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Sample records for infrared multispectral scanner

  1. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS): An investigator's guide to TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F. D.; Meeks, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) is a NASA aircraft scanner providing six channel spectral capability in the thermal infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Operating in the atmospheric window region (8 to 12 micrometers) with a channel sensitivity of approximately 0.1 C, TIMS may be used whenever an accurate measure of the Earth's surface is needed. A description of this scanner is provided as well as a discussion of data acquisition and reduction.

  2. Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

  3. Middle infrared multispectral aircraft scanner data: analysis for geological applications.

    PubMed

    Kahle, A B; Madura, D P; Soha, J M

    1980-07-15

    Multispectral middle IR (8-13-microm) data were acquired with an aircraft scanner over Utah. Because these digital image data were dominated by temperature, all six channels were highly correlated. Extensive processing was required to allow geologic photointerpretation based on subtle variations in spectral emittance between rock types. After preliminary processing, ratio images were produced and color ratio composites created from these. Sensor calibration and an atmospheric model allowed determination of surface brightness, temperature, emittance, and color composite emittance images. The best separation of major rock types was achieved with a principal component transformation, followed by a Gaussian stretch, followed by an inverse transformation to the original axes.

  4. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  5. Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

  6. Mapping the Piute Mountains, CA with Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, S. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Miller, C. F.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired in 1990 over the PiuteMountains, California to evaluate their usefulness for lithologic mapping in an area ofmetamorphosed, structurally complex, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The data were calibrated,atmospherically corrected, and emissivity variations extracted from them. There was an excellentvisual correlation between the units revealed in the TIMS data and the recent mapping in the easternside of the area. It was also possible to correct, improve and extend the recent map. For example,several areas of amphibolite were identified in the TIMS data that had been incorrectly mapped asgranodioritic gneiss, and the presence of a swarm of mafic dikes, of which only a few had previouslybeen identified, was revealed...

  7. Determination of water surface temperature based on the use of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1992-01-01

    A straightforward method for compensating Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for the influence of atmospheric path radiance and the attenuation of target energy by the atmosphere is presented. A band ratioing model useful for estimating water surface temperatures, which requires no ground truth measurements, is included. A study conducted to test the potential of the model and the magnitudes of the corrections for atmosphere encountered is presented. Results of the study, which was based on data collected during an engineering evaluation flight of TIMS, indicate errors in the estimate of the surface temperature of the water fall from +/- 1.0 C for uncorrected data to +/- 0.4 C when data have been corrected according to the model presented. This value approaches the noise-limited thermal resolution of the sensor at the time of the flight.

  8. Analysis of effective radiant temperatures in a Pacific Northwest forest using Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data collected over H. J. Andrews experimental forest in western Oregon indicated that aspect and slope gradient had a greater effect on the thermal emission of younger reforested clearcuts than of older stands. Older forest stands (older than 25 years) with greater amounts of green biomass and closed canopies, had lower effective radiant temperatures than younger, less dense stands. Aspect and slope had little effect on the effective radiant temperature of these older stands. Canopy temperature recorded at approximately 1:30 pm local time July 29, 1983 were nearly equal to maximum daily air temperature recorded at eight reference stands. The investigation provided some insights into the utility of the thermal sensor for detecting surface temperature differences related to forest composition and green biomass amounts in mountain terrain.

  9. Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

  10. Mapping the distribution of vesicular textures on silicic lavas using the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrusek, Jaime; Christensen, Philip R.; Fink, Jonathan H.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vesicularity on TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) imagery independent of chemical variations, we studied a large rhyolitic flow of uniform composition but textural heterogeneity. The imagery was recalibrated so that the digital number values for a lake in the scene matched a calculated ideal spectrum for water. TIMS spectra for the lava show useful differences in coarsely and finely vesicular pumice data, particularly in TIMS bands 3 and 4. Images generated by ratioing these bands accurately map out those areas known from field studies to be coarsely vesicular pumice. These texture-related emissivity variations are probably due to the larger vesicles being relatively deeper and separated by smaller septa leaving less smooth glass available to give the characteristic emission of the lava. In studies of inaccessible lava flows (as on Mars) areas of coarsely vesicular pumice must be identified and avoided before chemical variations can be interpreted. Remotely determined distributions of vesicular and glassy textures can also be related to the volatile contents and potential hazards associated with the emplacement of silicic lava flows on Earth.

  11. Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over disseminated gold deposits, Osgood Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over several disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada in 1983. The aerial surveys were flown to determine whether TIMS data could depict jasperoids (siliceous replacement bodies) associated with the gold deposits. The TIMS data were collected over the Pinson and Getchell Mines in the Osgood Mountains, the Carlin, Maggie Creek, Bootstrap, and other mines in the Tuscarora Mountains, and the Jerritt Canyon Mine in the Independence Mountains. The TIMS data seem to be a useful supplement to conventional geochemical exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the western United States. Siliceous outcrops are readily separable in the TIMS image from other types of host rocks. Different forms of silicification are not readily separable, yet, due to limitations of spatial resolution and spectral dynamic range. Features associated with the disseminated gold deposits, such as the large intrusive bodies and fault structures, are also resolvable on TIMS data. Inclusion of high-resolution thermal inertia data would be a useful supplement to the TIMS data.

  12. Using the thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) to estimate surface thermal responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luvall, J. C.; Holbo, H. R.

    1987-07-01

    A series of measurements was conducted over the H.J. Andrews, Oregon, experimental coniferous forest, using airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS). Flight lines overlapped, with a 28-min time difference between flight lines. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air temperature and moisture were used for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Surface temperature differences over time between flight lines were used to develop thermal response numbers (TRNs) which characterized the thermal response (in KJ/sq m/C, where K is the measured incoming solar radiation) of the different surface types. The surface types included a mature forest (canopy dominated by dense crowns of Pseudosuga menziesii, with a secondary canopy of dense Tsuga heterophylla, and also a tall shrub layer of Acer circinatum) and a two-year-old clear-cut. The temperature distribution, within TIMS thermal images was found to reflect the surface type examined. The clear-cut surface had the lowest TRN, while mature Douglas fir the highest.

  13. Mapping the distribution of vesicular textures on silicic lavas using the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrusek, Jaime; Christensen, Philip R.; Fink, Jonathan H.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vesicularity on TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) imagery independent of chemical variations, we studied a large rhyolitic flow of uniform composition but textural heterogeneity. The imagery was recalibrated so that the digital number values for a lake in the scene matched a calculated ideal spectrum for water. TIMS spectra for the lava show useful differences in coarsely and finely vesicular pumice data, particularly in TIMS bands 3 and 4. Images generated by ratioing these bands accurately map out those areas known from field studies to be coarsely vesicular pumice. These texture-related emissivity variations are probably due to the larger vesicles being relatively deeper and separated by smaller septa leaving less smooth glass available to give the characteristic emission of the lava. In studies of inaccessible lava flows (as on Mars) areas of coarsely vesicular pumice must be identified and avoided before chemical variations can be interpreted. Remotely determined distributions of vesicular and glassy textures can also be related to the volatile contents and potential hazards associated with the emplacement of silicic lava flows on Earth.

  14. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  15. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  16. Quantitative estimation of granitoid composition from thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data, Desolation Wilderness, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabine, Charles; Realmuto, Vincent J.; Taranik, James V.

    1994-01-01

    We have produced images that quantitatively depict modal and chemical parameters of granitoids using an image processing algorithm called MINMAP that fits Gaussian curves to normalized emittance spectra recovered from thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) radiance data. We applied the algorithm to TIMS data from the Desolation Wilderness, an extensively glaciated area near the northern end of the Sierra Nevada batholith that is underlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous plutons that range from diorite and anorthosite to leucogranite. The wavelength corresponding to the calculated emittance minimum lambda(sub min) varies linearly with quartz content, SiO2, and other modal and chemical parameters. Thematic maps of quartz and silica content derived from lambda(sub min) values distinguish bodies of diorite from surrounding granite, identify outcrops of anorthosite, and separate felsic, intermediate, and mafic rocks.

  17. Quantitative estimation of granitoid composition from thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data, Desolation Wilderness, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabine, Charles; Realmuto, Vincent J.; Taranik, James V.

    1994-01-01

    We have produced images that quantitatively depict modal and chemical parameters of granitoids using an image processing algorithm called MINMAP that fits Gaussian curves to normalized emittance spectra recovered from thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) radiance data. We applied the algorithm to TIMS data from the Desolation Wilderness, an extensively glaciated area near the northern end of the Sierra Nevada batholith that is underlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous plutons that range from diorite and anorthosite to leucogranite. The wavelength corresponding to the calculated emittance minimum lambda(sub min) varies linearly with quartz content, SiO2, and other modal and chemical parameters. Thematic maps of quartz and silica content derived from lambda(sub min) values distinguish bodies of diorite from surrounding granite, identify outcrops of anorthosite, and separate felsic, intermediate, and mafic rocks.

  18. Investigation of forest canopy temperatures recorded by the thermal infrared multispectral scanner at H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were collected over the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Western Oregon on July 29, 1983 at approximately 1:30 p.m., Pacific Standard Time. The relation of changes in canopy temperature to green leaf biomass levels in reforested clearcuts and old-growth forest was investigated. A digital data base was generated in order to isolate that portion of the thermal emission that could be attributed to surface properties other than the vegetation biomass component. The TIMS appears to be capable of detecting subtle differences in ERT as related to canopy closure and green lead biomass, however calibration techniques are needed to correct for emissivity and atmospheric effects.

  19. A near infrared vegetation index formed with airborne multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1987-01-01

    A near infrared vegetation index (NIVI) has been formed with the 1.24 and 1.65 micron bands on the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator. The NIVI was compared to the more traditional Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI) formed with the 0.66 and 0.83 micron bands. The PVI was found to be less susceptible to problems with rock and soil spectral variations than the VIVI.

  20. Information extraction techniques for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Turner, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The applicability of recognition-processing procedures for multispectral scanner data from areas and conditions used for programming the recognition computers to other data from different areas viewed under different measurement conditions was studied. The reflective spectral region approximately 0.3 to 3.0 micrometers is considered. A potential application of such techniques is in conducting area surveys. Work in three general areas is reported: (1) Nature of sources of systematic variation in multispectral scanner radiation signals, (2) An investigation of various techniques for overcoming systematic variations in scanner data; (3) The use of decision rules based upon empirical distributions of scanner signals rather than upon the usually assumed multivariate normal (Gaussian) signal distributions.

  1. The use of aircraft-based Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data to measure surface energy budgets on a landscape scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1991-01-01

    A series of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner Data (TIMS) was collected over the H. J. Andrews experimental forest in western Oregon and at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina. Flight lines were overlapped with an 8 to 28 minute time difference between flight lines. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air and dew point temperatures provided inputs to LOWTRAN6 for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Surface temperature differences over time between flight lines allowed the development of thermal response numbers (TRN) which characterized the thermal response of the different surface types. The polygons containing mostly soil and bare rock had the lowest TRN whereas the forested polygons were the highest. Results indicate that forest canopy temperatures measured by the TIMS are comparable to needle thermocouples temperatures. ET models developed from the TIMS data obtained similar ET rates as those using energy balance techniques.

  2. The use of aircraft-based Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data to measure surface energy budgets on a landscape scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1991-01-01

    A series of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner Data (TIMS) was collected over the H. J. Andrews experimental forest in western Oregon and at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina. Flight lines were overlapped with an 8 to 28 minute time difference between flight lines. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air and dew point temperatures provided inputs to LOWTRAN6 for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Surface temperature differences over time between flight lines allowed the development of thermal response numbers (TRN) which characterized the thermal response of the different surface types. The polygons containing mostly soil and bare rock had the lowest TRN whereas the forested polygons were the highest. Results indicate that forest canopy temperatures measured by the TIMS are comparable to needle thermocouples temperatures. ET models developed from the TIMS data obtained similar ET rates as those using energy balance techniques.

  3. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

  4. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  5. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  6. Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

  7. Multi-spectral Line Scanner image of Northern California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    S73-34295B (June 1973) --- A vertical view of a portion of northern California reproduced from data taken from the Skylab Multispectral Scanner, experiment S192, in the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This view is the most westerly one-third of Frame No. 001, Roll No. 518, S192, Skylab 2. Frame No. 001 extends from the Pacific coast at the Eureka area southeasterly 175 nautical miles to the Feather River drainage basin. Included in this view are Lake Shasta, Sacramento River Valley, Redding and Red Bluff. This non-photographic image is a color composite of channels 2 (visible), 7, and 12 (infrared) from the Earth Resources Experiments Package (EREP) S192 scanner. The scanner techniques assist with spectral signature identification and mapping of ground truth targets in agriculture, forestry, geology, hydrology and oceanography. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Remote detection of canopy water stress in coniferous forests using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the thermal infrared multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Riggs, George A.

    1990-01-01

    Water stress was induced in two coniferous forest stands in West Germany by severing tree sapwood. Leaf water potential, Psi(L), measurements indicated that maximum, naturally occurring levels of water stress developed in the stressed plots while control plots exhibited natural diurnal trends. Images of each site were obtained with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 12 to 15 days after stress induction. NS001 bands 2 to 6, NS001 indices combining bands 4 and 6, and NS001 and TIMS thermal bands showed significant radiance differences between stressed and control plots when large differences in Psi(L) and relative water content (RWC) existed during the morning overflights at Munich. However, the NS001 and TIMS sensors could not detect the slightly smaller differences in Psi(L) and RWC during the Munich afternoon and Frankfurt overflights. The results suggest that routine detection of canopy water stress under operational conditions is difficult utilizing current sensor technology.

  9. Remote detection of canopy water stress in coniferous forests using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the thermal infrared multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Riggs, George A.

    1990-01-01

    Water stress was induced in two coniferous forest stands in West Germany by severing tree sapwood. Leaf water potential, Psi(L), measurements indicated that maximum, naturally occurring levels of water stress developed in the stressed plots while control plots exhibited natural diurnal trends. Images of each site were obtained with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 12 to 15 days after stress induction. NS001 bands 2 to 6, NS001 indices combining bands 4 and 6, and NS001 and TIMS thermal bands showed significant radiance differences between stressed and control plots when large differences in Psi(L) and relative water content (RWC) existed during the morning overflights at Munich. However, the NS001 and TIMS sensors could not detect the slightly smaller differences in Psi(L) and RWC during the Munich afternoon and Frankfurt overflights. The results suggest that routine detection of canopy water stress under operational conditions is difficult utilizing current sensor technology.

  10. An ERTS multispectral scanner experiment for mapping iron compounds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    An experiment is described which is designed to produce visible-reflective infrared ratio images from ERTS satellite data. The ERTS-A multispectral scanner has two channels in the visible-reflective infrared wavelength region which should be capable of duplicating aircraft scanner results. The average reflectances in the four ERTS-A MSS spectral bands for a few minerals and some vegetation are tabulated. The mineral laboratory samples were granular, with a particle diameter range of 250 to 1200 micrometer. If there were no spectral atmospheric or illumination variation effects, the ratio of energies in band 1 to band 4 would permit discrimination of pyroxenes (found in basic and ultrabasic rocks), quartz (found in acidic rocks), limonite and hematite (iron oxides), and green vegetation, on the basis of their respective ratio magnitudes.

  11. Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

  12. Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

  13. Temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Torline, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner reflectance data were sampled for bare soil, cotton, sorghum, corn, and citrus at four dates during a growing season (April, May, June, and July 1969) to develop a time-dependent signature for crop and soil discrimination. Discrimination tests were conducted for single-date and multidate formats using training and test data sets. For classifications containing several crops, the multidate or temporal approach improved discrimination compared with the single-date approach. The multidate approach also preserved recognition accuracy better in going from training fields to test fields than the single-date analysis. The spectral distinctiveness of bare soil versus vegetation resulted in essentially equal discrimination using single-date versus multidate data for those two categories.

  14. Temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Torline, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner reflectance data were sampled for bare soil, cotton, sorghum, corn, and citrus at four dates during a growing season (April, May, June, and July 1969) to develop a time-dependent signature for crop and soil discrimination. Discrimination tests were conducted for single-date and multidate formats using training and test data sets. For classifications containing several crops, the multidate or temporal approach improved discrimination compared with the single-date approach. The multidate approach also preserved recognition accuracy better in going from training fields to test fields than the single-date analysis. The spectral distinctiveness of bare soil versus vegetation resulted in essentially equal discrimination using single-date versus multidate data for those two categories.

  15. An ERTS multispectral scanner experiment for mapping iron compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An experimental plan for enhancing spectral features related to the chemical composition of geological targets in ERTS multispectral scanner data is described. The experiment is designed to produce visible-reflective infrared ratio images from ERTS-1 data. Iron compounds are promising remote sensing targets because they display prominent spectral features in the visible-reflective infrared wavelength region and are geologically significant. The region selected for this ERTS experiment is the southern end of the Wind River Range in Wyoming. If this method proves successful it should prove useful for regional geologic mapping, mineralogical exploration, and soil mapping. It may also be helpful to ERTS users in scientific disciplines other than geology, especially to those concerned with targets composed of mixtures of live vegetation and soil or rock.

  16. Mineralogic variability of the Kelso Dunes, Mojave Desert, California derived from Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Michael S.; Howard, Douglas A.; Christensen, Philip R.; Lancaster, Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Mineral identification and mapping of alluvial material using thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is extremely useful for tracking sediment transport, assessing the degree of weathering and locating sediment sources. As a result of the linear relation between a mineral's percentage in a given area (image pixel) and the depth of its diagnostic spectral features, TIR spectra can be deconvolved in order to ascertain mineralogic percentages. Typical complications such as vegetation, particle size and thermal shadowing are minimized upon examination of dunes. Actively saltating dunes contain little to no vegetation, are very well sorted and lack the thermal shadows that arise from rocky terrain. The primary focus of this work was to use the Kelso Dunes as a test location for an accuracy analysis of temperature/emissivity separation and linear unmixing algorithms. Accurate determination of ground temperature and component discrimination will become key products of future ASTER data. A decorrelation stretch of the TIMS image showed clear color variations within the active dunes. Samples collected from these color units were analyzed for mineralogy, grain size, and separated into endmembers. This analysis not only revealed that the dunes contained significant mineralogic variation, but were more immature (low quartz percentage) than previously reported. Unmixing of the TIMS data using the primary mineral endmembers produced unique variations within the dunes and may indicate near, rather than far, source locales for the dunes. The Kelso Dunes lie in the eastern Mojave Desert, California, approximately 95 km west of the Colorado River. The primary dune field is contained within a topographic basin bounded by the Providence, Granite Mountains, with the active region marked by three northeast trending linear ridges. Although active, the dunes appear to lie at an opposing regional wind boundary which produces little net movement of the crests. Previous studies have estimated

  17. Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The progress of an investigation to quantify the increased information content of thematic mapper (TM) data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) is reported. Two night infrared images were examined and compared with Heat Capacity Mapping Mission data.

  18. Multispectral infrared imaging interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Device permitting simultaneous viewing of infrared images at different wavelengths consists of imaging lens, Michelson interferometer, array of infrared detectors, data processing equipment for Fourier transformation of detector signal, and image display unit. Invention is useful in earth resources applications, nondestructive testing, and medical diagnoses.

  19. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations.

  20. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  1. Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambeck, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

  2. A multispectral scanner survey of the United States Department of Energy's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area were acquired during late spring 1990. This survey was conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) which is operated by EG G Energy Measurements (EG G/EM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office. It was requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Audit Team which was reviewing environmental conditions at the facility. The objectives of this survey were to: (1) Acquire 12-channel, multispectral scanner data of the PGDP from an altitude of 3000 feet above ground level (AGL); (2) Acquire predawn, digital thermal infrared (TIR) data of the site from the same altitude; (3) Collect color and color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs over the facilities; and (4) Illustrate how the analyses of these data could benefit environmental monitoring at the PGDP. This report summarizes the two multispectral scanner and aerial photographic missions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Selected examples of the multispectral data are presented to illustrate its potential for aiding environmental management at the site. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Estimating crop acreage from space-simulated multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Hyde, P. D.

    1973-01-01

    The need for multispectral data processing methods to permit the estimation of proportions of objects and materials appearing within the instantaneous field of view of a scanning system is discussed. An algorithm developed for proportion estimation is described as well as other supporting processing techniques. Application of this algorithm to space-simulated multispectral scanner data is discussed and some results presented and compared. Results indicate that, for this data set, the true proportions of the various crops contained within this data set are with one exception more closely in agreement with the proportions determined by the proportion estimation algorithm than with the proportions determined by conventional classfication algorithm.

  4. Mapping soil types from multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Zachary, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing and computer-implemented pattern recognition techniques were used for automatic ?mapping' of soil types. This approach involves subjective selection of a set of reference samples from a gray-level display of spectral variations which was generated by a computer. Each resolution element is then classified using a maximum likelihood ratio. Output is a computer printout on which the researcher assigns a different symbol to each class. Four soil test areas in Indiana were experimentally examined using this approach, and partially successful results were obtained.

  5. Information extraction techniques for multi-spectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Richardson, W.; Turner, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data recognition and information extraction problems considered are: (1) signature extension for improved recognition processing over large areas; (2) choice of density functions for recognition decision rules; (3) channel selection for cost reduction; and (4) radiation balance mapping for interpretation of wide spectrum scanner data. The formulation of a simulation model and reprocessing of both aircraft and space data reduces scan angle variations and extends signatures from one altitude to another. Comparison of the usefulness of empirical density functions and that of Gaussian density functions for recognition processing establishes the advantages of normal assumption for individual fields in processing of multispectral scanner data. Also reported is a procedure for producing radiation balance maps from wide spectra by analyzing energy budgets of vegetation and other surface materials through partitioning net absorbed radiant energy and estimating incoming power density at both short and long wavelengths.

  6. RPV-800 Infrared Line Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stageberg, Dale L.

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes the RPV-800 Infrared Line Scanner, recently developed system that uses a unique split-image gallium arsenide scan element and production DoD common modules. This design reduces system size and weight, eliminates field optical alignments and contributes to a high predicted system mean time between failure. Small size, reduced power and lower life-cycle cost are critical decision elements in the unmanned aerial vehicle environment.

  7. An operational multispectral scanner for bathymetric surveys - The ABS NORDA scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimbach, Stephen P.; Joy, Richard T.; Hickman, G. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    The Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) is developing the Airborne Bathymetric Survey (ABS) system, which will take shallow water depth soundings from a Navy P-3 aircraft. The system combines active and passive sensors to obtain optical measurements of water depth. The ABS NORDA Scanner is the systems passive multispectral scanner whose design goal is to provide 100 percent coverage of the seafloor, to depths of 20 m in average coastal waters. The ABS NORDA Scanner hardware and operational environment is discussed in detail. The optical model providing the basis for depth extraction is reviewed and the proposed data processing routine discussed.

  8. A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

    2004-10-25

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at En'Urga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, a rugged prototype scanner will be developed and evaluated, both at En'Urga Inc. and any potential field sites.

  9. Determining density of maize canopy. 2: Airborne multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Cipra, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data were collected in two flights over a light colored soil background cover plot at an altitude of 305 m. Energy in eleven reflective wavelength band from 0.45 to 2.6 microns was recorded. Four growth stages of maize (Zea mays L.) gave a wide range of canopy densities for each flight date. Leaf area index measurements were taken from the twelve subplots and were used as a measure of canopy density. Ratio techniques were used to relate uncalibrated scanner response to leaf area index. The ratios of scanner data values for the 0.72 to 0.92 micron wavelength band over the 0.61 to 0.70 micron wavelength band were calculated for each plot. The ratios related very well to leaf area index for a given flight date. The results indicated that spectral data from maize canopies could be of value in determining canopy density.

  10. Evaluation of eelgrass beds mapping using a high-resolution airborne multispectral scanner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, H.; Karna, D.; Fraim, E.; Fitzgerald, M.; Dominguez, R.; Myers, J.S.; Coffland, B.; Handley, L.R.; Mace, T.

    2006-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) can provide vital ecological functions in stabilizing sediments, influencing current dynamics, and contributing significant amounts of biomass to numerous food webs in coastal ecosystems. Mapping eelgrass beds is important for coastal water and nearshore estuarine monitoring, management, and planning. This study demonstrated the possible use of high spatial (approximately 5 m) and temporal (maximum low tide) resolution airborne multispectral scanner on mapping eelgrass beds in Northern Puget Sound, Washington. A combination of supervised and unsupervised classification approaches were performed on the multispectral scanner imagery. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the red and near-infrared bands and ancillary spatial information, were used to extract and mask eelgrass beds and other submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the study area. We evaluated the resulting thematic map (geocoded, classified image) against a conventional aerial photograph interpretation using 260 point locations randomly stratified over five defined classes from the thematic map. We achieved an overall accuracy of 92 percent with 0.92 Kappa Coefficient in the study area. This study demonstrates that the airborne multispectral scanner can be useful for mapping eelgrass beds in a local or regional scale, especially in regions for which optical remote sensing from space is constrained by climatic and tidal conditions. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  11. Advanced Multispectral Scanner (AMS) study. [aircraft remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The status of aircraft multispectral scanner technology was accessed in order to develop preliminary design specifications for an advanced instrument to be used for remote sensing data collection by aircraft in the 1980 time frame. The system designed provides a no-moving parts multispectral scanning capability through the exploitation of linear array charge coupled device technology and advanced electronic signal processing techniques. Major advantages include: 10:1 V/H rate capability; 120 deg FOV at V/H = 0.25 rad/sec; 1 to 2 rad resolution; high sensitivity; large dynamic range capability; geometric fidelity; roll compensation; modularity; long life; and 24 channel data acquisition capability. The field flattening techniques of the optical design allow wide field view to be achieved at fast f/nos for both the long and short wavelength regions. The digital signal averaging technique permits maximization of signal to noise performance over the entire V/H rate range.

  12. A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind Department of Energy study at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner that was developed during the first year of the project. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. A prototype scanner was built and evaluated during the second year of the project. Only laboratory evaluations were completed during the second year. The laboratory evaluations show the feasibility of using the scanner to determine natural gas pipeline leaks. Further field evaluations and optimization of the scanner are required before commercialization of the scanner can be initiated.

  13. Estimating proportions of objects from multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, H. M.; Lewis, J. T.; Pentland, A. P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in developing and testing methods of estimating, from multispectral scanner data, proportions of target classes in a scene when there are a significiant number of boundary pixels. Procedures were developed to exploit: (1) prior information concerning the number of object classes normally occurring in a pixel, and (2) spectral information extracted from signals of adjoining pixels. Two algorithms, LIMMIX and nine-point mixtures, are described along with supporting processing techniques. An important by-product of the procedures, in contrast to the previous method, is that they are often appropriate when the number of spectral bands is small. Preliminary tests on LANDSAT data sets, where target classes were (1) lakes and ponds, and (2) agricultural crops were encouraging.

  14. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 1: User applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Nalepka, R. F.; Weber, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A six-month systems study of earth resource surveys from satellites was conducted and is reported. SKYLAB S-192 multispectral scanner (MSS) data were used as a baseline to aid in evaluating the characteristics of future systems using satellite MSS sensors. The study took the viewpoint that overall system (sensor and processing) characteristics and parameter values should be determined largely by user requirements for automatic information extraction performance in quasi-operational earth resources surveys, the other major factor being hardware limitations imposed by state-of-the-art technology and cost. The objective was to use actual aircraft and spacecraft MSS data to outline parametrically the trade-offs between user performance requirements and hardware performance and limitations so as to allow subsequent evaluation of compromises which must be made in deciding what system(s) to build.

  15. A comparison of change detection methods using multispectral scanner data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seevers, P.M.; Jones, B.K.; Qiu, Zhicheng; Liu, Yutong

    1994-01-01

    Change detection methods were investigated as a cooperative activity between the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping, People's Republic of China. Subtraction of band 2, band 3, normalized difference vegetation index, and tasseled cap bands 1 and 2 data from two multispectral scanner images were tested using two sites in the United States and one in the People's Republic of China. A new statistical method also was tested. Band 2 subtraction gives the best results for detecting change from vegetative cover to urban development. The statistical method identifies areas that have changed and uses a fast classification algorithm to classify the original data of the changed areas by land cover type present for each image date.

  16. A study of techniques for processing multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. B.; Richardson, W.; Hieber, R. H.; Malila, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    A linear decision rule to reduce the time required for processing multispectral scanner data is developed. Test results are presented which justify the use of the new rule for digital processing whenever both accuracy and processing time are important. A method of evaluating the performance of the rule is also developed and applied to the problem of choosing a subset of channels. A technique used to find linear combinations of channels is described. The ability to extend signatures throughout a small area of approximately fifty square miles is tested. After preprocessing, signatures derived from the first of seven overlapping data sets are applied to all data sets. The test results show that the average probability of misclassification tends to increase with an increase in the number of data sets over which the signatures are extended.

  17. Geometric analysis and restitution of digital multispectral scanner data arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R.; Mikhail, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to define causes of geometric defects within digital multispectral scanner (MSS) data arrays, to analyze the resulting geometric errors, and to investigate restitution methods to correct or reduce these errors. Geometric transformation relationships for scanned data, from which collinearity equations may be derived, served as the basis of parametric methods of analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays. The linearization of these collinearity equations is presented. Algorithms considered for use in analysis and restitution included the MSS collinearity equations, piecewise polynomials based on linearized collinearity equations, and nonparametric algorithms. A proposed system for geometric analysis and restitution of MSS digital data arrays was used to evaluate these algorithms, utilizing actual MSS data arrays. It was shown that collinearity equations and nonparametric algorithms both yield acceptable results, but nonparametric algorithms possess definite advantages in computational efficiency. Piecewise polynomials were found to yield inferior results.

  18. The four- and five-band multispectral scanners for Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, J. C., Jr.; Cline, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    The earth resources sensing Multispectral Scanner (MSS) for the Landsat satellite has two versions; one with four spectral bands from 0.5 to 1.1 microns, and one with five bands, the added band being 10.4 to 12.6 microns. This paper describes optical design and performance. The instrument uses a flat, object-space scanning mirror of near-linear motion, with a sensitive optical position monitor to detect mirror angular position. The 22.9-cm aperture telescope images the scene on an array of fiber optics, which dissect and transmit the scene energy to photomultiplier tubes detecting in Bands 1, 2, and 3, and silicon photodiodes detecting Band 4. Band 5 energy passes the fiber optic assembly and is reimaged on a radiatively cooled mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector. The orbiting four-band scanner is furnishing data registered to better than 50-m band-to-band and resolving 80-m repetitive pattern over a 185-km swath width from 907-km altitude.

  19. A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at En'Urga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. Electronic design of the scanner to make it a self standing sensor is currently in progress. During the last six months of the project, the electronic and mechanical design will be completed and evaluated at En'Urga Inc.

  20. Interpretation of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data for forest surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, A. S.; Degloria, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data were evaluated by interpreting film and digital products and statistical data for selected forest cover types in California. Significant results were: (1) TM color image products should contain a spectral band in the visible (bands 1, 2, or 3), near infrared (band 4), and middle infrared (band 5) regions for maximizing the interpretability of vegetation types; (2) TM color composites should contain band 4 in all cases even at the expense of excluding band 5; and (3) MSS color composites were more interpretable than all TM color composites for certain cover types and for all cover types when band 4 was excluded from the TM composite.

  1. Interpretation of multispectral and infrared thermal surveys of the Suez Canal Zone, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Hady, M. A. A. H.; Hafez, M. A. A.; Salman, A. B.; Morsy, M. A.; Elrakaiby, M. M.; Alaassy, I. E. E.; Kamel, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing airborne surveys were conducted, as part of the plan of rehabilitation, of the Suez Canal Zone using I2S multispectral camera and Bendix LN-3 infrared passive scanner. The multispectral camera gives four separate photographs for the same scene in the blue, green, red, and near infrared bands. The scanner was operated in the microwave bands of 8 to 14 microns and the thermal surveying was carried out both at night and in the day time. The surveys, coupled with intensive ground investigations, were utilized in the construction of new geological, structural lineation and drainage maps for the Suez Canal Zone on a scale of approximately 1:20,000, which are superior to the maps made by normal aerial photography. A considerable number of anomalies belonging to various types were revealed through the interpretation of the executed multispectral and infrared thermal surveys.

  2. Assessment of satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data for strip-mine monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.; Dooley, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    The application of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data to describe the mining and reclamation changes of a hilltop surface coal mine in the rugged, mountainous area of eastern Kentucky is presented. Original single band satellite imagery, computer enhanced single band imagery, and computer classified imagery are presented for four different data sets in order to demonstrate the land cover changes that can be detected. Data obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner on board a C-47 aircraft at an altitude of 3000 meters are also presented. Comparing the satellite data with color, infrared aerial photography, and ground survey data shows that significant changes in the disrupted area can be detected from LANDSAT band 5 satellite imagery for mines with more than 100 acres of disturbed area. However, band-ratio (bands 5/6) imagery provides greater contrast than single band imagery and can provide a qualitative level 1 classification of the land cover that may be useful for monitoring either the disturbed mining area or the revegetation progress. However, if a quantitative, accurate classification of the barren or revegetated classes is required, it is necessary to perform a detailed, four band computer classification of the data.

  3. Bottled liquid explosive scanner by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    A bottled liquid explosive scanner has been developed using near infrared technology for glass or PET bottles and ultrasound technology for metal cans. It has database of near infrared absorbance spectra and sound velocities of various liquids. Scanned liquids can be identified by using this database. This device has been certified by ECAC and installed at Japanese international airport.

  4. Infrared scanner concept verification test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtel, F. D.

    1980-01-01

    The test results from a concept verification test conducted to assess the use of an infrared scanner as a remote temperature sensing device for the space shuttle program are presented. The temperature and geometric resolution limits, atmospheric attenuation effects including conditions with fog and rain, and the problem of surface emissivity variations are included. It is concluded that the basic concept of using an infrared scanner to determine near freezing surface temperatures is feasible. The major problem identified is concerned with infrared reflections which result in significant errors if not controlled. Action taken to manage these errors result in design and operational constraints to control the viewing angle and surface emissivity.

  5. A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first six months of the project, the design for a laboratory version of the multispectral scanner was completed. The optical, mechanical, and electronic design for the scanner was completed. The optical design was analyzed using Zeemax Optical Design software and found to provide sufficiently resolved performance for the scanner. The electronic design was evaluated using a bread board and very high signal to noise ratios were obtained. Fabrication of a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner is currently in progress. A technology status report and a research management plan was also completed during the same period.

  6. Investigation of radiometric properties of the LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric data quality of the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) was examined using several LANDSAT 4 frames. It was found that LANDSAT 4 MSS produces high-quality data of the caliber experienced with previous LANDSATS. For example, the detector equalization procedure worked well, leaving a residual banding effect of about 0.3 digital counts RMS, close to the theoretical minimum value of quantization error. Nevertheless, artifacts of the data were found, two of which were not experienced in previous MSS data. A low-level coherent noise effect was observed in all bands, with a magnitude of about 0.5 digital counts and a frequency of approximately 28 KHz (representing a wavelength of about 3.6 pixels); a substantial increase in processing complexity would be required to reduce this artifact in the data. Also, a substantial scan-length variation (of up to six pixels) was noted in MSS data when the TM sensor was operating; the LANDSAT 4 correction algorithms being applied routinely by the EROS Data Center to produce a p-type data should remove most of this variation. Between-satellite calibrations were examined in paired LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 MSS data sets, which were closely matched in acquisition time and place. Radiometric comparisons showed that all bands were highly linear in digital counts, and a well-determined linear transformation between the MSS's was established.

  7. Trophic classification of Colorado lakes utilizing contact data, Landsat and aircraft-acquired multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, D. H. P.; Blackwell, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data, acquired over several Colorado lakes using Landsat-1 and aircraft, were used in conjunction with National Eutrophication Survey contact-sensed data to determine the feasibility of assessing lacustrine trophic levels. A trophic state index was developed using contact-sensed data for several trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, inverse of Secchi disk transparency, conductivity, total phosphorous, total organic nitrogen, algal assay yield). Relationships between the digitally processed multispectral scanner data, several trophic indicators, and the trophic index were examined using a supervised multispectral classification technique and regression techniques. Statistically significant correlations exist between spectral bands, several of the trophic indicators (chlorophyll a, Secchi disk transparency, total organic nitrogen), and the trophic state index. Color-coded photomaps were generated which depict the spectral aspects of trophic state. Multispectral scanner data acquired from satellite and aircraft platforms can be used to advantage in lake monitoring and survey programs.

  8. Discrimination of geological features using digital and photographic enhancements of Landsat multispectral scanner data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shazly, H.

    A variety of techniques for optically and digitally processing the Landsat multispectral scanner data were applied to scence number 1109-07493 of the Gulf of Suez Area. The results of each of these techniques were compared in order to assess the usefulness of each technique in the interpretation of the Landsat images. The best overall results for this scene were achieved using optically enhanced digital images. The high-bandpass color-infrared image was nearly as good. The intensity, hue and saturation images showed increased contrast between the various geological units, but lacked the fine detail necessary for certain aspects of geological interpretation. These results should equally apply to images of similar ground features but will probably differ when the features are significantly different.

  9. Application of multispectral scanner data to the study of an abandoned surface coal mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The utility of aircraft multispectral scanner data for describing the land cover features of an abandoned contour-mined coal mine is considered. The data were obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner at an altitude of 1.2 kilometers. Supervised, maximum-likelihood statistical classifications of the data were made to establish land-cover classes and also to describe in more detail the barren surface features as they may pertain to the reclamation or restoration of the area. The scanner data for the surface-water areas were studied to establish the variability and range of the spectral signatures. Both day and night thermal images of the area are presented. The results of the study show that a high degree of statistical separation can be obtained from the multispectral scanner data for the various land-cover features.

  10. Active and passive multispectral scanner for earth resources applications: An advanced applications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Peterson, L. M.; Thomson, F. J.; Work, E. A.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an experimental airborne multispectral scanner to provide both active (laser illuminated) and passive (solar illuminated) data from a commonly registered surface scene is discussed. The system was constructed according to specifications derived in an initial programs design study. The system was installed in an aircraft and test flown to produce illustrative active and passive multi-spectral imagery. However, data was not collected nor analyzed for any specific application.

  11. A multispectral scanner survey of the Salmon Site and surrounding area, Lamar County, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Blohm, J.D.; Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-06-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner survey was conducted over the Salmon Site and the surrounding area in Lamar County, Mississippi, on May 8, 1992. Twelve-channel daytime multispectral data were collected from altitudes of 2,000 feet, 4,000 feet, and 6,000 feet above ground level. Large-scale color photography was acquired simultaneously with the scanner data. Three different composite images have been prepared to demonstrate the digital image enhancement techniques that can be applied to the data. The data that were acquired offer opportunity for further standard and customized analysis based on any specific environmental characterization issues associated with this site.

  12. Multispectral scanner system for ERTS: Four band scanner system. Volume 2: Engineering model panoramic pictures and engineering tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This document is Volume 2 of three volumes of the Final Report for the four band Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). The results are contained of an analysis of pictures of actual outdoor scenes imaged by the engineering model MSS for spectral response, resolution, noise, and video correction. Also included are the results of engineering tests on the MSS for reflectance and saturation from clouds. Finally, two panoramic pictures of Yosemite National Park are provided.

  13. A general solution for the registration of optical multispectral scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    The paper documents a general theory for registration (mapping) of data sets gathered by optical scanners such as the ERTS satellite MSS and the Skylab S-192 MSS. This solution is generally applicable to scanners which have rotating optics. Navigation data and ground control points are used in a statistically weighted adjustment based on a mathematical model of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the scanner system. This adjustment is very similar to the well known photogrammetric adjustments used in aerial mapping. Actual tests have been completed on NASA aircraft 24 channel MSS data, and the results are very encouraging.

  14. A preliminary report of multispectral scanner data from the Cleveland harbor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shook, D.; Raquet, C.; Svehla, R.; Wachter, D.; Salzman, J.; Coney, T.; Gedney, D.

    1975-01-01

    Imagery obtained from an airborne multispectral scanner is presented. A synoptic view of the entire study area is shown for a number of time periods and for a number of spectral bands. Using several bands, sediment distributions, thermal plumes, and Rhodamine B dye distributions are shown.

  15. Procedure M - A framework for stratified area estimation. [in multispectral scanner data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauth, R. J.; Cicone, R. C.; Malila, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes Procedure M, a systematic approach to processing multispectral scanner data for classification and acreage estimation. A general discussion of the rationale and development of the procedure is given in the context of large-area agricultural applications. Specific examples are given in the form of test results on acreage estimation of spring small grains.

  16. Information content of data from the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous data acquisition by the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner permits the comparison of the two types of image data with respect to engineering performance and data applications. Progress in the evaluation of information content of matching scenes in agricultural areas is briefly reported.

  17. The trophic classification of lakes using ERTS multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, R. J.; Boland, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Lake classification methods based on the use of ERTS data are described. Preliminary classification results obtained by multispectral and digital image processing techniques indicate satisfactory correlation between ERTS data and EPA-supplied water analysis. Techniques for determining lake trophic levels using ERTS data are examined, and data obtained for 20 lakes are discussed.

  18. The trophic classification of lakes using ERTS multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, R. J.; Boland, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Lake classification methods based on the use of ERTS data are described. Preliminary classification results obtained by multispectral and digital image processing techniques indicate satisfactory correlation between ERTS data and EPA-supplied water analysis. Techniques for determining lake trophic levels using ERTS data are examined, and data obtained for 20 lakes are discussed.

  19. Multispectral Thermal Infrared Mapping of Sulfur Dioxide Plumes: A Case Study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    1996-01-01

    The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well-suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS).

  20. Multispectral Thermal Infrared Mapping of Sulfur Dioxide Plumes: A Case Study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    1996-01-01

    The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well-suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS).

  1. Quantitative evaluation of water bodies dynamic by means of thermal infrared and multispectral surveys on the Venetian lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberotanza, L.; Lechi, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys employing a two channel Daedalus infrared scanner and multispectral photography were performed. The spring waning tide, the velocity of the water mass, and the types of suspended matter were among the topics studied. Temperature, salinity, sediment transport, and ebb stream velocity were recorded. The bottom topography was correlated with the dynamic characteristics of the sea surface.

  2. Development of a universal water signature for the LANDSAT-3 Multispectral Scanner, part 2 of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized four-channel hyperplane to discriminate water from non-water was developed using LANDSAT-3 multispectral scanner (MSS) scences and matching same/next-day color infrared aerial photography. The MSS scenes over upstate New York, eastern Washington, Montana and Louisiana taken between May and October 1978 varied in Sun elevation angle from 40 to 58 degrees. The 28 matching air photo frames selected for analysis contained over 1400 water bodies larger than one surface acre. A preliminary water discriminant was used to screen the data and eliminate from further consideration all pixels distant from water in MSS spectral space. Approximately 1300 pixels, half of them non-edge water pixels and half non-water pixels spectrally close to water, were labelled. A linear discriminant was iteratively fitted to the labelled pixels, giving more weight to those pixels that were difficult to discriminate. This discriminant correctly classified 98.7 percent of the water pixels and 98.6 percent of the non-water pixels.

  3. Remote sensing operations (multispectral scanner and photographic) in the New York Bight, 22 September 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ocean dumping of waste materials is a significant environmental concern in the New York Bight. One of these waste materials, sewage sludge, was monitored in an experiment conducted in the New York Bight on September 22, 1975. Remote sensing over controlled sewage sludge dumping included an 11-band multispectral scanner, fiver multispectral cameras and one mapping camera. Concurrent in situ water samples were taken and acoustical measurements were made of the sewage sludge plumes. Data were obtained for sewage sludge plumes resulting from line (moving barge) and spot (stationary barge) dumps. Multiple aircraft overpasses were made to evaluate temporal effects on the plume signature.

  4. The in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, L.K.; Golanics, C.J.; Shines, J.E. ); Biggar, S.F.; Slater, P.N. . Optical Sciences Center)

    1991-01-01

    A convenient way that has been used to calibrate, in-flight, a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner is described. It used four large canvas panels laid out in a square with a Spectralon panel as a reference. A calibrated Barnes modular multispectral radiometer, carried on a 2.2-m boom was rotated around a 2.5-m high tripod at the center of the square. The radiometer sampled the four large panels and the Spectralon panel once every two minutes. Atmospheric spectral transmittance measurements were made using a filter radiometer on an autotracking mount during the morning of the flight. The reflectance and optical depth data were used in an atmospheric radiative transfer code to predict the spectral radiances at the scanner. The calibration was completed by comparing the image digital counts to the predicted spectral radiances. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. A parametric multiclass Bayes error estimator for the multispectral scanner spatial model performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasseri, B. G.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The probability of correct classification of various populations in data was defined as the primary performance index. The multispectral data being of multiclass nature as well, required a Bayes error estimation procedure that was dependent on a set of class statistics alone. The classification error was expressed in terms of an N dimensional integral, where N was the dimensionality of the feature space. The multispectral scanner spatial model was represented by a linear shift, invariant multiple, port system where the N spectral bands comprised the input processes. The scanner characteristic function, the relationship governing the transformation of the input spatial, and hence, spectral correlation matrices through the systems, was developed.

  6. Adaptive on-line classification of multi-spectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromm, F. R.; Northouse, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A possible solution to the analysis of the massive amounts of multi-spectral scanner data from the Earth Resource Technical Satellite (ERTS) program is proposed. This solution is offered as an adaptive on-line classification scheme. The classifier is described as well as its controller which is based on ground truth data. Cluster analysis is presented as an alternative approach to the ground truth data. Adaptive feature selection is discussed and possible mini-computer implementations are offered.

  7. Adaptive on-line classification of multi-spectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromm, F. R.; Northouse, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A possible solution to the analysis of the massive amounts of multi-spectral scanner data from the Earth Resource Technical Satellite (ERTS) program is proposed. This solution is offered as an adaptive on-line classification scheme. The classifier is described as well as its controller which is based on ground truth data. Cluster analysis is presented as an alternative approach to the ground truth data. Adaptive feature selection is discussed and possible mini-computer implementations are offered.

  8. Remote sensing of sediment and chlorophyll with the test-bed aircraft multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Hardesty, C. A.; Jobson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    An instrument known as the test-bed aircraft multispectral scanner (TBAMS) was used in a research flight over the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. Upwelled radiances from the TBAMS data were correlated with the water parameters, particularly sediment and chlorophyll a. Several algorithms were demonstrated for monitoring sediment and chlorophyll, with a three-band ratio being the best. The primary advantage of the three-band ratio was found to be its apparent insensitivity to atmospheric and Sun-angle variations.

  9. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Hon, Ken; Kahle, Anne B.; Abbott, Elsa A.; Pieri, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10 C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows.

  10. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Hon, Ken; Kahle, Anne B.; Abbott, Elsa A.; Pieri, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10 C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows.

  11. Emission and reflection from healthy and stressed natural targets with computer analysis of spectroradiometric and multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.; Silva, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    Special emphasis was on corn plants, and the healthy targets were differentiated from stressed ones by remote sensing. Infrared radiometry of plants is reviewed thoroughly with emphasis on agricultural crops. Theory and error analysis of the determination of emittance of a natural target by radiometer is discussed. Experiments were conducted on corn (Zea mays L.) plants with long wavelength spectroradiometer under field conditions. Analysis of multispectral scanner data of ten selected flightlines of Corn Blight Watch Experiment of 1972 indicated: (1) There was no regular pattern of the mean response of the higher level/levels blighted corn vs. lower level/levels blighted corn in any of the spectral channels. (2) The greater the difference between the blight levels, the more statistically separable they usually were in subsets of one, two, three and four spectral channels.

