Science.gov

Sample records for infrared snapshot survey

  1. Saturn's Infrared Temperature Snapshot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    Scientists have discovered a wave pattern, or oscillation, in Saturn's atmosphere only visible from Earth every 15 years. The pattern ripples back and forth like a wave within Saturn's upper atmosphere. In this region, temperatures switch from one altitude to the next in a candy cane-like, striped, hot-cold pattern.

    The temperature 'snapshot' shown in these two images captures two different phases of this wave oscillation: the temperature at Saturn's equator switches from hot to cold, and temperatures on either side of the equator switch from cold to hot every Saturn half-year.

    The image on the left was taken in 1997 and shows the temperature at the equator is colder than the temperature at 13 degrees south latitude. Conversely, the image on the right taken in 2006 shows the temperature at the equator is warmer.

    These images were taken with NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  2. OHANA, the AMBER/VLTI Snapshot Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivinius, T.; de Wit, W.; Demers, Z.; Quirrenbach, A.; VLTI Science Operations Team

    2016-11-01

    We report on the OHANA interferometric snapshot survey, carried out by the VLTI group at the Paranal observatory. It makes use of observing time not useful for any other scheduled scientific or technical tasks in the sense of a backup programme, to characterize the mass-loss for early-type stars. The survey employs the combination of AMBER's high spectral and spatial resolution. The spatially unresolved central object provides a reference frame for the fringe properties observed in the light of the continuum.

  3. The Snapshot A-Star SurveY (SASSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garani, Jasmine; Nielsen, Eric L.; Marchis, Franck; Liu, Michael C.; Macintosh, Bruce; Rajan, Abhijith; De Rosa, Robert J.; Wang, Jason; Esposito, Thomas; Best, William M. J.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptise

    2017-01-01

    We present the Snapshot A-Star SurveY (SASSY), an adaptive optics survey conducted using NIRC2 on the Keck II telescope to search for young, self-luminious planets and brown dwarfs (M > 5MJup) around high mass stars (M > 1.5 M⊙). We describe a custom data-reduction pipeline developed for the coronagraphic observations of our 200 target stars. Our data analysis method includes basic near infrared data processing (flat-field correction, bad pixel removal, distortion correction) as well as performing PSF subtraction through a Reference Differential Imaging algorithm based on a library of PSFs derived from the observations using the pyKLIP routine. We present early results from the survey including planet and brown dwarf candidates and the status of ongoing follow-up observations. Utilizing the high contrast of Keck NIRC2 coronagraphic observations, SASSY reaches sensitivity to brown dwarfs and planetary mass companions at separations between 0.6'' and 4''. With over 200 stars observed we are tripling the number of high-mass stars imaged at these contrasts and sensitivities compared to previous surveys. This work was supported by the NSF REU program at the SETI Institute and NASA grant NNX14AJ80G.

  4. Snapshot Imaging Spectrometry in the Visible and Long Wave Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maione, Bryan David

    Imaging spectrometry is an optical technique in which the spectral content of an object is measured at each location in space. The main advantage of this modality is that it enables characterization beyond what is possible with a conventional camera, since spectral information is generally related to the chemical composition of the object. Due to this, imaging spectrometers are often capable of detecting targets that are either morphologically inconsistent, or even under resolved. A specific class of imaging spectrometer, known as a snapshot system, seeks to measure all spatial and spectral information simultaneously, thereby rectifying artifacts associated with scanning designs, and enabling the measurement of temporally dynamic scenes. Snapshot designs are the focus of this dissertation. Three designs for snapshot imaging spectrometers are developed, each providing novel contributions to the field of imaging spectrometry. In chapter 2, the first spatially heterodyned snapshot imaging spectrometer is modeled and experimentally validated. Spatial heterodyning is a technique commonly implemented in non-imaging Fourier transform spectrometry. For Fourier transform imaging spectrometers, spatial heterodyning improves the spectral resolution trade space. Additionally, in this chapter a unique neural network based spectral calibration is developed and determined to be an improvement beyond Fourier and linear operator based techniques. Leveraging spatial heterodyning as developed in chapter 2, in chapter 3, a high spectral resolution snapshot Fourier transform imaging spectrometer, based on a Savart plate interferometer, is developed and experimentally validated. The sensor presented in this chapter is the highest spectral resolution sensor in its class. High spectral resolution enables the sensor to discriminate narrowly spaced spectral lines. The capabilities of neural networks in imaging spectrometry are further explored in this chapter. Neural networks are used to

  5. Snapshots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorodinskaya, Noemi

    It may sound too trivial, but it is very important that life consists of details. It becomes still more important when you are trying to get together the recollections using the details you remember. Snapshots render memorable moments in imperfect images. This is exactly what is presented below viewed by an external observer...

  6. HST and Keck Snapshot Surveys for Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, M. D.; Becker, R. H.; Schechter, P. L.; White, R. L.; Wisotzki, L.

    2000-12-01

    Most theories of quasar lensing predict more close separation lenses than are presently known. Deciding whether this deficit is real or an observational selection effect is important for using lenses to constrain the intervening galaxy mass distribution or cosmological models. We are conducting two imaging surveys of bright quasars to search for new examples of gravitational lensing, particularly those with small image separations. After about 200 snapshots during Cycles 8 and 9, the program using the imaging capability of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has found three certain lensed quasars, with separations of 0.64" (Gregg et al. 2000), 1.2", and a surprisingly large 3.4". There are several additional promising candidates. The other survey is being conducted with the Near InfraRed Camera (NIRC) at Keck Observatory. While the NIRC effort has not yet turned up any confirmed lensed quasars, the K-band imaging has detected the lensing galaxy in two of the new STIS systems. We will present our results and analysis to date, including additional ground based follow-up imaging and spectroscopy of the lensed and candidate systems. Support for this work is provided by NASA grants GO-8202 and GO-8631 from STScI, operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. Gregg, M.D., Wisotzki, L., Becker, R.H., Maza, J., Schechter, P. White, R.L., Brotherton, M.S., & Winn, J.N. 2000, AJ, 119, 2535.

  7. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldón, J.; Deller, A. T.; Wucknitz, O.; Jackson, N.; Drabent, A.; Carozzi, T.; Conway, J.; Kapińska, A. D.; McKean, J. P.; Morabito, L.; Varenius, E.; Zarka, P.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bîrzan, L.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Carbone, D.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T. E.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Norden, M. J.; Offringa, A. R.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; White, S.; Wise, M. W.; Yatawatta, S.; Zensus, A.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for international LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods: We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full international LOFAR array. Sources were preselected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results: More than 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to show that the sky density of calibrators that are sufficiently bright to calibrate dispersive and non-dispersive delays for the international LOFAR using existing methods is 1.0 per square degree. Conclusions: The observed density of satisfactory delay calibrator sources means that observations with international LOFAR should be possible at virtually any point in the sky provided that a fast and efficient search, using the methodology described here, is conducted prior to the observation to identify the best calibrator. Full Table 6 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A73

  8. Infrared Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  9. A Snapshot Survey of The Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald

    2007-07-01

    We propose the continuation of our highly successful SNAPshot survey of a sample of 125 very X-ray luminous clusters in the redshift range 0.3-0.7. As demonstrated by the 25 snapshots obtained so far in Cycle14 and Cycle15 these systems frequently exhibit strong gravitational lensing as well as spectacular examples of violent galaxy interactions. The proposed observations will provide important constraints on the cluster mass distributions, the physical nature of galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and a set of optically bright, lensed galaxies for further 8-10m spectroscopy. All of our primary science goals require only the detection and characterisation of high-surface-brightness features and are thus achievable even at the reduced sensitivity of WFPC2. Because of their high redshift and thus compact angular scale our target clusters are less adversely affected by the smaller field of view of WFPC2 than more nearby systems. Acknowledging the broad community interest in this sample we waive our data rights for these observations. Due to a clerical error at STScI our approved Cycle15 SNAP program was barred from execution for 3 months and only 6 observations have been performed to date - reinstating this SNAP at Cycle16 priority is of paramount importance to reach meaningful statistics.

  10. The LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS): Status and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, George; LOFAR Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS) is the first large-area survey of the northern sky with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). By producing images of the sky at 16 frequencies from 30 to 160 MHz, MSSS probes the low-frequency sky at a sensitivity of order 10 mJy/beam, and angular resolution of 1-2 arcmin or better. It thus dramatically expands the frequency range sampled in high-resolution radio surveys, and, crucially, provides low-frequency spectral information about the detected sources. Using LOFAR's unique multi-beaming mode, the survey requires only a rather modest investment in observing time. MSSS began observations in late 2011, and has nearly completed observations in both frequency components (8 frequencies spanning the 30 to 74 MHz range, and another 8 spanning 120 to 160 MHz). MSSS has driven the initial development of the first production version of LOFAR's automatic Imaging Pipeline and spearheaded efforts aimed at solving some of the ongoing low-frequency calibration challenges. In this contribution, I will briefly review the survey design, including an overview of MSSS science topics. I will also present a status update, highlighting early results from the survey such as an in-depth look at the 100 square degree “MSSS Verification Field,” new sources discovered in MSSS images, and a sneak peek at the full survey area. I will conclude by describing plans for the future of MSSS, including the possibility of reprocessing the data to obtain enhanced data products such as higher resolution imaging and polarization. LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array designed and constructed by ASTRON, has facilities in several countries, that are owned by various parties (each with their own funding sources), and that are collectively operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation under a joint scientific policy.

  11. SHUCS: the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; SHUCS Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Star clusters represent a step in the star formation hierarchy above individual stars. As such, they maintain a link to the overall star formation in any galaxy, while their brightness turns them into beacons of star formation in systems out to 100 Mpc. The study of extra-galactic star clusters and their populations has undergone a revival since the launch of HST. However, their use as direct tracers of star formation depends on understanding fundamental laws that regulate the fraction of stars that form in clusters, as well as those that govern the destruction of star clusters. The Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS) is designed to take a few steps in that direction. By completing the UBVI baseline for galaxies with existing archival BVI coverage, we will derive the ages, masses and luminosities of thousands of clusters in 22 galaxies. This way we will be able to rule out theories and empirical scenarios regarding the formation and destruction of star clusters, and the role of environment in these processes. This talk will present a description of the survey and its many goals, and go through some first results.

  12. 2014 Rural Clinical School Training and Support Program Snapshot survey.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Kumara; Greenhill, Jennene; Walker, Judi; Bailey, Jannine; Croft, Amanda; Doyle, Zelda; McCrossin, Timothy; Stevens, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The Rural Clinical Training and Support (RCTS) program is an Australian Government initiative to address the shortage of medical practitioners within rural and remote Australia. There is a large amount of published information about the RCTS program and rural medical student cohorts who have undertaken short- and long-term rotations. However, very little is known about the academic and professional staff involved in the program, a knowledge gap that may impact workforce and succession planning. To address this, the Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) initiated the pilot 2014 RCTS Snapshot survey to obtain data on the current RCTS workforce. All professional, academic and clinical academic staff (fixed-term and continuing, regardless of fraction) employed through the RCTS program were invited to complete a short, web-based survey. The survey was conducted from March to June 2014. The quantitative variables in the survey included demographics (age and gender), rural background and exposure, employment history in rural/regional areas and at rural clinical schools (RCS), experience and expertise, reasons for working at RCS, and future employment intentions. The last three questions also were of a qualitative open-ended format to allow respondents to provide additional details regarding their reasons for working at RCSs and their future intentions. The estimated total RCTS workforce was 970. A total of 413 responses were received and 316 (40.9%) complete responses analysed. The majority of respondents were female (71%), the 40-60-year age group was predominant (28%), and professional staff constituted the majority (62%). The below 40-year age group had more professionals than academics (21% vs 12%) and more than 62% of academics were aged above 50 years. Notably, there were no academics aged less than 30 years. The percentage of professional staff with a rural background was higher (62%) than that of academics with a rural background (42%). However

  13. The LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). I. Survey description and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, G. H.; Pizzo, R. F.; Orrú, E.; Breton, R. P.; Carbone, D.; Ferrari, C.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jurusik, W.; Macario, G.; Mulcahy, D.; Rafferty, D.; Asgekar, A.; Brentjens, M.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Toribio, M. C.; Adebahr, B.; Arts, M.; Bell, M. R.; Bonafede, A.; Bray, J.; Broderick, J.; Cantwell, T.; Carroll, P.; Cendes, Y.; Clarke, A. O.; Croston, J.; Daiboo, S.; de Gasperin, F.; Gregson, J.; Harwood, J.; Hassall, T.; Heesen, V.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Jones, D.; Kant, D.; Kokotanekov, G.; Martin, P.; McKean, J. P.; Morabito, L. K.; Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, M.; Pratley, L.; Riseley, C.; Rowlinson, A.; Sabater, J.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Scheers, L. H. A.; Sendlinger, K.; Shulevski, A.; Sipior, M.; Sobey, C.; Stewart, A. J.; Stroe, A.; Swinbank, J.; Tasse, C.; Trüstedt, J.; Varenius, E.; van Velzen, S.; Vilchez, N.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijnholds, S.; Williams, W. L.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Nijboer, R.; Wise, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Breitling, F.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Geus, E.; de Jong, A.; de Vos, M.; Deller, A.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H. A.; Intema, H.; Jackson, N. J.; Jütte, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Klijn, W. F. A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mevius, M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Noordam, J. E.; Norden, M. J.; Paas, H.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Renting, A.; Röttgering, H.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schwarz, D.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic multifrequency nature providing information about the spectral properties of the detected sources over more than two octaves (from 30 to 160 MHz). The broadband frequency coverage, together with the fast survey speed generated by LOFAR's multibeaming capabilities, make MSSS the first survey of the sort anticipated to be carried out with the forthcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Two of the sixteen frequency bands included in the survey were chosen to exactly overlap the frequency coverage of large-area Very Large Array (VLA) and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) surveys at 74 MHz and 151 MHz respectively. The survey performance is illustrated within the MSSS Verification Field (MVF), a region of 100 square degrees centered at (α,δ)J2000 = (15h,69°). The MSSS results from the MVF are compared with previous radio survey catalogs. We assess the flux and astrometric uncertainties in the catalog, as well as the completeness and reliability considering our source finding strategy. We determine the 90% completeness levels within the MVF to be 100 mJy at 135 MHz with 108″ resolution, and 550 mJy at 50 MHz with 166″ resolution. Images and catalogs for the full survey, expected to contain 150 000-200 000 sources, will be released to a public web server. We outline the plans for the ongoing production of the final survey products, and the ultimate public release of images and source catalogs.

  14. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Massive-Cluster Gravitational Lenses Observed by the Herschel Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi; Rawle, Timothy; Cava, Antonio; Clement, Benjamin; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Ebeling, Harald; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Richard, Johan; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Schaerer, Daniel; Walth, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory, our team has been conducting a large survey of the fields of massive galaxy clusters, 'The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS)' (PI: Egami; 419 hours). The main scientific goal is to penetrate the confusion limit of Herschel by taking advantage of the strong gravitational lensing power of these massive clusters and study the population of low-luminosity and/or high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies that are beyond the reach of field Herschel surveys. In the course of this survey, we have obtained deep PACS (100/160 um) and SPIRE (250/350/500 um) images for 54 clusters (HLS-deep) as well as shallower (but nearly confusion-limited) SPIRE images for 527 clusters (HLS-snapshot). The goal of this proposal is to obtain shallow (500 sec/band) 3.6/4.5 um images of 266 cluster fields that have been observed by the HLS-snapshot survey but do not have any corresponding IRAC data. The HLS-snapshot SPIRE images are deep enough to detect a large number of sources in the target cluster fields, many of which are distant star-forming galaxies lensed by the foreground clusters, and the large sample size of HLS-snapshot promises a great potential for making exciting discoveries. Yet, these Herschel images would be of limited use if we could not identify the counterparts of the Herschel sources accurately and efficiently. The proposed IRAC snapshot program will greatly enhance the utility of these Herschel data, and will feed powerful gound observing facilities like ALMA and NOEMA with interesting targets to follow up.

  15. Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil);…

  16. Balloon borne Infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip M.

    2015-08-01

    We report on modeling of a balloon borne mission to survey the 1-5 micron region with sensitivity close to the zodiacal light limits in portions of this band. Such a survey is compelling for numerous science programs and is complimentary to the upcoming Euclid, WFIRST and other orbital missions. Balloons borne missions offer much lower cost access and rapid technological implementation but with much less exposure time and increased backgrounds. For some science missions the complimentary nature of these is extremely useful. .

  17. HST NICMOS snapshot survey of faint galaxies at z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkley, S.; Im, M.; DEEP Team

    2000-12-01

    During Cycle 7 HST observations, we have obtained NICMOS H-band images of faint field galaxies for which both HST morphological information (in V and/or I) and spectroscopic redshifts are available. The purpose of the NICMOS observation is to provide their morphology in rest frame NIR wavelengths (8000 - 16000 Å), where the effect of dust extinction is less severe, and to obtain their near infrared (NIR) colors. The objects in our field are partly contained in the Groth Strip being studied in detail by the DEEP team. In addition, we have made use of a software package called GIM2D (Simard et al. 2001). This package is designed to perform detailed 2-dimensional decompositions for images of distant galaxies. Using this software, we have obtained structural parameters for the objects in the H-band to complement those parameters in V and I. We will present: i) color gradients inside elliptical galaxies to test models of their formation; ii) the effect of dust extinction on the properties of field galaxies at 0 < z < 1; iii) evolution of V-H, and V-I colors of bulges as well as the B/T ratio of spiral galaxies as a function of redshift; iv) morphological k-correction. The median redshift of our sample is z ~ 0.5 and this corresponds to about one half of the current age of the universe. This work is supported by the STScI grant GO-07895.02-96A.

  18. Gravitational lensing of quasars as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maoz, D.; Bahcall, J. N.; Doxsey, R.; Schneider, D. P.; Bahcall, N. A.; Lahav, O.; Yanny, B.

    1992-01-01

    Results from the ongoing HST Snapshot Survey are presented, with emphasis on 152 high-luminosity, z greater than 1 quasars. One quasar among those observed, 1208 + 1011, is a candidate lens system with subarcsecond image separation. Six other quasars have point sources within 6 arcsec. Ground-based observations of five of these cases show that the companion point sources are foreground Galactic stars. The predicted lensing frequency of the sample is calculated for a variety of cosmological models. The effect of uncertainties in some of the observational parameters upon the predictions is discussed. No correlation of the drift rate with time, right ascension, declination, or point error is found.

  19. Star counts from the Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey. I - Galactic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, A.; Bahcall, J. N.; Maoz, D.

    1993-01-01

    We report a photometric study of stars from 450 fields at high Galactic latitudes that were observed in the Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey to an average limiting apparent magnitude of V = 21.4. There are 166 fields that contain quasars selected in radio, X-ray, and color-excess surveys. This sample of 273 stars is free of selection bias with respect to the density of stars. To within the Poisson errors, the total counts and magnitude distribution of this unbiased sample are in agreement with the Bahcall-Soneira model (Bahcall, 1986). The angular distribution of the faint stars favors, at the 2 sigma level, a somewhat steeper disk luminosity function and a smaller spheroid main-sequence normalization than given by the model. The sample does not have enough statistical power to distinguish between the two-component Bahcall-Soneira model and the three-component model first proposed by Gilmore and Reid (1983), which contains a thick disk. The statistical power of the survey would increase about 15-fold if colors were obtained for the stars: the data probe the main sequences of the disk, thick disk, and spheroid. Models with and without a thick disk could then be distinguished at the 6 sigma level. The HST Snapshot Survey includes an additional 284 fields, 279 of which are centered on quasars that were selected by objective-prism surveys. These 279 fields are expected to show and do exhibit bias against bright stars, making them unsuitable for testing Galactic models.

  20. Long-Wavelength 640 x 486 GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Snap-Shot Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Liu, John K.; Hong, Winn; Sundaram, Mani; Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.; Shott, Craig A.; Carralejo, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    A 9-micrometer cutoff 640 x 486 snap-shot quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) camera has been demonstrated. The performance of this QWIP camera is reported including indoor and outdoor imaging. The noise equivalent differential temperature (NE.deltaT) of 36 mK has been achieved at 300 K background with f/2 optics. This is in good agreement with expected focal plane array sensitivity due to the practical limitations on charge handling capacity of the multiplexer, read noise, bias voltage, and operating temperature.

  1. Infrared surveys of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, W. A.; Moxham, R.M.; Polcyn, F.; Landis, G.H.

    1964-01-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain.Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities.Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected.Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.

  2. The Chandra 3C Snapshot Survey For Sources With z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missaglia, Valentina; Massaro, F.; Kraft, R. P.; Paggi, A.; Harris, D.; Baum, S. A.; Forman, W.; Kuraszkiewicz, J.; Jones, C.; Liuzzo, E.; O'Dea, C. P.; Orienti, M.; Paladino, R.; Tremblay, G. R.; Wilkes, B.

    2016-10-01

    The 3CR catalogue is one of the best studied sample of radio-loud active galaxies, spanning a wide range of redshifts and radio powers and being unbiased with respect to X-ray observations. We are completing the Chandra Snapshot Survey of the 3CR catalog. Preliminary results on the extension of the X-ray observations in the 0.5-1 redshift range are presented here. We compared Chandra observations with radio maps to search for extended emission associated with jets, hotspots and galaxy clusters. We found the X-ray radiation arising from the intergalactic medium in one galaxy cluster and we detected three hostpots in the Chandra images. X-ray emission from the core of all radio galaxies in our sample was also found, seven of them also showing extended X-ray emission around their nuclei.

  3. Snapshot fecal survey of domestic animals in rural Ghana for Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Nicholas J; Ammisah, Nana Ama; Ahortor, Evans K; Wallace, John R; Ablordey, Anthony; Stinear, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the source reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans is key to understanding the mode of transmission of this pathogen and controlling the spread of Buruli ulcer (BU). In Australia, the native possum can harbor M. ulcerans in its gastrointestinal tract and shed high concentrations of the bacteria in its feces. To date, an analogous animal reservoir in Africa has not been identified. Here we tested the hypothesis that common domestic animals in BU endemic villages of Ghana are reservoir species analogous to the Australian possum. Using linear-transects at 10-meter intervals, we performed systematic fecal surveys across four BU endemic villages and one non-endemic village in the Asante Akim North District of Ghana. One hundred and eighty fecal specimens from a single survey event were collected and analyzed by qPCR for the M. ulcerans diagnostic DNA targets IS2404 and KR-B. Positive and negative controls performed as expected but all 180 test samples were negative. This structured snapshot survey suggests that common domestic animals living in and around humans do not shed M. ulcerans in their feces. We conclude that, unlike the Australian native possum, domestic animals in rural Ghana are unlikely to be major reservoirs of M. ulcerans.

  4. Snapshot fecal survey of domestic animals in rural Ghana for Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Nicholas J.; Ammisah, Nana Ama; Ahortor, Evans K.; Wallace, John R.; Ablordey, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the source reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans is key to understanding the mode of transmission of this pathogen and controlling the spread of Buruli ulcer (BU). In Australia, the native possum can harbor M. ulcerans in its gastrointestinal tract and shed high concentrations of the bacteria in its feces. To date, an analogous animal reservoir in Africa has not been identified. Here we tested the hypothesis that common domestic animals in BU endemic villages of Ghana are reservoir species analogous to the Australian possum. Using linear-transects at 10-meter intervals, we performed systematic fecal surveys across four BU endemic villages and one non-endemic village in the Asante Akim North District of Ghana. One hundred and eighty fecal specimens from a single survey event were collected and analyzed by qPCR for the M. ulcerans diagnostic DNA targets IS2404 and KR-B. Positive and negative controls performed as expected but all 180 test samples were negative. This structured snapshot survey suggests that common domestic animals living in and around humans do not shed M. ulcerans in their feces. We conclude that, unlike the Australian native possum, domestic animals in rural Ghana are unlikely to be major reservoirs of M. ulcerans. PMID:27280071

  5. All-Sky Infrared Survey

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-17

    This infrared view of the whole sky highlights the flat plane of our Milky Way galaxy line across middle of image. NASA WISE, will take a similar infrared census of the whole sky, only with much improved resolution and sensitivity.

  6. OT1_eegami_4: SPIRE Snapshot Survey of Massive Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, E.

    2010-07-01

    For deep imaging longward of 100 um, confusion noise sets the fundamental sensitivity limits achievable with Herschel, and these limits cannot be improved by integrating longer. To penetrate through this confusion limit and detect faint high-redshift galaxies, gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters offers a very powerful and yet cheap solution. For this reason, we are currently conducting a PACS/SPIRE imaging survey of ~40 massive lensing clusters as one of the Herschel Key Programs, "The Herschel Lensing Survey" (PI: Egami, 292.3 hrs). Although this program is producing many exciting results as reported in our 5 Herschel special-issue papers, one thing is becoming clear: it is extremely difficult to find lensed galaxies that are bright enough (> 200 mJy in SPIRE bands) to perform spectroscopy with PACS/SPIRE. This disappointment, however, was quickly overcome by the serendipitous discovery of an exceptionally bright (~500 mJy@350 um) z=2.3 galaxy lensed by a massive cluster at z=0.325. This discovery suggests that if we survey a large enough cluster sample, we will find similarly bright lensed sources that make all kinds of exciting follow-up observations possible. Here, we propose to conduct such a survey by taking advantage of the Millennium Cluster Sample constructed from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey with many years of extensive follow-ups. More specifically, we will conduct a SPIRE snapshot survey of 279 X-ray-selected clusters. SPIRE's great sensitivity and observing efficiency means that we can complete this program in only 27 hours while achieving a nearly confusion-limited sensitivity of 10 mJy (1 sigma). Such a depth will allow all kinds of secondary science projects as well. Although SPIRE wide-area surveys like H-ATLAS will also discover many bright lensed galaxies, these sources are mostly lensed by galaxies and not clusters, which makes our approach an economic alternative to investigate a different type of lensed systems.

  7. Using Internet Snapshot Surveys to Enhance Our Understanding of the Availability of the Novel Psychoactive Substance Alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT).

    PubMed

    Wood, David Michael; Dargan, Paul Ivor

    2013-07-02

    Alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT) is a novel psychoactive substance available over the Internet. This study used European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) Internet snapshot methodology to investigate the availability and cost of AMT in March/October 2012. From March to October 2012, there was a decrease in the number of Internet sites selling AMT (44 to 31). AMT powder was cheaper in "bulk" (100 g) than in "recreational-user" (100 mg) quantities, and there was a decrease in price. Data from Internet snapshot surveys complement and allow triangulation of data from other sources to build a more detailed picture on availability and use of novel psychoactive substances.

  8. NEOWISE: A Mid-Infrared Synoptic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J. R.; Wright, E. L.; Nugent, C.; Stevenson, R.; Fabinsky, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer surveyed the entire sky in four infrared wavelengths (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns) over the course of one year. The mission’s long wavelength infrared channels were cooled by solid hydrogen; after its depletion, the mission continued using the two shortest wavelengths. Following completion of its one year survey, the mission was placed into hibernation. NASA has recently enabled the restart of the mission to discover, detect and characterize near-Earth objects (NEOs) using the 3.4 and 4.6 micron channels. With these wavelengths, it is possible to derive radiometric effective spherical diameters for NEOs with ~25% accuracy. In the process of surveying for NEOs over three years, NEOWISE will cover the sky multiple times, enabling a wide range of scientific investigations.

  9. Far infrared all-sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    An all-sky survey at submillimeter waves is examined. Far-infrared all-sky surveys were performed using high-thoroughput bolometric detectors from a one-meter balloon telescope. Based on the large-bodied experience obtained with the original all-sky survey telescope, a number of radically different approaches were implemented. Continued balloon measurements of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background were performed.

  10. An infrared survey of RW Aurigae stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, I. S.; Penston, M. V.

    1974-01-01

    An infrared photometric survey of 89 RW Aur type variables in both hemispheres has been made. JHKL magnitudes and colors are listed. The RW Aur variables include a small number of highly reddened late-type stars. All T Tauri and hot Orion population stars show infrared excesses and the infrared properties mark certain field stars as being young. The greatest infrared excesses are found for A and F stars while young variable B stars usually show no excesses. The location of the RW Aur stars in the two-color H-K, K-L diagram favor dust re-radiation over free-free emission as the mechanism responsible for the infrared excess. A weak correlation of H-K with emission class links the occurrence of circumstellar dust and gas shells.

  11. UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for Fe+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Joon; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Shinn, Jong-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Yesol; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Chun, Moo-Young; Froebrich, Dirk; Davis, Chris J.; Varricatt, Watson P.; Kyeong, Jaemann; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Hyung Mok; Ishiguro, Masateru

    2014-09-01

    The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Widefield Infrared Survey for Fe+ (UWIFE) is a 180 deg2 imaging survey of the first Galactic quadrant (7° < l < 62°; |b| ≲ 1.5°) that uses a narrow-band filter centred on the [Fe II] 1.644-μm emission line. The [Fe II] 1.644-μm emission is a good tracer of dense, shock-excited gas, and the survey will probe violent environments around stars: star-forming regions, evolved stars, and supernova remnants, among others. The UWIFE survey is designed to complement the existing UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for H2 (UWISH2). The survey will also complement existing broad-band surveys. The observed images have a nominal 5σ detection limit of 18.7 mag for point sources, with a median seeing of 0.83 arcsec. For extended sources, we estimate a surface brightness limit of 8.1 × 10-20 W m-2 arcsec-2. In this paper, we present an overview and some preliminary results of this survey.

  12. The Infrared Sky: A Survey of Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    Crab kNioroy. 19614.) and Orion 1915, 19""), Abbott 01924), Pettit atid Nicholson (1928, nebulae jhloroz 1964b), and anl attempt at maappling the M933... Mexico (WSMR) survey was seen as the next step. Based on their previous u 1965 October 29 but failed to detect any signals (Har- experience, NRL was... spider -like 182 STEPHAN D. PRICE filanets, clunips, and long arching structures composed from the galactic plane (Soidr, Houck, and Neugebauer of small

  13. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    We present WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) mid-infrared photometry of young stellar object candidates in the Canis Majoris clouds at a distance of 1 kpc. WISE has identified 682 objects with apparent 12 and 22 micron excess emission in a 7 deg x 10 deg field around the CMa Rl cloud . While a substantial fraction of these candidates are likely galaxies, AGB stars, and artifacts from confusion along the galactic plane, others are part of a spectacular cluster of YSOs imaged by WISE along a dark filament in the R1 cloud. Palomar Double Spectrograph observations of several sources in this cluster confirm their identity as young A and B stars with strong emission lines. In this contribution, we plot the optical -mid-infrared spectral energy distribution for the WISE YSO candidates and discuss potential contaminants to the sample . The data demonstrate the utility of WISE in performing wide-area surveys for young stellar objects.

  14. Survey Of Infrared-Absorbing Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon M.; Howitt, Richard V.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon black and silicon carbide grit low reflectance additives. Report presents results of survey of candidate materials for use as attenuators of stray radiation in far-infrared telescopes. More than 40 reflectance spectra at 17 degrees incidence, in wave-length range from 20 to 500 micrometer, obtained from variety of coatings, binders, and additives.

  15. Line Focus Receiver Infrared Temperature Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, Tim

    2010-06-01

    For ongoing maintenance and performance purposes, solar parabolic trough field operators desire to know that the Heat Collection Elements (HCEs) are performing properly. Measuring their temperature is one way of doing this One 30MW field can contain approximately 10,000 HCE's. This software interfaces with a GPS receiver and an infrared camera. It takes global positioning data from the GPS and uses this information to automate the infrared image capture and temperature analysis of individual solar parabolic HCEs in a solar parabolic trough field With this software system an entire 30MW field can be surveyed in 2-3 days.

  16. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-18

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission will survey the entire sky in a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum called the mid-infrared with far greater sensitivity than any previous mission or program ever has.

  17. Beyond MACS: A Snapshot Survey of the Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies at z>0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald

    2014-10-01

    X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.3 play a pivotal role for a wealth of extragalactic and cosmological research topics, and SNAPshot observations of these systems are ideally suited to identify the most promising cluster targets for further, in-depth study. The power of this approach was demonstrated impressively by ACS/WFC3 SNAPshots of 81 MACS clusters at z>0.3 obtained by us in previous Cycles (28 of them in all of F606W, F814W, F110W, and F140W). Based on these data, the CLASH MCT program selected 16 out of 25 of their targets to be MACS clusters. The central role of X-ray luminous clusters in particular for gravitational-lensing work is further underlined by the fact that all but one of the six most powerful cluster lenses selected for in-depth study by the HST Frontier Fields initiative are MACS detections.We here propose to extend our spectacularly successful SNAPshot survey of the most X-ray luminous distant clusters to a redshift-mass regime that is poorly sampled by any other project. Targeting only extremely massive clusters at z>0.5 from the X-ray selected eMACS sample, the proposed program will (a) identify the most powerful gravitational telescopes at yet higher redshift for the next generation of in-depth studies of the distant Universe with HST and JWST, (b) provide constraints on the mass distribution within these extreme systems, (c) help improve our understanding of the physical nature of galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and (d) unveil Distant Red Galaxies as well as z>6 Ly-alpha emitters as F814W dropouts.Acknowledging the broad community interest in our sample we waive our data rights for these observations.

  18. Far-infrared surveys of the sky.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, W F; Woolf, N J; Frederick, C L; Low, F J

    1967-07-14

    A series of far-infrared surveys of the sky is searching for thermal radiation from interstellar grains and for other localized sources of far-infrared radiation. A balloon-borne germanium bolometer, cooled by liquid helium, is used in association with a telescope and spectral filters. During two initial flights the response to a black-body source was mainly between 300 and 360 microns. Approximately half the celestial sphere was surveyed, including most of the northern Milky Way. The angular resolution was 2 degrees. Moon was the only source of thermal radiation detected. The upper limit on the differential flux, relative to background, from other sources was 2 x 10(-23) watt per square centimeter per hertz, corresponding to an antenna temperature of 0.6 degrees K in the Rayleigh-Jeans approximation, or 10 degrees K for a black body.

  19. A Snapshot Survey of AGNS/QSOS for Intergalactic Medium Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Sembach, George

    2005-01-01

    This spectroscopic program with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program was designed to identify ultraviolet-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) for follow-up spectroscopy with FUSE and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). All of the FUSE spectra obtained for this snapshot program (FUSE identifier D808) have been examined for data quality and flux levels. As expected, only a small number of objects observed (4/19) have flux levels suitable for follow-up spectroscopy. A portion of our effort in this program was devoted to comparing the spectra obtained in these snapshot exposures to others to determine if the spectra could be used for detailed scientific analyses. The resulting effort demonstrated that some of the brighter sources are relatively stable (non- variable), as determined through comparisons of the spectra at multiple epochs. For these brighter sources, the exposure times are simply too short to perform meaningful detailed analyses. Comparisons of the absorption lines in these spectra with those of higher signal-to-noise spectra, like those of PG1116+215 and H1821+643, showed that many of the lines of interest could not be characterized adequately at the S/N levels reached in the short snapshot exposures. As a result, the FUSE D808 observations are suitable only for their original purpose - flux determination. Several bright objects identified as part of this program include: HE0153-4520, flux >2x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 at 1000 Angstroms IRASF04250-5718, flux >4x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms RXJ2154.1-4414, flux > 1.6x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms S50716+714, flux >2.5x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms. All of these objects have been incorporated into the primary target lists for the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Identifying such objects for follow-up observations with HST/COS was the primary goal of this program, so the program wa successful. In addition, some of the

  20. Infrared Applications In Transmission System Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Guy; Fernandez, Joe

    1988-01-01

    Five California Utilities participated in an electric power transmission and distribution system survey in the late fall of 1987. The survey consisted of visual and Infrared (IR) inspection of 12.5-kV to 230-kV AC transmission lines and equipment. This paper summarizes the results of the survey, including a cost/benefit analysis. The participating utilities, under Western Area Power Administration's sponsorship, were the City of Lodi, City of Roseville, Plumas-Sierra Rural Electric Cooperative, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, and Sierra Pacific Power Company. Three hundred miles of line and thirty substations were inspected using a helicopter and a high resolution infrared camera with visual recording capabilities. The transmission and distribution system covered a broad range of terrain; valleys, foothills, and mountains. All five utilities recognized the value of the IR inspection. The procedure gave the maintenance staff advanced notice of problem areas such as (1) loose connections on switches, (2) unbalanced lines, (3) poor splices, and (4) capacitor and transformer bank malfunction. In addition, the staff saw its potential in environmental and safety applications. The initial data shows an increased capacity carrying and reliability providing capability of about 50 KW per 100 transmission line miles. This capability increase results in a B/C ratio of about three. Other applications in transmission system surveys are worthy of study. These applications include power theft and vandalism. Also, the Utility can use technology as an effective public relations tool with customers by providing services such as roof and building envelope inspections.

