivo imaging of unstained tissues using a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Christopher M.; Rivera, David R.; Pavlova, Ina; Ouzounov, Dimitre G.; Williams, Wendy O.; Mohanan, Sunish; Webb, Watt W.; Xu, Chris

    2012-04-01

    We use a compact and flexible multiphoton microendoscope (MPME) to acquire in vivo images of unstained liver, kidney, and colon from an anesthetized rat. The device delivers femtosecond pulsed 800 nm light from the core of a raster-scanned dual-clad fiber (DCF), which is focused by a miniaturized gradient-index lens assembly into tissue. Intrinsic fluorescence and second-harmonic generation signal from the tissue is epi-collected through the core and inner clad of the same DCF. The MPME has a rigid distal tip of 3 mm in outer diameter and 4 cm in length. The image field-of-view measures 115 μm by 115 μm and was acquired at 4.1 frames/s with 75 mW illumination power at the sample. Organs were imaged after anesthetizing Sprague-Dawley rats with isofluorane gas, accessing tissues via a ventral-midline abdominal incision, and isolating the organs with tongue depressors. In vivo multiphoton images acquired from liver, kidney, and colon using this device show features similar to that of conventional histology slides, without motion artifact, in ~75% of imaged frames. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of multiphoton imaging of unstained tissue from a live subject using a compact and flexible MPME device.

  5. Multiphoton imaging of upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles in three dimensional models of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainer, Christian F.; Romanowski, Marek

    2013-02-01

    While upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles have numerous advantages over other exogenous contrast agents used in scanned multiphoton imaging, their long luminescence lifetimes cause images collected with non-descanned detection to be greatly blurred. We demonstrate herein the use of Richardson-Lucy deconvolution to deblur luminescence images obtained via multiphoton scanning microscopy. Images were taken of three dimensional models of colon and ovarian cancer following incubation with NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles functionalized with an antibody for EGFR and folic acid respectively. Following deconvolution, images had a lateral resolution on par with the optimal performance of the imaging system used, ~1.2 μm, and an axial resolution of ~5 μm. Due to the relatively high multiphoton excitation efficiency of these nanoparticles, it is possible to follow binding of individual particles in tissue. In addition, their extreme photostability allows for prolonged imaging without significant loss in luminescence signal. With these advantageous properties in mind, we also discuss the potential application of upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles for tracking of specific, cancer relevant receptors in tissue.

  6. Intrinsic Indicator of Photodamage during Label-Free Multiphoton Microscopy of Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Elisabeth F.; Geiger, Kathrin D.; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Multiphoton imaging has evolved as an indispensable tool in cell biology and holds prospects for clinical applications. When addressing endogenous signals such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or second harmonic generation, it requires intense laser irradiation that may cause photodamage. We report that increasing endogenous fluorescence signal upon multiphoton imaging constitutes a marker of photodamage. The effect was studied on mouse brain in vivo and ex vivo, on ex vivo human brain tissue samples, as well as on glioblastoma cells in vitro, demonstrating that this phenomenon is common to a variety of different systems, both ex vivo and in vivo. CARS microscopy and vibrational spectroscopy were used to analyze the photodamage. The development of a standard easy-to-use model that employs rehydrated cryosections allowed the characterization of the irradiation-induced fluorescence and related it to nonlinear photodamage. In conclusion, the monitoring of endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence during label-free multiphoton microscopy enables to estimate damage thresholds ex vivo as well as detect photodamage during in vivo experiments. PMID:25343251

  7. Real-time digital signal processing in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin C.

    2016-03-01

    The use of multiphoton interactions in biological tissue for imaging contrast requires highly sensitive optical measurements. These often involve signal processing and filtering steps between the photodetector and the data acquisition device, such as photon counting and lock-in amplification. These steps can be implemented as real-time digital signal processing (DSP) elements on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, an approach that affords much greater flexibility than commercial photon counting or lock-in devices. We will present progress toward developing two new FPGA-based DSP devices for multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy applications. The first is a high-speed multiharmonic lock-in amplifier for transient absorption microscopy, which is being developed for real-time analysis of the intensity-dependence of melanin, with applications in vivo and ex vivo (noninvasive histopathology of melanoma and pigmented lesions). The second device is a kHz lock-in amplifier running on a low cost (50-200) development platform. It is our hope that these FPGA-based DSP devices will enable new, high-speed, low-cost applications in multiphoton and time-resolved microscopy.