  12. Snow survey from space, with emphasis on the results of the analysis of Skylab EREP S192 multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.; Smallwood, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab EREP S192 multispectral scanner data have provided an opportunity to examine the reflectance characteristics of snow cover in several spectral bands extending from the visible into the near infrared spectral region to about 2 microns. The analysis of the S192 imagery and digital tape data from five EREP passes, two from the SL-2 mission and three from the SL-4 mission, indicates a sharp drop in reflectance of snow in the near infrared, with snow becoming essentially nonreflective in Bands 11 (1.55-1.75 microns) and 12 (2.10-2.35 microns). The results are in good agreement with the results of laboratory experiments. Two potential applications to snow mapping of measurements in the near infrared spectral region are possible: (1) the use of a near infrared band in conjunction with a visible band to distinguish automatically between snow and water droplet clouds, and (2) the use of one or more near infrared bands to detect areas of melting snow.

  13. Determination of noise equivalent reflectance for a multispectral scanner: A scanner sensitivity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, D. E.; Richard, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    The methods used to calculate the sensitivity parameter noise equivalent reflectance of a remote-sensing scanner are explored, and the results are compared with values measured over calibrated test sites. Data were acquired on four occasions covering a span of 4 years and providing various atmospheric conditions. One of the calculated values was based on assumed atmospheric conditions, whereas two others were based on atmospheric models. Results indicate that the assumed atmospheric conditions provide useful answers adequate for many purposes. A nomograph was developed to indicate sensitivity variations due to geographic location, time of day, and season.

  14. Interpretation of aircraft multispectral scanner images for mapping of alteration with uranium mineralization, Copper Mountain, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    NS-001 multispectral scanner data (0.45-2.35 micron) combined as principal components were utilized to map distributions of surface oxidation/weathering in Precambrian granitic rocks at Copper Mountain, Wyoming. Intense oxidation is found over granitic outcrops in partly exhumed pediments along the southern margin of the Owl Creek uplift, and along paleodrainages higher in the range. Supergene(?) uranium mineralization in the granites is localized beneath remnant Tertiary sediments covering portions of the pediments. The patterns of mineralization and oxidation are in agreement, but the genetic connections between the two remain in doubt.

  15. The mapping of marsh vegetation using aircraft multispectral scanner data. [in Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    A test was conducted to determine if salinity regimes in coastal marshland could be mapped and monitored by the identification and classification of marsh vegetative species from aircraft multispectral scanner data. The data was acquired at 6.1 km (20,000 ft.) on October 2, 1974, over a test area in the coastal marshland of southern Louisiana including fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline zones. The data was classified by vegetational species using a supervised, spectral pattern recognition procedure. Accuracies of training sites ranged from 67% to 96%. Marsh zones based on free soil water salinity were determined from the species classification to demonstrate a practical use for mapping marsh vegetation.

  16. Assessment of Pen Branch delta and corridor vegetation changes using multispectral scanner data 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data were used to monitor natural succession of wetland vegetation species over a three-year period from 1992 through 1994 for Pen Branch on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Image processing techniques were used to identify and measure wetland vegetation communities in the lower portion of the Pen Branch corridor and delta. The study provided a reliable means for monitoring medium- and large-scale changes in a diverse environment. Findings from the study will be used to support decisions regarding remediation efforts following the cessation of cooling water discharge from K reactor at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site in South Carolina.

  17. The MIDAS processor. [Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Gordon, M. F.; Mclaughlin, R. H.; Marshall, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The MIDAS (Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System) processor is a high-speed processor designed to process multispectral scanner data (from Landsat, EOS, aircraft, etc.) quickly and cost-effectively to meet the requirements of users of remote sensor data, especially from very large areas. MIDAS consists of a fast multipipeline preprocessor and classifier, an interactive color display and color printer, and a medium scale computer system for analysis and control. The system is designed to process data having as many as 16 spectral bands per picture element at rates of 200,000 picture elements per second into as many as 17 classes using a maximum likelihood decision rule.

  18. Interpretation of aircraft multispectral scanner images for mapping of alteration with uranium mineralization, Copper Mountain, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    NS-001 multispectral scanner data (0.45-2.35 micron) combined as principal components were utilized to map distributions of surface oxidation/weathering in Precambrian granitic rocks at Copper Mountain, Wyoming. Intense oxidation is found over granitic outcrops in partly exhumed pediments along the southern margin of the Owl Creek uplift, and along paleodrainages higher in the range. Supergene(?) uranium mineralization in the granites is localized beneath remnant Tertiary sediments covering portions of the pediments. The patterns of mineralization and oxidation are in agreement, but the genetic connections between the two remain in doubt.

  19. Status of the Landsat thematic mapper and multispectral scanner archive conversion system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Darla J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) manages the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive. This archive includes Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral scanner (MSS) data acquired since 1972. The Landsat archive is an important resource to global change research. To ensure long-term availability of Landsat data from the archive, the EDC specified requirements for a Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Archive Conversion System (TMACS) that would preserve the data by transcribing it to a more durable medium. In addition to media conversion, hardware and software was installed at EDC in July 1992. In December 1992, the EDC began converting Landsat MSS data from high-density, open reel instrumentation tapes to digital cassette tapes. Almost 320,000 MSS images acquired since 1979 and more than 200,000 TM images acquired since 1982 will be converted to the new medium during the next 3 years. During the media conversion process, several high-density tapes have exhibited severe binder degradation. Even though these tapes have been stored in environmentally controlled conditions, hydrolysis has occurred, resulting in "sticky oxide shed". Using a thermostatically controlled oven built at EDC, tape "baking" has been 100 percent successful and actually improves the quality of some images.

  20. Multi-spectral black meta-infrared detectors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    There is an increased emphasis on obtaining imaging systems with on-demand spectro-polarimetric information at the pixel level. Meta-infrared detectors in which infrared detectors are combined with metamaterials are a promising way to realize this. The infrared region is appealing due to the low metallic loss, large penetration depth of the localized field and the larger feature sizes compared to the visible region. I will discuss approaches to realize multispectral detectors including our recent work on double metal meta-material design combined with Type II superlattices that have demonstrated enhanced quantum efficiency (collaboration with Padilla group at Duke University).

  1. Russian multispectral-hyperspectral airborne scanner for geological and environmental investigations - {open_quotes}Vesuvius-EC{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yassinsky, G.I.; Shilin, B.V.

    1996-07-01

    Small variations of spectral characteristics in 0,3-14 microns band are of great significance in geological and environmental investigations. Multipurpose multispectral digital scanner with narrow field of view, high spectral resolution and radiometric calibration designed in Russia. Changeable modules permit to obtain parameters of the device for practical using.

  2. Color coded data obtained by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Color coded data obtained from Baja California, Mexico to Texas by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer is pictured. The map shows where data was obtained on the 19th orbit of the mission. Yellow and green areas represent water. The first brown segment at left is Baja California, and the second begins at the coast of mainland Mexico and extends into Texas. The dark brown strips at the right are clouds.

  3. Number of signatures necessary for accurate classification. [for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, W.; Pentland, A.; Crane, R.; Horwitz, H.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for determining the number of signatures to use in classifying multispectral scanner data. A large initial set of signatures is obtained by clustering the training points within each category (such as 'wheat' or 'other') to be recognized. These clusters are then combined into broader signatures by a program that considers each pair of signatures within a category, combines the best pair in the light of certain criteria, saves the combined signature and repeats the procedure until there is one signature for each category. The result is a collection of sets of signatures, one set for each number between the number of initial clusters and the number of categories. With the aid of statistics such as an estimate of the probability of misclassification between categories, the user can choose the smallest set satisfying his requirements for classification accuracy.

  4. The time-space relationships among data points from multispectral spatial scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, F.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral scanner and thematic mapper (TM) data from Landsat satellites are discussed in terms of the perceived 'simultaineity' of the images, which are obtained by scanning techniques. Scanning the scenes ensures that the data points of the images are actually sequential, even if the scan is performed at rates that are fast relative to the motion of the spacecraft. The last datum gathered by the MSS is, in fact, taken 29 sec after the first, witih a 56 m distance being present between pixels. The spacing in uneven from band to band on the TM and analyses of the data to produce an image requires consideration of nonfixed time relationships for different locations on the scan within and among the bands. Additionally, corrective measures must be taken to compensate for instrument jitter and attitude changes.

  5. Earth-atmosphere system and surface reflectivities in arid regions from LANDSAT multispectral scanner measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Fraser, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    Programs for computing atmospheric transmission and scattering solar radiation were used to compute the ratios of the Earth-atmosphere system (space) directional reflectivities in the vertical direction to the surface reflectivity, for the four bands of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS). These ratios are presented as graphs for two water vapor levels, as a function of the surface reflectivity, for various sun elevation angles. Space directional reflectivities in the vertical direction are reported for selected arid regions in Asia, Africa and Central America from the spectral radiance levels measured by the LANDSAT MSS. From these space reflectivities, surface vertical reflectivities were computed applying the pertinent graphs. These surface reflectivities were used to estimate the surface albedo for the entire solar spectrum. The estimated albedos are in the range 0.34-0.52, higher than the values reported by most previous researchers from space measurements, but are consistent with laboratory measurements.

  6. Assessment of Landsat multispectral scanner spectral indexes for monitoring arid rangeland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, H. B.

    1984-01-01

    Correlations between spectral indices and vegetation parameters in south-central New Mexico were used to determine the utility of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral indices in arid rangeland monitoring. In addition, spectral index change for 1976-1980 was calculated from retrospective MSS data and compared with qualitative ground truth in order to evaluate vegetation change detection by means of spectral indices. Brightness index change consistently differentiated between cover increase and decrease, but index change appears to have been offset from true cover change; this may at least partly be attributed to the failure of the methods used to standardize MSS scenes for differences in sensor response. Green vegetation indices, by contrast to brightness indices, failed to consistently differentiate between cover increase and decrease.

  7. Computer implemented classification of vegetation using aircraft acquired multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibula, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The use of aircraft 24-channel multispectral scanner data in conjunction with computer processing techniques to obtain an automated classification of plant species association was discussed. The classification of various plant species associations was related to information needed for specific applications. In addition, the necessity for multiple selection of training fields for a single class in situations where the study area consists of highly irregular terrain was detailed. A single classification was illuminated differently in different areas, resulting in the existence of multiple spectral signatures for a given class. These different signatures result since different qualities of radiation upwell to the detector from portions that have differing qualities of incident radiation. Techniques of training field selection were outlined, and a classification obtained from a natural area in Tishomingo State Park in northern Mississippi was presented.

  8. Remote sensing of benthic microalgal biomass with a tower-mounted multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, D. J.; Katzberg, S. J.; Zingmark, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    A remote sensing instrument was mounted on a 50-ft tower overlooking North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina in order to conduct a remote sensing study of benthic microalgae. The instrument was programmed to take multispectral imagery data along a 90 deg horizontal frame in six spectral bands ranging from 400-1050 nm and had a ground resolution of about 3 cm. Imagery measurements were encoded in digital form on magnetic tape and were stored, decoded, and manipulated by computer. Correlation coefficients were calculated on imagery data and chlorophyll a concentrations derived from ground truth data. The most significant correlation occurred in the blue spectral band with numerical values ranging from -0.81 to -0.88 for three separate sampling periods. Mean values of chlorophyll a for a larger section of mudflat were estimated using regression equations. The scanner has provided encouraging results and promises to be a useful tool in sampling the biomass of intertidal benthic microalgae.

  9. The LANDSAT-1 multispectral scanner as a tool in the classification of inland lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, D. H. P.; Blackwell, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Relationships between LANDSAT-1 multispectral scanner (MSS) data and the trophic status of a group of lakes in the north-northeastern part of the United States were studied by predicting the magnitudes of two trophic state indicators, estimating lake position on a multivariate trophic scale, and automatically classifying lakes according to their trophic state. Initially, the principal component ordination was employed with 100 lakes. MSS data for some 20 lakes was then extracted from computer-compatible tapes (CCT) using a binary marking technique. The output was in the form of descriptive statistics and photographic concatenations. Color ratios were incorporated into regression models for the prediction of Secchi disc transparency, chlorophyll a, and lake position on the tropic scale. Results indicate that the LANDSAT-1 system, although handicapped by low spectral and spatial resolutions as well as excessive cloud cover, can be used as a supplemental data source in lake survey programs.

  10. Remote sensing of benthic microalgal biomass with a tower-mounted multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, D. J.; Katzberg, S. J.; Zingmark, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    A remote sensing instrument was mounted on a 50-ft tower overlooking North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina in order to conduct a remote sensing study of benthic microalgae. The instrument was programmed to take multispectral imagery data along a 90 deg horizontal frame in six spectral bands ranging from 400-1050 nm and had a ground resolution of about 3 cm. Imagery measurements were encoded in digital form on magnetic tape and were stored, decoded, and manipulated by computer. Correlation coefficients were calculated on imagery data and chlorophyll a concentrations derived from ground truth data. The most significant correlation occurred in the blue spectral band with numerical values ranging from -0.81 to -0.88 for three separate sampling periods. Mean values of chlorophyll a for a larger section of mudflat were estimated using regression equations. The scanner has provided encouraging results and promises to be a useful tool in sampling the biomass of intertidal benthic microalgae.

  11. Use of Seasat synthetic aperture radar and Landsat multispectral scanner subsystem data for Alaskan glaciology studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. K.; Ormsby, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Three Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and three Landsat multispectral scanner subsystem (MSS) scenes of three areas of Alaska were analyzed for hydrological information. The areas were: the Dease Inlet in northern Alaska and its oriented or thaw lakes, the Ruth and Tokositna valley glaciers in south central Alaska, and the Malaspina piedmont glacier on Alaska's southern coast. Results for the first area showed that the location and identification of some older remnant lake basins were more easily determined in the registered data using an MSS/SAR overlay than in either SAR or MSS data alone. Separately, both SAR and MSS data were useful for determination of surging glaciers based on their distinctive medial moraines, and Landsat data were useful for locating the glacier firn zone. For the Malaspina Glacier scenes, the SAR data were useful for locating heavily crevassed ice beneath glacial debris, and Landsat provided data concerning the extent of the debris overlying the glacier.

  12. The analysis of forest policy using Landsat multi-spectral scanner data and geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Brass, J. A.; Norman, S. D.; Tosta-Miller, N.

    1984-01-01

    The role of Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) data for forest policy analysis in the state of California has been investigated. The combined requirements for physical, socio-economic, and institutional data in policy analysis were studied to explain potential data needs. A statewide MSS data and general land cover classification was created from which country-wide data sets could be extracted for detailed analyses. The potential to combine point sample data with MSS data was examined as a means to improve specificity in estimations. MSS data was incorporated into geographic information systems to demonstrate modeling techniques using abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic data layers. The review of system configurations to help the California Department of Forestry (CDF) acquire the capability demonstrated resulted in a sequence of options for implementation.

  13. S192 multispectral scanner channel 13 electromechanical noise investigation ECP-166

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koumjian, H.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of all data on the multispectral scanner having to do with low frequency noise. The noise is component-induced, either mechanical or electrical or a combination of both. To assist in understanding the source of the noise, several dynamic analyses both structural and electrical were made and are reported. A review is presented of structural resonance test data obtained with the use of an accelerometer and strain gage sensors. Results of an analysis of the natural frequencies of the Dewar leads is included along with an analysis of the S192 cooler and its supporting structure. Other topics discussed include electronic stability of the forward signal, automatic gain control, and the offset control feedback loops as well as the preamplifier which utilized on integrator feedback circuit.

  14. Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS). [Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Software was constructed to reformat data to band interlevel format and analysis software was developed in an effort to quantify the increased information content (statistical variability within a data set) of thematic mapper data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral band scanner. Computer runs were carried out for several subareas from a data set acquired simultaneously by TM and MSS over a test area in northeast Arkansas, one of the most agriculturally diverse sea areas in the country. The 6 visible-near IR channels of the TM provide more information than the 4 channels of the MSS. A rough estimate of 20 bits per pixel for TM, and 10 bits per pixel for the MSS was computed for these subareas. These numbers are to be revised downward when allowance is made for noise in the data.

  15. The analysis of forest policy using Landsat multi-spectral scanner data and geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Brass, J. A.; Norman, S. D.; Tosta-Miller, N.

    1984-01-01

    The role of Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) data for forest policy analysis in the state of California has been investigated. The combined requirements for physical, socio-economic, and institutional data in policy analysis were studied to explain potential data needs. A statewide MSS data and general land cover classification was created from which country-wide data sets could be extracted for detailed analyses. The potential to combine point sample data with MSS data was examined as a means to improve specificity in estimations. MSS data was incorporated into geographic information systems to demonstrate modeling techniques using abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic data layers. The review of system configurations to help the California Department of Forestry (CDF) acquire the capability demonstrated resulted in a sequence of options for implementation.

  16. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Analysis of Mafic Volcanic Rocks Near Gila Bend, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, A. T.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-12-01

    Mapping the variability of rocks on the surface of Mars provides one means of studying the geologic history of the planet. The primary igneous rocks identified on Mars using the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) include basaltic to andesitic compositions. While these rock types have been distinguished in the thermal infrared using the spectral resolutions afforded by spectrometers, they have not been well characterized using multispectral instruments such as the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) currently en route to Mars. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) offer an opportunity to study terrestrial mafic rock compositions with multispectral instruments where there is the opportunity to compare results to field based studies and laboratory analysis of collected samples. Both the TIMS and ASTER instruments have coarser spectral resolution than THEMIS. TIMS provides 6 bands and ASTER provides 5, in contrast to the 9 unique bands for THEMIS. However, if these rock types are distinguishable at lower spectral resolutions in field conditions on Earth, THEMIS is likely to exceed their abilities at Mars. In this study, several basaltic to andesitic flows ranging in age from Tertiary ( ~20 Ma) to Quaternary (3 Ma) in the Gila Bend Mountains of southwestern Arizona are analyzed using ASTER and TIMS remote sensing data. The multispectral remote sensing data are deconvolved using laboratory mineral spectra resampled to the ASTER and TIMS instrument spectral resolutions. Comparison to laboratory and portable spectrometer data, as well as thin section analysis, provides the means to determine the accuracy of the deconvolution. Since these rocks differ in age, they exhibit variable amounts of weathering and rock varnish. These variable properties can be used to determine the proportion of the spectral signature that is due to coatings and weathering rinds versus host rock

  17. The role of multispectral scanners as data sources for EPA hydrologic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, R.; Hill, D.

    1982-01-01

    An estimated cost savings of 30% to 50% was realized from using LANDSAT-derived data as input into a program which simulates hydrologic and water quality processes in natural and man-made water systems. Data from the satellite were used in conjunction with EPA's 11-channel multispectral scanner to obtain maps for characterizing the distribution of turbidity plumes in Flathead Lake and to predict the effect of increasing urbanization in Montana's Flathead River Basin on the lake's trophic state. Multispectral data are also being studied as a possible source of the parameters needed to model the buffering capability of lakes in an effort to evaluate the effect of acid rain in the Adirondacks. Water quality in Lake Champlain, Vermont is being classified using data from the LANDSAT and the EPA MSS. Both contact-sensed and MSS data are being used with multivariate statistical analysis to classify the trophic status of 145 lakes in Illinois and to identify water sampling sites in Appalachicola Bay where contaminants threaten Florida's shellfish.

  18. Landsat-D thematic mapper simulation using aircraft multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J.; Bryant, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    A simulation of imagery from the upcoming Landsat-D Thematic Mapper was accomplished by using selected channels of aircraft 24-channel multispectral scanner data. The purpose was to simulate Thematic Mapper 30-meter resolution imagery, to compare its spectral quality with the original aircraft MSS data, and to determine changes in thematic classification accuracy for the simulated imagery. The original resolution of approximately 7.5 meters IFOV and simulated resolution of 15, 30, and 60 meters were used to indicate the trend of spectral quality and classification accuracy. The study was based in a 6.5 square kilometer area of urban Los Angeles having a diversity of land use. The original imagery was reduced in resolution by two related methods: pixel matrix averaging, and matrix smoothing with a unity box filter, followed by matrix averaging. Thematic land use classification using training sites and a Bayesian maximum-likelihood algorithm was performed at three levels of standard deviation - 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 sigma. Plots of relative standard deviation showed that for larger training sites with a normal distribution of data, as the resolution decreased, the distribution range of density values decreased. Also, the classification accuracies for three levels of standard deviation increased as resolution decreased. However, the indication is that a point of diminishing returns had been reached, and 30 meters IFOV should be the best for multispectral classification of urban scenes.

  19. Mapping playa evaporite minerals and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, with multispectral thermal infrared images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Hook, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Efflorescent salt crusts and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, were studied with remote-sensing data acquired by the NASA thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS). Nine spectral classes that represent a variety of surface materials were distinguished, including several classes that reflect important aspects of the playa groundwater chemistry and hydrology. Evaporite crusts containing abundant thenardite (sodium sulfate) were mapped along the northern and eastern margins of the Cottonball Basin, areas where the inflow waters are rich in sodium. Gypsum (calcium sulfate) crusts were more common in the Badwater Basin, particularly near springs associated with calcic groundwaters along the western basin margin. Evaporite-rich crusts generally marked areas where groundwater is periodically near the surface and thus able to replenish the crusts though capillary evaporation. Detrital silicate minerals were prevalent in other parts of the salt pan where shallow groundwater does not affect the surface composition. The surface features in Death Valley change in response to climatic variations on several different timescales. For example, salt crusts on low-lying mudflats form and redissolve during seasonal-to-interannual cycles of wetting and desiccation. In contrast, recent flooding and erosion of rough-salt surfaces in Death Valley probably reflect increased regional precipitation spanning several decades. Remote-sensing observations of playas can provide a means for monitoring changes in evaporite facies and for better understanding the associated climatic processes. At present, such studies are limited by the availability of suitable airborne scanner data. However, with the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Platform in 1998, multispectral visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared remote-sensing data will become globally available. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Nimbus limb radiometer, apollo fine sun sensor, and skylab multispectral scanner.

    PubMed

    Kollodge, J C; Thomas, J R; Weagant, R A

    1972-10-01

    Examples of three different types of electrooptical systems developed by the Honeywell Radiation Center for NASA are described. One is a multichannel infrared ( 15 micro) radiometer that will permit temperature and constituent inferences over the globe; it carries a one-year supply of cryogenics for the trimetal infrared detectors. The second is the Apollo telescope mount fine sun sensor, a tracking device making use of solar radiation and the transmission near critical angle of refraction, that will track within +/-2 sec of arc to a designated point on the sun. The final example is the Skylab S-192 multispectral (thirteen channels from 0.4 micro to 12 micro) mapper for a variety of earth resources applications.

  1. Detection and mapping of volcanic rock assemblages and associated hydrothermal alteration with Thermal Infrared Multiband Scanner (TIMS) data Comstock Lode Mining District, Virginia City, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, James V.; Hutsinpiller, Amy; Borengasser, Marcus

    1986-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired over the Virginia City area on September 12, 1984. The data were acquired at approximately 1130 hours local time (1723 IRIG). The TIMS data were analyzed using both photointerpretation and digital processing techniques. Karhuen-Loeve transformations were utilized to display variations in radiant spectral emittance. The TIMS image data were compared with color infrared metric camera photography, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data, and key areas were photographed in the field.

  2. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Realmuto, V.J.; Hon, K.; Kahle, A.B.; Abbott, E.A.; Pieri, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10?? C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. In general, the emissivity of the flows varied systematically with age but the relationship between age and emissivity was not unique. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows. Such incipient alteration may have been the cause for virtually all of the emissivity variations observed on the flow field, the spectral anomalies representing areas where the acid attack was most intense. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Thermal surveillance of Cascade Range volcanoes using ERTS-1 multispectral scanner, aircraft imaging systems, and ground-based data communication platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D.; Frank, D. G.; Preble, D.; Painter, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of infrared images depicting areas of thermal emission and ground calibration points have proved to be particularly useful in plotting time-dependent changes in surface temperatures and radiance and in delimiting areas of predominantly convective heat flow to the earth's surface in the Cascade Range and on Surtsey Volcano, Iceland. In an integrated experiment group using ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS) and aircraft infrared imaging systems in conjunction with multiple thermistor arrays, volcano surface temperatures are relayed daily to Washington via data communication platform (DCP) transmitters and ERTS-1. ERTS-1 MSS imagery has revealed curvilinear structures at Lassen, the full extent of which have not been previously mapped. Interestingly, the major surface thermal manifestations at Lassen are aligned along these structures, particularly in the Warner Valley.

  4. GRIN optics for multispectral infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Daniel; Bayya, Shyam; Nguyen, Vinh; Sanghera, Jas; Kotov, Mikhail; Drake, Gryphon

    2015-06-01

    Graded index (GRIN) optics offer potential for both weight savings and increased performance but have so far been limited to visible and NIR bands (wavelengths shorter than about 0.9 μm). NRL is developing a capability to extend GRIN optics to longer wavelengths in the infrared by exploiting diffused IR transmitting chalcogenide glasses. These IR-GRIN lenses are compatible with all IR wavebands (SWIR, MWIR and LWIR) and can be used alongside conventional wideband materials. Traditional multiband IR imagers require many elements for correction of chromatic aberrations, making them large and heavy and not well-suited for weight sensitive platforms. IR-GRIN optical elements designed with simultaneous optical power and chromatic correction can reduce the number of elements in wideband systems, making multi-band IR imaging practical for platforms including small UAVs and soldier handheld, helmet or weapon mounted cameras. The IR-GRIN lens technology, design space and anti-reflection considerations are presented in this paper.

  5. Monitoring vegetation recovery patterns on Mount St. Helens using thermal infrared multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langran, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    The eruptions of Mount St. Helens created new surfaces by stripping and implacing large volumes of eroded material and depositing tephra in the blast area and on the flanks of the mountain. Areas of major disturbance are those in the blast zone that were subject to debris avalanche, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and blowdown and scorched timber; and those outside the blast zone that received extensive tephra deposits. These zones represent a spectrum of disturbance types and intensities that can be indexed by temperature, impact force, and depth of subsequent deposition. This paper describes an application of NASA's Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) in monitoring vegetation recovery patterns in disturbed areas. Preliminary study results indicate a significant correlation between measured effective radiant temperature and vegetated/nonvegetated areas, percent vegetation cover, and vegetation type.

  6. A scan-angle correction for thermal infrared multispectral data using side lapping images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) images, acquired with side lapping flight lines, provide dual angle observations of the same area on the ground and can thus be used to estimate variations in the atmospheric transmission with scan angle. The method was tested using TIMS aircraft data for six flight lines with about 30% sidelap for an area within Joshua Tree National Park, California. Generally the results correspond to predictions for the transmission scan-angle coefficient based on a standard atmospheric model although some differences were observed at the longer wavelength channels. A change was detected for the last pair of lines that may indicate either spatial or temporal atmospheric variation. The results demonstrate that the method provides information for correcting regional survey data (requiring multiple adjacent flight lines) that can be important in detecting subtle changes in lithology.

  7. Detection of infrared stealth aircraft through their multispectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Shao, Xiaopeng; Han, Pingli; Xiangli, Bin; Yang, Cui

    2014-09-01

    A concise band selection method employing multispectral signatures of stealth aircraft whose infrared radiation was remarkably reduced was proposed for precise target detection. The key step was to select two or more optimal bands which could clearly signify the radiation difference between the target and its background. The principle of preliminary selection was based on the differences of radiation characteristics for the two main constituents of the aircraft's plume gas, i.e., CO2 and H2O. Two narrow bands of 2.86 to 3.3 and 4.17 to 4.55 μm were finally selected after detailed analyses on contrast characteristics between the target and background. Also, the stability of the selected bands was tested under varying environments. Further simulations and calculations demonstrated that the multispectral detection method utilizing the two selected narrow bands could markedly improve the essential performances of target detection systems and increase their achievable detection distance. The stability of the aircraft's multispectral signatures enabled this target detection method to achieve excellent results.

  8. Polarization controllable multispectral symmetry-breaking absorberin mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan; Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Hasan, Dihan; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Alioto, Massimo; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-08-01

    The versatility of mid-infrared metamaterial absorbers along with the ease of fabrication has been widely used in thermal imaging, molecule sensing, and many other applications. Controllable multispectral absorption is highly required for small footprint, multi-purpose, and real-time sensing applications. In this paper, we present the polarization control of interchangeable multispectral absorption based on the dual-band metamaterial absorber in split mode. Large modulation depth of absorption is obtained during multi-band transition through polarization control. We perform theoretical and numerical analysis to explain the results by formulating an equivalent circuit for the asymmetric cross resonator. Thermal controllability is also demonstrated to show the reversible and repeatable manipulation of absorption intensity at a given wavelength. Moreover, we characterized the limitation of this device under extreme high temperature. This work offers a design methodology for interchangeable multispectral metamaterial absorber from a new perspective by adopting polarization of incident light as a control mechanism, and this will open up possibilities for many valuable applications in the future.

  9. Enhancement of multispectral thermal infrared images - Decorrelation contrast stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Decorrelation contrast stretching is an effective method for displaying information from multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) images. The technique involves transformation of the data to principle components ('decorrelation'), independent contrast 'stretching' of data from the new 'decorrelated' image bands, and retransformation of the stretched data back to the approximate original axes, based on the inverse of the principle component rotation. The enhancement is robust in that colors of the same scene components are similar in enhanced images of similar scenes, or the same scene imaged at different times. Decorrelation contrast stretching is reviewed in the context of other enhancements applied to TIR images.

  10. Mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks using airborne multispectral scanner data, Marysvale, Utah, mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Segal, D.B.; Jones, O.D.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral data covering an area near Marysvale, Utah, collected with the airborne National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 24-channel Bendix multispectral scanner, were analyzed to detect areas of hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Spectral bands were selected for analysis that approximate those of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper and which are diagnostic of the presence of hydrothermally derived products. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly volcanic rocks affected by solutions rich in sulfuric acid, are commonly characterized by concentrations of argillic minerals such as alunite and kaolinite. These minerals are important for identifying hydrothermally altered rocks in multispectral images because they have intense absorption bands centered near a wavelength of 2.2 ??m. Unaltered volcanic rocks commonly do not contain these minerals and hence do not have the absorption bands. A color-composite image was constructed using the following spectral band ratios: 1.6??m/2.2??m, 1.6??m/0.48??m, and 0.67??m/1.0??m. The particular bands were chosen to emphasize the spectral contrasts that exist for argillic versus non-argillic rocks, limonitic versus nonlimonitic rocks, and rocks versus vegetation, respectively. The color-ratio composite successfully distinguished most types of altered rocks from unaltered rocks. Some previously unrecognized areas of hydrothermal alteration were mapped. The altered rocks included those having high alunite and/or kaolinite content, siliceous rocks containing some kaolinite, and ash-fall tuffs containing zeolitic minerals. The color-ratio-composite image allowed further division of these rocks into limonitic and nonlimonitic phases. The image did not allow separation of highly siliceous or hematitically altered rocks containing no clays or alunite from unaltered rocks. A color-coded density slice image of the 1.6??m/2.2??m band ratio allowed further discrimination among the altered units. Areas

  11. Object-based analysis of multispectral airborne laser scanner data for land cover classification and map updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Karila, Kirsi; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula; Puttonen, Eetu; Ahokas, Eero

    2017-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with passive multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. The main benefits have been achieved in the mapping of elevated objects such as buildings and trees. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and active multispectral information is for the first time available for 3D ALS point clouds from a single sensor. This article discusses the potential of this new technology in map updating, especially in automated object-based land cover classification and change detection in a suburban area. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from an object-based random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral ALS data are very useful for land cover classification, considering both elevated classes and ground-level classes. The overall accuracy of the land cover classification results with six classes was 96% compared with validation points. The classes under study included building, tree, asphalt, gravel, rocky area and low vegetation. Compared to classification of single-channel data, the main improvements were achieved for ground-level classes. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral intensity features based on several channels were more useful than those based on one channel. Automatic change detection for buildings and roads was also demonstrated by utilising the new multispectral ALS data in combination with old map vectors. In change detection of buildings, an old digital surface model (DSM) based on single-channel ALS data was also used. Overall, our analyses suggest that the new data have high potential for further increasing the automation level in mapping. Unlike passive aerial imaging commonly used in mapping, the multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and there are

  12. Development of a universal water signature for the LANDSAT-3 Multispectral Scanner, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized four channel hyperplane to discriminate water from nonwater was developed using LANDSAT-3 multispectral scaner (MSS) scenes and matching same/next day color infrared aerial photography. The MSS scenes varied in sun elevation angle from 40 to 58 deg. The 28 matching air photo frames contained over 1400 water bodies larger than one surface acre. A preliminary water discriminant, was used to screen the data and eliminate from further consideration all pixels distant from water in MSS spectral space. A linear discriminant was iteratively fitted to the labelled pixels. This discriminant correctly classified 98.7% of the water pixels and 98.6% of the nonwater pixels. The discriminant detected 91.3% of the 414 water bodies over 10 acres in surface area, and misclassified as water 36 groups of contiguous nonwater pixels.

  13. Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

  14. Evaluation of Landsat Multispectral Scanner data for mapping vegetated soil landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, D. R.; Haas, Robert H.; Milford, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner data for Brazos County, Texas, were evaluated in terms of effectiveness for classifying soils on vegetated landscapes at three times during the year: a time of normally adequate soil water, a time of expected soil water deficit, and a time when soil water is normally being replenished. Six test sites were used to evaluate LARSYS supervised and unsupervised classification of vegetated soil landscapes. Open grassland soils were best separated in the fall during a period when soil moisture was being replenished after the summer period of soil water deficit. Woodland soils were separated by Landsat data in late spring when adequate moisture was available. However, a high degree of accuracy was not achieved using Landsat for separating soil map units. Accurate separation of soil mapping units on vegetated landscapes was not possible during late summer when soil water was deficient. Selected soil properties important to plant growth were separable on the test sites using June and October Landsat data. Particle size and soil moisture regime were separated at both dates. Soils with argillic horizons were separated from soils without argillic horizons.

  15. Monterey Bay study. [analysis of Landsat 1 multispectral band scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Wade, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The multispectral scanner capabilities of LANDSAT 1 were tested over California's Monterey Bay area and portions of the San Joaquin Valley. Using both computer aided and image interpretive processing techniques, the LANDSAT 1 data were analyzed to determine their potential application in terms of land use and agriculture. Utilizing LANDSAT 1 data, analysts were able to provide the identifications and areal extent of the individual land use categories ranging from very general to highly specific levels (e.g., from agricultural lands to specific field crop types and even the different stages of growth). It is shown that the LANDSAT system is useful in the identification of major crop species and the delineation of numerous land use categories on a global basis and that repeated surveillance would permit the monitoring of changes in seasonal growth characteristics of crops as well as the assessment of various cultivation practices with a minimum of onsite observation. The LANDSAT system is demonstrated to be useful in the planning and development of resource programs on earth.

  16. Low-cost data analysis systems for processing multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A research-oriented data analysis system was developed which is used for evaluating complex remote sensor systems and for development of techniques for application of remotely sensed data. Some modular hardware components were developed which may be added to one's existing facilities to establish a low-cost data analysis system for processing multispectral scanner data. Software modules which are compatible with small general purpose digital computers process and analyze remote sensor data, and convert it to information needed by users. The software modules are written in FORTRAN IV language for ease of transfer to other computer systems. The basic hardware and software system requirements are defined for some low-cost data analysis systems consisting of an image display system, a small general purpose digital computer, and an output recording device. The hardware modules consist of: a LANDSAT MSS data reformatting program; a series of spectral pattern recognition programs required to generate surface classification maps and tabular information; programs to convert computer generated maps from image space to a geographically referenced base; programs to extract data and irregularly shaped areas and to produce thematic maps of the designated areas; and programs to tabulate acreages of selected classification categories. Some off-the-shelf, inexpensive digital image display systems are described.

  17. Computer-aided analysis of Skylab multispectral scanner data in mountainous terrain for land use, forestry, water resource, and geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. One of the most significant results of this Skylab research involved the geometric correction and overlay of the Skylab multispectral scanner data with the LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, and also with a set of topographic data, including elevation, slope, and aspect. The Skylab S192 multispectral scanner data had distinct differences in noise level of the data in the various wavelength bands. Results of the temporal evaluation of the SL-2 and SL-3 photography were found to be particularly important for proper interpretation of the computer-aided analysis of the SL-2 and SL-3 multispectral scanner data. There was a quality problem involving the ringing effect introduced by digital filtering. The modified clustering technique was found valuable when working with multispectral scanner data involving many wavelength bands and covering large geographic areas. Analysis of the SL-2 scanner data involved classification of major cover types and also forest cover types. Comparison of the results obtained wth Skylab MSS data and LANDSAT MSS data indicated that the improved spectral resolution of the Skylab scanner system enabled a higher classification accuracy to be obtained for forest cover types, although the classification performance for major cover types was not significantly different.

  18. Multispectral glass transparent from visible to thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehault, A.; Calvez, L.; Pain, T.; Adam, P.; Rollin, J.; Zhang, X. H.

    2014-06-01

    The thermal imaging market has experienced a strong growth during the recent years due to continued cost reduction of night vision devices. The development of uncooled focal plane detector arrays is the major reason for the cost reduction. Another reason is the continuous improvement of the optical solution. In this paper, we present a new multispectral material which responds to the increasing demand for optics operating simultaneously in the visible/SWIR (Short Wave InfraRed) and the thermal infrared region. The most important properties of some glasses from the GeS2-Ga2S3- CsCl system are highlighted in this study. A stable composition 15Ga2S3-75GeS2-10CsCl allowed the synthesis of a large glass without crystallization. The refractive index of this glass was precisely measured from 0.6 to 10.4μm by using the Littrow method. The chromatic dispersion was then calculated and compared with other multispectral materials.

  19. Multispectral, thermal infrared satellite data for geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Marcell, R.; Minor, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    The value of multispectral thermal infrared satellite data for geologic mapping was assessed, applying the principal component and canonical analysis techniques to the images of the central part of the Arabian Peninsula (a 200 x 300 km area). Low resolution thermal infrared (TIR) data from the Nimbus 5 Surface Composition Mapping Radiometer (SCMR) and the NOAA-7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used. Color images included an 8.8 micrometer (SCMR) and 3.7 and 10.8 micrometer (AVHRR-night) data, ratioed AVHRR day/night TIR data, ratioed AVHRR reflected radiation data, and transformed 8- and 10-band TIR plus reflected radiation data. The results clearly demonstrated the potential geologic value of multispectral TIR data. Igneous and metamorphic units could be separated as a class (although not from each other except for young calc-alkaline granites). Some previously unmapped extensions of mapped faults below thick sedimentary units could be delineated. No single enhancement technique displayed all the potential information, implying that they should be used together.

  20. Anaysis of the quality of image data required by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner. [agricultural and forest cover types in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The spatial, geometric, and radiometric qualities of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were evaluated by interpreting, through visual and computer means, film and digital products for selected agricultural and forest cover types in California. Multispectral analyses employing Bayesian maximum likelihood, discrete relaxation, and unsupervised clustering algorithms were used to compare the usefulness of TM and MSS data for discriminating individual cover types. Some of the significant results are as follows: (1) for maximizing the interpretability of agricultural and forest resources, TM color composites should contain spectral bands in the visible, near-reflectance infrared, and middle-reflectance infrared regions, namely TM 4 and TM % and must contain TM 4 in all cases even at the expense of excluding TM 5; (2) using enlarged TM film products, planimetric accuracy of mapped poins was within 91 meters (RMSE east) and 117 meters (RMSE north); (3) using TM digital products, planimetric accuracy of mapped points was within 12.0 meters (RMSE east) and 13.7 meters (RMSE north); and (4) applying a contextual classification algorithm to TM data provided classification accuracies competitive with Bayesian maximum likelihood.

  1. The time-space relationship of the data point (Pixels) of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner or the myth of simultaneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified explanation of the time space relationships among scanner pixels is presented. The examples of the multispectral scanner (MSS) on Landsats 1, 2, and 3 and the thematic mapper (TM) of Landsat D are used to describe the concept and degree of nonsimultaneity of scanning system data. The time aspects of scanner data acquisition and those parts of the MSS and TM systems related to that phenomena are addressed.

  2. Use of airborne multispectral scanner data to map alteration related to roll-front uranium migration

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, D.C.

    1983-06-01

    Computer-enhanced airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) images have been used to detect and map red oxidized alteration related to roll-front uranium migration in the southern Powder River basin, Wyoming. Information in the 0.4- to 1.1-..mu..m spectral region was used to produce a color ratio composite image, upon which the red-altered areas can be differentiated. The red-altered and incipiently altered sandstones result from the migration of a roll-front (or geochemical cell) through the sandstone in the direction of the hydrologic gradient. Most uranium deposits in the Powder River basin occur at the boundary between this oxidized sandstone and reduced sandstone. Therefore, the ability to detect and map this alteration reliably can provide important information about the potential for uranium mineralization down gradient from the altered areas, at the surface in an area of interest. Spectral reflectance studies indicate that a shift in the absorption band edge from 0.52 ..mu..m (for goethitic sandstone) to 0.58 ..mu..m (for hematitic sandstone) and an intensification of an absorption band at 0.85 ..mu..m (for hematitic sandstone) are the bases for identifying the red-altered sandstone as green anomalous areas on the color ratio composite image. Some of the incipiently altered sandstone also appears green, whereas unaltered material and white-altered sandstone appear as blue to cyan colors. Therefore, the composite image is useful in discriminating hematitic sandstone from goethitic sandstone. At high densities (>65%), vegetation masks the sandstones on the color ratio composite image. Artemisia tridentata (sage) and Stipa comata (grass) are the species that have the greatest individual effect on the image.

  3. The airborne infrared scanner as a geophysical research tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jules D.

    1970-01-01

    The infrared scanner is proving to be an effective anomaly-mapping tool, albeit one which depicts surface emission directly and heat mass transfer from depths only indirectly and at a threshold level 50 to 100 times the normal conductive heat flow of the earth. Moreover, successive terrain observations are affected by time-dependent variables such as the diurnal and seasonal warming and cooling cycle of a point on the earth's surface. In planning precise air borne surveys of radiant flux from the earth's surface, account must be taken of background noise created by variations in micrometeorological factors and emissivity of surface materials, as well as the diurnal temperature cycle. The effect of the diurnal cycle may be minimized by planning predawn aerial surveys. In fact, the diurnal change is very small for most water bodies and the emissivity factor for water (e) =~ 1 so a minimum background noise is characteristic of scanner records of calm water surfaces.

  4. Large-format and multispectral QWIP infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold C.; Choi, Kwong-Kit; Jhabvala, Murzy; La, Anh; Uppal, Parvez N.; Winn, Michael L.

    2003-09-01

    The next generation of infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) will need to be a significant improvement in capability over those used in present-day second generation FLIRs. The Army's Future Combat System requires that the range for target identification be greater than the range of detection for an opposing sensor. To accomplish this mission, the number of pixels on the target must be considerably larger than that possible with 2nd generation FLIR. Therefore, the 3rd generation FLIR will need to be a large format staring FPA with more than 1000 pixels on each side. In addition, a multi-spectral capability will be required to allow operability in challenging ambient environments, discriminate targets from decoys, and to take advantage of the smaller diffraction blur in the MWIR for enhanced image resolution. We report on laboratory measurements of a large format (1024 x 1024 pixels) single-color LWIR IR FPA made using the corrugated quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) structure by the ARL/NASA team. The pixel pitch is 18 μm and the spectral response peaks at 8.8 μm with a 9.2 μm cutoff. We report on recent results using a MWIR/LWIR QWIP FPA to image the boost phase of a launch vehicle for missile defense applications and a LWIR/LWIR FPA designed specifically for detecting the disturbed soil associated with buried land mines. Finally, we report on the fabrication of a new read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) specifically designed for multi-spectral operation.

  5. Infrared optical coatings for the EarthCARE Multispectral Imager.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Gary; Woods, David; Sherwood, Richard; Djotni, Karim

    2014-10-20

    The Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer mission (EarthCARE) Multispectral Imager (MSI) is a radiometric instrument designed to provide the imaging of the atmospheric cloud cover and the cloud top surface temperature from a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit. The MSI forms part of a suite of four instruments destined to support the European Space Agency Living Planet mission on-board the EarthCARE satellite payload to be launched in 2016, whose synergy will be used to construct three-dimensional scenes, textures, and temperatures of atmospheric clouds and aerosols. The MSI instrument contains seven channels: four solar channels to measure visible and short-wave infrared wavelengths, and three channels to measure infrared thermal emission. In this paper, we describe the optical layout of the infrared instrument channels, thin-film multilayer designs, the coating deposition method, and the spectral system throughput for the bandpass interference filters, dichroic beam splitters, lenses, and mirror coatings to discriminate wavelengths at 8.8, 10.8, and 12.0 μm. The rationale for the selection of thin-film materials, spectral measurement technique, and environmental testing performance are also presented.

  6. Investigation of a near-infrared-ray computed tomography scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Satoi, Yuichi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya

    2016-10-01

    In the near-infrared-ray computed tomography (NIR-CT) scanner, NIR rays are produced from a light-emitting diode (LED) and detected using an NIR phototransistor (PT). The wavelengths of the LED peak intensity and the PT high sensitivity in the data table are both 940 nm. The photocurrents flowing through the PTR are converted into voltages using an emitter-follower circuit, and the output voltages are sent to a personal computer through an analog-digital converter. The NIR projection curves for tomography are obtained by repeated linear scans and rotations of the object, and the scanning is conducted in both directions of its movement.

  7. Recent processed results from the Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner. [rock mapping and mineral exploration of White Sands area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Nalepta, R. F.; Vincent, R. K.; Salmon, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Results of mapping of rock types from the White Sands, New Mexico area using digital tape data from the Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner are presented. Spectral recognition techniques were used to process the geological data and signatures were extracted from the training sets using a set of promising ratio features defined by analysis of ERSIS (Earth Resources Spectral Information System). An analysis of ERSIS spectra of rock types yielded 24 promising spectral channel ratio features for separating the rock types into precambrian, calcareous, and clay materials and those containing ferric iron.

  8. Demonstration of wetland vegetation mapping in Florida from computer-processed satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The success of remotely mapping wetland vegetation of the southwestern coast of Florida is examined. A computerized technique to process aircraft and LANDSAT multispectral scanner data into vegetation classification maps was used. The cost effectiveness of this mapping technique was evaluated in terms of user requirements, accuracy, and cost. Results indicate that mangrove communities are classified most cost effectively by the LANDSAT technique, with an accuracy of approximately 87 percent and with a cost of approximately 3 cent per hectare compared to $46.50 per hectare for conventional ground survey methods.

  9. Recent processed results from the Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner. [rock mapping and mineral exploration of White Sands area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Nalepta, R. F.; Vincent, R. K.; Salmon, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Results of mapping of rock types from the White Sands, New Mexico area using digital tape data from the Skylab S-192 multispectral scanner are presented. Spectral recognition techniques were used to process the geological data and signatures were extracted from the training sets using a set of promising ratio features defined by analysis of ERSIS (Earth Resources Spectral Information System). An analysis of ERSIS spectra of rock types yielded 24 promising spectral channel ratio features for separating the rock types into precambrian, calcareous, and clay materials and those containing ferric iron.