  1. a Snapshot Survey of X-Ray Selected Central Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Alastair

    1999-07-01

    Central cluster galaxies are the most massive stellar systems known and have been used as standard candles for many decades. Only recently have central cluster galaxies been recognised to exhibit a wide variety of small scale {<100 pc} features that can only be reliably detected with HST resolution. The most intriguing of these are dust lanes which have been detected in many central cluster galaxies. Dust is not expected to survive long in the hostile cluster environment unless shielded by the ISM of a disk galaxy or very dense clouds of cold gas. WFPC2 snapshot images of a representative subset of the central cluster galaxies from an X-ray selected cluster sample would provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of dust in cluster cores that cannot be obtained from ground-based observations. In addition, these images will allow the AGN component, the frequency of multiple nuclei, and the amount of massive-star formation in central cluster galaxies to be ass es sed. The proposed HST observatio ns would also provide high-resolution images of previously unresolved gravitational arcs in the most massive clusters in our sample resulting in constraints on the shape of the gravitational potential of these systems. This project will complement our extensive multi-frequency work on this sample that includes optical spectroscopy and photometry, VLA and X-ray images for the majority of the 210 targets.

  2. The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D.; Taylor, B. W.

    2012-06-01

    The scientific motivation, data collection strategy, data reduction, and analysis methods are presented for the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS). The chief goal for the Survey was to reveal the nature of the magnetic field threading the Galactic disk, in particular through regions of low to moderate extinction (1-20 mag of AV ) and star formation in the cool interstellar medium. The Survey region spans 76 deg2 of the northern Milky Way disk, from l = 18° to 56° and b =-1° to +1°. Linear polarimetric imaging observations began in 2006 in the near-infrared H band (1.6 μm) using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope, located outside Flagstaff, AZ. Mimir used a cold, fixed wire grid and a rotateable cold, compound half-wave plate to obtain "step-and-integrate" polarimetry over its full 10 × 10 arcmin field of view. The GPIPS bright and faint polarimetric limits are approximately 7th and 15th mag, respectively, set by saturation and photon noise. Polarimetric uncertainties track with stellar magnitude, from about 0.1% to 25%, on average, from the brightest to faintest stars. Across the 3237 field GPIPS region, approximately 0.5 million stars are estimated to show detectable linear polarization (P/σ P > 3); most of these have mH < 12. This represents many orders of magnitude improvement in the number of polarization measurements across this region. GPIPS observations are more than 90% complete and should finish in 2012.

  3. THE GALACTIC PLANE INFRARED POLARIZATION SURVEY (GPIPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D.; Taylor, B. W. E-mail: apinnick@bu.edu E-mail: bwtaylor@bu.edu

    2012-06-01

    The scientific motivation, data collection strategy, data reduction, and analysis methods are presented for the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS). The chief goal for the Survey was to reveal the nature of the magnetic field threading the Galactic disk, in particular through regions of low to moderate extinction (1-20 mag of A{sub V} ) and star formation in the cool interstellar medium. The Survey region spans 76 deg{sup 2} of the northern Milky Way disk, from l = 18 Degree-Sign to 56 Degree-Sign and b =-1 Degree-Sign to +1 Degree-Sign . Linear polarimetric imaging observations began in 2006 in the near-infrared H band (1.6 {mu}m) using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope, located outside Flagstaff, AZ. Mimir used a cold, fixed wire grid and a rotateable cold, compound half-wave plate to obtain 'step-and-integrate' polarimetry over its full 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 arcmin field of view. The GPIPS bright and faint polarimetric limits are approximately 7th and 15th mag, respectively, set by saturation and photon noise. Polarimetric uncertainties track with stellar magnitude, from about 0.1% to 25%, on average, from the brightest to faintest stars. Across the 3237 field GPIPS region, approximately 0.5 million stars are estimated to show detectable linear polarization (P/{sigma}{sub P} > 3); most of these have m{sub H} < 12. This represents many orders of magnitude improvement in the number of polarization measurements across this region. GPIPS observations are more than 90% complete and should finish in 2012.

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Snapshot Survey of 3CR Quasars: The Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Matthew D.; Miley, George K.; Sparks, William B.; Baum, Stefi A.; Biretta, John; Golombek, Daniel; de Koff, Sigrid; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    1999-08-01

    We present images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of 43 quasars selected from the 3CR radio catalog. The redshift range of the targets is large--0.3<~z<~2--and allows us to probe the nature of quasar hosts from about 20% to 80% of the age of the universe. These data were taken in the course of a large program that imaged 267 3CR radio galaxies and quasars using the HST in ``snapshot'' mode. Each quasar was centered on the Planetary Camera (PC1) and was imaged through the F702W filter (bandpass similar to Cousins R). Typical integration times were 5 and 10 minutes. For each quasar, we attempted to judge the contribution of the host galaxy to the total light from the quasar in two ways. The first method was to compare the radial light distributions of the quasars with that of both model point spread function and an empirical PSF constructed by summing individual observations of standard stars. Second, to provide morphological information we attempted to remove the contribution of the quasar nucleus from the extended emission by subtracting a point spread function constructed from observations of standard stars. This second method proved to be more sensitive in detecting marginally extended emission. Our analysis suggests that the quasar fuzz contributes from less than 5% to nearly 100% in the most extreme case (about 20% being typical) of the total light from the quasar, with 16 of the quasars (~40%) being unresolved according to the analysis of their light profiles (with only 7 being considered unresolved determined by PSF subtraction of the quasar images). The magnitudes of the hosts range from about 18 to more than 21 in the F702W filter and the sizes are typically 1"-2" at a limiting surface brightness of ~21-22mF702W arcsec-2. Comparisons with the few ground-based images that are available of these sources suggest good overall morphological agreement with the HST images. The 0.1" resolution of the HST PC

  5. The Las Campanas Infrared Survey Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, S. E.; Murphy, D. C.; Gunnels, S. M.; Birk, C.; Bagish, A.; Koch, E.

    2002-07-01

    The Las Campanas Infrared Survey Camera is a near-infrared (1.0-2.5 μm), wide-area instrument used to detect and measure the photometric properties of galaxies out to large redshifts, z>2. The camera, a modified Offner 1:1 reimaging optical system, is mounted at the f/7.5 focus of the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope. The detectors are four Rockwell 1024×1024 HgCdTe (HAWAII) arrays operating at a scale of 0.20" pixel-1. With four telescope pointings, the instrument produces a pipelined mosaic of J, H, or Ks images 13'×13' on the sky, with a measured point-spread function as good as 0.38" FWHM. The good imaging quality results in part from fast tip-tilt guiding on stars within a 9'×9' field centered on the optical axis of the telescope. Appropriately bright guide stars are found within 2 s from a catalog of 5×107 stars and presented as a ``finding chart'' to the observer. The optical, mechanical, and thermal design choices and their associated engineering implementations are discussed in some detail. The detector readout electronics, the automatic data acquisition and control system, and our data reduction pipeline are also described. The design goals of the camera-excellent imaging quality and throughput, low flexure and internal background, and 5 Hz on-axis guiding, are all realized and quantified.

  6. School Library Snapshots: A Brief Survey of Illinois School Library Collections in Three Areas of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Carol; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a survey of Illinois school library collections in astronomy, space, and the solar system; general biology and ecology; and human anatomy, physiology, and hygiene. The survey produced statistics on funding needs; provided a collection assessment tool; and determined whether libraries had resources for supporting state goals for science…

  7. School Library Snapshots: A Brief Survey of Illinois School Library Collections in Three Areas of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Carol; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a survey of Illinois school library collections in astronomy, space, and the solar system; general biology and ecology; and human anatomy, physiology, and hygiene. The survey produced statistics on funding needs; provided a collection assessment tool; and determined whether libraries had resources for supporting state goals for science…

  8. Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot: regional variations in presentation and management of patients with AMI in 47 countries

    PubMed Central

    Puymirat, Etienne; Battler, Alex; Birkhead, John; Bueno, Hector; Clemmensen, Peter; Cottin, Yves; Fox, Keith AA; Gorenek, Bulent; Hamm, Christian; Huber, Kurt; Lettino, Maddalena; Lindahl, Bertil; Müller, Christian; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Price, Susanna; Quinn, Tom; Schiele, Francois; Simoons, Maarten; Tatu-Chitoiu, Gabriel; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Detailed data on patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on a European-wide basis are lacking. The Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot was designed to assess characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes of AMI patients throughout European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member countries in a contemporary ‘real-world’ setting, using a methodology designed to improve the representativeness of the survey. Methods: Member countries of the ESC were invited to participate in a 1-week survey of all patients admitted for documented AMI in December 2009. Data on baseline characteristics, type of AMI, management, and complications were recorded using a dedicated electronic form. In addition, we used data collected during the same time period in national registries in Sweden, England, and Wales. Data were centralized at the European Heart House. Results: Overall, 4236 patients (mean age 66±13 years; 31% women) were included in the study in 47 countries. Sixty per cent of patients had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, with 50% having primary percutaneous coronary intervention and 21% fibrinolysis. Aspirin and thienopyridines were used in >90%. Unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins were the most commonly used anticoagulants. Statins, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were used in >80% of the patients. In-hospital mortality was 6.2%. Regional differences were observed, both in terms of population characteristics, management, and outcomes. Conclusions: In-hospital mortality of patients admitted for AMI in Europe is low. Although regional variations exist in their presentation and management, differences are limited and have only moderate impact on early outcomes. PMID:24338295

  9. OT2_eegami_6: SPIRE Snapshot Survey II: Using SPT/CODEX Massive Clusters as Powerful Gravitational Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, E.

    2011-09-01

    On the extragalactic side, one of the most remarkable results coming out of Herschel is the discovery of extremely bright (>100 mJy in the SPIRE bands) gravitationally lensed galaxies. The great sensitivity and mapping speed of SPIRE have enabled us to find these rare extraordinary objects. What is truly exciting about these bright lensed galaxies is that they enable a variety of detailed multi-wavelength follow-up observations, shedding new light on the physical properties of these high-redshift sources. In this regard, our OT1 program, "SPIRE Snapshot Survey of Massive Galaxy Clusters" turned out to be a great success. After imaging ~50 galaxies out of 279 in the program, we have already found two spectacularly bright lensed galaxies, one of which is at a redshift of 4.69. This type of cluster-lensed sources are not only bright but also spatially stretched over a large scale, so ALMA (or NOEMA in the north) is likely to be able to study them at the level of individual GMCs. Such studies will open up a new frontier in the study of high-redshift galaxies. Here, we propose to extend this highly efficient and effective survey of gravitationally lensed galaxies to another 353 clusters carefully chosen from the SPT and CODEX cluster samples. These samples contain newly discovered high-redshift (z>0.3) massive (>3-4e14 Msun) clusters, which can be used as powerful gravitational lenses to magnify sources at high redshift. With the OT1 and OT2 surveys together, we expect to find ~20 highly magnified SPIRE sources with exceptional brightnesses (assuming a discovery rate of ~1/30). Such a unique sample of extraordinary objects will enable a variety of follow-up sciences, and will therefore remain as a great legacy of the Herschel mission for years to come.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Community for Data Integration-NWIS Web Services Snapshot Tool for ArcGIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holl, Sally

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data resources are so vast that many scientists are unaware of data holdings that may be directly relevant to their research. Data are also difficult to access and large corporate databases, such as the National Water Information System (NWIS) that houses hydrologic data for the Nation, are challenging to use without considerable expertise and investment of time. The USGS Community for Data Integration (CDI) was established in 2009 to address data and information management issues affecting the proficiency of earth science research. A CDI workshop convened in 2009 identified common data integration needs of USGS scientists and targeted high value opportunities that might address these needs by leveraging existing projects in USGS science centers, in-kind contributions, and supplemental funding. To implement this strategy, CDI sponsored a software development project in 2010 to facilitate access and use of NWIS data with ArcGIS, a widely used Geographic Information System. The resulting software product, the NWIS Web Services Snapshot Tool for ArcGIS, is presented here.

  11. School Library Snapshots: A Brief Survey of Illinois School Library Collections in Three Areas of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois School Library Media Association, Fairfield.

    To study the strengths and weaknesses of Illinois school library collections in science and to quantify the need for increased funding for collection development, a survey was completed by over 400 members of the Illinois School Library Media Association. Topics of interest were astronomy, space, the solar system, general biology, ecology, human…

  12. Infrared Testing of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope Grism Using Computer Generated Holograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Content, David A.; Gong, Qian; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John G.; Marx, Catherine T; Whipple, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) were designed, manufactured and used to measure the performance of the grism (grating prism) prototype which includes testing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The grism in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will allow the surveying of a large section of the sky to find bright galaxies.

  13. The Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2014-10-01

    We propose uniquely deep near-infrared spectroscopy using the WFC3 IR grism down to a continuum limit of J=26.5, and line flux limit 4e-18 ergs/cm^2/s, yielding spectra of 6000 sources in 4 fields. Only Hubble can achieve such sensitivity, as we have demonstrated in our previous deep grism surveys with ACS.With the deep spectra obtained in the FIGS survey we will:(1) Probe the reionization epoch by spectroscopy of galaxies at z = 5.5-8.5, whether or not they show Lyman-alpha (LyA) line emission. Continuum breaks are hard to detect from the ground and LyA lines may be scarce at these redshifts. Spectroscopic redshifts will probe galaxy clustering and improve luminosity measurements, thereby improving estimatesof reionizing photons by at least 40%.(2) Robustly measure the fraction of galaxies with high EW LyA, to measure the neutral fraction of the IGM. We will be sensitive to LyA lines in the central period of reionization where we expect to see a change in LyA fraction.(3) Illuminate the formation processes of early type galaxies at 1

  14. WINGS: WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Benjamin

    WFIRST's combination of wide field and high resolution will revolutionize the study of nearby galaxies. We propose to produce and analyze simulated WFIRST data of nearby galaxies and their halos to maximize the scientific yield in the limited observing time available, ensuring the legacy value of WFIRST's eventual archive. We will model both halo structure and resolved stellar populations to optimize WFIRST's constraints on both dark matter and galaxy formation models in the local universe. WFIRST can map galaxy structure down to ~35 mag/square arcsecond using individual stars. The resulting maps of stellar halos and accreting dwarf companions will provide stringent tests of galaxy formation and dark matter models on galactic (and even sub-galactic) scales, which is where the most theoretical tension exists with the Lambda-CDM model. With a careful, coordinated plan, WFIRST can be expected to improve current sample sizes by 2 orders of magnitude, down to surface brightness limits comparable to those currently reached only in the Local Group, and that are >4 magnitudes fainter than achievable from the ground due to limitations in star-galaxy separation. WFIRST's maps of galaxy halos will simultaneously produce photometry for billions of stars in the main bodies of galaxies within 10 Mpc. These data will transform studies of star formation histories that track stellar mass growth as a function of time and position within a galaxy. They also will constrain critical stellar evolution models of the near-infrared bright, rapidly evolving stars that can contribute significantly to the integrated light of galaxies in the near-infrared. Thus, with WFIRST we can derive the detailed evolution of individual galaxies, reconstruct the complete history of star formation in the nearby universe, and put crucial constraints on the theoretical models used to interpret near-infrared extragalactic observations. We propose a three-component work plan that will ensure these gains by

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-05-01

    We have conducted an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of 70 Galactic Cepheids, typically within 1 kpc, with the aim of finding resolved physical companions. The WFC3 field typically covers the 0.1 pc area where companions are expected. In this paper, we identify 39 Cepheids having candidate companions, based on their positions in color-magnitude diagrams, and having separations ⩾ 5'' from the Cepheids. We use follow-up observations of 14 of these candidates with XMM-Newton, and of one of them with ROSAT, to separate X-ray-active young stars (probable physical companions) from field stars (chance alignments). Our preliminary estimate, based on the optical and X-ray observations, is that only 3% of the Cepheids in the sample have wide companions. Our survey easily detects resolved main-sequence companions as faint as spectral type K. Thus the fact that the two most probable companions (those of FF Aql and RV Sco) are earlier than type K is not simply a function of the detection limit. We find no physical companions having separations larger than 4000 au in the X-ray survey. Two Cepheids are exceptions in that they do have young companions at significantly larger separations (δ Cep and S Nor), but both belong to a cluster or a loose association, so our working model is that they are not gravitationally bound binary members, but rather cluster/association members. All of these properties provide constraints on both star formation and subsequent dynamical evolution. The low frequency of true physical companions at separations > 5'' is confirmed by examination of the subset of the nearest Cepheids and also the density of the fields. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  16. The snapshot Hubble U-band cluster survey (SHUCS). II. The star cluster population of NGC 2997

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, J. E.; Gallagher, J. S. III; Adamo, A.; Bastian, N.; Smith, L. J.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Larsen, S.; Zackrisson, E.

    2014-08-01

    We study the star cluster population of NGC 2997, a giant spiral galaxy located at 9.5 Mpc and targeted by the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS). Combining our U-band imaging from SHUCS with archival BVI imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, we select a high confidence sample of clusters in the circumnuclear ring and disk through a combination of automatic detection procedures and visual inspection. The cluster luminosity functions in all four filters can be approximated by power laws with indices of –1.7 to –2.3. Some deviations from pure power-law shape are observed, hinting at the presence of a high-mass truncation in the cluster mass function. However, upon inspection of the cluster mass function, we find it is consistent with a pure power law of index –2.2 ± 0.2 despite a slight bend at ∼2.5 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}. No statistically significant truncation is observed. From the cluster age distributions, we find a low rate of disruption (ζ ∼ –0.1) in both the disk and circumnuclear ring. Finally, we estimate the cluster formation efficiency (Γ) over the last 100 Myr in each region, finding 7% ± 2% for the disk, 12% ± 4% for the circumnuclear ring, and 10% ± 3% for the entire UBVI footprint. This study highlights the need for wide-field UBVI coverage of galaxies to study cluster populations in detail, though a small sample of clusters can provide significant insight into the characteristics of the population.

  17. A snapshot survey of perceptions of healthcare professionals on ageing surgeons.

    PubMed

    Rajaratnam, Vaikunthan; Kumar, Chandra M; Roy Chowdhury, Anupama; Su, Chang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this research was to understand healthcare professionals' perception of the continued practice of ageing surgeons in Singapore. A quantitative method was chosen for this research to determine healthcare professionals' perception of the practice of ageing surgeons. Ethical approval was obtained from the local ethical review board. A cross-sectional method using a population survey was performed among healthcare professionals in two tertiary institutions and the study was confined to stakeholders in practices of ageing surgeons. The population sampled was limited to nurses in the theatre, anaesthetists, surgeons and geriatricians (physicians). An online questionnaire was designed for the survey that took into consideration the various conceptual frameworks of ageing surgeons' practice that was obtained from a literature review. There were 104 respondents of a population of 350 sampled (theatre nurses, anaesthetists, physicians and surgeons) giving a respondent rate of 30%. The mean age of the participants was 39.7; 72% were doctors (surgeons 34%, physicians 20% and anaesthetists 18%) and 28% nurses. Only 35% agreed with the statement that older surgeons face deterioration in cognitive faculties and 29% remained neutral. A similar trend was seen with the perception that older surgeons face a decline in memory. However, 44% agreed with the statement that older surgeons face a decline in visuospatial ability and another 40% agreed that they had a decline in psychomotor skills and reaction time. Fifty per cent agreed with the statement that they face deterioration in physical abilities. Sixty-three per cent did not think that older surgeons face a decline in reasoning and judgement. Forty-eight per cent believed that older surgeons' vast fund of knowledge and experience could compensate for physical and cognitive changes. Only 13% agreed with the statement that older surgeons have higher surgical mortality. Forty-five per cent agreed that the retirement age

  18. Artist Concept of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer WISE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-08

    Artist concept of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. A new NASA mission will scan the entire sky in infrared light in search of nearby cool stars, planetary construction zones and the brightest galaxies in the universe. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06927

  19. Space-based infrared surveys of small bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, M.

    2014-07-01

    Most small bodies in the Solar System are too small and too distant to be spatially resolved, precluding a direct diameter derivation. Furthermore, measurements of the optical brightness alone only allow a rough estimate of the diameter, since the surface albedo is usually unknown and can have values between about 3 % and 60 % or more. The degeneracy can be resolved by considering the thermal emission of these objects, which is less prone to albedo effects and mainly a function of the diameter. Hence, the combination of optical and thermal-infrared observational data provides a means to independently derive an object's diameter and albedo. This technique is used in asteroid thermal models or more sophisticated thermophysical models (see, e.g., [1]). Infrared observations require cryogenic detectors and/or telescopes, depending on the actual wavelength range observed. Observations from the ground are additionally compromised by the variable transparency of Earth's atmosphere in major portions of the infrared wavelength ranges. Hence, space-based infrared telescopes, providing stable conditions and significantly better sensitivities than ground-based telescopes, are now used routinely to exploit this wavelength range. Two observation strategies are used with space-based infrared observatories: Space-based Infrared All-Sky Surveys. Asteroid surveys in the thermal infrared are less prone to albedo-related discovery bias compared to surveys with optical telescopes, providing a more complete picture of small body populations. The first space-based infrared survey of Solar System small bodies was performed with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) for 10 months in 1983. In the course of the 'IRAS Minor Planet Survey' [2], 2228 asteroids (3 new discoveries) and more than 25 comets (6 new discoveries) were observed. More recent space-based infrared all-sky asteroid surveys were performed by Akari (launched 2006) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of 640x486 GaAs Based Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Snapshot Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hong, W.; Sundaram, M.; Carralejo, R.; Shott, C. A.; Maker, P. D.; Miller, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long wavelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array (FPA) and its performance in quantum efficiency, NE(delta)T, uniformity, and operability.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of 640x486 GaAs Based Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Snapshot Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hong, W.; Sundaram, M.; Carralejo, R.; Shott, C. A.; Maker, P. D.; Miller, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long wavelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array (FPA) and its performance in quantum efficiency, NE(delta)T, uniformity, and operability.

  2. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  3. Nationwide Snapshot

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, Terry S.; Iverson, Megan M.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Britt, Michelle L.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this effort was to create a nationwide snapshot of the current residential building practices in the United States, and to identify trends in building practices as they relate to building energy efficiency. Information on typical insulation levels, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiencies, window profiles, and other residential building components and assemblies provided a foundation for (1) identifying trends in residential building practices over time, (2) assessing energy-efficiency improvements in single-family homes over time and correlating them with the applicable building energy codes if possible, and (3) identifying building energy code adoption and compliance needs. This report seeks to identify trends in the residential building practice from 1996 to 2009.

  4. Infrared airborne spectroradiometer survey results in the western Nevada area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.; Kuo, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark II airborne spectroradiometer system was flown over several geologic test sites in western Nevada. The infrared mineral absorption bands were observed and recorded for the first time using an airborne system with high spectral resolution in the 2.0 to 2.5 micron region. The data show that the hydrothermal alteration zone minerals, carbonates, and other minerals are clearly visible in the airborne survey mode. The finer spectral features that distinguish the various minerals with infrared bands are also clearly visible in the airborne survey data. Using specialized computer pattern recognition methods, it is possible to identify mineralogy and map alteration zones and lithologies by airborne spectroradiometer survey techniques.

  5. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: results from the first European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation (ESS-PRAFA) Part II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos; Hocini, Melece; Fauchier, Laurent; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Defaye, Pascal; Hernandez-Madrid, Antonio; Estner, Heidi; Sciaraffia, Elena; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-11-01

    The European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation (ESS-PRAFA) is a prospective, multicentre snapshot survey collecting patient-based data on current clinical practices during atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. The participating centres were asked to prospectively enrol consecutive patients during a 6-week period (from September to October 2014). A web-based case report form was employed to collect information of patients and data of procedures. A total of 455 eligible consecutive patients from 13 countries were enrolled (mean age 59 ± 10.8 years, 28.8% women). Distinct strategies and endpoints were collected for AF ablation procedures. Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was performed in 96.7% and served as the endpoint in 91.3% of procedures. A total of 52 (11.5%) patients underwent ablation as first-line therapy. The cryoballoon technique was employed in 31.4% of procedures. Procedure, ablation, and fluoroscopy times differed among various types of AF ablation. Divergences in patient selection and complications were observed among low-, medium-, and high-volume centres. Adverse events were observed in 4.6% of AF ablation procedures. In conclusion, PVI was still the main strategy for AF ablation. Procedure-related complications seemed not to have declined. The centre volume played an important role in patient selection, strategy choice, and had impact on the rate of periprocedural complication.

  6. AKARI Mid-Infrared All-sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, D.; Onaka, T.; Kataza, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Takita, S.; Alfageme, C.; Cohen, M.; Fujishiro, N.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Hasegawa, S.; Ita, Y.; Kim, W.; Nakagawa, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Murakami, H.; Ohyama, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Pyo, J.; Sakon, I.; Salama, A.; Stephenson, C.; Shibai, H.; Tanabe, T.; Uemizu, K.; Ueno, M.; Usui, F.; Wada, T.; Watarai, H.; Yamauchi, C.; Yamamura, I.

    2009-08-01

    AKARI All-sky Survey observations were carried out in the mid- to far-infrared spectral region with six photometric bands during the cryogenic mission phase of AKARI from May 8, 2006 to August 26, 2007. This paper reports the mid-infrared part of the AKARI all-sky survey. It was carried out with two mid-infrared broad bands centered at 9 and 18 μm. More than 90 percent of entire sky was observed by both bands during this period. The 5σ sensitivities for point sources are about 50 and 120 mJy, respectively. The spatial resolution is better than 10'' at both bands. The AKARI mid-infrared survey achieved a deeper sensitivity and a finer spatial resolution than the previous IRAS survey, the AKARI mid-infrared survey has the sensitivity to detect a debris disk of β Pic at a distance of 100 pc and several new debris disk candidates have already been discovered at 18 μm in a preliminary study, separately discussed by Fujiwara et al. (in this volume). More debris disk candidates are expected to be found in further investigations, which will make a significant impact on the statistical study of debris disks.

  7. Airborne infrared mineral mapping survey of Marysvale, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Infrared spectroradiometer survey results from flights over the Marysvale, Utah district show that hydrothermal alteration mineralogy can be mapped using very rapid and effective airborne techniques. The system detects alteration mineral absorption band intensities in the infrared spectral region with high sensitivity. The higher resolution spectral features and high spectral differences characteristic of the various clay and carbonate minerals are also readily identified by the instrument allowing the mineralogy to be mapped as well as the mineralization intensity.

  8. AKARI Infrared Camera Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, T.; Kato, D.; Ita, Y.; Onaka, T.; AKARI/IRC LMC Team

    2017-03-01

    We conducted an unbiased near- to mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) as a part of the AKARI Mission Program "Large-area Survey of the LMC" (LSLMC, PI: T. Onaka). An area of about 10 square degrees of the LMC was observed by five photometric bands (3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 μm) and a low-resolution slitless prism (2 - 5 μm, R ∼20) equipped with AKARI/IRC. We constructed and publicly released photometric and spectroscopic catalogues of point sources in the LMC based on the survey data. The catalogues provide a large number of near-infrared spectral data, coupled with complementary broadband photometric data. Combined use of the present AKARI LSLMC catalogues with other infrared point source catalogues of the LMC possesses scientific potential that can be applied to various astronomical studies.

  9. THE SPITZER ARCHIVAL FAR-INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Hanish, D. J.; Capak, P.; Teplitz, H. I.; Desai, V.; Armus, L.; Brinkworth, C.; Brooke, T.; Colbert, J.; Fadda, D.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R.; Edwards, L.; Frayer, D.; Huynh, M.; Lacy, M.; Murphy, E.; Scarlata, C.; Shenoy, S.

    2015-03-15

    We present the Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SAFIRES). This program produces refined mosaics and source lists for all far-infrared (FIR) extragalactic data taken during the more than six years of the cryogenic operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The SAFIRES products consist of FIR data in two wavelength bands (70 and 160 μm) across approximately 180 square degrees of sky, with source lists containing far-infrared fluxes for almost 40,000 extragalactic point sources. Thus, SAFIRES provides a large, robust archival far-infrared data set suitable for many scientific goals.

  10. THE SNAPSHOT HUBBLE U-BAND CLUSTER SURVEY (SHUCS). I. SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND FIRST APPLICATION TO THE MIXED STAR CLUSTER POPULATION OF NGC 4041

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Smith, L. J.; Adamo, A.; Silva-Villa, E.; Gallagher, J. S.; Ryon, J. E.; Bastian, N.; Westmoquette, M. S.; Zackrisson, E.; Larsen, S. S.; Charlton, J. C.

    2013-05-15

    We present the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS), a project aimed at characterizing the star cluster populations of 10 nearby galaxies (d < 23 Mpc, half within Almost-Equal-To 12 Mpc) through new F336W (U-band equivalent) imaging from Wide Field Camera 3, and archival BVI-equivalent data with the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing the UBVI baseline reduces the age-extinction degeneracy of optical colors, thus enabling the measurement of reliable ages and masses for the thousands of clusters covered by our survey. The sample consists chiefly of face-on spiral galaxies at low inclination, in various degrees of isolation (isolated, in group, merging), and includes two active galactic nucleus hosts. This first paper outlines the survey itself, the observational datasets, the analysis methods, and presents a proof-of-concept study of the large-scale properties and star cluster population of NGC 4041, a massive SAbc galaxy at a distance of Almost-Equal-To 23 Mpc, and part of a small grouping of six giant members. We resolve two structural components with distinct stellar populations, a morphology more akin to merging and interacting systems. We also find strong evidence of a truncated, Schechter-type mass function, and a similarly segmented luminosity function. These results indicate that binning must erase much of the substructure present in the mass and luminosity functions, and might account for the conflicting reports on the intrinsic shape of these functions in the literature. We also note a tidal feature in the outskirts of the galaxy in Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging, and follow it up with a comprehensive multi-wavelength study of NGC 4041 and its parent group. We deduce a minor merger as a likely cause of its segmented structure and the observed pattern of a radially decreasing star formation rate. We propose that combining the study of star cluster populations with broadband metrics is not only advantageous, but often easily achievable thorough

  11. The Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS). I. Survey Description and First Application to the Mixed Star Cluster Population of NGC 4041

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Smith, L. J.; Adamo, A.; Silva-Villa, E.; Gallagher, J. S.; Bastian, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Westmoquette, M. S.; Zackrisson, E.; Larsen, S. S.; Weisz, D. R.; Charlton, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    We present the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS), a project aimed at characterizing the star cluster populations of 10 nearby galaxies (d < 23 Mpc, half within ≈12 Mpc) through new F336W (U-band equivalent) imaging from Wide Field Camera 3, and archival BVI-equivalent data with the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing the UBVI baseline reduces the age-extinction degeneracy of optical colors, thus enabling the measurement of reliable ages and masses for the thousands of clusters covered by our survey. The sample consists chiefly of face-on spiral galaxies at low inclination, in various degrees of isolation (isolated, in group, merging), and includes two active galactic nucleus hosts. This first paper outlines the survey itself, the observational datasets, the analysis methods, and presents a proof-of-concept study of the large-scale properties and star cluster population of NGC 4041, a massive SAbc galaxy at a distance of ≈23 Mpc, and part of a small grouping of six giant members. We resolve two structural components with distinct stellar populations, a morphology more akin to merging and interacting systems. We also find strong evidence of a truncated, Schechter-type mass function, and a similarly segmented luminosity function. These results indicate that binning must erase much of the substructure present in the mass and luminosity functions, and might account for the conflicting reports on the intrinsic shape of these functions in the literature. We also note a tidal feature in the outskirts of the galaxy in Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging, and follow it up with a comprehensive multi-wavelength study of NGC 4041 and its parent group. We deduce a minor merger as a likely cause of its segmented structure and the observed pattern of a radially decreasing star formation rate. We propose that combining the study of star cluster populations with broadband metrics is not only advantageous, but often easily achievable thorough archival datasets. Based

  12. Hubble Space Telescope faint object spectrograph Quasar Absorption System Snapshot Survey (AbSnap). 1: Astrometric optical positions and finding charts of 269 bright QSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, David V.; Osmer, Samantha J.; Blades, J. Chris; Tytler, David; Cottrell, Lance; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.

    1994-01-01

    We present finding charts and optical positions accurate to less than 1 arcsec for 269 bright (V less than or = 18.5) Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs). These objects were selected as candidates for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Quasar Absorption System Snapshot Survey (AbSnap), a program designed to use the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) to obtain short exposure ultraviolet (UV) spectra of bright QSOs. Many quasars were included because of their proximity to bright, low redshift galaxies and positions of these QSOs are measured accurately for the first time. Data were obtained using the digitized sky survey produced by the Space Telescope Science Institute's Guide Stars Selection System Astrometric Support Program.

  13. A deep/wide 1-2 GHz snapshot survey of SDSS Stripe 82 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in a compact hybrid configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, I.; Jarvis, M. J.; Baker, A. J.; Bannister, K. W.; Carvalho, C. S.; Hardcastle, M.; Hilton, M.; Moodley, K.; Smirnov, O. M.; Smith, D. J. B.; White, S. V.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image ˜100 deg2 of SDSS Stripe 82 at 1-2 GHz. The survey consists of 1026 snapshot observations of 2.5 min duration, using the hybrid CnB configuration. The survey has good sensitivity to diffuse, low surface brightness structures and extended radio emission, making it highly synergistic with existing 1.4 GHz radio observations of the region. The principal data products are continuum images, with 16 × 10 arcsec resolution, and a catalogue containing 11 782 point and Gaussian components resulting from fits to the thresholded Stokes-I brightness distribution, forming approximately 8948 unique radio sources. The typical effective 1σ noise level is 88 μJy beam-1. Spectral index estimates are included, as derived from the 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth. Astrometric and photometric accuracy are in excellent agreement with existing narrowband observations. A large-scale simulation is used to investigate clean bias, which we extend into the spectral domain. Clean bias remains an issue for snapshot surveys with the VLA, affecting our total intensity measurements at the ˜1σ level. Statistical spectral index measurements are in good agreement with existing measurements derived from matching separate surveys at two frequencies. At flux densities below ˜35σ the median in-band spectral index measurements begin to exhibit a bias towards flatness that is dependent on both flux density and the intrinsic spectral index. In-band spectral curvature measurements are likely to be unreliable for all but the very brightest components. Image products and catalogues are publicly available via an FTP server.

  14. The Coordinated Radio and Infrared Survey for High-Mass Star Formation (The CORNISH Survey). I. Survey Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, M. G.; Purcell, C. R.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Cotton, W. D.; Chandler, C. J.; Smethurst, S.; Kurtz, S. E.; Mundy, L. G.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Jackson, J. M.; Garrington, S. T.; Gledhill, T. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lumsden, S. L.; Martí, J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Pandian, J. D.; Paredes, J. M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Spencer, R. E.; Thompson, M. A.; Umana, G.; Urquhart, J. S.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the motivation, design, and implementation of the CORNISH survey, an arcsecond-resolution radio continuum survey of the inner galactic plane at 5 GHz using the Very Large Array (VLA). It is a blind survey coordinated with the northern Spitzer GLIMPSE I region covering 10° < l < 65° and |b| < 1° at similar resolution. We discuss in detail the strategy that we employed to control the shape of the synthesised beam across this survey, which covers a wide range of fairly low declinations. Two snapshots separated by 4h kept the beam elongation to less that 1.5 over 75% of the survey area and less than 2 over 98% of the survey. The prime scientific motivation is to provide an unbiased survey for ultra-compact H II regions to study this key phase in massive star formation. A sensitivity around 2 mJy will allow the automatic distinction between radio-loud and radio-quiet mid-IR sources found in the Spitzer surveys. This survey has many legacy applications beyond star formation, including evolved stars, active stars and binaries, and extragalactic sources. The CORNISH survey for compact ionized sources complements other Galactic plane surveys that target diffuse and nonthermal sources, as well as atomic and molecular phases to build up a complete picture of the interstellar medium in the Galaxy.

  15. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-02-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of {approx}10 deg{sup 2} of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R {approx} 20) spectra in 2-5 {mu}m for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 {mu}m, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 {mu}m. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 {mu}m can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the

  16. The Spitzer Local Volume Legacy: Survey Description and Infrared Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Daniel; LVL Team

    2010-01-01

    The survey description and infrared properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, H-alpha, and HST imaging from 11HUGS and ANGST. LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8um PAH emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  17. Far-Infrared Extragalactic Surveys: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Samuel H., Jr.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As much as one third of the luminosity of the local universe is emitted in the far infrared. In order to understand the history of energy release in the universe, it is crucial to characterize this rest-frame far-infrared contribution from the present back to the era of initial galaxy formation. Over the redshift range from 0 to 10, this energy is received in the 80 micrometers to 1 mm spectral region. In the 1980's the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) all-sky survey provided the first comprehensive view of the far infrared emission from the local universe. The diffuse background measurements by Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) have provided constraints on the integral contributions from the high redshift universe. In the past five years, submillimeter measurements made using the SCUBA instrument have revealed powerful high redshift sources. To develop a clear history of energy release in the universe, we need numbers and redshifts of representative populations of energetically important objects. The near future will bring the Space Infrared Telescope Facility Multiband Imaging Photometer (SIRTF)(MIPS) survey, which will cover about 100 square degrees at wavelengths out to 160 micrometers, providing a large sample of energetically important galaxies out to z of approx.3. In 2005, the Japanese IRIS survey will provide a 160 micrometers full sky survey, which will provide larger samples of the high z galaxy populations and will find intrinsically rare high luminosity objects. The SPIRE instrument on the FIRST facility will extend these surveys to longer wavelengths, providing a view of the universe at higher redshifts in three spectral bands. A concept for an all-sky submillimeter survey is under development, called the Survey of Infrared Cosmic Evolution (SIRCE). With a 2 m cryogenic telescope, it can map the entire sky to the confusion limit in the 100 to 500 micrometers range in six months. This survey will provide photometric redshifts, number

  18. ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES IN THE WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Shanshan; Kong, Xu; Li, Jinrong; Fang, Guanwen E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-11-20

    In this paper, we present a large catalog of 419 Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), carefully selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared data and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey eighth data release, and classify them into three subsamples, based on their emission line properties: H II-like ULIRGs, Seyfert 2 ULIRGs, and composite ULIRGs. We apply our new efficient spectral synthesis technique, which is based on mean field approach to Bayesian independent component analysis (MF-ICA) method, to the galaxy integrated spectra. We also analyze the stellar population properties, including percentage contribution, stellar age, and stellar mass, for these three types of ULIRGs, and explore the evolution among them. We find no significant difference between the properties of stellar populations in ULIRGs with or without active galactic nucleus components. Our results suggest that there is no evolutionary link among these three type ULIRGs.