  8. Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography for evaluation of several skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Speicher, Marco; Bückle, Rainer; Reckfort, Julia; McKenzie, Gordon; Welzel, Julia; Koehler, Martin J.; Elsner, Peter; Kaatz, Martin

    2010-02-01

    The first clinical trial of optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with multiphoton tomography (MPT) and dermoscopy is reported. State-of-the-art (i) OCT systems for dermatology (e.g. multibeam swept source OCT), (ii) the femtosecond laser multiphoton tomograph DermaInspectTM, and (iii) digital dermoscopes were applied to 47 patients with a diversity of skin diseases and disorders such as skin cancer, psoriasis, hemangioma, connective tissue diseases, pigmented lesions, and autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Dermoscopy, also called 'epiluminescent microscopy', provides two-dimensional color images of the skin surface. OCT imaging is based on the detection of optical reflections within the tissue measured interferometrically whereas nonlinear excitation of endogenous fluorophores and the second harmonic generation are the bases of MPT images. OCT cross sectional "wide field" image provides a typical field of view of 5 x 2 mm2 and offers fast information on the depth and the volume of the investigated lesion. In comparison, multiphoton tomography presents 0.36 x 0.36 mm2 horizontal or diagonal sections of the region of interest within seconds with submicron resolution and down to a tissue depth of 200 μm. The combination of OCT and MPT provides a synergistic optical imaging modality for early detection of skin cancer and other skin diseases.

  9. Live-cell multiphoton fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with an improved large Stokes shift fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yinghua; Meurer, Matthias; Raghavan, Sarada; Rebane, Aleksander; Lindquist, Jake R.; Santos, Sofia; Kats, Ilia; Davidson, Michael W.; Mazitschek, Ralph; Hughes, Thomas E.; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Knop, Michael; Shah, Jagesh V.

    2015-01-01

    We report an improved variant of mKeima, a monomeric long Stokes shift red fluorescent protein, hmKeima8.5. The increased intracellular brightness and large Stokes shift (∼180 nm) make it an excellent partner with teal fluorescent protein (mTFP1) for multiphoton, multicolor applications. Excitation of this pair by a single multiphoton excitation wavelength (MPE, 850 nm) yields well-separable emission peaks (∼120-nm separation). Using this pair, we measure homo- and hetero-oligomerization interactions in living cells via multiphoton excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (MPE-FCS). Using tandem dimer proteins and small-molecule inducible dimerization domains, we demonstrate robust and quantitative detection of intracellular protein–protein interactions. We also use MPE-FCCS to detect drug–protein interactions in the intracellular environment using a Coumarin 343 (C343)-conjugated drug and hmKeima8.5 as a fluorescence pair. The mTFP1/hmKeima8.5 and C343/hmKeima8.5 combinations, together with our calibration constructs, provide a practical and broadly applicable toolbox for the investigation of molecular interactions in the cytoplasm of living cells. PMID:25877871

  10. Using multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to characterize liver damage and fluorescein disposition in liver in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Studier, Hauke; Crawford, Darrell; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Liver disease is the fifth most common cause of death and unlike many other major causes of mortality, liver disease rates are increasing rather than decreasing. There is no ideal measurement of liver disease and although biopsies are the gold standard, this only allows for a spot examination and cannot follow dynamic processes of the liver. Intravital imaging has the potential to extract detailed information over a larger sampling area continuously. The aim of this project was to investigate whether multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy could detect early liver damage and to assess whether it could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein in normal and diseased livers. Four experimental groups were used in this study: 1) control; 2) ischemia reperfusion injury; 3) steatosis and 4) steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. Results showed that multiphoton microscopy could visualize morphological changes such as decreased fluorescence of endogenous fluorophores and the presence of lipid droplets, characteristic of steatosis. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy showed increase in NADPH in steatosis with and without ischemia reperfusion injury and could detect changes in metabolism of fluorescein to fluorescein monoglurcuronide, which was impaired in steatosis with ischemia reperfusion injury. These results concluded that the combination of multiphoton microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging is a promising method of assessing early stage liver damage and that it can be used to study changes in drug metabolism in the liver as an indication of liver disease and has the potential to replace the traditional static liver biopsy currently used.