  10. Application of Infrared Scanners to Forest Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, S. N.

    1971-01-01

    The potential of using infrared scanners for the detection of forest fires is discussed. An experiment is described in which infrared and visual detection systems were used jointly to study timber fire detection. Many fires were detected visually but missed by the airborne IR system, and many fires were detected by the IR system but missed visually. Until more is learned about the relationship between heat output and smoke output from latent fires, the relative effectiveness of visual and IR systems cannot be determined. The 1970 tests indicated that IR used in combination with visual detection will result in a more efficient system than visual alone. Even with limited knowledge of the relative effectiveness of the two systems, operational use of a combined system can be used to substantially reduce total firefighting costs.

  11. Potential of Uav-Based Laser Scanner and Multispectral Camera Data in Building Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, D.; Blaskow, R.; Westfeld, P.; Weller, C.

    2016-06-01

    Conventional building inspection of bridges, dams or large constructions in general is rather time consuming and often cost expensive due to traffic closures and the need of special heavy vehicles such as under-bridge inspection units or other large lifting platforms. In consideration that, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) will be more reliable and efficient as well as less expensive and simpler to operate. The utilisation of UAVs as an assisting tool in building inspections is obviously. Furthermore, light-weight special sensors such as infrared and thermal cameras as well as laser scanner are available and predestined for usage on unmanned aircraft systems. Such a flexible low-cost system is realized in the ADFEX project with the goal of time-efficient object exploration, monitoring and damage detection. For this purpose, a fleet of UAVs, equipped with several sensors for navigation, obstacle avoidance and 3D object-data acquisition, has been developed and constructed. This contribution deals with the potential of UAV-based data in building inspection. Therefore, an overview of the ADFEX project, sensor specifications and requirements of building inspections in general are given. On the basis of results achieved in practical studies, the applicability and potential of the UAV system in building inspection will be presented and discussed.

  12. Concentric circular ring and nanodisk optical antenna enhanced multispectral quantum dot infrared photodetector with spectral localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Kemsri, Thitikorn; Li, Lin; Gu, Guiru; Lu, Xuejun

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we report a concentric circular ring and nanodisk plasmonic optical antenna (POA) enhanced multispectral quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). The circular ring and the nanodisk POA structures are designed to have plasmonic resonant wavelengths in the longwave infrared (LWIR) and the midwave infrared (MWIR) spectral regimes, respectively. The electric field (E-field) distributions are simulated and show spectral localization due to the distinct plasmonic resonant wavelengths of the POA structures. The circular ring is found to enhance the E-fields in the nanodisk regions due to the mutual coupling. A concentric circular ring and nanodisk POA enhanced multispectral QDIP was fabricated and tested. Multispectral enhancement was observed. The enhancement is compared to that of a QDIP with only the circular ring POA structure. The experiment data agree with the simulation. The concentric circular ring and nanodisk POA provides a compact planar structure for multispectral QDIP enhancement.

  13. Development of a long wavelength spectrometer for the 24-channel multispectral scanner: Instructions for installation, start-up, and adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The basic information is presented, which is required for start-up and operation of two long-wavelength focal-plane and cooler assemblies, including the amplifiers and temperature control systems. The focal plane systems, referred to as the long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) were developed for direct replacement of Arrays 3 and 4 into the multispectral scanner presently being operated by the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Facility, and Laboratory Support Branch. The equipment is comprised of two major sub-assemblies: Array 3 with three indium antimonide detector channels and Array 4 with seven mercury doped Germanium detector channels. Each array is mounted on a cryogenic cooler and includes the vacuum housings, mounting hardware (x, y, z translation and rotation stages) and detector signal conditioning, temperature control and monitoring electronics. The two arrays were designed to operate independently and do not share common equipment (viz power supplies, housings, mounts, etc.).

  14. Automatic categorization of land-water cover types of the Green Swamp, Florida, using Skylab multispectral scanner (S-192) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, A. E.; Higer, A. L.; Rogers, R. H.; Shah, N. J.; Reed, L. E.; Walker, S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques used and the results achieved in the successful application of Skylab Multispectral Scanner (EREP S-192) high-density digital tape data for the automatic categorizing and mapping of land-water cover types in the Green Swamp of Florida were summarized. Data was provided from Skylab pass number 10 on 13 June 1973. Significant results achieved included the automatic mapping of a nine-category and a three-category land-water cover map of the Green Swamp. The land-water cover map was used to make interpretations of a hydrologic condition in the Green Swamp. This type of use marks a significant breakthrough in the processing and utilization of EREP S-192 data.

  15. A statistical evaluation of the advantages of Landsat Thematic Mapper data in comparison to Multispectral Scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Markham, B. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Toll, D. L.; Latty, R. S.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    On July 16, 1982, the second decade of land remote sensing from space was inaugurated with the successful launch of Landsat-4. This satellite carries the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and a new sensor, the Thematic Mapper (TM). The TM represents the result of an effort in which all of the major improvements in remote-sensing capability were simultaneously integrated into one system. An experiment was developed and conducted to quantify the effect of each TM sensor parameter on classification accuracy. This paper discusses the experimental design and summarizes the results obtained using TM data acquired over the Washington, DC area on November 2, 1982. Attention is given to a study site/data description, the experimental design, photointerpretation and digitization, spectral simulation, radiometric simulation, and spatial simulation.

  16. Building detection by fusion of airborne laser scanner data and multi-spectral images: Performance evaluation and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottensteiner, Franz; Trinder, John; Clode, Simon; Kubik, Kurt

    In this paper, we describe the evaluation of a method for building detection by the Dempster-Shafer fusion of airborne laser scanner (ALS) data and multi-spectral images. For this purpose, ground truth was digitised for two test sites with quite different characteristics. Using these data sets, the heuristic models for the probability mass assignments are validated and improved, and rules for tuning the parameters are discussed. The sensitivity of the results to the most important control parameters of the method is assessed. Further we evaluate the contributions of the individual cues used in the classification process to determine the quality of the results. Applying our method with a standard set of parameters on two different ALS data sets with a spacing of about 1 point/m 2, 95% of all buildings larger than 70 m 2 could be detected and 95% of all detected buildings larger than 70 m 2 were correct in both cases. Buildings smaller than 30 m 2 could not be detected. The parameters used in the method have to be appropriately defined, but all except one (which must be determined in a training phase) can be determined from meaningful physical entities. Our research also shows that adding the multi-spectral images to the classification process improves the correctness of the results for small residential buildings by up to 20%.

  17. Lithologic analysis from multispectral thermal infrared data of the alkalic rock complex at Iron Hill, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.; Rowan, L.C.; Bowers, T.L.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Gumiel, P.; Miller, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Airborne thermal-infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data of the Iron Hill carbonatite-alkalic igneous rock complex in south-central Colorado are analyzed using a new spectral emissivity ratio algorithm and confirmed by field examination using existing 1:24 000-scale geologic maps and petrographic studies. Color composite images show that the alkalic rocks could be clearly identified and that differences existed among alkalic rocks in several parts of the complex. An unsupervised classification algorithm defines four alkalic rock classes within the complex: biotitic pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, augitic pyroxenite, and fenite + nepheline syenite. Felsic rock classes defined in the surrounding country rock are an extensive class consisting of tuff, granite, and felsite, a less extensive class of granite and felsite, and quartzite. The general composition of the classes can be determined from comparisons of the TIMS spectra with laboratory spectra. Carbonatite rocks are not classified, and we attribute that to the fact that dolomite, the predominant carbonate mineral in the complex, has a spectral feature that falls between TIMS channels 5 and 6. Mineralogical variability in the fenitized granite contributed to the nonuniform pattern of the fenite-nepheline syenite class. The biotitic pyroxenite, which resulted from alteration of the pyroxenite, is spatially associated and appears to be related to narrow carbonatite dikes and sills. Results from a linear unmixing algorithm suggest that the detected spatial extent of the two mixed felsic rock classes was sensitive to the amount of vegetation cover. These results illustrate that spectral thermal infrared data can be processed to yield compositional information that can be a cost-effective tool to target mineral exploration, particularly in igneous terranes.

  18. Target Detection over the Diurnal Cycle Using a Multispectral Infrared Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huijie; Ji, Zheng; Li, Na; Gu, Jianrong; Li, Yansong

    2016-01-01

    When detecting a target over the diurnal cycle, a conventional infrared thermal sensor might lose the target due to the thermal crossover, which could happen at any time throughout the day when the infrared image contrast between target and background in a scene is indistinguishable due to the temperature variation. In this paper, the benefits of using a multispectral-based infrared sensor over the diurnal cycle have been shown. Firstly, a brief theoretical analysis on how the thermal crossover influences a conventional thermal sensor, within the conditions where the thermal crossover would happen and why the mid-infrared (3~5 μm) multispectral technology is effective, is presented. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this technology is also described and we describe how the prototype design and multispectral technology is employed to help solve the thermal crossover detection problem. Thirdly, several targets are set up outside and imaged in the field experiment over a 24-h period. The experimental results show that the multispectral infrared imaging system can enhance the contrast of the detected images and effectively solve the failure of the conventional infrared sensor during the diurnal cycle, which is of great significance for infrared surveillance applications. PMID:28036073

  19. Target Detection over the Diurnal Cycle Using a Multispectral Infrared Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijie; Ji, Zheng; Li, Na; Gu, Jianrong; Li, Yansong

    2016-12-29

    When detecting a target over the diurnal cycle, a conventional infrared thermal sensor might lose the target due to the thermal crossover, which could happen at any time throughout the day when the infrared image contrast between target and background in a scene is indistinguishable due to the temperature variation. In this paper, the benefits of using a multispectral-based infrared sensor over the diurnal cycle have been shown. Firstly, a brief theoretical analysis on how the thermal crossover influences a conventional thermal sensor, within the conditions where the thermal crossover would happen and why the mid-infrared (3~5 μm) multispectral technology is effective, is presented. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this technology is also described and we describe how the prototype design and multispectral technology is employed to help solve the thermal crossover detection problem. Thirdly, several targets are set up outside and imaged in the field experiment over a 24-h period. The experimental results show that the multispectral infrared imaging system can enhance the contrast of the detected images and effectively solve the failure of the conventional infrared sensor during the diurnal cycle, which is of great significance for infrared surveillance applications.

  20. Mapping hydrothermal alteration using aircraft VNIR scanners at the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit. [Visible-Near Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, R. M.; Abrams, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) scanners, the NS-001 and the M2S, were flown over the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit as part of the NASA/JPL/GEOSAT test site program. This program was established to determine the feasibility and limitations of mapping hydrothermal alteration with multispectral scanners. Data from the NS-001 at 0.83 and 2.2 microns were used to identify Fe(3+) and OH enriched outcrops. These areas were then correlated with three alteration assemblages. The first correlation, hematite-epidote, was the most obvious and appeared as a strong ferric iron signature associated with hematite stained Cretaceous arkoses and andesites. The second correlation, qtz-sericite, showed a combined ferric-hydroxyl signature for a phyllicly altered quartz monzonite. The third correlation, skarn, was identified only after a review of calc-silicate mineral VNIR spectra. Altered limestones that outcrop west of the deposit have a similar ferric iron-hydroxyl signature as the quartz-sericite altered quartz monzonite. This skarn signature has been interpreted to indicate the presence of andradite, hydro-grossularite and idocrase. Data from the second scanner, M2S, was used to search for variation in ferric iron mineral type. Resulting imagery data indicated that hematite was the dominant ferric iron mineral present in the Rosemont area.

  1. Synergistic use of MOMS-01 and Landsat TM data. [Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothery, David A.; Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    Imagery covering the Socompa volcano and debris avalanche deposit in northern Chile was acquired by MOMS-01 when the sun was low in the western sky. Illumination from the west shows many important topographic features to advantage. These are inconspicuous or indistinguishable on Landsat TM images acquired at higher solar elevation. The effective spatial resolution of MOMS-01 is similar to that of the TM and its capacity for spectral discrimination is less. A technique has been developed to combine the multispectral information offered by TM with the topographic detail visible on MOMS-01 imagery recorded at a time of low solar elevation.

  2. The composite sequential clustering technique for analysis of multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The clustering technique consists of two parts: (1) a sequential statistical clustering which is essentially a sequential variance analysis, and (2) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (1) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (2) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. This unsupervised composite technique was employed for automatic classification of two sets of remote multispectral earth resource observations. The classification accuracy by the unsupervised technique is found to be comparable to that by traditional supervised maximum likelihood classification techniques. The mathematical algorithms for the composite sequential clustering program and a detailed computer program description with job setup are given.

  3. Synergistic use of MOMS-01 and Landsat TM data. [Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothery, David A.; Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    Imagery covering the Socompa volcano and debris avalanche deposit in northern Chile was acquired by MOMS-01 when the sun was low in the western sky. Illumination from the west shows many important topographic features to advantage. These are inconspicuous or indistinguishable on Landsat TM images acquired at higher solar elevation. The effective spatial resolution of MOMS-01 is similar to that of the TM and its capacity for spectral discrimination is less. A technique has been developed to combine the multispectral information offered by TM with the topographic detail visible on MOMS-01 imagery recorded at a time of low solar elevation.

  4. Multispectral scanner system parameter study and analysis software system description, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator); Mobasseri, B. G.; Wiersma, D. J.; Wiswell, E. R.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The integration of the available methods provided the analyst with the unified scanner analysis package (USAP), the flexibility and versatility of which was superior to many previous integrated techniques. The USAP consisted of three main subsystems; (1) a spatial path, (2) a spectral path, and (3) a set of analytic classification accuracy estimators which evaluated the system performance. The spatial path consisted of satellite and/or aircraft data, data correlation analyzer, scanner IFOV, and random noise model. The output of the spatial path was fed into the analytic classification and accuracy predictor. The spectral path consisted of laboratory and/or field spectral data, EXOSYS data retrieval, optimum spectral function calculation, data transformation, and statistics calculation. The output of the spectral path was fended into the stratified posterior performance estimator.

  5. Interface control document between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Department of Interior EROS Data Center (EDC) for LANDSAT-D. Partially processed multispectral scanner High Density Tape (HDT-AM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The format of the HDT-AM product which contains partially processed LANDSAT D and D Prime multispectral scanner image data is defined. Recorded-data formats, tape format, and major frame types are described.

  6. Advances in automatic extraction of earth resources information from multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The basis of spectral discrimination was briefly examined indicating sources of variability which tend to obscure the spectral attributes of the classes of interest. Spatial and temporal discrimination bases are also discussed. Automatic processing functions, techniques and methods, and equipment are discussed with emphasis on techniques and equipment required for operational large area surveys with satellite data. Techniques for carrying out major functions of preprocessing for signature extension, feature extraction, discrimination, display, and applications modeling were examined. A multiplicative and additive signature correction technique and a proportion estimation technique are discussed. The development of the multivariate interactive digital analysis system multispectral processor system which represents a breakthrough in cost effective high throughput processing for large area surveys from satellites and aircraft is reviewed. Applications and results are discussed briefly for agricultural crop inventories, environmental monitoring, and resources surveys from ERIM LANDSAT and EREP investigations to indicate the substantial progress achieved to date.

  7. Estimating the proportions of objects within a single resolution element of a multispectral scanner.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, H. M.; Nalepka, R. F.; Hyde, P. D.; Morgenstern, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a procedu*e designed to estimate the proportions of objects and materials contained in the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of an airborne multispectral device. A mathematical model is derived to relate the signature of a combination of materials in a resolution cell to the signatures of the individual materials considered. Estimation algorithms are generated and digital computer programs are prepared to apply the algorithms in the description of the effects which are observed when several objects are viewed simultaneously. The maximum likelihood estimate of the proportions of various individual materials in an IFOV is discussed. A simulation program is proposed for such estimates. A procedure for analyzing the geometric relations of signatures which affect the accuracy of estimates is set forth.

  8. Self-Organized Quantum Dots for High-Performance Multi-Spectral Infrared Photodetectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-29

    31, 2009 Program Managers: Donald Silversmith (AFOSR) PI: Anupam Madhukar University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089-0241 Tel...Quantum Dots for High- Performance Multi-Spectral Infrared Photodetectors” (Jul. 1, 2006- Dec. 31, 2009) Program Managers: Donald Silversmith (AFOSR

  9. Quantitative analysis of aircraft multispectral-scanner data and mapping of water-quality parameters in the James River in Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Bahn, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    Statistical analysis techniques were applied to develop quantitative relationships between in situ river measurements and the remotely sensed data that were obtained over the James River in Virginia on 28 May 1974. The remotely sensed data were collected with a multispectral scanner and with photographs taken from an aircraft platform. Concentration differences among water quality parameters such as suspended sediment, chlorophyll a, and nutrients indicated significant spectral variations. Calibrated equations from the multiple regression analysis were used to develop maps that indicated the quantitative distributions of water quality parameters and the dispersion characteristics of a pollutant plume entering the turbid river system. Results from further analyses that use only three preselected multispectral scanner bands of data indicated that regression coefficients and standard errors of estimate were not appreciably degraded compared with results from the 10-band analysis.

  10. Multi-spectral imaging with mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yang; Le, Han Q.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-spectral laser imaging can be a useful technology for target discrimination, classification, and identification based on object spectral signatures. The mid-IR region (~3-14 μm) is particularly rich of molecular spectroscopic fingerprints, but the technology has been under utilized. Compact, potentially inexpensive semiconductor lasers may allow more cost-effective applications. This paper describes a development of semiconductor-laser-based multi-spectral imaging for both near-IR and mid-IR, and demonstrates the potential of this technology. The near-IR study employed 7 wavelengths from 0.635-1.55 μm, and used for system engineering evaluation as well as for studying the fundamental aspects of multi-spectral laser imaging. These include issues of wavelength-dependence scattering as a function of incident and receiving angle and the polarization effects. Stokes vector imaging and degree-of-linear-polarization were shown to reveal significant information to characterize the targets. The mid-IR study employed 4 wavelengths from 3.3-9.6 μm, and was applied to diverse targets that consist of natural and man-made materials and household objects. It was shown capable to resolve and distinguish small spectral differences among various targets, thanks to the laser radiometric and spectral accuracy. Colorless objects in the visible were shown with "colorful" signatures in the mid-IR. An essential feature of the study is an advanced system architecture that employs wavelength-division-multiplexed laser beams for high spectral fidelity and resolution. In addition, unlike conventional one-transmitter and one receiver design, the system is based on a scalable CDMA network concept with multiple transmitters and receivers to allow efficient information acquisition. The results suggest that multi-spectral laser imaging in general can be a unique and powerful technology for wide ranging applications.

  11. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

  12. Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

  13. Conical scan impact study. Volume 1: General central data processing facility. [multispectral band scanner design alternatives for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, D. H.; Eppes, T. A.; Thomas, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument was studied in terms of: (1) design modifications required in framing and continuous image recording devices; and (2) changes in configurations of an all-digital precision image processor. A baseline system was defined to provide the framework for comparison, and included pertinent spacecraft parameters, a conical MSS, a linear MSS, an image recording system, and an all-digital precision processor. Lateral offset pointing of the sensors over a range of plus or minus 20 deg was considered. The study addressed the conical scan impact on geometric, radiometric, and aperture correction of MSS data in terms of hardware and software considerations, system complexity, quality of corrections, throughput, and cost of implementation. It was concluded that: (1) if the MSS data are to be only film recorded, then there is only a nomial concial scan impact on the ground data processing system; and (2) if digital data are to be provided to users on computer compatible tapes in rectilinear format, then there is a significant conical scan impact on the ground data processing system.

  14. A timeline of environmental degradation in Florida Bay from 1972 - 1992: Change detection analysis of landsat multispectral scanner data

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.M.; Luther, M.E.; Stumpf, R.P.; Althausen, J.D.

    1997-06-01

    Recently documented dramatic changes in floral and faunal abundances in South Florida have served as warning flags to the declining environmental health of the Everglades and Florida Bay. In order to understand the severity of recent changes, it is imperative to develop a strong, preferably quantitative, understanding of the ecosystem`s history. The purpose of this research is to determine a timeline of water-related events that have occurred in Florida Bay and were recorded by the Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor over a twenty-year period. Thirty- six images from 1972 to 1992 are being analyzed. Using image differencing, band ratioing, and principal components analysis as change detection methods, it may be possible to determine {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} variability for the region. Using this baseline information, it will become apparent just how {open_quotes}abnormal{close_quotes} the recent changes have been. This study is the first to use an extended time series of satellite images to characterize the spatial and temporal environmental dynamics of a nearshore estuarine region. Although the information content of MSS data is limited for aquatic environments, feature changes apparent in this data set will prove an invaluable asset to Florida Bay researchers and may influence future management decisions intended to improve the health of this {open_quotes}ecosystem of special concern.{close_quotes}

  15. Analysis of testbed airborne multispectral scanner data from Superflux II. [Chesapeake Bay plume and James Shelf data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Hardesty, C. A.; Jobson, D. J.; Bahn, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    A test bed aircraft multispectral scanner (TBAMS) was flown during the James Shelf, Plume Scan, and Chesapeake Bay missions as part of the Superflux 2 experiment. Excellent correlations were obtained between water sample measurements of chlorophyll and sediment and TBAMS radiance data. The three-band algorithms used were insensitive to aircraft altitude and varying atmospheric conditions. This was particularly fortunate due to the hazy conditions during most of the experiments. A contour map of sediment, and also chlorophyll, was derived for the Chesapeake Bay plume along the southern Virginia-Carolina coastline. A sediment maximum occurs about 5 nautical miles off the Virginia Beach coast with a chlorophyll maximum slightly shoreward of this. During the James Shelf mission, a thermal anomaly (or front) was encountered about 50 miles from the coast. There was a minor variation in chlorophyll and sediment across the boundary. During the Chesapeake Bay mission, the Sun elevation increased from 50 degrees to over 70 degrees, interfering with the generation of data products.

  16. Evaluation of LANDSAT multispectral scanner images for mapping altered rocks in the east Tintic Mountains, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Abrams, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Positive findings of earlier evaluations of the color-ratio compositing technique for mapping limonitic altered rocks in south-central Nevada are confirmed, but important limitations in the approach used are pointed out. These limitations arise from environmental, geologic, and image processing factors. The greater vegetation density in the East Tintic Mountains required several modifications in procedures to improve the overall mapping accuracy of the CRC approach. Large format ratio images provide better internal registration of the diazo films and avoids the problems associated with magnifications required in the original procedure. Use of the Linoscan 204 color recognition scanner permits accurate consistent extraction of the green pixels representing limonitic bedrock maps that can be used for mapping at large scales as well as for small scale reconnaissance.

  17. Estimating evapotranspiration of riparian vegetation using high resolution multispectral, thermal infrared and lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, Christopher M. U.; Geli, Hatim; Taghvaeian, Saleh; Masih, Ashish; Pack, Robert T.; Simms, Ronald D.; Baker, Michael; Milliken, Jeff A.; O'Meara, Scott; Witherall, Amy J.

    2011-11-01

    High resolution airborne multispectral and thermal infrared imagery was acquired over the Mojave River, California with the Utah State University airborne remote sensing system integrated with the LASSI imaging Lidar also built and operated at USU. The data were acquired in pre-established mapping blocks over a 2 day period covering approximately 144 Km of the Mojave River floodplain and riparian zone, approximately 1500 meters in width. The multispectral imagery (green, red and near-infrared bands) was ortho-rectified using the Lidar point cloud data through a direct geo-referencing technique. Thermal Infrared imagery was rectified to the multispectral ortho-mosaics. The lidar point cloud data was classified to separate ground surface returns from vegetation returns as well as structures such as buildings, bridges etc. One-meter DEM's were produced from the surface returns along with vegetation canopy height also at 1-meter grids. Two surface energy balance models that use remote sensing inputs were applied to the high resolution imagery, namely the SEBAL and the Two Source Model. The model parameterizations were slightly modified to accept high resolution imagery (1-meter) as well as the lidar-based vegetation height product, which was used to estimate the aerodynamic roughness length. Both models produced very similar results in terms of latent heat fluxes (LE). Instantaneous LE values were extrapolated to daily evapotranspiration rates (ET) using the reference ET fraction, with data obtained from a local weather station. Seasonal rates were obtained by extrapolating the reference ET fraction according to the seasonal growth habits of the different species. Vegetation species distribution and area were obtained from classification of the multispectral imagery. Results indicate that cottonwood and salt cedar (tamarisk) had the highest evapotranspiration rates followed by mesophytes, arundo, mesquite and desert shrubs. This research showed that high

  18. Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Lai, Tzung-Han; Lee, Jae Woong; Manders, Jesse R.; So, Franky

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available near-infrared (IR) imagers are fabricated by integrating expensive epitaxial grown III-V compound semiconductor sensors with Si-based readout integrated circuits (ROIC) by indium bump bonding which significantly increases the fabrication costs of these image sensors. Furthermore, these typical III-V compound semiconductors are not sensitive to the visible region and thus cannot be used for multi-spectral (visible to near-IR) sensing. Here, a low cost infrared (IR) imaging camera is demonstrated with a commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and an IR sensitive organic light emitting diode (IR-OLED). With an IR-OLED, IR images at a wavelength of 1.2 µm are directly converted to visible images which are then recorded in a Si-CMOS DSLR camera. This multi-spectral imaging system is capable of capturing images at wavelengths in the near-infrared as well as visible regions. PMID:25091589

  19. The response of the Seasat and Magsat infrared horizon scanners to cold clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, S.; Phenneger, M.

    1980-01-01

    Cold clouds over the Earth are shown to be the principal cause of pitch and roll measurement noise in flight data from the infrared horizon scanners onboard Seasat and Magsat. The observed effects of clouds on the fixed threshold horizon detection logic of the Magsat scanner and on the variable threshold detection logic of the Seasat scanner are discussed. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth photographs marked with the scanner ground trace clearly confirm the relationship between measurement errors and Earth clouds. A one to one correspondence can be seen between excursion in the pitch and roll data and cloud crossings. The characteristics of the cloud-induced noise are discussed, and the response of the satellite control systems to the cloud errors is described. Changes to the horizon scanner designs that would reduce the effects of clouds are noted.

  20. Non-contact temperature field measurement of solids by infrared multispectral thermotransmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradere, C.; Ryu, M.; Sommier, A.; Romano, M.; Kusiak, A.; Battaglia, J. L.; Batsale, J. C.; Morikawa, J.

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to achieve contactless absolute-temperature measurements of infrared-semi-transparent solids using an infrared thermal and spectroscopic imaging technique. The multispectral thermo-transmittance coefficient fields in the 3-5 μm wavelength range for Sapphire, KBr, and Silicon are determined to be 6 × 10-4 K-1, 4 × 10-4 K-1, and -3 × 10-3 K-1, respectively. The most interesting result is the high temperature-dependent transmittance coefficient in the middle wave infrared region. With these coefficients, the absolute temperature fields in a range from room temperature to 140 °C are shown.

  1. Evaluation of an infrared horizon scanner bias determination algorithm for earth-oriented spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotovy, S. G.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm for estimating infrared horizon scanner biases for earth-oriented spacecraft is presented. A mathematical description of the proposed algorithm is given, and the algorithm is evaluated for use by two earth-oriented spacecraft: the Applications Explorer Missions-A/Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (AEM-A/HCMM) and Seasat-A. The results of this study indicate that scanner alignment and calibration errors appear as nearly constant biases in the scanner pitch and roll data and that these constant biases can be estimated to within 0.05 degree for AEM-A and 0.03 degree for Seasat-A.

  2. Daytime multispectral scanner aerial surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1992--1994: Overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smyre, J.L.; Hodgson, M.E.; Moll, B.W.; King, A.L.; Cheng, Yang

    1995-11-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program was in 1992 to apply the benefits of remote sensing technologies to Environmental Restoration Management (ERWM) programs at all of the five United States Department of Energy facilities operated and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (now Lockheed Martin Energy Systems)-the three Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) facilities, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)-and adjacent off-site areas. The Remote Sensing Program includes the management of routine and special surveys at these sites, application of state-of-the-art remote sensing and geophysical technologies, and data transformation, integration, and analyses required to make the information valuable to ER. Remotely-sensed data collected of the ORR include natural color and color infrared (IR) aerial photography, 12-band multispectral scanner imagery, predawn thermal IR sensor imagery, magnetic and electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and gamma radiological data.

  3. Application of Landsat multispectral scanner data and sediment spectral reflectance measurements to mapping of the Meatiq Dome, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobberger, P. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rashka, D. L.

    1983-10-01

    Lithologic boundaries, structural elements and provenance of wadi sediments were determined for the Meatiq Dome in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt, using digitally processed Landsat multispectral scanner data in combination with laboratory spectral reflectance measurements. Optimally enhanced, principal-component color composite images were used to interpolate between field traverses in rugged terrain, to delineate contacts, and to clarify structural relationships in conjunction with extensive field work by Sturchio et al. Atmospherically corrected Landsat spectra were compared with petrographic data and laboratory spectral reflectance measurements, using a technique developed by Evans and Adams, to define the provenance of sediments in a wadi within the Meatiq Dome area. Contacts between the dome's granite and granite gneiss core, peripheral mafic mylonites, and the ophiolitic sequence outside the dome were distinguished. Small tonalite bodies were at the limits of discriminability but were mappable when the images were used in conjunction with field data. A large wadi within the dome exhibits interior drainage and carries only granitic-derived sediments, as distinct from a separate wadi system carrying a mix of materials. Coarseness of spectral measurements along with bias introduced by standard sample-preparation methods are the primary sources of error in the spectral comparisons, but the results obtained are consistent with the known geologic environment. The use of these techniques with corrected and optimally enhanced digital Landsat data proved to be a valuable added tool to field mapping efforts. *Present address: Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560

  4. A Switchable Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Perfect Absorber with Multispectral Thermal Imaging Capability.

    PubMed

    Tittl, Andreas; Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Schäferling, Martin; Yin, Xinghui; Gholipour, Behrad; Cui, Long; Wuttig, Matthias; Taubner, Thomas; Neubrech, Frank; Giessen, Harald

    2015-08-19

    A switchable perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability is presented. Aluminum nanoantenna arrays above a germanium antimony telluride (GST) spacer layer and aluminum mirror provide efficient wavelength-tunable absorption in the mid-infrared. Utilizing the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition in GST, this device offers switchable absorption with strong reflectance contrast at resonance and large phase-change-induced spectral shifts.

  5. A fast moving object detection method based on 2D laser scanner and infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lina; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Tianci; Sun, Zejun

    2015-10-01

    Moving object detection is a major research direction of video surveillance systems. This paper proposes a novel approach for moving object detection by fusing information from the laser scanner and infrared camera. First, in accordance with the feature of laser scanner data, we apply robust principal component analysis (RPCA) to studying moving object detection. Then the depth and angle information of moving objects is mapped to the infrared image pixels so as to obtain the regions of interest (ROI). Finally, moving objects can be recognized by making investigation of the ROI. Experimental results show that this method has good real-time performance and accuracy.

  6. Multispectral infrared reflectography to differentiate features in paintings.

    PubMed

    Daffara, Claudia; Fontana, Raffaella

    2011-10-01

    Infrared reflectography is a well-known technique based on wideband imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) range used for painting diagnostics in conservation laboratories.. This work is focused on the application of multiband reflectography for analysis of pictorial layers and differentiated detection of painting features. This technique generates a set of narrowband NIR images of the painting. Starting from a dataset that is registered, metrically correct, and calibrated, the capability of collecting both spectral and spatial information has been exploited by processing the image cube with interplane techniques. Examples on artworks by Caravaggio, Veronese, Bronzino, and Schiavone are presented.

  7. Joint spatio-spectral based edge detection for multispectral infrared imagery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Bender, Steven C.; Sharma, Yagya D.; Jang, Woo-Yong; Paskalva, Biliana S.

    2010-06-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important and difficult tasks in digital image processing. It represents a key stage of automated image analysis and interpretation. Segmentation algorithms for gray-scale images utilize basic properties of intensity values such as discontinuity and similarity. However, it is possible to enhance edge-detection capability by means of using spectral information provided by multispectral (MS) or hyperspectral (HS) imagery. In this paper we consider image segmentation algorithms for multispectral images with particular emphasis on detection of multi-color or multispectral edges. More specifically, we report on an algorithm for joint spatio-spectral (JSS) edge detection. By joint we mean simultaneous utilization of spatial and spectral characteristics of a given MS or HS image. The JSS-based edge-detection approach, termed Spectral Ratio Contrast (SRC) edge-detection algorithm, utilizes the novel concept of matching edge signatures. The edge signature represents a combination of spectral ratios calculated using bands that enhance the spectral contrast between the two materials. In conjunction with a spatial mask, the edge signature give rise to a multispectral operator that can be viewed as a three-dimensional extension of the mask. In the extended mask, the third (spectral) dimension of each hyper-pixel can be chosen independently. The SRC is verified using MS and HS imagery from a quantum-dot in a well infrared (IR) focal plane array, and the Airborne Hyperspectral Imager.

  8. MEMS for tunable multi-spectral infrared sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraone, L.

    2005-09-01

    A monolithically integrated low temperature MEMS and HgCdTe infrared detector technology has been implemented and characterised. The MEMS-based optical filter, integrated with an infrared detector, selects narrow wavelength bands in the range from 1.6 to 2.5 μm within the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The entire fabrication process is compatible with two-dimensional infrared focal plane array technology. The fabricated device consists of an HgCdTe SWIR photoconductor, two distributed Bragg mirrors formed of Ge-SiO-Ge, a sacrificial spacer layer within the cavity, which is then removed to leave an air-gap, and a silicon nitride membrane for structural support. The tuning spectrum from fabricated MEMS filters on photoconductive detectors shows high percentage transmission and a wide tuning range which is achieved with a tuning voltage of only 7.5 V. The FWHM ranged from 95-105 nm over a tuning range of 2.2 μm to 1.85 μm. Finite element modelling of various geometries for the silicon nitride membrane is also presented. The modelling is used to determine the best geometry in terms of fill factor, voltage displacement prediction and membrane bowing. The results of stress response of low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride thin films to thermal cycling are also presented.

  9. A technique for the determination of Louisiana marsh salinity zone from vegetation mapped by multispectral scanner data: A comparison of satellite and aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vegetation in selected study areas on the Louisiana coast was mapped using low altitude aircraft and satellite (LANDSAT) multispectral scanner data. Fresh, brackish, and saline marshes were then determined from the remotely sensed presence of dominant indicator plant associations. Such vegetational classifications were achieved from data processed through a standard pattern recognition computer program. The marsh salinity zone maps from the aircraft and satellite data compared favorably within the broad salinity regimes. The salinity zone boundaries determined by remote sensing compared favorably with those interpolated from line-transect field observations from an earlier year.

  10. Procedures for gathering ground truth information for a supervised approach to a computer-implemented land cover classification of LANDSAT-acquired multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, A. T.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for gathering ground truth information for a supervised approach to a computer-implemented land cover classification of LANDSAT acquired multispectral scanner data are provided in a step by step manner. Criteria for determining size, number, uniformity, and predominant land cover of training sample sites are established. Suggestions are made for the organization and orientation of field team personnel, the procedures used in the field, and the format of the forms to be used. Estimates are made of the probable expenditures in time and costs. Examples of ground truth forms and definitions and criteria of major land cover categories are provided in appendixes.

  11. An aerial multispectral thermographic survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation for selected areas K-25, X-10, and Y-12, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, I.W.

    1996-10-01

    During June 5-7, 1996, the Department of Energy`s Remote Sensing Laboratory performed day and night multispectral surveys of three areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation: K-25, X-10, and Y-12. Aerial imagery was collected with both a Daedalus DS1268 multispectral scanner and National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s Thermal Infrared Multispectral System, which has six bands in the thermal infrared region of the spectrum. Imagery from the Thermal Infrared Multispectral System was processed to yield images of absolute terrain temperature and of the terrain`s emissivities in the six spectral bands. The thermal infrared channels of the Daedalus DS1268 were radiometrically calibrated and converted to apparent temperature. A recently developed system for geometrically correcting and geographically registering scanner imagery was used with the Daedalus DS1268 multispectral scanner. The corrected and registered 12-channel imagery was orthorectified using a digital elevation model. 1 ref., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. PbTe(Ga) -- New multispectral infrared photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, A.L.; Ivanchik, I.I.; Khokhlov, D.R.

    1998-12-31

    Doping of the lead telluride--narrow-gap semiconductor--with gallium results under certain conditions in the Fermi level pinning in the gap thus providing the semi insulating state of material. Besides that, the persistent photoconductivity effect is observed at temperatures T < {Tc} = 80 K. The photoresponse kinetics consists of two parts: the slow one with the characteristic time t{sub char} going up to 10{sup 4} s at T = 4.2 K, and the fast part with t{sub char} of the order of 10 ms. The authors have measured the spectra of a fast part of the photoresponse using the Fourier-transform spectrometer Bruker IFS-113v. The photoconductivity is observed in two spectral regions: in the middle- and far-infrared. Response in the middle-infrared consists of the ordinary fundamental band and a strong superimposed resonance-like structure just at the bandgap energy. The position of this spectral line may be tuned in a wide range (3.5--5.5) {micro}m by variation of temperature and/or composition of a lead telluride-based alloy. This middle-infrared photoresponse becomes considerable already at T = 160 K. The photoresponse in the far-infrared may be depending on the excitation conditions an analogous resonance-like structure at a wavelength 70 {micro}m, or a broad band with the cutoff wavelength at least higher than 500 {micro}m, which is the highest cutoff wavelength for the photon detectors observed up to date.

  13. Multispectral concealed weapon detection in visible, infrared, and terahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Marcin; Kastek, Mariusz; Polakowski, Henryk; Palka, Norbert; Piszczek, Marek; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw

    2014-05-01

    Detection of concealed dangerous objects is a very demanding problem of public safety. So far, the problem of detecting objects hidden under clothing was considered only in the case of airports but it is becoming more and more important for public places like metro stations, and government buildings. The development of imaging devices and exploration of new spectral bands is a chance to introduce new equipment for assuring public safety. It has been proved that objects hidden under clothing can be detected and visualized using terahertz (THz) cameras. However, passive THz cameras still offer too low image resolution for objects recognition. On the other hand new infrared cameras offer sufficient parameters to detect objects covered with fabrics in some conditions, as well as high image quality and big pixel resolutions. The purpose of the studies is to investigate the possibilities of using various cameras operating in different spectral ranges for detection of concealed objects. In the article, we present the measurement setup consisting of medium wavelength infrared (MWIR), long wavelength infrared (LWIR), THz and visible cameras and the initial results of measurements with various types of clothing and test objects.

  14. Rock-type discrimination from ratioed infrared scanner images of Pisgah Crater, California.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.; Thomson, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The radiances in two thermal infrared channels of an airborne scanner system were ratioed to produce images that recorded compositionally diagnostic emittance variations for several silicate rock types near Pisgah Crater, California. The images demonstrate that the ratio method is capable of enhancing emittance variations in the presence of temperature extremes that differ by no more than 25 C, with no temperature corrections.

  15. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of sulfur dioxide plumes: A case study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Realmuto, V.J.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1997-01-01

    The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) and apply the procedure to TIMS data collected over the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, on September 30, 1988. These image data covered the Pu'u 'O'o and Kupaianaha vents and a skylight in the lava tube that was draining the Kupaianaha lava pond. Our estimate of the SO2 emission rate from Pu'u 'O'o (17 - 20 kg s-1) is roughly twice the average of estimates derived from correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) measurements collected 10 days prior to the TIMS overflight (10 kg s-1). The agreement between the TIMS and COSPEC results improves when we compare SO2 burden estimates, which are relatively independent of wind speed. We demonstrate the feasibility of mapping Pu'u 'O'o - scale SO2 plumes from space in anticipation of the 1998 launch of the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflectance radiometer (ASTER). Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Conical scan impact study. Volume 2: Small local user data processing facility. [multispectral band scanner design alternatives for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, D. H.; Chase, P. E.; Dye, J.; Fahline, W. C.; Johnson, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument on a small local-user data processing facility was studied. User data requirements were examined to determine the unique system rquirements for a low cost ground system (LCGS) compatible with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system. Candidate concepts were defined for the LCGS and preliminary designs were developed for selected concepts. The impact of a conical scan MSS versus a linear scan MSS was evaluated for the selected concepts. It was concluded that there are valid user requirements for the LCGS and, as a result of these requirements, the impact of the conical scanner is minimal, although some new hardware development for the LCGS is necessary to handle conical scan data.

  17. Multispectral uncooled infrared enhanced-vision system for flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiana, Carlo L.; Kerr, Richard; Harrah, Steven D.

    2001-08-01

    The 1997 Final Report of the 'White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security' challenged industrial and government concerns to reduce aviation accident rates by a factor of five within 10 years. In the report, the commission encourages NASA, FAA and others 'to expand their cooperative efforts in aviation safety research and development'. As a result of this publication, NASA has since undertaken a number of initiatives aimed at meeting the stated goal. Among these, the NASA Aviation Safety Program was initiated to encourage and assist in the development of technologies for the improvement of aviation safety. Among the technologies being considered are certain sensor technologies that may enable commercial and general aviation pilots to 'see to land' at night or in poor visibility conditions. Infrared sensors have potential applicability in this field, and this paper describes a system, based on such sensors, that is being deployed on the NASA Langley Research Center B757 ARIES research aircraft. The system includes two infrared sensors operating in different spectral bands, and a visible-band color CCD camera for documentation purposes. The sensors are mounted in an aerodynamic package in a forward position on the underside of the aircraft. Support equipment in the aircraft cabin collects and processes all relevant sensor data. Display of sensor images is achieved in real time on the aircraft's Head Up Display (HUD), or other display devices.

  18. Soft nanomaterial-based targeting polymersomes for near-infrared fluorescence multispectral in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuhong; Wu, Liyuan; Hu, Peiran; Han, Sihai; Zhang, Tao; Fan, Hongliang; Jin, Wei; Jin, Qinhan; Mu, Ying

    2012-10-01

    We report here the soft nanomaterial-based targeting polymersomes for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging to carry out in vivo tumor detection. Two polymersome-based NIR fluorescent probes were prepared through the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers, poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (PEO-b-PBD). Each of them was encapsulated with distinct hydrophobic near-infrared dyes (DiD and DiR) and modified with different targeting ligands (anti-CEA antibody and anti-EGFR antibody), respectively. After simultaneous injection of these two probes into the tumor-bearing mice via tail vein, multispectral near-infrared fluorescence images were obtained. The results indicate that both probes are successfully directed to the tumor foci, where two distinguishable fluorescent signals were detected through the unmixed fluorescence images. By taking advantage of two targeting polymersome-based probes with distinct fluorescent features, the proposed multispectral near-infrared fluorescence imaging method can greatly improve the specificity and accuracy for in vivo tumor detection.

  19. Techniques for Facilitating the Registration and Rectification of Satellite Data with Examples Using Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and the Landsat Multispectral Scanner.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Ladson

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis describes work relating to the mapping of digital satellite image data from its inherent geometry to the geometry of a different reference system. The reference system chosen may correspond to that of a different satellite image, or a map projection. The advantage of this process is that the information contained in the satellite image data may be related to a known reference. Use of information from the Advanced High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the TIROS-N series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites for the provision of land cover information is reviewed. The data derived from this satellite is available every day. Attention is given to the use of vegetation indices derived from various combinations of the red and near infrared wavelengths of the AVHRR and the AVHRR is compared with the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) which has been the instrument commonly associated with land cover studies employing satellite information. Results are provided of direct comparisons of AVHRR and Landsat data gathered over parts of Scotland and Africa. These comparisons represent an attempt to evaluate the utility of AVHRR data for the provision of land cover information over large areas, ground sampling not being possible. Special attention is given to the normalised difference vegetation index. An attempt at mapping within the intertidal zone of the Tay Estuary, Scotland is described as an example of rectifying a series of satellite images to a common projection. The land-water interface was identified in five Landsat MSS scenes, each corresponding to a different state of the tide, and was mapped to provide a bathymetric impression of the intertidal zone. Automation of the procedures for the registration and rectification of satellite data is described. The variable geometry of AVHRR data presents special problems to the automation of this process particularly if optimal

  20. Processing Of Multispectral Data For Identification Of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.

    1990-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification evaluated. Report discusses processing of multispectral remote-sensing imagery to identify kinds of sedimentary rocks by spectral signatures in geological and geographical contexts. Raw image data are spectra of picture elements in images of seven sedimentary rock units exposed on margin of Wind River Basin in Wyoming. Data acquired by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and NASA/JPL airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR).

  1. Direct, trans-irradiation and multispectral infrared imaging of a Titian canvas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffara, Claudia; Monti, Francesca; Fontana, Raffaella; Artoni, Paola; Salvadori, Ornella

    2013-05-01

    Near infrared imaging is a powerful technique for the analysis of ancient paintings, allowing the nondestructive examination of features underneath the pictorial surface. Beyond the unique nature of the artwork (materials and layer stratigraphy), the effectiveness of the technique in detecting any painting features is determined by the device performance (spectral sensitivity, acquisition band narrowness, spatial resolution) as well as by the irradiation setup. We performed multi-modal infrared imaging on a XVI century masterpiece by Titian using an InGaAs camera and different measurement setup. Acquisition was carried out in conventional reflection geometry and in trans-irradiation mode, as well as in wideband and multispectral modes. Preliminary results are presented and the potentialities of such infrared analysis discussed.

  2. Detection of pathological aortic tissues by infrared multispectral imaging and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Bonnier, F; Bertrand, D; Rubin, S; Ventéo, L; Pluot, M; Baehrel, B; Manfait, M; Sockalingum, G D

    2008-06-01

    Processing of multispectral images is becoming an important issue, especially in terms of data mining for disease diagnosis. We report here an original image analysis procedure developed in order to compare 42 infrared multispectral images acquired on human ascending aortic healthy and pathological tissues. Each image contained about 2500 infrared absorption spectra, each composed of 1641 variables (wavenumbers). To process this large data set, we have restricted the spectral window used to the 1800-950 cm(-1) spectral range and selected 100 spectra from the aortic media, which is the most altered part of the aortic tissue in aneurysms. Prior to this selection, a spectral quality test was performed to eliminate 'bad' spectra. Our data set was first subjected to a discriminant analysis, which allowed separation of aortic tissues in two groups corresponding respectively to normal and aneurysmal states. Then a K-means analysis, based on 20 groups, allowed reconstruction of infrared images using false-colours and discriminated between pathological and healthy tissues. These results demonstrate the usefulness of such data processing methods for the analysis and comparison of a set of spectral images.

  3. Patient identification using a near-infrared laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manit, Jirapong; Bremer, Christina; Schweikard, Achim; Ernst, Floris

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new biometric approach where the tissue thickness of a person's forehead is used as a biometric feature. Given that the spatial registration of two 3D laser scans of the same human face usually produces a low error value, the principle of point cloud registration and its error metric can be applied to human classification techniques. However, by only considering the spatial error, it is not possible to reliably verify a person's identity. We propose to use a novel near-infrared laser-based head tracking system to determine an additional feature, the tissue thickness, and include this in the error metric. Using MRI as a ground truth, data from the foreheads of 30 subjects was collected from which a 4D reference point cloud was created for each subject. The measurements from the near-infrared system were registered with all reference point clouds using the ICP algorithm. Afterwards, the spatial and tissue thickness errors were extracted, forming a 2D feature space. For all subjects, the lowest feature distance resulted from the registration of a measurement and the reference point cloud of the same person. The combined registration error features yielded two clusters in the feature space, one from the same subject and another from the other subjects. When only the tissue thickness error was considered, these clusters were less distinct but still present. These findings could help to raise safety standards for head and neck cancer patients and lays the foundation for a future human identification technique.