  19. Survey of material for an infrared-opaque coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon M.; Howitt, Richard V.

    1986-01-01

    More than 40 reflectance spectra in the range from 20 to 500 microns have been obtained of a variety of coatings, binders, and additives to identify promising components of an infrared-opaque coating for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. Certain combinations of materials showed a specular reflectance below 0.1 throughout the spectral range measured. In addition to estimating the optical constants of several combination coatings, this survey also supports three qualitative conclusions: (1) promising 'off-the-shelf' binders of different additives are Chemglaze Z-306, ECP-2200, and De Soto Black; (2) carbon black is very effective reducing far-infrared reflectance; and (3) the far-infrared reflectance from coatings containing 80 SiC grit is consistently lower than that from similar coatings containing TlBr powder.

  20. Survey of Material for an Infrared-Opaque Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon M.; Howitt, Richard V.

    1986-01-01

    More than 40 reflectance spectra in the range from 20 to 500 microns have been obtained for a variety of coatings, binders, and additives to identify promising components of an infrared-opaque coating for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. Certain combinations of materials showed a specular reflectance below 0.1 throughout the spectral range measured. In addition to estimating the optical constants of several combination coatings, this survey also supports three qualitative conclusions: (1) promising off-the-shelf binders of different additives are Chemglaze Z-306, ECP-2200, and De Soto Black; (2) carbon black is very effective in reducing far-infrared reflectance; (3) the far-infrared reflectance from coatings containing 80 SiC grit is consistently lower than that from similar coatings containing TiBr powder.

  1. Wide Integral Field Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Moon, Dae-Sik; Zaritsky, Dennis F.; Chou, Richard; Meyer, Elliot; Ma, Ke; Jarvis, Miranda; Eisner, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    We are constructing a novel infrared integral field spectrograph with a large field of view (~50'x20') that will be available on the Kitt Peak 90' Bok telescope this spring. This wide integral field infrared spectrograph (WIFIS) operates over two wavelength ranges, zJ-band (0.9-1.35 microns) and H-band (1.5-1.8 microns), and has moderate spectral resolving power, 3,000 in zJ-band and 2,200 in H-band, respectively. WIFIS' field-of-view is comparable to current optical integral field spectrographs that are carrying out large galaxy surveys, e.g. SAMI, CALIFA, and MaNGA. We are designing a large nearby galaxy survey to complement the data already been taken by these optical integral field spectroscopic surveys. The near-infrared window provides a sensitive probe of the initial mass functions of stellar populations, the OB stellar fractions in massive star forming regions, and the kinematics of and obscured star formation within merging systems. This will be the first large scale infrared integral field spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies.

  2. THE SPITZER LOCAL VOLUME LEGACY: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Schuster, M. D.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Block, M.; Marble, A. R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Lee, J. C.; Begum, A.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Funes, J. G.; Gordon, K. D.; Johnson, B. D.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E. D.; Van Zee, L.; Walter, F.

    2009-09-20

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, Halpha, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc Halpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and the ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  3. The Spitzer Local Volume Legacy: Survey Description and Infrared Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Schuster, M. D.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Gil de Paz, A.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Lee, J. C.; Begum, A.; Block, M.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Funes, J. G.; Gordon, K. D.; Johnson, B. D.; Marble, A. R.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E. D.; van Zee, L.; Walter, F.; Weisz, D. R.; Williams, B.; Wu, S.-Y.; Wu, Y.

    2009-09-01

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, Hα, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc Hα and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and the ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  4. WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2010-10-15

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and

  5. Use of modern infrared thermography for wildlife population surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Dale L.; Underwood, H. Brian; Porter, William F.

    1995-03-01

    A commercially available thermal-infrared scanning system was used to survey populations of several wildlife species. The system's ability to detect species of different sizes in varying habitats relative to conventional survey methods, to differentiate between species in the same habitat, and the influence of environtmental factors on operational aspects of employing this technology in the field were evaluated. Total costs for the surveys were approximately 0.36/ha. There were marked discrepancies in the counts of untrained observers and those from trained analysis. Computer-assisted analysis of infrared imagery recorded 52% fewer deer than were estimated from drive counts, and densities of moose were five times those estimated from conventional aerial methods. By flying concentric circles and using telephoto, detailed counts of turkeys and deer were possible. With the aid of computer-assisted analysis, infrared thermography may become a useful wildlife population survey tool. More research is needed to verify the actual efficiency of detection by combining aerial scans with ground truthing for a variely of species and habitals.

  6. Using internet snapshot surveys to enhance our understanding of the availability of the novel psychoactive substance 4-methylaminorex and 4,4'-dimethylaminorex.

    PubMed

    Nizar, Hisham; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M

    2015-03-01

    4,4'-Dimethylaminorex is a stimulant novel psychoactive substance (NPS) first detected in Europe in November 2012. It is a derivative of 4-methylaminorex, a substance controlled under Schedule 1 of the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances. There is currently no information on the availability or cost of these substances from Internet suppliers. An Internet snapshot study was undertaken in English using established European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) methodology to determine the availability of 4-methylaminorex and 4,4'-dimethylaminorex in April 2014. Twenty Internet sites selling 4-methylaminorex were identified, 18 selling in US dollars and two in GB Pound Sterling. Fourteen (70 %) Internet sites had a minimum purchase amount of ≥10 g (compared to user doses of 10-25 mg). For the 18 suppliers selling in US$, 9 quoted a fixed price per gram irrespective of the amount ordered and 11 had a reducing price per gram with increasing purchase quantity (US$30.8 ± 34.2/g for 1 g purchase to US$15.2 ± 20.3/g for 1 kg purchase). Only one Internet site selling 4,4'-dimethylaminorex was identified, selling in Euros. The minimum purchase quantity was 500 mg. The price per gram reduced from 36.08/g for a 500 mg purchase to 2.20/g for a 100 g purchase. This Internet snapshot demonstrated that there was a greater availability from Internet suppliers of products advertised as 4-methylaminorex than 4,4'-dimethylaminorex, despite the 4-methylaminorex being an internationally controlled substance. Whilst this may reflect misunderstanding by suppliers, it has the potential to put those purchasing at risk of contravening border control and/or local law enforcement legislation. The use of methodology such as Internet snapshot surveys is of increasing interest to clinical/medical toxicologists in their understanding of the supply, availability and cost of novel psychoactive substances.

  7. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Cao, Yi; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Jencson, Jacob; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The exploration of the dynamic mid-infrared sky has just begun. We propose to continue the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) --- a systematic search of 194 nearby galaxies within 20 Mpc, on timescales ranging between a week to a year, to a depth of 20 mag. During Cycle 10, SPIRITS has discovered over 40 infrared transients and over 1200 infrared variables. We are discovering explosive transients (ILRT, LRN, CNe, SNe), eruptive variables (LBV, RSG, YSG, AGB), and mysterious new infrared events devoid of optical counterparts (e.g. possible birth of a massive star system). Our Cycle 10 discoveries motivate our experiment design for Cycle 11 and 12. In particular, we request additional shorter cadence baselines to fill in missing pieces in our understanding of the end points of stellar evolution. Three years of SPIRITS will constitute the definitive study to ascertain the rate and origin of new classes of infrared transients, quantify the contribution of classical novae to galactic chemical evolution, and uncover supernovae buried in starbursts. We are also systematically probing mass-loss rates and dust formation in the most massive stars. SPIRITS yields a census of supergiant variability and asymptotic giant branch variability in diverse galaxy environments. The SPIRITS team continues to be committed to a concomitant ground-based NIR and optical survey and extensive spectroscopic follow-up: 308 nights of near-IR imaging, 135 nights of optical imaging and 34 nights of spectroscopy in Cycle 11 and 12. Follow-up will serve to maximize the discovery potential of our requested 795.3 hrs of Spitzer/IRAC and 10 orbits of HST/WFC3 observing time.

  8. Scientific Goals of the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Zheng, Jessica; Mould, Jeremy; Cooke, Jeff; Ireland, Michael; Uddin, Syed Ashraf; Zhang, Hui; Yuan, Xiangyan; Lawrence, Jon; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Wu, Xuefeng; Curtin, Chris; Wang, Lifan

    2016-09-01

    The high Antarctic plateau provides exceptional conditions for infrared observations on account of the cold, dry and stable atmosphere above the ice surface. This paper describes the scientific goals behind the first program to examine the time-varying universe in the infrared from Antarctica - the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS). This will employ a 50cm telescope to monitor the southern skies in the 2.4μmK dark window from China's Kunlun station at Dome A, on the summit of the Antarctic plateau, through the uninterrupted 4-month period of winter darkness. An earlier paper discussed optimisation of the K dark filter for sensitivity (Li et al. 2016). This paper examines the scientific program for KISS. We calculate the sensitivity of the camera for the extrema of observing conditions that will be encountered. We present the parameters for sample surveys that could then be carried out for a range of cadences and sensitivities. We then discuss several science programs that could be conducted with these capabilities, involving star formation, brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters, exoplanets around M dwarfs, the terminal phases of stellar evolution, fast transients, embedded supernova searches, reverberation mapping of AGN, gamma ray bursts and the detection of the cosmic infrared background.

  9. The Synoptic All-Sky Infrared (SASIR) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Bloom, J.; Lee, W.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Chavez, M.; Bolte, M.; Franco, J.; Guichard, J.; Strittmatter, P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an effort to build and conduct a multicolor, synoptic infrared (IR) imaging survey of the Northern sky with a new, dedicated 6.5-meter telescope at San Pedro Martir (SPM) Observatory. This initiative is a partnership between astronomy institutions in Mexico, the University of California, and the University of Arizona. The 5-year, dedicated survey, planned to begin in 2017, will reach more than 100 times deeper than 2MASS. The Synoptic All-Sky Infrared (SASIR) Survey will reveal the missing sample of faint red dwarf stars in the local solar neighborhood, and the unprecedented sensitivity over such a wide field will result in the discovery of thousands of z 7 quasars (and reaching to z>10), allowing detailed study (in concert with JWST and Giant Segmented Mirror Telescopes) of the timing and the origin(s) of reionization. As a time-domain survey, SASIR will reveal the dynamic infrared universe, opening new phase space for discovery. Synoptic observations of over 106 supernovae and variable stars will provide better distance measures than optical studies alone. Compared to optical-only measurements, IR colors vastly improve photometric redshifts to z 4, enhancing dark energy and dark matter surveys based on weak lensing and baryon oscillations. The wide field and ToO capabilities will enable a connection of the gravitational wave and neutrino universe - with events otherwise poorly localized on the sky - to transient electromagnetic phenomena. In this poster, we summarize the key scientific goals and current project status of the SASIR survey.

  10. Miniature snapshot multispectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam; Ashe, Philip R.; Tan, Songsheng

    2011-03-01

    We present a miniature snapshot multispectral imager based on using a monolithic filter array that operates in the short wavelength infrared spectral region and has a number of defense and commercial applications. The system is low-weight, portable with a miniature platform, and requires low power. The imager uses a 4×4 Fabry-Pérot filter array operating from 1487 to 1769 nm with a spectral bandpass ~10 nm. The design of the filters is based on using a shadow mask technique to fabricate an array of Fabry-Pérot etalons with two multilayer dielectric mirrors. The filter array is installed in a commercial handheld InGaAs camera, replacing the imaging lens with a custom designed 4×4 microlens assembly with telecentric imaging performance in each of the 16 subimaging channels. We imaged several indoor and outdoor scenes. The microlens assembly and filter design is quite flexible and can be tailored for any wavelength region from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared, and the spectral bandpass can also be customized to meet sensing requirements. In this paper we discuss the design and characterization of the filter array, the microlens optical assembly, and imager and present imaging results.

  11. FIGS—Faint Infrared Grism Survey: Description and Data Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzkal, Norbert; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Ryan, Russell E.; Rothberg, Barry; Grogin, Norman; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Rhoads, James; Larson, Rebecca L.; Christensen, Lise; Cimatti, Andrea; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Hathi, Nimish P.; Hibon, Pascale; Joshi, Bhavin; Kuntschner, Harald; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; O’Connell, Robert W.; Oestlin, Goeran; Pasquali, Anna; Pharo, John; Straughn, Amber N.; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Watson, Darach; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Zirm, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    The Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS) is a deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3/IR (Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared) slitless spectroscopic survey of four deep fields. Two fields are located in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N) area and two fields are located in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) area. One of the southern fields selected is the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Each of these four fields were observed using the WFC3/G102 grism (0.8 μm–1.15 μm continuous coverage) with a total exposure time of 40 orbits (≈100 kilo-seconds) per field. This reaches a 3σ continuum depth of ≈ 26 AB magnitudes and probes emission lines to ∼ {10}-17 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2. This paper details the four FIGS fields and the overall observational strategy of the project. A detailed description of the Simulation Based Extraction (SBE) method used to extract and combine over 10,000 spectra of over 2000 distinct sources brighter than {m}F105W=26.5 mag is provided. High fidelity simulations of the observations is shown to significantly improve the background subtraction process, the spectral contamination estimates, and the final flux calibration. This allows for the combination of multiple spectra to produce a final high quality, deep, 1D spectra for each object in the survey.

  12. Ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the AKARI all-sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Kilerci Eser, E.; Goto, T.; Doi, Y. E-mail: doi@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-12-10

    We present a new catalog of 118 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and one hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HLIRG) by cross-matching the AKARI all-sky survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10) and the final data release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey. Forty of the ULIRGs and one HLIRG are new identifications. We find that ULIRGs are interacting pair galaxies or ongoing or postmergers. This is consistent with the widely accepted view: ULIRGs are major mergers of disk galaxies. We confirm the previously known positive trend between the active galactic nucleus fraction and infrared luminosity. We show that ULIRGs have a large offset from the main sequence up to z ∼ 1; their offset from the z ∼ 2 'main sequence' is relatively smaller. We find a result consistent with the previous studies showing that, compared to local star-forming SDSS galaxies of similar mass, local ULIRGs have lower oxygen abundances. We demonstrate for the first time that ULIRGs follow the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR). The scatter of ULIRGs around the FMR (0.09 dex-0.5 dex) is comparable to the scatter of z ∼ 2-3 galaxies. We provide the largest local (0.050

  13. Update on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wright, Edward L.; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Irace, William; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024(sup 2) HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5 resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47' x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 launch vehicle. The WISE survey approach is simple and efficient. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft rotates at a constant rate while the scan mirror freezes the telescope line of sight during each exposure. WISE has completed its mission Preliminary Design Review and its NASA Confirmation Review, and the project is awaiting confirmation from NASA to proceed to the Critical Design phase. Much of the payload hardware is now complete, and assembly of the payload will occur over the next year. WISE is scheduled to launch in late 2009; the project web site can be found at www.wise.ssl.berkeley.edu.

  14. Update on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wright, Edward L.; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Irace, William; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024(sup 2) HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5 resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47' x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 launch vehicle. The WISE survey approach is simple and efficient. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft rotates at a constant rate while the scan mirror freezes the telescope line of sight during each exposure. WISE has completed its mission Preliminary Design Review and its NASA Confirmation Review, and the project is awaiting confirmation from NASA to proceed to the Critical Design phase. Much of the payload hardware is now complete, and assembly of the payload will occur over the next year. WISE is scheduled to launch in late 2009; the project web site can be found at www.wise.ssl.berkeley.edu.

  15. Surveying the Inner Solar System with an Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc W.; Reitsema, Harold J.; Linfield, Roger P.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of surveying the inner solar system for objects that may pose some threat to Earth. Most of the analysis is based on understanding the capability provided by Sentinel, a concept for an infrared space-based telescope placed in a heliocentric orbit near the distance of Venus. From this analysis, we show that (1) the size range being targeted can affect the survey design, (2) the orbit distribution of the target sample can affect the survey design, (3) minimum observational arc length during the survey is an important metric of survey performance, and (4) surveys must consider objects as small as D=15{--}30 m to meet the goal of identifying objects that have the potential to cause damage on Earth in the next 100 yr. Sentinel will be able to find 50% of all impactors larger than 40 m in a 6.5 yr survey. The Sentinel mission concept is shown to be as effective as any survey in finding objects bigger than D = 140 m but is more effective when applied to finding smaller objects on Earth-impacting orbits. Sentinel is also more effective at finding objects of interest for human exploration that benefit from lower propulsion requirements. To explore the interaction between space and ground search programs, we also study a case where Sentinel is combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and show the benefit of placing a space-based observatory in an orbit that reduces the overlap in search regions with a ground-based telescope. In this case, Sentinel+LSST can find more than 70% of the impactors larger than 40 m assuming a 6.5 yr lifetime for Sentinel and 10 yr for LSST.

  16. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Interim Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Schechter, P.; Baltay, C.; Bean, R.; Bennett, D.; Brown, R.; Conselice, C.; Donahue, M.; Gaudi, S.; Lauer, T.; Perlmutter, S.; Rauscher, B.; Rhodes, J.; Roellig, T.; Stern, D.; Sumi, T.; Gerhels, N.; Sambruna, R.; Barry, R. K.; Content, D.; Grady, K; Jackson, C.; Kruk, J.; Melton, M.; Rioux, N.

    2011-01-01

    The New Worlds, New Horizons (NWNH) in Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey prioritized the community consensus for ground-based and space-based observatories. Recognizing that many of the community s key questions could be answered with a wide-field infrared survey telescope in space, and that the decade would be one of budget austerity, WFIRST was top ranked in the large space mission category. In addition to the powerful new science that could be accomplished with a wide-field infrared telescope, the WFIRST mission was determined to be both technologically ready and only a small fraction of the cost of previous flagship missions, such as HST or JWST. In response to the top ranking by the community, NASA formed the WFIRST Science Definition Team (SDT) and Project Office. The SDT was charged with fleshing out the NWNH scientific requirements to a greater level of detail. NWNH evaluated the risk and cost of the JDEM-Omega mission design, as submitted by NASA, and stated that it should serve as the basis for the WFIRST mission. The SDT and Project Office were charged with developing a mission optimized for achieving the science goals laid out by the NWNH re-port. The SDT and Project Office opted to use the JDEM-Omega hardware configuration as an initial start-ing point for the hardware implementation. JDEM-Omega and WFIRST both have an infrared imager with a filter wheel, as well as counter-dispersed moderate resolution spectrometers. The primary advantage of space observations is being above the Earth's atmosphere, which absorbs, scatters, warps and emits light. Observing from above the atmosphere enables WFIRST to obtain precision infrared measurements of the shapes of galaxies for weak lensing, infrared light-curves of supernovae and exoplanet microlensing events with low systematic errors, and infrared measurements of the H hydrogen line to be cleanly detected in the 1

  17. Surveying Galaxy Evolution in the Far-Infrared: A Far-Infrared All-Sky Survey Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Amato, M. J.; Dwek, E.; Freund, M. M.; Gardner, J. P.; Kashlinsky, A.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z greater than or equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Quantifying the evolution of galaxies at these wavelengths is crucial to our understanding of the formation of structure in the Universe following the big bang. Surveying the whole sky will find the rare and unique objects, enabling follow-up observations. SIRCE, the Survey of Infrared Cosmic Evolution, is such a mission concept under study at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A helium-cooled telescope with ultrasensitive detectors can image the whole sky to the confusion limit in 6 months. Multiple wavelength bands permit the extraction of photometric redshifts, while a large telescope yields a low confusion limit. We discuss the implications of such a survey for galaxy formation and evolution, large-scale structure, star formation, and the structure of interstellar dust.

  18. Perioperative management of antithrombotic treatment during implantation or revision of cardiac implantable electronic devices: the European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI).

    PubMed

    Deharo, Jean-Claude; Sciaraffia, Elena; Leclercq, Christophe; Amara, Walid; Doering, Michael; Bongiorni, Maria G; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nicolaus; Estner, Heidi; Larsen, Torben B; Johansen, Jens B; Potpara, Tatjana S; Proclemer, Alessandro; Pison, Laurent; Brunet, Caroline; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2016-05-01

    The European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI) was a prospective European survey of consecutive adults who had undergone implantation/surgical revision of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) on chronic antithrombotic therapy (enrolment March-June 2015). The aim of the survey was to investigate perioperative treatment with oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets in CIED implantation or surgical revision and to determine the incidence of complications, including clinically significant pocket haematomas. Information on antithrombotic therapy before and after surgery and bleeding and thromboembolic complications occurring after the intervention was collected at first follow-up. The study population comprised 723 patients (66.7% men, 76.9% aged ≥66 years). Antithrombotic treatment was continued during surgery in 489 (67.6%) patients; 6 (0.8%) had their treatment definitively stopped; 46 (6.4%) were switched to another antithrombotic therapy. Heparin bridging was used in 55 out of 154 (35.8%) patients when interrupting vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) treatment was interrupted in 88.7% of patients, with heparin bridging in 25.6%, but accounted for only 25.3% of the oral anticoagulants used. A total of 108 complications were observed in 98 patients. No intracranial haemorrhage or embolic events were observed. Chronic NOAC treatment before surgery was associated with lower rates of minor pocket haematoma (1.4%; P= 0.042) vs. dual antiplatelet therapy (13.0%), VKA (11.4%), VKA + antiplatelet (9.2%), or NOAC + antiplatelet (7.7%). Similar results were observed for bleeding complications (P= 0.028). Perioperative management of patients undergoing CIED implantation/surgical revision while on chronic antithrombotic therapy varies, with evidence of a disparity between guideline recommendations and practice patterns in Europe. Haemorrhagic complications were significantly

  19. PROBING THE PHYSICS OF NARROW LINE REGIONS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES. II. THE SIDING SPRING SOUTHERN SEYFERT SPECTROSCOPIC SNAPSHOT SURVEY (S7)

    SciTech Connect

    Dopita, Michael A.; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Sutherland, Ralph; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S.; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2015-03-15

    Here we describe the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of 38 × 25 arcsec at a spectral resolution of R = 7000 in the red (530–710 nm), and R = 3000 in the blue (340–560 nm). From these data cubes we have extracted the narrow-line region spectra from a 4 arcsec aperture centered on the nucleus. We also determine the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 luminosities determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed. We present a set of images of the galaxies in [O iii] λ5007, [N ii] λ6584, and Hα, which serve to delineate the spatial extent of the extended narrow-line region and also to reveal the structure and morphology of the surrounding H ii regions. Finally, we provide a preliminary discussion of those Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies that display coronal emission lines in order to explore the origin of these lines.

  20. Probing the Physics of Narrow Line Regions in Active Galaxies. II. The Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Shastri, Prajval; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Scharwächter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S.; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; Juneau, Stéphanie; James, Bethan; Srivastava, Shweta

    2015-03-01

    Here we describe the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of 38 × 25 arcsec at a spectral resolution of R = 7000 in the red (530-710 nm), and R = 3000 in the blue (340-560 nm). From these data cubes we have extracted the narrow-line region spectra from a 4 arcsec aperture centered on the nucleus. We also determine the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 luminosities determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed. We present a set of images of the galaxies in [O iii] λ5007, [N ii] λ6584, and Hα, which serve to delineate the spatial extent of the extended narrow-line region and also to reveal the structure and morphology of the surrounding H ii regions. Finally, we provide a preliminary discussion of those Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies that display coronal emission lines in order to explore the origin of these lines.

  1. PRIME: A Deep Near-infrared Survey Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Ford, H. C.; Davidsen, A. F.; Kruk, J. W.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; Szalay, A. S.; Hartig, G.; Postman, M.; Stockman, H. S.; Thompson, R.; Shu, P. K.; Lenzen, R.; Rix, H.-W.; Mark, D.; McGuffey, D.

    2000-12-01

    PRIME (The Primordial Explorer) is a proposed mission that has been selected for NASA SMEX concept study. It will carry out a deep sky survey from space in four near-infrared bands between 0.9-3.5 micron. The 0.75m telescope will survey a quarter of the sky to AB magnitude of approximately 24 in 1.5 years. Deeper surveys in selected sky regions are also planned. PRIME will reach an epoch during which the first quasars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies were formed in the early Universe, discover hundreds of Type-Ia supernovae to be used in measuring the acceleration of the expanding Universe, and detect hundreds of brown dwarfs and even Jupiter-size planets in the vicinity of the solar system. Most of these objects are so rare that they may be identified only in large and deep surveys. PRIME will serve as a pilot mission for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) supplying rare targets for NGST spectroscopy and deep imaging. Combining PRIME with other surveys (SDSS, GALEX) will yield the largest astronomical database ever built.

  2. Ultracool Dwarfs in the Ukirt Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burningham, Ben; Pinfield, D.; Leggett, S. K.; Lodieu, N.; Warren, S. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Tamura, M.; Mortlock, D.; Kendall, T. R.; Jones, H. R.; Jameson, R. F.; Richard, M.; Martin, E. L.; UKIDSS Cool Dwarf Science Working Group

    2007-05-01

    The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) presents an unparallelled resource for the study of field brown dwarfs. The UKIDSS Cool Dwarf Science Working Group (CDSWG) is carrying out a search for the lowest temperature brown dwarfs ever discovered, with the possibility of identifying a new spectral class of ultracool dwarf: the Y dwarf. CDSWG members identified 10 new T dwarfs in the early and first data releases of the LAS, including 2 objects with spectral types later than T7.5. One of these is thought to be the coolest T dwarf ever found with a spectral type of T8.5, and an estimated temperature of 650K. Data release 2 (DR2) took place on 1st March 2007, and already the most promising objects have been selected and followed-up photometrically and spectroscopically. In this contribution I will discuss the capabilities of UKIDSS for identifying ultracool dwarfs and summarise our latest results.

  3. The search for brown dwarfs with infrared surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chester, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), ISO, Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), WIRE, Deep Near-Infrared Survey (DENIS), and Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) observations were used to compute the maximum number of observable brown dwarfs for various infrared surveys by combining the maximum possible Oort limit (0.1 'missing' solar mass p/cu c) with all possible brown dwarf mass and age distributions. This approach shows what limits will be placed on the contribution of brown dwarfs to any possible 'missing mass' if no brown dwarfs are observed. I consider brown dwarfs with masses of 0.01-0.08 solar mass and ages of 10(exp 9)-10(exp 10) years. The full range of predicted numbers of brown dwarfs above approx. 6 times the noise of each of the below surveys is: IRAS Point Source Catalog, 0.02-6; IRAS Faint Source Catalog absolute value of b greater than 10 deg, 0.05-16; ISO (2 week 12 micrometer survey), 0.15-80; SIRTF (2 week 12 micrometer survey), 2.50-1600; WIRE (4 month 12 micrometer survey), 21.80-6000; DENIS(half sky) absolute value of b greater than 10 deg, 0.00-2000; and 2MASS(full sky) absolute value of b greater than 10 deg, 0.00-8800. A failure to find brown dwarfs in the IRAS FSC would just barely rule out about half of the mass-age range for Oort limit total masses. A failure to find brown dwarfs in 2MASS/DENIS would rule out roughly the same mass-age range, but would set a limit of 0.1-0.01 times the Oort mass in that mass-age region. No limits would be set for the other half of the mass-age range since both IRAS and 2MASS/DENIS have insufficient sensitivity for brown dwarfs with T less than 750 K. A failure to find brown dwarfs with ISO would rule out almost all of the mass-age range for Oort limit total masses, but would not set a significantly lower limit to the brown dwarf mass limit. A failure to find brown dwarfs with SIRTF or WIRE would rule out the entire mass-age range for Oort limit total masses and set an upper limit of 0.1-0.001 times

  4. Probing the Physics of Narrow-line Regions in Active Galaxies. IV. Full Data Release of the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Adam D.; Dopita, Michael A.; Shastri, Prajval; Davies, Rebecca; Hampton, Elise; Kewley, Lisa; Banfield, Julie; Groves, Brent; James, Bethan L.; Jin, Chichuan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kharb, Preeti; Sairam, Lalitha; Scharwächter, Julia; Shalima, P.; Sundar, M. N.; Sutherland, Ralph; Zaw, Ingyin

    2017-09-01

    We present the second and final data release of the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). Data are presented for 63 new galaxies not included in the first data release, and we provide 2D emission-line fitting products for the full S7 sample of 131 galaxies. The S7 uses the WiFeS instrument on the ANU 2.3 m telescope to obtain spectra with a spectral resolution of R = 7000 in the red (540–700 nm) and R = 3000 in the blue (350–570 nm), over an integral field of 25 × 38 arcsec2 with 1 × 1 arcsec2 spatial pixels. The S7 contains both the largest sample of active galaxies and the highest spectral resolution of any comparable integral field survey to date. The emission-line fitting products include line fluxes, velocities, and velocity dispersions across the WiFeS field of view, and an artificial neural network has been used to determine the optimal number of Gaussian kinematic components for emission-lines in each spaxel. Broad Balmer lines are subtracted from the spectra of nuclear spatial pixels in Seyfert 1 galaxies before fitting the narrow lines. We bin nuclear spectra and measure reddening-corrected nuclear fluxes of strong narrow lines for each galaxy. The nuclear spectra are classified on optical diagnostic diagrams, where the strength of the coronal line [Fe vii] λ6087 is shown to be correlated with [O iii]/Hβ. Maps revealing gas excitation and kinematics are included for the entire sample, and we provide notes on the newly observed objects.

  5. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Lau, Ryan; Cao, Yi; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Jencson, Jacob; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos; Jones, Olivia; Ressler, Michael; Adams, Scott; Moore, Anna; Cook, David; Fox, Ori; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab; Monson, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Spitzer is pioneering a systematic exploration of the dynamic infrared sky. Our SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) has already discovered 147 explosive transients and 1948 eruptive variables. Of these 147 infrared transients, 35 are so red that they are devoid of optical counterparts and we call them SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). The nature of SPRITEs is unknown and progress on deciphering the explosion physics depends on mid-IR spectroscopy. Multiple physical origins have been proposed including stellar merger, birth of a massive binary, electron capture supernova and stellar black-hole formation. Hence, we propose a modest continuation of SPIRITS, focusing on discovering and monitoring SPRITEs, in preparation for follow-up with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As the SPRITEs evolve and cool, the bulk of the emission shifts to longer wavelengths. MIRI aboard JWST will be the only available platform in the near future capable of characterizing SPRITEs out to 28um. Specifically, the low resolution spectrometer would determine dust mass, grain chemistry, ice abundance and energetics to disentangle the proposed origins. The re-focused SPIRITS program consists of continued Spitzer monitoring of only those 104 luminous galaxies that are known SPRITE hosts or are most likely to host new SPRITEa. Scaling from the SPIRITS discovery rate, we estimate finding 22 new SPRITEs and 6 new supernovae over the next two years. The SPIRITS team remains committed to extensive ground-based follow-up. The Spitzer observations proposed here are essential for determining the final fates of active SPRITEs as well as bridging the time lag between the current SPIRITS survey and JWST launch.

  6. A survey of infrared and visual image fusion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Hai, Jinjin; He, Kangjian

    2017-09-01

    Infrared (IR) and visual (VI) image fusion is designed to fuse multiple source images into a comprehensive image to boost imaging quality and reduce redundancy information, which is widely used in various imaging equipment to improve the visual ability of human and robot. The accurate, reliable and complementary descriptions of the scene in fused images make these techniques be widely used in various fields. In recent years, a large number of fusion methods for IR and VI images have been proposed due to the ever-growing demands and the progress of image representation methods; however, there has not been published an integrated survey paper about this field in last several years. Therefore, we make a survey to report the algorithmic developments of IR and VI image fusion. In this paper, we first characterize the IR and VI image fusion based applications to represent an overview of the research status. Then we present a synthesize survey of the state of the art. Thirdly, the frequently-used image fusion quality measures are introduced. Fourthly, we perform some experiments of typical methods and make corresponding analysis. At last, we summarize the corresponding tendencies and challenges in IR and VI image fusion. This survey concludes that although various IR and VI image fusion methods have been proposed, there still exist further improvements or potential research directions in different applications of IR and VI image fusion.

  7. Space-based infrared near-Earth asteroid survey simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Muinonen, Karri; Price, Stephan D.

    2000-08-01

    We demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of using a satellite-based sensor with visual and infrared focal plane arrays to search for that subclass of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) with orbits largely interior to the Earth's orbit. A space-based visual-infrared system could detect approximately 97% of the Atens and 64% of the IEOs (the, as yet hypothetical, objects with orbits entirely Interior to Earth's Orbit) with diameters greater than 1 km in a 5-year mission and obtain orbits, albedos and diameters for all of them; the respective percentages with diameters greater than 500 m are 90% and 60%. Incidental to the search for Atens and IEOs, we found that 70% of all Earth-Crossing Asteroids (ECAs) with diameters greater than 1 km, and 50% of those with diameters greater than 500 m, would also be detected. These are the results of a feasibility study; optimizing the concept presented would result in greater levels of completion. The cost of such a space-based system is estimated to be within a factor of two of the cost of a ground-based system capable of about 21st magnitude, which would provide only orbits and absolute magnitudes and require decades to reach these completeness levels. In addition to obtaining albedos and diameters for the asteroids discovered in the space-based survey, a space-based visual-infrared system would obtain the same information on virtually all NEOs of interest. A combined space-based and ground-based survey would be highly synergistic in that each can concentrate on what it does best and each complements the strengths of the other. The ground-based system would discover the majority of Amors and Apollos and provide long-term follow-up on all the NEOs discovered in both surveys. The space-based system would discover the majority of Atens and IEOs and provide albedos and diameters on all the NEOs discovered in both surveys and most previously discovered NEOs as well. Thus, an integrated ground- and space-based system could accomplish

  8. UWISH2 - the UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froebrich, D.; Davis, C. J.; Ioannidis, G.; Gledhill, T. M.; Takami, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Drew, J.; Eislöffel, J.; Gosling, A.; Gredel, R.; Hatchell, J.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Lucas, P. W.; Matthews, H.; Rawlings, M. G.; Smith, M. D.; Stecklum, B.; Varricatt, W. P.; Lee, H. T.; Teixeira, P. S.; Aspin, C.; Khanzadyan, T.; Karr, J.; Kim, H.-J.; Koo, B.-C.; Lee, J. J.; Lee, Y.-H.; Magakian, T. Y.; Movsessian, T. A.; Nikogossian, E. H.; Pyo, T. S.; Stanke, T.

    2011-05-01

    We present the goals and preliminary results of an unbiased, near-infrared, narrow-band imaging survey of the first galactic quadrant (10° < l < 65°; -1?3 < b < +1?3). This area includes most of the giant molecular clouds and massive star forming regions in the Northern hemisphere. The survey is centred on the 1-0 S(1) rovibrational line of H2, a proven tracer of hot, dense molecular gas in star-forming regions, around evolved stars, and in supernova remnants. The observations complement existing and upcoming photometric surveys (Spitzer-GLIMPSE, UKIDSS-GPS, JCMT-JPS, AKARI, Herschel Hi-GAL, etc.), though we probe a dynamically active component of star formation not covered by these broad-band surveys. Our narrow-band survey is currently more than 60 per cent complete. The median seeing in our images is 0.73 arcsec. The images have a 5σ detection limit of point sources of K˜ 18 mag and the surface brightness limit is 10-19 W m-2 arcsec-2 when averaged over our typical seeing. Jets and outflows from both low- and high-mass young stellar objects are revealed, as are new planetary nebulae and - via a comparison with earlier K-band observations acquired as a part of the UKIDSS GPS - numerous variable stars. With their superior spatial resolution, the UWISH2 data also have the potential to reveal the true nature of many of the extended green objects found in the GLIMPSE survey.

  9. Near infrared imaging and {o I} spectroscopy of IC 443 using two micron all sky survey and infrared space observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rho, J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Cutri, C. M.; Reach, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    We present near-infrared J (1.25 mum), H (1.65 mum), and K-s (2.17 mum) imaging of the entire supernova remnant IC 443 from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) LWS observations of [O I] for 11 positions in the northeast.

  10. Infrared Surveys of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Aerial surveys with infrared imaging radiometer depict volcanic thermal patterns and structural features.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W A; Moxham, R M; Polcyn, F; Landis, G H

    1964-11-06

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.