  11. Diffusion of Nerve Growth Factor in Rat Striatum as Determined by Multiphoton Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stroh, Mark; Zipfel, Warren R.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Webb, Watt W.; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2003-01-01

    Neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF) may be useful for treating diseases in the central nervous system; our ability to harness the potential therapeutic benefit of NGF is directly related to our understanding of the fate of exogenously supplied factors in brain tissue. We utilized multiphoton microscopy to quantify the dynamic behavior of NGF in coronal, 400-μm thick, fresh rat brain tissue slices. We administered a solution containing bioactive rhodamine nerve growth factor conjugate via pressure injection and monitored the dispersion in the striatal region of the coronal slices. Multiphoton microscopy facilitated repeated imaging deep (∼200 μm) into tissue slices with minimal photodamage of tissue and photobleaching of label. The pressure injection paradigm approximated diffusion from a point source, and we therefore used the corresponding solution to the diffusion equation to estimate an apparent diffusion coefficient in brain tissue (Db(34°C)) of 2.75 ± 0.24 × 10−7 cm2/s (average ± SE). In contrast, we determined a corresponding free diffusion coefficient in buffered solution (Df(34°C)) of 12.6 ± 0.9 × 10−7 cm2/s using multiphoton fluorescence photobleaching recovery. The tortuosity, defined as the square root of the ratio of Df to Db, was 2.14 and moderate in magnitude. PMID:12829512

  12. Polarization control of intermediate state absorption in resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuwu; Huang, Yunxia; Yao, Yunhua; Jia, Tianqing; Ding, Jingxin; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the control of the intermediate state absorption in an (n + m) resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process by the polarization-modulated femtosecond laser pulse. An analytical solution of the intermediate state absorption in a resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process is obtained based on the time-dependent perturbation theory. Our theoretical results show that the control efficiency of the intermediate state absorption by the polarization modulation is independent of the laser intensity when the transition from the intermediate state to the final state is coupled by the single-photon absorption, but will be affected by the laser intensity when this transition is coupled by the non-resonant multi-photon absorption. These theoretical results are experimentally confirmed via a two-photon fluorescence control in (2 + 1) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of Coumarin 480 dye and a single-photon fluorescence control in (1 + 2) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of IR 125 dye.

  13. Arbitrary two-dimensional multiphoton excitation patterns with temporally focused digital holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Dan; Papagiakoumou, Eirini; de-Sars, Vincent; Emiliani, Valentina

    2009-02-01

    Multiphoton excitation has recently found application in the fields of bioimaging, uncaging and lithography. In order to fully exploit the advantages of nonlinear excitation, in particular the axial resolution due to nonlinearity, most systems to date operate with point or multipoint excitation, while scanning either the laser beam or the sample to generate the illumination pattern. Here we combine the recently introduced technique of scanningless multiphoton excitation by temporal focusing with recent advances in digital holography to generate arbitrarily shaped, depth resolved, two-dimensional excitation patterns completely without scanning. This is of particular importance in applications requiring uniform excitation of large areas over short time scales, such as neuronal activation by multiphoton uncaging of neurotransmitters. We present an experimental and theoretical analysis of the effect of spatial patterning on the depth resolution achieved in temporal focusing microscopy. It is shown that the depth resolution for holographic excitation is somewhat worse than that achieved for uniform illumination. This is also accompanied by the appearance of a speckle pattern at the temporal focal plane. The origin of the two effects, as well as means to overcome them, are discussed.

  14. Multiphoton and tunneling ionization probability of atoms and molecules in an intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Song-Feng; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Xin

    2014-02-01

    We theoretically studied ionization of atoms exposed to an intense laser field by using three different methods, i.e., the numerical solution of the single-active-electron approximation based time-dependent Schrödinger equation (SAE-TDSE), the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (PPT) model, and the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) model. The ionization of several linear molecules in a strong laser field is also investigated with the molecular ADK (MO-ADK) and the molecular PPT (MO-PPT) model. We show that the ionization probability from the PPT and the MO-PPT model agrees well with the corresponding SAE-TDSE result in both the multiphoton and tunneling ionization regimes. By considering the volume effect of the laser field, the ionization signal obtained from the PPT and the MO-PPT model fits well the experimental data in the whole range of the multiphoton and tunneling ionization regimes. However, both the ADK and MO-ADK models seriously underestimate the ionization probabilities (or signals) in the multiphoton regime.