  4. Evaluation of multispectral middle infrared aircraft images for lithologic mapping the East Tintic Mountains, Utah( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, A.B.; Rowan, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Six channels of moultispectral middle infrared (8 to 14 micrometres) aircraft scanner data were acquired over the East Tintic mining district, Utah. The digital image data were computer processed to create a color-composite image based on principal component transformations. When combined with a visible and near infrared color-composite image from a previous flight, with limited field checking, it is possible to discriminate quartzite, carbonate rocks, quartz latitic and quartz monzonitic rocks, latitic and monzonitic rocks, silicified altered rocks, argillized altered rocks, and vegetation. -from Authors

  5. A multispectral study of an extratropical cyclone with Nimbus 3 medium resolution infrared radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holub, R.; Shenk, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    Four registered channels (0.2 to 4, 6.5 to 7, 10 to 11, and 20 to 23 microns) of the Nimbus 3 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) were used to study 24-hr changes in the structure of an extratropical cyclone during a 6-day period in May 1969. Use of a stereographic-horizon map projection insured that the storm was mapped with a single perspective throughout the series and allowed the convenient preparation of 24-hr difference maps of the infrared radiation fields. Single-channel and multispectral analysis techniques were employed to establish the positions and vertical slopes of jetstreams, large cloud systems, and major features of middle and upper tropospheric circulation. Use of these techniques plus the difference maps and continuity of observation allowed the early detection of secondary cyclones developing within the circulation of the primary cyclone. An automated, multispectral cloud-type identification technique was developed, and comparisons that were made with conventional ship reports and with high-resolution visual data from the image dissector camera system showed good agreement.

  6. Segmentation of computer-classified Landsat multispectral scanner data into spatially-connected regions of elk habitat components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Segmentation of computer-classified Landsat multispectral data into spatially-connected regions of ground cover is described. Sorting and hash addressing, techniques commonly used for ordering and searching data records keyed by attributes, are the basis for the region identification and extraction. An example based on the use of spatial regions for evaluating elk habitat components is outlined.

  7. Mineral Classification of the Martian Surface Using THEMIS Multi-Spectral Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Brumby, S. P.; Funsten, H. O.; Feldman, W. C.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advancements in multi-spectral imaging and image analysis techniques have greatly enhanced our ability to do planetary research. Much has been discovered about Mars through recent missions such as Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Exploration Rovers. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor has allowed the mapping of surface mineralogies on Mars at several kilometers scale through hyperspectral imaging [1]. Here, we use the high resolution multi-spectral imagery of THEMIS (THermal Emission Imaging System) on board the 2001 Mars Odyssey to identify different mineral classes at spatial scales of hundreds of meters. THEMIS contains two independent multi-spectral imaging systems: a 10-band thermal infrared imager (IR) with a resolution of 100m/pixel, and a 5-band visible imager with a resolution of 10m/pixel. Here we will use the IR data. The 9 IR bands are centered from 6.8 microns to 14 .9 microns [2]. Using Arizona State University's online spectral library[3], we have been investigating the extent to which we can differentiate between different mineral classes. By identifying certain mineral classes we can better understand the geologic processes which created them and detect areas of interest for further study. Linear mixing of minerals and dust is investigated to estimate ratios of minerals and their resulting spectra. We then compare these spectra to observations of several regions on Mars. We compare these results with TES data and previous mineralogical maps. [1] Christensen et al, (2001) JGR 106, E10; [2] Christensen et al, (2002) Space Science Reviews 110, 1; [3] Christensen et al, (2000) JGR 105, E4

  8. Optical assembly of a visible through thermal infrared multispectral imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, T.; Bender, S.; Byrd, D.; Rappoport, W.; Shen, G.Y.

    1998-06-01

    The Optical Assembly (OA) for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) program has been fabricated, assembled, and successfully tested for its performance. It represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. Along with its wide-field-of-view (WFOV), 1.82{degree} along-track and 1.38{degree} cross-track, and comprehensive on-board calibration system, the pushbroom imaging sensor employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 {micro}m. The OA has an off-axis three-mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36-cm unobscured clear aperture. The two key performance criteria, 80% enpixeled energy in the visible and radiometric stability of 1% 1{sigma} in the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR), of 1.45% 1{sigma} in the medium wavelength infrared (MWIR), and of 0.53% 1{sigma} long wavelength infrared (LWIR), as well as its low weight (less than 49 kg) and volume constraint (89 cm x 44 cm x 127 cm) drive the overall design configuration of the OA and fabrication requirements.

  9. Histological validation of near-infrared reflectance multispectral imaging technique for caries detection and quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsone, Silvia; Taylor, Andrew; Gomez, Juliana; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger; Dickinson, Mark; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Zakian, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) multispectral imaging is a novel noninvasive technique that maps and quantifies dental caries. The technique has the ability to reduce the confounding effect of stain present on teeth. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative NIR multispectral imaging system for caries detection and assessment against a histological reference standard. The proposed technique is based on spectral imaging at specific wavelengths in the range from 1000 to 1700 nm. A total of 112 extracted teeth (molars and premolars) were used and images of occlusal surfaces at different wavelengths were acquired. Three spectral reflectance images were combined to generate a quantitative lesion map of the tooth. The maximum value of the map at the corresponding histological section was used as the NIR caries score. The NIR caries score significantly correlated with the histological reference standard (Spearman's Coefficient=0.774, p<0.01). Caries detection sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 91% for sound areas, 36% and 79% for lesions on the enamel, and 82% and 69% for lesions in dentin were found. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a novel and promising method for the detection, quantification, and mapping of dental caries.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque phantom by near-infrared multispectral imaging with three wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Ryo; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a primary cause of critical ischemic disease. The risk of critical event is involved the content of lipid in unstable plaque. Near-infrared (NIR) range is effective for diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaque because of the absorption peaks of lipid. NIR multispectral imaging (NIR-MSI) is suitable for the evaluation of plaque because it can provide spectroscopic information and spatial image quickly with a simple measurement system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lipid concentrations in plaque phantoms quantitatively with a NIR-MSI system. A NIR-MSI system was constructed with a supercontinuum light, a grating spectrometer and a MCT camera. Plaque phantoms with different concentrations of lipid were prepared by mixing bovine fat and a biological soft tissue model to mimic the different stages of unstable plaque. We evaluated the phantoms by the NIR-MSI system with three wavelengths in the band at 1200 nm. Multispectral images were processed by spectral angle mapper method. As a result, the lipid areas of phantoms were effectively highlighted by using three wavelengths. In addition, the concentrations of lipid areas were classified according to the similarity between measured spectra and a reference spectrum. These results suggested the possibility of image enhancement and quantitative evaluation of lipid in unstable plaque with a NIR-MSI.

  11. Histological validation of near-infrared reflectance multispectral imaging technique for caries detection and quantification.

    PubMed

    Salsone, Silvia; Taylor, Andrew; Gomez, Juliana; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger; Dickinson, Mark; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Zakian, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) multispectral imaging is a novel noninvasive technique that maps and quantifies dental caries. The technique has the ability to reduce the confounding effect of stain present on teeth. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative NIR multispectral imaging system for caries detection and assessment against a histological reference standard. The proposed technique is based on spectral imaging at specific wavelengths in the range from 1000 to 1700 nm. A total of 112 extracted teeth (molars and premolars) were used and images of occlusal surfaces at different wavelengths were acquired. Three spectral reflectance images were combined to generate a quantitative lesion map of the tooth. The maximum value of the map at the corresponding histological section was used as the NIR caries score. The NIR caries score significantly correlated with the histological reference standard (Spearman's Coefficient=0.774, p<0.01). Caries detection sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 91% for sound areas, 36% and 79% for lesions on the enamel, and 82% and 69% for lesions in dentin were found. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a novel and promising method for the detection, quantification, and mapping of dental caries.

  12. Some physical and thermodynamic properties of rocket exhaust clouds measured with infrared scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomberg, R. I.; Kantsios, A. G.; Rosensteel, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements using infrared scanners were made of the radiation from exhaust clouds from liquid- and solid-propellant rocket boosters. Field measurements from four launches were discussed. These measurements were intended to explore the physical and thermodynamic properties of these exhaust clouds during their formation and subsequent dispersion. Information was obtained concerning the initial cloud's buoyancy, the stabilized cloud's shape and trajectory, the cloud volume as a function of time, and it's initial and stabilized temperatures. Differences in radiation intensities at various wavelengths from ambient and stabilized exhaust clouds were investigated as a method of distinguishing between the two types of clouds. The infrared remote sensing method used can be used at night when visible range cameras are inadequate. Infrared scanning techniques developed in this project can be applied directly to natural clouds, clouds containing certain radionuclides, or clouds of industrial pollution.

  13. Reciprocity testing of Kodak film type SO-289 multispectral infrared aerial film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Kodak multispectral infrared aerial film type SO-289 was tested for reciprocity characteristics because of the variance between the I-B sensitometer exposure times (8 seconds and 4 seconds) and the camera exposure time (1/500 second) used on the ASTP stratospheric aerosol measurement project. Test exposures were made on the flight emulsion using a Mead star system sensitometer, the films were processed to ASTP control standards, and the resulting densities read and reciprocity data calculated. It was found that less exposure was required to produce a typical density (1.3) at 1/500 second exposure time than at an 8 second exposure time. This exposure factor was 2.8.

  14. Multispectral imaging in the extended near-infrared window based on endogenous chromophores

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qian; Zhegalova, Natalia G.; Wang, Steven T.; Akers, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. To minimize the problem with scattering in deep tissues while increasing the penetration depth, we explored the feasibility of imaging in the relatively unexplored extended near infrared (exNIR) spectral region at 900 to 1400 nm with endogenous chromophores. This region, also known as the second NIR window, is weakly dominated by absorption from water and lipids and is free from other endogenous chromophores with virtually no autofluorescence. To demonstrate the applicability of the exNIR for bioimaging, we analyzed the optical properties of individual components and biological tissues using an InGaAs spectrophotometer and a multispectral InGaAs scanning imager featuring transmission geometry. Based on the differences in spectral properties of tissues, we utilized ratiometric approaches to extract spectral characteristics from the acquired three-dimensional “datacube”. The obtained images of an exNIR transmission through a mouse head revealed sufficient details consistent with anatomical structures. PMID:23933967

  15. Nighttime Monitoring of Volcanic Eruptions with Satellite-Based Multispectral Infrared Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Trifonov, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Nightfire algorithm for detection of night-time infrared sources with multispectral radiometers from the Suomi NPP and Landsat 8 satellites can be used for global monitoring of volcanic activity. By searching the spatio-temporal database of the Nightfire detections in the vicinity of active volcanoes we can reconstruct the day-by-day history of recent eruptions, including the temperature and size of the lava flow. By correlation of the detections from different satellite zenith angles in some cases we can derive the 3D geometry of the lava lake. Potential application may be an early alert system to monitor remote volcanoes which are out of reach for permanent ground instrumentation network.

  16. A Near-Infrared (NIR) Global Multispectral Map of the Moon from Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, E. M.; Lee, E. M.; Becker, T. L.; Weller, L. A.; Isbell, C. E.; Staid, M. I.; Gaddis, L. R.; McEwen, A. S.; Robinson, M. S.; Duxbury, T.

    2003-01-01

    In May and June of 1994, the NASA/DoD Clementine Mission acquired global, 11- band, multispectral observations of the lunar surface using the ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) and near-infrared (NIR) camera systems. The global 5-band UVVIS Digital Image Model (DIM) of the Moon at 100 m/pixel was released to the Planetary Data System (PDS) in 2000. The corresponding NIR DIM has been compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for distribution to the lunar science community. The recently released NIR DIM has six spectral bands (1100, 1250, 1500, 2000, 2600, and 2780 nm) and is delivered in 996 quads at 100 m/pixel (303 pixels/degree). The NIR data were radiometrically corrected, geometrically controlled, and photometrically normalized to form seamless, uniformly illuminated mosaics of the lunar surface.

  17. Feature extraction of fog from multi-spectral infrared images of FY-2C geostationary satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong; Liu, Tang-you; Xu, Wu-jun

    2007-12-01

    FY-2C is geostationary satellite which is researched and developed by China. The primary advantage of geostationary satellite is the ability to characterize the radiance by obtaining numerous views of a specific earth location at any time of a day. This allows the production of a composite image to monitor short-term weather better. This paper describes a technique that uses multi-spectral infrared composite images of FY-2C to estimate particles emission and recognize fog at night. Radiations of particles detected by FY-2C at different wavelengths are analyzed combined with solar spectral irradiance. Having several spectral bands makes the analysis algorithms more complex and inefficient, thus it is important to choose the most respective bands. By applying Karhunen-Loeve transform to raw data of FY-2C, the infrared images are analyzed. By comparing Eigen image of these infrared images with visible image in the same batch, it is concluded that data of IR3 contribute to the first Eigen image mostly, which shows that the newly added IR3 channel of FY-2C has greatly improved the ability of distinguishing short time weather phenomena. Producing composite images by calculation and analysis at sequential period of time can clearly show changes of fog coverage. The improvement of the geostationary satellite instruments that have come to pass will encourage more widespread use of these derived products in the coming years.

  18. The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Abrams, Michael J.; Buongiorno, M. Fabrizia; Pieri, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO2 content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO2 plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which we use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO2 plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO2 plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. We use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO2 concentrations within a plume. Applying our procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, we estimate that the SO2 flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d(exp -1). The use of TIMS to study SO2 plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. We require further airborne experiments to refine our estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the schedueled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

  19. The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Abrams, Michael J.; Buongiorno, M. Fabrizia; Pieri, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO2 content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO2 plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which we use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO2 plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO2 plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. We use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO2 concentrations within a plume. Applying our procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, we estimate that the SO2 flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d(exp -1). The use of TIMS to study SO2 plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. We require further airborne experiments to refine our estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the schedueled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

  20. The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Realmuto, V.J.; Abrams, M.J.; Buongiorno, M.F.; Pieri, D.C. )

    1994-01-10

    The authors have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO[sub 2] content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO[sub 2] plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which the authors use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO[sub 2] plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO[sub 2] plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. They use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO[sub 2] concentrations within a plume. Applying this procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, the authors estimate that the SO[sub 2] flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d[sup [minus]1]. The use of TIMS to study SO[sub 2] plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. The authors require further airborne experiments to refine their estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the scheduled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

  1. A Gender Identification System for Customers in a Shop Using Infrared Area Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Takuya; Kimura, Haruhiko; Abe, Takehiko; Abe, Koji; Nakamoto, Yoshinori

    Information about customers in shops plays an important role in marketing analysis. Currently, in convenience stores and supermarkets, the identification of customer's gender is examined by clerks. On the other hand, gender identification systems using camera images are investigated. However, these systems have a problem of invading human privacies in identifying attributes of customers. The proposed system identifies gender by using infrared area scanners and Bayesian network. In the proposed system, since infrared area scanners do not take customers' images directly, invasion of privacies are not occurred. The proposed method uses three parameters of height, walking speed and pace for humans. In general, it is shown that these parameters have factors of sexual distinction in humans, and Bayesian network is designed with these three parameters. The proposed method resolves the existent problems of restricting the locations where the systems are set and invading human privacies. Experimental results using data obtained from 450 people show that the identification rate for the proposed method was 91.3% on the average of both of male and female identifications.

  2. Passive signatures concealed objects recorded by multispectral and hyperspectral systems in visible, infrared and terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastek, Mariusz; Kowalski, Marcin; Polakowski, Henryk; Lagueux, Philippe; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-06-01

    Risks to the safety of public zones (generally available for people) are related mainly to the presence of hidden dangerous objects (such as knives, guns, bombs etc.) and their usage. Modern system for the monitoring of such zones attempt to detect dangerous tools using multispectral cameras working in different spectral ranges: the visible radiation, near, medium and long range infrared and recently also in terahertz range. In order to develop methods and algorithms to detect hidden objects it is necessary to determine the thermal signatures of such objects of interest. The laboratory measurements were conducted to determine the thermal signatures of dangerous tools hidden under various clothes in different ambient conditions. Cameras used for measurements were working in spectral range 0.6-12.5 µm. An infrared imaging Fourier transform spectroradiometer was also used, working in spectral range 7.7-11.7 µm. Analysis of registered thermograms and hyperspectral datacubes has yielded the thermal signatures for: two types of guns, two types of knives and home-made explosive bombs. The determined thermal signatures will be used in the development of method and algorithms of image analysis implemented in proposed monitoring systems.

  3. Analysis of multispectral and hyperspectral longwave infrared (LWIR) data for geologic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; McDowell, Meryl

    2015-05-01

    Multispectral MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) data and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) data covering the 8 - 12 μm spectral range (longwave infrared or LWIR) were analyzed for an area near Mountain Pass, California. Decorrelation stretched images were initially used to highlight spectral differences between geologic materials. Both datasets were atmospherically corrected using the ISAC method, and the Normalized Emissivity approach was used to separate temperature and emissivity. The MASTER data had 10 LWIR spectral bands and approximately 35-meter spatial resolution and covered a larger area than the HyTES data, which were collected with 256 narrow (approximately 17nm-wide) spectral bands at approximately 2.3-meter spatial resolution. Spectra for key spatially-coherent, spectrally-determined geologic units for overlap areas were overlain and visually compared to determine similarities and differences. Endmember spectra were extracted from both datasets using n-dimensional scatterplotting and compared to emissivity spectral libraries for identification. Endmember distributions and abundances were then mapped using Mixture-Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial unmixing approach. Multispectral results demonstrate separation of silica-rich vs non-silicate materials, with distinct mapping of carbonate areas and general correspondence to the regional geology. Hyperspectral results illustrate refined mapping of silicates with distinction between similar units based on the position, character, and shape of high resolution emission minima near 9 μm. Calcite and dolomite were separated, identified, and mapped using HyTES based on a shift of the main carbonate emissivity minimum from approximately 11.3 to 11.2 μm respectively. Both datasets demonstrate the utility of LWIR spectral remote sensing for geologic mapping.

  4. A demonstration of wetland vegetation mapping in Florida from computer-processed satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Major vegetative classes identified by the remote sensing technique were cypress swamp, pine, wetland grasses, salt grass, mixed mangrove, black mangrove, Brazilian pepper. Australian pine and melaleuca were not satisfactorily classified from LANDSAT. Aircraft scanners provided better resolution resulting in a classification of finer surface detail. An edge effect, created by the integration of diverse spectral responses within boundary elements of digital data, affected the wetlands classification. Accuracy classification for aircraft was 68% and for LANDSAT was 74%.

  5. Sea surface velocities from visible and infrared multispectral atmospheric mapping sensor imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, P. A.; Emery, W. J.; Radebaugh, M.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution (100 m), sequential Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) images were used in a study to calculate advective surface velocities using the Maximum Cross Correlation (MCC) technique. Radiance and brightness temperature gradient magnitude images were formed from visible (0.48 microns) and infrared (11.12 microns) image pairs, respectively, of Chandeleur Sound, which is a shallow body of water northeast of the Mississippi delta, at 145546 GMT and 170701 GMT on 30 Mar. 1989. The gradient magnitude images enhanced the surface water feature boundaries, and a lower cutoff on the gradient magnitudes calculated allowed the undesirable sunglare and backscatter gradients in the visible images, and the water vapor absorption gradients in the infrared images, to be reduced in strength. Requiring high (greater than 0.4) maximum cross correlation coefficients and spatial coherence of the vector field aided in the selection of an optimal template size of 10 x 10 pixels (first image) and search limit of 20 pixels (second image) to use in the MCC technique. Use of these optimum input parameters to the MCC algorithm, and high correlation and spatial coherence filtering of the resulting velocity field from the MCC calculation yielded a clustered velocity distribution over the visible and infrared gradient images. The velocity field calculated from the visible gradient image pair agreed well with a subjective analysis of the motion, but the velocity field from the infrared gradient image pair did not. This was attributed to the changing shapes of the gradient features, their nonuniqueness, and large displacements relative to the mean distance between them. These problems implied a lower repeat time for the imagery was needed in order to improve the velocity field derived from gradient imagery. Suggestions are given for optimizing the repeat time of sequential imagery when using the MCC method for motion studies. Applying the MCC method to the infrared

  6. Analysis of data acquired by synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner over Kershaw County, South Carolina, during the summer season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) were processed and analyzed to derive forest-related resources inventory information. The SAR data were acquired by using the NASA aircraft X-band SAR with linear (HH, VV) and cross (HV, VH) polarizations and the SEASAT L-band SAR. After data processing and data quality examination, the three polarization (HH, HV, and VV) data from the aircraft X-band SAR were used in conjunction with LANDSAT MSS for multisensor data classification. The results of accuracy evaluation for the SAR, MSS and SAR/MSS data using supervised classification show that the SAR-only data set contains low classification accuracy for several land cover classes. However, the SAR/MSS data show that significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained for all eight land cover classes. These results suggest the usefulness of using combined SAR/MSS data for forest-related cover mapping. The SAR data also detect several small special surface features that are not detectable by MSS data.

  7. Ground-based analysis of volcanic ash plumes using a new multispectral thermal infrared camera approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic plumes are complex mixtures of mineral, lithic and glass fragments of varying size, together with multiple gas species. These plumes vary in size dependent on a number of factors, including vent diameter, magma composition and the quantity of volatiles within a melt. However, determining the chemical and mineralogical properties of a volcanic plume immediately after an eruption is a great challenge. Thermal infrared (TIR) satellite remote sensing of these plumes is routinely used to calculate the volcanic ash particle size variations and sulfur dioxide concentration. These analyses are commonly performed using high temporal, low spatial resolution satellites, which can only reveal large scale trends. What is lacking is a high spatial resolution study specifically of the properties of the proximal plumes. Using the emissive properties of volcanic ash, a new method has been developed to determine the plume's particle size and petrology in spaceborne and ground-based TIR data. A multispectral adaptation of a FLIR TIR camera has been developed that simulates the TIR channels found on several current orbital instruments. Using this instrument, data of volcanic plumes from Fuego and Santiaguito volcanoes in Guatemala were recently obtained Preliminary results indicate that the camera is capable of detecting silicate absorption features in the emissivity spectra over the TIR wavelength range, which can be linked to both mineral chemistry and particle size. It is hoped that this technique can be expanded to isolate different volcanic species within a plume, validate the orbital data, and ultimately to use the results to better inform eruption dynamics modelling.

  8. Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Infrared Multispectral Imaging using Plasmonic Filter Array

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Woo-Yong; Ku, Zahyun; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Jun Oh; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, James; Noyola, Michael J.; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    In our previous theoretical study, we performed target detection using a plasmonic sensor array incorporating the data-processing technique termed “algorithmic spectrometry”. We achieved the reconstruction of a target spectrum by extracting intensity at multiple wavelengths with high resolution from the image data obtained from the plasmonic array. The ultimate goal is to develop a full-scale focal plane array with a plasmonic opto-coupler in order to move towards the next generation of versatile infrared cameras. To this end, and as an intermediate step, this paper reports the experimental demonstration of adaptive multispectral imagery using fabricated plasmonic spectral filter arrays and proposed target detection scenarios. Each plasmonic filter was designed using periodic circular holes perforated through a gold layer, and an enhanced target detection strategy was proposed to refine the original spectrometry concept for spatial and spectral computation of the data measured from the plasmonic array. Both the spectrum of blackbody radiation and a metal ring object at multiple wavelengths were successfully reconstructed using the weighted superposition of plasmonic output images as specified in the proposed detection strategy. In addition, plasmonic filter arrays were theoretically tested on a target at extremely high temperature as a challenging scenario for the detection scheme. PMID:27721506

  9. Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Infrared Multispectral Imaging using Plasmonic Filter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Woo-Yong; Ku, Zahyun; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Jun Oh; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, James; Noyola, Michael J.; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-10-01

    In our previous theoretical study, we performed target detection using a plasmonic sensor array incorporating the data-processing technique termed “algorithmic spectrometry”. We achieved the reconstruction of a target spectrum by extracting intensity at multiple wavelengths with high resolution from the image data obtained from the plasmonic array. The ultimate goal is to develop a full-scale focal plane array with a plasmonic opto-coupler in order to move towards the next generation of versatile infrared cameras. To this end, and as an intermediate step, this paper reports the experimental demonstration of adaptive multispectral imagery using fabricated plasmonic spectral filter arrays and proposed target detection scenarios. Each plasmonic filter was designed using periodic circular holes perforated through a gold layer, and an enhanced target detection strategy was proposed to refine the original spectrometry concept for spatial and spectral computation of the data measured from the plasmonic array. Both the spectrum of blackbody radiation and a metal ring object at multiple wavelengths were successfully reconstructed using the weighted superposition of plasmonic output images as specified in the proposed detection strategy. In addition, plasmonic filter arrays were theoretically tested on a target at extremely high temperature as a challenging scenario for the detection scheme.

  10. Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Infrared Multispectral Imaging using Plasmonic Filter Array.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo-Yong; Ku, Zahyun; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Jun Oh; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, James; Noyola, Michael J; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-10-10

    In our previous theoretical study, we performed target detection using a plasmonic sensor array incorporating the data-processing technique termed "algorithmic spectrometry". We achieved the reconstruction of a target spectrum by extracting intensity at multiple wavelengths with high resolution from the image data obtained from the plasmonic array. The ultimate goal is to develop a full-scale focal plane array with a plasmonic opto-coupler in order to move towards the next generation of versatile infrared cameras. To this end, and as an intermediate step, this paper reports the experimental demonstration of adaptive multispectral imagery using fabricated plasmonic spectral filter arrays and proposed target detection scenarios. Each plasmonic filter was designed using periodic circular holes perforated through a gold layer, and an enhanced target detection strategy was proposed to refine the original spectrometry concept for spatial and spectral computation of the data measured from the plasmonic array. Both the spectrum of blackbody radiation and a metal ring object at multiple wavelengths were successfully reconstructed using the weighted superposition of plasmonic output images as specified in the proposed detection strategy. In addition, plasmonic filter arrays were theoretically tested on a target at extremely high temperature as a challenging scenario for the detection scheme.

  11. Infrared horizon scanner attitude data error analysis for SEASAT-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phenneger, M. C.; Manders, C.; Spence, C. B., Jr.; Levitas, M.; Lerner, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a study of the effect of variations in the earth's seasonal and geographical horizon radiance on the location of the infrared horizon as measured by ITHACO scanwheels are presented. Two types of variations are considered. These are (1) systematic variations of the mean (averaged over all longitudes) atmospheric radiance due to macroscopic changes in temperature as a function of latitude and season and (2) random variations in atmospheric radiance due to microscopic fluctuations (weather). The effect of variations in the scanner wheel speeds on the attitude determination accuracy is also presented. The computed horizon radiance and wheel speed variation - induced attitude errors are then combined with errors caused by sensor alignment and electronics tolerances to obtain an overall estimate of the SEASAT-A pitch and roll angle accuracy.

  12. Thermal deposition analysis during disruptions on DIII-D using infrared scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Kellman, A.G.; Taylor, P.L.; Lasnier, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    The DIII-D tokamak generates plasma discharges with currents up to 3 MA and auxiliary input power up to 20 MW from neutral beams and 4 MW from radio frequency systems. In a disruption, a rapid loss of the plasma current and internal thermal energy occurs and the energy is deposited onto the torus graphite wall. Quantifying the spatial and temporal characteristics of the heat deposition is important for engineering and physics-related issues, particularly for designing future machines such as ITER. Using infrared scanners with a time resolution of 120 {micro}s, measurements of the heat deposition onto the all-graphite walls of DIII-D during two types of disruptions have been made. Each scanner contains a single point detector sensitive to 8--12 {micro}m radiation, allowing surface temperatures from 20 C to 2,000 C to be measured. A zinc selenide window that transmits in the infrared is used as the vacuum window. Views of the upper and lower divertor regions and the centerpost provide good coverage of the first wall for single and double null divertor discharges. During disruptions, the thermal energy is not deposited evenly onto the inner surface of the tokamak, but is deposited primarily in the divertor region when operating diverted discharges. Analysis of the heat deposition during a radiative collapse disruption of a 1.5 MA discharge revealed power densities of 300--350 MW/m{sup 2} in the divertor region. During the thermal quench of the disruption, the energy deposited onto the divertor region was more than 70% of the stored thermal energy in the discharge prior to the disruption. The spatial distribution and temporal behavior of power deposition during high {beta} disruptions will also be presented.

  13. Thermal deposition analysis during disruptions on DIII-D using infrared scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Kellman, A.G.; Taylor, P.L.; Lasnier, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    The DIII-D tokamak generates plasma discharges with currents up to 3 MA and a auxiliary input power up to 20 MW from neutral beams and 4 MW from radio frequency systems. In a disruption, a rapid loss of the plasma current and internal thermal energy occurs and the energy is deposited onto the torus graphite wall. Quantifying the spatial and temporal characteristics of the heat deposition is important for engineering and physics-related issues, particularly for designing future machines such as ITER. Using infrared scanners with a time resolution of 120 {micro}s, measurements of the heat deposition onto the all-graphite walls of DIII-D during two types of disruptions have been made. Each scanner contains a single point detector sensitive to 8--12 {micro}m radiation, allowing surface temperatures from 20 C to 2,000 C to be measured. A zinc selenide window that transmits in the infrared is used as the vacuum window. Views of the upper and lower divertor regions and the centerpost provide good coverage of the first wall for single and double null divertor discharges. During disruptions, the thermal energy is not deposited evenly onto the inner surface of the tokamak, but is deposited primarily in the divertor region when operating diverted discharges. Analysis of the heat deposition during a radiative collapse disruption of a 1.5 MA discharge revealed power densities of 300--350 MW/m{sup 2} in the divertor region. During the thermal quench of the disruption, the energy deposited onto the divertor region was more than 70% of the stored thermal energy in the discharge prior to the disruption. The spatial distribution and temporal behavior of power deposition during high {beta} disruptions will also be presented.

  14. Retrieving Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity from Multispectral and Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Simon; Hulley, Glynn; Nicholson, Kerry

    2017-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) data are critical variables for studying a variety of Earth surface processes and surface-atmosphere interactions such as evapotranspiration, surface energy balance and water vapor retrievals. LST&E have been identified as an important Earth System Data Record (ESDR) by NASA and many other international organizations Accurate knowledge of the LST&E is a key requirement for many energy balance models to estimate important surface biophysical variables such as evapotranspiration and plant-available soil moisture. LST&E products are currently generated from sensors in low earth orbit (LEO) such as the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites as well as from sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) such as the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and airborne sensors such as the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES). LST&E products are generated with varying accuracies depending on the input data, including ancillary data such as atmospheric water vapor, as well as algorithmic approaches. NASA has identified the need to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. We will discuss the different approaches that can be used to retrieve surface temperature and emissivity from multispectral and hyperspectral thermal infrared sensors using examples from a variety of different sensors such as those mentioned, and planned new sensors like the ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) and the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). We will also discuss a project underway at NASA to develop a single unified product from some the individual sensor products and assess the errors associated with the product.

  15. High Spatial Resolution Airborne Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of Urban Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have used airborne multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data collected at a high spatial resolution (i.e., 10m) over several cities in the United States to study thermal energy characteristics of the urban landscape. These TIR data provide a unique opportunity to quantify thermal responses from discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape and to identify both the spatial arrangement and patterns of thermal processes across the city. The information obtained from these data is critical to understanding how urban surfaces drive or force development of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, which exists as a dome of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities in contrast to surrounding non-urbanized areas. The UHI is most pronounced in the summertime where urban surfaces, such as rooftops and pavement, store solar radiation throughout the day, and release this stored energy slowly after sunset creating air temperatures over the city that are in excess of 2-4'C warmer in contrast with non-urban or rural air temperatures. The UHI can also exist as a daytime phenomenon with surface temperatures in downtown areas of cities exceeding 38'C. The implications of the UHI are significant, particularly as an additive source of thermal energy input that exacerbates the overall production of ground level ozone over cities. We have used the Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS), flown onboard a Lear 23 jet aircraft from the NASA Stennis Space Center, to acquire high spatial resolution multispectral TIR data (i.e., 6 bandwidths between 8.2-12.2 (um) over Huntsville, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Sacramento, California. These TIR data have been used to produce maps and other products, showing the spatial distribution of heating and cooling patterns over these cities to better understand how the morphology of the urban landscape affects development of the UHI. In turn, these data have been used

  16. High Spatial Resolution Airborne Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of Urban Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have used airborne multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data collected at a high spatial resolution (i.e., 10m) over several cities in the United States to study thermal energy characteristics of the urban landscape. These TIR data provide a unique opportunity to quantify thermal responses from discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape and to identify both the spatial arrangement and patterns of thermal processes across the city. The information obtained from these data is critical to understanding how urban surfaces drive or force development of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, which exists as a dome of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities in contrast to surrounding non-urbanized areas. The UHI is most pronounced in the summertime where urban surfaces, such as rooftops and pavement, store solar radiation throughout the day, and release this stored energy slowly after sunset creating air temperatures over the city that are in excess of 2-4'C warmer in contrast with non-urban or rural air temperatures. The UHI can also exist as a daytime phenomenon with surface temperatures in downtown areas of cities exceeding 38'C. The implications of the UHI are significant, particularly as an additive source of thermal energy input that exacerbates the overall production of ground level ozone over cities. We have used the Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS), flown onboard a Lear 23 jet aircraft from the NASA Stennis Space Center, to acquire high spatial resolution multispectral TIR data (i.e., 6 bandwidths between 8.2-12.2 (um) over Huntsville, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Sacramento, California. These TIR data have been used to produce maps and other products, showing the spatial distribution of heating and cooling patterns over these cities to better understand how the morphology of the urban landscape affects development of the UHI. In turn, these data have been used

  17. Lipid volume fraction in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms classified under saline conditions by multispectral angioscopy at near-infrared wavelengths around 1200 nm.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-05-01

    To identify high-risk atherosclerotic lesions, we require detailed information on the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we quantitatively classified the lipid volume fractions in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms by a novel angioscope combined with near-infrared multispectral imaging. The multispectral angioscope was operated at peak absorption wavelengths of lipid in vulnerable plaques (1150, 1200, and 1300 nm) and at lower absorption wavelengths of water. The potential of the multispectral angioscope was demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms containing 10-60 vol.% lipid and immersed in saline solution. The acquired multispectral data were processed by a spectral angle mapper algorithm, which enhanced the simulated plaque areas. Consequently, we classified the lipid volume fractions into five categories (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, and 50-60 vol.%). Multispectral angioscopy at wavelengths around 1200 nm is a powerful tool for quantitatively evaluating the stability of atherosclerotic plaques based on the lipid volume fractions.

  18. First Use of an Airborne Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Scanner for Compositional Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkland, Laurel; Herr, Kenneth; Keim, Eric; Adams, Paul; Salisbury, John; Hackwell, John; Treiman, Allan

    2002-01-01

    In May 1999, the airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system, Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS), was flown over Mon-non Mesa, NV, to provide the first test of such a system for geological mapping. Several types of carbonate deposits were identified using the 11.25 microns band. However, massive calcrete outcrops exhibited weak spectral contrast, which was confirmed by field and laboratory measurements. Because the weathered calcrete surface appeared relatively smooth in hand specimen, this weak spectral contrast was unexpected. Here we show that microscopic roughness not readily apparent to the eye has introduced both a cavity effect and volume scattering to reduce spectral contrast. The macroroughness of crevices and cobbles may also have a significant cavity effect. The diminished spectral contrast is important because it places higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirements for spectroscopic detection and identification. This effect should be factored into instrumentation planning and interpretations, especially interpretations without benefit of ground truth. SEBASS had the required high SNR and spectral resolution to allow us to demonstrate for the first time the ability of an airborne hyperspectral thermal infrared scanner to detect and identify spectrally subtle materials.

  19. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes. [infrared scanner recordings of thermal anomalies of Mt. Baker volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. By the end of 1973, aerial infrared scanner traverses for thermal anomaly recordings of all Cascade Range volcanoes were essentially completed. Amplitude level slices of the Mount Baker anomalies were completed and compiled at a scale of 1:24,000, thus producing, for the first time, an accurate map of the distribution and intensity of thermal activity on Mount Baker. The major thermal activity is concentrated within the crater south of the main summit and although it is characterized by intensive solfataric activity and warm ground, it is largely subglacial, causing the development of sizable glacier perforation features. The outgoing radiative flux from the east breach anomalies is sufficient to account for the volume of ice melted to form the glacier perforations. DCP station 6251 has been monitoring a thermally anomalous area on the north slope of Mount Baker. The present thermal activity of Mount Baker accounts for continuing hydrothermal alteration in the crater south of the main summit and recurrent debris avalanches from Sherman Peak on its south rim. The infrared anomalies mapped as part of the experiment SR 251 are considered the basic evidence of the subglacial heating which was the probable triggering mechanism of an avalanche down Boulder Glacier on August 20-21, 1973.

  20. Application of Thermal Infrared Multiband Scanner (TIMS) data to mapping of Plutonic and stratified rock and assemblages in accreted terrains of the Northern Sierra, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, James V.; Davis, David; Borengasser, Marcus

    1986-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired over the Donner Pass area in California on September 12, 1985. The higher peaks in the area approach 9,200 feet in elevation, while the canyon of the north fork of the American River is only 3000 feet in elevation. The vegetation is dominated by conifers, although manzanita and other shrubs are present in areas where soils have developed. The data contain noise patterns which cut across scan lines diagonally. The TIMS data were analyzed using both photointerpretative and digital processing techniques. Preliminary image interpretation and field analysis confirmed that TIMS image data displays the chert units and silicic volcanics as bright red. The imagery appears to display zoning in the batholithic and hypabyssal intrusive rocks, although this was not field checked at this time. Rocks which appear to be more dioritic in composition appear purple on the imagery, while rocks more granitic in composition appear shades of red and pink. Areas that have more than 40% vegetative cover appear green on the imagery.

  1. RIS4E at Kilauea's December 1974 Flow: Assessing the Integration of Portable Infrared Multispectral Imaging into Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, G.; Rogers, D.; Bleacher, J. E.; Young, K. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Glotch, T. D.

    2015-12-01

    Portable, hand-held geochemical and mineralogical instruments are potentially valuable tools to be used in sample collection and site documentation activities during future human missions to planetary bodies. The main purpose of these instruments is to allow fast in situ analyses of rocks and soils so that astronauts can quickly document sample characteristics and context, and make strategic decisions on sample selection in the context of predefined scientific objectives. As part of the Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration (RIS4E) investigation, we test the performance of candidate instruments and operational procedures through fieldwork expeditions that simulate lunar and asteroid environments on Earth. Our field site, Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii, is a lava field with landscape and mineralogy that represent a reasonable analog to the Moon and some differentiated asteroids. In this paper, we focus on one of the candidate instruments, the infrared multispectral imager. During field expeditions in 2014 and 2015, we explored the applicability of the multispectral imager in manned surface operations. From these expeditions, our instrument calibration techniques and data collection procedures matured. Current work focuses on assessment of data product usefulness, through comparison with detailed laboratory chemical and spectral measurements, and field descriptions of surface textures. Our field expeditions will continue in other analog locations to obtain improved understanding of the multispectral imager and its role in sampling workflow so that science return can be maximized in future human missions.

  2. Satellite observation of lowermost tropospheric ozone by multispectral synergism of IASI thermal infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet measurements over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, J.; Eremenko, M.; Liu, X.; Dufour, G.; Cai, Z.; Hoepfner, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Sellitto, P.; Foret, G.; Gaubert, B.; Beekmann, M.; Orphal, J. J.; Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J.; Flaud, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lowermost tropospheric ozone is a major factor determining air quality, which directly affects human health in megacities and causes damages to ecosystems. Monitoring tropospheric ozone is a key societal issue which can be addressed at the regional scale by spaceborne observation. However, current satellite retrievals of tropospheric ozone using uncoupled either ultraviolet (UV) or thermal infrared (TIR) observations show limited sensitivity to ozone at the lowermost troposphere (LMT, up to 3 km asl of altitude above sea level), which is the major concern for air quality. In this framework, we have developed a new multispectral approach for observing lowermost tropospheric ozone from space by synergism of atmospheric TIR radiances observed by IASI and earth UV reflectances measured by GOME-2. Both instruments are onboard the series of MetOp satellites (in orbit since 2006 and expected until 2022) and their scanning capabilities offer global coverage every day, with a relatively fine ground pixel resolution (12-km-diameter pixels spaced by 25 km for IASI at nadir). Our technique uses altitude-dependent Tikhonov-Phillips-type constraints, which optimize sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone. It integrates the VLIDORT and KOPRA radiative transfer codes for simulating UV reflectance and TIR radiance, respectively. We have used our method to analyze real observations over Europe during an ozone pollution episode in the summer of 2009. The results show that the multispectral synergism of IASI (TIR) and GOME-2 (UV) enables the observation of the spatial distribution of ozone plumes in the LMT, in good agreement with the CHIMERE regional chemistry-transport model. In this case study, when high ozone concentrations extend vertically above 3 km asl, they are similarly observed over land by both the multispectral and IASI retrievals. On the other hand, ozone plumes located below 3 km asl are only clearly depicted by the multispectral retrieval (both over land and over ocean

  3. Radiometric Measurement Comparison Using the Ocean Color Temperature Scanner (OCTS) Visible and Near Infrared Integrating Sphere

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, B. Carol; Sakuma, F.; Butler, J. J.; Biggar, S. F.; Cooper, J. W.; Ishida, J.; Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    As a part of the pre-flight calibration and validation activities for the Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color satellite instruments, a radiometric measurement comparison was held in February 1995 at the NEC Corporation in Yokohama, Japan. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center (UA), and the National Research Laboratory of Metrology (NRLM) in Tsukuba, Japan used their portable radiometers to measure the spectral radiance of the OCTS visible and near-infrared integrating sphere at four radiance levels. These four levels corresponded to the configuration of the OCTS integrating sphere when the calibration coefficients for five of the eight spectral channels, or bands, of the OCTS instrument were determined. The measurements of the four radiometers differed by −2.7 % to 3.9 % when compared to the NEC calibration of the sphere and the overall agreement was within the combined measurement uncertainties. A comparison of the measurements from the participating radiometers also resulted in agreement within the combined measurement uncertainties. These results are encouraging and demonstrate the utility of comparisons using laboratory calibration integrating sphere sources. Other comparisons will focus on instruments that are scheduled for spacecraft in the NASA study of climate change, the Earth Observing System (EOS). PMID:27805113

  4. Radiometric Measurement Comparison Using the Ocean Color Temperature Scanner (OCTS) Visible and Near Infrared Integrating Sphere.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B Carol; Sakuma, F; Butler, J J; Biggar, S F; Cooper, J W; Ishida, J; Suzuki, K

    1997-01-01

    As a part of the pre-flight calibration and validation activities for the Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color satellite instruments, a radiometric measurement comparison was held in February 1995 at the NEC Corporation in Yokohama, Japan. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center (UA), and the National Research Laboratory of Metrology (NRLM) in Tsukuba, Japan used their portable radiometers to measure the spectral radiance of the OCTS visible and near-infrared integrating sphere at four radiance levels. These four levels corresponded to the configuration of the OCTS integrating sphere when the calibration coefficients for five of the eight spectral channels, or bands, of the OCTS instrument were determined. The measurements of the four radiometers differed by -2.7 % to 3.9 % when compared to the NEC calibration of the sphere and the overall agreement was within the combined measurement uncertainties. A comparison of the measurements from the participating radiometers also resulted in agreement within the combined measurement uncertainties. These results are encouraging and demonstrate the utility of comparisons using laboratory calibration integrating sphere sources. Other comparisons will focus on instruments that are scheduled for spacecraft in the NASA study of climate change, the Earth Observing System (EOS).

  5. Multispectral Scanner (MSS) Instrument Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Banks, G.

    1984-01-01

    The MSS sensor image processing and resolution capabilities as well as a general system description are presented in chart form. Emphasis is placed on absolute radiometric calibration, video and wedge level timing sequence, focal plane dimensions, sampling sequence, and a description of the mirror coordinate systems.

  6. Multispectral photography for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenderoth, S.; Yost, E.; Kalia, R.; Anderson, R.

    1972-01-01

    A guide for producing accurate multispectral results for earth resource applications is presented along with theoretical and analytical concepts of color and multispectral photography. Topics discussed include: capabilities and limitations of color and color infrared films; image color measurements; methods of relating ground phenomena to film density and color measurement; sensitometry; considerations in the selection of multispectral cameras and components; and mission planning.

  7. 3rd Tech DeltaSphere-3000 Laser 3D Scene Digitizer infrared laser scanner hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-02-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the 3rd Tech model DeltaSphere-3000{reg_sign} Laser 3D Scene Digitizer, infrared laser scanner model based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers. The portable scanner system is used in the Robotic Manufacturing Science and Engineering Laboratory (RMSEL). This scanning system had been proposed to be a demonstrator for a new application. The manufacture lists the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) as less than 2 meters. It was necessary that SNL validate this NOHD prior to its use as a demonstrator involving the general public. A formal laser hazard analysis is presented for the typical mode of operation for the current configuration as well as a possible modified mode and alternative configuration.

  8. Near-infrared multispectral scattering for assessing internal quality of apple fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu

    2004-03-01

    Firmness and sweetness are key quality attributes that determine the acceptability of apple fruit to the consumer. The objective of this research was to investigate a multispectral imaging system for simultaneous acquisition of multispectral scattering images from apple fruit to predict firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A circular broadband light beam was used to generate light backscattering at the surface of apple fruit and scattering images were acquired, using a common aperture multispectral imaging system, from Red Delicious and Golden Delicious apple fruit for wavelengths at 680, 880, 905, and 940 nm. Scattering images were radially averaged to produce one-dimensional spectral scattering profiles, which were then input into a backpropagation neural network for predicting apple fruit firmness and SSC. It was found that the neural network performed best when 10 neurons and 20 epochs were used. With inputing three ratios of spectral profiles involving all four wavelengths, the neural network gave firmness predictions with the correlation (r) of 0.76 and the standard error for validation (SEV) of 6.2 N for Red Delicious apples and r=0.73 and SEV=8.9 N for Golden Delicious apples. Relatively good SSC predictions were obtained for both varieties with SEV=0.9° Brix.