  11. Galaxy Evolution from Deep Optical and Near-Infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustakas, Leonidas Alexander

    1998-09-01

    We use very deep optical and near-infrared imaging surveys to set constraints on galaxy evolution models, based on the numbers, colors, and morphologies of infrared-excess galaxies that are found in the field. We concentrate on a curious population of extremely faint (K > 20) infrared-excess galaxies whose blue-optical colors are not consistent with the expectations of any passive evolution models. These ``faint red-outlier galaxies'' (FROGs) are distinct from the redder and brighter ``extremely red objects'' (EROs; R-K~=6 ). In a concerted effort to identify a good sample of FROG s and to study their properties, we used Keck/NIRC to image several independent high-galactic latitude fields. Much of the analysis presented here is drawn from a very deep 3.24 arcmin2 K-band ( Klim~24 at 3σ) mosaic in the deep Westphal HST/WFPC2 pointing of the Groth Survey Strip, for which F606W and F814W data were publically available. The surface density of FROGs is found to be ~ 3.3 +/- 1 arcmin-2, more than ten times that of EROs. Whereas reliable photometric redshifts are not forthcoming without the development of more relevant models, the colors are broadly consistent with the redshift range 1.2 < z < 2.3. If placed at z ~ 1.5, FROGs occur at space densities of about 10% of the local f* space density of K-selected galaxies. To map wavelength-dependent morphologies of two FROGs, we observed a portion of our main survey field with HST/NICMOS imaging through the F160W (1.6 μm) filter. The target was resolved into two r~=0''.6 objects with similar colors, separated by ~0''.7. This is suggestive of old and dynamically-relaxed systems. The colors of FROGs are not satisfactorily fit by dust-reddened Bruzual-Charlot models at any redshift and for a broad range of assumed star formation histories. The best possible fits are consistent with very large amounts of reddening, E(B - V) ~ 1. If the infrared-excess in EROs and FROGs is taken to be entirely due to the effects of dust, then we

  12. Deep near-infrared survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deul, E.

    1992-01-01

    DENIS (Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky) will be the first complete census of astronomical sources in the near-infrared spectral range. The challenges of this novel survey are both scientific and technical. Phenomena radiating in the near-infrared range from brown dwarfs to galaxies in the early stages of cosmological evolution, the scientific exploitation of data relevant over such a wide range requires pooling expertise from several of the leading European astronomical centers. The technical challenges of a project which will provide an order of magnitude more sources than given by the IRAS space mission, and which will involve advanced data-handling and image-processing techniques, likewise require pooling of hardware and software resources, as well as of human expertise. The DENIS project team is composed of some 40 scientists, computer specialists, and engineers located in 5 European Community countries (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, and Spain), with important contributions from specialists in Australia, Brazil, Chile, and Hungary. DENIS will survey the entire southern sky in 3 colors, namely in the I band at a wavelength of 0.8 micron, in the 1.25 micron J band, and in the 2.15 micron K' band. The sensitivity limits will be 18th magnitude in the I band, 16th in the J band, and 14.5th in the K' band. The angular resolution achieved will be 1 arcsecond in the I band, and 3.0 arcseconds in the J and K' bands. The European Southern Observatory 1 m telescope on La Silla will be dedicated to survey use during operations expected to last four years, commencing in late 1993. DENIS aims to provide the astronomical community with complete digitized infrared images of the full southern sky and a catalogue of extracted objects, both of the best quality and in readily accessible form. This will be achieved through dedicated software packages and specialized catalogues, and with assistance from the Leiden and Paris Data Analysis Centers. The data

  13. Aerial infrared surveys in the investigation of geothermal and volcanic heat sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    This factsheet briefly summarizes and clarifies the application of aerial infrared surveys in geophysical exploration for geothermal energy sources and environmental monitoring for potential volcanic hazards.

  14. The VIRMOS deep imaging survey. IV. Near-infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Garilli, B.; Foucaud, S.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Saracco, P.; Bardelli, S.; Busarello, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Zanichelli, A.; Paioro, L.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bertin, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cucciati, O.; Gregorini, L.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we present a new deep, wide-field near-infrared imaging survey. Our J- and K-band observations in four separate fields (0226-04, 2217+00, 1003+02, 1400+05) complement optical BVRI, ultraviolet and spectroscopic observations undertaken as part of the VIMOS-VLT deep survey (VVDS). In total, our survey spans ~400 arcmin2. Our catalogues are reliable in all fields to at least K˜20.75 and J˜21.50 (defined as the magnitude where object contamination is less than 10% and completeness greater than 90%). Taken together these four fields represents a unique combination of depth, wavelength coverage and area. Most importantly, our survey regions span a broad range of right ascension and declination which allow us to make a robust estimate of the effects of cosmic variance. We describe the complete data reduction process from raw observations to the construction of source lists and outline a comprehensive series of tests carried out to characterise the reliability of the final catalogues. From simulations we determine the completeness function of each final stacked image, and estimate the fraction of spurious sources in each magnitude bin. We compare the statistical properties of our catalogues with literature compilations. We find that our J- and K-selected galaxy counts are in good agreement with previously published works, as are our (J-K) versus K colour-magnitude diagrams. Stellar number counts extracted from our fields are consistent with a synthetic model of our galaxy. Using the location of the stellar locus in colour-magnitude space and the measured field-to-field variation in galaxy number counts we demonstrate that the absolute accuracy of our photometric calibration is at the 5% level or better. Finally, an investigation of the angular clustering of K-selected extended sources in our survey displays the expected scaling behaviour with limiting magnitude, with amplitudes in each magnitude bin in broad agreement with literature values. In summary

  15. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope WFIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Schechter, P.; Baltay, C.; Bean, R.; Bennett, D.; Brown, R.; Conselice, C.; Donahue, M.; Fan, X.; Rauscher, B.; Rhodes, J.; Roellig, T.; Stern, D.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R.; Traub, W.; Barry, R. K.; Content, D.; Goullioud, R.; Grady, K.; Kruk, J.; Melton, M.; Peddie, C.; Rioux, N.; Seiffert, M.

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, NASA created a Science Definition Team (SDT) for WFIRST, the Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope, recommended by the Astro 2010 Decadal Survey as the highest priority for a large space mission. The SDT was chartered to work with the WFIRST Project Office at GSFC and the Program Office at JPL to produce a Design Reference Mission (DRM) for WFIRST. Part of the original charge was to produce an interim design reference mission by mid-2011. That document was delivered to NASA and widely circulated within the astronomical community. In late 2011 the Astrophysics Division augmented its original charge, asking for two design reference missions. The first of these, DRM1, was to be a finalized version of the interim DRM, reducing overall mission costs where possible. The second of these, DRM2, was to identify and eliminate capabilities that overlapped with those of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (henceforth JWST), ESA's Euclid mission, and the NSF's ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (henceforth LSST), and again to reduce overall mission cost, while staying faithful to NWNH. This report presents both DRM1 and DRM2.

  16. Predicting future space near-IR grism surveys using the WFC3 infrared spectroscopic parallels survey

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, James W.; Atek, Hakim; Teplitz, Harry; Rafelski, Marc; Bunker, Andrew; Ross, Nathaniel; Malkan, Matt; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Dominguez, Alberto; Masters, Dan; Siana, Brian; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.

    2013-12-10

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg{sup 2}) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10{sup –17} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg{sup –2} above an Hα flux of 2 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution

  17. Predicting Future Space Near-IR Grism Surveys Using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James W.; Teplitz, Harry; Atek, Hakim; Bunker, Andrew; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Dominguez, Alberto; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Martin, Crystal L.; Masters, Dan; McCarthy, Patrick; Siana, Brian

    2013-12-01

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg2) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg-2 above an Hα flux of 2 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution in both the Hα luminosity function from z = 0.3-1.5 and the [O III] luminosity function from z = 0.7-2.3 is

  18. Cataloged infrared sources in NIPSS data. I - The RSO 1 catalog. [Near Infrared Photographic Sky Survey Red Stellar Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, V. M.; Craine, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    A small number of selected near-infrared and visual photographic pairs from the Steward Observatory Near Infrared Photographic Sky Survey have been examined for content of stars more red than (V-I) of about 2.5 magnitudes. A simple manual extraction of these objects was carried out as a part of a preliminary evaluation of survey data and techniques for reducing it; the resulting list has been compiled as the first installment of a Catalog of Red Stellar Objects (Craine et al. 1979). Results of a cross correlation of this catalog with the IRC, AFGL, and EIC infrared catalogs are here presented. The results indicate that these photographs may be particularly useful for purposes of optical identification of short-wavelength infrared sources to limits much fainter than represented by presently existing infrared catalogs.

  19. Thermal infrared survey of Sunlight Basin, Park County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Vice, D.H.; Crowley, J.P.; Vice, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Thermal infrared surveys were flown over the Sunlight mining region and Sulphur Camp area of the Sunlight Basin to substantiate whether reported fumaroles are indicative of contemporary geothermal activity in the area. Thermal infrared imagery shows areas of warm ground along and warm water discharge into Sunlight Creek and Sulphur Lake. Sulphur deposits are found on north- and south-facing hill slopes associated with a second warm ground anomaly adjacent to Gas Creek. Warming is also manifested in the thermal characteristics of vegetation, and several fumaroles are identifiable. Aeromagnetic data show a 200 gamma low at Sulphur Camp which cannot be explained topographically. Major northeast-trending lineaments provide potential conduits for thermal fluids from the magma plume in Yellowstone National Park, 50 km (30 mi) to the southwest. The floor of the Yellowstone caldera is topographically higher and could provide the necessary hydraulic head to move the fluids outward. Other geothermal resources may exhibit the same characteristics. This example suggests that geothermal resources may occur at considerable distances from a heat source.

  20. ARIEL - Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Drossart, Pierre; Eccleston, Paul; Hartogh, Paul; Leconte, Jérémy; Micela, Giusi; Ollivier, Marc; Pilbratt, Göran; Puig, Ludovic; Turrini, Diego; Vandenbussche, Bart; Wolkenberg, Paulina; ARIEL Consortium, ARIEL ESA Study Team

    2016-10-01

    The Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL) is one of the three candidate missions selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) for its next medium-class science mission due for launch in 2026. The goal of the ARIEL mission is to investigate the atmospheres of several hundreds planets orbiting distant stars in order to address the fundamental questions on how planetary systems form and evolve.During its four (with a potential extension to six) years mission ARIEL will observe 500+ exoplanets in the visible and the infrared with its meter-class telescope in L2. ARIEL targets will include Jupiter- and Neptune-size down to super-Earth and Earth-size around different types of stars. The main focus of the mission will be on hot and warm planets orbiting very close to their star, as they represent a natural laboratory in which to study the chemistry and formation of exoplanets. In cooler planets, different gases separate out through condensation and sinking into distinct cloud layers. The scorching heat experienced by hot exoplanets overrides these processes and keeps all molecular species circulating throughout the atmosphere.The ARIEL mission concept has been developed by a consortium of more than 50 institutes from 12 countries, which include UK, France, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Denmark, Ireland and Portugal. The analysis of ARIEL spectra and photometric data will allow to extract the chemical fingerprints of gases and condensates in the planets' atmospheres, including the elemental composition for the most favorable targets. It will also enable the study of thermal and scattering properties of the atmosphere as the planet orbit around the star.ARIEL will have an open data policy, enabling rapid access by the general community to the high-quality exoplanet spectra that the core survey will deliver.

  1. The AST3-NIR camera for the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jon; Ashley, Michael; Burton, Michael; Cui, Xiangqun; Churilov, Vladimir; Content, Robert; Gillingham, Peter; Glazebrook, Karl; Gu, Bozhong; Ireland, Michael; Jiang, Xiang; Lu, Haiping; Moore, Anna; Mould, Jeremy; Staszak, Nicholas F.; Tims, Julia; Tuthill, Peter; Wang, Lifan; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhang, Kaiyuan; Zhelem, Ross; Zheng, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    AST3-NIR is a new infrared camera for deployment with the AST3-3 wide-field survey telescope to Dome A on the Antarctic plateau. This project is designed to take advantage of the low Antarctic infrared sky thermal background (particularly within the Kdark near infrared atmospheric window at 2.4 μm) and the long Antarctic nights to provide high sensitivity temporal data from astronomical sources. The data collected from the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS) will be used to conduct a range of astronomical science cases including the study of supernovae, exo-planets, variable stars, and the cosmic infrared background.

  2. FINESSE - the Fast INfrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, M.

    2012-04-01

    FINESSE, the Fast Infrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey Explorer, is the first mission dedicated to finding out what exoplanet atmospheres are made of, what conditions or processes are responsible for the composition, and how our own solar system fits into the larger family of planets. The last 15 years have witnessed extraordinary success in finding exoplanets. FINESSE is designed to take the next step - characterizing exoplanet atmospheres. Using proven methods and an instrument optimized for stability, FINESSE would be the first mission dedicated to the spectroscopic characterization of exoplanets as a class of objects. During a two-year mission, FINESSE would survey 200 transiting exoplanets ranging from the most extreme hot-Jovians to cool Neptunes and Super-Earths. FINESSE's science instrument, a spectrograph covering 0.7-5.0 microns, provides excellent sensitivity to important molecular bands of water, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and other molecules. Interpretation of FINESSE measurements will reveal the composition, temperature structure, and chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres and provides a basis for comparing exoplanets in a uniform way. Engineered for exquisite 100 ppm stability, FINESSE will determine the differences between the dayside and nightside of exoplanet atmospheres by precision measurements of the system phase curve. Implemented as a rapid, low-cost, high-heritage mission, FINESSE is scientifically well matched to the rapidly expanding field of exoplanets.

  3. Demonstration of First 9 Micron cutoff 640 x 486 GaAs Based Quantum Well Infrared PhotoDetector (QWIP) Snap-Shot Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hong, W.; Sundaram, M.; Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long waelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array (FPA) and its performance in quantum efficiency, NEAT, uniformity, and operability.

  4. Demonstration of First 9 Micron cutoff 640 x 486 GaAs Based Quantum Well Infrared PhotoDetector (QWIP) Snap-Shot Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hong, W.; Sundaram, M.; Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long waelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array (FPA) and its performance in quantum efficiency, NEAT, uniformity, and operability.

  5. Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey {HIPPIES}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing

    2010-09-01

    WFC3 has demonstrated its unprecedented power in probing the early universe. Here we propose to continue our pure parallel program with this instrument to search for LBGs at z 6-8. Our program, dubbed as the Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey {"HIPPIES"}, will carry on the HST pure parallel legacy in the new decade. We request 205 orbits in Cycle-18, which will spread over 50 high Galactic latitude visits {|b|>20deg} that last for 3 orbits and longer, resulting a total survey area of 230 square arcmin. Combining the WFC3 pure parallel observations in Cycle-17, HIPPIES will complement other existing and forthcoming WFC3 surveys, and will make unique contributions to the study in the new redshift frontier because of the randomness of the survey fields. To make full use of the parallel opportunities, HIPPIES will also take ACS parallels to study LBGs at z 5-6. Being a pure parallel program, HIPPIES will only make very limited demand on the scarce HST resources, but will have potentially large scientific returns. As in previous cycle, we waive all proprietary data rights, and will make the enhanced data products public in a timely manner. {1} The WFC3 part of HIPPIES aims at the most luminous LBG population at z 8 and z 7. As its survey fields are random and completely uncorrelated, the number counts of the bright LBGs from HIPPIES will be least affected by the "cosmic variance", and hence we will be able to obtain the best constraint on the bright-end of the LBG luminosity function at z 8 and 7. Comparing the result from HIPPIES to the hydrodynamic simulations will test the input physics and provide insight into the nature of the early galaxies. {2} The z 7-8 candidates from HIPPIES, most of which will be the brightest ones that any surveys would be able to find, will have the best chance to be spectroscopically confirmed at the current 8-10m telescopes. {3} The ACS part of HIPPIES will produce a significant number of candidate LBGs at z 5 and

  6. Applications of thermal infrared imagery for energy conservation and environmental surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, J. R.; Vogel, T. C.; Howard, G. E., Jr.; Love, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The survey procedures, developed during the winter and summer of 1976, employ color and color infrared aerial photography, thermal infrared imagery, and a handheld infrared imaging device. The resulting imagery was used to detect building heat losses, deteriorated insulation in built-up type building roofs, and defective underground steam lines. The handheld thermal infrared device, used in conjunction with the aerial thermal infrared imagery, provided a method for detecting and locating those roof areas that were underlain with wet insulation. In addition, the handheld infrared device was employed to conduct a survey of a U.S. Army installation's electrical distribution system under full operating loads. This survey proved to be cost effective procedure for detecting faulty electrical insulators and connections that if allowed to persist could have resulted in both safety hazards and loss in production.

  7. Hα kinematics of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaire, I.; Carignan, C.; Amram, P.; Hernandez, O.; Chemin, L.; Daigle, O.; de Denus-Baillargeon, M.-M.; Balkowski, C.; Boselli, A.; Fathi, K.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2008-04-01

    This is the second part of an Hα kinematics follow-up survey of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample. The aim of this paper is to shed new light on the role of baryons and their kinematics and on the dark/luminous matter relation in the star-forming regions of galaxies, in relation with studies at other wavelengths. The data for 37 galaxies are presented. The observations were made using Fabry-Perot interferometry with the photon-counting camera FaNTOmM on four different telescopes, namely the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m, the ESO La Silla 3.6-m, the William Herschel 4.2-m and the Observatoire du mont Mégantic 1.6-m telescopes. The velocity fields are computed using custom IDL routines designed for an optimal use of the data. The kinematical parameters and rotation curves are derived using the GIPSY software. It is shown that non-circular motions associated with galactic bars affect the kinematical parameters fitting and the velocity gradient of the rotation curves. This leads to incorrect determinations of the baryonic and dark matter distributions in the mass models derived from those rotation curves. Based on observations made with the ESO 3.60-m telescope at La Silla Observatories under programme ID 076.B-0859 and on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and the University of Hawaii. E-mail: isabelle@astro.umontreal.ca (ID);claude.carignan@umontreal.ca (CC) ‡ Visiting Astronomer, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France and the University of Hawaii.

  8. Spectrophotometric Redshifts in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharo, John; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined HST grism spectroscopy and deep broadband imaging to measure spectro-photometric redshifts (SPZs) of faint galaxies. Using a technique pioneered by Ryan et al. 2007, one can combine spectra and photometry to yield an SPZ that is more accurate than pure photometric redshifts, and can probe more deeply than ground-based spectroscopic redshifts. By taking mid-resolution spectra from the HST Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS), SPZs can be found for measurements potentially down to 27th magnitude (the typical brightness of a dwarf galaxy at redshift ˜1.5). A galaxy’s redshift is vital for understanding its place in the growth and evolution of the universe. The measurement of high-accuracy SPZs for FIGS sources will improve the faint-end and high-redshift portions of the luminosity function, and make possible a robust analysis of the FIGS fields for signs of Large Scale Structure (LSS). The improved redshift and distance measurements allowed for the identification of a structure at z=0.83 in one of the FIGS fields.

  9. SIMP: A Near-Infrared Proper Motion Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigau, Étienne; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc; Robert, Jasmin; Malo, Lison

    2009-02-01

    SIMP is a proper motion (PM) survey made with the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic (OMM) wide-field near-infrared camera CPAPIR at the CTIO 1.5 m and OMM 1.6 m telescopes. The SIMP observations were initiated in early 2005, are still ongoing and, to date, have covered 28% of the sky at high galactic latitudes. The PMs of the sources detected are determined by comparing their measured positions with those listed in the 2MASS point source catalog, giving a time baseline of 4 to 10 years. The 5 σ uncertainty on the relative SIMP and 2MASS astrometry is 1'', equivalent to a PM lower limit of 0.125-0.250''/yr, or a tangential velocity limit of 15-30 km/s at 25 pc. Up to the 2MASS magnitude limit (J~16.5), T dwarfs are found out to ~25 pc, while L dwarfs may be found as far as 100 pc away.

  10. A Herschel/PACS Far-infrared Line Emission Survey of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Lu, N.; Stierwalt, S.; Stacey, G.; Malhotra, S.; van der Werf, P. P.; Howell, J. H.; Privon, G. C.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Murphy, E. J.; Barcos-Muñoz, L.; Linden, S. T.; Inami, H.; Larson, K. L.; Evans, A. S.; Appleton, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Lord, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Surace, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    We present an analysis of {[{{O}}{{I}}]}63, [O iii]88, [N ii]122, and {[{{C}}{{II}}]}158 far-infrared (FIR) fine-structure line observations obtained with Herschel/PACS, for ∼240 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. We find pronounced declines (“deficits”) of line-to-FIR continuum emission for [N ii]122, {[{{O}}{{I}}]}63, and {[{{C}}{{II}}]}158 as a function of FIR color and infrared luminosity surface density, {{{Σ }}}{IR}. The median electron density of the ionized gas in LIRGs, based on the [N ii]122/[N ii]205 ratio, is {n}{{e}} = 41 cm‑3. We find that the dispersion in the {[{{C}}{{II}}]}158 deficit of LIRGs is attributed to a varying fractional contribution of photodissociation regions (PDRs) to the observed {[{{C}}{{II}}]}158 emission, f([{{C}} {{II}}{]}158{PDR}) = [{{C}} {{II}}{]}158{PDR}/{[{{C}}{{II}}]}158, which increases from ∼60% to ∼95% in the warmest LIRGs. The {[{{O}}{{I}}]}63/[{{C}} {{II}}{]}158{PDR} ratio is tightly correlated with the PDR gas kinetic temperature in sources where {[{{O}}{{I}}]}63 is not optically thick or self-absorbed. For each galaxy, we derive the average PDR hydrogen density, {n}{{H}}, and intensity of the interstellar radiation field, G, in units of {G}0 and find G/{n}{{H}} ratios of ∼0.1–50 {G}0 cm3, with ULIRGs populating the upper end of the distribution. There is a relation between G/{n}{{H}} and {{{Σ }}}{IR}, showing a critical break at {{{Σ }}}{IR}* ≃ 5 × 1010 L ⊙ kpc‑2. Below {{{Σ }}}{IR}* , G/{n}{{H}} remains constant, ≃0.32 {G}0 cm3, and variations in {{{Σ }}}{IR} are driven by the number density of star-forming regions within a galaxy, with no change in their PDR properties. Above {{{Σ }}}{IR}* , G/{n}{{H}} increases rapidly with {{{Σ }}}{IR}, signaling a departure from the typical PDR conditions found in normal star-forming galaxies toward more intense/harder radiation fields and compact geometries typical of starbursting sources.

  11. DISCOVERIES FROM A NEAR-INFRARED PROPER MOTION SURVEY USING MULTI-EPOCH TWO MICRON ALL-SKY SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cutri, Roc M.; Looper, Dagny L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Sweet, Anne C.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Barman, Travis S.; Bochanski, John J.; Roellig, Thomas L.; McLean, Ian S.; McGovern, Mark R.; Rice, Emily L.

    2010-09-15

    We have conducted a 4030 deg{sup 2} near-infrared proper motion survey using multi-epoch data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). We find 2778 proper motion candidates, 647 of which are not listed in SIMBAD. After comparison to Digitized Sky Survey images, we find that 107 of our proper motion candidates lack counterparts at B, R, and I bands and are thus 2MASS-only detections. We present results of spectroscopic follow-up of 188 targets that include the infrared-only sources along with selected optical-counterpart sources with faint reduced proper motions or interesting colors. We also establish a set of near-infrared spectroscopic standards with which to anchor near-infrared classifications for our objects. Among the discoveries are six young field brown dwarfs, five 'red L' dwarfs, three L-type subdwarfs, twelve M-type subdwarfs, eight 'blue L' dwarfs, and several T dwarfs. We further refine the definitions of these exotic classes to aid future identification of similar objects. We examine their kinematics and find that both the 'blue L' and 'red L' dwarfs appear to be drawn from a relatively old population. This survey provides a glimpse of the kinds of research that will be possible through time-domain infrared projects such as the UKIDSS Large Area Survey, various VISTA surveys, and WISE, and also through z- or y-band enabled, multi-epoch surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  12. A Snapshot Imaging Spectropolarimeter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Distribution UnliuLt:ýJ Abstract A revolutionary technique for snapshot imaging spectropolarimetry has been developed because of the recent availability...of large focal plane arrays and fast computers. The technique involves the combination of spectropolarimetry with computed tomography imaging...operate through the fusion of two techniques: channeled spectropolarimetry " 2 and computed tomography imaging spectrometry. Accordingly, it is

  13. Snapshot polarimeter fundus camera.

    PubMed

    DeHoog, Edward; Luo, Haitao; Oka, Kazuhiko; Dereniak, Eustace; Schwiegerling, James

    2009-03-20

    A snapshot imaging polarimeter utilizing Savart plates is integrated into a fundus camera for retinal imaging. Acquired retinal images can be processed to reconstruct Stokes vector images, giving insight into the polarization properties of the retina. Results for images from a normal healthy retina and retinas with pathology are examined and compared.

  14. A NuSTAR SURVEY OF NEARBY ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Ptak, Andrew; Stern, Daniel; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Stephen E.; Craig, William W.; Brandt, W. Niel; Luo, Bin; Christensen, Finn E.; Comastri, Andrea; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Koss, Michael; and others

    2015-11-20

    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously possible. Six of the nine sources observed were detected sufficiently well by NuSTAR to model in detail their broadband X-ray spectra, and recover the levels of obscuration and intrinsic X-ray luminosities. Only one source (IRAS 13120–5453) has a spectrum consistent with a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), but we cannot rule out that a second source (Arp 220) harbors an extremely highly obscured AGN as well. Variability in column density (reduction by a factor of a few compared to older observations) is seen in IRAS 05189–2524 and Mrk 273, altering the classification of these borderline sources from Compton-thick to Compton-thin. The ULIRGs in our sample have surprisingly low observed fluxes in high-energy (>10 keV) X-rays, especially compared to their bolometric luminosities. They have lower ratios of unabsorbed 2–10 keV to bolometric luminosity, and unabsorbed 2–10 keV to mid-IR [O iv] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths.

  15. Andromeda Optical & Infrared Disk Survey: Stellar Populations and Mass Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stephane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Dalcanton, Julianne; de Jong, Roelof S.; McDonald, Michael; Tully, R. Brent

    2015-01-01

    M31 is ideal for understanding the structure and stellar populations of spiral galaxies thanks to its proximity and our external vantage point. The Andromeda Optical & Infrared Disk Survey (ANDROIDS) has used MegaCam and WIRCam on the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope to map the M31 bulge and disk out to R=40 kpc in ugriJKs bands. Through careful sky monitoring and modelling, ANDROIDS is uniquely able to observe both the resolved stars and integrated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) over M31's entire disk (complimenting HST's PHAT program). By simultaneously fitting stellar populations with isochrones and SED models for M31, we can assess the systematic uncertainties of SED fits to more distant unresolved systems, and constrain the stellar populations that contribute to each bandpass. We pay close attention to the near-IR light of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in stellar population models. ANDROIDS has also surveyed M31 in narrowband TiO and CN bands, enabling a clean classification of Carbon AGB stars, and a mapping the ratio of Carbon and M-type AGB stars (C/M) across the entire disk. The correlation between C/M and stellar metallicity is useful for constraining the NIR colors of more distant galaxies. We also present a hierarchical Bayesian model of pixel-by-pixel stellar populations, yielding the most detailed map of M31's stellar mass and star formation history to date. We find that a full six-band optical-NIR fit provides the best constraints to stellar mass, a triumph for modern NIR stellar population synthesis models, though the results are consistent with an optical-only fits. Fits based on the popular g-i color combination find M/L* ratios biased by 0.1 dex, while color-mass-to-light prescriptions in the literature may differ by 0.3 dex. This result affirms that panchromatic SED modelling is crucial even for stellar mass estimation, let alone age and metallicity. Overall, we estimate the stellar mass of M31, within R=30 kpc, to be 10.3 (+2.3, -1

  16. Robust snapshot interferometric spectropolarimetry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daesuk; Seo, Yoonho; Yoon, Yonghee; Dembele, Vamara; Yoon, Jae Woong; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert

    2016-05-15

    This Letter describes a Stokes vector measurement method based on a snapshot interferometric common-path spectropolarimeter. The proposed scheme, which employs an interferometric polarization-modulation module, can extract the spectral polarimetric parameters Ψ(k) and Δ(k) of a transmissive anisotropic object by which an accurate Stokes vector can be calculated in the spectral domain. It is inherently strongly robust to the object 3D pose variation, since it is designed distinctly so that the measured object can be placed outside of the interferometric module. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. The proposed snapshot scheme enables us to extract the spectral Stokes vector of a transmissive anisotropic object within tens of msec with high accuracy.

  17. Snapshot-Imaging Spectropolarimeter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-17

    this backprojection+filtering is the process that the pseudoinverse matrix represents for this system. 3. CHANNELLED SPECTROPOLARIMETRY (CHSP...channel shown in Fig. 9.8 4. SNAPSHOT IMAGING SPECTROPOLARIMETRY (CTICS) By combining the techniques of CTIS with CHSP, we can construct an instrument... spectropolarimetry . PhD thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 2002. 9. D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, W. G. Egan, and M. J. Duggin, eds., Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing IV, Proc. SPIE 4481, 2001. 20

  18. A far-infrared spectral line survey of 23 infrared-bright Galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Steven D.; Hollenbach, David J.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Haas, Michael R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Carral, Patricia; Maloney, Philip R.; Erickson, Edwin F.

    1995-01-01

    We present results from a KAO survey of fine-structure lines observed in 23 infrared-luminous galaxies. One or more of the following lines was observed and/or detected in each galaxy: (S III) 19, 33 microns, (Ne V) 24 microns, (O IV) 26 microns, (Fe II) 26 microns, (Si II) 35 microns, (O III) 52, 88 microns, (0 I) 63, 146 microns, (N III) 57 micro ns, (N II) 122, 205 microns, (C II) 158 microns. The galaxies span a wide range of morphologies (irregular to grand design), have varying metallicities, and include mergers, AGN's, and starburst systems. The observations were made beginning in 1988 using the facility Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer onboard the KAO at a typical resolution of approximately 60-140 km/s and with a 30-44 deg beam. We interpret the (C II) and (O I) fluxes, along with previous measurements of the IR continuum fluxes, in the context of photo dissociation region (PDR) models (Tielens & Hollenbach 1985; Wolfire et al. 1990). With these models, we obtain estimates of the typical interstellar UV fields incident on the line emitting regions (102-104 times the local interstellar radiation field) and the total masses (10(exp 7)-10(exp 8) Solar Mass), densities (10(exp 3)-10(exp 4)/cu cm), and temperatures (100-250 K) of the warm atomic gas. The (O III) (52/88) and (S III) (33/19) line flux ratios constrain the range of electron densities and pressures found within the ionized regions. The (O III) and (S III) lines also provide estimates of the effective temperature of the ionizing stars and elemental abundances within the ionized regions of these galactic nuclei. Our measurements imply typical gas pressures of nT approximately 5 x 10(exp 6)/cu cm K and typical upper mass cutoffs of 25-35 Solar Mass. The low-metallicity systems show high (C II)/CO and (O I)/CO flux ratios, 3-5 times the Milky Way value, indicating that they contain a larger fraction of photodissociated gas relative to the molecular material.

  19. A far-infrared spectral line survey of 23 infrared-bright Galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Steven D.; Hollenbach, David J.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Haas, Michael R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Carral, Patricia; Maloney, Philip R.; Erickson, Edwin F.

    1995-01-01

    We present results from a KAO survey of fine-structure lines observed in 23 infrared-luminous galaxies. One or more of the following lines was observed and/or detected in each galaxy: (S III) 19, 33 microns, (Ne V) 24 microns, (O IV) 26 microns, (Fe II) 26 microns, (Si II) 35 microns, (O III) 52, 88 microns, (0 I) 63, 146 microns, (N III) 57 micro ns, (N II) 122, 205 microns, (C II) 158 microns. The galaxies span a wide range of morphologies (irregular to grand design), have varying metallicities, and include mergers, AGN's, and starburst systems. The observations were made beginning in 1988 using the facility Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer onboard the KAO at a typical resolution of approximately 60-140 km/s and with a 30-44 deg beam. We interpret the (C II) and (O I) fluxes, along with previous measurements of the IR continuum fluxes, in the context of photo dissociation region (PDR) models (Tielens & Hollenbach 1985; Wolfire et al. 1990). With these models, we obtain estimates of the typical interstellar UV fields incident on the line emitting regions (102-104 times the local interstellar radiation field) and the total masses (10(exp 7)-10(exp 8) Solar Mass), densities (10(exp 3)-10(exp 4)/cu cm), and temperatures (100-250 K) of the warm atomic gas. The (O III) (52/88) and (S III) (33/19) line flux ratios constrain the range of electron densities and pressures found within the ionized regions. The (O III) and (S III) lines also provide estimates of the effective temperature of the ionizing stars and elemental abundances within the ionized regions of these galactic nuclei. Our measurements imply typical gas pressures of nT approximately 5 x 10(exp 6)/cu cm K and typical upper mass cutoffs of 25-35 Solar Mass. The low-metallicity systems show high (C II)/CO and (O I)/CO flux ratios, 3-5 times the Milky Way value, indicating that they contain a larger fraction of photodissociated gas relative to the molecular material.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Near-infrared survey of Miras (Matsunaga+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, N.; Kawadu, T.; Nishiyama, S.; Nagayama, T.; Hatano, H.; Tamura, M.; Glass, I. S.; Nagata, T.

    2010-03-01

    We used the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) 1.4m telescope and the SIRIUS near-IR camera for our monitoring survey. A large part of the data was obtained in 2005 and 2006, while additional data were collected between 2001 and 2008. (3 data files).

  1. Interpretation of multispectral and infrared thermal surveys of the Suez Canal Zone, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Hady, M. A. A. H.; Hafez, M. A. A.; Salman, A. B.; Morsy, M. A.; Elrakaiby, M. M.; Alaassy, I. E. E.; Kamel, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing airborne surveys were conducted, as part of the plan of rehabilitation, of the Suez Canal Zone using I2S multispectral camera and Bendix LN-3 infrared passive scanner. The multispectral camera gives four separate photographs for the same scene in the blue, green, red, and near infrared bands. The scanner was operated in the microwave bands of 8 to 14 microns and the thermal surveying was carried out both at night and in the day time. The surveys, coupled with intensive ground investigations, were utilized in the construction of new geological, structural lineation and drainage maps for the Suez Canal Zone on a scale of approximately 1:20,000, which are superior to the maps made by normal aerial photography. A considerable number of anomalies belonging to various types were revealed through the interpretation of the executed multispectral and infrared thermal surveys.

  2. Oral anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing ablation: results from the First European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation (ESS-PRAFA).

    PubMed

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Larsen, Torben B; Deharo, Jean Claude; Rossvoll, Ole; Dagres, Nikolaos; Todd, Derick; Pison, Laurent; Proclemer, Alessandro; Purefellner, Helmut; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-06-01

    The European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation (ESS-PRAFA) is a prospective, multicentre snapshot survey of patients undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, conducted to collect patient-based data on current clinical practices in AF ablation in context of the latest AF Guidelines and contemporary oral anticoagulant therapies. The EP Research Network Centres were asked to prospectively enrol consecutive patients during a 6-week period (September/October 2014). Data were collected via the web-based case report form. We present the results pertinent to the use of antithrombotic therapies. Thirteen countries prospectively enrolled 455 eligible consecutive patients [mean age 59 ± 10.8 years, 131 (28.8%) females]. The mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 1.12 ± 1.06 [137 patients (30.1%) had a score of ≥2]. Before ablation, 443 patients (97.4%) were on anticoagulant therapy [143 (31.4%) on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and 264 (58.0%) on vitamin K antagonists (VKAs)]. Of the latter, 79.7% underwent ablation without VKA interruption, whilst a variety of strategies were used in patients taking NOAC. After ablation, most patients (89.3%) continued the same anticoagulant as before, and 2 (0.4%) were not prescribed any anticoagulation. At discharge, 280 patients (62.2%) were advised oral anticoagulation for a limited period of mean 3.8 ± 2.2 months. On multivariate analysis, CHA2DS2-VASc, AF duration, prior VKA use, and estimated AF ablation success were significantly associated with the decision on short-term anticoagulation. Our results show the increasing use of NOAC in patients undergoing AF ablation and emphasize the need for more information to guide the periprocedural use of both NOACs and VKAs in real-world setting.

  3. The WIRED Survey. 2; Infrared Excesses in the SDSS DR7 White Dwarf Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debes, John H.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With the launch of the Wide-field Infrar.ed Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris and brown dwarfs (BDs) around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED Survey is sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs. In this paper, we present a cross-correlation of the preliminary Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) WD catalog between the WISE, Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and SDSS DR7 photometric catalogs. From -18,000 input targets, there are WISE detections comprising 344 "naked" WDs (detection of the WD photosphere only), 1020 candidate WD+M dwarf binaries, 42 candidate WD+BD systems, 52 candidate WD+dust disk systems, and 69 targets with indeterminate infrared excess. We classified all of the detected targets through spectral energy distribution model fitting of the merged optical, near-IR, and WISE photometry. Some of these detections could be the result of contaminating sources within the large (approx. 6") WISE point-spread function; we make a preliminary estimate for the rates of contamination for our WD+BD and WD+disk candidates and provide notes for each target of interest. Each candidate presented here should be confirmed with higher angular resolution infrared imaging or infrared spectroscopy. We also present an overview of the observational characteristics of the detected WDs in the WISE photometric bands, including the relative frequencies of candidate WD+M, WD+BD, and WD+disk systems.