  15. Coupling CARS with multiphoton fluorescence and high harmonic generation imaging modalities using a femtosecond laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongtao; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Zhu, Jiabin; Buhman, Kimberly K.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2009-02-01

    Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging has opened new opportunities and becomes a powerful tool for imaging complex tissue samples with inherent 3D spatial resolution.. We present a robust and easy-to-operate approach to add the coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging modality to a widely used multiphoton microscope. The laser source composed of a Mai Tai femtosecond laser and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) offers one-beam, two-beam and three-beam modalities. The Mai Tai output at 790 nm is split into two beams, with 80% of the power being used to pump the OPO. The idler output at 2036 nm from OPO is doubled using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. This frequency-doubled idler beam at 1018 nm is sent through a delay line and collinearly combined with the other Mai Tai beam for CARS imaging on a laser-scanning microscope. This Mai Tai beam is also used for multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. The signal output at 1290 nm from OPO is used for SHG and third-harmonic generation (THG) imaging. External detectors are installed for both forward and backward detection, whereas two internal lamda-scan detectors are employed for microspectroscopy analysis. This new system allows vibrationally resonant CARS imaging of lipid bodies, SHG imaging of collagen fibers, and multiphoton fluorescence analysis in fresh tissues. As a preliminary application, the effect of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) deficiency on liver lipid metabolism in mice was investigated.

  16. Focal switching of photochromic fluorescent proteins enables multiphoton microscopy with superior image contrast

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Ya-Ting; Zhu, Xinxin; Xu, Fang; Min, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Probing biological structures and functions deep inside live organisms with light is highly desirable. Among the current optical imaging modalities, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy exhibits the best contrast for imaging scattering samples by employing a spatially confined nonlinear excitation. However, as the incident laser power drops exponentially with imaging depth into the sample due to the scattering loss, the out-of-focus background eventually overwhelms the in-focus signal, which defines a fundamental imaging-depth limit. Herein we significantly improve the image contrast for deep scattering samples by harnessing reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) which can be cycled between bright and dark states upon light illumination. Two distinct techniques, multiphoton deactivation and imaging (MPDI) and multiphoton activation and imaging (MPAI), are demonstrated on tissue phantoms labeled with Dronpa protein. Such a focal switch approach can generate pseudo background-free images. Conceptually different from wave-based approaches that try to reduce light scattering in turbid samples, our work represents a molecule-based strategy that focused on imaging probes. PMID:22876358

  17. Multiphoton fluorescence imaging of NADH to quantify metabolic changes in epileptic tissue in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Thomas H.; Zinter, Joseph; Spencer, Dennis D.; Williamson, Anne; Levene, Michael J.

    2007-02-01

    A powerful advantage of multiphoton microscopy is its ability to image endogenous fluorophores such as the ubiquitous coenzyme NADH in discrete cellular populations. NADH is integral in both oxidative and non-oxidative cellular metabolism. NADH loses fluorescence upon oxidation to NAD +; thus changes in NADH fluorescence can be used to monitor metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that hypo metabolic astrocytes play an important role in cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Current theories suggest this may be due to defective and/or a reduced number of mitochondria or dysfunction of the neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling. Measuring NADH fluorescence changes following chemical stimulation enables the quantification of the cellular distribution of metabolic anomalies in epileptic brain tissue compared to healthy tissue. We present what we believe to be the first multiphoton microscopy images of NADH from the human brain. We also present images of NADH fluorescence from the hippocampus of the kainate-treated rat TLE model. In some experiments, human and rat astrocytes were selectively labeled with the fluorescent dye sulforhodamine 101 (SR101). Our results demonstrate that multiphoton microscopy is a powerful tool for assaying the metabolic pathologies associated with temporal lobe epilepsy in humans and in rodent models.