  9. Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J.F.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knoll, A.H.; McLennan, S.M.; Squyres, S. W.; Calvin, W.M.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Morris, R.V.; Soderblom, J.; Thompson, S.D.; Watters, W.A.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    Multispectral measurements in the visible and near infrared of rocks at Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's Pancam are described. The Pancam multispectral data show that the outcrops of the Burns formation consist of two main spectral units which in stretched 673, 535, 432 nm color composites appear buff- and purple-colored. These units are referred to as the HFS and LFS spectral units based on higher and lower values of 482 to 535 nm slope. Spectral characteristics are consistent with the LFS outcrop consisting of less oxidized, and the HFS outcrop consisting of more oxidized, iron-bearing minerals. The LFS surfaces are not as common and appear, primarily, at the distal ends of outcrop layers and on steep, more massive surfaces, locations that are subject to greater eolian erosion. Consequently, the HFS surfaces are interpreted as a weathering rind. Further inherent spectral differences between layer's and between different outcrop map units, both untouched and patches abraded by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool, are also described. Comparisons of the spectral parameters of the Meridiani outcrop with a set of laboratory reflectance measurements of Fe3+-bearing minerals show that the field of outcrop measurements plots near the fields of hematite, ferrihydrite, poorly crystalline goethite, and schwertmannite. Rind and fracture fill materials, observed intermittently at outcrop exposures, are intermediate in their spectral character between both the HFS and LFS spectral classes and other, less oxidized, surface materials (basaltic sands, spherules, and cobbles). Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Multispectral demosaicking considering out-of-focus problem for red-green-blue-near-infrared image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ji Yong; Kang, Moon Gi

    2016-03-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) band provides information invisible to human eyes for discriminating and recognizing objects more clearly under low lighting conditions. To capture color and NIR images simultaneously, a multispectral filter array (MSFA) sensor is used. However, because lenses have different refractive indices for different wavelengths, lenses may fail to focus all rays to the same convergence. This is the reason an out-of-focus problem occurs and images are blurred. In this paper, a demosaicking algorithm that considers the out-of-focus problem is proposed. This algorithm is used by the MSFA of a red-green-blue-NIR image sensor to obtain color and NIR images. After the energies of the multispectral (MS) channels in the MSFA image are balanced to minimize aliasing, that image is filtered by the estimated low-pass kernel to generate a panchromatic (PAN) image. When an image is acquired, the out-of-focus problem and the formation process of the PAN image are modeled. The desired MS image is estimated by solving the least squares approach of the difference between the PAN and MS images based on the models. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in estimating high-quality MS images and reduces the out-of-focus problem.

  11. Mapping within-field variations of soil organic carbon content using UAV multispectral visible near-infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Michelin, Joël

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the PROSTOCK-Gessol3 project supported by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), the TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO project of the French Space Agency (CNES) and the SOERE PRO network working on environmental impacts of Organic Waste Products recycling on field crops at long time scale. The organic matter is an important soil fertility parameter and previous studies have shown the potential of spectral information measured in the laboratory or directly in the field using field spectro-radiometer or satellite imagery to predict the soil organic carbon (SOC) content. This work proposes a method for a spatial prediction of bare cultivated topsoil SOC content, from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) multispectral imagery. An agricultural plot of 13 ha, located in the western region of Paris France, was analysed in April 2013, shortly before sowing while it was still bare soil. Soils comprised haplic luvisols, rendzic cambisols and calcaric or colluvic cambisols. The UAV platform used was a fixed wing provided by Airinov® flying at an altitude of 150m and was equipped with a four channels multispectral visible near-infrared camera MultiSPEC 4C® (550nm, 660nm, 735 nm and 790 nm). Twenty three ground control points (GCP) were sampled within the plot according to soils descriptions. GCP positions were determined with a centimetric DGPS. Different observations and measurements were made synchronously with the drone flight: soil surface description, spectral measurements (with ASD FieldSpec 3® spectroradiometer), roughness measurements by a photogrammetric method. Each of these locations was sampled for both soil standard physico-chemical analysis and soil water content. A Structure From Motion (SFM) processing was done from the UAV imagery to produce a 15 cm resolution multispectral mosaic using the Agisoft Photoscan® software. The SOC content was modelled by partial least squares regression (PLSR) between the

  12. Changes of multispectral soil patterns with increasing crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data and automatic data processing were used to map surface soil patterns and to follow the changes in multispectral radiation from a field of maize (Zea mays L.) during a period from seeding to maturity. Panchromatic aerial photography was obtained in early May 1970 and multispectral scanner missions were flown on May 6, June 30, August 11 and September 5, 1970 to obtain energy measurements in 13 wavelength bands. The orange portion of the visible spectrum was used in analyzing the May and June data to cluster relative radiance of the soils into eight different radiance levels. The reflective infrared spectral band was used in analyzing the August and September data to cluster maize into different spectral categories. The computer-produced soil patterns had a striking similarity to the soil pattern of the aerial photograph. These patterns became less distinct as the maize canopy increased.

  13. A multispectral cloud type identification method developed for tropical ocean areas with Nimbus-3 MRIR measurements. [Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.; Neff, R. A.; Holub, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A four-channel multispectral cloud type identification technique is developed on the basis of Nimbus-3 Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) measurements, with the four channels being spectrally located at 0.2-4.0, 6.5-7, 10-11, and 20-23 microns. The technique requires the use of a radiative transfer model with information on the vertical temperature and moisture profiles and climatological knowledge of the upper boundaries of cloud surfaces associated with expected cloud types within a given area. Experimental verification of the technique indicates that deletion of the 20-23 micron channel has no adverse effect on method capability, and that the 6.5-7 micron channel alone is well suited for successful mapping of the areas where cirrus is reasonably dense, while indicating the regions where cirrus is not present.

  14. Near-infrared active polarimetric and multispectral laboratory demonstrator for target detection.

    PubMed

    Alouini, Mehdi; Goudail, François; Grisard, Arnaud; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Dolfi, Daniel; Bénière, Arnaud; Baarstad, Ivar; Løke, Trond; Kaspersen, Peter; Normandin, Xavier; Berginc, Gerard

    2009-03-10

    We report on the design and exploitation of a real-field laboratory demonstrator combining active polarimetric and multispectral functions. Its building blocks, including a multiwavelength pulsed optical parametric oscillator at the emission side and a hyperspectral imager with polarimetric capability at the reception side, are described. The results obtained with this demonstrator are illustrated on some examples and discussed. In particular it is found that good detection performances rely on joint use of intensity and polarimetric images, with these images exhibiting complementary signatures in most cases.

  15. Identification of hydrothermal mineralization in Baja California, Mexico from orbit using the Shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Crowley, J. K.; Kingston, M. J.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the Space Shuttle Multispectral IR Radiometer (SMIRR), which is a 10-channel remote sensor designed to record narrow band spectral data in the 0.5-2.4 micron wavelength range, were used to identify and study a previously unreported area of hydrothermal alteration on the Baja California peninsula. Absorption at 2.17 microns, which is diagnostic of the minerals pyrophyllite, dickite, and alunite, was observed in many spectra and the presence of pyrophyllite and dickite was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis of field samples. Anomalously high Mo, B, Sn, Zr, and Ag were found in three samples.

  16. Simultaneous multispectral framing infrared camera using an embedded diffractive optical lenslet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in micro-optical element fabrication using gray scale technology have opened up the opportunity to create simultaneous multi-spectral imaging with fine structure diffractive lenses. This paper will discuss an approach that uses diffractive optical lenses configured in an array (lenslet array) and placed in close proximity to the focal plane array which enables a small compact simultaneous multispectral imaging camera [1]. The lenslet array is designed so that all lenslets have a common focal length with each lenslet tuned for a different wavelength. The number of simultaneous spectral images is determined by the number of individually configured lenslets in the array. The number of spectral images can be increased by a factor of 2 when using it with a dual-band focal plane array (MWIR/LWIR) by exploiting multiple diffraction orders. In addition, modulation of the focal length of the lenslet array with piezoelectric actuation will enable spectral bin fill-in allowing additional spectral coverage while giving up simultaneity. Different lenslet array spectral imaging concept designs are presented in this paper along with a unique concept for prefiltering the radiation focused on the detector. This approach to spectral imaging has applications in the detection of chemical agents in both aerosolized form and as a liquid on a surface. It also can be applied to the detection of weaponized biological agent and IED detection in various forms from manufacturing to deployment and post detection during forensic analysis.

  17. Detection of subpixel anomalies in multispectral infrared imagery using an adaptive Bayesian classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, E.A.

    1998-03-01

    The detection of subpixel targets with unknown spectral signatures and cluttered backgrounds in multispectral imagery is a topic of great interest for remote surveillance applications. Because no knowledge of the target is assumed, the only way to accomplish such a detection is through a search for anomalous pixels. Two approaches to this problem are examined in this paper. The first is to separate the image into a number of statistical clusters by using an extension of the well-known {kappa}-means algorithm. Each bin of resultant residual vectors is then decorrelated, and the results are thresholded to provide detection. The second approach requires the formation of a probabilistic background model by using an adaptive Bayesian classification algorithm. This allows the calculation of a probability for each pixel, with respect to the model. These probabilities are then thresholded to provide detection. Both algorithms are shown to provide significant improvement over current filtering techniques for anomaly detection in experiments using multispectral IR imagery with both simulated and actual subpixel targets.

  18. Quantitative wound healing studies using a portable, low cost, handheld near-infrared optical scanner: preliminary sensitivity and specificity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jiali; Rodriguez, Suset; Jayachandran, Maanasa; Solis, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Stephanie; Perez-Clavijo, Francesco; Wigley, Stephen; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2016-03-01

    Lower extremity ulcers are devastating complications that are still un-recognized. To date, clinicians employ visual inspection of the wound site during its standard 4-week of healing process via monitoring of surface granulation. A novel ultra-portable near-infrared optical scanner (NIROS) has been developed at the Optical Imaging Laboratory that can perform non-contact 2D area imaging of the wound site. From preliminary studies it was observed that the nonhealing wounds had a greater absorption contrast with respect to the normal site, unlike in the healing wounds. Currently, non-contact near-infrared (NIR) imaging studies were carried out on 22 lower extremity wounds at two podiatric clinics, and the sensitivity and specificity of the scanner evaluated. A quantitative optical biometric was developed that differentiates healing from non-healing wounds, based on the threshold values obtained during ROC analysis. In addition, optical images of the wound obtained from weekly imaging studies are also assessed to determine the ability of the device to predict wound healing consistently on a periodic basis. This can potentially impact early intervention in the treatment of lower extremity ulcers when an objective and quantitative wound healing approach is developed. Lastly, the incorporation of MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) to automate the process of image acquisition, image processing and image analysis realizes the potential of NIROS to perform non-contact and real-time imaging on lower extremity wounds.

  19. Surface temperature measurement of the plasma facing components with the multi-spectral infrared thermography diagnostics in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Gauthier, E.; Pocheau, C.; Balorin, C.; Pascal, J. Y.; Jouve, M.; Aumeunier, M. H.; Courtois, X.; Loarer, Th.; Houry, M.

    2017-03-01

    For the long-pulse high-confinement discharges in tokamaks, the equilibrium of plasma requires a contact with the first wall materials. The heat flux resulting from this interaction is of the order of 10 MW/m2 for steady state conditions and up to 20 MW/m2 for transient phases. The monitoring on surface temperatures of the plasma facing components (PFCs) is a major concern to ensure safe operation and to optimize performances of experimental operations on large fusion facilities. Furthermore, this measurement is also required to study the physics associated to the plasma material interactions and the heat flux deposition process. In tokamaks, infrared (IR) thermography systems are routinely used to monitor the surface temperature of the PFCs. This measurement requires an accurate knowledge of the surface emissivity. However, and particularly for metallic materials such as tungsten, this emissivity value can vary over a wide range with both the surface condition and the temperature itself, which makes instantaneous measurement challenging. In this context, the multi-spectral infrared method appears as a very promising alternative solution. Indeed, the system has the advantage to carry out a non-intrusive measurement on thermal radiation while evaluating surface temperature without requiring a mandatory surface emissivity measurement. In this paper, a conceptual design for the multi-spectral infrared thermography is proposed. The numerical study of the multi-channel system based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) nonlinear curve fitting is applied. The numerical results presented in this paper demonstrate the design allows for measurements over a large temperature range with a relative error of less than 10%. Furthermore, laboratory experiments have been performed from 200 °C to 740 °C to confirm the feasibility for temperature measurements on stainless steel and tungsten. In these experiments, the unfolding results from the multi-channel detection provide good

  20. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range

    PubMed Central

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution. PMID:27345517

  1. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range.

    PubMed

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-06-27

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution.

  2. Space weathering effects in Diviner Lunar Radiometer multispectral infrared measurements of the lunar Christiansen Feature: Characteristics and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Song, Eugenie; Arnold, Jessica A.; Lemelin, Myriam; Hanna, Kerri Donaldson; Bowles, Neil E.; Glotch, Timothy D.; Paige, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Multispectral infrared measurements by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Renaissance Orbiter enable the characterization of the position of the Christiansen Feature, a thermal infrared spectral feature that laboratory work has shown is proportional to the bulk silica content of lunar surface materials. Diviner measurements show that the position of this feature is also influenced by the changes in optical and physical properties of the lunar surface with exposure to space, the process known as space weathering. Large rayed craters and lunar swirls show corresponding Christiansen Feature anomalies. The space weathering effect is likely due to differences in thermal gradients in the optical surface imposed by the space weathering control of albedo. However, inspected at high resolution, locations with extreme compositions and Christiansen Feature wavelength positions - silica-rich and olivine-rich areas - do not have extreme albedos, and fall off the albedo- Christiansen Feature wavelength position trend occupied by most of the Moon. These areas demonstrate that the Christiansen Feature wavelength position contains compositional information and is not solely dictated by albedo. An optical maturity parameter derived from near-IR measurements is used to partly correct Diviner data for space weathering influences.

  3. Mineral identification from orbit - Initial results from the Shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Rowan, L. C.; Kingston, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Shuttle multispectral IR radiometer (SMIRR) was designed to obtain surface reflectance data in ten spectral bands in order to evaluate the usefulness of a future imaging system for remote mineral identification. Attention was given to the 2.0-2.4 micron region, which has a wealth of spectral absorption features and appeared to have potential for the identification of CO3- and OH-bearing minerals such as the kaolinite and montmorillonite clays. SMIRR radiances were normalized by using a spectrum for dune sand collected in the Kharga Depression in Egypt. Direct identifications have been made of kaolinite-containing and carbonate material, indicating an exceptional potential for future orbital platform narrowband spectral imaging systems for mineralogical mapping.

  4. Preliminary analysis of thermal-infrared multispectral scanner data of the Iron Hill, Colorado carbonatite-alkalic rock complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, Lawrence C.; Watson, Kenneth; Miller, Susanne H.

    1992-01-01

    The Iron Hill carbonatite-alkalic igneous rock complex is in the Powderhorn mining district, approximately 40 km south-southwest of Gunnison, Colorado. The complex, which occupies about 30 sq km, was emplaced in metasedimentay and metavolcanic rocks during the later Precambrian or early Cambrian. The main rock types in the complex, from oldest to youngest, are fenite, pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, ijolite, nepheline syenite, and dolomitic carbonatite. The carbonatite is limonitic and forms an elliptially shaped 4 sq km stock. Calcitic and dolomitic carbonatite dikes are also numerous throughout the complex and in the pre-existing rocks. Pyroxenite is the most widespread rock type within the complex, but pyroxene is extensively altered to biotite, phlogopite, and vermiculite. Fenite, which formed through Na, K-metasomatism of the country rocks, typically contains more feldspar and less quartz than the equivalent unaltered country rocks. The other alkalic rock types are less widespread and less well exposed. Parts of the complex are covered by Oligocene ash-flow tuff and alluvial, colluvial, and glacial deposits. Sagebrush and grass cover is moderately dense to very dense at low to intermediate elevations; coniferous tree cover is dense at high elevations and on some north-facing slopes at lower elevations. A new algorithm was used to compute spectral emissivity ratios, independent of any emissivity assumptions. This algorithm has the advantage that any of the possible emissivity ratios can be computed and, thus, a large variety of composite ratio images can be constructed, which permits examination of various geologic hypotheses based on the spectral properties of the surface materials.

  5. Oceanographic scanner system design study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The design is reported of a dual mode multispectral scanner, capable of satisfying both overland and oceanographic requirements. A complete system description and performance summary of the scanner are given. In addition, subsystem and component descriptions and performance analyses are treated in individual sections. The design of the scanner, with minimum modifications, interfaces to the ERTS spacecraft and the ground data handling system.

  6. Michigan experimental multispectral mapping system: A description of the M7 airborne sensor and its performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a multispectral band scanner for an airborne mapping system are discussed. The sensor operates in the ultraviolet, visual, and infrared frequencies. Any twelve of the bands may be selected for simultaneous, optically registered recording on a 14-track analog tape recorder. Multispectral imagery recorded on magnetic tape in the aircraft can be laboratory reproduced on film strips for visual analysis or optionally machine processed in analog and/or digital computers before display. The airborne system performance is analyzed.

  7. Mineral identification from orbit: Initial results from the shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, A.F.H.; Rowan, L.C.; Kingston, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A shuttle-borne radiometer containing ten channels in the reflective infrared has demonstrated that direct identification of carbonates and hydroxyl-bearing minerals is possible by remote measurement from Earth orbit. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  8. AFRL Nanotechnology Initiative: Hybrid Nanomaterials in Photonic Crystal Cavities for Multi-Spectral Infrared Detector Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    INITIATIVE) HYBRID NANOMATERIALS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CAVITIES FOR MULTI -SPECTRAL INFRARED DETECTOR ARRAYS 5b. GRANT NUMBER F A9550-06-1-0482 5c...IR) photodetector using hybrid nanornaterials in photonic crystal (PC) cavities for enhanced absorption at selected wavelengths. The simultaneous...infrared photodetection, quantum dots, photonic crystal cavities, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  9. Bio-Inspired Dynamically Tunable Polymer-Based Filters for Multi-Spectral Infrared Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Morse. Plastic Transmissive Infrared Electrochromic Devices , Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, (07 2010): 0. doi: 10.1002/macp.201000096 2011/10/10...Publication: Holt, A.L., J. G. A. Wehner, A. Hammp and D. E. Morse. 2010. Plastic transmissive infrared electrochromic devices ...Level Device Design ( Electrochromic -Based IR Shutter): The first initiative in the device design work consisted of determining a standard device

  10. Optical assembly of a visible-through-thermal infrared multispectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, Tammy D.; Bender, Steven C.; Byrd, Donald A.; Rappoport, William M.; Shen, Gon-Yen

    1998-10-01

    The Optical Assembly (OA) for the Multispectral Thermal Imger (MTI) program has been fabricated, assembled, and successfully tested for its performance. It represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing EO imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. Along with its wide field of view, 1.82 degrees along-track and 1.38 degrees cross-track, and comprehensive on-board calibration system, the pushbroom imaging sensor employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 micrometers . The OA has an off-axis three-mirror anastigmatic telescope with a 36-cm unobscured clear aperture. The two key performance criteria, 80 percent enpixeled energy in the visible and radiometric stability of 1 percent 1 (sigma) in the visible/near-IR and short wavelength IR, of 1.45 percent 1 (sigma) in the medium wavelength IR, and of 0.53 percent 1 (sigma) long wavelength IR, as well as its low weight and volume constraint drive the overall design configuration of the OA and fabrication requirements.

  11. Multispectral Emissions of Lanthanide-Doped Gadolinium Oxide Nanophosphors for Cathodoluminescence and Near-Infrared Upconversion/Downconversion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Thi Kim Dung, Doan; Fukushima, Shoichiro; Furukawa, Taichi; Niioka, Hirohiko; Sannomiya, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kaori; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Miyake, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive imaging of a biological individual can be achieved by utilizing the variation in spatial resolution, the scale of cathodoluminescence (CL), and near-infrared (NIR), as favored by imaging probe Gd2O3 co-doped lanthanide nanophosphors (NPPs). A series of Gd2O3:Ln3+/Yb3+ (Ln3+: Tm3+, Ho3+, Er3+) NPPs with multispectral emission are prepared by the sol-gel method. The NPPs show a wide range of emissions spanning from the visible to the NIR region under 980 nm excitation. The dependence of the upconverting (UC)/downconverting (DC) emission intensity on the dopant ratio is investigated. The optimum ratios of dopants obtained for emissions in the NIR regions at 810 nm, 1200 nm, and 1530 nm are applied to produce nanoparticles by the homogeneous precipitation (HP) method. The nanoparticles produced from the HP method are used to investigate the dual NIR and CL imaging modalities. The results indicate the possibility of using Gd2O3 co-doped Ln3+/Yb3+ (Ln3+: Tm3+, Ho3+, Er3+) in correlation with NIR and CL imaging. The use of Gd2O3 promises an extension of the object dimension to the whole-body level by employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:28335291

  12. Multispectral measurement of contrast in tissue-mimicking phantoms in near-infrared spectral range of 650 to 1600 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salo, Daniel; Zhang, Hairong; Kim, David M.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2014-08-01

    In order to identify the optimal imaging conditions for the highest spatial contrast in biological tissue, we explored the properties of a tissue-mimicking phantom as a function of the wavelengths in a broad range of near-infrared spectra (650 to 1600 nm). Our customized multispectral hardware, which featured a scanning transmission microscope and imaging spectrographs equipped with silicon and InGaAs charge-coupled diode array detectors, allowed for direct comparison of the Michelson contrast obtained from a phantom composed of a honeycomb grid, Intralipid, and India ink. The measured contrast depended on the size of the grid, luminance, and the wavelength of measurements. We demonstrated that at low thickness of the phantom, a reasonable contrast of the objects can be achieved at any wavelength between 700 and 1400 nm and between 1500 and 1600 nm. At larger thicknesses, such contrast can be achieved mostly between 1200 and 1350 nm. These results suggest that distinguishing biological features in deep tissue and developing contrast agents for in vivo may benefit from imaging in this spectral range.

  13. Multispectral Emissions of Lanthanide-Doped Gadolinium Oxide Nanophosphors for Cathodoluminescence and Near-Infrared Upconversion/Downconversion Imaging.

    PubMed

    Thi Kim Dung, Doan; Fukushima, Shoichiro; Furukawa, Taichi; Niioka, Hirohiko; Sannomiya, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kaori; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Miyake, Jun

    2016-09-06

    Comprehensive imaging of a biological individual can be achieved by utilizing the variation in spatial resolution, the scale of cathodoluminescence (CL), and near-infrared (NIR), as favored by imaging probe Gd₂O₃ co-doped lanthanide nanophosphors (NPPs). A series of Gd₂O₃:Ln(3+)/Yb(3+) (Ln(3+): Tm(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+)) NPPs with multispectral emission are prepared by the sol-gel method. The NPPs show a wide range of emissions spanning from the visible to the NIR region under 980 nm excitation. The dependence of the upconverting (UC)/downconverting (DC) emission intensity on the dopant ratio is investigated. The optimum ratios of dopants obtained for emissions in the NIR regions at 810 nm, 1200 nm, and 1530 nm are applied to produce nanoparticles by the homogeneous precipitation (HP) method. The nanoparticles produced from the HP method are used to investigate the dual NIR and CL imaging modalities. The results indicate the possibility of using Gd₂O₃ co-doped Ln(3+)/Yb(3+) (Ln(3+): Tm(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+)) in correlation with NIR and CL imaging. The use of Gd₂O₃ promises an extension of the object dimension to the whole-body level by employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  14. Visible and near-infrared spectra of manganese oxides: Detecting high manganese phases in Curiosity Mastcam multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardgrove, C. J.; Lanza, N.; Bell, J. F., III; Wiens, R. C.; Johnson, J. R.; Morris, R. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover's Chemcam instrument has identified manganese in relatively high abundance on several rock surfaces. The manganese abundances are several orders of magnitude greater than has been previously identified on Mars, indicating the presence of a manganese-rich phase. Although the specific phase has yet to be identified, these results suggest that the martian surface may have been much more highly oxidizing than has previously been recognized. The presence of a manganese-rich phase could provide an additional indicator of habitable aqueous environments. Given the importance of manganese for understanding past habitability, and the high abundances identified with Chemcam, we investigate the utility of using Mastcam multispectral imaging surveys to identify areas for subsequent detailed analysis with Chemcam. Vempati et al. showed that Mn3+ affect the reflectance spectra of Mn-bearing minerals. Specifically, relatively weak features due to electronic transitions and crystal field effects are observed in Mn-enriched hematites and geothites at 454, 554, 596 and 700 nm. The Mastcam-34 medium angle camera has filter band-passes at 550, 675 and 750nm, and we will explore the utility of using these bands (or combinations thereof) to determine if there is a contribution of Mn-bearing phases on spectra, specifically those that have been identified as having elevated Mn with Chemcam. The most common Mn-bearing mineral phase in terrestrial varnishes, Birnessite, has charge-transfer features that are similar to Fe-oxides but are centered at slightly longer wavelength band positions. Longer wavelength features are also common for other Mn-oxides, and this could be used to distinguish these phases from other Fe-oxide components. In this study we will present visible to near-infrared (0.4 - 3 µm) reflectance spectra on a suite of Mn-oxide laboratory standards. The set of standards includes Mn-oxide abundances that vary from less than 1 up to

  15. An infrared remote sensor with high integration and multi-spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lisha; Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Wenpo; Tang, Shaofan; Hu, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Along with the further application of optical remote sensing, it becomes main trend to realize high spatial resolution, high time resolution, high spectrum resolution and high irradiance sensitivity simultaneously. We present a new satellite-based imaging system that will provide images with these high performances. The structure of the system is compact with small size and light weight. The IR imager, a new generation of high resolution optical remote sensing, is universally acknowledged as the most effective approach to surveil dynamic changes in the environment on the earth. Pushbroom imaging fashion with high efficiency and long-array focal plane detector with passive cooling are adopted to realize area imaging relevant to the flight direction of satellite. The instrument is a dual-optical-path system with long-wave infrared (LWIR) and mid-short-wave infrared (MW-SWIR) bands - which has 4 narrow spectrum bands respectively. An IR dichroic beam-splitter is use to divide wideband incident infrared into LWIR and MW-SWIR. Then two pieces of joint filters, which are integrated in front of detectors and then enveloped by IR Dewars, are used to divide the LWIR and MWIR into 4 spectral bands separately. The focal plane arrays (FPA) are fixed on the optical imaging plane of the lens. The LWIR and MW-SWIR FPA are cooled around 80K or even below. For cooled FPA, optical system must provide a real, accessible exit pupil coupled with a fast f/number refractive component in a Dewar and very close to the FPA. Compared to traditional infrared instruments, high spatial resolution and spectrum resolution can be obtained simultaneously within mass, volume and performance constraints.

  16. Multispectral Visible/Infrared Sensors Based on Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    consist of metallic nanoparticles such as silver ( Ag ), gold ( Au ), or copper (Cu) embedded in a dielectric matrix such as electron transporting and hole... nanoparticles , the internal field can exceed the external field by up to a factor of 50.[5] This strong internal electric field can eject excited...extends into the near -infrared range, similar to the pure Ag , no electrical current is observed when an 850 nm long-pass filter is used. Also, the I-V

  17. A multispectral analysis of algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. R.; Norris, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Skylab multispectral scanner data acquired on January 21, 1974, were used to study the spectral characteristics of an algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico west of Fort Myers, Florida. Radiance profiles of the water and algae were prepared with data from ten bands of the S192 scanner covering the spectral range from .42 to 2.35 micrometers. The high spectral response in the near-infrared spectral bands implies a possible classification and discrimination parameter for detection of blooms of phytoplankton concentrations such as the so-called red tides of Florida.

  18. A multispectral analysis of algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. R.; Norris, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Skylab multispectral scanner data acquired on January 21, 1974, were used to study the spectral characteristics of an algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico west of Fort Myers, Florida. Radiance profiles of the water and algae were prepared with data from ten bands of the S192 scanner covering the spectral range from .42 to 2.35 micrometers. The high spectral response in the near-infrared spectral bands implies a possible classification and discrimination parameter for detection of blooms of phytoplankton concentrations such as the so-called red tides of Florida.

  19. Multispectral Imaging in Cultural Heritage Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozo, S.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Sánchez-Aparicio, L. J.; Muñoz-Nieto, A.; Hernández-López, D.; Felipe-García, B.; González-Aguilera, D.

    2017-08-01

    This paper sums up the main contribution derived from the thesis entitled "Multispectral imaging for the analysis of materials and pathologies in civil engineering, constructions and natural spaces" awarded by CIPA-ICOMOS for its connection with the preservation of Cultural Heritage. This thesis is framed within close-range remote sensing approaches by the fusion of sensors operating in the optical domain (visible to shortwave infrared spectrum). In the field of heritage preservation, multispectral imaging is a suitable technique due to its non-destructive nature and its versatility. It combines imaging and spectroscopy to analyse materials and land covers and enables the use of a variety of different geomatic sensors for this purpose. These sensors collect both spatial and spectral information for a given scenario and a specific spectral range, so that, their smaller storage units save the spectral properties of the radiation reflected by the surface of interest. The main goal of this research work is to characterise different construction materials as well as the main pathologies of Cultural Heritage elements by combining active and passive sensors recording data in different ranges. Conclusions about the suitability of each type of sensor and spectral range are drawn in relation to each particular case study and damage. It should be emphasised that results are not limited to images, since 3D intensity data from laser scanners can be integrated with 2D data from passive sensors obtaining high quality products due to the added value that metric brings to multispectral images.

  20. Compact, High Power, Multi-Spectral Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Laser Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Pumped (OP) type-II lasers The optically pumped laser devices were tested by pumping with 980 nm diode laser . Figure 29 shows the typical...Choi, and D. A. Coppeta "High-power diode - laser - pumped InAsSb/GaSb and GaInAsSb/GaSb lasers emitting from 3 to 4 µm" Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 152 (1994...Arias, M. Zandian, R. R. Zucca, and Y.-Z. Liu "High-power diode - pumped mid-infrared semiconductor lasers ," Proc. SPIE 2382, 262

  1. Measurement of water depth by multispectral ratio techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.

    1970-01-01

    The technique for measuring the depth of water using a multispectral scanner is discussed. The procedure takes advantage of the absorption properties of different wavelengths of light. Making use of the property of the selected transmission of light at different wavelengths, an equation was developed relating the outputs of at least two channels of multispectral scanner to measure water depth.

  2. Identification and tracking of ash clouds from recent explosive eruptions by using multispectral satellite infrared data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, F.; Falconieri, A.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2012-04-01

    RSTASH is a specific algorithm, based on the general Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach, developed to identify and track ash clouds using satellite infrared data. An updated and optimized version of this algorithm, which analyzes even signal measured in the visible spectral band, has recently been developed and implemented on geostationary satellites data, for a better discrimination of ash and weather clouds in daytime. This advanced configuration was firstly tested during the Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) eruption of April 2010 (by using Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager sensor aboard Meteosat Second Generation), showing further improvements in terms of false positives reduction in comparison with standard RSTASH technique. Another experimental configuration of this method, analyzing signal measured in the SEVIRI sulphur dioxide absorption band (at 8.6µm), was also successfully used to qualitatively characterize volcanic plumes emitted by the same volcano in May 2010 in terms of SO2 concentration. Results of these studies are presented and discussed here, together with main achievements obtained monitoring ash cloud emitted during Shinmoedake (Japan) explosive eruption of 26-27 January 2011, exploiting the high temporal resolution of MTSAT Japanese geostationary satellites. Moreover, for both test cases, plume height estimations, obtained by applying two different literature methods, are compared with indipendent both ground- and satellite-based observations. In this work, RSTASH performances in detecting, tracking and characterizing ash clouds are discussed, focusing on main open issues and future perspectives.

  3. Preliminary results of a quantitative comparison of the spectral signatures of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS).

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodechtel, J.; Zilger, J.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    Operationally acquired Thematic Mapper and experimental MOMS-01 data are evaluated quantitatively concerning the systems spectral response and performance for geoscientific applications. Results show the two instruments to be similar in the spectral bands compared. Although the MOMS scanner has a smaller IFOV, it has a lower modulation transfer function performance for small, low contrast features as compared to Thematic Mapper. This deficiency does not only occur when MOMS was switched to the low gain mode. It is due to the CD arrays used (ITEK CCPD 1728).

  4. Preliminary results of a quantitative comparison of the spectral signatures of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS).

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodechtel, J.; Zilger, J.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    Operationally acquired Thematic Mapper and experimental MOMS-01 data are evaluated quantitatively concerning the systems spectral response and performance for geoscientific applications. Results show the two instruments to be similar in the spectral bands compared. Although the MOMS scanner has a smaller IFOV, it has a lower modulation transfer function performance for small, low contrast features as compared to Thematic Mapper. This deficiency does not only occur when MOMS was switched to the low gain mode. It is due to the CD arrays used (ITEK CCPD 1728).

  5. Designing graphene absorption in a multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared detector

    DOE PAGES

    Goldflam, Michael D.; Fei, Zhe; Ruiz, Isaac; ...

    2017-05-18

    Here, we have examined graphene absorption in a range of graphene-based infrared devices that combine either monolayer or bilayer graphene with three different gate dielectrics. Electromagnetic simulations show that the optical absorption in graphene in these devices, an important factor in a functional graphene-based detector, is strongly dielectric-dependent. Our simulations reveal that plasmonic excitation in graphene can significantly influence the percentage of light absorbed in the entire device, as well as the graphene layer itself, with graphene absorption exceeding 25% in regions where plasmonic excitation occurs. Notably, the dielectric environment of graphene has a dramatic influence on the strength andmore » wavelength range over which the plasmons can be excited, making dielectric choice paramount to final detector tunability and sensitivity.« less

  6. Monitoring vegetation recovery patterns on Mount St. Helens using thermal infrared multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langran, Kenneth J.

    1986-01-01

    The Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption offers an opportunity to study vegetation recovery rates and patterns in a perturbed ecosystem. The eruptions of Mount St. Helens created new surfaces by stripping and implacing large volumes of eroded material and depositing tephra in the blast area and on the flanks of the mountain. Areas of major disturbance are those in the blast zone that were subject to debris avalanche, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and blowdown and scorched timber; and those outside the blast zone that received extensive tephra deposits. It was observed that during maximum daytime solar heating, surface temperatures of vegetated areas are cooler than surrounding nonvegetated areas, and that surface temperature varies with percent vegetation cover. A method of measuring the relationship between effective radiant temperature (ERT) and percent vegetation cover in the thermal infrared (8 to 12 microns) region of the electromagnetic spectrum was investigated.

  7. Designing graphene absorption in a multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared detector.

    PubMed

    Goldflam, Michael D; Fei, Zhe; Ruiz, Isaac; Howell, Stephen W; Davids, Paul S; Peters, David W; Beechem, Thomas E

    2017-05-29

    We have examined graphene absorption in a range of graphene-based infrared devices that combine either monolayer or bilayer graphene with three different gate dielectrics. Electromagnetic simulations show that the optical absorption in graphene in these devices, an important factor in a functional graphene-based detector, is strongly dielectric-dependent. These simulations reveal that plasmonic excitation in graphene can significantly influence the percentage of light absorbed in the entire device, as well as the graphene layer itself, with graphene absorption exceeding 25% in regions where plasmonic excitation occurs. Notably, the dielectric environment of graphene has a dramatic influence on the strength and wavelength range over which the plasmons can be excited, making dielectric choice paramount to final detector tunability and sensitivity.

  8. Retrieval of radiative and microphysical properties of clouds from multispectral infrared measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Saito, Masanori; Tokoro, Yuka; Putri, Nurfiena Sagita; Sekiguchi, Miho

    2016-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of the macroscopic, microphysical, and optical properties of clouds are useful for studying spatial and temporal variations of clouds at various scales and constraining cloud physical processes in climate and weather prediction models. Instead of using separate independent algorithms for different cloud properties, a unified, optimal estimation-based cloud retrieval algorithm is developed and applied to moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations using ten thermal infrared bands. The model considers sensor configurations, background surface and atmospheric profile, and microphysical and optical models of ice and liquid cloud particles and radiative transfer in a plane-parallel, multilayered atmosphere. Measurement and model errors are thoroughly quantified from direct comparisons of clear-sky observations over the ocean with model calculations. Performance tests by retrieval simulations show that ice cloud properties are retrieved with high accuracy when cloud optical thickness (COT) is between 0.1 and 10. Cloud-top pressure is inferred with uncertainty lower than 10 % when COT is larger than 0.3. Applying the method to a tropical cloud system and comparing the results with the MODIS Collection 6 cloud product shows good agreement for ice cloud optical thickness when COT is less than about 5. Cloud-top height agrees well with estimates obtained by the CO2 slicing method used in the MODIS product. The present algorithm can detect optically thin parts at the edges of high clouds well in comparison with the MODIS product, in which these parts are recognized as low clouds by the infrared window method. The cloud thermodynamic phase in the present algorithm is constrained by cloud-top temperature, which tends not to produce results with an ice cloud that is too warm and liquid cloud that is too cold.

  9. Multispectral near-infrared imaging of composite restorations in extracted teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Cooper M.; Co, Katrina U.; Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2014-02-01

    One major advantage of composite restoration materials is that they can be color matched to the tooth. However, this presents a challenge when composites fail and they need to be replaced. Dentists typically spend more time repairing and replacing composites than placing new restorations. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared imaging can be used to distinguish between sound enamel and decay due to the differences in light scattering. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach and exploit differences in light scattering to attain high contrast between composite and tooth structure. Extracted human teeth with composites (n=16) were imaged in occlusal transmission mode at wavelengths of 1300-nm, 1460-nm and 1550-nm using an InGaAs image sensor with a tungsten halogen light source with spectral filters. All samples were also imaged in the visible range using a high definition 3D digital microscope. Our results indicate that NIR wavelengths at 1460-nm and 1550-nm, coincident with higher water absorption yield the highest contrast between dental composites and tooth structure.

  10. Relative dating of Hawaiian lava flows using multispectral thermal infrared images - A new tool for geologic mapping of young volcanic terranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Anne B.; Gillespie, Alan R.; Abbott, Elsa A.; Abrams, Michael J.; Walker, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The weathering of Hawaiian basalts in arid and semiarid environments is accompanied by changes in their thermal infrared emittance spectra. The spectral differences can be measured and mapped with multispectral imaging systems. The differences appear to be related to the degree of development, preservation, and alteration of glassy crusts; the oxidation of iron; and the accretion of silica-rich surface veneers. Because the measurements are quantitative and in image format, they are useful for estimating relative ages in geologic mapping of lava flows. In Hawaii this technique is most diagnostic for distinguishing among sparsely vegetated flows less than 1.5 ka in age.

  11. Angioscopic image-enhanced observation of atherosclerotic plaque phantom by near-infrared multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Nagao, R.; Matsui, D.; Awazu, K.

    2015-02-01

    Spectroscopic techniques have been researched for intravascular diagnostic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque. Nearinfrared (NIR) light efficiently penetrates of biological tissues, and the NIR region contains the characteristic absorption range of lipid-rich plaques. The objective of this study is to observe atherosclerotic plaque using a NIR multispectral angioscopic imaging. Atherosclerotic plaque phantoms were prepared using a biological tissue model and bovine fat. For the study, we developed an NIR multispectral angioscopic imaging system with a halogen light, mercury-cadmiumtelluride camera, band-pass filters and an image fiber. Apparent spectral absorbance was obtained at three wavelengths, 1150, 1200 and 1300 nm. Multispectral images of the phantom were constructed using the spectral angle mapper algorithm. As a result, the lipid area, which was difficult to observe in a visible image, could be clearly observed in a multispectral image. Our results show that image-enhanced observation and quantification of atherosclerotic plaque by NIR multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm is a promising angioscopic technique with the potential to identify lipid-rich plaques.

  12. Multispectral determination of vegetative cover in corn crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between different amounts of vegetative ground cover and the energy reflected by corn canopies was investigated. Low altitude photography and an airborne multispectral scanner were used to measure this reflected energy. Field plots were laid out, representing four growth stages of corn. Two plot locations were chosen-on a very dark and a very light surface soil. Color and color infrared photographs were taken from a vertical distance of 10 m. Estimates of ground cover were made from these photographs and were related to field measurements of leaf area index. Ground cover could be predicted from leaf area index measurements by a second order equation. Microdensitometry and digitzation of the three separated dye layers of color infrared film showed that the near infrared dye layer is most valuable in ground cover determinations. Computer analysis of the digitized photography provided an accurate method of determining precent ground cover.

  13. The Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR): A High Speed, Multispectral, Thermal Instrument Development in Support of HyspIRI-TIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR) is being developed as part of the risk reduction activities associated with the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). The HyspIRI mission was recommended by the National Research Council Decadal Survey and includes a visible shortwave infrared (SWIR) pushboom spectrometer and a multispectral whiskbroom thermal infrared (TIR) imager. Data from the HyspIRI mission will be used to address key science questions related to the Solid Earth and Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems focus areas of the NASA Science Mission Directorate. The HyspIRI TIR system will have 60m ground resolution, better than 200mK noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT), 0.5C absolute temperature resolution with a 5-day repeat from LEO orbit. PHyTIR addresses the technology readiness level (TRL) of certain key subsystems of the TIR imager, primarily the detector assembly and scanning mechanism. PHyTIR will use Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) technology at the focal plane and operate in time delay integration mode. A custom read out integrated circuit (ROIC) will provide the high speed readout hence allowing the high data rates needed for the 5 day repeat. PHyTIR will also demonstrate a newly developed interferometeric metrology system. This system will provide an absolute measurement of the scanning mirror to an order of magnitude better than conventional optical encoders. This will minimize the reliance on ground control points hence minimizing post-processing (e.g. geo-rectification computations).

  14. Spectral Characteristics of Tropical Anvils Obtained by Combining TRMM Precipitation Radar with Visible and Infrared Scanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Jian; Lu, Da-Ren; Fu, Yun-Fei; Chen, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Yu

    2015-06-01

    The spectral characteristics of anvils in tropical areas (25°S-25°N) have been investigated on the basis of data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission's (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) and a visible and infrared scanner (VIRS), from 1998 to 2007. The anvils' vertical structures were captured by TRMM PR and categorized into two subtypes: ice anvils with an echo base of ≥6 km and mixed anvils with an echo base between 3 and 6 km. Visible and infrared signals for the anvils, which are from reflectance at 0.63 and 1.6 μm (hereafter referred to as RF1 and RF2, respectively) and the equivalent brightness temperatures of a black body at 3.7, 10.8, and 12.0 μm (hereafter referred to as TB3, TB4, and TB5, respectively), were derived simultaneously by use of TRMM VIRS. The findings reveal that the normalized frequency distribution (i.e., probability density functions, PDF) of anvil tops and bases have a bimodal distribution whereas that of anvil thickness has a single-peak curve. For visible signals, the PDF distribution of RF1 (RF2) for anvils, mixed anvils, and ice anvils has an approximately symmetric distribution with a tropics-wide averages of 0.74, 072, and 0.80 (0.21, 0.21, and 0.20), respectively. It can be concluded that ice anvils are optically thicker and contain many more ice-cloud droplets at the cloud top than mixed anvils. RF1 of anvils is usually lower over land than over ocean, by ~0.1, whereas RF2 of anvils is usually higher over land than over ocean, by ~0.3. This implies that anvil clouds have thinner optical depth and their cloud tops consist of many more small ice droplets over land than over ocean. For infrared signals, TB4 is regarded as a representative channel. The PDF distribution of TB4 for anvils and mixed anvils is broad, with tropics-wide averages of 229.2 and 232 K, respectively. They contain two peaks and the secondary peak lies at a much lower value. For ice anvils, the PDF distribution of TB4 is a single-peak curve with a

  15. Quantitative evaluation of lipid concentration in atherosclerotic plaque phantom by near-infrared multispectral angioscope at wavelengths around 1200 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a primary cause of critical ischemic diseases like heart infarction or stroke. A method that can provide detailed information about the stability of atherosclerotic plaques is required. We focused on spectroscopic techniques that could evaluate the chemical composition of lipid in plaques. A novel angioscope using multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm for quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques was developed. The angioscope consists of a halogen lamp, an indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera, 3 optical band pass filters transmitting wavelengths of 1150, 1200, and 1300 nm, an image fiber having 0.7 mm outer diameter, and an irradiation fiber which consists of 7 multimode fibers. Atherosclerotic plaque phantoms with 100, 60, 20 vol.% of lipid were prepared and measured by the multispectral angioscope. The acquired datasets were processed by spectral angle mapper (SAM) method. As a result, simulated plaque areas in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms that could not be detected by an angioscopic visible image could be clearly enhanced. In addition, quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque phantoms based on the lipid volume fractions was performed up to 20 vol.%. These results show the potential of a multispectral angioscope at wavelengths around 1200 nm for quantitative evaluation of the stability of atherosclerotic plaques.

  16. The use of thermal infrared images in geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal infrared image data can be used as an aid to geologic mapping. Broadband thermal data between 8 and 13 microns is used to measure surface temperature, from which surface thermal properties can be inferred. Data from aircraft multispectral scanners at Pisgah, California which include a broadband thermal channel along with several visible and near-IR spectral channels permit better discrimination between rock type units than the same data set without the thermal data. Data from the HCMM satellite and from aircraft thermal scanners also make it possible to monitor moisture changes in Death Valley, California. Multispectral data in the same 8-13 micron wavelength range can be used to discriminate between surface materials with different spectral emission characteristics, as demonstrated with both aircraft scanner and ground spectrometer data.

  17. Cloud characteristics over central Amazonia during GTE/ABLE 2B derived from multispectral visible and infrared spin scan radiometer atmospheric sounder observations

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, W.P. ); Schmit, T.J.; Wylie, D.P. )

    1990-09-20

    Multispectral GOES/Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) observations in the carbon dioxide absorption band at 15 {mu}m have been used to calculate diurnal cloud statistics over central Amazonia region for 4 days during the Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (GTE/ABLE IIB). The CO{sub 2} technique calculates both cloud top pressure and effective emissivity from radiative transfer principles. Transmissive clouds that are partially transparent to terrestrial radiation have been reliably separated from opaque clouds in the statistics of cloud cover. A high incidence of transmissive clouds (about 47%) was found on the average. Diurnal characteristics of cloud cover over Amazonia have been linked to convective activity over this region. On days with afternoon convection, an increase in low-altitude opaque clouds was followed by a subsequent increase in high-altitude transmissive clouds.

  18. Observing lowermost tropospheric ozone pollution with a new multispectral synergic approach of IASI infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Juan; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Coman, Adriana; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Liu, Xiong; Cai, Zhaonan; Von Clarmann, Thomas; Spurr, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is currently one of the air pollutants posing greatest threats to human health and ecosystems. Monitoring ozone pollution at the regional, continental and global scale is a crucial societal issue. Only spaceborne remote sensing is capable of observing tropospheric ozone at such scales. The spatio-temporal coverage of new satellite-based instruments, such as IASI or GOME-2, offer a great potential for monitoring air quality by synergism with regional chemistry-transport models, for both inter-validation and full data assimilation. However, current spaceborne observations using single-band either UV or IR measurements show limited sensitivity to ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is the major concern for air quality. Very recently, we have developed an innovative multispectral approach, so-called IASI+GOME-2, which combines IASI and GOME-2 observations, respectively in the IR and UV. This unique multispectral approach has allowed the observation of ozone plumes in the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) over Europe, for the first time from space. Our first analyses are focused on typical ozone pollution events during the summer of 2009 over Europe. During these events, LMT ozone plumes at different regions are produced photo-chemically in the boundary layer, transported upwards to the free troposphere and also downwards from the stratosphere. We have analysed them using IASI+GOME-2 observations, in comparison with single-band methods (IASI, GOME-2 and OMI). Only IASI+GOME-2 depicts ozone plumes located below 3 km of altitude (both over land and ocean). Indeed, the multispectral sensitivity in the LMT is greater by 40% and it peaks at 2 to 2.5 km of altitude over land, thus at least 0.8 to 1 km below that for all single-band methods. Over Europe during the summer of 2009, IASI+GOME-2 shows 1% mean bias and 21% precision for direct comparisons with ozonesondes and also good agreement with CHIMERE model simulations

  19. Optical design for the ATLAS multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damommio, T.; Kuo, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) system is a 15-channel imager for remote sensing applications currently under development at the NASA Stennis Space Center. This paper describes the optical design of the scan head optics, which include the linescan mirror, Dall-Kirkham telescope, collimator, and three spectrometers. The sensor package has a 7.5-inch entrance aperture with a 2.0 mrad ifov, total field of view of 73 degrees, and scan rates adjustable in the range 6-50 rev/sec. The three spectrometers have a modular design for future applications growth. Design and specifications for the telescope, special dichroics, gratings, imaging lenses, and other components for the spectrometers are described. Detector arrays for the three spectrometers, and built-in sources for radiometric calibration, will also be discussed. Finally, results of overall ATLAS systems performance analysis on optical throughput, SNR and NETD are presented.