  4. The WIRED Survey. 2; Infrared Excesses in the SDSS DR7 White Dwarf Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debes, John H.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With the launch of the Wide-field Infrar.ed Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris and brown dwarfs (BDs) around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED Survey is sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs. In this paper, we present a cross-correlation of the preliminary Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) WD catalog between the WISE, Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and SDSS DR7 photometric catalogs. From -18,000 input targets, there are WISE detections comprising 344 "naked" WDs (detection of the WD photosphere only), 1020 candidate WD+M dwarf binaries, 42 candidate WD+BD systems, 52 candidate WD+dust disk systems, and 69 targets with indeterminate infrared excess. We classified all of the detected targets through spectral energy distribution model fitting of the merged optical, near-IR, and WISE photometry. Some of these detections could be the result of contaminating sources within the large (approx. 6") WISE point-spread function; we make a preliminary estimate for the rates of contamination for our WD+BD and WD+disk candidates and provide notes for each target of interest. Each candidate presented here should be confirmed with higher angular resolution infrared imaging or infrared spectroscopy. We also present an overview of the observational characteristics of the detected WDs in the WISE photometric bands, including the relative frequencies of candidate WD+M, WD+BD, and WD+disk systems.

  5. Time-series surveys and pulsating stars: The near-infrared perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the advantages and problems of nearinfrared surveys in observing pulsating stars in the Milky Way. One of the advantages of near-infrared surveys, when compared to optical counterparts, is that the interstellar extinction is significantly smaller. As we see in this review, a significant volume of the Galactic disk can be reached by infrared surveys but not by optical ones. Towards highly obscured regions in the Galactic mid-plane, however, the interstellar extinction causes serious problems even with near-infrared data in understanding the observational results. After a review on previous and current near-infrared surveys, we discuss the effects of the interstellar extinction in optical (including Gaia) to near-infrared broad bands based on a simple calculation using synthetic spectral energy distribution. We then review the recent results on classical Cepheids towards the Galactic center and the bulge, as a case study, to see the impact of the uncertainty in the extinction law. The extinction law, i.e. the wavelength dependency of the extinction, is not fully characterized, and its uncertainty makes it hard to make the correction. Its characterization is an urgent task in order to exploit the outcomes of ongoing large-scale surveys of pulsating stars, e.g. for drawing a map of pulsating stars across the Galactic disk.

  6. Infrared sky noise survey. [over observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A 10 micron infrared sky noise survey, which was conducted during the period from June 1, 1970 to June 30, 1974, is reported along with associated electronics and recording equipment which was developed and deployed for periods up to 18 months at various potential or existing infrared observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile. The results of the data activity are given, and variables are defined which influence the intensity and duration of the sky noise.

  7. PRIME: A Deep Near-Infrared Survey Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omont, A.; Prime Team; Zheng, W.; Ford, H. C.; Kruk, J. W.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; Szalay, A. S.; Shu, P. K.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Hartig, G.; Postman, M.; Stockman, H. S.; Voit, G. M.; Lenzen, R.; Rix, H.-W.; Kent, S.; Stoughton, C.; Mellier, Y.

    PRIME is a proposed space mission for a deep survey of 25% to 100% of the sky in four near-IR bands (0.9-3.5 μm), to M AB ≈ 24 (K ≈ 22). The PRIME survey should be ~ 600 times deeper than 2MASS. Deeper surveys in selected regions are planned. Its main goal is to find the first massive objects formed: quasars up to z = 15-25 if any, galaxies up to z ~20, clusters of galaxies up to z ~ 3-5. PRIME should also be a major step in the study of brown dwarfs and nearby free floating warm planets, and serve many other goals, in particular as a pilot mission for NGST. It should be a central piece of The Virtual Observatory, complementary to other surveys.

  8. A project for an infrared synoptic survey from Antarctica with the Polar Large Telescope (PLT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epchtein, N.; Abe, L.; Ansorge, W.; Langlois, M.; Vauglin, I.; Argentini, S.; Esau, I.; David, C.; Bryson, I.; Dalton, G.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Lawrence, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Polar Large Telescope (PLT) aims at performing a new generation of astronomical Infrared Synoptic Survey from Antarctica (ISSA). It would carry out for the first time large scale periodic imaging surveys at ˜ 0.3 arcsec angular resolution in the short thermal infrared (2-5 micron) range benefiting from the extremely dry, cold, and stable polar atmosphere. The PLT consists of a 2.5 m class telescope equipped with a 250-Mpixel infrared camera. The survey would produce diffraction limited images at 2 micron covering a total of ˜ 5000 square degrees, explore the time domain from seconds to years down to mab =25.5 in Kd, generate alerts of transients and react quickly to alerts from other ground based or space borne facilities.

  9. THE WIRED SURVEY. II. INFRARED EXCESSES IN THE SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Debes, John H.; Leisawitz, David T.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Cohen, Martin

    2011-12-01

    With the launch of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris and brown dwarfs (BDs) around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED Survey is sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs. In this paper, we present a cross-correlation of the preliminary Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) WD catalog between the WISE, Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and SDSS DR7 photometric catalogs. From {approx}18,000 input targets, there are WISE detections comprising 344 'naked' WDs (detection of the WD photosphere only), 1020 candidate WD+M dwarf binaries, 42 candidate WD+BD systems, 52 candidate WD+dust disk systems, and 69 targets with indeterminate infrared excess. We classified all of the detected targets through spectral energy distribution model fitting of the merged optical, near-IR, and WISE photometry. Some of these detections could be the result of contaminating sources within the large ( Almost-Equal-To 6'') WISE point-spread function; we make a preliminary estimate for the rates of contamination for our WD+BD and WD+disk candidates and provide notes for each target of interest. Each candidate presented here should be confirmed with higher angular resolution infrared imaging or infrared spectroscopy. We also present an overview of the observational characteristics of the detected WDs in the WISE photometric bands, including the relative frequencies of candidate WD+M, WD+BD, and WD+disk systems.

  10. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VIII. A MID-INFRARED KINEMATIC DISTANCE DISCRIMINATION METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Rosolowsky, Erik; Mairs, Steven; Evans, Neal J. II; Shirley, Yancy L.

    2013-06-10

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular

  11. Update on proposed ASHRAE standard on requirements for infrared surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Burrer, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the summer of 1977 ASHRAE Standard Committee 101P was authorized to prepared standards and requirements to assist industry and the general public in the applied use of infrared radiation sensing devices for assessment of building heat loss characteristics. In the spring of 1980 the draft of the proposed Standard was opened for public review. The public review period closed June 30, 1980, and the Project Committee is now attempting to reach consensus with the commentors. If consensus is reached in the fall of 1980 the Standard is expected to be approved for publication as an ASHRAE Standard in early 1981. Recognizing that official responses to the formal comments are still in preparation this paper, as an interim step, broadly categorizes the comments received into four areas: (1) Editorial, (2) Technical Content, (3) Procedural Requirements, and (4) Methods for Usage of the Standard. Some generalized unofficial remarks are outlined as a preliminary response to the comments.

  12. Degradation sequence of young lunar craters from orbital infrared survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieczorek, M. A.; Mendell, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Using new software, nighttime thermal maps of the lunar surface have been generated from data obtained by the Apollo 17 Infrared Scanning Radiometer (ISR) in lunar orbit. Most of the thermal anomalies observed in the maps correspond to fresh lunar craters because blocks on the lunar surface maintain a thermal contrast relative to surrounding soil during the lunar night. Craters of Erastosthenian age and older - relatively young by lunar standards - have developed soil covers that make them almost indistinguishable from their surroundings in the thermal data. Thermal images of Copernican age craters show various stages of a degradation process, allowing the craters to be ranked by age. The ISR data should yield insights into lunar surface evolution as well as a more detailed understanding of the bombardment history after formation of the great mare basins.

  13. Update On Proposed ASHRAE Standard On Requirements For Infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrer, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    In the summer of 1977 ASHRAE Standard Committee 101P was authorized to prepare standards and requirements to assist industry and the general public in the applied use of Infrared Radiation Sensing Divices for assessment of building heat loss characteristics.* In the spring of 1980 the draft of the proposed Standard was opened for public review. The public review period closed June 30, 1980 and the Project Committee is now attempting to reach consensus with the commentors. If consensus is reached in the fall of 1980 the Standard is expected to be approved for publication as an ASHRAE Standard in early 1981. Recognizing that official responses to the formal comments are still in preparation this paper, as an interim step, broadly catagorizes the comments received into four areas: 1) Editorial, 2) Technical Content, 3) Procedural Requirements, and 4) Methods for Usage of the Standard. Some generalized unofficial remarks are outlined as a preliminary response to the comments.

  14. Two distant brown dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Deep Extragalactic Survey Data Release 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodieu, N.; Dobbie, P. D.; Deacon, N. R.; Venemans, B. P.; Durant, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the discovery of two brown dwarfs in the UK infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Deep Extragalactic Survey (DXS) Data Release 2 (DR2). Both objects were selected photometrically from 6deg2 in DXS for their blue J - K colour and the lack of optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. Additional optical photometry provided by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) corroborated the possible substellarity of these candidates. Subsequent methane imaging of UDXS J221611.51+003308.1 and UDXS J221903.10+002418.2 has confirmed them as T7 +/- 1 and T6 +/- 1 dwarfs at photometric distances of 81 (52-118 pc) and 60 (44-87 pc; 2σ confidence level). A similar search in the DR2 of the Ultra-Deep Survey over a smaller area (0.77deg2) and shallower depth did not return any late-T dwarf candidate. The numbers of late-T dwarfs in our study are broadly in line with a declining mass function when considering the current area and depth of the DXS and UDS. These brown dwarfs are the first discovered in the Visible Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) 4 field and among the few T dwarfs found in pencil-beam surveys. They are valuable to investigate the scaleheight of T dwarfs. Based on observations made with the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey and the Gemini Observatory. E-mail: nlodieu@iac.es

  15. Snapshot Hyperspectral Volumetric Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiamin; Xiong, Bo; Lin, Xing; He, Jijun; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis of biological specimens brings about the demand for capturing the spatial, temporal and spectral dimensions of visual information together. However, such high-dimensional video acquisition faces major challenges in developing large data throughput and effective multiplexing techniques. Here, we report the snapshot hyperspectral volumetric microscopy that computationally reconstructs hyperspectral profiles for high-resolution volumes of ~1000 μm × 1000 μm × 500 μm at video rate by a novel four-dimensional (4D) deconvolution algorithm. We validated the proposed approach with both numerical simulations for quantitative evaluation and various real experimental results on the prototype system. Different applications such as biological component analysis in bright field and spectral unmixing of multiple fluorescence are demonstrated. The experiments on moving fluorescent beads and GFP labelled drosophila larvae indicate the great potential of our method for observing multiple fluorescent markers in dynamic specimens. PMID:27103155

  16. Snapshot Hyperspectral Volumetric Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiamin; Xiong, Bo; Lin, Xing; He, Jijun; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-04-01

    The comprehensive analysis of biological specimens brings about the demand for capturing the spatial, temporal and spectral dimensions of visual information together. However, such high-dimensional video acquisition faces major challenges in developing large data throughput and effective multiplexing techniques. Here, we report the snapshot hyperspectral volumetric microscopy that computationally reconstructs hyperspectral profiles for high-resolution volumes of ~1000 μm × 1000 μm × 500 μm at video rate by a novel four-dimensional (4D) deconvolution algorithm. We validated the proposed approach with both numerical simulations for quantitative evaluation and various real experimental results on the prototype system. Different applications such as biological component analysis in bright field and spectral unmixing of multiple fluorescence are demonstrated. The experiments on moving fluorescent beads and GFP labelled drosophila larvae indicate the great potential of our method for observing multiple fluorescent markers in dynamic specimens.

  17. The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS): The Full Poster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Hoq, S.; Montgomery, J.; Pavel, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    GPIPS will be completed in 2013, and the first data release (DR1) took place in August 2012 (see poster by L. Cashman). All of the 3,237 independent field observations, designed for the 10x10 arcmin Mimir instrument field of view, have been obtained, though a small number are being re-observed to meet our 2 arcsec seeing criterion. GPIPS data products include catalogs of stellar polarizations (POLCATs), catalogs of stellar photometry in the H-band (PHOTCATs), and deep co-added images for each field. The images for the entire 76 square degree region of the northern Galactic midplane surveyed have been mosaicked to create a large-format poster, which can be found elsewhere in the room. On the poster, data from the POLCATs are overlaid as polarization vectors, or circled stars for those exhibiting significant upper limits. Comparisons with other key data sets for correlative studies, such as the Galactic Ring Survey (Jackson et al. 2006), 2MASS (Skrutskie et al. 2006), WISE (Wright et al. 2010), the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS; Aguirre et al. 2011), GLIMPSE (Benjamin et al. 2003), and MIPSGAL (Mizuno et al. 2008) are also shown. Access to released GPIPS data is currently through our web server (gpips0.bu.edu), with planned upgrades to VO compliance and mirroring from other sites. This work is partially supported by NSF/MPS grants AST 06-07500 and AST 09-07790.

  18. A near-infrared survey of old novae. I - The discovery of a candidate recurrent nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.

    1992-12-01

    We report on a near-infrared survey of old novae in an attempt to discover previously unidentified members of the RS Oph family of recurrent novae. An RS Oph-type system contains a red giant, and is easily identified using infrared photometry. Two objects in our survey have infrared colors and luminosities that suggest that they may be recurrent novae: V723 Sco and AR Cir. We use a model of the Galaxy to rule out the possibility of source confusion in either case. The light curve of the 1952 outburst of V723 Sco was very similar to those of the other members of the RS Oph group of recurrent novae, and we conclude that it is a previously unidentified member of this family. The light curve of the 1906 outburst of AR Cir, however, more closely resembles those of the outbursts of symbiotic stars, and we classify it as such.

  19. A REDSHIFT SURVEY OF HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SELECTED STARBURSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSCURED STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C. M.; Budynkiewicz, J.; Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Bethermin, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Burgarella, D.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conselice, C. J.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ivison, R. J.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations and redshifts for a sample of 767 Herschel-SPIRE selected galaxies (HSGs) at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. The redshift distribution of these SPIRE sources from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey peaks at z = 0.85, with 731 sources at z < 2 and a tail of sources out to z {approx} 5. We measure more significant disagreement between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts (({Delta}z/(1 + z{sub spec})) = 0.29) than is seen in non-infrared selected samples, likely due to enhanced star formation rates and dust obscuration in infrared-selected galaxies. The infrared data are used to directly measure integrated infrared luminosities and dust temperatures independent of radio or 24 {mu}m flux densities. By probing the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) at its peak, we estimate that the vast majority (72%-83%) of z < 2 Herschel-selected galaxies would drop out of traditional submillimeter surveys at 0.85-1 mm. We find that dust temperature traces infrared luminosity, due in part to the SPIRE wavelength selection biases, and partially from physical effects. As a result, we measure no significant trend in SPIRE color with redshift; if dust temperature were independent of luminosity or redshift, a trend in SPIRE color would be expected. Composite infrared SEDs are constructed as a function of infrared luminosity, showing the increase in dust temperature with luminosity, and subtle change in near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral properties. Moderate evolution in the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation is measured for this partially radio-selected sample, with q{sub IR}{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup -0.30{+-}0.02} at z < 2. We estimate the luminosity function and implied star formation rate density contribution of HSGs at z < 1.6 and find overall agreement with work based on 24 {mu}m extrapolations of the LIRG

  20. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  1. Integration of Infrared Thermography and Photogrammetric Surveying of Built Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaioni, M.; Rosina, E.; L'Erario, A.; Dìaz-Vilariño, L.

    2017-05-01

    The thermal analysis of buildings represents a key-step for reduction of energy consumption, also in the case of Cultural Heritage. Here the complexity of the constructions and the adopted materials might require special analysis and tailored solutions. Infrared Thermography (IRT) is an important non-destructive investigation technique that may aid in the thermal analysis of buildings. The paper reports the application of IRT on a listed building, belonging to the Cultural Heritage and to a residential one, as a demonstration that IRT is a suitable and convenient tool for analysing the existing buildings. The purposes of the analysis are the assessment of the damages and energy efficiency of the building envelope. Since in many cases the complex geometry of historic constructions may involve the thermal analysis, the integration of IRT and accurate 3D models were developed during the latest years. Here authors propose a solution based on the up-to-date photogrammetric solutions for purely image-based 3D modelling, including automatic image orientation/sensor calibration using Structure-from-Motion and dense matching. Thus, an almost fully automatic pipeline for the generation of accurate 3D models showing the temperatures on a building skin in a realistic manner is described, where the only manual task is given by the measurement of a few common points for co-registration of RGB and IR photogrammetric projects.

  2. The Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey - IV. Biases in the completeness of near-infrared imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigula, J.; Drory, N.; Bender, R.; Botzler, C. S.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.

    2002-11-01

    We present the results of completeness simulations for the detection of point sources as well as redshifted elliptical and spiral galaxies in the K'-band images of the Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey (MUNICS). The main focus of this work is to quantify the selection effects introduced by threshold-based object detection algorithms used in deep imaging surveys. Therefore, we simulate objects obeying the well-known scaling relations between effective radius and central surface brightness, for both de Vaucouleurs and exponential profiles. The results of these simulations, while presented for the MUNICS project, are applicable in a much wider context to deep optical and near-infrared selected samples. We investigate the detection probability as well as the reliability for recovering the true total magnitude with Kron-like (adaptive) aperture photometry. The results are compared with the predictions of the visibility theory of Disney and Phillipps in terms of the detection rate and the lost-light fraction. Additionally, the effects attributable to seeing are explored. The results show a bias against detecting high-redshifted massive elliptical galaxies in comparison to disc galaxies with exponential profiles, and that the measurements of the total magnitudes for intrinsically bright elliptical galaxies are systematically too faint. Disc galaxies, in contrast, show no significant offset in the magnitude measurement of luminous objects. Finally, we present an analytic formula to predict the completeness of point sources using only basic image parameters.

  3. FLAMINGOS Near Infrared Survey of the Serpens Cloud Main Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlova, Nadya; Steinhauer, Aaron; Lada, Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    We obtained JHK images and low-resolution JH spectra in the embedded young cluster in the Serpens cloud Main core (also known as Serpens North). We determined spectral types (SpT) for fifteen previously identified cluster members (the first time for five of them), one new candidate, and eleven stars that appear to be field interlopers. Extinction, for which we derived an analytical expression, was obtained by taking SpT and near-IR excess into account. The location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram indicates that we probed a low-mass population of the cloud (0.05-1.5 M sun), including one to three brown dwarfs. We used our individually determined photospheric parameters to analyze the Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer determined spectral energy distribution (SED) classes. The latter were correlated with the age and location of the sources in the cloud. We find that most flat objects from our study (four out of five) have SEDs consistent with reddened classical T Tau stars; however, when comparing to the thick disk SEDs of lower mass M-type objects, we find that the flat ones show more excess, perhaps indicating an earlier evolutionary stage. We determined a median age for the cluster to be 1 Myr for distance of 380 pc, and 3 Myr for a less likely distance of 260 pc. The core of the cluster is on average younger than the rest of the cluster. We do not find objects with disks past 5 Myr. We do find diskless, X-ray bright objects younger than 1 Myr, as was also noted in the study of Winston et al. We find two groups of young objects associated with dark filaments, indicating that star formation was not always confined to the core.

  4. FLAMINGOS NEAR INFRARED SURVEY OF THE SERPENS CLOUD MAIN CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlova, Nadya; Lada, Elizabeth; Steinhauer, Aaron

    2010-06-10

    We obtained JHK images and low-resolution JH spectra in the embedded young cluster in the Serpens cloud Main core (also known as Serpens North). We determined spectral types (SpT) for fifteen previously identified cluster members (the first time for five of them), one new candidate, and eleven stars that appear to be field interlopers. Extinction, for which we derived an analytical expression, was obtained by taking SpT and near-IR excess into account. The location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram indicates that we probed a low-mass population of the cloud (0.05-1.5 M {sub sun}), including one to three brown dwarfs. We used our individually determined photospheric parameters to analyze the Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer determined spectral energy distribution (SED) classes. The latter were correlated with the age and location of the sources in the cloud. We find that most flat objects from our study (four out of five) have SEDs consistent with reddened classical T Tau stars; however, when comparing to the thick disk SEDs of lower mass M-type objects, we find that the flat ones show more excess, perhaps indicating an earlier evolutionary stage. We determined a median age for the cluster to be 1 Myr for distance of 380 pc, and 3 Myr for a less likely distance of 260 pc. The core of the cluster is on average younger than the rest of the cluster. We do not find objects with disks past 5 Myr. We do find diskless, X-ray bright objects younger than 1 Myr, as was also noted in the study of Winston et al. We find two groups of young objects associated with dark filaments, indicating that star formation was not always confined to the core.

  5. A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF CLASS I PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Connelley, Michael S.; Greene, Thomas P.

    2010-11-15

    We present the results of a near-IR spectroscopic survey of 110 Class I protostars observed from 0.80 {mu}m to 2.43 {mu}m at a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1200. This survey is unique in its selection of targets from the whole sky, its sample size, wavelength coverage, depth, and sample selection. We find that Class I objects exhibit a wide range of lines and the continuum spectroscopic features. Eighty-five percent of Class I protostars exhibit features indicative of mass accretion, and we found that the veiling excess, CO emission, and Br {gamma} emission are closely related. We modeled the spectra to estimate the veiling excess (r{sub k} ) and extinction to each target. We also used near-IR colors and emission line ratios, when available, to also estimate extinction. In the course of this survey, we observed the spectra of 10 FU Orionis-like objects, including 2 new ones, as well as 3 Herbig Ae-type stars among our Class I young stellar objects. We used photospheric absorption lines, when available, to estimate the spectral type of each target. Although most targets are late-type stars, there are several A- and F-type stars in our sample. Notably, we found no A or F class stars in the Taurus-Auriga or Perseus star-forming regions. There are several cases where the observed CO and/or water absorption bands are deeper than expected from the photospheric spectral type. We find a correlation between the appearance of the reflection nebula, which traces the distribution of material on very large scales, and the near-IR spectrum, which probes smaller scales. All of the FU Orionis-like objects are associated with reflection nebulae. The spectra of the components of spatially resolved protostellar binaries tend to be very similar. In particular both components tend to have similar veiling and H{sub 2} emission, inconsistent with random selection from the sample as a whole. There is a strong correlation between [Fe II] and H{sub 2} emission, supporting previous

  6. Estimating the Supernova Cosmological Constraints Possible With the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Miles; Rubin, David; Aldering, Greg Scott; Baltay, Charles; Fagrelius, Parker; Law, David R.; Perlmutter, Saul; Pontoppidan, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The proposed Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) supernova survey will measure precision distances continuously in redshift to 1.7 with excellent systematics control. However, the Science Definition Team report presented a idealized version of the survey, and we now work to add realism. Using SNe from HST programs, we investigate the expected contamination from the host-galaxy light to estimate required exposure times. We also present estimates of purity and completeness, generated by degrading well-measured nearby SN spectra to WFIRST resolution and signal-to-noise. We conclude with a more accurate prediction of the cosmological constraints possible with WFIRST SNe.

  7. Super Star Clusters in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: the SUNBIRD Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, P.; Randriamanakoto, Z.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kniazev, A.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Mattila, S.; Ramphul, R.; Ryder, S.; Tekola, A.

    2014-09-01

    We summarize recent results from an Adaptive Optics (AO) imaging survey of 40 Luminous IR Galaxies (LIRGs). We have constructed the first statistically significant sample of Luminosity Functions (LFs) of Super Star Clusters (SSCs) in the near-IR, and find evidence that the LF slopes in LIRGs are shallower than in more quiescent spiral galaxies. Distance and blending effects were investigated in detail paving the way for SSC studies further out than done previously. We have also correlated the luminosities of the brightest clusters with the star formation rates of the hosts and find that the characteristics of the relation suggest an underlying physical driver rather than solely a size-of-sample effect. Finally we present early results of using SSC age and mass properties to trace the histories of the target LIRG systems.

  8. The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and Infrared Array Camera Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, M.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Bartlett, J. G.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Dey, A.; Dressler, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Galametz, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Marrone, D. P.; Mei, S.; Muzzin, A.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Stern, D.; Vieira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 deg2 of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at (α, δ) = (23:30, -55:00), in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs, one for each of the two warm IRAC selection bands. They contain roughly 5.5 and 3.7 million distinct sources, the vast majority of which are galaxies, down to the SSDF 5σ sensitivity limits of 19.0 and 18.2 Vega mag (7.0 and 9.4 μJy) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively.

  9. Sensitive Far-Infrared Survey Spectroscopy: Bliss For Spica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Charles; BLISS-SPICA Study Team

    2009-01-01

    We present a concept for BLISS, a sensitive far-IR-submillimeter spectrograph for SPICA. SPICA is a JAXA-led mission featuring a 3.5-meter telescope actively cooled to below 5K, envisioned for launch in 2017. The low-background platform is especially compelling for moderate-resolution survey spectroscopy, for which BLISS is designed. The BLISS / SPICA combination will offer line sensitivities below 1e-20 W/m^2 in modest integrations, enabling rapid survey spectroscopy of galaxies out to redshift 5. The far-IR fine-structure and molecular transitions which BLISS / SPICA will measure are immune to dust extinction, and will unambiguously reveal these galaxies' redshifts, stellar and AGN contents, gas properties, and heavy-element abundances. Taken together, such spectra will reveal the history of of star formation and AGN activity in dusty galaxies from 1 GY after the Big Bang to the present day. BLISS is comprised of five sub-bands, each with two R 700 grating spectrometer modules. The modules are configured with polarizing and dichroic splitters to provide complete instantaneous spectral coverage in two sky positions. A chopping mirror modulates the source between these two sets of spectrometers. To approach background-limited performance with the cold telescope, BLISS detectors must have sensitivities below 1e-19 W/Hz^1/2, and the format is 10 arrays of several hundred pixels each. It is anticipated that these requirements can be met on SPICA's timescale with leg-isolated superconducting (TES) bolometers cooled with a 50 mK magnetic refrigerator.

  10. Optical Design Trade Study for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, David A.; Goullioud, R.; Lehan, John P.; Mentzell, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics mission by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)-Omega payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of NWNH, the WFIRST project has been working with the WFIRST science definition team (SDT) to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the driving requirements. The current interim reference mission point design, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slitless spectroscopy science channels, is consistent with the requirements, requires no technology development, and out performs the JDEM-Omega design.

  11. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-11-20

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ≤ z ≤ 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ∼ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L {sub C} {sub II}–L {sub FIR} relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratio and the far-IR color L {sub 60}/L {sub 100} observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L {sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} or L {sub IR}/M{sub H{sub 2}}), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the

  12. A Far-infrared Spectroscopic Survey of Intermediate Redshift (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Clements, D.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Scott, D.; Thatte, N.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-11-01

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 <= z <= 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L IR > 1011.5 L ⊙). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ~ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L C II /L FIR ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L C II -L FIR relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L C II /L FIR ratio and the far-IR color L 60/L 100 observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L C II /L FIR at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L C II /L FIR ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L IR/L\\prime _CO or L IR/M_H2), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the present day and z > 1 is already significant by z ~ 0.3.

  13. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer cryogenic support system lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Brett; Thompson, Brian; Schick, Scott

    2010-08-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a JPL-managed MIDEX mission to perform an infrared all-sky survey. The WISE instrument, developed by the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), is a 40-cm cryogenically-cooled telescope which includes a cryogenic scan mirror and four infrared focal planes (2-HgCdTe, 2-Si:As). Cooling the instrument to the desired temperatures is accomplished by a two-stage, solid hydrogen cryostat, provided by Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (LMATC). Required temperatures for the instrument optics and Si:As focal planes are <13 K and <7.6 K respectively. To reduce heat loads, the vacuum shell is isolated from the spacecraft bus via composite struts and radiatively cooled to <200 K. The telescope aperture is protected from on-orbit environmental loads via a two-stage radiatively cooled aperture shade. WISE was successfully launched into a 530 km, polar orbit on December 14, 2009, beginning a 10-month mission to survey the entire sky in the infrared.

  14. The Spitzer Local Volume Legacy Survey: Infrared Imaging and Photometry for 258 Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Daniel A.; LVL Team

    2009-01-01

    Near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the Local Volume Legacy survey, a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program built upon a foundation of GALEX ultraviolet and ground-based Hα imaging of 258 galaxies within 11 Mpc. The Local Volume Legacy survey covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the faintest absolute depth and highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies (such as from SINGS, the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) with improved sampling of the low-luminosity dwarf galaxy population. LVL's unique sample selection results in a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of PAH emission from low-metallicity galaxies. Conversely, the LVL sample shows a tighter correlation in the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio versus ultraviolet spectral slope, due in large part to the lack of luminous early-type galaxies in the Local Volume.

  15. A far-infrared survey of molecular cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessop, N. E.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2000-01-01

    We present a catalogue of molecular cloud cores drawn from high-latitude, medium-opacity clouds, using the all-sky IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) images at 60 and 100μm. The typical column densities of the cores are N(H2)~3.8x1021cm-2 and the typical volume densities are n(H2)~2x103cm-3. They are therefore significantly less dense than many other samples obtained in other ways. Those cloud cores with IRAS point sources are seen to be already forming stars, but this is found to be only a small fraction of the total number of cores. The fraction of the cores at the protostellar stage is used to estimate the pre-stellar time-scale - the time until the formation of a hydrostatically supported protostellar object. We argue, on the basis of a comparison with other samples, that a trend exists for the pre-stellar lifetime of a cloud core to decrease with the mean column density and number density of the core. We compare this with model predictions and show that the data are consistent with star formation regulated by the ionization fraction.

  16. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey . VI. The far-infrared view of M 87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, M.; Clemens, M.; Xilouris, E. M.; Fritz, J.; Cotton, W. D.; Davies, J. I.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Cortese, L.; De Looze, I.; Pohlen, M.; Verstappen, J.; Böhringer, H.; Bomans, D. J.; Boselli, A.; Corbelli, E.; Dariush, A.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vlahakis, C.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M 87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations of M 87, taken as part of the science demonstration phase observations of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. We compare these data with a synchrotron model based on mid-infrared, far-infrared, submm and radio data from the literature to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. Both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M 87, which is not unexpected in the harsh X-ray environment of this radio galaxy sitting at the core of the Virgo cluster. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. Infrared survey of the Pisgah Crater area, San Bernardino County, California - a geologic interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gawarecki, Stephen J.

    1968-01-01

    The infrared survey of the Pisgah Crater Area, San Bernardino County, California was primarily undertaken to establish parameters by which rock types, structures, and textures peculiar to this locale could be recognized or differentiated. A secondary purpose was to provide an adequate evaluation and calibration of airborne and ground-based instruments used in the survey. Pisgah Crater and its vicinity was chosen as one of the fundamental test sites for the NASA remote sensing program because of its relatively fresh basaltic flows and pyroclastics. Its typical exposure of basalt also made it a possible lunar analogue. A fundamental test site for the purpose of the program is defined as a readily accessible area for which the topography, geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation and other features are relatively well known. All remote sensor instrument teams, i.e. infrared, radar, microwave, and photography, were obligated to use the fundamental test sites for instrument evaluation and to establish terrain identification procedures. Pisgah Crater, nearby Sunshine Cone, and their associated lava flows are in the southern Mojave Desert about 40 miles east-southeast of Barstow, California. (See fig. 1.) U. S. Highway 66 skirts .the northern part of the area and provides access via asphalt-paved and dirt roads to the Crater and to the perimeters of the flows. Pisgah Crater, which is a pumiceous cone, is owned and occasionally quarried by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. The remaining part of the area to the south is within the boundary of the Marine Corps Base, Twentynine Palms, California and is currently being used as a gunnery, and bombing range. The proximate area to east, west, and north of Pisgah Crater is public domain. Originally, an area totaling 10 square miles was outlined for detailed study. (See plate 1.) This included an 8 mile long strip extending south- east from and including Pisgah Crater to Lavic Dry Lake, and a 2 mile strip aligned to include a

  18. A Snapshot of Organizational Climate: Perceptions of Extension Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Bowen, Elaine; Alkadry, Mohamad G.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a snapshot of the perceptions of workplace climate of Extension faculty at a land-grant, research-high activity university, compared with the perceptions of non-Extension faculty at the same university. An online survey was conducted with a validated instrument. The response rate for university faculty was 44% (968); the…

  19. A Snapshot of Organizational Climate: Perceptions of Extension Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Bowen, Elaine; Alkadry, Mohamad G.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a snapshot of the perceptions of workplace climate of Extension faculty at a land-grant, research-high activity university, compared with the perceptions of non-Extension faculty at the same university. An online survey was conducted with a validated instrument. The response rate for university faculty was 44% (968); the…

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Las Campanas Infrared Survey (Chen+, 2001-2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.-W.; McCarthy, P. J.; Marzke, R. O.; Wilson, J.; Carlberg, R. G.; Firth, A. E.; Persson, S. E.; Sabbey, C. N.; Lewis, J. R.; McMahon, R. G.; Lahav, O.; Ellis, R. S.; Martini, P.; Abraham, R. G.; Oemler, A.; Murphy, D. C.; Somerville, R. S.; Beckett, M. G.; Mackay, C. D.

    2002-06-01

    The Las Campanas Infrared Survey, based on broadband optical and near-infrared photometry, is designed to robustly identify a statistically significant and representative sample of evolved galaxies at redshifts z>1. We have completed an H-band imaging survey over 1.1{deg}2 of sky in six separate fields. The average 5{sigma} detection limit in a 4" diameter aperture is H~20.8. Here we describe the design of the survey, the observation strategies, data-reduction techniques, and object identification procedures. We present sample near-infrared and optical photometric catalogs for objects identified in two survey fields. The optical images of the Hubble Deep Field-South region obtained from the literature reach 5{sigma} detection thresholds in a 4" diameter aperture of U~24.6, B~26.1, V~25.6, R~25.1, and I~24.2mag. The optical images of the Chandra Deep Field-South region obtained from our own observations reach 5 {sigma} detection thresholds in a 4" diameter aperture of V~26.8, R~26.2, I~25.3, and z'~23.7mag. We perform object detection in all bandpasses and identify>~54000 galaxies over 1408 arcmin2 of sky in the two fields. Of these galaxies, ~14000 are detected in the H band and ~2000 have the colors of evolved galaxies, I-H >~3, at z>~1. (3 data files).

  1. Thermal monitoring of transport infrastructures by infrared thermography coupled with inline local atmospheric conditions survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, J.

    2013-09-01

    An infrared system architecture (software and hardware) has been studied and developed to allow long term monitoring of transport infrastructures in a standalone configuration. It is based on the implementation of low cost infrared thermal cameras (equipped with uncooled microbolometer focal plane array) available on the market coupled with other measurement systems. All data collected feed simplified radiative models running on GPU available on small PC to produce corrected thermal map of the surveyed structure at selected time step. Furthermore, added Web-enabled capabilities of this new infrared measurement system are also presented and discussed. A prototype of this system was tested and evaluated on real infrastructure opened to traffic. Results obtained by image and signal processing are presented. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for new implementation and new functionalities are presented and discussed.

  2. CANDELS: The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frédéric; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Casertano, Stefano; Cassata, Paolo; Castellano, Marco; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Roshan Cooray, Asantha; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dahlen, Tomas; Davé, Romeel; de Mello, Duília F.; Dekel, Avishai; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Häussler, Boris; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Huang, Kuang-Han; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Niemi, Sami-Matias; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Rajan, Abhijith; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; van der Wel, Arjen; Villforth, Carolin; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yan, Hao-Jing; Yun, Min S.

    2011-12-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, over the approximate redshift (z) range 8-1.5. It will image >250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope, from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standardizable candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 109 M ⊙ to z ≈ 2, reaching the knee of the ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies to z ≈ 8. The survey covers approximately 800 arcmin2 and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5σ point-source limit H = 27.7 mag) covers ~125 arcmin2 within Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)-N and GOODS-S. The CANDELS/Wide survey includes GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-deep Survey) and covers the full area to a 5σ point-source limit of H >~ 27.0 mag. Together with the Hubble Ultra Deep Fields, the strategy creates a three-tiered "wedding-cake" approach that has proven efficient for extragalactic surveys. Data from the survey are nonproprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this paper, we describe the basic motivations for the survey, the CANDELS team science goals and the resulting observational requirements, the field selection and geometry, and the observing design. The Hubble data processing and products are described in a companion paper.