  18. Role of quantum trajectory in high-order harmonic generation in the Keldysh multiphoton regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-05-01

    We present a systematic study of quantum-trajectory analysis of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by solving accurately the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a hydrogen atom in the multiphoton regime where the Keldysh parameter is greater unity. We perform the time-frequency transform to explore the spectral characteristics of the HHG. We find that the time-frequency spectra exhibit a broken distribution at above-threshold HHG due to the competition associated with the short- and long-trajectories when the ionization process is pushed from the multiphoton regime into the tunneling regime, it implies that the harmonic emission in the broken regions of time-frequency spectra are suppressed. In addition, we present a time-dependent density-functional theory approach for an ab initio study of the effect of correlated multielectron responses on the harmonic emission of Ar atom associated with the quantum trajectories in the multiphoton regime. This work is partially supported by DOE.

  19. In vivo multiphoton imaging of collagen remodeling after microablative fractional rejuvenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Troiano, Michela; Campolmi, Piero; Morini, Cristiano; Cosci, Alessandro; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-03-01

    The potential of multiphoton microscopy in providing in-vivo early diagnosis of skin lesions has already been demonstrated, while its capability in therapy follow-up has not been deeply explored so far. Two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation microscopy were used in combination to follow-up collagen remodeling after laser micro-ablative rejuvenation. Treated regions of volunteers were imaged with multiphoton microscopy before and after treatment, and we found a strong age-dependence of the treatment effectiveness. In particular, the photorejuvenating effect was negligible in young subjects (< 30 years), whereas a significant production of new collagen was observed in aged subjects (> 70 years). Quantification of the amount of newly produced collagen and its organization were performed by means of visual examination of two-photon images. The obtained results demonstrate the performance of laser fractional micro-ablative rejuvenation without the need of an invasive biopsy as well as the wide applicability range of applications for multiphoton microscopy in clinical dermatology.

  20. Cell-based and in vivo spectral analysis of fluorescent proteins for multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomonnson, Emma; Mihalko, Laura Anne; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2012-09-01

    Multiphoton microscopy of cells and subcellular structures labeled with fluorescent proteins is the state-of-the-art technology for longitudinal imaging studies in tissues and living animals. Successful analysis of separate cell populations or signaling events by intravital microscopy requires optimal pairing of multiphoton excitation wavelengths with spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins. While prior studies have analyzed two photon absorption properties of isolated fluorescent proteins, there is limited information about two photon excitation and fluorescence emission profiles of fluorescent proteins expressed in living cells and intact tissues. Multiphoton microscopy was used to analyze fluorescence outputs of multiple blue, green, and red fluorescent proteins in cultured cells and orthotopic tumor xenografts of human breast cancer cells. It is shown that commonly used orange and red fluorescent proteins are excited efficiently by 750 to 760 nm laser light in living cells, enabling dual color imaging studies with blue or cyan proteins without changing excitation wavelength. It is also shown that small incremental changes in excitation wavelength significantly affect emission intensities from fluorescent proteins, which can be used to optimize multi-color imaging using a single laser wavelength. These data will direct optimal selection of fluorescent proteins for multispectral two photon microscopy.

  1. Infrared floodlight

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Robert E.; English, George J.

    1986-08-05

    An infrared floodlight assembly designed particularly for security purposes and including a heat-conducting housing, a lens secured to the housing to provide a closure therefor, and a floodlight located within (and surrounded by) the housing. The floodlight combines the use of a tungsten halogen light source and dichroic hot and cold mirrors for directing substantially only infrared radiation toward the assembly's forward lens. Visible radiation is absorbed by the housing's interior wall(s) and, optionally, by a filter located between the floodlight and lens. An optional means may be used within the floodlight to reflect all forward radiation back toward the paraboloidal hot mirror or, alternatively, to reflect only visible radiation in this direction. The dichroic hot and cold mirrors preferably each comprise a glass substrate having multiple layers of titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide thereon.