  20. On-board multispectral classification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewalt, D.

    1979-01-01

    The factors relating to onboard multispectral classification were investigated. The functions implemented in ground-based processing systems for current Earth observation sensors were reviewed. The Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, Return Beam Vidicon, and Heat Capacity Mapper were studied. The concept of classification was reviewed and extended from the ground-based image processing functions to an onboard system capable of multispectral classification. Eight different onboard configurations, each with varying amounts of ground-spacecraft interaction, were evaluated. Each configuration was evaluated in terms of turnaround time, onboard processing and storage requirements, geometric and classification accuracy, onboard complexity, and ancillary data required from the ground.

  1. Plasmonic Photon Sorters and Their Potential for Use in Compact Multispectral Imagers at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    the thermal infrared due to the thermal radiation emitted from uncooled parts of the optics, which must be prevented from reaching the detector ...format HgCdTe focal plane arrays for dual-band long-wavelength infrared detection, Proc. SPIE 7298, 72981Y (2009) [3] Tyo, J. S., Goldstein, D.L...spectral band. This leads to subsampling of the image data cube, with loss of light and loss of information. In the thermal infrared , multiband detectors

  2. Multispectral data compression through transform coding and block quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ready, P. J.; Wintz, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Transform coding and block quantization techniques are applied to multispectral aircraft scanner data, and digitized satellite imagery. The multispectral source is defined and an appropriate mathematical model proposed. The Karhunen-Loeve, Fourier, and Hadamard encoders are considered and are compared to the rate distortion function for the equivalent Gaussian source and to the performance of the single sample PCM encoder.

  3. Spectral Variability among Rocks in Visible and Near Infrared Multispectral Pancam Data Collected at Gusev Crater: Examinations using Spectral Mixture Analysis and Related Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Soderblom, J.; Ming, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rocks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit s Panoramic camera (Pancam) have been analysed using a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) methodology. Scenes have been examined from the Gusev crater plains into the Columbia Hills. Most scenes on the plains and in the Columbia Hills could be modeled as three endmember mixtures of a bright material, rock, and shade. Scenes of rocks disturbed by the rover s Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) required additional endmembers. In the Columbia Hills there were a number of scenes in which additional rock endmembers were required. The SMA methodology identified relatively dust-free areas on undisturbed rock surfaces, as well as spectrally unique areas on RAT abraded rocks. Spectral parameters from these areas were examined and six spectral classes were identified. These classes are named after a type rock or area and are: Adirondack, Lower West Spur, Clovis, Wishstone, Peace, and Watchtower. These classes are discriminable based, primarily, on near-infrared (NIR) spectral parameters. Clovis and Watchtower class rocks appear more oxidized than Wishstone class rocks and Adirondack basalts based on their having higher 535 nm band depths. Comparison of the spectral parameters of these Gusev crater rocks to parameters of glass-dominated basaltic tuffs indicates correspondence between measurements of Clovis and Watchtower classes, but divergence for the Wishstone class rocks which appear to have a higher fraction of crystalline ferrous iron bearing phases. Despite a high sulfur content, the rock Peace has NIR properties resembling plains basalts.

  4. Estimation of cirrus parameters from multispectral measurements in the near-infrared and statements about multilayered clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, Claudio; Bakan, Stephan

    1997-01-01

    During the aircraft campaign EUCREX 94 different missions with the multispectral sensor OVID were flown inside frontal ice cloud systems. This study present estimated effective radii and cloud optical depths from measurements around 1.05 and 1.6 micrometer under the assumption of different particle shapes. The best agreement with independent measurements of other instruments result from the assumption of an irregular polycrystal. The measured effective radii vary between 18 and 46 micrometer which is compatible with published particle size distributions of moderate ambient temperatures between minus 45 and minus 55 degrees Celsius. An additional consideration of spatial features allow the distinction of cloud layers in different altitudes in the atmosphere and perhaps the estimation of cloud parameters from individual layers. This study show an example of such a recognition and discuss the potential for an operational algorithm.

  5. A multispectral sorting device for wheat kernels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A low-cost multispectral sorting device was constructed using three visible and three near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission wavelengths of 470 nm (blue), 527 nm (green), 624 nm (red), 850 nm, 940 nm, and 1070 nm. The multispectral data were collected by rapidly (~12 kHz) blin...

  6. Characterizing tropical forests with multispectral imagery

    Treesearch

    Eileen Helmer; Nicholas R. Goodwin; Valery Gond; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Gregory P. Asner

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral satellite imagery, that is, remotely sensed imagery with discrete bands ranging from visible to shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelengths, is the timeliest and most accessible remotely sensed data for monitoring tropical forests. Given this relevance, we summarize here how multispectral imagery can help characterize tropical forest attributes of widespread...

  7. Prototype active scanner for nighttime oil spill mapping and classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandness, G. A.; Ailes, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype, active, aerial scanner system was constructed for nighttime water pollution detection and nighttime multispectral imaging of the ground. An arc lamp was used to produce the transmitted light and four detector channels provided a multispectral measurement capability. The feasibility of the design concept was demonstrated by laboratory and flight tests of the prototype system.

  8. Measurements of short-term thermal responses of coniferous forest canopies using thermal scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, J. C.; Holbo, H. R.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were collected over a coniferous forest in western Oregon. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air temperature and moisture provided inputs to LOWTRAN6 for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Surface temperature differences measured by the TIMS over time between flight lines were combined with surface radiative energy balance estimates to develop thermal response numbers (TRN). These numbers characterized the thermal response of the diffent surface types. Barren surfaces had the lowest TRN, whereas the forested surfaces had the highest.

  9. Gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kevin H.; Crollett, Seferino; Henson, Tammy D.; Napier, Matthew; Stromberg, Peter G.

    2016-01-26

    A gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method is described herein. In an general embodiment, the gimbaled multispectral imaging system has a cross support that defines a first gimbal axis and a second gimbal axis, wherein the cross support is rotatable about the first gimbal axis. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system comprises a telescope that fixed to an upper end of the cross support, such that rotation of the cross support about the first gimbal axis causes the tilt of the telescope to alter. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system includes optics that facilitate on-gimbal detection of visible light and off-gimbal detection of infrared light.

  10. Scanner Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  11. Scanner Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  12. Inframetrics infrared scanner upgraded to a 12-bit digital thermography system for heat load measurements at nuclear fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, T.

    1999-01-01

    A commercially available Inframetrics Scanner (Modell 760) has been upgraded to 12-bit resolution in order to derive heat fluxes on tokamak devices (TEXTOR-94). The temperature resolution is high enough to detect—at the same camera settings—the small sawtoothing heat flux modulation and the large disruptive heat fluxes. Eight new boards have been developed and installed at TEXTOR-94 to perform the measurement, transmit the data from the experiment to the control room, and store the data in a PC. To ensure reliable data transmission, the data stream (1.1 MSPS) is transferred via optical fibers from the camera to the PC in the control room. The PC receives timing information from the TEXTOR-94 timing system such that a synchronization of the camera clock and the experimental clock is guaranteed. The new system includes a time reference to correct a small frequency drift of the original Inframetrics scanner. This feature permits to compare the heat flux with signals from other TEXTOR-94 diagnostics during fast events like disruptions for which the camera can also be operated in the fast line scan mode.

  13. Use of Vis-SWIR imagery to aid atmospheric correction of multispectral and hyperspectral thermal infrared TIR imagery: The TIR model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruninger, John H.; Fox, Marsha J.; Lee, Jamine; Ratkowski, Anthony J.; Hoke, Michael L.

    2002-11-01

    The atmospheric correction of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery involves the combined tasks of separation of atmospheric transmittance, downwelling flux and upwelling radiance from the surface material spectral emissivity and temperature. The problem is ill posed and is thus hampered by spectral ambiguity among several possible feasible combinations of atmospheric temperature, constituent profiles, and surface material emissivities and temperatures. For many materials, their reflectance spectra in the Vis-SWIR provide a means of identification or at least classification into generic material types, vegetation, soil, etc. If Vis-SWIR data can be registered to TIR data or collected simultaneously as in sensors like the MASTER sensor, then the additional information on material type can be utilized to help lower the ambiguities in the TIR data. If the Vis-SWIR and TIR are collected simultaneously the water column amounts obtained form the atmospheric correction of the Vis-SWIR can also be utilized in reducing the ambiguity in the atmospheric quantities. The TIR atmospheric correction involves expansions in atmospheric and material emissivity basis sets. The method can be applied to hyperspectral and ultraspectral data, however it is particularly useful for multispectral TIR, where spectral smoothness techniques cannot be readily applied. The algorithm is described, and the approach applied to a MASTER sensor data set.

  14. Infrared image processing devoted to thermal non-contact characterization-Applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation, Microfluidics and 2D source term distribution for multispectral tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batsale, Jean-Christophe; Pradere, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The cost of IR cameras is more and more decreasing. Beyond the preliminary calibration step and the global instrumentation, the infrared image processing is then one of the key step for achieving in very broad domains. Generally the IR images are coming from the transient temperature field related to the emission of a black surface in response to an external or internal heating (active IR thermography). The first applications were devoted to the so called thermal Non-Destructive Evaluation methods by considering a thin sample and 1D transient heat diffusion through the sample (transverse diffusion). With simplified assumptions related to the transverse diffusion, the in-plane diffusion and transport phenomena can be also considered. A general equation can be applied in order to balance the heat transfer at the pixel scale or between groups of pixels in order to estimate several fields of thermophysical properties (heterogeneous field of in-plane diffusivity, flow distributions, source terms). There is a lot of possible strategies to process the space and time distributed big amount of data (previous integral transformation of the images, compression, elimination of the non useful areas...), generally based on the necessity to analyse the derivative versus space and time of the temperature field. Several illustrative examples related to the Non-Destructive Evaluation of heterogeneous solids, the thermal characterization of chemical reactions in microfluidic channels and the design of systems for multispectral tomography, will be presented.

  15. Multispectral measurement of contrast in tissue-mimicking phantoms in near-infrared spectral range of 650 to 1600 nm

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Daniel; Zhang, Hairong; Kim, David M.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. In order to identify the optimal imaging conditions for the highest spatial contrast in biological tissue, we explored the properties of a tissue-mimicking phantom as a function of the wavelengths in a broad range of near-infrared spectra (650 to 1600 nm). Our customized multispectral hardware, which featured a scanning transmission microscope and imaging spectrographs equipped with silicon and InGaAs charge-coupled diode array detectors, allowed for direct comparison of the Michelson contrast obtained from a phantom composed of a honeycomb grid, Intralipid, and India ink. The measured contrast depended on the size of the grid, luminance, and the wavelength of measurements. We demonstrated that at low thickness of the phantom, a reasonable contrast of the objects can be achieved at any wavelength between 700 and 1400 nm and between 1500 and 1600 nm. At larger thicknesses, such contrast can be achieved mostly between 1200 and 1350 nm. These results suggest that distinguishing biological features in deep tissue and developing contrast agents for in vivo may benefit from imaging in this spectral range. PMID:25104414

  16. MEDUSA: an airborne multispectral oil spill detection and characterization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Peter; Hengstermann, Theo; Zielinski, Oliver

    2000-12-01

    MEDUSA is a sensor network, consisting of and effectively combining a variety of different remote sensing instruments. Installed in 1998 it is operationally used in a maritime surveillance aircraft maintained by the German Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing. On one hand routine oil pollution monitoring with remote sensing equipment like Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR), Infrared/Ultraviolet Line Scanner (IR/UV line scanner), Microwave Radiometer (MWR), Imaging Airborne Laserfluorosensor (IALFS) and Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) requires a complex network and communication structure to be operated by a single operator. On the other hand the operation of such a variety of sensors on board of one aircraft provides an excellent opportunity to establish new concepts of integrated sensor fusion and data evaluation. In this work a general survey of the German surveillance aircraft instrumentation is given and major features of the sensor package as well as advantages of the design and architecture are presented. Results from routine operation over North and Baltic Sea are shown to illustrate the successful application of MEDUSA in maritime patrol of oil slicks and polluters. Recently the combination of the different sensor results towards one multispectral information has met with increasing interest. Thus new application fields and parameter sets could be derived, like oceanography or river flood management. The basic concepts and first results in the fusion of sensoric information will conclude the paper.

  17. Multispectral analysis of limestone, dolomite, and granite, Mill Creek, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Watson, K.

    1970-01-01

    Spectral reflectance and thermal emission data were collected at the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site during NASA missions 132 and 133 in June 1970. The data were collected by three aircraft flown several times during the diurnal cycle at altitudes of 150 to 17,000 m above mean terrain. Reflectance of the main rock types (limestone, dolomite, and granite) was determined from the data collected using a 12-channel multispectral scanner during mission 133 and from thermal infrared images recorded during mission 132 on an RS-7 scanner from 17,000 m above terrain. A preliminary rock recognition map was generated automatically using data collected from 900 m above terrain. The discrimination provided by the map is reasonably accurate. Misidentification occurred in areas of unusually high dolomite reflectivity. High altitude thermal infrared (10 to 12 micrometers) images show regional folds and faults distinguished by the presence of thermally contrasting materials. Linear and curvilinear structural features two to three times smaller than the nominal 17 m resolution could be detected.

  18. Multispectral Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Model II Multispectral Camera is an advanced aerial camera that provides optimum enhancement of a scene by recording spectral signatures of ground objects only in narrow, preselected bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its photos have applications in such areas as agriculture, forestry, water pollution investigations, soil analysis, geologic exploration, water depth studies and camouflage detection. The target scene is simultaneously photographed in four separate spectral bands. Using a multispectral viewer, such as their Model 75 Spectral Data creates a color image from the black and white positives taken by the camera. With this optical image analysis unit, all four bands are superimposed in accurate registration and illuminated with combinations of blue green, red, and white light. Best color combination for displaying the target object is selected and printed. Spectral Data Corporation produces several types of remote sensing equipment and also provides aerial survey, image processing and analysis and number of other remote sensing services.

  19. Theoretical design and material growth of Type-II Antimonide-based superlattices for multi-spectral infrared detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Anh Minh

    Infrared detectors find applications in many aspects of life, from night vision, target tracking for homeland security and defense, non-destructive failure detection in industry, chemical sensing in medicine, and free-space communication. Currently, the dominant technologies of photodetectors based upon HgCdTe and InSb are experiencing many limitations. Under this circumstance, the Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices which have been intensively studied recently appear to be an excellent candidate to give breakthroughs in the infrared technology. The Type-II SLs with theirs advantages such as great flexibility in bandgap engineering, high carrier effective mass, Auger recombination suppression and high uniformity have shown excellent device performance from MWIR to VLWIR. In the era of the third generation for infrared cameras, Type-II SLs are entering the new phase of development with high performance and multi-spectral detection. The goal of this work is to investigate quantum properties of the superlattice system, design appropriate device architectures and experimentally fabricate infrared detectors which can push further the limit of this material system and outperform existing competing technologies. The binary-binary InAs/GaSb superlattice has gone through much transformation over the years. Incorporating compounds lattice matched to the 6.1A family has invited more possibilities to band engineer the Type-II SLs. For the first time, by employing all three members of this material system, we have designed a new superlattice structure and demonstrated shortwavelength infrared (SWIR) photodiodes based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb with high electrical and optical performance. The photodiodes exhibited a quantum efficiency of 60% with very low dark current, can be operated at room temperature. In addition to the range of MWIR to VLWIR, a new channel of detection has been added to the GaSb based type-II SL material system. The new realization of SWIR photodiodes has

  20. Design and performance of 4 x 5120-element visible and 2 x 2560-element shortwave infrared multispectral focal planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, J. R.; Cope, A. D.; Pellon, L. E.; Mccarthy, B. M.; Strong, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Two solid-state sensors for use in remote sensing instruments operating in the pushbroom mode are examined. The design and characteristics of the visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) device and the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) device are described. The VIS/NIR is a CCD imager with four parallel sensor lines, each 1024 pixel long; the chip design and filter system of the VIS/NIR are studied. The performance of the VIS/NIR sensor with mask and its system performance are measured. The SWIR is a dual-band line imager consisting of palladium silicide Schottky-barrier detectors coupled to CCD multiplexers; the performance of the device is analyzed. The substrate materials and layout designs used to assemble the 4 x 5120-element VIS/NIR array and the 2 x 2560-element SWIR array are discussed, and the planarity of the butted arrays are verified using a profilometer. The optical and electrical characteristics, and the placement and butting accuracy of the arrays are evaluated. It is noted that the arrays met or exceed their expected performance.

  1. Visualizing the size, shape, morphology, and localized surface plasmon resonance of individual gold nanoshells by near-infrared multispectral imaging microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mejac, Irena; Bryan, William W; Lee, T Randall; Tran, Chieu D

    2009-08-15

    We have successfully utilized the newly developed near-infrared multispectral imaging (NIR-MSI) microscope to observe and measure directly the localized surface plasmon absorption (LSPR) of individual gold nanoshells. The NIR-MSI is suited for this task because it can simultaneously record spectral and spatial information of a sample with high sensitivity (single pixel resolution) and high spatial resolution (approximately 0.9 microm/pixel). Importantly, the LSPR of individual nanoshells measured by the NIR-MSI microscope agrees well with the spectra calculated theoretically using Mie scattering for the nanoshells (i.e., nanoshells with silica cores approximately 800 nm in diameter and gold shell thicknesses of approximately 35 nm). Additionally, the NIR-MSI microscope enables measurement of LSPR at different positions within a single nanoshell. LSPR spectra were found to be distinct at various positions within a single nanoshell. Since LSPR spectra are known to depend on the shape and morphology of the nanoshells, these results seem to suggest that the individual nanoshells are not smooth and well-defined, but are rather rough and inhomogeneous. The LSPR spectra of single nanoshells in several different solvents were also examined using NIR-MSI and were found to depend on the dielectric constant of the medium. However, the relationship was discovered to be more complex than simply following the Drude equation. Specifically, when (lambda(max)/fwhm)(2) values of LSPR for single gold nanoshells were plotted as a function of 2n(2) (or 2epsilon) for nanoshells in six different solvents, a linear relationship was found for only three solvents: D(2)O, acetonitrile-d(3), and ethyl acetate. Acetone-d(6) showed a slight deviation, whereas formamide and pyridine-d(5) exhibited distinctly different correlations.

  2. Measuring the spatial variation in surface moisture on a coastal beach with an infra-red terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Yvonne; Donker, Jasper; Ruessink, Gerben

    2016-04-01

    Coastal sand dunes provide essential protection against marine flooding. Consequently, dune erosion during severe storms has been studied intensively, resulting in well-developed erosion models for use in scientific and applied projects. Nowadays there is growing awareness that similarly advanced knowledge on dune recovery and growth is needed to predict future dune development. For this reason, aeolian sand transport from the beach into the dunes has to be investigated thoroughly. Surface moisture is a major factor limiting aeolian transport on sandy beaches. By increasing the velocity threshold for sediment entrainment, pick-up rates reduce and the fetch length increases. Conventional measurement techniques cannot adequately characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of surface moisture content required to study the effects on aeolian transport. Here we present a new method for detecting surface moisture at high temporal and spatial resolution using the RIEGL VZ-400 terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Because this TLS operates at a wavelength near a water absorption band (1550 nm), TLS reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface soil moisture over its full range. Three days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Gravimetric soil moisture samples were used to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal a robust negative relation for the full range of possible surface moisture contents (0% - 25%). This relation holds to about 80 m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O(106-107) data points, which we averaged into soil moisture maps with a 0.25x0.25 m resolution. This grid size largely removes small moisture disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale trends. As the next step in our research, we will analyze the obtained maps to determine which processes affect the spatial and

  3. Cylindrical Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Thomas E.

    1999-04-29

    The CS system is designed to provide a very fast imaging system in order to search for weapons on persons in an airport environment. The Cylindrical Scanner moves a vertical transceiver array rapidly around a person standing stationary. The software can be segmented in to three specific tasks. The first task is data acquisition and scanner control. At the operator's request, this task commands the scanner to move and the radar transceiver array to send data to the computer system in a known and well-ordered manner. The array is moved over the complete aperture in 10 to 12 seconds. At the completion of the array movement the second software task automatically reconstructs the high-resolution image from the radar data utilizing the integrated DSP boards. The third task displays the resulting images, as they become available, to the computer screen for user review and analysis.

  4. Computer-aided analysis of Skylab scanner data for land use mapping, forestry and water resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Skylab data were obtained over a mountainous test site containing a complex association of cover types and rugged topography. The application of computer-aided analysis techniques to the multispectral scanner data produced a number of significant results. Techniques were developed to digitally overlay topographic data (elevation, slope, and aspect) onto the S-192 MSS data to provide a method for increasing the effectiveness and accuracy of computer-aided analysis techniques for cover type mapping. The S-192 MSS data were analyzed using computer techniques developed at Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing (LARS), Purdue University. Land use maps, forest cover type maps, snow cover maps, and area tabulations were obtained and evaluated. These results compared very well with information obtained by conventional techniques. Analysis of the spectral characteristics of Skylab data has conclusively proven the value of the middle infrared portion of the spectrum (about 1.3-3.0 micrometers), a wavelength region not previously available in multispectral satellite data.

  5. Estimating nocturnal opaque ice cloud optical depth from MODIS multispectral infrared radiances using a neural network method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Hong, Gang; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Smith, William L.; Chen, Yan; Miller, Steven D.

    2016-05-01

    Retrieval of ice cloud properties using IR measurements has a distinct advantage over the visible and near-IR techniques by providing consistent monitoring regardless of solar illumination conditions. Historically, the IR bands at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm have been used to infer ice cloud parameters by various methods, but the reliable retrieval of ice cloud optical depth τ is limited to nonopaque cirrus with τ < 8. The Ice Cloud Optical Depth from Infrared using a Neural network (ICODIN) method is developed in this paper by training Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiances at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm against CloudSat-estimated τ during the nighttime using 2 months of matched global data from 2007. An independent data set comprising observations from the same 2 months of 2008 was used to validate the ICODIN. One 4-channel and three 3-channel versions of the ICODIN were tested. The training and validation results show that IR channels can be used to estimate ice cloud τ up to 150 with correlations above 78% and 69% for all clouds and only opaque ice clouds, respectively. However, τ for the deepest clouds is still underestimated in many instances. The corresponding RMS differences relative to CloudSat are ~100 and ~72%. If the opaque clouds are properly identified with the IR methods, the RMS differences in the retrieved optical depths are ~62%. The 3.7 µm channel appears to be most sensitive to optical depth changes but is constrained by poor precision at low temperatures. A method for estimating total optical depth is explored for estimation of cloud water path in the future. Factors affecting the uncertainties and potential improvements are discussed. With improved techniques for discriminating between opaque and semitransparent ice clouds, the method can ultimately improve cloud property monitoring over the entire diurnal cycle.

  6. Ice cloud properties in ice-over-water cloud systems using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) visible and infrared scanner and TRMM Microwave Imager data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Yi, Yuhong; Arduini, Robert F.; Fan, Tai-Fang; Ayers, J. Kirk; Mace, Gerald G.

    2007-03-01

    A multilayered cloud retrieval system (MCRS) is updated and used to estimate ice water path in maritime ice-over-water clouds using Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) measurements acquired over the Tropics between January and August 1998. Lookup tables of top-of-atmosphere 0.65-μm reflectance are developed for ice-over-water cloud systems using radiative transfer calculations for various combinations of ice-over-water cloud layers. The liquid and ice water paths, LWP and IWP, respectively, are determined with the MCRS using these lookup tables with a combination of microwave (MW), visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) data. LWP, determined directly from the TMI MW data, is used to define the lower-level cloud properties to select the proper lookup table. The properties of the upper-level ice clouds, such as optical depth and effective size, are then derived using the Visible-Infrared Solar-infrared Split-Window technique (VISST), which matches the VIRS IR, 3.9 μm, and VIS data to the multilayer cloud lookup table reflectances and a set of emittance parameterizations. Initial comparisons with surface-based radar retrievals suggest that this enhanced MCRS can significantly improve the accuracy and decrease the IWP in overlapped clouds by 42 and 13% compared to using the single-layer VISST and an earlier simplified MW-VIS-IR (MVI) differencing method, respectively, for ice-over-water cloud systems. The tropical distribution of ice-over-water clouds is the same as derived earlier from combined TMI and VIRS data, but the new values of IWP and optical depth are slightly larger than the older MVI values and exceed those of single-layered clouds by 7 and 11%, respectively. The mean IWP from the MCRS is 8-14% greater than that retrieved from radar retrievals of overlapped clouds over two surface sites, and the standard deviations of the differences are similar to those for single-layered clouds. Examples of

  7. Anatomical co-registration using spatio-temporal features of a non-contact near-infrared optical scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Jean; Rodriguez, Suset; Velez Mejia, Maximiliano; Clark, Gabrielle; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2014-02-01

    Non-contact based near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging devices are developed for non-invasive imaging of deep tissues in various clinical applications. Most of these devices focus on obtaining the spatial information for anatomical co-registration of blood vessels as in sub-surface vein localization applications. In the current study, the anatomical co-registration of blood vessels based on spatio-temporal features was performed using NIR optical imaging without the use of external contrast agents. A 710 nm LED source and a compact CCD camera system were employed during simple cuff (0 to 60 mmHg) experiment in order to acquire the dynamic NIR data from the dorsum of a hand. The spatio-temporal features of dynamic NIR data were extracted from the cuff experimental study to localize vessel according to blood dynamics. The blood vessels shape is currently reconstructed from the dynamic data based on spatio-temporal features. Demonstrating the spatio-temporal feature of blood dynamic imaging using a portable non-contact NIR imaging device without external contrast agents is significant for applications such as peripheral vascular diseases.

  8. Spatial Calibration Of A Multispectral Data Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bair, M.; Carmer, D.; Beard, J.

    1982-03-01

    A new airborne multispectral scanner system was assembled and installed in a De Havilland DHC4A (Caribou) aircraft. This system was used to collect two sets of imagery; one set for strategic target areas near Sunnyvale, California, and another set for target areas near Rome, New York, during the time period July-November 1978. The imagery was processed and distributed to various researchers for use in studies of advanced scene-matching techniques as part of a program to provide precise autonomous guidance for strategic delivery vehicles. The sensor system produces seven data channels, all in spatial registration-visible, near infrared, thermal infrared, 1.06 μm laser reflectance, 10.6 μm laser reflectance, 95 GHZ radar reflectance and 1.06 μm laser range. All optical channels had a 1.25 mrad field of view and the radar has a 7 mrad two-way antenna beamwidth. The data were digitized and re-corded on a high-density digital magnetic tape recorder along with aircraft altitude from a radar altimeter and aircraft attitude and acceleration data derived from an inertial navigation sensor. A nine-inch format metric camera was boresighted with the sensors and provides additional information on aircraft position through use of inscene surveyed benchmarks. A key feature of the system was the dual-frequency modulated 1.06 μm laser ranging unit that provides absolute range from the aircraft to each pixel in the scene. The range data, the camera photos, and the inertial navigation data all provide inputs for geometrical reformatting of the imagery to remove distortions caused by aircraft motion and reconstruction of imagery either in the original line scan format or a single point-of-view format. The topic of the paper is the calibration aspects of this data base with the major emphasis being placed upon the geometrical reconstruction of the data.*

  9. Unsupervised classification of remote multispectral sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The new unsupervised classification technique for classifying multispectral remote sensing data which can be either from the multispectral scanner or digitized color-separation aerial photographs consists of two parts: (a) a sequential statistical clustering which is a one-pass sequential variance analysis and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. Applications of the technique using an IBM-7094 computer on multispectral data sets over Purdue's Flight Line C-1 and the Yellowstone National Park test site have been accomplished. Comparisons between the classification maps by the unsupervised technique and the supervised maximum liklihood technique indicate that the classification accuracies are in agreement.

  10. Classification by Using Multispectral Point Cloud Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, C. T.; Huang, H. H.

    2012-07-01

    Remote sensing images are generally recorded in two-dimensional format containing multispectral information. Also, the semantic information is clearly visualized, which ground features can be better recognized and classified via supervised or unsupervised classification methods easily. Nevertheless, the shortcomings of multispectral images are highly depending on light conditions, and classification results lack of three-dimensional semantic information. On the other hand, LiDAR has become a main technology for acquiring high accuracy point cloud data. The advantages of LiDAR are high data acquisition rate, independent of light conditions and can directly produce three-dimensional coordinates. However, comparing with multispectral images, the disadvantage is multispectral information shortage, which remains a challenge in ground feature classification through massive point cloud data. Consequently, by combining the advantages of both LiDAR and multispectral images, point cloud data with three-dimensional coordinates and multispectral information can produce a integrate solution for point cloud classification. Therefore, this research acquires visible light and near infrared images, via close range photogrammetry, by matching images automatically through free online service for multispectral point cloud generation. Then, one can use three-dimensional affine coordinate transformation to compare the data increment. At last, the given threshold of height and color information is set as threshold in classification.

  11. Analysis of simulated multispectral data from earth resources satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. A.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Scheel, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    The validity of the applicability assumption was determined through the simulation of ERTS and Skylab data using available aircraft scanner systems. The research techniques compared aircraft multispectral scanner data obtained under nominal conditions at low altitudes. Maximum likelihood decision criteria algorithms implemented on a digital computer were used to classify training set data. Comparisons between percentages of correct classifications were made, along with implications as to the techniques of satellite analysis.

  12. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  13. Multi-spectral Infrared Photodetectors and Focal Plane Arrays based on Band-engineered Type-II Indium-Arsenic / Gallium-Antimony Superlattices and its Variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Edward Kwei-wei

    designs used in LWIR detectors were more "resistant" to the surface traps generated from the optimized ICP etching developed, than higher bandgap superlattices from the SWIR to the MWIR. Empirical evidence suggests that such a phenomenon could be explained through relative surface trap positions to the Fermi level, as well as to the conduction and valence band-edges of the designed superlattice. From an optical standpoint, high quantum efficiencies demand thick active regions and therefore high aspect ratio trenches to be defined in the semiconductor in order to preserve the optical detector volume or fill factor. Etched trenches as deep as 12microm and roughly 3microm in width have been demonstrated. These achievements provide the foundation for focal plane array development, especially for multi-spectral detectors where multiple p-n junctions are stacked together. Understanding how to etch the superlattice pixel has enabled a wide variety of hybrid IR FPAs to be demonstrated. Prior to multi-color camera development, single color cameras were first evaluated in the MWIR and LWIR. Background limited performances were achieved in both wavelength regimes with temperature sensitivities as low as 9mK (MWIR F#2.3 lens) and 19mK (LWIR F#2.0 lens) where as high as 99% of the pixels were found operable. The milestones achieved and realized make T2SLs a prime candidate for multi-color sensing. As requirements for infrared sensing become more stringent, demanding identification of the object rather than mere detection, imagers sensitive to a single waveband are no longer adequate in some applications. In these scenarios, the ability to see in multiple infrared wavebands through a single aperture camera is indispensable. In this work, dual-band material structures that sense the active SWIR to the passive LWIR were designed in combinations of SWIR/MWIR, MWIR/MWIR, MWIRL/LWIR, and LWIR/LWIR to operate as back-to-back diodes where both bands could either be imaged sequentially or

  14. Development of a multispectral imagery device devoted to weed detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vioix, Jean-Baptiste; Douzals, Jean-Paul; Truchetet, Frederic; Navar, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Multispectral imagery is a large domain with number of practical applications: thermography, quality control in industry, food science and agronomy, etc. The main interest is to obtain spectral information of the objects for which reflectance signal can be associated with physical, chemical and/or biological properties. Agronomic applications of multispectral imagery generally involve the acquisition of several images in the wavelengths of visible and near infrared. This paper will first present different kind of multispectral devices used for agronomic issues and will secondly introduce an original multispectral design based on a single CCD. Third, early results obtained for weed detection are presented.

  15. Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning for Automated Map Updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula

    2016-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and multispectral information is for the first time directly available for 3D ALS point clouds. This article discusses the potential of this new single-sensor technology in map updating, especially in automated object detection and change detection. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from a random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral intensity information is useful for land cover classification, also when considering ground surface objects and classes, such as roads. An out-of-bag estimate for classification error was about 3% for separating classes asphalt, gravel, rocky areas and low vegetation from each other. For buildings and trees, it was under 1%. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral features based on several channels were more useful that those based on one channel. Automatic change detection utilizing the new multispectral ALS data, an old digital surface model (DSM) and old building vectors was also demonstrated. Overall, our first analyses suggest that the new data are very promising for further increasing the automation level in mapping. The multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and intensity images produced from the data do not include shadows. These are significant advantages when the development of automated classification and change detection procedures is considered.

  16. Integration of visible-through microwave-range multispectral image data sets for geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Dietz, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data sets collected during the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) conducted during 1989 in the southwestern U.S. were used to produce thematic image maps showing details of the surface geology. LANDSAT TM (Thematic Mapper) images were used to map the distribution of clays, carbonates, and iron oxides. AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data were used to identify and map calcite, dolomite, sericite, hematite, and geothite, including mixtures. TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) data were used to map the distribution of igneous rock phases and carbonates based on their silica contents. AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) data were used to map surface textures related to the scale of surface roughness. The AIRSAR also allowed identification of previously unmapped fault segments and structural control of lithology and minerology. Because all of the above data sets were geographically referenced, combination of different data types and direct comparison of the results with conventional field and laboratory data sets allowed improved geologic mapping of the test site.

  17. Miniature snapshot multispectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam; Ashe, Philip R.; Tan, Songsheng

    2011-03-01

    We present a miniature snapshot multispectral imager based on using a monolithic filter array that operates in the short wavelength infrared spectral region and has a number of defense and commercial applications. The system is low-weight, portable with a miniature platform, and requires low power. The imager uses a 4×4 Fabry-Pérot filter array operating from 1487 to 1769 nm with a spectral bandpass ~10 nm. The design of the filters is based on using a shadow mask technique to fabricate an array of Fabry-Pérot etalons with two multilayer dielectric mirrors. The filter array is installed in a commercial handheld InGaAs camera, replacing the imaging lens with a custom designed 4×4 microlens assembly with telecentric imaging performance in each of the 16 subimaging channels. We imaged several indoor and outdoor scenes. The microlens assembly and filter design is quite flexible and can be tailored for any wavelength region from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared, and the spectral bandpass can also be customized to meet sensing requirements. In this paper we discuss the design and characterization of the filter array, the microlens optical assembly, and imager and present imaging results.

  18. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    underlying physics. There are now at least six different disciplines that deal with infrared radiation in one form or another, and in one or several different spectral portions of the whole IR range. These are spectroscopy, astronomy, thermal imaging, detector and source development and metrology, as well the field of optical data transmission. Scientists working in these fields range from chemists and astronomers through to physicists and even photographers. This issue presents examples from some of these fields. All the papers—though some of them deal with fundamental or applied research—include interesting elements that make them directly applicable to university-level teaching at the graduate or postgraduate level. Source (e.g. quantum cascade lasers) and detector development (e.g. multispectral sensors), as well as metrology issues and optical data transmission, are omitted since they belong to fundamental research journals. Using a more-or-less arbitrary order according to wavelength range, the issue starts with a paper on the physics of near-infrared photography using consumer product cameras in the spectral range from 800 nm to 1.1 µm [1]. It is followed by a series of three papers dealing with IR imaging in spectral ranges from 3 to 14 µm [2-4]. One of them deals with laboratory courses that may help to characterize the IR camera response [2], the second discusses potential applications for nondestructive testing techniques [3] and the third gives an example of how IR thermal imaging may be used to understand cloud cover of the Earth [4], which is the prerequisite for successful climate modelling. The next two papers cover the vast field of IR spectroscopy [5, 6]. The first of these deals with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the spectral range from 2.5 to 25 µm, studying e.g. ro-vibrational excitations in gases or optical phonon interactions within solids [5]. The second deals mostly with the spectroscopy of liquids such as biofuels and special

  19. Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellar, R. Glenn; Farmer, Jack D.; Kieta, Andrew; Huang, Julie

    2006-01-01

    A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers. Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: (1) in situ mapping of the mineralogy in order to determine whether the desired minerals are present; and (2) nondestructive screening of samples for additional in-situ testing and/or selection for return to laboratories for more in-depth examination. Two of the most powerful identification techniques are micro-imaging and visible/infrared spectroscopy. The design and test results are presented from a compact rugged instrument that combines micro-imaging and spectroscopic capability to provide in-situ analysis, mapping, and sample screening capabilities. Accurate reflectance spectra should be a measure of reflectance as a function of wavelength only. Other compact multispectral microimagers use separate LEDs (light-emitting diodes) for each wavelength and therefore vary the angles of illumination when changing wavelengths. When observing a specularly-reflecting sample, this produces grossly inaccurate spectra due to the variation in the angle of illumination. An advanced design and test results are presented for a multispectral microimager which demonstrates two key advances relative to previous LED-based microimagers: (i) acquisition of actual reflectance spectra in which the flux is a function of wavelength only, rather than a function of both wavelength and illumination geometry; and (ii) increase in the number of spectral bands to eight bands covering a spectral range of 468 to 975 nm.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy for geologic interpretation of TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    1986-01-01

    The Portable Field Emission Spectrometer (PFES) was designed to collect meaningful spectra in the field under climatic, thermal, and sky conditions that approximate those at the time of the overflight. The specifications and procedures of PFES are discussed. Laboratory reflectance measurements of rocks and minerals were examined for the purpose of interpreting Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data. The capability is currently being developed to perform direct laboratory measurement of the normal spectral radiance of Earth surface materials at low temperatures (20 to 30 C) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  1. Mapping variations in weight percent silica measured from multispectral thermal infrared imagery - Examples from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, S.J.; Dmochowski, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Rowan, L.C.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Stock, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Remotely sensed multispectral thermal infrared (8-13 ??m) images are increasingly being used to map variations in surface silicate mineralogy. These studies utilize the shift to longer wavelengths in the main spectral feature in minerals in this wavelength region (reststrahlen band) as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic. An approach is described for determining the amount of this shift and then using the shift with a reference curve, derived from laboratory data, to remotely determine the weight percent SiO2 of the surface. The approach has broad applicability to many study areas and can also be fine-tuned to give greater accuracy in a particular study area if field samples are available. The approach was assessed using airborne multispectral thermal infrared images from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Results indicate the general approach slightly overestimates the weight percent SiO2 of low silica rocks (e.g. basalt) and underestimates the weight percent SiO2 of high silica rocks (e.g. granite). Fine tuning the general approach with measurements from field samples provided good results for both areas with errors in the recovered weight percent SiO2 of a few percent. The map units identified by these techniques and traditional mapping at the Hiller Mountains demonstrate the continuity of the crystalline rocks from the Hiller Mountains southward to the White Hills supporting the idea that these ranges represent an essentially continuous footwall block below a regional detachment. Results from the Baja California data verify the most recent volcanism to be basaltic-andesite. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multispectral palmprint recognition using a quaternion matrix.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%.

  3. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

  4. Testing of Land Cover Classification from Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.; Kupidura, P.; Jełowicki, Ł.

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning provides a new opportunity for airborne data collection. It provides high-density topographic surveying and is also a useful tool for land cover mapping. Use of a minimum of three intensity images from a multiwavelength laser scanner and 3D information included in the digital surface model has the potential for land cover/use classification and a discussion about the application of this type of data in land cover/use mapping has recently begun. In the test study, three laser reflectance intensity images (orthogonalized point cloud) acquired in green, near-infrared and short-wave infrared bands, together with a digital surface model, were used in land cover/use classification where six classes were distinguished: water, sand and gravel, concrete and asphalt, low vegetation, trees and buildings. In the tested methods, different approaches for classification were applied: spectral (based only on laser reflectance intensity images), spectral with elevation data as additional input data, and spectro-textural, using morphological granulometry as a method of texture analysis of both types of data: spectral images and the digital surface model. The method of generating the intensity raster was also tested in the experiment. Reference data were created based on visual interpretation of ALS data and traditional optical aerial and satellite images. The results have shown that multispectral ALS data are unlike typical multispectral optical images, and they have a major potential for land cover/use classification. An overall accuracy of classification over 90% was achieved. The fusion of multi-wavelength laser intensity images and elevation data, with the additional use of textural information derived from granulometric analysis of images, helped to improve the accuracy of classification significantly. The method of interpolation for the intensity raster was not very helpful, and using intensity rasters with both first and last return

  5. D Land Cover Classification Based on Multispectral LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Lidar System can emit simultaneous laser pulses at the different wavelengths. The reflected multispectral energy is captured through a receiver of the sensor, and the return signal together with the position and orientation information of sensor is recorded. These recorded data are solved with GNSS/IMU data for further post-processing, forming high density multispectral 3D point clouds. As the first commercial multispectral airborne Lidar sensor, Optech Titan system is capable of collecting point clouds data from all three channels at 532nm visible (Green), at 1064 nm near infrared (NIR) and at 1550nm intermediate infrared (IR). It has become a new source of data for 3D land cover classification. The paper presents an Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach to only use multispectral Lidar point clouds datasets for 3D land cover classification. The approach consists of three steps. Firstly, multispectral intensity images are segmented into image objects on the basis of multi-resolution segmentation integrating different scale parameters. Secondly, intensity objects are classified into nine categories by using the customized features of classification indexes and a combination the multispectral reflectance with the vertical distribution of object features. Finally, accuracy assessment is conducted via comparing random reference samples points from google imagery tiles with the classification results. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most of the land cover types. Over 90% of overall accuracy is achieved via using multispectral Lidar point clouds for 3D land cover classification.

  6. Fourier multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jie; Ni, Chuan; Sarangan, Andrew; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2015-08-24

    Current multispectral imaging systems use narrowband filters to capture the spectral content of a scene, which necessitates different filters to be designed for each application. In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of Fourier multispectral imaging which uses filters with sinusoidally varying transmittance. We designed and built these filters employing a single-cavity resonance, and made spectral measurements with a multispectral LED array. The measurements show that spectral features such as transmission and absorption peaks are preserved with this technique, which makes it a versatile technique than narrowband filters for a wide range of multispectral imaging applications.

  7. Design and fabrication of multispectral optics using expanded glass map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Gibson, Daniel; Nguyen, Vinh; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kotov, Mikhail; Drake, Gryphon; Deegan, John; Lindberg, George

    2015-06-01

    As the desire to have compact multispectral imagers in various DoD platforms is growing, the dearth of multispectral optics is widely felt. With the limited number of material choices for optics, these multispectral imagers are often very bulky and impractical on several weight sensitive platforms. To address this issue, NRL has developed a large set of unique infrared glasses that transmit from 0.9 to > 14 μm in wavelength and expand the glass map for multispectral optics with refractive indices from 2.38 to 3.17. They show a large spread in dispersion (Abbe number) and offer some unique solutions for multispectral optics designs. The new NRL glasses can be easily molded and also fused together to make bonded doublets. A Zemax compatible glass file has been created and is available upon request. In this paper we present some designs, optics fabrication and imaging, all using NRL materials.

  8. Multispectral analysis of ocean dumped materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments conducted in the Atlantic coastal zone indicated that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid wastes and sewage sludge have unique spectral characteristics. Remotely sensed wide area synoptic coverage provided information on these pollution features that was not readily available from other sources. Aircraft remotely sensed photographic and multispectral scanner data were interpreted by two methods. First, qualitative analyses in which pollution features were located, mapped, and identified without concurrent sea truth and, second, quantitative analyses in which concurrently collected sea truth was used to calibrate the remotely sensed data and to determine quantitative distributions of one or more parameters in a plume.

  9. Simulation of multispectral x-ray imaging scenarios by Wien shift optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydegaard, M.; Svanberg, S.

    2010-02-01

    The acquisition of multispectral x-ray images and the treatment of such data are essential for understanding many devices that we encounter in everyday life. Examples include computerized tomography in hospitals and scanners at airports. X-ray devices remain impractical for undergraduate laboratories because of their considerable cost and the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. One way to acquire spectral information and thus constituent-discriminating data in x-ray imaging is to alter the spectral contents of the illuminating x-ray source, which can be achieved by changing the x-ray tube voltage and thus energetically displacing the bremsstrahlung. A similar effect occurs in the emission from a black-body radiator in the optical and infrared regions when altering the temperature. We illustrate how to simulate the x-ray scenario with a webcam and an ordinary light bulb. Insight into how chemical and physical information regarding objects can be obtained in multispectral imaging supported by multivariate analysis is gained.

  10. High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

    1995-01-01

    High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

  11. Crop, soil, and geological mapping from digitized multispectral satellite photography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Kristof, S. J.; Levandowski, D. W.; Phillips, T. L.; Macdonald, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted of digitized multispectral satellite photography to seek answers to the following two questions: what are the data handling problems and requirements of converting photographic density measurements to a usable digital form, and what surface features can be distinguished using multispectral data taken at satellite altitudes. Results include the digitization of three multiband black and white photographs and a color infrared photograph, the conversion of the results of digitization to a useful digital form, and several data analysis experiments. As a whole, they encourage the use of multiband photography as a multispectral data collection instrument.

  12. Crop, soil, and geological mapping from digitized multispectral satellite photography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Kristof, S. J.; Levandowski, D. W.; Phillips, T. L.; Macdonald, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted of digitized multispectral satellite photography to seek answers to the following two questions: what are the data handling problems and requirements of converting photographic density measurements to a usable digital form, and what surface features can be distinguished using multispectral data taken at satellite altitudes. Results include the digitization of three multiband black and white photographs and a color infrared photograph, the conversion of the results of digitization to a useful digital form, and several data analysis experiments. As a whole, they encourage the use of multiband photography as a multispectral data collection instrument.

  13. Multispectral Filter Arrays: Recent Advances and Practical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Wang, Xingbo; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Gouton, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to some technical progress in interferencefilter design based on different technologies, we can finally successfully implement the concept of multispectral filter array-based sensors. This article provides the relevant state-of-the-art for multispectral imaging systems and presents the characteristics of the elements of our multispectral sensor as a case study. The spectral characteristics are based on two different spatial arrangements that distribute eight different bandpass filters in the visible and near-infrared area of the spectrum. We demonstrate that the system is viable and evaluate its performance through sensor spectral simulation. PMID:25407904

  14. LAPR: An experimental aircraft pushbroom scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, S. W.; Irons, J. I.; Heugel, F.