  3. CANDELS: THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Grogin, Norman A.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brown, Thomas M.; Casertano, Stefano; Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Cassata, Paolo; Castellano, Marco; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; and others

    2011-12-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, over the approximate redshift (z) range 8-1.5. It will image >250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope, from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standardizable candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} to z Almost-Equal-To 2, reaching the knee of the ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies to z Almost-Equal-To 8. The survey covers approximately 800 arcmin{sup 2} and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5{sigma} point-source limit H = 27.7 mag) covers {approx}125 arcmin{sup 2} within Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)-N and GOODS-S. The CANDELS/Wide survey includes GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-deep Survey) and covers the full area to a 5{sigma} point-source limit of H {approx}> 27.0 mag. Together with the Hubble Ultra Deep Fields, the strategy creates a three-tiered 'wedding-cake' approach that has proven efficient for extragalactic surveys. Data from the survey are nonproprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this paper, we describe the basic motivations for the survey, the CANDELS team science goals and the resulting observational requirements, the field selection and geometry, and the observing design. The Hubble data processing and products are described in a companion paper.

  4. Revision of Stellar Intrinsic Colors in the Infrared by Spectroscopic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Mingjie; Gao, Shuang; Zhao, He; Jiang, Biwei

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic colors of normal stars are derived in the popularly used infrared bands involving the Two Micron All-Sky Survey/JHKS, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Spitzer/IRAC, and AKARI/S9W filters. Based on three spectroscopic surveys—LAMOST, RAVE, and APOGEE, stars are classified into groups of giants and dwarfs, as well as metal-normal and metal-poor stars. An empirical analytical relation of the intrinsic color is obtained with stellar effective temperature {T}{eff} for each group of stars after the zero-reddening stars are selected from the blue edge in the J-λ versus {T}{eff} diagram. It is found that metallicity has little effect on the infrared colors. In the near-infrared bands, our results agree with previous work. In addition, the color indexes H-W2 and {K}S-W1, which are taken as constant to calculate interstellar extinction, are discussed. The intrinsic colors of M-type stars are derived separately due to the lack of accurate measurement of their effective temperature.

  5. An X-ray and infrared survey of the Lynds 1228 cloud core

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Rebull, Luisa

    2014-04-01

    The nearby Lynds 1228 (L1228) dark cloud at a distance of ∼200 pc is known to harbor several young stars including the driving sources of the giant HH 199 and HH 200 Herbig-Haro (HH) outflows. L1228 has previously been studied at optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths but not in X-rays. We present results of a sensitive 37 ks Chandra ACIS-I X-ray observation of the L1228 core region. Chandra detected 60 X-ray sources, most of which are faint (<40 counts) and non-variable. Infrared counterparts were identified for 53 of the 60 X-ray sources using archival data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Object classes were assigned using mid-IR colors for those objects with complete photometry, most of which were found to have colors consistent with extragalactic background sources. Seven young stellar object candidates were identified including the class I protostar HH 200-IRS which was detected as a faint hard X-ray source. No X-ray emission was detected from the luminous protostar HH 199-IRS. We summarize the X-ray and infrared properties of the detected sources and provide IR spectral energy distribution modeling of high-interest objects including the protostars driving the HH outflows.

  6. VICS82: The VISTA-CFHT Stripe 82 Near-infrared Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geach, J. E.; Lin, Y.-T.; Makler, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Ross, N. P.; Wang, W.-H.; Hsieh, B.-C.; Leauthaud, A.; Bundy, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Comparat, J.; Caminha, G. B.; Hudelot, P.; Lin, L.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Pereira, M. E. S.; Mast, D.

    2017-07-01

    We present the VISTA-CFHT Stripe 82 (VICS82) survey: a near-infrared (J+K s ) survey covering 150 square degrees of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) equatorial Stripe 82 to an average depth of J = 21.9 AB mag and K s = 21.4 AB mag (80% completeness limits; 5σ point-source depths are approximately 0.5 mag brighter). VICS82 contributes to the growing legacy of multiwavelength data in the Stripe 82 footprint. The addition of near-infrared photometry to the existing SDSS Stripe 82 coadd ugriz photometry reduces the scatter in stellar mass estimates to δ {log}({M}\\star )≈ 0.3 dex for galaxies with {M}\\star > {10}9 {M}⊙ at z≈ 0.5, and offers improvement compared to optical-only estimates out to z≈ 1, with stellar masses constrained within a factor of approximately 2.5. When combined with other multiwavelength imaging of the Stripe, including moderate-to-deep ultraviolet (GALEX), optical and mid-infrared (Spitzer-IRAC) coverage, as well as tens of thousands of spectroscopic redshifts, VICS82 gives access to approximately 0.5 Gpc3 of comoving volume. Some of the main science drivers of VICS82 include (a) measuring the stellar mass function of {L}\\star galaxies out to z˜ 1; (b) detecting intermediate-redshift quasars at 2≲ z≲ 3.5; (c) measuring the stellar mass function and baryon census of clusters of galaxies, and (d) performing cross-correlation experiments of cosmic microwave background lensing in the optical/near-infrared that link stellar mass to large-scale dark matter structure. Here we define and describe the survey, highlight some early science results, and present the first public data release, which includes an SDSS-matched catalog as well as the calibrated pixel data themselves.

  7. Snapshot Raman Spectral Imager

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    range is appealing in this regard as upper atmospheric absorption by oxygen and ozone eliminate almost all radiation in the Raman shifted range of a...customer wanted to replace a bulky Fourier-Transform Infrared ( FTIR ) system with a dispersive system to lower the cost and size of the instrument. AQT

  8. LWIR Snapshot Imaging Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Robert E Sampson

    2009-04-01

    This report describes the results of a phase 1 STTR to design a longwave infrared imaging polarimeter. The system design, expected performance and components needed to construct the imaging polarimeter are described. Expected performance is modeled and sytem specifications are presented.

  9. A Snapshot of Homelessness in Massachusetts Public High Schools: 2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Data collected by the Massachusetts Department of Education (Department) during the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) suggest that, despite significant efforts to identify homeless students, many are going undetected by their schools. Since the reauthorization of the McKinney Vento Homeless Assistance Education Improvement Act under the No…

  10. A Near-infrared Survey of the Rosette Complex: Clues of Early Cluster Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Ferreira, Bruno

    2008-05-01

    The majority of stars in our galaxy are born in embedded clusters, which can be considered the fundamental units of star formation. We have recently surveyed the star forming content of the Rosette Complex using FLAMINGOS in order to investigate the properties of its embedded clusters. We discuss the results of our near-infrared imaging survey. In particular, we on the first evidence for the early evolution and expansion of the embedded clusters. In addition we present data suggesting a temporal sequence of cluster formation across the cloud and discuss the influence of the HII region on the star forming history of the Rosette.

  11. The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Mainzer, Amy; Ressler, Michael E.; Cutri, Roc M.; Jarrett, Thomas; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Padgett, Deborah; McMillan, Robert S.; Skrutskie,Michael; hide

    2010-01-01

    The all sky surveys done by the Palomar Observatory Schmidt, the European Southern Observatory Schmidt, and the United Kingdom Schmidt, the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite and the 2 Micron All Sky Survey have proven to be extremely useful tools for astronomy with value that lasts for decades. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is mapping the whole sky following its launch on 14 December 2009. WISE began surveying the sky on 14 Jan 2010 and completed its first full coverage of the sky on July 17. The survey will continue to cover the sky a second time until the cryogen is exhausted (anticipated in November 2010). WISE is achieving 5 sigma point source sensitivities better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic in bands centered at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers. Sensitivity improves toward the ecliptic poles due to denser coverage and lower zodiacal background. The angular resolution is 6.1", 6.4", 6.5" and 12.0" at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers, and the astrometric precision for high SNR sources is better than 0.15".

  12. The Case for Space-Borne Far-Infrared Line Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Earle, L.; Glenn, J.; Naylor, B.; Nguyen, H. T.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The combination of sensitive direct detectors and a cooled aperture promises orders of magnitude improvement in the sensitivity and survey time for far-infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy compared to existing or planned capabilities. Continuing advances in direct detector technology enable spectroscopy that approaches the background limit available only from space at these wavelengths. Because the spectral confusion limit is significantly lower than the more familiar spatial confusion limit encountered in imaging applications, spectroscopy can be carried out to comparable depth with a significantly smaller aperture. We are developing a novel waveguide-coupled grating spectrometer that disperses radiation into a wide instantaneous bandwidth with moderate resolution (R 1000) in a compact 2-dimensional format. A line survey instrument coupled to a modest cooled single aperture provides an attractive scientific application for spectroscopy with direct detectors. Using a suite of waveguide spectrometers, we can obtain complete coverage over the entire far-infrared and sub-millimeter. This concept requires no moving parts to modulate the optical signal. Such an instrument would be able to conduct a far-infrared line survey 10 6 times faster than planned capabilities, assuming existing detector technology. However, if historical improvements in bolometer sensitivity continue, so that photon-limited sensitivity is obtained, the integration time can be further reduced by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude, depending on wavelength. The line flux sensitivity would be comparable to ALMA, but at shorter wavelengths and with the continuous coverage needed to extract line fluxes for sources at unknown redshifts. For example, this capability would break the current spectroscopic bottleneck in the study of far-infrared galaxies, the recently discovered, rapidly evolving objects abundant at cosmological distances.

  13. Physical properties of asteroids in comet-like orbits in the infrared asteroidal survey catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Ishiguro, M.; Usui, F.

    2014-07-01

    Dormant comet and Infrared Asteroidal Survey Catalogs. Comet nucleus is a solid body consisting of dark refractory material and ice. Cometary volatiles sublimate from subsurface layer by solar heating, leaving behind large dust grains on the surface. Eventually, the appearance could turn into asteroidal rather than cometary. It is, therefore, expected that there would be ''dormant comets'' in the list of known asteroids. Over past decade, several ground-based studies have been performed to dig out such dormant comets. One common approach is applying a combination of optical and dynamical properties learned from active comet nucleus to the list of known asteroids. Typical comet nucleus has (i) Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter, T_{J}<3, (ii) low geometric albedo, p_{v}<0.1 and (iii) reddish or neutral spectra, similar to P, D, C-type asteroids. Following past ground-based surveys, infrared space missions gave us an opportunity to work on further study of dormant comets. To the present, three infrared asteroidal catalogs taken with IRAS[1], AKARI[2] and WISE[3] are available, providing information of sizes and albedos which are useful to study the physical properties of dormant comets as well as asteroids. Usui et al. (2014) merged three infrared asteroidal catalogs with valid sizes and albedos into single catalog, what they called I-A-W[4]. We applied a huge dataset of asteroids in I-A-W to investigate the physical properties of asteroids in comet-like orbits (ACOs, whose orbits satisfy Q>4.5 au and T_{J}<3). Here we present a study of ACOs in infrared asteroidal catalogs taken with AKARI, IRAS and WISE. In this presentation, we aim to introduce albedo and size properties of ACOs in infrared asteroidal survey catalogs, in combination with orbital and spectral properties from literature. Results and Implications. We summarize our finding and implication as followings: - are 123 ACOs (Q>4.5 au and T_J<3) in I-A-W catalog after rejection of objects with large

  14. Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Takita, Satoshi; Oyabu, Shinki; Ueno, Munetaka; Matsuhara, Hideo; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    We present the results of an unbiased asteroid survey in the mid-infrared wavelength region with the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI. About 20% of the point source events recorded in the AKARI All-Sky Survey observations are not used for the IRC Point Source Catalog (IRC-PSC) in its production process because of a lack of multiple detection by position. Asteroids, which are moving objects on the celestial sphere, remain in these ``residual events''. We identify asteroids out of the residual events by matching them with the positions of known asteroids. For the identified asteroids, we calculate the size and albedo based on the Standard Thermal Model. Finally we have a new brand of asteroid catalog, named the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA), which contains 5120 objects, about twice as many as the IRAS asteroid catalog. The catalog objects comprise 4953 main belt asteroids, 58 near-Earth asteroids, and 109 Jovian Trojan asteroids. The catalog is publicly available via the Internet.

  15. American Youth: A Statistical Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, James R.

    This document presents a statistics snapshot of young people, aged 15 to 24 years. It provides a broad overview of trends documenting the direction of changes in social behavior and economic circumstances. The projected decline in the total number of youth from 43 million in 1980 to 35 million in 1995 will affect marriage and childbearing…

  16. Mobility. Snapshot Report, Spring 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This snapshot report presents information on student mobility for 2012. It offers data on the following: (1) Percentage of Students Completing Degrees at Four-Year Institutions Who Previously Enrolled at Two-Year Institutions; (2) Number of Years Between Degree Completion at Four-Year Institutions and Most Recent Enrollment at Two-Year…

  17. American Youth: A Statistical Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, James R.

    This document presents a statistics snapshot of young people, aged 15 to 24 years. It provides a broad overview of trends documenting the direction of changes in social behavior and economic circumstances. The projected decline in the total number of youth from 43 million in 1980 to 35 million in 1995 will affect marriage and childbearing…

  18. Tunable Snapshot Spectrometer Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-30

    tunable snapshot imaging spectrometer has been demonstrated. A liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC SLM) has been integrated into a...integrate a liquid crystal spatial light modulator into a CTIS instrument and characterize its performance as a tunable CTIS disperser, and (2) to...Spectrometer Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator Computer Generated Hologram 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 138

  19. Building Biographies: A Snapshot Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarnowski, Myra

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a method for building biographies with elementary students. Called the "snapshot approach," it encourages students to visualize memorable events in the life of the person being studied. Step one is gathering and studying biographical information, step two is selecting the material to use, and step three is arranging and interpreting the…

  20. Preliminary Results from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer's NEOWISE Search for Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J. M.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Tholen, D. J.; Wright, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Cutri, R.; Neowise Team

    2011-12-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) imaged the entire sky twice between January, 2010 and January, 2011 at four wavelengths spanning the near through mid-IR at sensitivities hundreds of times greater than previous surveys [1]. The WISE band-passes (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22mm) sample the flux from most inner-solar-system bodies near the peak of their thermal emission. Overlapping sky regions were sampled repeatedly at 3 hour intervals. The same region of sky was observed a minimum of 8 times. While the primary WISE science objectives focus on ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and brown dwarfs, additions to the baseline WISE pipeline (collectively known as "NEOWISE") have enabled the detection of undiscovered moving objects, as well as previously known bodies [2]. NEOWISE has detected more than 155,000 minor planets, including more than 500 near-Earth objects (NEOs), ~2000 Jupiter Trojans, ~120 comets, and ~20 outer Solar System objects such as Centaurs. The survey has discovered ~34,000 new minor planets, including 130 new NEOs and 20 new comets. The NEOWISE data will drive a wide range of new Solar System investigations. NEOWISE allows precise determination of IR-derived diameters and albedos for minor planets throughout the Solar System [3],[4]. We will summarize the latest results from the project, including studies of the statistical properties of asteroid populations such as the NEOs, and comparisons between albedo and asteroid taxonomic classification.

  1. Ten Years Long Near-infrared Variable Star Survey In The Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ita, Yoshifusa

    2012-05-01

    We started the near-infrared variable star survey in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds in December 2000. Since then, we keep monitoring an area of 3 square degrees along the bar in the LMC, and also an area of 1 square degree in the central part of the SMC until the end of 2010. In the 10 years, we observed these areas about 80-90 and 100-110 times for LMC and SMC, respectively. Our survey is the world's first and the only one that provides near-infrared time-series data with such a long baseline and of such a large scale. We will show some preliminary results from the survey in the poster. This work is supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Young Scientists (B) No.21740142 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. This work is also supported by the Brain Circulation Program (R2301) by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  2. Precision Pointing for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric; Hsu, Oscar; Welter, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, scheduled for a mid-2020's launch, is currently in its definition phase. The mission is designed to investigate essential questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics. WFIRST will use a 2.4-meter primary telescope (same size as the Hubble Space Telescope's primary mirror) and two instruments: the Wide Field Instrument (WFI) and the Coronagraph Instrument (CGI). In order to ad-dress the critical science requirements, the WFIRST mission will conduct large-scale surveys of the infrared sky, requiring both agility and precision pointing (11.6 milli-arcsec stability, 14 milli-arcsec jitter). This paper describes some of the challenges this mission profile presents to the GNC subsystem, and some of the design elements chosen to accommodate those challenges. The high-galactic-latitude survey is characterized by 3-minute observations separated by slews ranging from 0.025 deg to 0.8 deg. The need for observation efficiency drives the slew and settle process to be as rapid as possible. A description of the shaped slew profile chosen to minimize excitation of structural oscillation, and the handoff from star tracker-gyro control to fine guidance sensor control is detailed. Also presented is the fine guidance sensor (FGS), which is integral with the primary instrument (WFI). The FGS is capable of tracking up to 18 guide stars, enabling robust FGS acquisition and precision pointing. To avoid excitation of observatory structural jitter, reaction wheel speeds are operationally maintained within set limits. In addition, the wheel balance law is designed to maintain 1-Hz separation between the wheel speeds to avoid reinforcing jitter excitation at any particular frequency. The wheel balance law and operational implications are described. Finally, the candidate GNC hardware suite needed to meet the requirements of the mission is presented.

  3. Precision Pointing for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope(WFIRST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric T.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Welter, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, scheduled for a mid-2020's launch, is currently in its definition phase. The mission is designed to investigate essential questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics. WFIRST will use a 2.4-meter primary telescope (same size as the Hubble Space Telescope's primary mirror) and two instruments: the Wide Field Instrument (WFI) and the Coronagraph Instrument (CGI). In order to address the critical science requirements, the WFIRST mission will conduct large-scale surveys of the infrared sky, requiring both agility and precision pointing (11.6 milli-arcsec stability, 14 milli-arcsec jitter). This paper describes some of the challenges this mission profile presents to the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) subsystem, and some of the design elements chosen to accommodate those challenges. The high-galactic-latitude survey is characterized by 3-minute observations separated by slews ranging from 0.025 deg to 0.8 deg. The need for observation efficiency drives the slew and settle process to be as rapid as possible. A description of the shaped slew profile chosen to minimize excitation of structural oscillation, and the handoff from star tracker-gyro control to fine guidance sensor control is detailed. Also presented is the fine guidance sensor (FGS), which is integral with the primary instrument (WFI). The FGS is capable of tracking up to 18 guide stars, enabling robust FGS acquisition and precision pointing. To avoid excitation of observatory structural jitter, reaction wheel speeds are operationally maintained within set limits. In addition, the wheel balance law is designed to maintain 1-Hz separation between the wheel speeds to avoid reinforcing jitter excitation at any particular frequency. The wheel balance law and operational implications are described. Finally, the candidate GNC hardware suite needed to meet the requirements of the mission is presented.

  4. The Infrared Properties of Sources Matched in the Wise All-Sky and Herschel ATLAS Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Amblard, Alexandre; Fleuren, Simone; Blain, Andrew W.; Dunne, Loretta; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Auld, Robbie; Bales, Maarten; Bonfield, David; Bourne, Nathan; Bridge, Carrie; Buttiglione, Sara; Cava, Antonio; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Dariush, Ali; deZotti, Gianfranco; Driver, Simon; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over approx 36 sq deg of sky in the GAMA 15-hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (HATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5sigma point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 micron and 3.4 micron, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of approx 630 deg(exp -2). Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 micron and that at 250 micron, with +/- 50% scatter over approx 1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, approx 10(exp 9) - 10(exp 10.5) Solar Luminosity By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r approx > 20.5) have 250-350 micron flux density ratios that suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z approx > 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T approx < 20). Their small 3.4-250 micron flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large AGN fraction (approx 30%) in a 12 micron flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample

  5. THE INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SOURCES MATCHED IN THE WISE ALL-SKY AND HERSCHEL ATLAS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Amblard, Alexandre; Blain, Andrew W.; Dunne, Loretta; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Bourne, Nathan; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Bonfield, David; Baes, Maarten; Bridge, Carrie; Buttiglione, Sara; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Cava, Antonio; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Dariush, Ali; and others

    2012-05-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over {approx}36 deg{sup 2} of sky in the GAMA 15 hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5{sigma} point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 {mu}m and 3.4 {mu}m, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of {approx}630 deg{sup -2}. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 {mu}m and that at 250 {mu}m, with {+-}50% scatter over {approx}1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, {approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10.5} L{sub Sun }. By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r {approx}> 20.5) have 250-350 {mu}m flux density ratios which suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z {approx}> 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T {approx}< 20). Their small 3.4-250 {mu}m flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large active galactic nucleus fraction ({approx}30%) in a 12 {mu}m flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  6. The Infrared Properties of Sources Matched in the WISE All-Sky and Herschel Atlas Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Amblard, Alexandre; Temi, Pasquale; Fleuren, Simone; Blain, Andrew W.; Dunne, Loretta; Smith, Daniel J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over approx. 36 deg2 of sky in the GAMA 15-hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5(sigma) point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 microns and 3.4 microns, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of approx. 630 deg-2. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 microns and that at 250 microns, with +/-50% scatter over approx. 1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, approx. 10(exp 9) - 10(exp 10.5) Stellar Luminosity. By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r > or approx. 20.5) have 250-350 microns flux density ratios that suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z > or approx. 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T < or approx. 20). Their small 3.4-250 microns flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large AGN fraction (approx. 30%) in a 12 microns flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  7. Cool White Dwarfs Found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, S. K.; Lodieu, N.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Bergeron, P.; Nitta, A.

    2011-07-01

    We present the results of a search for cool white dwarfs in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). The UKIDSS LAS photometry was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify cool hydrogen-rich white dwarf candidates by their neutral optical colors and blue near-infrared colors, as well as faint reduced proper motion magnitudes. Optical spectroscopy was obtained at Gemini Observatory and showed the majority of the candidates to be newly identified cool degenerates, with a small number of G- to K-type (sub)dwarf contaminants. Our initial search of 280 deg2 of sky resulted in seven new white dwarfs with effective temperature T eff ≈ 6000 K. The current follow-up of 1400 deg2 of sky has produced 13 new white dwarfs. Model fits to the photometry show that seven of the newly identified white dwarfs have 4120 K <=T eff <= 4480 K, and cooling ages between 7.3 Gyr and 8.7 Gyr; they have 40 km s-1 <= v tan <= 85 km s-1 and are likely to be thick disk 10-11 Gyr-old objects. The other half of the sample has 4610 K <=T eff <= 5260 K, cooling ages between 4.3 Gyr and 6.9 Gyr, and 60 km s-1 <= v tan <= 100 km s-1. These are either thin disk remnants with unusually high velocities, or lower-mass remnants of thick disk or halo late-F or G stars.

  8. COOL WHITE DWARFS FOUND IN THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, S. K.; Nitta, A.; Lodieu, N.

    2011-07-01

    We present the results of a search for cool white dwarfs in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). The UKIDSS LAS photometry was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify cool hydrogen-rich white dwarf candidates by their neutral optical colors and blue near-infrared colors, as well as faint reduced proper motion magnitudes. Optical spectroscopy was obtained at Gemini Observatory and showed the majority of the candidates to be newly identified cool degenerates, with a small number of G- to K-type (sub)dwarf contaminants. Our initial search of 280 deg{sup 2} of sky resulted in seven new white dwarfs with effective temperature T{sub eff} {approx} 6000 K. The current follow-up of 1400 deg{sup 2} of sky has produced 13 new white dwarfs. Model fits to the photometry show that seven of the newly identified white dwarfs have 4120 K {<=}T{sub eff} {<=} 4480 K, and cooling ages between 7.3 Gyr and 8.7 Gyr; they have 40 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub tan} {<=} 85 km s{sup -1} and are likely to be thick disk 10-11 Gyr-old objects. The other half of the sample has 4610 K {<=}T{sub eff} {<=} 5260 K, cooling ages between 4.3 Gyr and 6.9 Gyr, and 60 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub tan} {<=} 100 km s{sup -1}. These are either thin disk remnants with unusually high velocities, or lower-mass remnants of thick disk or halo late-F or G stars.

  9. The First Hundred Brown Dwarfs Discovered by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; McLean, Ian S.; Bauer, James M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Stern, Daniel; Vacca, William D.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of six Y dwarfs also Cushing et al.), eighty-nine T dwarfs, eight L dwarfs, and one M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types > or =T6, six of which have been announced earlier in Mainzer et al. and I3urgasser et al. We present color-color and colortype diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. "

  10. A cryogenically-cooled, balloon-borne far infrared survey telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    The design and performance of the Arizona cryogenically-cooled, balloon-borne, multiband far infrared survey telescope are described. The 40 cm Cassegrain telescope is completely contained in a liquid helium dewar. The focal plane array consists of Fabry optics and four detectors which each have a 12 arc minute field of view. Both photoconductive and bolometer detectors are utilized at effective wavelengths of 20, 80, 100 and 150 microns. In 1977 the telescope was used to make multicolor large scale maps of 70 square degrees in the Cygnus X region and the W3 region.

  11. Calculating Proper Motions in the WFCAM Science Archive for the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, R.; Hambly, N.

    2012-09-01

    The ninth data release from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Surveys (hereafter UKIDSS DR9), represents five years worth of observations by its wide-field camera (WFCAM) and will be the first to include proper motion values in its source catalogues for the shallow, wide-area surveys; the Large Area Survey (LAS), Galactic Clusters Survey (GCS) and (ultimately) Galactic Plane Survey (GPS). We, the Wide Field Astronomy Unit (WFAU) at the University of Edinburgh who prepare these regular data releases in the WFCAM Science Archive (WSA), describe in this paper how we make optimal use of the individual detection catalogues from each observation to derive high-quality astrometric fits for the positions of each detection enabling us to calculate a proper motion solution across multiple epochs and passbands when constructing a merged source catalogue. We also describe how the proper motion solutions affect the calculation of the various attributes provided in the database source catalogue tables, what measures of data quality we provide and a demonstration of the results for observations of the Pleiades cluster.

  12. The Coordinated Radio and Infrared Survey for High-mass Star Formation. II. Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Cotton, W. D.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Martí, J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Mundy, L. G.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Pandian, J. D.; Paredes, J. M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Smethurst, S.; Spencer, R. E.; Thompson, M. A.; Umana, G.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The CORNISH project is the highest resolution radio continuum survey of the Galactic plane to date. It is the 5 GHz radio continuum part of a series of multi-wavelength surveys that focus on the northern GLIMPSE region (10° < l < 65°), observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-infrared. Observations with the Very Large Array in B and BnA configurations have yielded a 1.''5 resolution Stokes I map with a root mean square noise level better than 0.4 mJy beam-1. Here we describe the data-processing methods and data characteristics, and present a new, uniform catalog of compact radio emission. This includes an implementation of automatic deconvolution that provides much more reliable imaging than standard CLEANing. A rigorous investigation of the noise characteristics and reliability of source detection has been carried out. We show that the survey is optimized to detect emission on size scales up to 14'' and for unresolved sources the catalog is more than 90% complete at a flux density of 3.9 mJy. We have detected 3062 sources above a 7σ detection limit and present their ensemble properties. The catalog is highly reliable away from regions containing poorly sampled extended emission, which comprise less than 2% of the survey area. Imaging problems have been mitigated by down-weighting the shortest spacings and potential artifacts flagged via a rigorous manual inspection with reference to the Spitzer infrared data. We present images of the most common source types found: H II regions, planetary nebulae, and radio galaxies. The CORNISH data and catalog are available online at http://cornish.leeds.ac.uk.

  13. A 1500 deg2 near infrared proper motion catalogue from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Leigh; Lucas, P. W.; Burningham, B.; Jones, H. R. A.; Smart, R. L.; Andrei, A. H.; Catalán, S.; Pinfield, D. J.

    2014-02-01

    The United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) began in 2005, with the start of the UKIDSS programme as a 7 year effort to survey roughly 4000 deg2 at high Galactic latitudes in Y, J, H and K bands. The survey also included a significant quantity of two epoch J band observations, with an epoch baseline greater than 2 years to calculate proper motions. We present a near-infrared proper motion catalogue for the 1500 deg2 of the two epoch LAS data, which includes 135 625 stellar sources and a further 88 324 with ambiguous morphological classifications, all with motions detected above the 5σ level. We developed a custom proper motion pipeline which we describe here. Our catalogue agrees well with the proper motion data supplied for a 300 deg2 subset in the current Wide Field Camera Science Archive (WSA) 10th data release (DR10) catalogue, and in various optical catalogues, but it benefits from a larger matching radius and hence a larger upper proper motion detection limit. We provide absolute proper motions, using LAS galaxies for the relative to absolute correction. By using local second-order polynomial transformations, as opposed to linear transformations in the WSA, we correct better for any local distortions in the focal plane, not including the radial distortion that is removed by the UKIDSS pipeline. We present the results of proper motion searches for new brown dwarfs and white dwarfs. We discuss 41 sources in the WSA DR10 overlap with our catalogue with proper motions >300 mas yr-1, several of which are new detections. We present 15 new candidate ultracool dwarf binary systems.

  14. THE COORDINATED RADIO AND INFRARED SURVEY FOR HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION. II. SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Cotton, W. D.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Marti, J. [Departamento de Fisica, EPSJ, Universidad de Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s and others

    2013-03-01

    The CORNISH project is the highest resolution radio continuum survey of the Galactic plane to date. It is the 5 GHz radio continuum part of a series of multi-wavelength surveys that focus on the northern GLIMPSE region (10 Degree-Sign < l < 65 Degree-Sign ), observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-infrared. Observations with the Very Large Array in B and BnA configurations have yielded a 1.''5 resolution Stokes I map with a root mean square noise level better than 0.4 mJy beam{sup -1}. Here we describe the data-processing methods and data characteristics, and present a new, uniform catalog of compact radio emission. This includes an implementation of automatic deconvolution that provides much more reliable imaging than standard CLEANing. A rigorous investigation of the noise characteristics and reliability of source detection has been carried out. We show that the survey is optimized to detect emission on size scales up to 14'' and for unresolved sources the catalog is more than 90% complete at a flux density of 3.9 mJy. We have detected 3062 sources above a 7{sigma} detection limit and present their ensemble properties. The catalog is highly reliable away from regions containing poorly sampled extended emission, which comprise less than 2% of the survey area. Imaging problems have been mitigated by down-weighting the shortest spacings and potential artifacts flagged via a rigorous manual inspection with reference to the Spitzer infrared data. We present images of the most common source types found: H II regions, planetary nebulae, and radio galaxies. The CORNISH data and catalog are available online at http://cornish.leeds.ac.uk.

  15. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  16. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  17. Far-infrared Properties of Infrared-bright Dust-obscured Galaxies Selected with IRAS and AKARI Far-infrared All-sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Yoshiki; Nagao, Tohru; Wang, Wei-Hao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Akiyama, Masayuki; Goto, Tomotsugu; Koyama, Yusei; Ohyama, Youich; Yamamura, Issei

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the star-forming activity of a sample of infrared (IR)-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) that show an extreme red color in the optical and IR regime, {(i-[22])}{AB}> 7.0. Combining an IR-bright DOG sample with the flux at 22 μm > 3.8 mJy discovered by Toba & Nagao with the IRAS faint source catalog version 2 and AKARI far-IR (FIR) all-sky survey bright source catalog version 2, we selected 109 DOGs with FIR data. For a subsample of seven IR-bright DOGs with spectroscopic redshifts (0.07< z< 1.0) that were obtained from the literature, we estimated their IR luminosity, star formation rate (SFR), and stellar mass based on the spectral energy distribution fitting. We found that (1) the WISE 22 μm luminosity at the observed frame is a good indicator of IR luminosity for IR-bright DOGs and (2) the contribution of the active galactic nucleus to IR luminosity increases with IR luminosity. By comparing the stellar mass and SFR relation for our DOG sample and the literature, we found that most of the IR-bright DOGs lie significantly above the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at similar redshift, indicating that the majority of IRAS- or AKARI-detected IR-bright DOGs are starburst galaxies.

  18. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION SURVEY IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CORRELATIONS AND TRENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Lucas, Phil W.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2014-11-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of 10 sub-regions in 6 star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65 pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20%, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star-forming regions.

  19. Infrared observations of eight X-ray sources from Galactic plane surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, M. G.; Kniazev, A.; Karasev, D. I.; Berdnikov, L.; Barway, S.

    2013-08-01

    Increasing the identification completeness of sources from new X-ray sky surveys is a necessary condition for further works on analyzing the formation and long-term evolution of star systems in our Galaxy. Infrared observations of several sources selected from Galactic plane surveys as candidates for low-mass X-ray binaries with the IRSF telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory are presented. The infrared fluxes have been reliably measured from five of the eight sources (4U 1556-60, 4U 1708-40, AX J165901-4208, IGR J16287-5021, IGR J17350-2045, AX J171922-3703, SAX J1712.6-3739, 4U 1705-32). One of the objects (AX J165901-4208) may be a candidate for symbiotic X-ray binaries, i.e., binaries in which the companion of a relativistic object is a giant star. The distances have been estimated for three sources and the orbital periods have been estimated for two.

  20. MOIRCS Deep Survey. IX. Deep Near-Infrared Imaging Data and Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajisawa, Masaru; Ichikawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamada, Toru; Akiyama, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Katsuno Uchimoto, Yuka; Konishi, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Omata, Koji; Ouchi, Masami; Iwata, Ikuru; Hamana, Takashi; Onodera, Masato

    2011-03-01

    We present deep J-, H-, and Ks-band imaging data of the MOIRCS Deep Survey (MODS), which was carried out with the Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope in the GOODS-North region. The data reach 5σ total limiting magnitudes for point sources of J = 23.9, H = 22.8, and Ks = 22.8 (Vega magnitude) over 103 arcmin2 (wide field). In 28 arcmin2 of the survey area, which is an ultra-deep field of the MODS (deep field), the data reach 5σ depths of J = 24.8, H = 23.4, and Ks = 23.8. The spatial resolutions of the combined images are FWHM ˜0''.6 and ˜0''.5 for the wide and deep fields in all bands, respectively. Combining the MODS data with the multi-wavelength public data taken with the HST, Spitzer, and other ground-based telescopes in the GOODS field, we constructed a multi-wavelength photometric catalog of Ks-selected sources. Using the catalog, we present Ks-band number counts and near-infrared color distribution of the detected objects; we also demonstrate some selection techniques with the NIR colors for high redshift galaxies. These data and catalog are publicly available via Internet.

  1. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  2. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  3. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars.We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks.We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  4. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  5. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars.We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks.We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  6. Characterization of high proper motion objects from the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ∼12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08–623558.7, may belong to the thick disk.

  7. SnapShot: Interferon Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kwan T; Gale, Michael

    2015-12-17

    Interferons (IFNs) are crucial cytokines of antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activity. The three types of IFN (I, II, and III) are classified by their receptor specificity and sequence homology. IFNs are produced and secreted by cells in response to specific stimuli. Here, we review the subsequent IFN signaling events occurring through unique receptors leading to regulation of gene expression for modulation of innate and adaptive immunity. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

  8. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. IV. Leavitt Laws for Type II Cepheid Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anupam; Macri, Lucas M.; Rejkuba, Marina; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Singh, Harinder P.

    2017-04-01

    We present time-series observations of Population II Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud at near-infrared (JHK s ) wavelengths. Our sample consists of 81 variables with accurate periods and optical (VI) magnitudes from the OGLE survey, covering various subtypes of pulsators (BL Herculis, W Virginis, and RV Tauri). We generate light-curve templates using high-quality I-band data in the LMC from OGLE and K s -band data in the Galactic bulge from VISTA Variables in Via Láctea survey and use them to obtain robust mean magnitudes. We derive period–luminosity (P–L) relations in the near-infrared and Period–Wesenheit (P–W) relations by combining optical and near-infrared data. Our P–L and P–W relations are consistent with published work when excluding long-period RV Tauris. We find that Pop II Cepheids and RR Lyraes follow the same P–L relations in the LMC. Therefore, we use trigonometric parallax from the Gaia DR1 for VY Pyx and the Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes for k Pav and 5 RR Lyrae variables to obtain an absolute calibration of the Galactic K s -band P–L relation, resulting in a distance modulus to the LMC of {μ }{LMC}=18.54+/- 0.08 mag. We update the mean magnitudes of Pop II Cepheids in Galactic globular clusters using our light-curve templates and obtain distance estimates to those systems, anchored to a precise late-type eclipsing binary distance to the LMC. We find that the distances to these globular clusters based on Pop II Cepheids are consistent (within 2σ ) with estimates based on the {M}V-[{Fe}/{{H}}] relation for horizontal branch stars.

  9. Bounce Rock Snapshot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity panoramic camera image shows 'Bounce Rock,' a rock the airbag-packaged rover struck while rolling to a stop on January 24, 2004. This is the largest rock for as far as the eye can see, approximately 35 centimeters (14 inches) long and 10 centimeters (4 inches) high. There appears to be a dusty coating on the top of parts of the rock, which may have been broken when it was struck by the airbags. The rock was about 5 meters (16 feet) from the rover when this image was obtained. This is an enhanced color composite image from sol 36 of the rover's journey, generated using the camera's L2 (750 nanometer), L5 (530 nanometer), and L6 (480 nanometer) filters.