  2. Mechanisms and energetics of hydride dissociation reactions on surfaces of plasma-deposited silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tejinder; Valipa, Mayur S.; Mountziaris, T. J.; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2007-11-01

    We report results from a detailed analysis of the fundamental silicon hydride dissociation processes on silicon surfaces and discuss their implications for the surface chemical composition of plasma-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films. The analysis is based on a synergistic combination of first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations of hydride dissociation on the hydrogen-terminated Si(001)-(2×1) surface and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of adsorbed SiH3 radical precursor dissociation on surfaces of MD-grown a-Si :H films. Our DFT calculations reveal that, in the presence of fivefold coordinated surface Si atoms, surface trihydride species dissociate sequentially to form surface dihydrides and surface monohydrides via thermally activated pathways with reaction barriers of 0.40-0.55eV. The presence of dangling bonds (DBs) results in lowering the activation barrier for hydride dissociation to 0.15-0.20eV, but such DB-mediated reactions are infrequent. Our MD simulations on a-Si :H film growth surfaces indicate that surface hydride dissociation reactions are predominantly mediated by fivefold coordinated surface Si atoms, with resulting activation barriers of 0.35-0.50eV. The results are consistent with experimental measurements of a-Si :H film surface composition using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicate that the a-Si :H surface is predominantly covered with the higher hydrides at low temperatures, while the surface monohydride, SiH(s ), becomes increasingly more dominant as the temperature is increased.

  3. Infrared backscattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Nevitt, Timothy J.; Singham, Shermila Brito

    1989-01-01

    All particles in the atmosphere are not spherical. Moreover, the scattering properties of randomly oriented nonspherical particles are not equivalent to those of spherical particles no matter how the term equivalent is defined. This is especially true for scattering in the backward direction and at the infrared wavelengths at which some atmospheric particles have strong absorption bands. Thus calculations based on Mie theory of infrared backscattering by dry or insoluble atmospheric particles are suspect. To support this assertion, it was noted that peaks in laboratory-measured infrared backscattering spectra show appreciable shifts compared with those calculated using Mie theory. One example is ammonium sulfate. Some success was had in modeling backscattering spectra of ammonium sulfate particles using a simple statistical theory called the continuous distribution of ellipsoids (CDE) theory. In this theory, the scattering properties of an ensemble are calculated. Recently a modified version of this theory was applied to measured spectra of scattering by kaolin particles. The particles were platelike, so the probability distribution of ellipsoidal shapes was chosen to reflect this. As with ammonium sulfate, the wavelength of measured peak backscattering is shifted longward of that predicted by Mie theory.

  4. Infrared retina

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Tyo, J. Scott; Jang, Woo-Yong

    2011-12-06

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  5. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Charles G. [Pleasanton, CA

    1978-08-29

    A method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, .sup.235 UF.sub.6 is separated from a UF.sub.6 mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into .sup.235 UF.sub.5 - and F.

  6. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, C.G.

    1978-08-29

    Disclosed is a method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, [sup 235]UF[sub 6] is separated from a UF[sub 6] mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into [sup 235]UF[sub 5]- and F. 2 figs.

  7. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual α-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to α-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  8. Ion-induced dissociation dynamics of acetylene

    SciTech Connect

    De, Sankar; Rajput, Jyoti; Roy, A.; Safvan, C. P.; Ghosh, P. N.

    2008-02-15

    We report on the results of dissociation dynamics of multiple charged acetylene molecules formed in collision with 1.2 MeV Ar{sup 8+} projectiles. Using the coincidence map, we can separate out the different dissociation pathways between carbon and hydrogen ionic fragments as well as complete two-body breakup events. From the measured slopes of the coincidence islands for carbon atomic fragments and theoretical values determined from the charge and momentum distribution of the correlated particles, we observe a diatom like behavior of the C-C charged complex during dissociation of multiply charged C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. We conclude that this behavior in breakup dynamics is a signature of sequentiality in dissociation of this multiply charged molecular species. The shape and orientation of the islands give further information about the momentum balance in the fragmentation process of two- or many-body dissociation pathways. Kinetic energy release of different breakup channels are reported here and compared with values calculated from the pure Coulomb explosion model.