    1980-01-01

    A three band Linear Array Pushbroom Radiometer (LAPR) was built and flown on an experimental basis by NASA at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The functional characteristics of the instrument and the methods used to preprocess the data, including radiometric correction, are described. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument was tested and compared to that of the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner. The radiometric correction procedure was evaluated quantitatively, using laboratory testing, and qualitatively, via visual examination of the LAPR test flight imagery. Although effective radiometric correction could not yet be demonstrated via laboratory testing, radiometric distortion did not preclude the visual interpretation or parallel piped classification of the test imagery.

  15. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  16. Image structure restoration from sputnik with multi-matrix scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremeev, V.; Kuznetcov, A.; Myatov, G.; Presnyakov, Oleg; Poshekhonov, V.; Svetelkin, P.

    2014-10-01

    The paper is devoted to the earth surface image formation by means of multi-matrix scanning cameras. The realized formation of continuous and spatially combined images consists of consistent solutions for radiometric scan correction, stitching and geo-referencing of multispectral images. The radiometric scan correction algorithm based on statistical analyses of input images is described. Also, there is the algorithm for sub-pixel stitching of scans into one continuous image which could be formed by the virtual scanner. The paper contains algorithms for geometrical combining of multispectral images obtained in different moments; and, examples illustrating effectiveness of the suggested processing algorithms.

  17. Synopsis of current satellite snow mapping techniques, with emphasis on the application of near-infrared data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.; Smallwood, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab EREP S192 Multispectral Scanner data have provided for the first time an opportunity to examine the reflectance characteristics of snowcover in several spectral bands extending from the visible into the near-infrared spectral region. The analysis of the S192 imagery and digital tape data indicates a sharp drop in reflectance of snow in the near-infrared, with snow becoming essentially nonreflective in Bands 11 (1.55-1.75 micron) and 12 (2.10-2.35 micron). Two potential applications to snow mapping of measurements in the near-infrared spectral region are possible: (1) the use of a near-infrared band in conjunction with a visible band to distinguish automatically between snow and water droplet clouds; and (2) the use of one or more near-infrared bands to detect areas of melting snow.

  18. Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) snapshot multispectral imager that utilizes the optical transmission characteristics of nanohole arrays (NHAs) in a gold film to resolve a mixture of input colors into multiple spectral bands. The multispectral device consists of blocks of NHAs, wherein each NHA has a unique periodicity that results in transmission resonances and minima in the visible and near-infrared regions. The multispectral device was illuminated over a wide spectral range, and the transmission was spectrally unmixed using a least-squares estimation algorithm. A NHA-based multispectral imaging system was built and tested in both reflection and transmission modes. The NHA-based multispectral imager was capable of extracting 2D multispectral images representative of four independent bands within the spectral range of 662 nm to 832 nm for a variety of targets. The multispectral device can potentially be integrated into a variety of imaging sensor systems. PMID:24005065

  19. Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Carson, Jeffrey J L

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) snapshot multispectral imager that utilizes the optical transmission characteristics of nanohole arrays (NHAs) in a gold film to resolve a mixture of input colors into multiple spectral bands. The multispectral device consists of blocks of NHAs, wherein each NHA has a unique periodicity that results in transmission resonances and minima in the visible and near-infrared regions. The multispectral device was illuminated over a wide spectral range, and the transmission was spectrally unmixed using a least-squares estimation algorithm. A NHA-based multispectral imaging system was built and tested in both reflection and transmission modes. The NHA-based multispectral imager was capable of extracting 2D multispectral images representative of four independent bands within the spectral range of 662 nm to 832 nm for a variety of targets. The multispectral device can potentially be integrated into a variety of imaging sensor systems.

  20. Mapping alluvial fans in Death Valley, California, using multichannel thermal infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, A. R.; Kahle, A. B.; Pallluconi, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    Alluvial fans have been mapped in Death Valley, California using NASA's 8-12 micron six-channel airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS). Both composition and relative age differences were recognized. Age unit boundries are generally consistent with those obtained by conventional mapping. Composition was verified by field investigation and comparison with existing geologic maps. Bedrock and its young derived fan gravels have similar emissivities. The original composition of the fans is modified by differential erosion and weathering, permitting relative age mapping with TIMS.

  1. Mapping alluvial fans in Death Valley, California, using multichannel thermal infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, A. R.; Kahle, A. B.; Pallluconi, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    Alluvial fans have been mapped in Death Valley, California using NASA's 8-12 micron six-channel airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS). Both composition and relative age differences were recognized. Age unit boundries are generally consistent with those obtained by conventional mapping. Composition was verified by field investigation and comparison with existing geologic maps. Bedrock and its young derived fan gravels have similar emissivities. The original composition of the fans is modified by differential erosion and weathering, permitting relative age mapping with TIMS.

  2. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.

    1983-01-01

    The results of an analysis that relates thematic mapper (TM) saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric condition is provided. A revised version of the preprint included with the last quarterly report is also provided for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.

  3. Yield prediction by analysis of multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Suits, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary model describing the growth and grain yield of wheat was developed. The modeled growth characteristics of the wheat crop were used to compute wheat canopy reflectance using a model of vegetation canopy reflectance. The modeled reflectance characteristics were compared with the corresponding growth characteristics and grain yield in order to infer their relationships. It appears that periodic wheat canopy reflectance characteristics potentially derivable from earth satellites will be useful in forecasting wheat grain yield.

  4. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Philip N.; Palmer, James M.

    1986-01-01

    A list of personnel who have contributed to the program is provided. Sixteen publications and presentations are also listed. A preprint summarizing five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations of the solar reflective bands of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper is presented. The 23 band calibrations made on the five dates show a 2.5% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean. A preprint is also presented that discusses the reflectance-based results of the above preprint. It proceeds to analyze and present results of a second, independent calibration method based on radiance measurements from a helicopter. Radiative transfer through the atmosphere, model atmospheres, the calibration methodology used at White Sands and the results of a sensitivity analysis of the reflectance-based approach is also discussed.

  5. Canonical analysis and transformation of Skylab multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Barr, D. M.; Merembeck, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The original transformation matrix, C, had sixteen axes. However, the first three axes contained 98.83% of the variance contained within the transformation. The values for axes one, two, and three were 83.61%, 14.49%, and 0.72%, respectively. The result was an 81.25% reduction in data bulk. It is expected that using transformed data for classification will result in significant reductions in computer cost.

  6. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N. (Principal Investigator); Palmer, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results obtained for the absolute calibration of TM bands 2, 3, and 4 are presented. The results are based on TM image data collected simultaneously with ground and atmospheric data at White Sands, New Mexico. Also discussed are the results of a moments analysis to determine the equivalent bandpasses, effective central wavelengths and normalized responses of the TM and MSS spectral bands; the calibration of the BaSO, plate used at White Sands; and future plans.

  7. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. (Principal Investigator); Slater, P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an analysis that relates TM saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric conditions are reported. The determination of the spectral reflectance at the entrance pupil of the LANDSAT 4 pupil of the thematic mapper is described.

  8. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The effects of the atmosphere on propagating radiation must be known in order to calibrate an in orbit sensor using ground based measurements. A set of model atmosphere parameters, applicable to the White Sands (New Mexico) area is defined with particular attention given to those parameters which are required as input to the Herman Code. The radial size distribution, refractive index, vertical distribution, and visibility of aerosols are discussed as well as the molecular absorbers in the visible and near IR wavelength which produce strong absorption lines. Solar irradiance is also considered.

  9. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The results of analyses of Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired on July 8 and October 28, 1984, and of a check of the calibration of the 1.22-m integrating sphere at Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) are described. The results obtained from the in-flight calibration attempts disagree with the pre-flight calibrations for bands 2 and 4. Considerable effort was expended in an attempt to explain the disagreement. The difficult point to explain is that the difference between the radiances predicted by the radiative transfer code (the code radiances) and the radiances predicted by the preflight calibration (the pre-flight radiances) fluctuate with spectral band. Because the spectral quantities measured at White Sands show little change with spectral band, these fluctuations are not anticipated. Analyses of other targets at White Sands such as clouds, cloud shadows, and water surfaces tend to support the pre-flight and internal calibrator calibrations. The source of the disagreement has not been identified. It could be due to: (1) a computational error in the data reduction; (2) an incorrect assumption in the input to the radiative transfer code; or (3) incorrect operation of the field equipment.

  10. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The reduction of the data measured on July 8, 1984 at White Sands, New Mexico is summarized. The radiance incident at the entrance pupil of the LANDSAT 5 sensors have been computed for bands 1 to 4. When these are compared to the digital counts of the TM image, the ground based calibration for this sensor will be given. The image was received from Goddard SFC and is presently being analyzed.

  11. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The eleventh quarterly report on Spectroradiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper (Contract NAS5-27832) discusses calibrations made at White Sands on 24 May 1985. An attempt is made to standardize test results. Critical values used in the final steps of the data reduction and the comparison of the results of the pre-flight and internal calibration (IC) data are summarized.

  12. An analysis of haze effects on LANDSAT multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. R.; Sestak, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Early season changes in optical depth change brightness, primarily along the soil line; and during crop development, changes in optical depth change both greenness and brightness. Thus, the existence of haze in the imagery could cause an unsuspecting analyst to interpret the spectral appearance as indicating an episodal event when, in fact, haze was present. The techniques for converting LANDSAT-3 data to simulate LANDSAT-2 data are in error. The yellowness and none such computations are affected primarily. Yellowness appears well correlated to optical depth. Experimental evidence with variable background and variable optical depth is needed, however. The variance of picture elements within a spring wheat field is related to its equivalent in optical depth changes caused by haze. This establishes the sensitivity of channel 1 (greenness) pixels to changes in haze levels. The between field picture element means and variances were determined for the spring wheat fields. This shows the variability of channel data on two specific dates, emphasizing that crop development can be influenced by many factors. The atmospheric correction program ATCOR reduces segment data from LANDSAT acquisitions to a common haze level and improves the results of analysis.

  13. Investigation of spatial misregistration effects in multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.; Cicone, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A model for estimating the expected proportion of multiclass pixels in a scene was generalized and extended to include misregistration effects. Another substantial effort was the development of a simulation model to generate signatures to represent the distributions of signals from misregistered multiclass pixels, based on single class signatures. Spatial misregistration causes an increase in the proportion of multiclass pixels in a scene and a decorrelation between signals in misregistered data channels. The multiclass pixel proportion estimation model indicated that this proportion is strongly dependent on the pixel perimeter and on the ratio of the total perimeter of the fields in the scene to the area of the scene. Test results indicated that expected values computed with this model were similar to empirical measurements made of this proportion in four LACIE data segments.

  14. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Radiometric measurements were taken on the morning of the LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper overpass. The sky was cloud free and the sites were dry. Barnes multiband radiometer data were collected for a 4 x 4 pixel area and two fractional pixel areas of slightly higher and lower reflectances than the larger area. Helicopter color photography was obtained of all the ground areas. This photography will allow a detailed reflectance map of the 4 x 4 pixel are to be made and registered to the TM imagery to an accuracy of better than half a pixel. Spectropolarimeter data were also collected of the 4 x 4 pixel area from the helicopter. In addition, ground based solar radiometer data were collected to provide spectral extinction optical thickness valves. The radiative transfer theory used in the development of the Herman code which was used in predicting the TM entrance pupil spectral radiances from the ground based measurements is described.

  15. LANDSAT 4 investigations of thematic mapper and multispectral scanner applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the investigation of the quality and performance of LANDSAT 4 TM data is reported. Average mean brightness values were computed for each band and a look-up table was designed to place the values at about 1.0 density on the straight line portion of the film's H and D curve. Manual interpretation of bands 5 and 7 indicated these data to be good sources for determining locations of dugouts and small ponds as water sources.

  16. Multispectral scanner data processing over Sam Houston National Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A.; Kan, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    The Edit 9 forest scene, a computer processing technique, and its capability to map timber types in the Sam Houston National Forest, are evaluated. Special efforts were made to evaluate existing computer processing techniques in mapping timber types using ERTS-1 and aircraft data, and to provide an opportunity to open up new research and development areas in forestry data.

  17. Multispectral vegetative canopy parameter retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borel, Christoph C.; Bunker, David J.

    2011-11-01

    Precision agriculture, forestry and environmental remote sensing are applications uniquely suited to the 8 bands that DigitalGlobe's WorldView-2 provides. At the fine spatial resolution of 0.5 m (panchromatic) and 2 m (multispectral) individual trees can be readily resolved. Recent research [1] has shown that it is possible for hyper-spectral data to invert plant reflectance spectra and estimate nitrogen content, leaf water content, leaf structure, canopy leaf area index and, for sparse canopies, also soil reflectance. The retrieval is based on inverting the SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrary Inclined Leaves) vegetation radiative transfer model for the canopy structure and the reflectance model PROSPECT4/5 for the leaf reflectance. Working on the paper [1] confirmed that a limited number of adjacent bands covering just the visible and near infrared can retrieve the parameters as well, opening up the possibility that this method can be used to analyze multi-spectral WV-2 data. Thus it seems possible to create WV-2 specific inversions using 8 bands and apply them to imagery of various vegetation covered surfaces of agricultural and environmental interest. The capability of retrieving leaf water content and nitrogen content has important applications in determining the health of vegetation, e.g. plant growth status, disease mapping, quantitative drought assessment, nitrogen deficiency, plant vigor, yield, etc.

  18. Remote identification of soil conditions with ratioed multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, T. W.; Dillman, R.; Thomson, F.

    1973-01-01

    Some of the information concerning soils that a multispectral scanner system may provide is discussed, and a practical approach for realizing this potential is suggested. Some reflectance and emittance characteristics of soil surfaces are reviewed, and the feasibility of selectively enhancing contrasts associated with differing soil conditions is demonstrated. The simplicity of the proposed ratio technique, its relative economy, and the compatibility of the image output with conventional survey methods commends it for consideration as an operational method.

  19. Satellite orientation and position for geometric correction of scanner imagery.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    The USGS Mini Image Processing System currently relies on a polynomial method for geometric correction of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data. A large number of ground control points are required because polynomials do not model the sources of error. In order to reduce the number of necessary points, a set of mathematical equations modeling the Landsat satellite motions and MSS scanner has been derived and programmed. A best fit to the equations is obtained by using a least-squares technique that permits computation of the satellite orientation and position parameters based on only a few control points.-from Author

  20. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  1. Galileo multispectral imaging of Earth.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P; Thompson, W R; Greenberg, R; Moersch, J; McEwen, A; Sagan, C

    1995-08-25

    Nearly 6000 multispectral images of Earth were acquired by the Galileo spacecraft during its two flybys. The Galileo images offer a unique perspective on our home planet through the spectral capability made possible by four narrowband near-infrared filters, intended for observations of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere, which are not incorporated in any of the currently operating Earth orbital remote sensing systems. Spectral variations due to mineralogy, vegetative cover, and condensed water are effectively mapped by the visible and near-infrared multispectral imagery, showing a wide variety of biological, meteorological, and geological phenomena. Global tectonic and volcanic processes are clearly illustrated by these images, providing a useful basis for comparative planetary geology. Differences between plant species are detected through the narrowband IR filters on Galileo, allowing regional measurements of variation in the "red edge" of chlorophyll and the depth of the 1-micrometer water band, which is diagnostic of leaf moisture content. Although evidence of life is widespread in the Galileo data set, only a single image (at approximately 2 km/pixel) shows geometrization plausibly attributable to our technical civilization. Water vapor can be uniquely imaged in the Galileo 0.73-micrometer band, permitting spectral discrimination of moist and dry clouds with otherwise similar albedo. Surface snow and ice can be readily distinguished from cloud cover by narrowband imaging within the sensitivity range of Galileo's silicon CCD camera. Ice grain size variations can be mapped using the weak H2O absorption at 1 micrometer, a technique which may find important applications in the exploration of the moons of Jupiter. The Galileo images have the potential to make unique contributions to Earth science in the areas of geological, meteorological and biological remote sensing, due to the inclusion of previously untried narrowband IR filters. The vast scale and near global

  2. Study of multispectral convolution scatter correction in high resolution PET

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, R.; Lecomte, R.; Bentourkia, M.

    1996-12-31

    PET images acquired with a high resolution scanner based on arrays of small discrete detectors are obtained at the cost of low sensitivity and increased detector scatter. It has been postulated that these limitations can be overcome by using enlarged discrimination windows to include more low energy events and by developing more efficient energy-dependent methods to correct for scatter. In this work, we investigate one such method based on the frame-by-frame scatter correction of multispectral data. Images acquired in the conventional, broad and multispectral window modes were processed by the stationary and nonstationary consecutive convolution scatter correction methods. Broad and multispectral window acquisition with a low energy threshold of 129 keV improved system sensitivity by up to 75% relative to conventional window with a {approximately}350 keV threshold. The degradation of image quality due to the added scatter events can almost be fully recovered by the subtraction-restoration scatter correction. The multispectral method was found to be more sensitive to the nonstationarity of scatter and its performance was not as good as that of the broad window. It is concluded that new scatter degradation models and correction methods need to be established to fully take advantage of multispectral data.

  3. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  4. Multispectral imaging probe

    SciTech Connect

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  5. Multispectral imaging probe

    SciTech Connect

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  6. Intelligent multi-spectral IR image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Thomas; Luong, Andrew; Heim, Stephen; Patel, Maharshi; Chen, Kang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Chow, Edward; Torres, Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    This article presents a neural network based multi-spectral image segmentation method. A neural network is trained on the selected features of both the objects and background in the longwave (LW) Infrared (IR) images. Multiple iterations of training are performed until the accuracy of the segmentation reaches satisfactory level. The segmentation boundary of the LW image is used to segment the midwave (MW) and shortwave (SW) IR images. A second neural network detects the local discontinuities and refines the accuracy of the local boundaries. This article compares the neural network based segmentation method to the Wavelet-threshold and Grab-Cut methods. Test results have shown increased accuracy and robustness of this segmentation scheme for multi-spectral IR images.

  7. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF ALKYL AND CHLOROALKYL PHOSPHATES FROM AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multispectral techniques (gas chromatography combined with low and high resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry, low and high resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared mass spectroscopy) were used to identify 13 alkyl and chloralkyl pho...

  8. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF ALKYL AND CHLOROALKYL PHOSPHATES FROM AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multispectral techniques (gas chromatography combined with low and high resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry, low and high resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared mass spectroscopy) were used to identify 13 alkyl and chloralkyl pho...

  9. Focusing laser scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Economical laser scanner assembled from commercially available components, modulates and scans focused laser beam over area up to 5.1 by 5.1 cm. Scanner gives resolution comparable to that of conventional television. Device is highly applicable to area of analog and digital storage and retrieval.

  10. Polygon scanners revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael N.

    1997-07-01

    The demands for increased throughput, pixel density, and format size in the laser beam imaging field continue to challenge opto-mechanical scanning products and the electronics that drive them. The polygon line scanner has superior scan rate and scan efficiency among candidate mechanical scanners but, historically, has had inferior cross- scan and in-scan accuracy. To date, due to cost considerations, these limitations have excluded the polygon scanner from practical use in high resolution, flat field, large format commercial applications. This paper illustrates the tradeoffs among the three most common mechanical scanners; single reflection rotary scanner, resonant galvanometric scanner, and polygon scanner. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the polygon scanner holds the best promise of advancing the state-of-art in reasonable cost, large format, high resolution, flat field imaging once the problems of cross-scan and in-scan errors are reconciled in the design of the system. Also introduced is a polygon scanning system that fulfills the requirements of an advanced flat field, large format line imaging platform.

  11. Optimization of the dust sensor in the Mars MetNet Mission; extension to in situ CO2 concentration and surface temperature measurements by infrared multispectral sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, F.; González, A.; Llopis, A.; de Castro, A. J.; Meléndez, J.; López, F.

    2012-12-01

    Martian atmosphere contains two main mechanisms leading the heat transfer process: CO2 and suspended dust. The flight model (FM) of the current Dust Sensor (DS) of the Mars MetNet Mission has already been fabricated providing only with the ability for measuring the particle size distribution. The optimized DS proposed in this work includes two sub-instruments more for measuring both, CO2 concentration and ground temperature. This DS will allow correlate the particle size distribution of the airborne dust, the CO2 concentration and the ground temperature, in a specific location on the Martian surface. All of these parameters will be measured as an in-situ parameter, giving very valuable information about the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). The scope of the Mars MetNet Mission is to deploy, in successive flights, several tens of mini atmospheric stations on the Martian surface. Infrared Lab in University Carlos III (LIR- UC3M) is in charge of the design and development of the DS, a micro-sensor (mass <100 g and mean power <1W) which scope is the characterization of airborne dust and other parameters of interest in the heat transfer process. The DS detection principle is of MIE scattering wavelength dependence when particle size is similar to that., so the sensor is provided with spectral resolution,. The optimized DS incorporates angular dependence, so the data retrieval algorithm takes both spectral and angular information making the algorithm most robust. The incorporation of new parameters such as CO2 and ground temperature is possible thanks to the addition of new sensor elements, properly spectrally tuned. As in the previous DS each parameter is also measured within the MWIR range and the spectral resolution is provided by a interference filter, specifically designed for.

  12. An algorithm for the estimation of water temperatures from thermal multispectral airborne remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, S.; Quattrochi, D.; Baskin, R.

    1992-01-01

    A method for water temperature estimation on the basis of thermal data is presented and tested against NASA's Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner. Using realistic bounds on emissivities, temperature bounds are calculated and refined to estimate a tighter bound on the emissivity of the source. The method is useful only when a realistic set of bounds can be obtained for the emissivities of the data.

  13. Results of the spatial resolution simulation for multispectral data (resolution brochures)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The variable information content of Earth Resource products at different levels of spatial resolution and in different spectral bands is addressed. A low-cost brochure that scientists and laymen could use to visualize the effects of increasing the spatial resolution of multispectral scanner images was produced.

  14. Tunable Resonant Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagu, Jean I.

    1987-01-01

    The most attractive features of resonant scanners are high reliability and eternal life as well as extremely low wobble and jitter. Power consumption is also low, electronic drive is simple, and the device is capable of handling large beams. All of these features are delivered at a low cost in a small package. The resonant scanner's use in numerous high precision applications, however, has been limited because of the difficulty in controlling its phase and resonant frequency. This paper introduces the concept of tunable/controllable resonant scanners, discusses their features, and offers a number of tuning techniques. It describes two angular scanner designs and presents data on tunable range and life tests. It also reviews applications for these new tunable resonant scanners that preserve the desirable features of earlier models while removing the old problems with synchronization or time base flexibility. The three major types of raster scanning applications where the tunable resonant scanner may be of benefit are: 1. In systems with multiple time bases such as multiple scanner networks or with scanners keyed to a common clock (the line frequency or data source) or a machine with multiple resonant scanners. A typical application is image and text transmission, also a printer with a large data base where a buffer is uneconomical. 2. In systems sharing data processing or laser equipment for reasons of cost or capacity, typically multiple work station manufacturing processes or graphic processes. 3. In systems with extremely precise time bases where the frequency stability of conventional scanners cannot be relied upon.

  15. Aircraft scanner data availability via the version 0 Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) development, NASA and other government agencies have developed an operational prototype of the Information Management System (IMS). The IMS provides access to the data archived at the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) that allows users to search through metadata describing the (image) data. Criteria based on sensor name or type, date and time, and geographic location are used to search the archive. Graphical representations of coverage and browse images are available to further refine a user's selection. previously, the EROS Data Center (EDC) DAAC had identified the Advanced SOlid-state Array Spectrometer (ASAS), Airborne Visible and infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), NS-001, and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) as precursor data sets similar to those the DAAC will handle in the Earth Observing System era. Currently, the EDC DAAC staff, in cooperation with NASA, has transcribed TIMS, NS-001, and Thematic Mapper Simulation (TMS) data from Ames Research Center and also TIMS data from Stennis Space Center. During the transcription process, the IMS metadata and browse images were created to populate the inventory at the EDC DAAC. These data sets are now available in the IMS and may be requested from the any of the DAAC's via the IMS.

  16. The use of four band multispectral photography to identify forest cover types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Four-band multispectral aerial photography and a color additive viewer were employed to identify forest cover types in Northern Alabama. The multispectral photography utilized the blue, green, red and near-infrared spectral regions and was made with black and white infrared film. On the basis of color differences alone, a differentiation between conifers and hardwoods was possible; however, supplementary information related to forest ecology proved necessary for the differentiation of various species of pines and hardwoods.

  17. The conical scanner evaluation system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumella, K. E.; Bilanow, S.; Kulikov, I. B.

    1982-01-01

    The software design for the conical scanner evaluation system is presented. The purpose of this system is to support the performance analysis of the LANDSAT-D conical scanners, which are infrared horizon detection attitude sensors designed for improved accuracy. The system consists of six functionally independent subsystems and five interface data bases. The system structure and interfaces of each of the subsystems is described and the content, format, and file structure of each of the data bases is specified. For each subsystem, the functional logic, the control parameters, the baseline structure, and each of the subroutines are described. The subroutine descriptions include a procedure definition and the input and output parameters.

  18. Automated detection and mapping of crown discolouration caused by jack pine budworm with 2.5 m resolution multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckie, Donald G.; Cloney, Ed; Joyce, Steve P.

    2005-05-01

    Jack pine budworm ( Choristoneura pinus pinus (Free.)) is a native insect defoliator of mainly jack pine ( Pinus banksiana Lamb.) in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. Periodic outbreaks of this insect, which generally last two to three years, can cause growth loss and mortality and have an important impact ecologically and economically in terms of timber production and harvest. The jack pine budworm prefers to feed on current year needles. Their characteristic feeding habits cause discolouration or reddening of the canopy. This red colouration is used to map the distribution and intensity of defoliation that has taken place that year (current defoliation). An accurate and consistent map of the distribution and intensity of budworm defoliation (as represented by the red discolouration) at the stand and within stand level is desirable. Automated classification of multispectral imagery, such as is available from airborne and new high resolution satellite systems, was explored as a viable tool for objectively classifying current discolouration. Airborne multispectral imagery was acquired at a 2.5 m resolution with the Multispectral Electro-optical Imaging Sensor (MEIS). It recorded imagery in six nadir looking spectral bands specifically designed to detect discolouration caused by budworm and a near-infrared band viewing forward at 35° was also used. A 2200 nm middle infrared image was acquired with a Daedalus scanner. Training and test areas of different levels of discolouration were created based on field observations and a maximum likelihood supervized classification was used to estimate four classes of discolouration (nil-trace, light, moderate and severe). Good discrimination was achieved with an overall accuracy of 84% for the four discolouration levels. The moderate discolouration class was the poorest at 73%, because of confusion with both the severe and light classes. Accuracy on a stand basis was also good, and regional and within stand

  19. Systematic monitoring and evaluation of M7 scanner performance and data quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, S.; Christenson, D.; Larsen, L.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide the information required to maintain data quality of the Michigan M7 Multispectral scanner by systematic checks on specific system performance characteristics. Data processing techniques which use calibration data gathered routinely every mission have been developed to assess current data quality. Significant changes from past data quality are thus identified and attempts made to discover their causes. Procedures for systematic monitoring of scanner data quality are discussed. In the solar reflective region, calculations of Noise Equivalent Change in Radiance on a permission basis are compared to theoretical tape-recorder limits to provide an estimate of overall scanner performance. M7 signal/noise characteristics are examined.

  20. Multi-Spectral Cloud Property Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Barbara E.; Lynch, R

    1999-01-01

    Despite numerous studies to retrieve cloud properties using infrared measurements the information content of the data has not yet been fully exploited. In an effort to more fully utilize the information content of infrared measurements, we have developed a multi-spectral technique for retrieving effective cloud particle size, optical depth and effective cloud temperature. While applicable to all cloud types, we begin by validating our retrieval technique through analysis of MS spectral radiances obtained during the SUCCESS field campaign over the ARM SGP CART facility, and compare our retrieval product with lidar and MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) measurement results. The technique is then applied to the Nimbus-4 MS infrared spectral measurements to obtain global cloud information.

  1. Multispectral metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; McCrindle, I J H; Li, C; Cumming, D R S

    2014-03-01

    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a multispectral metamaterial absorber (MSMMA) and show that we can realize a simple absorber structure that operates in the mid-IR and terahertz (THz) bands. By embedding an IR metamaterial absorber layer into a standard THz metamaterial absorber stack, a narrowband resonance is induced at a wavelength of 4.3 μm. This resonance is in addition to the THz metamaterial absorption resonance at 109 μm (2.75 THz). We demonstrate the inherent scalability and versatility of our MSMMA by describing a second device whereby the MM-induced IR absorption peak frequency is tuned by varying the IR absorber geometry. Such a MSMMA could be coupled with a suitable sensor and formed into a focal plane array, enabling multispectral imaging.

  2. Multispectral Internet imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brettel, Hans; Schmitt, Francis J. M.

    2000-12-01

    We present a system for multispectral image acquisition which is accessible via an Internet connection. The system includes an electronically tunable spectral filter and a monochrome digital camera, both controlled from a PC-type computer acting as a Web server. In contrast to the three fixed color channels of an ordinary WebCam, our system provides a virtually unlimited number of spectral channels. To allow for interactive use of this multispectral image acquisition system through the network, we developed a set of Java servlets which provide access to the system through HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests. Since only the standard Common Gateway Interface (CGI) mechanisms for client-server communication are used, the system is accessible from any Web browser.

  3. Galileo multispectral imaging of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Paul; Thompson, W. Reid; Greenberg, Richard; Moersch, Jeff; McEwen, Alfred; Sagan, Carl

    Nearly 6000 multispectral images of Earth were acquired by the Galileo spacecraft during its two flybys. The Galileo images offer a unique perspective on our home planet through the spectral capability made possible by four narrowband near-infrared filters, intended for observations of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere, which are not incorporated in any of the currently operating Earth orbital remote sensing systems. Spectral variations due to mineralogy, vegetative cover, and condensed water are effectively mapped by the visible and near-infrared multispectral imagery, showing a wide variety of biological, meteorological, and geological phenomena. Global tectonic and volcanic processes are clearly illustrated by these images, providing a useful basis for comparative planetary geology. Differences between plant species are detected through the narrowband IR filters on Galileo, allowing regional measurements of variation in the ``red edge'' of chlorophyll and the depth of the 1-μm water band, which is diagnostic of leaf moisture content. Although evidence of life is widespread in the Galileo data set, only a single image (at ~2 km/pixel) shows geometrization plausibly attributable to our technical civilization. Water vapor can be uniquely imaged in the Galileo 0.73-μm band, permitting spectral discrimination of moist and dry clouds with otherwise similar albedo. Surface snow and ice can be readily distinguished from cloud cover by narrowband imaging within the sensitivity range of Galileo's silicon CCD camera. Ice grain size variations can be mapped using the weak H2O absorption at 1 μm, a technique which may find important applications in the exploration of the moons of Jupiter. The Galileo images have the potential to make unique contributions to Earth science in the areas of geological, meteorological and biological remote sensing, due to the inclusion of previously untried narrowband IR filters. The vast scale and near global coverage of the Galileo data set

  4. Spectral band optimization for multispectral fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterhouse, Dale J.; Luthman, A. Siri; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2017-02-01

    Multispectral imaging has the potential to improve sensitivity and specificity in biomedical imaging through simultaneous acquisition of both morphological (spatial) and chemical (spectral) information. Performing multispectral imaging in real time with spectrally resolved detector arrays (SRDAs), for example in endoscopy or intraoperative imaging, requires a direct trade off between spatial and spectral resolution. We sought to quantitatively assess the impact of spectral band selection on contrast agent detection in fluorescence endoscopic imaging. As a proof of concept, we measured the `ground truth' spectra from a dilution series of a single near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent using a spectrometer incorporated into the detection path of our endoscope. We then modeled the influence of an SRDA on these spectra and calculated the theoretical endmembers associated with reflectance and fluorescence signals from the pure contrast agent. To test the accuracy of our model, we incorporated into the same endoscope an off-the-shelf SRDA with a 3x3 filter deposition pattern of 9 spectral bands. After spectral unmixing using the modeled endmembers, the amplitude of the fluorescence recorded with the SRDA compared favorably with the amplitude of fluorescence derived from the `ground truth' spectra recorded with the spectrometer. In the future, this approach could be used to minimize the number of spectral bands required in a given imaging system and hence maximize the spatial resolution of the multispectral camera.

  5. Wavelet-based multispectral face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dian-Ting; Zhou, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Cheng-Wen

    2008-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel wavelet-based face recognition method using thermal infrared (IR) and visible-light face images. The method applies the combination of Gabor and the Fisherfaces method to the reconstructed IR and visible images derived from wavelet frequency subbands. Our objective is to search for the subbands that are insensitive to the variation in expression and in illumination. The classification performance is improved by combining the multispectal information coming from the subbands that attain individually low equal error rate. Experimental results on Notre Dame face database show that the proposed wavelet-based algorithm outperforms previous multispectral images fusion method as well as monospectral method.

  6. Polarimetric Multispectral Imaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L.-J.; Chao, T.-H.; Dowdy, M.; Mahoney, C.; Reyes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a remote sensing technology on which a new generation of compact, lightweight, high-resolution, low-power, reliable, versatile, programmable scientific polarimetric multispectral imaging instruments can be built to meet the challenge of future planetary exploration missions. The instrument is based on the fast programmable acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) of tellurium dioxide (TeO2) that operates in the wavelength range of 0.4-5 microns. Basically, the AOTF multispectral imaging instrument measures incoming light intensity as a function of spatial coordinates, wavelength, and polarization. Its operation can be in either sequential, random access, or multiwavelength mode as required. This provides observation flexibility, allowing real-time alternation among desired observations, collecting needed data only, minimizing data transmission, and permitting implementation of new experiments. These will result in optimization of the mission performance with minimal resources. Recently we completed a polarimetric multispectral imaging prototype instrument and performed outdoor field experiments for evaluating application potentials of the technology. We also investigated potential improvements on AOTF performance to strengthen technology readiness for applications. This paper will give a status report on the technology and a prospect toward future planetary exploration.

  7. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  8. Seeker multispectral atmospheric reentry technology (SMART) window development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, G.; Herman, B.; Morrow, H.; Anderson, W.; Hsu, I.; Stubbs, D.

    1992-05-01

    Seeker Multispectral Atmospheric Reentry Technology (SMART) window development is concerned with the application of innovative technologies to develop an internally cooled window with minimum aperture size for a large field-of-regard (FOR) multispectral seeker installed in an endoatmospheric hypersonic kill vehicle. The window should be very small and lightweight and have a built-in scanner to cover the FOR. The design of such a window requires input from several critical areas, including system requirements, optical design, fabrication of micro-optical components, cooling, optomechanical design, mechanical stress analysis, and flow-field analysis. This paper describes our approach to the development of a SMART window and the current state of our design.

  9. Reassessment of the temperature-emissivity separation from multispectral thermal infrared data: Introducing the impact of vegetation canopy by simulating the cavity effect with the SAIL-Thermique model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the use of multispectral thermal imagery to retrieve land surface emissivity and temperature. Conversely to concurrent methods, the temperature emissivity separation (TES) method simply requires single overpass without any ancillary information. This is possible since TES makes use o...

  10. Multispectral Imaging from Mars PATHFINDER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bishop, Janice L.; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was a mast-mounted instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander which landed on Mars Ares Vallis floodplain on July 4, 1997. During the 83 sols of Mars Pathfinders landed operations, the IMP collected over 16,600 images. Multispectral images were collected using twelve narrowband filters at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) range. The IMP provided VNIR spectra of the materials surrounding the lander including rocks, bright soils, dark soils, and atmospheric observations. During the primary mission, only a single primary rock spectral class, Gray Rock, was recognized; since then, Black Rock, has been identified. The Black Rock spectra have a stronger absorption at longer wavelengths than do Gray Rock spectra. A number of coated rocks have also been described, the Red and Maroon Rock classes, and perhaps indurated soils in the form of the Pink Rock class. A number of different soil types were also recognized with the primary ones being Bright Red Drift, Dark Soil, Brown Soil, and Disturbed Soil. Examination of spectral parameter plots indicated two trends which were interpreted as representing alteration products formed in at least two different environmental epochs of the Ares Vallis area. Subsequent analysis of the data and comparison with terrestrial analogs have supported the interpretation that the rock coatings provide evidence of earlier martian environments. However, the presence of relatively uncoated examples of the Gray and Black rock classes indicate that relatively unweathered materials can persist on the martian surface.

  11. Detection of microspheres in vivo using multispectral optoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Bhutiani, N; Kimbrough, C W; Burton, N C; Morscher, S; Egger, M; McMasters, K; Woloszynska-Read, A; El-Baz, A; McNally, L R

    2017-02-06

    We introduce a new approach to detect individual microparticles that contain NIR fluorescent dye by multispectral optoacoustic tomography in the context of the hemoglobin-rich environment within murine liver. We encapsulated a near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye within polystyrene microspheres, then injected them into the ileocolic vein, which drains to the liver. NIR absorption was determined using multispectral optoacoustic tomography. To quantitate the minimum diameter of microspheres, we used both colorimetric and spatial information to segment the regions in which the microspheres appear. Regional diameter was estimated by doubling the maximum regional distance. We found that the minimum microsphere size threshold for detection by multispectral optoacoustic tomography images is 78.9 µm.

  12. Multispectral photoacoustic microscopy based on an optical-acoustic objective.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rui; Kilroy, Joseph P; Ning, Bo; Wang, Tianxiong; Hossack, John A; Hu, Song

    2015-06-01

    We have developed reflection-mode multispectral photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) based on a novel optical-acoustic objective that integrates a customized ultrasonic transducer and a commercial reflective microscope objective into one solid piece. This technical innovation provides zero chromatic aberration and convenient confocal alignment of the optical excitation and acoustic detection. With a wavelength-tunable optical-parametric-oscillator laser, we have demonstrated multispectral PAM over an ultrabroad spectral range of 270-1300 nm. A near-constant lateral resolution of ∼2.8 μm is achieved experimentally. Capitalizing on the consistent performance over the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared range, multispectral PAM enables label-free concurrent imaging of cell nucleus (DNA/RNA contrast at 270 nm), blood vessel (hemoglobin contrast at 532 nm), and sebaceous gland (lipid contrast at 1260 nm) at the same spatial scale in a living mouse ear.

  13. Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group for Hydrologic Science: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The following working objectives were adopted: (1) define the current state of knowledge concerning the role of multispectral imaging science in hydrology; (2) identify critical areas where gaps in our knowledge limit opportunities for significant improvements in our understanding of the hydrologic processes; (3) evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging sciences as tools to close these gaps in knowledge; and (4) develop guidelines for a series of remote-sensing-based experiments that would help close these gaps in knowledge and, thereby, provide man with the improved scientific base necessary for better utilization of the world's water resource. The resulting documentation is intended to provide guidance for multispectral imaging programs in the hydrologic sciences with special emphasis on the visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths.

  14. Multispectral photoacoustic microscopy based on an optical–acoustic objective

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Kilroy, Joseph P.; Ning, Bo; Wang, Tianxiong; Hossack, John A.; Hu, Song

    2015-01-01

    We have developed reflection-mode multispectral photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) based on a novel optical–acoustic objective that integrates a customized ultrasonic transducer and a commercial reflective microscope objective into one solid piece. This technical innovation provides zero chromatic aberration and convenient confocal alignment of the optical excitation and acoustic detection. With a wavelength-tunable optical-parametric-oscillator laser, we have demonstrated multispectral PAM over an ultrabroad spectral range of 270–1300 nm. A near-constant lateral resolution of ∼2.8 μm is achieved experimentally. Capitalizing on the consistent performance over the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared range, multispectral PAM enables label-free concurrent imaging of cell nucleus (DNA/RNA contrast at 270 nm), blood vessel (hemoglobin contrast at 532 nm), and sebaceous gland (lipid contrast at 1260 nm) at the same spatial scale in a living mouse ear. PMID:26236641

  15. Light fluence correction for quantitative determination of tissue absorption coefficient using multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, Frederic M.; Joseph, James; Tomaszewski, Michal; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2015-07-01

    MultiSpectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) is a fast developing imaging modality, combining the high resolution and penetration depth of ultrasound with the excellent contrast from optical imaging of tissue. Absorption and scattering of the near infrared excitation light modulates the spectral profile of light as it propagates deep into biological tissue, meaning the images obtained provide only qualitative insight into the distribution of tissue chromophores. The goal of this work is to accurately recover the spectral profile of excitation light by modelling light fluence in the data reconstruction, to enable quantitative imaging. We worked with a commercial small animal MSOT scanner and developed our light fluence correction for its' cylindrical geometry. Optoacoustic image reconstruction pinpoints the sources of acoustic waves detected by the transducers and returns the initial pressure amplitude at these points. This pressure is the product of the dimensionless Grüneisen parameter, the absorption coefficient and the light fluence. Under the condition of constant Grüneisen parameter and well modelled light fluence, there is a linear relationship between the initial pressure amplitude measured in the optoacoustic image and the absorption coefficient. We were able to reproduce this linear relationship in different physical regions of an agarose gel phantom containing targets of known optical absorption coefficient, demonstrating that our light fluence model was working. We also demonstrate promising results of light fluence correction effects on in vivo data.

  16. Optimum thermal infrared bands for mapping general rock type and temperature from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Q. A.; Nuesch, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine quantitatively the number and locations of spectral bands required to perform general rock-type discrimination from spaceborne imaging sensors using only thermal infrared measurements. Beginning with laboratory spectra collected under idealized conditions from relatively well characterized, homogeneous samples, a radiative transfer model was employed to transform ground exitance values into the corresponding spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere. Taking sensor noise into account analysis of these data revealed that three 1 micrometer wide spectral bands would permit independent estimators of rock-type and sample temperature from a satellite infrared multispectral scanner. This study, indicates that the location of three spectral bands at 8.1-9.1 micrometers, 9.5-10.5 micrometers and 11.0-12.0 micrometers, and the employment of appropriate preprocessing to minimize atmospheric effects makes it possible to predict general rock-type and temperature for a variety of atmospheric states and temperatures.

  17. Portable biochip scanner device

    DOEpatents

    Perov, Alexander; Sharonov, Alexei; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2002-01-01

    A portable biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips (biochips) is provided. The portable biochip scanner device employs a laser for emitting an excitation beam. An optical fiber delivers the laser beam to a portable biochip scanner. A lens collimates the laser beam, the collimated laser beam is deflected by a dichroic mirror and focused by an objective lens onto a biochip. The fluorescence light from the biochip is collected and collimated by the objective lens. The fluorescence light is delivered to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) via an emission filter and a focusing lens. The focusing lens focuses the fluorescence light into a pinhole. A signal output of the PMT is processed and displayed.

  18. Biochip scanner device

    DOEpatents

    Perov, Alexander; Belgovskiy, Alexander I.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2001-01-01

    A biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips or biochips and method of use are provided. The biochip scanner device includes a laser for emitting a laser beam. A modulator, such as an optical chopper modulates the laser beam. A scanning head receives the modulated laser beam and a scanning mechanics coupled to the scanning head moves the scanning head relative to the biochip. An optical fiber delivers the modulated laser beam to the scanning head. The scanning head collects the fluorescence light from the biochip, launches it into the same optical fiber, which delivers the fluorescence into a photodetector, such as a photodiode. The biochip scanner device is used in a row scanning method to scan selected rows of the biochip with the laser beam size matching the size of the immobilization site.

  19. Processing of multispectral thermal IR data for geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Multispectral thermal IR data were acquired with a 24-channel scanner flown in an aircraft over the E. Tintic Utah mining district. These digital image data required extensive computer processing in order to put the information into a format useful for a geologic photointerpreter. Simple enhancement procedures were not sufficient to reveal the total information content because the data were highly correlated in all channels. The data were shown to be dominated by temperature variations across the scene, while the much more subtle spectral variations between the different rock types were of interest. The image processing techniques employed to analyze these data are described.

  20. Multispectral thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Smith, B.W.; Garrett, A.; Pendergast, M.M.; Kay, R.R.

    1998-12-01

    Many remote sensing applications rely on imaging spectrometry. Here the authors use imaging spectrometry for thermal and multispectral signatures measured from a satellite platform enhanced with a combination of accurate calibrations and on-board data for correcting atmospheric distortions. The approach is supported by physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis, which permits a cost-effective balance between various hardware and software aspects. The goal is to develop and demonstrate advanced technologies and analysis tools toward meeting the needs of the customer; at the same time, the attributes of this system can address other applications in such areas as environmental change, agriculture, and volcanology.

  1. MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER - OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    P. WEBER

    2001-03-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite fills a new and important role in advancing the state of the art in remote sensing sciences. Initial results with the full calibration system operating indicate that the system was already close to achieving the very ambitious goals which we laid out in 1993, and we are confident of reaching all of these goals as we continue our research and improve our analyses. In addition to the DOE interests, the satellite is tasked about one-third of the time with requests from other users supporting research ranging from volcanology to atmospheric sciences.

  2. An empirical study of scanner system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D.; Biehl, L.; Simmons, W.

    1976-01-01

    The selection of the current combination of parametric values (instantaneous field of view, number and location of spectral bands, signal-to-noise ratio, etc.) of a multispectral scanner is a complex problem due to the strong interrelationship these parameters have with one another. The study was done with the proposed scanner known as Thematic Mapper in mind. Since an adequate theoretical procedure for this problem has apparently not yet been devised, an empirical simulation approach was used with candidate parameter values selected by the heuristic means. The results obtained using a conventional maximum likelihood pixel classifier suggest that although the classification accuracy declines slightly as the IFOV is decreased this is more than made up by an improved mensuration accuracy. Further, the use of a classifier involving both spatial and spectral features shows a very substantial tendency to resist degradation as the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased. And finally, further evidence is provided of the importance of having at least one spectral band in each of the major available portions of the optical spectrum.

  3. Analysis of multispectral signatures of the shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastek, Mariusz; Dulski, Rafał; Piątkowski, Tadeusz; Madura, Henryk; Bareła, Jarosław; Polakowski, Henryk

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents some practical aspects of sniper IR signature measurements. Description of particular signatures for sniper shot in typical scenarios has been presented. We take into consideration sniper activities in the open area as well as in urban environment. The measurements were made at field test ground. High precision laboratory measurements were also performed. Several infrared cameras were used during measurements to cover all measurement assumptions. Some of the cameras are measurement-class devices with high accuracy and frame rates. The registrations were simultaneously made in UV, NWIR, SWIR and LWIR spectral bands. The infrared cameras have possibilities to install optical filters for multispectral measurement. An ultra fast visual camera was also used for visible spectra registration. Exemplary sniper IR signatures for typical situation were presented. LWIR imaging spectroradiometer HyperCam was also used during the laboratory measurements and field experiments. The signatures collected by HyperCam were useful for the determination of spectral characteristics of shot.

  4. Digital scanner infrared focal plane technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, M. A.; Malone, N. R.; Harris, M.; Shin, J.; Byers, S.; Price, D.; Vampola, J.

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in finer geometry and technology advancements in circuit design now allow placement of digital architecture on cryogenic focal planes while using less power than heritage analog designs. These advances in technology reduce the size, weight, and power of modern focal planes. In addition, the interface to the focal plane is significantly simplified and is more immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The cost of the customer's instrument after integration with the digital scanning Focal Plane Array (FPA) has been significantly reduced by placing digital architecture such as Analog to digital convertors and Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Inputs and Outputs (I/O) on the Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC).