    Bounce Rock Spectra Figure 1 above is a plot of panoramic camera spectra extracted from three different regions on the rock dubbed 'Bounce.' The yellow spectrum is from the yellow box in the image on the left, from the dusty top part of the rock. The spectrum is dominated by the signature of oxidized 'ferric' iron (Fe3+) like that seen in the classic Martian dust. The red spectrum is from the darker Meridiani Planum soils that were disturbed by the airbag when it bounced near the rock. That spectrum is also dominated by ferric iron, though the reflectivity is lower. Scientists speculate that this may be because the grains are coarser in these soils compared to the dust. The green spectrum, which is from the right side of the rock, shows a strong drop in the infrared reflectance that is unlike any other rock yet seen at Meridiani Planum or Gusev Crater. This spectral signature is typical of un-oxidized 'ferrous' iron (Fe2+) in the rock, perhaps related to the presence of volcanic minerals like olivine or pyroxene. The possibility that this may be a basaltic rock that is distinctly different from the rocks seen in the Eagle Crater outcrop is being intensively explored using the rover's other instruments.

  10. Aerial infrared surveys of Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas, Oceland, with a section on cost of exploration surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pálmason, G.; Friedman, J.D.; Williams, R. S.; Jónsson, J.; Saemundsson, K.

    1970-01-01

    In 1966 and 1968 aerial infrared surveys were conducted over 10 of 13 high-temperature thermal areas in Iceland. The surveys were made with an airborne scanner system, utilizing radiation in the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength band.Supplementary ground geological studies were made in the Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas to interpret features depicted on the infrared imagery and to relate zones of high heat flux to tectonic structure. In the Reykjanes area in southwestern Iceland a shallow ground temperature map was prepared for temperatures at a depth of 0.5 meters; comparison of this map with the infrared imagery reveals some striking similarities.It appears that aerial infrared surveys outline the surface thermal patterns of high-temperature areas and aid in relating these patterns to possible geological structures controlling the upflow of hot water. Amplitude-slicing techniques applied to the magnetically taped airborne scanner data permit an estimate to be made of the natural heat output on the basis of size of area and specific radiance.In addition to their value in preliminary studies of high-temperature areas, infrared surveys conducted at regular intervals over thermal area under exploitation can provide valuable data on changes that occur in surface manifestations with time.

  11. Aerial infrared surveys of Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas, Iceland, with a section on cost of exploration surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pálmason, G.; Friedman, J.D.; Williams, R.S.; Jónsson, J.; Saemundsson, K.

    1970-01-01

    In 1966 and 1968 aerial infrared surveys were conducted over 10 of 13 high-temperature thermal areas in Iceland. The surveys were made with an airborne scanner system, utilizing radiation in the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength band. Supplementary ground geological studies were made in the Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas to interpret features depicted on the infrared imagery and to relate zones of high heat flux to tectonic structure. In the Reykjanes area in southwestern Iceland a shallow ground temperature map was prepared for temperatures at a depth of 0.5 meters; comparison of this map with the infrared imagery reveals some striking similarities. It appears that aerial infrared surveys outline the surface thermal patterns of high-temperature areas and aid in relating these patterns to possible geological structures controlling the upflow of hot water. Amplitude-slicing techniques applied to the magnetically taped airborne scanner data permit an estimate to be made of the natural heat output on the basis of size of area and specific radiance. In addition to their value in preliminary studies of high-temperature areas, infrared surveys conducted at regular intervals over thermal area under exploitation can provide valuable data on changes that occur in surface manifestations with time.

  12. CAUCE Institutional Members' Survey: A Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Taylor-O'Reilly, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Continuing education in Canadian universities is currently at a type of crossroads. It is being affected by a number of factors, including recent changes in the economy; the different approaches universities are taking to continuing education, which range from centralized to decentralized models; and the blending of continuing education with areas…

  13. White dwarfs in the UKIRT infrared deep sky survey data release

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Kalirai, J. S.; Leggett, S. K.; Lodieu, N.; Bergeron, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2014-06-20

    We have identified 8 to 10 new cool white dwarfs from the Large Area Survey (LAS) Data Release 9 of the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The data set was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to obtain proper motions and a broad ugrizYJHK wavelength coverage. Optical spectroscopic observations were secured at Gemini Observatory and confirm the degenerate status for eight of our targets. The final sample includes two additional white dwarf candidates with no spectroscopic observations. We rely on improved one-dimensional model atmospheres and new multi-dimensional simulations with CO5BOLD to review the stellar parameters of the published LAS white dwarf sample along with our additional discoveries. Most of the new objects possess very cool atmospheres with effective temperatures below 5000 K, including two pure-hydrogen remnants with a cooling age between 8.5 and 9.0 Gyr, and tangential velocities in the range 40 km s{sup –1} ≤v {sub tan} ≤ 60 km s{sup –1}. They are likely thick disk 10-11 Gyr old objects. In addition, we find a resolved double degenerate system with v {sub tan} ∼ 155 km s{sup –1} and a cooling age between 3.0 and 5.0 Gyr. These white dwarfs could be disk remnants with a very high velocity or former halo G stars. We also compare the LAS sample with earlier studies of very cool degenerates and observe a similar deficit of helium-dominated atmospheres in the range 5000 < T {sub eff} (K) < 6000. We review the possible explanations for the spectral evolution from helium-dominated toward hydrogen-rich atmospheres at low temperatures.

  14. White Dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Data Release 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Leggett, S. K.; Lodieu, N.; Freytag, B.; Bergeron, P.; Kalirai, J. S.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2014-06-01

    We have identified 8 to 10 new cool white dwarfs from the Large Area Survey (LAS) Data Release 9 of the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The data set was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to obtain proper motions and a broad ugrizYJHK wavelength coverage. Optical spectroscopic observations were secured at Gemini Observatory and confirm the degenerate status for eight of our targets. The final sample includes two additional white dwarf candidates with no spectroscopic observations. We rely on improved one-dimensional model atmospheres and new multi-dimensional simulations with CO5BOLD to review the stellar parameters of the published LAS white dwarf sample along with our additional discoveries. Most of the new objects possess very cool atmospheres with effective temperatures below 5000 K, including two pure-hydrogen remnants with a cooling age between 8.5 and 9.0 Gyr, and tangential velocities in the range 40 km s-1 <=v tan <= 60 km s-1. They are likely thick disk 10-11 Gyr old objects. In addition, we find a resolved double degenerate system with v tan ~ 155 km s-1 and a cooling age between 3.0 and 5.0 Gyr. These white dwarfs could be disk remnants with a very high velocity or former halo G stars. We also compare the LAS sample with earlier studies of very cool degenerates and observe a similar deficit of helium-dominated atmospheres in the range 5000 < T eff (K) < 6000. We review the possible explanations for the spectral evolution from helium-dominated toward hydrogen-rich atmospheres at low temperatures.

  15. Combining Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data with near-infrared data from the ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Banerji, M.; Jouvel, S.; Lin, H.; McMahon, R. G.; Lahav, O.; Castander, F. J.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bertin, E.; Bosman, S. E.; Carnero, A.; Kind, M. C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gerdes, D.; Gschwend, J.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Merson, A.; Miller, C.; Ogando, R.; Pellegrini, P.; Reed, S.; Saglia, R.; Sanchez, C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J.; Bernstein, R.; Capozzi, D.; Childress, M.; Cunha, C. E.; Davis, T. M.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Findlay, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Honscheid, K.; Irwin, M. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kim, A.; Koposov, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kupcu-Yoldas, A.; Lagattuta, D.; Lewis, J. R.; Lidman, C.; Makler, M.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J. L.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Peoples, J.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Sharp, R.; Soares-Santos, M.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Wechsler, R.; Wester, W.; Yuan, F.; Zuntz, J.

    2014-11-25

    We present the combination of optical data from the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with near-infrared (NIR) data from the European Southern Observatory VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). The deep optical detections from DES are used to extract fluxes and associated errors from the shallower VHS data. Joint seven-band (grizYJK) photometric catalogues are produced in a single 3 sq-deg dedicated camera field centred at 02h26m-04d36m where the availability of ancillary multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy allows us to test the data quality. Dual photometry increases the number of DES galaxies with measured VHS fluxes by a factor of similar to 4.5 relative to a simple catalogue level matching and results in a similar to 1.5 mag increase in the 80 per cent completeness limit of the NIR data. Almost 70 per cent of DES sources have useful NIR flux measurements in this initial catalogue. Photometric redshifts are estimated for a subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and initial results, although currently limited by small number statistics, indicate that the VHS data can help reduce the photometric redshift scatter at both z < 0.5 and z > 1. We present example DES VHS colour selection criteria for high-redshift luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z similar to 0.7 as well as luminous quasars. Using spectroscopic observations in this field we show that the additional VHS fluxes enable a cleaner selection of both populations with <10 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and <0.5 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed LRGs. The combined DES+VHS data set, which will eventually cover almost 5000 sq-deg, will therefore enable a range of new science and be ideally suited for target selection for future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.

  16. Combining Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data with near-infrared data from the ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Manda; Jouvel, S.; Lin, H.; McMahon, R. G.; Lahav, O.; Castander, F. J.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bertin, E.; Bosman, S. E.; Carnero, A.; Kind, M. Carrasco; da Costa, L. N.; Gerdes, D.; Gschwend, J.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Merson, A.; Miller, C.; Ogando, R.; Pellegrini, P.; Reed, S.; Saglia, R.; Sánchez, C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J.; Bernstein, R.; Capozzi, D.; Childress, M.; Cunha, Carlos E.; Davis, T. M.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Findlay, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; González-Fernández, C.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Honscheid, K.; Irwin, M. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kim, A.; Koposov, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kupcu-Yoldas, A.; Lagattuta, D.; Lewis, J. R.; Lidman, C.; Makler, M.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, Joseph J.; Neilsen, E.; Peoples, J.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Sharp, R.; Soares-Santos, M.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Wechsler, R.; Wester, W.; Yuan, F.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the combination of optical data from the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with near-infrared (NIR) data from the European Southern Observatory VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). The deep optical detections from DES are used to extract fluxes and associated errors from the shallower VHS data. Joint seven-band (grizYJK) photometric catalogues are produced in a single 3 sq-deg dedicated camera field centred at 02h26m-04d36m where the availability of ancillary multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy allows us to test the data quality. Dual photometry increases the number of DES galaxies with measured VHS fluxes by a factor of ˜4.5 relative to a simple catalogue level matching and results in a ˜1.5 mag increase in the 80 per cent completeness limit of the NIR data. Almost 70 per cent of DES sources have useful NIR flux measurements in this initial catalogue. Photometric redshifts are estimated for a subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and initial results, although currently limited by small number statistics, indicate that the VHS data can help reduce the photometric redshift scatter at both z < 0.5 and z > 1. We present example DES+VHS colour selection criteria for high-redshift luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z ˜ 0.7 as well as luminous quasars. Using spectroscopic observations in this field we show that the additional VHS fluxes enable a cleaner selection of both populations with <10 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and <0.5 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed LRGs. The combined DES+VHS data set, which will eventually cover almost 5000 sq-deg, will therefore enable a range of new science and be ideally suited for target selection for future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.

  17. Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1995-03-01

    Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from a detailed infrared survey of 50 buildings from six Swedish military camps is presented. The presentation is limited to a comparison of thermal performance and damage conditions of buildings of various ages, functions, and constructions, of a building period of more than 100 years. The result is expected to be relevant even to civilian buildings. Infrared surveys were performed during 1992-1993, with airborne, and mobile short- and longwave infrared systems, out- and indoor thermography. Interpretation and analysis of infrared data was performed with interactive image and analyzing systems. Field inspections were carried out with fiber optics system, and by ocular inspections. Air-exchange rate was measured in order to quantify air leakages through the building envelope, indicated in thermograms. The objects studied were single-family houses, barracks, office-, service-, school- and exercise buildings, military hotels and restaurants, aircraft hangars, and ship factory buildings. The main conclusions from this study are that most buildings from 1880 - 1940 have a solid construction with a high quality of craftsmanship, relatively good thermal performance, due to extremely thick walls, and adding insulation at the attic floor. From about 1940 - 1960 the quality of construction, thermal performance and craftsmanship seem to vary a lot. Buildings constructed during the period of 1960 - 1990 have in general the best thermal performance due to a better insulation capacity, however, also one finds here the greatest variety of problems. The result from this

  18. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM NEOWISE: AN ENHANCEMENT TO THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER FOR SOLAR SYSTEM SCIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Brandenburg, H.; Conrow, T.; Evans, T.; Fowler, J.; Jarrett, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Wright, E.; Walker, R.; Jedicke, R.; Tholen, D.; Spahr, T.

    2011-04-10

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the entire sky at four infrared wavelengths with greatly improved sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to its predecessors, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. NASA's Planetary Science Division has funded an enhancement to the WISE data processing system called 'NEOWISE' that allows detection and archiving of moving objects found in the WISE data. NEOWISE has mined the WISE images for a wide array of small bodies in our solar system, including near-Earth objects (NEOs), Main Belt asteroids, comets, Trojans, and Centaurs. By the end of survey operations in 2011 February, NEOWISE identified over 157,000 asteroids, including more than 500 NEOs and {approx}120 comets. The NEOWISE data set will enable a panoply of new scientific investigations.

  19. Near-infrared colors of minor planets recovered from VISTA-VHS survey (MOVIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M.; Licandro, J.; Morate, D.; de León, J.; Nedelcu, D. A.; Rebolo, R.; McMahon, R. G.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Irwin, M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) provide information about the surface composition of about 100 000 minor planets. The resulting visible colors and albedos enabled us to group them in several major classes, which are a simplified view of the diversity shown by the few existing spectra. A large set of data in the 0.8-2.5 μm, where wide spectral features are expected, is required to refine and complement the global picture of these small bodies of the solar system. Aims: We aim to obtain the near-infrared colors for a large sample of solar system objects using the observations made during the VISTA-VHS survey. Methods: We performed a serendipitous search in VISTA-VHS observations using a pipeline developed to retrieve and process the data that corresponds to solar system objects (SSo). The resulting photometric data is analyzed using color-color plots and by comparison with the known spectral properties of asteroids. Results: The colors and the magnitudes of the minor planets observed by the VISTA survey are compiled into three catalogs that are available online: the detections catalog (MOVIS-D), the magnitudes catalog (MOVIS-M), and the colors catalog (MOVIS-C). They were built using the third data release of the survey (VISTA VHS-DR3). A total of 39 947 objects were detected, including 52 NEAs, 325 Mars Crossers, 515 Hungaria asteroids, 38 428 main-belt asteroids, 146 Cybele asteroids, 147 Hilda asteroids, 270 Trojans, 13 comets, 12 Kuiper Belt objects and Neptune with its four satellites. The colors found for asteroids with known spectral properties reveal well-defined patterns corresponding to different mineralogies. The distributions of MOVIS-C data in color-color plots shows clusters identified with different taxonomic types. All the diagrams that use (Y - J) color separate the spectral classes more effectively than the (J - H) and (H - Ks) plots used until now: even for large color errors (<0.1), the

  20. IPHAS A-TYPE STARS WITH MID-INFRARED EXCESSES IN SPITZER SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, Michael J.; Drew, Janet E.; Unruh, Yvonne C.; Greimel, Robert; Irwin, Michael J.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo E-mail: mjb@star.ucl.ac.uk E-mail: y.unruh@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-04-10

    We have identified 17 A-type stars in the Galactic Plane that have mid-infrared (mid-IR) excesses at 8 {mu}m. From observed colors in the (r' - H{alpha}) - (r' - i') plane, we first identified 23,050 early A-type main-sequence (MS) star candidates in the Isaac Newton Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS) point source database that are located in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire Galactic plane fields. Imposing the requirement that they be detected in all seven Two Micron All Sky Survey and Infrared Astronomical Satellite bands led to a sample of 2692 candidate A-type stars with fully sampled 0.6 to 8 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Optical classification spectra of 18 of the IPHAS candidate A-type MS stars showed that all but one could be well fitted using MS A-type templates, with the other being an A-type supergiant. Out of the 2692 A-type candidates 17 (0.6%) were found to have 8 {mu}m excesses above the expected photospheric values. Taking into account non-A-Type contamination estimates, the 8 {mu}m excess fraction is adjusted to {approx}0.7%. The distances to these sources range from 0.7 to 2.5 kpc. Only 10 out of the 17 excess stars had been covered by Spitzer MIPSGAL survey fields, of which five had detectable excesses at 24 {mu}m. For sources with excesses detected in at least two mid-IR wavelength bands, blackbody fits to the excess SEDs yielded temperatures ranging from 270 to 650 K, and bolometric luminosity ratios L {sub IR}/L {sub *} from 2.2 x 10{sup -3} - 1.9 x 10{sup -2}, with a mean value of 7.9 x 10{sup -3} (these bolometric luminosities are lower limits as cold dust is not detectable by this survey). Both the presence of mid-IR excesses and the derived bolometric luminosity ratios are consistent with many of these systems being in the planet-building transition phase between the early protoplanetary disk phase and the later debris disk phase.

  1. The Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared Properties of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Sources Detected by GALEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüeros, Marcel A.; Ivezić, Željko; Covey, Kevin R.; Obrić, Mirela; Hao, Lei; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; West, Andrew A.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Gunn, James E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Bochanski, John, Jr.; Brooks, Alyson; Claire, Mark; Haggard, Daryl; Kaib, Nathan; Kimball, Amy; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Seth, Anil; Solontoi, Michael

    2005-09-01

    We discuss the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared properties of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) sources detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) as part of its All-sky Imaging Survey Early Release Observations. Virtually all (>99%) the GALEX sources in the overlap region are detected by SDSS; those without an SDSS counterpart within our 6" search radius are mostly unflagged GALEX artifacts. GALEX sources represent ~2.5% of all SDSS sources within these fields, and about half are optically unresolved. Most unresolved GALEX-SDSS sources are bright (r<18 mag), blue, turnoff, thick-disk stars and are typically detected only in the GALEX near-ultraviolet (NUV) band. The remaining unresolved sources include low-redshift quasars (z<2.2), white dwarfs, and white dwarf-M dwarf pairs, and these dominate the optically unresolved sources detected in both GALEX bands. Almost all the resolved SDSS sources detected by GALEX are fainter than the SDSS main spectroscopic limit. (Conversely, of the SDSS galaxies in the main spectroscopic sample, about 40% are detected in at least one GALEX band.) These sources have colors consistent with those of blue (spiral) galaxies (u-r<2.2), and most are detected in both GALEX bands. Measurements of their UV colors allow much more accurate and robust estimates of star formation history than are possible using only SDSS data. Indeed, galaxies with the most recent (<~20 Myr) star formation can be robustly selected from the GALEX data by requiring that they be brighter in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) than in the NUV band. However, older starburst galaxies have UV colors similar to those of active galactic nuclei and thus cannot be selected unambiguously on the basis of GALEX fluxes alone. Additional information, such as spatially resolved FUV emission, optical morphology, or X-ray and radio data, is needed before blue GALEX colors can be unambiguously interpreted as a sign of recent star formation. With the aid of Two Micron All Sky

  2. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Slitless Spectrometer: Design, Prototype, and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David; Dominguez, Margaret; Emmett, Thomas; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John; Kruk, Jeffrey; Marx, Catherine; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; Whipple, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The slitless spectrometer plays an important role in the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission for the survey of emission-line galaxies. This will be an unprecedented very wide field, HST quality 3D survey of emission line galaxies. The concept of the compound grism as a slitless spectrometer has been presented previously. The presentation briefly discusses the challenges and solutions of the optical design, and recent specification updates, as well as a brief comparison between the prototype and the latest design. However, the emphasis of this paper is the progress of the grism prototype: the fabrication and test of the complicated diffractive optical elements and powered prism, as well as grism assembly alignment and testing. Especially how to use different tools and methods, such as IR phase shift and wavelength shift interferometry, to complete the element and assembly tests. The paper also presents very encouraging results from recent element tests to assembly tests. Finally we briefly touch the path forward plan to test the spectral characteristic, such as spectral resolution and response.

  3. The Latest Results from Project NIRRVS: Precise Near Infrared Radial Velocity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; NIRRVS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We will present the latest results from a prototype PRV survey with CSHELL. With CSHELL at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility atop Mauna Kea (R~46,000), we have completed a PRV 2.3 micron survey to detect exoplanets around ~30 red, low mass, and young stars. We are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~30 m/s on our survey targets. We are following up candidate RV variables, and have confirmed other previously known RV variables. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm at 2.3 microns, this performance with CSHELL is limited by detector artifacts, and fringing in the data and flatfields. iSHELL will replace CSHELL at IRTF, with first light expected in April 2016. iSHELL is a 1.15-5.4 micron high spectral resolution (R~70,000) immersion grating, cross-dispersed, white pupil spectrograph. With iSHELL we should be able to obtain a precision of less than 5 m/s in the NIR with iSHELL from the improvements in spectral grasp alone.

  4. The Latest Results from Project NIRRVS: Precise Near Infrared Radial Velocity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; NIRRVS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We will present the latest results from a prototype PRV survey with CSHELL. With CSHELL at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility atop Mauna Kea (R~46,000), we have completed a PRV 2.3 micron survey to detect exoplanets around ~30 red, low mass, and young stars. We are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~30 m/s on our survey targets. We are following up candidate RV variables, and have confirmed other previously known RV variables. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm at 2.3 microns, this performance with CSHELL is limited by detector artifacts, and fringing in the data and flatfields. iSHELL will replace CSHELL at IRTF, with first light expected in May 2016. iSHELL is a 1.15-5.4 micron high spectral resolution (R~70,000) immersion grating, cross-dispersed, white pupil spectrograph. With iSHELL we should be able to obtain a precision of less than 5 m/s in the NIR with iSHELL from the improvements in spectral grasp alone.

  5. Managing the Development of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irace, William; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Greanias, George; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Royer, Donald; Wright, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission, is surveying the entire sky in four bands from 3.4 to 22 microns with a sensitivity hundreds to hundreds of thousands times better than previous all-sky surveys at these wavelengths. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm three-mirror anastigmatic telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 6" resolution (full-width-half-maximum). WISE was placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta II 7320 launch vehicle on December 14, 2009. NASA selected WISE as a MIDEX in 2002 following a rigorous competitive selection process. To gain further confidence in WISE, NASA extended the development period one year with an option to cancel the mission if certain criteria were not met. MIDEX missions are led by the principal investigator who in this case delegated day-to-day management to the project manager. With a cost cap and relatively short development schedule, it was essential for all WISE partners to work seamlessly together. This was accomplished with an integrated management team representing all key partners and disciplines. The project was developed on budget and on schedule in spite of the need to surmount significant technical challenges. This paper describes our management approach, key challenges and critical decisions made. Results are described from a programmatic, technical and scientific point of view. Lessons learned are offered for projects of this type.

  6. Managing the Development of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irace, William; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Greanias, George; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Royer, Donald; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission, is surveying the entire sky in four bands from 3.4 to 22 microns with a sensitivity hundreds to hundreds of thousands times better than previous all-sky surveys at these wavelengths. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm three-mirror anastigmatic telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 6" resolution (full-width-half-maximum). WISE was placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta II 7320 launch vehicle on December 14, 2009. NASA selected WISE as a MIDEX in 2002 following a rigorous competitive selection process. To gain further confidence in WISE, NASA extended the development period one year with an option to cancel the mission if certain criteria were not met. MIDEX missions are led by the principal investigator who in this case delegated day-to-day management to the project manager. With a cost cap and relatively short development schedule, it was essential for all WISE partners to work seamlessly together. This was accomplished with an integrated management team representing all key partners and disciplines. The project was developed on budget and on schedule in spite of the need to surmount significant technical challenges. This paper describes our management approach, key challenges and critical decisions made. Results are described from a programmatic, technical and scientific point of view. Lessons learned are offered for projects of this type.

  7. Infrared near-Earth-object survey modeling for observatories interior to the Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, M.

    2014-07-01

    The search for and dynamical characterization of the near-Earth population of objects (NEOs) has been a busy topic for surveys for many years. Most of the work thus far has been from ground-based optical surveys such as the Catalina Sky Survey and LINEAR. These surveys have essentially reached a complete inventory of objects down to 1 km diameter and have shown that the known objects do not pose any significant impact threat. Smaller objects are correspondingly smaller threats but there are more of them and fewer of them have so far been discovered. The next generation of surveys is looking to extend their reach down to much smaller sizes. From an impact risk perspective, those objects as small as 30--40 m are still of interest (similar in size to the Tunguska bolide). Smaller objects than this are largely of interest from a space resource or in-situ analysis efforts. A recent mission concept promoted by the B612 Foundation and Ball Aerospace calls for an infrared survey telescope in a Venus-like orbit, known as the Sentinel Mission. This wide-field facility has been designed to complete the inventory down to a 140 m diameter while also providing substantial constraints on the NEO population down to a Tunguska-sized object. I have been working to develop a suite of tools to provide survey modeling for this class of survey telescope. The purpose of the tool is to uncover hidden complexities that govern mission design and operation while also working to quantitatively understand the orbit quality provided on its catalog of objects without additional followup assets. The baseline mission design calls for a 6.5 year survey lifetime. This survey model is a statistically based tool for establishing completeness as a function of object size and survey duration. Effects modeled include the ability to adjust the field-of-regard (includes all pointing restrictions), field-of-view, focal plane array fill factor, and the observatory orbit. Consequences tracked include time

  8. A near-infrared interferometric survey of debris-disc stars. V. PIONIER search for variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, S.; Defrère, D.; Absil, O.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Augereau, J.-C.; Berger, J.-P.; Blind, N.; Bonsor, A.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lebreton, J.; Marion, L.; Milli, J.; Olofsson, J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Extended circumstellar emission has been detected within a few 100 milli-arcsec around ≳10% of nearby main sequence stars using near-infrared interferometry. Follow-up observations using other techniques, should they yield similar results or non-detections, can provide strong constraints on the origin of the emission. They can also reveal the variability of the phenomenon. Aims: We aim to demonstrate the persistence of the phenomenon over the timescale of a few years and to search for variability of our previously detected excesses. Methods: Using Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI)/Precision Integrated Optics Near Infrared ExpeRiment (PIONIER) in H band we have carried out multi-epoch observations of the stars for which a near-infrared excess was previously detected using the same observation technique and instrument. The detection rates and distribution of the excesses from our original survey and the follow-up observations are compared statistically. A search for variability of the excesses in our time series is carried out based on the level of the broadband excesses. Results: In 12 of 16 follow-up observations, an excess is re-detected with a significance of > 2σ, and in 7 of 16 follow-up observations significant excess (> 3σ) is re-detected. We statistically demonstrate with very high confidence that the phenomenon persists for the majority of the systems. We also present the first detection of potential variability in two sources. Conclusions: We conclude that the phenomenon responsible for the excesses persists over the timescale of a few years for the majority of the systems. However, we also find that variability intrinsic to a target can cause it to have no significant excess at the time of a specific observation. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 088.C-0266, 089.C-0365, 090.C-0526, 091.C-0576, 091.C-0597, 094.C-0232, and commissioning data.

  9. THE DISCOVERY OF Y DWARFS USING DATA FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Prato, Lisa A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-12-10

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, the latest-type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f{sub {lambda}}, so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH{sub 3}. These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS 0722-05 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spectral standard. In total, six of the seven new brown dwarfs are classified as Y dwarfs: four are classified as Y0, one is classified as Y0 (pec?), and WISEP J1828+2650 is classified as >Y0. We have also compared the spectra to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon and infer that the brown dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K, making them the coldest spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs known to date.

  10. Physical properties of asteroids in comet-like orbits in infrared asteroid survey catalogs

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoonyoung; Ishiguro, Masateru; Usui, Fumihiko

    2014-07-10

    We investigated the population of asteroids in comet-like orbits using available asteroid size and albedo catalogs of data taken with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, AKARI, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer on the basis of their orbital properties (i.e., the Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter, T{sub J}, and the aphelion distance, Q). We found that (1) there are 123 asteroids in comet-like orbits by our criteria (i.e., Q > 4.5 AU and T{sub J} < 3), (2) 80% of them have low albedo, p{sub v} < 0.1, consistent with comet nuclei, (3) the low-albedo objects among them have a size distribution shallower than that of active comet nuclei, that is, the power index of the cumulative size distribution is around 1.1, and (4) unexpectedly, a considerable number (i.e., 25 by our criteria) of asteroids in comet-like orbits have high albedo, p{sub v} > 0.1. We noticed that such high-albedo objects mostly consist of small (D < 3 km) bodies distributed in near-Earth space (with perihelion distance of q < 1.3 AU). We suggest that such high-albedo, small objects were susceptible to the Yarkovsky effect and drifted into comet-like orbits via chaotic resonances with planets.

  11. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  12. A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of 886 Nearby M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.

    2015-09-01

    We present a catalog of near-infrared (NIR) spectra and associated measurements for 886 nearby M dwarfs. The spectra were obtained with the NASA-Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX Spectrograph during a two-year observing campaign; they have high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N > 100-150), span 0.8-2.4 μm, and have R˜ 2000. Our catalog of measured values contains useful Teff and composition-sensitive features, empirical stellar parameter measurements, and kinematic, photometric, and astrometric properties compiled from the literature. We focus on measurements of M dwarf abundances ([Fe/H] and [M/H]), capitalizing on the precision of recently published empirical NIR spectroscopic calibrations. We explore systematic differences between different abundance calibrations, and from other similar M dwarf catalogs. We confirm that the M dwarf abundances we measure show the expected inverse dependence with kinematic-, activity-, and color-based age indicators. Finally, we provide updated [Fe/H] and [M/H] for 16 M dwarf planet hosts. This catalog represents the largest published compilation of NIR spectra and associated parameters for M dwarfs. It provides a rich and uniform resource for nearby M dwarfs, and will be especially valuable for measuring Habitable Zone locations and comparative abundances of the M dwarf planet hosts that will be uncovered by upcoming exoplanet surveys.

  13. An integrated payload design for the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccleston, Paul; Tinetti, Giovanna; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Güdel, Manuel; Hartogh, Paul; Micela, Giuseppina; Min, Michiel; Rataj, Miroslaw; Ray, Tom; Ribas, Ignasi; Vandenbussche, Bart; Auguères, Jean-Louis; Bishop, Georgia; Da Deppo, Vania; Focardi, Mauro; Hunt, Thomas; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Ollivier, Marc; Pace, Emanuele; Pascale, Enzo; Taylor, William

    2016-07-01

    ARIEL (the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three candidates for the next ESA medium-class science mission (M4) expected to be launched in 2026. This mission will be devoted to observing spectroscopically in the infrared a large population of warm and hot transiting exoplanets (temperatures from ~500 K to ~3000 K) in our nearby Galactic neighborhood, opening a new discovery space in the field of extrasolar planets and enabling the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far away worlds. The three candidate missions for M4 are now in a Phase A study which will run until mid-2017 at which point one mission will be selected for implementation. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope feeding both a moderate resolution spectrometer covering the wavelengths from 1.95 to 7.8 microns, and a four channel photometer (which also acts as a Fine Guidance Sensor) with bands between 0.55 and 1.65 microns. During its 3.5 years of operation from an L2 orbit, ARIEL will continuously observe exoplanets transiting their host star.

  14. A near-infrared high-resolution spectroscopic survey of Galactic bulge stars . - JASMINE prestudy -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Kondo, S.; Yasui, C.; Minami, A.; Motohara, K.; Gouda, N.

    We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R_max= 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 mu m. WINERED employs the novelty in the optical system; a portable design with a near-infrared immersion grating and warm optics without any cold stops. The planned astrometric space mission JASMINE will provide the exact positions, distances, and proper motions of the Galactic bulge stars. The missing components, the radial velocity and chemical compositions, will be measured by WINERED with high accuracies (delta V< 10km/s). These combined data brought by JASMINE and WINERED will certainly reveal the nature of the Galactic bulge. We plan to complete this instrument with a single slit by the end of 2008 and hope to attach it to various 4-10 m telescopes as a PI-type instrument. In succession, we plan to develop a similar spectrograph but with a simultaneous multi-object spectroscopic capability for full-fledged bulge survey.

  15. NEAR-INFRARED H{sub 2} AND CONTINUUM SURVEY OF EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hsu-Tai; Takami, Michihiro; Duan, Hao-Yuan; Karr, Jennifer; Su, Yu-Nung; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Yeh, Cosmos C.; Froebrich, Dirk

    2012-05-01

    The Spitzer GLIMPSE survey has revealed a number of 'Extended Green Objects' (EGOs) that display extended emission at 4.5 {mu}m. These EGOs are potential candidates for high-mass protostellar outflows. We used high-resolution (<1'') H{sub 2} 1-0 S(1) line, K-, and H-band images from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope to study 34 EGOs to investigate their nature. We found that 12 EGOs exhibit H{sub 2} outflows (two with chains of H{sub 2} knotty structures, five with extended H{sub 2} bipolar structures, three with extended H{sub 2} lobes, and two with pairs of H{sub 2} knots). Of the 12 EGOs with H{sub 2} outflows, three exhibit similar morphologies between the 4.5 {mu}m and H{sub 2} emission. However, the remaining nine EGOs show that the H{sub 2} features are more extended than the continuum features, and the H{sub 2} emission is seldom associated with continuum emission. Furthermore, the morphologies of the near-infrared continuum and 4.5 {mu}m emission are similar to each other for those EGOs with K-band emission, implying that at least part of the IRAC-band continuum emission of EGOs comes from scattered light from the embedded young stellar objects.

  16. Loki: a ground-layer adaptive optics high-resolution near-infrared survey camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Lloyd-Hart, Michael; Meyer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    We present the design of a new high-resolution near-infrared survey camera that will take advantage of the wide corrected field afforded by the 6.5 m MMT's new multi-laser ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system. GLAO technology will correct for turbulence close to the telescope aperture where typically 1/2 to 2/3 of the total atmospheric turbulence lies and is expected to deliver image widths of 0.1-0.2 arc seconds in the near-infrared across a wide range of seeing conditions. The new camera will use a 2 by 2 mosaic of JWST NIRCam detectors, 2048 x 2048 arrays sensitive from 0.6 - 2.5 μm based on Teledyne's HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG detector technology. The camera has a 4 arc minute square field, giving a plate scale of approximately 0.06 arc seconds/pixel, critically sampling the GLAO PSF. In addition, high resolution (0.25 arc seconds or better) multi-object spectroscopy can be supported with cold slit masks inside the dewar; allowing potentially hundreds of spectra to be obtained at once with resolutions of up to 10,000.

  17. Science yield estimate with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Breckinridge, James; Greene, Thomas P.; Guyon, Olivier; Jeremy Kasdin, N.; Macintosh, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraph instrument (CGI) on the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope will directly image and spectrally characterize planets and circumstellar disks around nearby stars. Here we estimate the expected science yield of the CGI for known radial-velocity (RV) planets and potential circumstellar disks. The science return is estimated for three types of coronagraphs: the hybrid Lyot and shaped pupil are the currently planned designs, and the phase-induced amplitude apodizing complex mask coronagraph is the backup design. We compare the potential performance of each type for imaging as well as spectroscopy. We find that the RV targets can be imaged in sufficient numbers to produce substantial advances in the science of nearby exoplanets. To illustrate the potential for circumstellar disk detections, we estimate the brightness of zodiacal-type disks, which could be detected simultaneously during RV planet observations.

  18. Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) 2.4-Meter Mission Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, D.; Aaron, K.; Alplanalp, L.; Anderson, K.; Capps, R.; Chang, Z.; Dooley, J.; Egerman, R.; Goullioud, R.; Klein, D.; Kruk, J.; Kuan, G.; Melton, M.; Ruffa, J.; Underhill, M.; Buren, D. Van

    2013-01-01

    The most recent study of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission is based on reuse of an existing 2.4m telescope. This study was commissioned by NASA to examine the potential science return and cost effectiveness of WFIRST by using this significantly larger aperture telescope. We review the science program envisioned by the WFIRST 2012-2013 Science Definition Team (SDT), an overview of the mission concept, and the telescope design and status. Comparisons against the previous 1.3m and reduced cost 1.1m WFIRST design concepts are discussed. A significant departure from past point designs is the option for serviceability and the geostationary orbit location which enables servicing and replacement instrument insertion later during mission life. Other papers at this conference provide more in depth discussion of the wide field instrument and the optional exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument.

  19. Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) 2.4-Meter Mission Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, D.; Aaron, K.; Alplanalp, L.; Anderson, K.; Capps, R.; Chang, Z.; Dooley, J.; Egerman, R.; Goullioud, R.; Klein, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The most recent study of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission is based on reuse of an existing 2.4m telescope. This study was commissioned by NASA to examine the potential science return and cost effectiveness of WFIRST by using this significantly larger aperture telescope. We review the science program envisioned by the WFIRST 2012-2013 Science Definition Team (SDT), an overview of the mission concept, and the telescope design and status. Comparisons against the previous 1.3m and reduced cost 1.1m WFIRST design concepts are discussed. A significant departure from past point designs is the option for serviceability and the geostationary orbit location which enables servicing and replacement instrument insertion later during mission life. Other papers at this conference provide more in depth discussion of the wide field instrument and the optional exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument.

  20. The RMS survey: far-infrared photometry of young massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, J. C.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Urquhart, J. S.; Meade, M. R.; Moore, T. J. T.; Stead, J. J.