  9. Design, synthesis, characterization and applications of multi-photon absorbing chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qingdong

    Recent development in multi-photon based applications including optical power limiting, frequency up-conversion lasing, three-dimensional data storage, two-photon fluorescence microscopy and two-photon photodynamic therapy has benefited a lot from a number of chromophores with large multi-photon absorption. This thesis was focused on the development of novel two- and three-photon active chromophores and their applications. Chapter 1 describes a theoretical background of multi-photon absorption, and recent development of multi-photon based applications. Some molecular design strategies were proposed after a literature review of chromophores with large two-photon absorption. In Chapter 2, a series of stilbazolium salts with varying electron donors and anions were synthesized and characterized. The two-photon absorption and two-photon pumped cavity lasing properties for these dyes were studied by using 1064 nm nano-second laser beam. By using tunable femto-second laser, three-photon pumped cavity-less lasing properties of these dyes have also been comprehensively studied. Four-photon pumped stimulated emission was achieved in some of these stilbazolium dyes. Unsymmetrical emission behaviors under 3- and 4-photon pump conditions for all these stilbazolium dyes were observed, explained and verified. In Chapter 3, DNA was successfully used as a matrix for one-, two-, and three-photon pumped stimulated emission or lasing by intercalating a multi-photon active chromophore. In Chapter 4, it is experimentally shown that both two- and three-photon absorption in a highly concentrated chromophore system can be more efficiently utilized to accomplish optical power limiting and stabilization at laser wavelengths of 1.064 mum and ˜1.3 mum, respectively. In Chapter 5, three novel 1,10-phenanthroline containing pi-conjugated chromophores with varied electron donors were synthesized and characterized together with their corresponding nickel(II) chelated complexes. Large two

  10. Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

  11. Free energy calculations of gramicidin dimer dissociation.

    PubMed

    Wanasundara, Surajith N; Krishnamurthy, Vikram; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-11-24

    Molecular dynamics simulations, combined with umbrella sampling, is used to study how gramicidin A (gA) dimers dissociate in the lipid bilayer. The potential of mean force and intermolecular potential energy are computed as functions of the distance between center of masses of the two gA monomers in two directions of separation: parallel to the bilayer surface and parallel to the membrane normal. Results from this study show that the dissociation of gA dimers occurs via lateral displacement of gA monomers followed by tilting of dimers with respect to the lipid bilayer normal. It is found that the dissociation energy of gA dimers in the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer is 14 kcal mol(-1) (~22 kT), which is approximately equal to the energy of breaking six intermolecular hydrogen bonds that stabilize the gA channel dimer.

  12. Electron Transfer Dissociation of Oligonucleotide Cations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Suncerae I; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2009-06-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of multi-protonated 6 - 20-mer oligonucleotides and 12- and 14-mer duplexes is compared to collision activated dissociation (CAD). ETD causes efficient charge reduction of the multi-protonated oligonucleotides in addition to limited backbone cleavages to yield sequence ions of low abundance. Subsequent CAD of the charge-reduced oligonucleotides formed upon electron transfer, in a net process termed electron transfer collision activated dissociation (ETcaD), results in rich fragmentation in terms of w, a, z, and d products, with a marked decrease in the abundance of base loss ions and internal fragments. Complete sequencing was possible for nearly all oligonucleotides studied. ETcaD of an oligonucleotide duplex resulted in specific backbone cleavages, with conservation of weaker non-covalent bonds. PMID:20161288

  13. Solvation-Dependent Latency of Photoacid Dissociation and Transient IR Signatures of Protonation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bekçioğlu, Gül; Hoffmann, Felix; Sebastiani, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We elucidate the characteristic proton pathways and the transient infrared signatures of intermediate complexes during the first picoseconds of photoinduced protonation dynamics of a photoacid (N-methyl-6-hydroxyquinolinium) in aqueous solution from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that the typical latency time between photoexcitation and proton dissociation ranges from 1 ps to longer time time scales (∼100 ps). The rate-limiting step for the actual dissociation of the proton into the solvent is the solvation structure of the first accepting water molecule. The nature of the proton pathway in water (stepwise or concerted) is not unique but determined by the coordination number of the accepting water molecules along the hydrogen bond chain. We find a characteristic uncommon infrared mode at ∼1300 cm(-1) of the transient photobase-Eigen cation complex immediately after photodissociation that we predict to be observable experimentally in time-resolved IR spectroscopy. A broad continuous absorption band from 1500 to 2000 cm(-1) arises from the acidic proton imminently before dissociation.