  5. GIS Meets Airborne MSS: Geospatial Applications of High-Resolution Multispectral Data

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Guber

    1999-07-27

    Bechtel Nevada operates and flies Daedalus multispectral scanners for funded project tasks at the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory. Historically, processing and analysis of multispectral data has afforded scientists the opportunity to see natural phenomena not visible to the naked eye. However, only recently has a system, more specifically a Geometric Correction System, existed to automatically geo-reference these data directly into a Geographic Information (GIS) database. Now, analyses, performed previously in a nongeospatial environment, are integrated directly into an Arc/Info GIS. This technology is of direct benefit to environmental and emergency response applications.

  6. [Nitrogen stress measurement of canola based on multi-spectral charged coupled device imaging sensor].

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Huang, Min; He, Yong

    2006-09-01

    Site-specific variable nitrogen application is one of the major precision crop production management operations. Obtaining sufficient crop nitrogen stress information is essential for achieving effective site-specific nitrogen applications. The present paper describes the development of a multi-spectral nitrogen deficiency sensor, which uses three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of crop images to determine the nitrogen level of canola. This sensor assesses the nitrogen stress by means of estimated SPAD value of the canola based on canola canopy reflectance sensed using three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of the multi-spectral camera. The core of this investigation is the calibration methods between the multi-spectral references and the nitrogen levels in crops measured using a SPAD 502 chlorophyll meter. Based on the results obtained from this study, it can be concluded that a multi-spectral CCD camera can provide sufficient information to perform reasonable SPAD values estimation during field operations.

  7. Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ∼1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

  8. Hybrid dispersion laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Goda, K; Mahjoubfar, A; Wang, C; Fard, A; Adam, J; Gossett, D R; Ayazi, A; Sollier, E; Malik, O; Chen, E; Liu, Y; Brown, R; Sarkhosh, N; Di Carlo, D; Jalali, B

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ∼1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points.

  9. Optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, Tommy L.; Powers, Hurshal G.

    1983-01-01

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

  10. Urban land use mapping by machine processing of ERTS-1 multispectral data: A San Francisco Bay area example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellefsen, R.; Swain, P. H.; Wray, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The study is reported to develop computer produced urban land use maps using multispectral scanner data from a satellite is reported. Data processing is discussed along with the results of the San Francisco Bay area, which was chosen as the test area.

  11. Time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Alexandrine; Gagnon, Marc-André; Jahjah, Karl-Alexandre; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Lagueux, Philippe; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Fréderick

    2015-05-01

    Thermal infrared imaging is a field of science that evolves rapidly. Scientists have used for years the simplest tool: thermal broadband cameras. This allows to perform target characterization in both the longwave (LWIR) and midwave (MWIR) infrared spectral range. Infrared thermal imaging is used for a wide range of applications, especially in the combustion domain. For example, it can be used to follow combustion reactions, in order to characterize the injection and the ignition in a combustion chamber or even to observe gases produced by a flare or smokestack. Most combustion gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) selectively absorb/emit infrared radiation at discrete energies, i.e. over a very narrow spectral range. Therefore, temperatures derived from broadband imaging are not reliable without prior knowledge about spectral emissivity. This information is not directly available from broadband images. However, spectral information is available using spectral filters. In this work, combustion analysis was carried out using Telops MS-IR MW camera which allows multispectral imaging at a high frame rate. A motorized filter wheel allowing synchronized acquisitions on eight (8) different channels was used to provide time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion products of a candle in which black powder has been burnt to create a burst. It was then possible to estimate the temperature by modeling spectral profile derived from information obtained with the different spectral filters. Comparison with temperatures obtained using conventional broadband imaging illustrates the benefits of time-resolved multispectral imaging for the characterization of combustion processes.

  12. Time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Alexandrine; Gagnon, Marc-André; Jahjah, Karl-Alexandre; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Lagueux, Philippe; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Frédérick

    2015-10-01

    Thermal infrared imaging is a field of science that evolves rapidly. Scientists have used for years the simplest tool: thermal broadband cameras. These allow to perform target characterization in both the longwave (LWIR) and midwave (MWIR) infrared spectral range. Infrared thermal imaging is used for a wide range of applications, especially in the combustion domain. For example, it can be used to follow combustion reactions, in order to characterize the injection and the ignition in a combustion chamber or even to observe gases produced by a flare or smokestack. Most combustion gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), selectively absorb/emit infrared radiation at discrete energies, i.e. over a very narrow spectral range. Therefore, temperatures derived from broadband imaging are not reliable without prior knowledge of spectral emissivity. This information is not directly available from broadband images. However, spectral information is available using spectral filters. In this work, combustion analysis was carried out using a Telops MS-IR MW camera, which allows multispectral imaging at a high frame rate. A motorized filter wheel allowing synchronized acquisitions on eight (8) different channels was used to provide time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion products of a candle in which black powder has been burnt to create a burst. It was then possible to estimate the temperature by modeling spectral profiles derived from information obtained with the different spectral filters. Comparison with temperatures obtained using conventional broadband imaging illustrates the benefits of time-resolved multispectral imaging for the characterization of combustion processes.

  13. Multispectral imaging and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    The color accuracy of conventional RGB cameras is not sufficient for many color-critical applications. One of these applications, namely the measurement of color defects in yarns, is why Prof. Til Aach and the Institute of Image Processing and Computer Vision (RWTH Aachen University, Germany) started off with multispectral imaging. The first acquisition device was a camera using a monochrome sensor and seven bandpass color filters positioned sequentially in front of it. The camera allowed sampling the visible wavelength range more accurately and reconstructing the spectra for each acquired image position. An overview will be given over several optical and imaging aspects of the multispectral camera that have been investigated. For instance, optical aberrations caused by filters and camera lens deteriorate the quality of captured multispectral images. The different aberrations were analyzed thoroughly and compensated based on models for the optical elements and the imaging chain by utilizing image processing. With this compensation, geometrical distortions disappear and sharpness is enhanced, without reducing the color accuracy of multispectral images. Strong foundations in multispectral imaging were laid and a fruitful cooperation was initiated with Prof. Bernhard Hill. Current research topics like stereo multispectral imaging and goniometric multispectral measure- ments that are further explored with his expertise will also be presented in this work.

  14. High-contrast subcutaneous vein detection and localization using multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Behrooz, Ali; Morris, Michael; Adibi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Multispectral imaging has shown promise in subcutaneous vein detection and localization in human subjects. While many limitations of single-wavelength methods are addressed in multispectral vein detection methods, their performance is still limited by artifacts arising from background skin reflectance and optimality of postprocessing algorithms. We propose a background removal technique that enhances the contrast and performance of multispectral vein detection. We use images acquired at visible wavelengths as reference for removing skin reflectance background from subcutaneous structures in near-infrared images. Results are validated by experiments on human subjects. PMID:23649005

  15. High-contrast subcutaneous vein detection and localization using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengtao; Behrooz, Ali; Morris, Michael; Adibi, Ali

    2013-05-01

    Multispectral imaging has shown promise in subcutaneous vein detection and localization in human subjects. While many limitations of single-wavelength methods are addressed in multispectral vein detection methods, their performance is still limited by artifacts arising from background skin reflectance and optimality of postprocessing algorithms. We propose a background removal technique that enhances the contrast and performance of multispectral vein detection. We use images acquired at visible wavelengths as reference for removing skin reflectance background from subcutaneous structures in near-infrared images. Results are validated by experiments on human subjects.

  16. Scanner calibration revisited

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calibration of a microarray scanner is critical for accurate interpretation of microarray results. Shi et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 2005, 6, Art. No. S11 Suppl. 2.) reported usage of a Full Moon BioSystems slide for calibration. Inspired by the Shi et al. work, we have calibrated microarray scanners in our previous research. We were puzzled however, that most of the signal intensities from a biological sample fell below the sensitivity threshold level determined by the calibration slide. This conundrum led us to re-investigate the quality of calibration provided by the Full Moon BioSystems slide as well as the accuracy of the analysis performed by Shi et al. Methods Signal intensities were recorded on three different microarray scanners at various photomultiplier gain levels using the same calibration slide from Full Moon BioSystems. Data analysis was conducted on raw signal intensities without normalization or transformation of any kind. Weighted least-squares method was used to fit the data. Results We found that initial analysis performed by Shi et al. did not take into account autofluorescence of the Full Moon BioSystems slide, which led to a grossly distorted microarray scanner response. Our analysis revealed that a power-law function, which is explicitly accounting for the slide autofluorescence, perfectly described a relationship between signal intensities and fluorophore quantities. Conclusions Microarray scanners respond in a much less distorted fashion than was reported by Shi et al. Full Moon BioSystems calibration slides are inadequate for performing calibration. We recommend against using these slides. PMID:20594322

  17. Scanner calibration revisited.

    PubMed

    Pozhitkov, Alexander E

    2010-07-01

    Calibration of a microarray scanner is critical for accurate interpretation of microarray results. Shi et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 2005, 6, Art. No. S11 Suppl. 2.) reported usage of a Full Moon BioSystems slide for calibration. Inspired by the Shi et al. work, we have calibrated microarray scanners in our previous research. We were puzzled however, that most of the signal intensities from a biological sample fell below the sensitivity threshold level determined by the calibration slide. This conundrum led us to re-investigate the quality of calibration provided by the Full Moon BioSystems slide as well as the accuracy of the analysis performed by Shi et al. Signal intensities were recorded on three different microarray scanners at various photomultiplier gain levels using the same calibration slide from Full Moon BioSystems. Data analysis was conducted on raw signal intensities without normalization or transformation of any kind. Weighted least-squares method was used to fit the data. We found that initial analysis performed by Shi et al. did not take into account autofluorescence of the Full Moon BioSystems slide, which led to a grossly distorted microarray scanner response. Our analysis revealed that a power-law function, which is explicitly accounting for the slide autofluorescence, perfectly described a relationship between signal intensities and fluorophore quantities. Microarray scanners respond in a much less distorted fashion than was reported by Shi et al. Full Moon BioSystems calibration slides are inadequate for performing calibration. We recommend against using these slides.

  18. Detection, identification, and classification of mosquito larval habitats using remote sensing scanners in earth-orbiting satellites*

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Richard O.; Maxwell, Eugene L.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Woodzick, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    A method of identifying mosquito larval habitats associated with fresh-water plant communities, wetlands, and other aquatic locations at Lewis and Clark Lake in the states of Nebraska and South Dakota, USA, using remote sensing imagery obtained by multispectral scanners aboard earth-orbiting satellites (Landsat 1 and 2) is described. The advantages and limitations of this method are discussed. PMID:2861917

  19. Multispectral Resource Sampler Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the multispectral resource sampler (MRS) was examined by users in the following disciplines: agriculture, atmospheric studies, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology/oceanography, land use, and rangelands/soils. Modifications to the sensor design were recommended and the desired types of products and number of scenes required per month were indicated. The history, design, capabilities, and limitations of the MRS are discussed as well as the multilinear spectral array technology which it uses. Designed for small area inventory, the MRS can provide increased temporal, spectral, and spatial resolution, facilitate polarization measurement and atmospheric correction, and test onboard data compression techniques. The advantages of using it along with the thematic mapper are considered.

  20. Multispectral imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcello, L. J.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A side-looking radar, installed in a C-46 aircraft, was modified to provide it with an initial multispectral imaging capability. The radar is capable of radiating at either of two wavelengths, these being approximately 3 cm and 30 cm, with either horizontal or vertical polarization on each wavelength. Both the horizontally- and vertically-polarized components of the reflected signal can be observed for each wavelength/polarization transmitter configuration. At present, two-wavelength observation of a terrain region can be accomplished within the same day, but not with truly simultaneous observation on both wavelengths. A multiplex circuit to permit this simultaneous observation has been designed. A brief description of the modified radar system and its operating parameters is presented. Emphasis is then placed on initial flight test data and preliminary interpretation. Some considerations pertinent to the calibration of such radars are presented in passing.

  1. Multispectral remote sensing contribution to land surface evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    The global water cycle is perhaps the most important of all the biogeochemical cycles and evaporation, which is a significant component of the water cycle, is also linked with the energy and carbon cycles. Long-term evaporation over large areas has generally been computed as the difference of precipitation and river runoff. Analysis of short-term evaporation rate and its spatial pattern, however, is extremely complex, and multispectral remotely sensed data could aid in such analysis. Multispectral data considered here are visible and near-infrared reflectances, infrared surface temperature and the 37 GHz brightness temperatures. These observations are found to be not totally independent of each other. A few of their relationships are established and discussed considering physically-based models.

  2. Use of high spectral resolution airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer data for geologic mapping: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrere, Veronique

    1991-01-01

    Specific examples of the use of AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) high spectral resolution data for mapping, alteration related to ore deposition and to hydrocarbon seepage, and alluvial fans are presented. Correction for atmospheric effects was performed using flat field correction, log residuals, and radiative transfer modeling. Minerals of interest (alunite, kaolinite, gypsum, carbonate iron oxides, etc.) were mapped based upon the wavelength position, depth and width of characteristic absorption features. Results were checked by comparing to existing maps, results from other sensors (Thematic Mapper (TM) and TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner)), and laboratory spectra of samples collected in the field. Alteration minerals were identified and mapped. The signal to noise ratio of acquired AVIRIS data, long to 2.0 microns, was insufficient to map minerals of interest.

  3. Investigation on Laser Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, B.

    2004-09-30

    The study and purchase of a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of diverse metrology tasks at SLAC will be covered. Specifications including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution, field of view and more are discussed and the results of field tests and demonstrations by four potential vendors is covered. This will include details on the scanning of accelerator components in a now defunct ring on site and how the instruments compare.

  4. Discrimination techniques employing both reflective and thermal multispectral signals. [for remote sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Richardson, W.

    1973-01-01

    Recent improvements in remote sensor technology carry implications for data processing. Multispectral line scanners now exist that can collect data simultaneously and in registration in multiple channels at both reflective and thermal (emissive) wavelengths. Progress in dealing with two resultant recognition processing problems is discussed: (1) More channels mean higher processing costs; to combat these costs, a new and faster procedure for selecting subsets of channels has been developed. (2) Differences between thermal and reflective characteristics influence recognition processing; to illustrate the magnitude of these differences, some explanatory calculations are presented. Also introduced, is a different way to process multispectral scanner data, namely, radiation balance mapping and related procedures. Techniques and potentials are discussed and examples presented.

  5. Versatile multispectral microscope based on light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Merdasa, Aboma; Jayaweera, Hiran; Ålebring, Jens; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of a novel multispectral microscope, based on light-emitting diodes, capable of acquiring megapixel images in thirteen spectral bands from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The system captures images and spectra in transmittance, reflectance, and scattering modes. We present as examples of applications ground truth measurements for remote sensing and parasitology diagnostics. The system is a general purpose scientific instrument that could be used to develop dedicated simplified instruments with optimal bands and mode selection.

  6. High throughput optical scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Basiji, David A.; van den Engh, Gerrit J.

    2001-01-01

    A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

  7. Multispectral multisensor image fusion using wavelet transforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, George P.

    1999-01-01

    Fusion techniques can be applied to multispectral and higher spatial resolution panchromatic images to create a composite image that is easier to interpret than the individual images. Wavelet transform-based multisensor, multiresolution fusion (a type of band sharpening) was applied to Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral and coregistered higher resolution SPOT panchromatic images. The objective was to obtain increased spatial resolution, false color composite products to support the interpretation of land cover types wherein the spectral characteristics of the imagery are preserved to provide the spectral clues needed for interpretation. Since the fusion process should not introduce artifacts, a shift invariant implementation of the discrete wavelet transform (SIDWT) was used. These results were compared with those using the shift variant, discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Overall, the process includes a hue, saturation, and value color space transform to minimize color changes, and a reported point-wise maximum selection rule to combine transform coefficients. The performance of fusion based on the SIDWT and DWT was evaluated with a simulated TM 30-m spatial resolution test image and a higher resolution reference. Simulated imagery was made by blurring higher resolution color-infrared photography with the TM sensors' point spread function. The SIDWT based technique produced imagery with fewer artifacts and lower error between fused images and the full resolution reference. Image examples with TM and SPOT 10-m panchromatic illustrate the reduction in artifacts due to the SIDWT based fusion.

  8. Multispectral face recognition using non linear dimensionality reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhloufi, Moulay A.; Bendada, Abdelhakim; Batsale, Jean-Christophe

    2009-05-01

    Face recognition in the infrared spectrum has attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Many of the techniques used in infrared are based on their visible counterpart, especially linear techniques like PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis). In this work, we introduce non linear dimensionality reduction approaches for multispectral face recognition. For this purpose, the following techniques were developed: global non linear techniques (Kernel-PCA, Kernel-LDA) and local non linear techniques (Local Linear Embedding, Locality Preserving Projection). The performances of these techniques were compared to classical linear techniques for face recognition like PCA and LDA. Two multispectral face recognition databases were used in our experiments: Equinox Face Recognition Database and Laval University Database. Equinox database contains images in the Visible, Short, Mid and Long waves infrared spectrums. Laval database contains images in the Visible, Near, Mid and Long waves infrared spectrums with variations in time and metabolic activity of the subjects. The obtained results are interesting and show the increase in recognition performance using local non linear dimensionality reduction techniques for infrared face recognition, particularly in near and short wave infrared spectrums.

  9. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  10. Study of a hybrid multispectral processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. E.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    A hybrid processor is described offering enough handling capacity and speed to process efficiently the large quantities of multispectral data that can be gathered by scanner systems such as MSDS, SKYLAB, ERTS, and ERIM M-7. Combinations of general-purpose and special-purpose hybrid computers were examined to include both analog and digital types as well as all-digital configurations. The current trend toward lower costs for medium-scale digital circuitry suggests that the all-digital approach may offer the better solution within the time frame of the next few years. The study recommends and defines such a hybrid digital computing system in which both special-purpose and general-purpose digital computers would be employed. The tasks of recognizing surface objects would be performed in a parallel, pipeline digital system while the tasks of control and monitoring would be handled by a medium-scale minicomputer system. A program to design and construct a small, prototype, all-digital system has been started.

  11. Optical design of athermal, multispectral, radial GRIN lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Andrew M.

    2017-05-01

    Military infrared systems generally must exhibit stable optical performance over a wide operating temperature range. We present a model for the first-order optical design of radial gradient-index systems, based on a form of the thermo-optic glass coefficient adapted to inhomogeneous material combinations. We find that GRIN components can significantly reduce the optical power balance of athermal, achromatic systems, which introduces the scope for a new class of broadband infrared imaging solutions. This novel first-order modelling technique is used to generate a starting point for optimisation of a SWIR/LWIR multispectral optical design.

  12. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 2 data product users' guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed for the remote sensing of ocean color parameters from an earth orbiting space platform. A Technical Manual was designed for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 2 data products. It contains information which describes how the Level 1 data was process to obtain the Level 2 (derived) product. It contains information needed to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  13. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 1 data product users' guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed specifically for the remote sensing of Ocean Color parameters from an Earth orbiting space platform. A technical manual which is intended for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 1 data products is presented. It contains information needed by investigators and data processing personnel to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  14. Integrated display scanner

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-12-21

    A display scanner includes an optical panel having a plurality of stacked optical waveguides. The waveguides define an inlet face at one end and a screen at an opposite end, with each waveguide having a core laminated between cladding. A projector projects a scan beam of light into the panel inlet face for transmission from the screen as a scan line to scan a barcode. A light sensor at the inlet face detects a return beam reflected from the barcode into the screen. A decoder decodes the return beam detected by the sensor for reading the barcode. In an exemplary embodiment, the optical panel also displays a visual image thereon.

  15. Adaptive multispectral image processing for the detection of targets in terrain clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Lawrence E.; Zeidler, James R.; Yerkes, Christopher R.

    1992-08-01

    In passive detection of small infrared targets in image data, we are faced with the difficult task of enhancing some characteristic of the target or signal while suppressing the clutter or background image noise. We reported that an effective means by which targets may be identified is to exploit characteristics which exist between scenes measured in different bands in the long wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These methods are broadly termed multispectral techniques. In this paper we present a method by which a two- dimensional least-mean square adaptive filter is used to distinguish between target and clutter using multispectral techniques.

  16. SERI laser scanner system

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, R.J.; Cannon, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    A Laser Scanner System (LSS) produces a photoresponse map and can be used for the nondestructive detection of nonuniformities in the photoresponse of a semiconductor device. At SERI the photoresponse maps are used to identify solar cell faults including microcracks, metallization breaks, regions of poor contact between metallization and the underlying emitter surface, and variations in emitter sheet resistance. The SERI LSS is patterned after the LSS unit documented in the NBS Special Publication 400-24 A Laser Scanner for Semiconductor Devices by D.E. Sawyer and D.W. Berning. Assuming reader familiarity with the above publication, the modifications introduced by SERI are specified with the intention that the two reports can be used to reproduce the SERI LSS. The optical and electronic systems are reviewed, briefly discussing the significant items of each. The most notable difference between the two systems is the SERI substitution of commercially available state-of-the-art modular electronics for the discreet component circuitry used in the NBS LSS.

  17. Active airborne infrared laser system for identification of surface rock and minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Shumate, M. S.; Nash, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Emissivity and reflectivity in the thermal infrared spectral region (8-13 microns) may be used to discriminate among rocks and minerals. Although considerable success has been achieved in remote sensing classification of rock types based on emissivity measurements made with NASA's Thermal Infreared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), classification based on reflectivity offers several advantages: much narrower bandwidths are used, higher signal to noise ratios are possible, and measurements are little affected by surface temperature. As a demonstration, an airborne CO2 laser instrument was flown along the margin of Death Valley, California. Measurements of spectral reflectance collected with this device were compared with emissivity measurements made with the TIMS. Data from either instrument provided the means for recognizing boundaries between geologic units including different rock types and fan surfaces of different ages.

  18. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Vargo, Timothy D.; Lockhart, Randal R.; Descour, Michael R.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging

  19. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Vargo, T.D.; Lockhart, R.R.; Descour, M.R.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-06

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus are described which are adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging. 5 figs.

  20. Multispectral Focal Plane Assembly for Satellite Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.; Ballard, M.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing from space. A proof of concept multispectral sensor system is under development. The objective of building this sensor is to demonstrate and evaluate multispectral imaging technologies for various applications. The three major subsystems making up the sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding. Linear detector arrays provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for a pushbroom imager configuration. The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 microns to 10.7 microns. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. No beam splitters are used. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 15.4 megapixels per second. At the time this paper is being written, the multispectral focal plane assembly is in the fabrication phase. A thermal/mechanical mockup has been built and tested for the vibration environment and to determine the thermal load. Some of the sensor chip assemblies and filters have been built and tested. Several notable features of the design are covered in the paper as well as preliminary test data.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.T.; Hsieh, H.C.H.; Jackson, J.W.; Damadian, R.V.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a medical NMR scanner comprising a primary field magnet assembly including: (a) a ferromagnetic frame defining a patient-receiving space adapted to receive a human body, the frame having a pair of opposed polar regions aligned on a polar axis and disposed on opposite sides of the patient-receiving space, and the frame including a substantially continuous ferro-magnetic flux return path extending between the polar regions remote from the patient-receiving space; (b) flux-generating means including superconductive windings and cryostat means for maintaining the windings at superconducting temperatures; and (c) support means for maintaining the windings in proximity to the frame so that when a current passes through the windings magnetic flux emanating from the windings produces a magnetic field within the patient-receiving space and at least a portion of the flux passes into the patient-receiving space by way of the polar regions.

  2. Laser Scanner Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, B.

    2005-09-06

    In the Summer of 2004 a request for proposals went out to potential vendors to offer a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of unique metrology tasks at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Specifications were established including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution and field of view in consideration of anticipated department requirements. Four vendors visited the site to present their system and they were asked to perform three unique tests with their system on a two day visit to SLAC. Two of the three tests were created to emulate real-world applications at SLAC while the third was an accuracy and resolution series of experiments. The scope of these tests is presented and some of the vendor's results are included.

  3. A character string scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enison, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A computer program called Character String Scanner (CSS), is presented. It is designed to search a data set for any specified group of characters and then to flag this group. The output of the CSS program is a listing of the data set being searched with the specified group of characters being flagged by asterisks. Therefore, one may readily identify specific keywords, groups of keywords or specified lines of code internal to a computer program, in a program output, or in any other specific data set. Possible applications of this program include the automatic scan of an output data set for pertinent keyword data, the editing of a program to change the appearance of a certain word or group of words, and the conversion of a set of code to a different set of code.

  4. Dynamic Color Scanner System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    wm^^mrmm JlilJJLUJJ.l, UM *•* ". «^^~mw^-r mmmmmmmem DYNAMIC COLOR SCANNER SYSTEM L. T. Hunkler ITT Aerospaco/Gpticai Division S Fort Wayne ...Division, a division of International Telephone and Tele- graph Corporation, Fort Wayne , Indiana, under contract F33615-72- C-2071 for research and...iliKriiBiröfiiii-1, ■ ^ii ■"»*-—™""tWi "!—i^^^P«^ ^3 <o lil r^ ■ i u o o 0) (0 n •H Q (U ri 0) l-i 3 tP •H 20 SO-Z^H •— ■■■■I

  5. What Scanner products are available?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... and longwave estimate. ERBS covers all 24-hour local time, but only for regions between 60N and 60S. Scanner and Nonscanner ... algorithm. Because of these differences, it is best to work with these two data sets separately. ERBE/ERBS scanner operated ...

  6. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2012-12-01

    Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters.

  7. Space-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2004-05-01

    A low-loss two-dimensional optical beam scanner that is capable of delivering large (e.g., > 10 degrees) angular scans along the elevation as well as the azimuthal direction is presented. The proposed scanner is based on a space-switched parallel-serial architecture that employs a coarse-scanner module and a fine-scanner module that produce an ultrahigh scan space-fill factor, e.g., 900 x 900 distinguishable beams in a 10 degrees (elevation) x 10 degrees (azimuth) scan space. The experimentally demonstrated one-dimensional version of the proposed scanner has a supercontinuous scan, 100 distinguishable beam spots in a 2.29 degrees total scan range, and 1.5-dB optical insertion loss.

  8. Optimum thermal infrared bands for mapping general rock type and temperature from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Q. A.; Nueesch, D. R.; Vincent, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine quantitatively the number and location of spectral bands required to perform general rock type discrimination from spaceborne imaging sensors using only thermal infrared measurements. Beginning with laboratory spectra collected under idealized conditions from relatively well-characterized homogeneous samples, a radiative transfer model was used to transform ground exitance values into the corresponding spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere. Taking sensor noise into account, analysis of these data revealed that three 1 micron wide spectral bands would permit independent estimations of rock type and sample temperature from a satellite infrared multispectral scanner. This study, which ignores the mixing of terrain elements within the instantaneous field of view of a satellite scanner, indicates that the location of three spectral bands at 8.1-9.1, 9.5-10.5, and 11.0-12.0 microns, and the employment of appropriate preprocessing to minimize atmospheric effects makes it possible to predict general rock type and temperature for a variety of atmospheric states and temperatures.

  9. Optimum thermal infrared bands for mapping general rock type and temperature from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Q. A.; Nueesch, D. R.; Vincent, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine quantitatively the number and location of spectral bands required to perform general rock type discrimination from spaceborne imaging sensors using only thermal infrared measurements. Beginning with laboratory spectra collected under idealized conditions from relatively well-characterized homogeneous samples, a radiative transfer model was used to transform ground exitance values into the corresponding spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere. Taking sensor noise into account, analysis of these data revealed that three 1 micron wide spectral bands would permit independent estimations of rock type and sample temperature from a satellite infrared multispectral scanner. This study, which ignores the mixing of terrain elements within the instantaneous field of view of a satellite scanner, indicates that the location of three spectral bands at 8.1-9.1, 9.5-10.5, and 11.0-12.0 microns, and the employment of appropriate preprocessing to minimize atmospheric effects makes it possible to predict general rock type and temperature for a variety of atmospheric states and temperatures.

  10. Multispectral enhancement towards digital staining.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2012-01-01

    Digital staining can be considered as a special form of image enhancement wherein the concern is not only to increase the contrast between the background objects and objects of interest, but to also impart the colors that mark the objects' unique reactions to a specific stain. In this paper, we extended the previously proposed multispectral enhancement methods such that the colors of the background pixels can also be changed. In the previous multispectral enhancement methods a shifting factor is provided to the original spectrum. To implement digital staining, a spectral transformation process is introduced prior to spectral shifting. The enhancement method is applied to multispectral images of H&E stained liver tissue. The resulting digitally stained images show good correlation with the serial-section images of the tissue which are physically stained with Masson's trichrome. We have presented a multispectral enhancement method that can be adjusted to produce digitally stained-images. The current experimental results show the viability of the method. However, to achieve robust enhancement performance issues that arise from variations in staining conditions has to be addressed as well. This would be part of our future work.

  11. RGB-NIR multispectral camera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenyue; Wang, Xia; Liang, Rongguang

    2014-03-10

    A multispectral imaging technique with a new CMOS camera is proposed. With a four channel Bayer patterns, the camera can acquire four spectral images simultaneously. We have developed a color correction process to obtain accurate color information, and we have also demonstrated its applications on portrait enhancement, shadow removal, and vein enhancement.

  12. Surface Emissivity Derived From Multispectral Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Young, D. F.

    1998-01-01

    Surface emissivity is critical for remote sensing of surface skin temperature and infrared cloud properties when the observed radiance is influenced by the surface radiation. It is also necessary to correctly compute the longwave flux from a surface at a given skin temperature. Surface emissivity is difficult to determine because skin temperature is an ill-defined parameter. The surface-emitted radiation may arise from a range of surface depths depending on many factors including soil moisture, vegetation, surface porosity, and heat capacity. Emissivity can be measured in the laboratory for pure surfaces. Transfer of laboratory measurements to actual Earth surfaces, however, is fraught with uncertainties because of their complex nature. This paper describes a new empirical approach for estimating surface skin temperature from a combination of brightness temperatures measured at different infrared wavelengths with satellite imagers. The method uses data from the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager to determine multispectral emissivities from the skin temperatures derived over the ARM Southern Great Plains domain.

  13. Side scanner for supermarkets: a new scanner design standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Charles K.; Cheng, J. K.

    1996-09-01

    High speed UPC bar code has become a standard mode of data capture for supermarkets in the US, Europe, and Japan. The influence of the ergonomics community on the design of the scanner is evident. During the past decade the ergonomic issues of cashier in check-outs has led to occupational hand-wrist cumulative trauma disorders, in most cases causing carpal tunnel syndrome, a permanent hand injury. In this paper, the design of a side scanner to resolve the issues is discussed. The complex optical module and the sensor for aforesaid side scanner is described. The ergonomic advantages offer the old counter mounted vertical scanner has been experimentally proved by the industrial funded study at an independent university.

  14. Apollo 9 Mission image - S0-65 Multispectral Photography - Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    AS09-26A-3768A (10 March 1969) --- Color infrared photograph of Mexico: Cerro Malinche, east end of neo-volcanic plateau, as seen from the Apollo 9 spacecraft during its 109th revolution of Earth. This picture was taken as a part of the SO65 Multispectral Terrain Photography Experiment.

  15. A multispectral cloud type identification method using Nimbus 3 MRIR measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.; Holub, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Using Nimbus 3 medium resolution infrared radiometer measurements, a multispectral cloud type identification method is developed. This method includes a fourth spectral region (20-23 microns), the use of radiative transfer theory, and a semiquantitative evaluation of satellite cloud type estimates with concurrent high resolution photography from aircraft flights.

  16. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  17. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  18. Characteristics of the Landsat Multispectral Data System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat satellites were launched into orbit in 1972 and 1975. Additional Landsat satellites are planned for launch in 1978 and 1981. The satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of approximately 900 km and each can obtain repetitive coverage of cloud-free areas every 18 days. A sun-synchronous orbit is used to insure repeatable illumination conditions. Repetitive satellite coverage allows optimal cover conditions for geologic applications to be identified. Seasonal variations in solar illumination must be analyzed to select the best Landsat data for geologic applications. Landsat data may be viewed in stereo where there is sufficient sidelap and sufficient topographic relief. Landsat-1 ceased operation on January 10, 1978. Landsat-2 detects, only solar radiation that is reflected from the Earth's surface in visible and near-visible wavelengths. The third Landsat will also detect emitted thermal radiation. The multispectral scanner (MSS) was the only sensing instrument used on the first two satellites. The MSS on Landsats-1 and -2 detect radiation which is reflected from a 79 m by 79 m area, and the data are formatted as if the measurement was made from a 56 m by 79 m area. The MSS integrates spectral response from all cover types within the 79 m by 79 m area. The integrated spectral signature often does not resemble the spectral signature from individual cover types, and the integrated signature is also modified by the atmosphere. Landsat-1 and -2 data are converted to 70 mm film and computer compatible tapes (CCT's) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); these are shipped to the EROS Data Center (EDC) for duplication and distribution to users. Landsat-C data will be converted to 241 mm-wide film and CCT's at EDC. Landsat-D data will be relayed from the satellite directly to geosynchronous satellites and then to the United States from any location on Earth.

  19. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively. PMID:27376088

  20. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility check out the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), designed and built by the Boeing Co. at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. WORF will be delivered to the International Space Station and placed in the rack position in front of the Destiny lab window, providing locations for attaching cameras, multi-spectral scanners and other instruments. WORF will support a variety of scientific and commercial experiments in areas of Earth systems and processes, global ecological changes in Earth’s biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and climate system, Earth resources, natural hazards, and education. After installation, it will become a permanent focal point for Earth Science research aboard the space station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility check out the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), designed and built by the Boeing Co. at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. WORF will be delivered to the International Space Station and placed in the rack position in front of the Destiny lab window, providing locations for attaching cameras, multi-spectral scanners and other instruments. WORF will support a variety of scientific and commercial experiments in areas of Earth systems and processes, global ecological changes in Earth’s biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and climate system, Earth resources, natural hazards, and education. After installation, it will become a permanent focal point for Earth Science research aboard the space station.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), seen in the Space Station Processing Facility, was designed and built by the Boeing Co. at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. WORF will be delivered to the International Space Station and placed in the rack position in front of the Destiny lab window, providing locations for attaching cameras, multi-spectral scanners and other instruments. WORF will support a variety of scientific and commercial experiments in areas of Earth systems and processes, global ecological changes in Earth’s biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and climate system, Earth resources, natural hazards, and education. After installation, it will become a permanent focal point for Earth Science research aboard the space station.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), seen in the Space Station Processing Facility, was designed and built by the Boeing Co. at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. WORF will be delivered to the International Space Station and placed in the rack position in front of the Destiny lab window, providing locations for attaching cameras, multi-spectral scanners and other instruments. WORF will support a variety of scientific and commercial experiments in areas of Earth systems and processes, global ecological changes in Earth’s biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and climate system, Earth resources, natural hazards, and education. After installation, it will become a permanent focal point for Earth Science research aboard the space station.

  3. Towards Automatic Single-Sensor Mapping by Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahokas, E.; Hyyppä, J.; Yu, X.; Liang, X.; Matikainen, L.; Karila, K.; Litkey, P.; Kukko, A.; Jaakkola, A.; Kaartinen, H.; Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of the Optech Titan multispectral airborne laser scanner in the fields of mapping and forestry. Investigation was targeted to six land cover classes. Multispectral laser scanner data can be used to distinguish land cover classes of the ground surface, including the roads and separate road surface classes. For forest inventory using point cloud metrics and intensity features combined, total accuracy of 93.5% was achieved for classification of three main boreal tree species (pine, spruce and birch).When using intensity features - without point height metrics - a classification accuracy of 91% was achieved for these three tree species. It was also shown that deciduous trees can be further classified into more species. We propose that intensity-related features and waveform-type features are combined with point height metrics for forest attribute derivation in area-based prediction, which is an operatively applied forest inventory process in Scandinavia. It is expected that multispectral airborne laser scanning can provide highly valuable data for city and forest mapping and is a highly relevant data asset for national and local mapping agencies in the near future.

  4. Experimental applications of multispectral data to natural resource inventory and survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallon, H. J.

    1970-01-01

    The feasibility of using multispectral, color, color infrared, thermal infrared imagery and related ground data to recognize, identify, determine and monitor the status of mineral ore and metals stockpiles is studied. An attempt was made to identify valid, unique spectral signatures of such materials for possible use under a wide variety of environmental circumstances. Research emphasis was upon the analysis of the multiband imagery from the various film-filter combinations, using density analysis techniques.

  5. Experimental applications of multispectral data to natural resource inventory and survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallon, H. J.

    1970-01-01

    The feasibility of using multispectral, color, color infrared, thermal infrared imagery and related ground data to recognize, identify, determine and monitor the status of mineral ore and metals stockpiles is studied. An attempt was made to identify valid, unique spectral signatures of such materials for possible use under a wide variety of environmental circumstances. Research emphasis was upon the analysis of the multiband imagery from the various film-filter combinations, using density analysis techniques.

  6. Modeling of estuarne chlorophyll a from an airborne scanner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khorram, Siamak; Catts, Glenn P.; Cloern, James E.; Knight, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    Near simultaneous collection of 34 surface water samples and airborne multispectral scanner data provided input for regression models developed to predict surface concentrations of estuarine chlorophyll a. Two wavelength ratios were employed in model development. The ratios werechosen to capitalize on the spectral characteristics of chlorophyll a, while minimizing atmospheric influences. Models were then applied to data previously acquired over the study area thre years earlier. Results are in the form of color-coded displays of predicted chlorophyll a concentrations and comparisons of the agreement among measured surface samples and predictions basedon coincident remotely sensed data. The influence of large variations in fresh-water inflow to the estuary are clearly apparent in the results. The synoptic view provided by remote sensing is another method of examining important estuarine dynamics difficult to observe from in situ sampling alone.

  7. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  8. Two-dimensional scanner apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, G. W.; Bankston, B. F.

    1984-03-01

    An X-Y scanner utilizes an eddy current or ultrasonic current test probe to detect surface defects in small flat plates and the like. The apparatus includes a scanner which travels on a pair of slide tubes in the X-direction. The scanner, carried on a carriage which slides in the Y-direction, is driven by a helix shaft with a closed-loop helix groove in which a follower pin carried by scanner rides. The carriage is moved incrementally in the Y-direction upon the completion of travel of the scanner back and forth in the X-direction by means of an indexing actuator and an indexing gear. The actuator is in the form of a ratchet which engages ratchet gear upon return of the scanner to the indexing position. The indexing gear is rotated a predetermined increment along a crack gear to move carriage incrementally in the Y-direction. Thus, simplified highly responsive mechanical motion may be had in a small lightweight portable unit for accurate scanning of small area.

  9. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4–16 min and 160–200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400–700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center. PMID:24804036

  10. Prototype focal plane assembly for multispectral remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.L.; Vampola, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing. A prototype multispectral sensor system is under development. The three major subsystems making up the prototype sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {mu}m to 10.7 {mu}m. All the linear arrays are mounted on a single motherboard and are designed to operate at 75 K. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 16.4 megapixels per second. The diverse requirements for the focal plane assembly make this a challenging, sensor to design and build.

  11. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-07-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4-16 min and 160-200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400-700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center.

  12. Multispectral and hyperspectral measurements of smoke candles and soldier's camouflage equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Gagnon, Marc-André; Kastek, Mariusz; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2012-09-01

    The emergence of new infrared camouflage and countermeasure technologies in the context of military operations has paved the way to enhanced detection capabilities. Camouflage devices such as candles (or smoke bombs) and flares are developed to generate either large area or localized screens with very high absorption in the infrared. Similarly, soldier's camouflage devices such as clothing have evolved in design to dissolve their infrared characteristics with that of the background. In all cases, the analysis of the targets infrared images needs to be conducted in both multispectral and hyperspectral domains to assess their capability to efficiently provide visible and infrared camouflage. The Military University of Technology has conducted several intensive field campaigns where various types of smoke candles and camouflage uniforms were deployed in different conditions and were measured both in the multispectral and hyperspectral domains. Cooled broadband infrared cameras were used for the multispectral analysis whereas the high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution acquisition of these thermodynamic events was recorded with the Telops Hyper-Cam sensor. This paper presents the test campaign concept and the analysis of the recorded measurements.

  13. Multispectral Analysis of NMR Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, R. L.; Vannier, M. W. And Associates; Jordan, D.

    1985-01-01

    Conference paper discusses initial efforts to adapt multispectral satellite-image analysis to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scans of human body. Flexibility of these techniques makes it possible to present NMR data in variety of formats, including pseudocolor composite images of pathological internal features. Techniques do not have to be greatly modified from form in which used to produce satellite maps of such Earth features as water, rock, or foliage.

  14. Multispectral Analysis of NMR Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, R. L.; Vannier, M. W. And Associates; Jordan, D.

    1985-01-01

    Conference paper discusses initial efforts to adapt multispectral satellite-image analysis to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scans of human body. Flexibility of these techniques makes it possible to present NMR data in variety of formats, including pseudocolor composite images of pathological internal features. Techniques do not have to be greatly modified from form in which used to produce satellite maps of such Earth features as water, rock, or foliage.

  15. A channel-based color fusion technique using multispectral images for night vision enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2011-09-01

    A fused image using multispectral images can increase the reliability of interpretation because it combines the complimentary information apparent in multispectral images. While a color image can be easily interpreted by human users (for visual analysis), and thus improves observer performance and reaction times. We propose a fast color fusion method, termed as channel-based color fusion, which is efficient for real time applications. Notice that the term of "color fusion" means combing multispectral images into a color-version image with the purpose of resembling natural scenes. On the other hand, false coloring technique usually has no intention of resembling natural scenery. The framework of channel-based color fusion is as follows, (1) prepare for color fusion by preprocessing, image registration and fusion; (2) form a color fusion image by properly assigning multispectral images to red, green, and blue channels; (3) fuse multispectral images (gray fusion) using a wavelet-based fusion algorithm; and (4) replace the value component of color fusion in HSV color space with the gray-fusion image, and finally transform back to RGB space. In night vision imaging, there may be two or several bands of images available, for example, visible (RGB), image intensified (II), near infrared (NIR), medium wave infrared (MWIR), long wave infrared (LWIR). The proposed channel-wise color fusions were tested with two-band (e.g., NIR + LWIR, II + LWIR, RGB + LWIR) or three-band (e.g., RGB + NIR + LWIR) multispectral images. Experimental results show that the colors in the fused images by the proposed method are vivid and comparable with that of the segmentation-based colorization. The processing speed of new method is much faster than any segmentation-based method.

  16. Millimeter wavelength thermographic scanner.

    PubMed

    Cacak, R K; Winans, D E; Edrich, J; Hendee, W R

    1981-01-01

    Two new types of thermographic instruments sensitive to millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation have been designed, constructed, and tested. These instruments utilize wavelengths that are three orders of magnitude longer and much more penetrating than those used in conventional infrared thermography. The instruments are capable of detecting apparent thermal variations as small as a fraction of a degree existing at tissue depths of several millimeters below the skin. By comparison, conventional IR thermographic units are limited to sampling radiation emitted only from the surface. The millimeter wave thermographic units are designed to contribute to the clinical detection of breast abnormalities with the specific aim of accurately and noninvasively detecting breast cancer.

  17. Multispectral Detector Array Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokerst, Nan M.

    1999-12-01

    A sensor is a device used to sense or measure physical phenomena. Thus, sensors may detect electrical, mechanical, optical, chemical, tactile, or acoustic signatures of an object or scene. Objects that may be difficult to discriminate using a single sensor are often differentiated with a multiple sensor system that exploits several signature phenomena. The application of multiple sensors (and the fusion of their data) offers numerous potential performance benefits over traditional single sensor approaches. In our application, which is infrared target discrimination, employing multiple sensors, which respond to different signatures, increases the probability that a target signature will be found against a given set of weather, clutter or background noise sources. A multiple sensor system, in other words, diminishes ambiguity and uncertainty in the measured information by reducing the set of hypotheses about the target or event. Multiple sensors may also be used to reduce the vulnerability to false conclusions drawn from data of a single sensor. For instance, missiles may carry multiple sensors to better guarantee a hit or a radar can use multiple sensors to counter-jam incoming missiles.

  18. Analysis of multispectral signatures and investigation of multi-aspect remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Hieber, R. H.; Sarno, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Two major aspects of remote sensing with multispectral scanners (MSS) are investigated. The first, multispectral signature analysis, includes the effects on classification performance of systematic variations found in the average signals received from various ground covers as well as the prediction of these variations with theoretical models of physical processes. The foremost effects studied are those associated with the time of day airborne MSS data are collected. Six data collection runs made over the same flight line in a period of five hours are analyzed, it is found that the time span significantly affects classification performance. Variations associated with scan angle also are studied. The second major topic of discussion is multi-aspect remote sensing, a new concept in remote sensing with scanners. Here, data are collected on multiple passes by a scanner that can be tilted to scan forward of the aircraft at different angles on different passes. The use of such spatially registered data to achieve improved classification of agricultural scenes is investigated and found promising. Also considered are the possibilities of extracting from multi-aspect data, information on the condition of corn canopies and the stand characteristics of forests.

  19. Multispectral Imaging Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loefer, Gene R.; Lao, Ken Q.

    1987-09-01

    Current aircraft have a requirement to operate at night and in adverse weather where optical imaging systems are inoperable. Imaging sensors operating at other wavelengths have the potential to provide vision through severe weather, but these systems need to be simulated before assuming the technological and financial risks involved in hardware development. Sensor and atmospheric models have been developed which simulate images at a variety of wavelengths. These models have been incorporated into a modified version of the IVEX Corporation Behold software which is used for the creation of three dimensional views of terrain data bases and includes fractal texturing and anti-aliasing. This new version, called Behold-ms, adds phenomenological models of material properties, such as surface roughness, emissivity, and temperature, and structured atmospheric weather models that consider path emission, backscatter, and specular/diffuse reflections of the sky. To date, images have been simulated in the visible (color), infrared (8-14pm), passive millimeter wave (35 GHz and 95 GHz), and active MMW (35 GHz and 95 GHz). These algorithms can be used for other windows over this spectral range. In order to accommodate the widely varying types of sensed energy while maintaining a practical amount of internal storage, a scheme for scaling each spectral band has been developed. Spatial resolution degradation due to diffraction, which is especially important at millimeter wavelengths, spatial sampling effects, and system noise models are also included. These sensor models and simulations have been used to examine adverse weather landing systems. Simulated images have also been used in image understanding research and spatial superresolution studies.

  20. Urban land use monitoring from computer-implemented processing of airborne multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W. J.; Mausel, P. W.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    Machine processing techniques were applied to multispectral data obtained from airborne scanners at an elevation of 600 meters over central Indianapolis in August, 1972. Computer analysis of these spectral data indicate that roads (two types), roof tops (three types), dense grass (two types), sparse grass (two types), trees, bare soil, and water (two types) can be accurately identified. Using computers, it is possible to determine land uses from analysis of type, size, shape, and spatial associations of earth surface images identified from multispectral data. Land use data developed through machine processing techniques can be programmed to monitor land use changes, simulate land use conditions, and provide impact statistics that are required to analyze stresses placed on spatial systems.