  14. Solvation-Dependent Latency of Photoacid Dissociation and Transient IR Signatures of Protonation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bekçioğlu, Gül; Hoffmann, Felix; Sebastiani, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We elucidate the characteristic proton pathways and the transient infrared signatures of intermediate complexes during the first picoseconds of photoinduced protonation dynamics of a photoacid (N-methyl-6-hydroxyquinolinium) in aqueous solution from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that the typical latency time between photoexcitation and proton dissociation ranges from 1 ps to longer time time scales (∼100 ps). The rate-limiting step for the actual dissociation of the proton into the solvent is the solvation structure of the first accepting water molecule. The nature of the proton pathway in water (stepwise or concerted) is not unique but determined by the coordination number of the accepting water molecules along the hydrogen bond chain. We find a characteristic uncommon infrared mode at ∼1300 cm(-1) of the transient photobase-Eigen cation complex immediately after photodissociation that we predict to be observable experimentally in time-resolved IR spectroscopy. A broad continuous absorption band from 1500 to 2000 cm(-1) arises from the acidic proton imminently before dissociation. PMID:26280280

  15. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Julie P; Dillon, Kristy S; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-02-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called "dissociative disorders," including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma report "dissociative" symptoms. Prevalence of dissociative disorders is unknown, but current estimates are higher than previously thought. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, and epidemiological data regarding diagnosis in general, and illustrates possible treatment interventions for dissociative identity disorder, with a focus on psychotherapy interventions and a review of current psychopharmacology recommendations as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment plan. PMID:23556139

  16. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Julie P; Dillon, Kristy S; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-02-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called "dissociative disorders," including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma report "dissociative" symptoms. Prevalence of dissociative disorders is unknown, but current estimates are higher than previously thought. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, and epidemiological data regarding diagnosis in general, and illustrates possible treatment interventions for dissociative identity disorder, with a focus on psychotherapy interventions and a review of current psychopharmacology recommendations as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment plan.

  17. Swirling flow of a dissociated gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfram, W. R., Jr.; Walker, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    Most physical applications of the swirling flow, defined as a vortex superimposed on an axial flow in the nozzle, involve high temperatures and the possibility of real gas effects. The generalized one-dimensional swirling flow in a converging-diverging nozzle is analyzed for equilibrium and frozen dissociation using the ideal dissociating gas model. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the major effects and to compare with results obtained for a perfect gas with constant ratio of specific heats. It is found that, even in the case of real gases, perfect gas calculations can give a good estimate of the reduction in mass flow due to swirl.

  18. Quantum Zeno control of coherent dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Khripkov, C.; Vardi, A.

    2011-08-15

    We study the effect of dephasing on the coherent dissociation dynamics of an atom-molecule Bose-Einstein condensate. We show that when phase-noise intensity is strong with respect to the inverse correlation time of the stimulated process, dissociation is suppressed via a Bose enhanced quantum Zeno effect. This is complementary to the quantum Zeno control of phase-diffusion in a bimodal condensate by symmetric noise [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 220403 (2008)] in that the controlled process here is phase formation and the required decoherence mechanism for its suppression is purely phase noise.

  19. Dissociation and recombination in an inhomogeneous gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuščer, Ivan

    1991-09-01

    The system of Boltzmann equations of Ludwig and Heil for a dissociating gas mixture is reviewed and reformulated in terms of differential cross sections. For the purpose of Monte Carlo simulations, collision models of the type of Borgnakke and Larsen are proposed. In case of short-lived transient flows of molecular gases and at not too high temperatures, simulation of scattering collisions is expected to suffice; the distribution function of the dissociated particles can be evaluated afterwards by integration, and recombination can be ignored.

  20. Identity and Introject in dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Alpher, V S

    1996-12-01

    The structural analysis of social behavior (SASB) shows promise for systematically examining identity issues in clinical populations. In this study, identity is assessed with the SASB in a sample of women with dissociative disorder (n = 25) and a nonpatient clinical contrast group (n = 25). The SASB Introject--a multivariate measure of identity--effectively differentiated the 2 samples. Despite greater self-directed hostility than the clinical contrast group, dissociative disorder patients showed lower levels of intrapsychic conflict. Implications for further research on identity and psychopathology are discussed.