    2010-02-01

    Context. The Red MSX Source (RMS) survey is a multi-wavelength campaign of follow-up observations of a colour-selected sample of candidate massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) in the galactic plane. This survey is returning the largest well-selected sample of MYSOs to date, while identifying other dust contaminant sources with similar mid-infrared colours including a large number of new ultra-compact (UC) H ii regions. Aims: To measure the far-infrared (IR) flux, which lies near the peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MYSOs and UCH ii regions, so that, together with distance information, the luminosity of these sources can be obtained. Methods: Less than 50% of RMS sources are associated with IRAS point sources with detections at 60 μm and 100 μm, though the vast majority are visible in Spitzer MIPSGAL or IRAS Galaxy Atlas (IGA) images. However, standard aperture photometry is not appropriate for these data due to crowding of sources and strong spatially variable far-IR background emission in the galactic plane. A new technique using a 2-dimensional fit to the background in an annulus around each source is therefore used to obtain far-IR photometry for young RMS sources. Results: Far-IR fluxes are obtained for a total of 1113 RMS candidates identified as young sources. Of these 734 have flux measurements using IGA 60 μm and 100 μm images and 724 using MIPSGAL 70 μm images, with 345 having measurements in both data sets. Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/510/A89

  1. Modelling Herschel observations of infrared-dark clouds in the Hi-GAL survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatellos, D.; Griffin, M. J.; Kirk, J. M.; Molinari, S.; Sibthorpe, B.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Wilcock, L. A.

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate the use of the 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code PHAETHON to model infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) that are externally illuminated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). These clouds are believed to be the earliest observed phase of high-mass star formation, and may be the high-mass equivalent of lower mass pre-stellar cores. We model three different cases as examples of the use of the code, in which we vary the mass, density, radius, morphology and internal velocity field of the IRDC. We show the predicted output of the models at different wavelengths chosen to match the observing wavebands of Herschel and Spitzer. For the wavebands of the long-wavelength Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) photometer on Herschel, we also pass the model output through the SPIRE simulator to generate output images that are as close as possible to the ones that would be seen using SPIRE. We then analyse the images as if they were real observations, and compare the results of this analysis with the results of the radiative transfer models. We find that detailed radiative transfer modelling is necessary to accurately determine the physical parameters of IRDCs (e.g. dust temperature, density profile). This method is applied to study G29.55+00.18, an IRDC observed by the Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL), and in the future it will be used to model a larger sample of IRDCs from the same survey. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. E-mail: d.stamatellos@astro.cf.ac.uk

  2. The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: Constraining Protostellar Models with Near- to Far-Infrared Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Elise; Ali, Babar; Fischer, Will; Tobin, John; Stutz, Amy; Megeath, Tom; Allen, Lori; HOPS Team

    2013-07-01

    During the protostellar stage of star formation, a young star is surrounded by a large infalling envelope of dust and gas; the material falls onto a circumstellar disk and is eventually accreted by the central star. The dust in the disk and envelope emits prominently at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths; at 10 micron, absorption by small silicate grains typically causes a broad absorption feature. By modeling the near- to far-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of protostars, properties of their disks and envelopes can be derived. As part of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS; PI: S. T. Megeath), we have observed a large sample of protostars in the Orion star-forming complex at 70 and 160 micron with the PACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. For most objects, we also have photometry in the near-IR (2MASS), mid-IR (Spitzer/ IRAC and MIPS), at 100 micron (PACS data from the Gould Belt Survey), sub-mm (APEX/SABOCA and LABOCA), and mid-infrared spectra (Spitzer/IRS). For the interpretation of the SEDs, we have constructed a large grid of protostellar models using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Here we present our SED fitting techniques to determine the best-fit model for each object. We show the importance of including IRS spectra with appropriate weights, in addition to the constraints provided by the PACS measurements, which probe the peak of the SED. The 10 micron silicate absorption feature and the mid- to far-IR SED slope provide key constraints for the inclination angle of the object and its envelope density, with a deep absorption feature and steep SED slope for the most embedded and highly inclined objects. We show a few examples that illustrate our SED fitting method and present some preliminary results from our fits.

  3. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY FOR CO{sub 2} IN 18 COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Kawakita, Hideyo; Hamada, Saki; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Mitsuru; Usui, Fumihiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Ueno, Munetaka; Ishiguro, Masateru; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Sakon, Itsuki; Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi

    2012-06-10

    We conducted a spectroscopic survey of cometary volatiles with the Infrared Camera on board the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 5 {mu}m. In our survey, 18 comets, including both the Oort cloud comets and the Jupiter-family comets, were observed in the period from 2008 June to 2010 January, most of which were observed at least twice. The prominent emission bands in the observed spectra are the fundamental vibrational bands of water (H{sub 2}O) at 2.7 {mu}m and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at 4.3 {mu}m. The fundamental vibrational band of carbon monoxide (CO) around 4.7 {mu}m and the broad emission feature, probably related to carbon-hydrogen-bearing molecules, can also be recognized around the 3.3-3.5-{mu}m region in some of the comets. With respect to H{sub 2}O, gas production rate ratios of CO{sub 2} have been derived in 17 comets, except for the comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our data set provides the largest homogeneous database of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O production rate ratios in comets obtained so far. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O production rate ratios are considered to reflect the composition of cometary ice when a comet is observed at a heliocentric distance within {approx}2.5 AU, since H{sub 2}O ice fully sublimates there. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ratio in cometary ice spans from several to {approx}30% among the comets observed at <2.5 AU (13 out of the 17 comets). Alternatively, the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2} in the comets seems to be smaller than unity based on our observations, although we only obtain upper limits for CO in most of the comets.

  4. The science of ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinetti, G.; Drossart, P.; Eccleston, P.; Hartogh, P.; Heske, A.; Leconte, J.; Micela, G.; Ollivier, M.; Pilbratt, G.; Puig, L.; Turrini, D.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wolkenberg, P.; Pascale, E.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Güdel, M.; Min, M.; Rataj, M.; Ray, T.; Ribas, I.; Barstow, J.; Bowles, N.; Coustenis, A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Decin, L.; Encrenaz, T.; Forget, F.; Friswell, M.; Griffin, M.; Lagage, P. O.; Malaguti, P.; Moneti, A.; Morales, J. C.; Pace, E.; Rocchetto, M.; Sarkar, S.; Selsis, F.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, J.; Venot, O.; Waldmann, I. P.; Wright, G.; Zingales, T.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    The Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL) is one of the three candidate missions selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) for its next medium-class science mission due for launch in 2026. The goal of the ARIEL mission is to investigate the atmospheres of several hundred planets orbiting distant stars in order to address the fundamental questions on how planetary systems form and evolve. During its four (with a potential extension to six) years mission ARIEL will observe 500+ exoplanets in the visible and the infrared with its meter-class telescope in L2. ARIEL targets will include gaseous and rocky planets down to the Earth-size around different types of stars. The main focus of the mission will be on hot and warm planets orbiting close to their star, as they represent a natural laboratory in which to study the chemistry and formation of exoplanets. The ARIEL mission concept has been developed by a consortium of more than 50 institutes from 12 countries, which include UK, France, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Denmark, Ireland and Portugal. The analysis of the ARIEL spectra and photometric data in the 0.5-7.8 micron range will allow to extract the chemical fingerprints of gases and condensates in the planets' atmospheres, including the elemental composition for the most favorable targets. It will also enable the study of thermal and scattering properties of the atmosphere as the planet orbit around the star. ARIEL will have an open data policy, enabling rapid access by the general community to the high-quality exoplanet spectra that the core survey will deliver.

  5. MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY FROM THE SPITZER DEEP WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, Szymon; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Assef, Roberto J.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Gorjian, V.; Griffith, R.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Bock, J. J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Grogin, N.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, Arjun; Gonzalez, A.; Ivison, R.

    2010-06-10

    We use the multi-epoch, mid-infrared Spitzer Deep Wide-Field Survey to investigate the variability of objects in 8.1 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Booetes field. We perform a Difference Image Analysis of the four available epochs between 2004 and 2008, focusing on the deeper 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. Out of 474, 179 analyzed sources, 1.1% meet our standard variability selection criteria that the two light curves are strongly correlated (r>0.8) and that their joint variance ({sigma}{sub 12}) exceeds that for all sources with the same magnitude by 2{sigma}. We then examine the mid-IR colors of the variable sources and match them with X-ray sources from the XBooetes survey, radio catalogs, 24 {mu}m selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). Based on their mid-IR colors, most of the variable sources are AGNs (76%), with smaller contributions from stars (11%), galaxies (6%), and unclassified objects, although most of the stellar, galaxy, and unclassified sources are false positives. For our standard selection criteria, 11%-12% of the mid-IR counterparts to X-ray sources, 24 {mu}m AGN candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs show variability. The exact fractions depend on both the search depth and the selection criteria. For example, 12% of the 1131 known z>1 AGNs in the field and 14%-17% of the known AGNs with well-measured fluxes in all four Infrared Array Camera bands meet our standard selection criteria. The mid-IR AGN variability can be well described by a single power-law structure function with an index of {gamma} {approx} 0.5 at both 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, and an amplitude of S {sub 0} {approx_equal} 0.1 mag on rest-frame timescales of 2 yr. The variability amplitude is higher for shorter rest-frame wavelengths and lower luminosities.

  6. Mid-infrared Variability from the Spitzer Deep Wide-field Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Szymon; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stern, Daniel; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Assef, Roberto J.; Bock, J. J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Brodwin, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Gonzalez, A.; Gorjian, V.; Griffith, R.; Grogin, N.; Ivison, R.; Jacob, J.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Mainzer, A.; Moustakas, L.; Röttgering, H.; Seymour, N.; Smith, H. A.; Stanford, S. A.; Stauffer, J. R.; Sullivan, I. S.; van Breugel, W.; Willner, S. P.; Wright, E. L.

    2010-06-01

    We use the multi-epoch, mid-infrared Spitzer Deep Wide-Field Survey to investigate the variability of objects in 8.1 deg2 of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Boötes field. We perform a Difference Image Analysis of the four available epochs between 2004 and 2008, focusing on the deeper 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. Out of 474, 179 analyzed sources, 1.1% meet our standard variability selection criteria that the two light curves are strongly correlated (r>0.8) and that their joint variance (σ12) exceeds that for all sources with the same magnitude by 2σ. We then examine the mid-IR colors of the variable sources and match them with X-ray sources from the XBoötes survey, radio catalogs, 24 μm selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). Based on their mid-IR colors, most of the variable sources are AGNs (76%), with smaller contributions from stars (11%), galaxies (6%), and unclassified objects, although most of the stellar, galaxy, and unclassified sources are false positives. For our standard selection criteria, 11%-12% of the mid-IR counterparts to X-ray sources, 24 μm AGN candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs show variability. The exact fractions depend on both the search depth and the selection criteria. For example, 12% of the 1131 known z>1 AGNs in the field and 14%-17% of the known AGNs with well-measured fluxes in all four Infrared Array Camera bands meet our standard selection criteria. The mid-IR AGN variability can be well described by a single power-law structure function with an index of γ ≈ 0.5 at both 3.6 and 4.5 μm, and an amplitude of S 0 ~= 0.1 mag on rest-frame timescales of 2 yr. The variability amplitude is higher for shorter rest-frame wavelengths and lower luminosities.

  7. Adaptive Beamforming with Inadequate Snapshots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YU, Jing; LI, Yaan

    2017-01-01

    In array signal processing, the covariance matrix used to calculate the adaptive weights is often poor estimated when the snapshot number is inadequate. The prior environmental knowledge can be used to make the estimation more accuracy. In this paper, an alternative knowledge-aided adaptive beamforming approach that is robust to low sample support environment is proposed. In this algorithm the covariance matrix used to calculate the optimum weights is constructed by blending a sample covariance matrix and a priori structured covariance matrix. Numerical simulations demonstrate the proposed algorithm has the potential for substantial performance improvement.

  8. Antarctic Surveying Telescope (AST3-3) NIR camera for the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS): thermal optimization and system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jessica R.; Lawrence, Jon; Content, Robert; Churilov, Vladimir; Zhang, Kaiyuan; Yuan, Xiangyan; Lu, Haiping

    2016-08-01

    The Antarctic survey telescope (AST 3-3) near infrared(NIR) camera is designed to conduct the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey which will provide a comprehensive exploration of the time varying Universe in the near infrared. It is going to be located at Dome A, on the Antarctic plateau, one of the most unique low background sites at the Kdark band (2.4μm). Carefully designed thermal emission from the telescope and the Kdark camera is very important to realize background limited operation. We setup a scattering and thermal emission model of the whole system to optimize the camera performance. An exposure time calculator was also built to predict system performance.

  9. Deep Infrared Survey of the Deep Chandra Field on SgrA*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, S.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Koenig, X.; Schlegel, E.; van den Berg, M.; Zhao, P.; Persson, E.

    2004-08-01

    We have observed the galactic center with the PANIC infrared imager at Magellan. In 3 nights of optimal seeing (many hours of approx. 0.3 arcsec) we obtained a 10x10 arcmin mosaic centered on SgrA*, in J,H,K and Bracket gamma. This represents the deepest IR survey surrounding SgrA* which covers the majority of the deep Chandra field obtained by Muno et al and also being studied as part of our ongoing ChaMPlane survey. The discovery of several thousand hard X-ray point sources in the GC by Muno et al a key Chandra result and this work is directed at identifying these sources, by cutting through the obscuring dust clouds and attaining the highest possible spatial resolution over the Chandra field. We will present the multicolor mosaic and preliminary analysis, concentrating on positional matches for Chandra sources. The survey is designed to find sources with colors suggestive of Be-HMXBs, CVs and other X-ray binaries. The narrow band Br-gamma data is unique in its depth and resolution and will enable discrimination of accretion sources in even the most crowded regions. This IR mosaic extends our optical work on low extinction windows in the galactic bulge (see papers by Grindlay et al and van den Berg et al), and our optical survey of the galactic bulge for ChaMPlane (see paper by Zhao et al). This work is supported by Chandra grants AR3-4002A, AR4-5003A and GO3-4033A and NSF grant AST-0098683.

  10. Four faint T dwarfs from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Southern Stripe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuenley; Liu, Michael C.; Jiang, Linhua; Allers, Katelyn N.; Stark, Daniel P.; Bunker, Andrew; Fan, Xiaohui; Glazebrook, Karl; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2008-03-01

    We present the optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of four faint T dwarfs newly discovered from the UKIDSS first data release. The sample, drawn from an imaged area of ~136 deg2 to a depth of Y = 19.9 (5σ, Vega), is located in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Southern Equatorial Stripe, a region of significant future deep imaging potential. We detail the selection and followup of these objects, three of which are spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs ranging from type T2.5 to T7.5, and one is photometrically identified as early T. Their magnitudes range from Y = 19.01 to 19.88 with derived distances from 34 to 98 pc, making these among the coldest and faintest brown dwarfs known. The T7.5 dwarf appears to be single based on 0.05-arcsec images from Keck laser guide star adaptive optics. The sample brings the total number of T dwarfs found or confirmed by UKIDSS data in this region to nine, and we discuss the projected numbers of dwarfs in the future survey data. We estimate that ~240 early and late T dwarfs are discoverable in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) data, falling significantly short of published model projections and suggesting that initial mass functions and/or birth rates may be at the low end of possible models. Thus, deeper optical data have good potential to exploit the UKIDSS survey depth more fully, but may still find the potential Y dwarf sample to be extremely rare.

  11. Snapshot imaging polarimeters using spatial modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haitao

    The recent demonstration of a novel snapshot imaging polarimeter using the fringe modulation technique shows a promise in building a compact and moving-parts-free device. As just demonstrated in principle, this technique has not been adequately studied. In the effort of advancing this technique, we build a complete theory framework that can address the key issues regarding the polarization aberrations caused by using the functional elements. With this model, we can have the necessary knowledge in designing, analyzing and optimizing the systems. Also, we propose a broader technique that uses arbitrary modulation instead of sinusoidal fringes, which can give us more engineering freedom and can be the solution of achromatizing the system. In the hardware aspect, several important progresses are made. We extend the polarimeter technique from visible to middle wavelength infrared by using the yttrium vanadate crystals. Also, we incorporate a Savart Plate polarimter into a fundus camera to measure the human eye's retinal retardance, useful information for glaucoma diagnosis. Thirdly, a world-smallest imaging polarimeter is proposed and demonstrated, which may open many applications in security, remote sensing and bioscience.

  12. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. I. POINT-SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Daisuke; Onaka, Takashi; Shimonishi, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawamura, Akiko; Wada, Takehiko; Usui, Fumihiko; Koo, Bon-Chul; Matsuura, Mikako E-mail: onaka@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2012-12-01

    We present a near- to mid-infrared point-source catalog of five photometric bands at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 {mu}m for a 10 deg{sup 2} area of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained with the Infrared Camera on board the AKARI satellite. To cover the survey area the observations were carried out at three separate seasons from 2006 May to June, 2006 October to December, and 2007 March to July. The 10{sigma} limiting magnitudes of the present survey are 17.9, 13.8, 12.4, 9.9, and 8.6 mag at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 {mu}m, respectively. The photometric accuracy is estimated to be about 0.1 mag at 3.2 {mu}m and 0.06-0.07 mag in the other bands. The position accuracy is 0.''3 at 3.2, 7, and 11 {mu}m and 1.''0 at 15 and 24 {mu}m. The sensitivities at 3.2, 7, and 24 {mu}m are roughly comparable to those of the Spitzer SAGE LMC point-source catalog, while the AKARI catalog provides the data at 11 and 15 {mu}m, covering the mid-infrared spectral range contiguously. Two types of catalog are provided: a Catalog and an Archive. The Archive contains all the detected sources, while the Catalog only includes the sources that have a counterpart in the Spitzer SAGE point-source catalog. The Archive contains about 650,000, 140,000, 97,000, 43,000, and 52,000 sources at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 {mu}m, respectively. Based on the catalog, we discuss the luminosity functions at each band, the color-color diagram, and the color-magnitude diagram using the 3.2, 7, and 11 {mu}m band data. Stars without circumstellar envelopes, dusty C-rich and O-rich stars, young stellar objects, and background galaxies are located at distinct regions in the diagrams, suggesting that the present catalog is useful for the classification of objects toward the LMC.

  13. THE FIRST HUNDRED BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    SciTech Connect

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Bauer, James M.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Stanford, S. A.; Bailey, Vanessa; and others

    2011-12-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of 6 Y dwarfs (see also Cushing et al.), 89 T dwarfs, 8 L dwarfs, and 1 M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types {>=}T6, six of which have been announced earlier by Mainzer et al. and Burgasser et al. We present color-color and color-type diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. Near-infrared and, in a few cases, optical spectra are presented for these discoveries. Near-infrared classifications as late as early Y are presented and objects with peculiar spectra are discussed. Using these new discoveries, we are also able to extend the optical T dwarf classification scheme from T8 to T9. After deriving an absolute WISE 4.6 {mu}m (W2) magnitude versus spectral type relation, we estimate spectrophotometric distances to our discoveries. We also use available astrometric measurements to provide preliminary trigonometric parallaxes to four of our discoveries, which have types of L9 pec (red), T8, T9, and Y0; all of these lie within 10 pc of the Sun. The Y0 dwarf, WISE 1541-2250, is the closest at 2.8{sup +1.3}{sub -0.6} pc; if this 2.8 pc value persists after continued monitoring, WISE 1541-2250 will become the seventh closest stellar system to the Sun. Another 10 objects, with types between T6 and >Y0, have spectrophotometric distance estimates also placing them within 10 pc. The closest of these, the T6 dwarf WISE 1506+7027, is believed to fall at a distance of {approx}4.9 pc. WISE multi-epoch positions supplemented with positional info primarily from the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera allow us to calculate proper motions and tangential velocities for roughly one-half of the new discoveries. This work represents the first step by WISE to complete a full-sky, volume-limited census of late-T and Y dwarfs. Using early results from this census, we present preliminary, lower limits to the space density of

  14. High resolution far-infrared survey of A section of the galactic plane. I. The nature of the sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, D.T.; Stier, M.T.; Fazio, G.G.

    1982-01-15

    We have surveyed a 7.5 deg/sup 2/ portion of the galactic plane between l/sup II/ = 10/sup 0/ and l/sup II/ = 16/sup 0/ at 70 ..mu..m with a 1' beam. We present far-infrared, radio continuum, and /sup 12/CO and /sup 13/CO line observations of the 42 far-infrared sources in the survey region. The sources range in luminosity from 4 x 10/sup 3/ to 3 x 10/sup 6/ L/sub sun/. Most are associated with /sup 12/CO peaks. More than half of the sources have associated H/sub 2/O maser emission. Half have associated radio continuum emission at a limit of 100 mJy. Eight sources have radio emission at weaker levels. In a number of cases, the far-infrared source is smaller than its associated radio source. This difference can be explained in the context of the ''blister'' picture of H II regions. One group of sources emits many fewer Lyman continuum photons than expected, given the far-infrared luminosities. We examine a number of possible reasons for this and conclude that the most reasonable explanation is that clusters of early type stars rather than single stars excite the far-infrared sources. We examine the energetics in the molecular clouds surrounding the infrared sources and conclude that the sources could supply the energy to explain the observed temperature structure and velocity field in the molecular gas.

  15. Multiple snapshot colored compressive spectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Claudia V.; Hinojosa, Carlos A.; Arce, Gonzalo R.; Arguello, Henry

    2017-04-01

    The snapshot colored compressive spectral imager (SCCSI) is a recent compressive spectral imaging (CSI) architecture that senses the spatial and spectral information of a scene in a single snapshot by means of a colored mosaic FPA detector and a dispersive element. Commonly, CSI architectures allow multiple snapshot acquisition, yielding improved reconstructions of spatially detailed and spectrally rich scenes. Each snapshot is captured employing a different coding pattern. In principle, SCCSI does not admit multiple snapshots since the pixelated tiling of optical filters is directly attached to the detector. This paper extends the concept of SCCSI to a system admitting multiple snapshot acquisition by rotating the dispersive element, so the dispersed spatio-spectral source is coded and integrated at different detector pixels in each rotation. Thus, a different set of coded projections is captured using the same optical components of the original architecture. The mathematical model of the multishot SCCSI system is presented along with several simulations. Results show that a gain up to 7 dB of peak signal-to-noise ratio is achieved when four SCCSI snapshots are compared to a single snapshot reconstruction. Furthermore, a gain up to 5 dB is obtained with respect to state-of-the-art architecture, the multishot CASSI.

  16. A Snapshot of Industry and Academic Professional Activities, Compensation, and Engagement in Educational Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packman, Sheryl; Camara, Wayne J.; Huff, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot of educational measurement professionals--their educational, professional and demographic backgrounds, as well as their workplace settings, job tasks, professional involvement, and compensation practices. Two previous studies have surveyed employers, but this is the first attempt to conduct a comprehensive survey of…

  17. A near-infrared survey of the entire R Coronae Australis cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, M.; Heymann, F.; Domke, I.; Drass, H.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V.

    2008-09-01

    an edge-on disc. Conclusions: The deep near-infrared survey of the entire R CrA molecular cloud strengthens the evidence for the Coronet being the region where most of the young stars are found. Our results are consistent with earlier predictions that the R CrA cloud has fragmented into sub-condensations at different star-forming stages. Table A1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/488/987

  18. Airborne Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Survey of the Southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Tratt, D. M.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) between Desert Hot Springs and Bombay Beach has been surveyed with Mako, an airborne hyperspectral imager operating across the wavelength range 7.6-13.2 μm in the thermal-infrared (TIR) spectral region. The data were acquired with a 4-km swath width centered on the SAF, and many tectonic features are recorded in the imagery. Spectral analysis using diagnostic features of minerals can identify rocks, soils and vegetation. Mako imagery can also locate rupture zones and measure slip distances. Designed and built by The Aerospace Corporation, the innovative and highly capable airborne imaging spectrometer used for this work enables low-noise performance (NEΔT ≲ 0.1 K @ 10 μm) at small pixel IFOV (0.55 mrad) and high frame rates, making possible an area-coverage rate of 20 km2 per minute with 2-m ground resolution from 12,500 ft (3.8 km) above-ground altitude. Since its commissioning in 2010, Mako has been used in numerous studies involving other earthquake fault systems (Hector Mine, S. Bristol Mts.), mapping of surface geology, geothermal sources (fumaroles near the Salton Sea), urban surveys, and the detection, quantification, and tracking of natural and anthropogenic gaseous emission plumes. Mako is available for airborne field studies and new applications are of particular interest. It can be flown at any altitude below 20,000 ft to achieve the desired GSD.

  19. DISCOVERY OF THREE DISTANT, COLD BROWN DWARFS IN THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLELS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, D.; Siana, B.; McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A.; Burgasser, A. J.; Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R.; Scarlata, C.; Henry, A.; Colbert, J.; Atek, H.; Rafelski, M.; Teplitz, H.; Bunker, A.

    2012-06-10

    We present the discovery of three late-type ({>=}T4.5) brown dwarfs, including a probable Y dwarf, in the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) survey. We use the G141 grism spectra to determine the spectral types of the dwarfs and derive distance estimates based on a comparison with nearby T dwarfs with known parallaxes. These are the most distant spectroscopically confirmed T/Y dwarfs, with the farthest at an estimated distance of {approx}400 pc. We compare the number of cold dwarfs found in the WISP survey with simulations of the brown dwarf mass function. The number found is generally consistent with an initial stellar mass function dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} = 0.0-0.5, although the identification of a Y dwarf is somewhat surprising and may be indicative of either a flatter absolute magnitude/spectral-type relation than previously reported or an upturn in the number of very-late-type brown dwarfs in the observed volume.

  20. SAGE-VAR: AN INFRARED SURVEY OF VARIABILITY IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Riebel, D.; Boyer, M. L.; Srinivasan, S.; Whitelock, P.; Feast, M.; Meixner, M.; Shiao, B.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Ita, Y.

    2015-07-01

    We present the first results from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Var program, a follow up to the Spitzer legacy program SAGE (Meixner et al.). We obtained four epochs of photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 μm covering the bar of the LMC and the central region of the SMC in order to probe the variability of extremely red sources missed by variability surveys conducted at shorter wavelengths, and to provide additional epochs of observation for known variables. Our six total epochs of observations allow us to probe infrared (IR) variability on 15 different timescales ranging from ∼20 days to ∼5 yr. Out of a full catalog of 1 717 554 (LMC) and 457 760 (SMC) objects, we find 10 (LMC) and 6 (SMC) large amplitude Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) variables without optically measured variability owing to circumstellar dust obscuration. The catalog also contains multiple observations of known AGB variables, type I and II Cepheids, eclipsing variables, R CrB stars, and young stellar objects, which will be discussed in following papers. Here we present IR Period–Luminosity (PL) relations for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds, as well as improved PL relationships for AGB stars pulsating in the fundamental mode using mean magnitudes constructed from six epochs of observations.

  1. Automated classification of periodic variable stars detected by the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Masci, Frank J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Cutri, Roc M.; Hoffman, Douglas I.

    2014-07-01

    We describe a methodology to classify periodic variable stars identified using photometric time-series measurements constructed from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) full-mission single-exposure Source Databases. This will assist in the future construction of a WISE Variable Source Database that assigns variables to specific science classes as constrained by the WISE observing cadence with statistically meaningful classification probabilities. We have analyzed the WISE light curves of 8273 variable stars identified in previous optical variability surveys (MACHO, GCVS, and ASAS) and show that Fourier decomposition techniques can be extended into the mid-IR to assist with their classification. Combined with other periodic light-curve features, this sample is then used to train a machine-learned classifier based on the random forest (RF) method. Consistent with previous classification studies of variable stars in general, the RF machine-learned classifier is superior to other methods in terms of accuracy, robustness against outliers, and relative immunity to features that carry little or redundant class information. For the three most common classes identified by WISE: Algols, RR Lyrae, and W Ursae Majoris type variables, we obtain classification efficiencies of 80.7%, 82.7%, and 84.5% respectively using cross-validation analyses, with 95% confidence intervals of approximately ±2%. These accuracies are achieved at purity (or reliability) levels of 88.5%, 96.2%, and 87.8% respectively, similar to that achieved in previous automated classification studies of periodic variable stars.

  2. HECTOSPEC AND HYDRA SPECTRA OF INFRARED LUMINOUS SOURCES IN THE AKARI NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE SURVEY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Hyunjin; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Seong Jin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Ko, Jongwan; Karouzos, Marios; Papovich, Casey; Willmer, Christopher; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2013-08-15

    We present spectra of 1796 sources selected in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey field, obtained with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra, for which we measure 1645 redshifts. We complemented the generic flux-limited spectroscopic surveys at 11 {mu}m and 15 {mu}m, with additional sources selected based on the MIR and optical colors. In MMT/Hectospec observations, the redshift identification rates are {approx}80% for objects with R < 21.5 mag. On the other hand, in WIYN/Hydra observations, the redshift identification rates are {approx}80% at R magnitudes brighter than 19 mag. The observed spectra were classified through the visual inspection or from the line diagnostics. We identified 1128 star-forming or absorption-line-dominated galaxies, 198 Type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 8 Type-2 AGNs, 121 Galactic stars, and 190 spectra in unknown category due to low signal-to-noise ratio. The spectra were flux-calibrated but to an accuracy of 0.1-0.18 dex for most of the targets and worse for the remainder. We derive star formation rates (SFRs) from the mid-infrared fluxes or from the optical emission lines, showing that our sample spans an SFR range of 0.1 to a few hundred M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We find that the extinction inferred from the difference between the IR and optical SFR increases as the IR luminosity increases but with a large scatter.

  3. The Mission Operations System for Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrichsen, Ingolf H.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission is to perform a highly sensitive all-sky survey in 4 wavebands from 3 to 25(mu)m. Launched on a Delta II rocket into a 500km Sun-synchronous orbit in June 2009, during its 7 months of operations, WISE will acquire about 50GBytes of raw science data every day, which will be down-linked via the TDRSS relay satellite system and processed into an astronomical catalogue and image atlas. The WISE mission operations system is being implemented in collaboration between UCLA, JPL and IPAC (Caltech). In this paper we describe the challenges to manage a high data rate, cryogenic, low earth-orbit mission; maintaining safe on-orbit operations, fast anomaly recoveries (mandated by the desire to provide complete sky coverage in a limited lifetime), production and dissemination of high quality science products, given the constraints imposed by funding profiles for small space missions.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of water bodies dynamic by means of thermal infrared and multispectral surveys on the Venetian lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberotanza, L.; Lechi, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys employing a two channel Daedalus infrared scanner and multispectral photography were performed. The spring waning tide, the velocity of the water mass, and the types of suspended matter were among the topics studied. Temperature, salinity, sediment transport, and ebb stream velocity were recorded. The bottom topography was correlated with the dynamic characteristics of the sea surface.

  5. A Mid-Infrared Imaging Survey of Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the (rho) Ophiuchi Cloud Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsony, Mary; Ressler, Michael E.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a comprehensive, new, ground-based mid-infrared imaging survey of the young stellar population of the (rho) Ophiuchi cloud are presented. Data were acquired at the Palomar 5m and at the Keck 10m telescopes with the MIRLIN and LWS instruments, at 0'.5 and 0'.25 resolutions, respectively. Of 172 survey objects, 85 were detected. Among the 22 multiple systems observed, 15 were resolved and their individual component fluxes determined. A plot of the frequency distribution of the detected objects with SED spectral slope shows that YSOs spend approx.4 x 10(exp 5) yr in the flat-spectrum phase, clearing out their remnant infall envelopes. Mid-infrared variability is found among a significant fraction of the surveyed objects and is found to occur for all SED classes with optically thick disks. Large-amplitude near-infrared variability, also found for all SED classes with optically thick disks, seems to occur with somewhat higher frequency at the earlier evolutionary stages. Although a general trend of mid-infrared excess and near-infrared veiling exists progressing through SED classes, with Class I objects generally exhibiting r(sub K) >= 1, flat-spectrum objects with r(sub K) >= 0.58, and Class III objects with r(sub K) =0, Class II objects exhibit the widest range of r(sub K) values, ranging from 0 <= r(sub K) <= 4.5. However, the highly variable value of veiling that a single source can exhibit in any of the SED classes in which active disk accretion can take place is striking and is direct observational evidence for highly time-variable accretion activity in disks. Finally, by comparing mid-infrared versus near-infrared excesses in a subsample with well-determined effective temperatures and extinction values, disk-clearing mechanisms are explored. The results are consistent with disk clearing proceeding from the inside out.

  6. Solar System Science with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; McMillan, R.; Wright, E.; Cutri, R.; Walker, R.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Jedicke, R.

    2009-09-01

    WISE's all-sky survey of the solar system will be unprecedented in sensitivity and resolution in its wavelength bands. Corresponding to the peak of thermal emission of many solar system bodies and particles, the 12 and 23 micron bands will detect asteroids, comets, comet debris trails, and zodiacal dust to several AU from the sun. Some of the objects and material will be too dark and faint to have been detected previously by visible-light surveys, and previous infrared telescopes in space have either not covered the whole sky or have had far less sensitivity. Consequently, WISE will explore the spatial distributions and thermal properties of the objects and material populating the inner solar system efficiently and without bias favoring bright albedos. At the temperatures dominant in the inner solar system, IR flux is more directly related to the size of the emitter than is visible flux, so the detections of asteroids by WISE will be closer to a diameter-limited census. Yet combined with visible-light data, the albedos of those asteroids detected by WISE can also be derived anew. Orbital migration driven by thermal reradiation of absorbed sunlight is size-dependent and albedo-dependent, and affects the evolution of the orbits of asteroids within a certain size range. The distributions of sizes of asteroids, and the dependences of those distributions with orbital parameters to be uncovered by WISE will therefore be evidence of the processes that brought the solar system to its current arrangement. Asteroids in orbits that bring them close to Earth are especially menacing if they are dark and have evaded detection by ground-based surveys in visible light. But dark objects are especially detectable in the IR, so WISE will make a unique and large contribution to the assessment of the hazard of impacts on Earth.

  7. A near-infrared catalogue of the Galactic novae in the VVV survey area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R. K.; Minniti, D.; Angeloni, R.; Catelan, M.; Beamin, J. C.; Borissova, J.; Dékány, I.; Kerins, E.; Kurtev, R.; Mennickent, R. E.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Near-infrared data on classical novae contain useful information about the ejected gas mass and the thermal emission by dust formed during eruption, and provide independent methods to classify the objects according to the colour of their progenitors, and the fading rate and features seen after eruption. The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea survey (VVV) is a near-IR ESO Public Survey mapping the Milky Way bulge and southern plane. Data taken during 2010-2011 covered the entire area in the JHKs bands plus some epochs in Ks-band of the ongoing VVV variability campaign. Aims: We used the VVV data to create a near-IR catalogue of the known Galactic novae in the 562 sq. deg. area covered by VVV. We also compiled the information about novae from the variability tables of the VVV variability campaign. Methods: We used the novae list provided by VSX/AAVSO catalogue to search for all objects within the VVV area. From the 140 novae, we were able to retrieve the JHKs colours of 93 objects. We also checked in the ongoing VVV variability campaign for the light curves of novae that erupted in the last years. Results: The VVV near-IR catalogue of novae contains JHKs photometry of 93 objects completed as of December 2012. VVV allows to monitor objects within up to ΔKs ~ 10 mag range. VVV images can also be used to discover and study novae by searching for the expanding shell. Since objects are seen at different distances and reddening levels, the colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams show the novae spread in magnitude as well as in colour. Dereddened colours and reddening-free indices were used with caution and cannot be a good approach in all cases since the distance and spectral features prevent more conclusive results for some extreme objects. Light curves for some recent novae are presented. Conclusions: Thanks to its high spatial resolution in the near IR and wide Ks-range, the VVV survey can be a major contributor to the search for and study of novae in the

  8. POLARIMETRIC CALIBRATION OF MIMIR AND THE GALACTIC PLANE INFRARED POLARIZATION SURVEY (GPIPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D. E-mail: apinnick@bu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Methods and observations are described for the full field of view (FOV) polarimetric calibration of the Mimir near-infrared imaging polarimeter in support of the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey and other applications. Polarimetric calibration consisted of three steps: (1) flat fielding using in-dome images obtained with the compound zero-order half-wave-plate (HWP) in the 16 position angles employed in polarimetric observations, (2) mapping and removing the remaining instrumental polarization via observations of globular cluster stars, and (3) using polarization standard stars to convert instrument-based polarization position angles to equatorial and to determine the linear polarimetric efficiency. For Mimir, the polarization flat fielding reduced systematic variations of the polarization efficiency across the FOV by a factor of 20. The 151 observations of eight globular clusters yielded 40,000 stars for measuring the remaining 0.05%-0.45% instrumental polarization to uncertainties of 0.02%-0.04%. After these corrections, the 444 observations of 23 polarized stars enabled equatorial polarization position angles to be determined to typical uncertainties of 0.{sup 0}5, and the on-axis (corrected to full FOV) polarization efficiency of 91.1% {+-} 0.4% to be determined. Fully corrected standard star observations showed excellent agreement with published values of polarization percentage and position angle. Additionally, the observations of four sky fields containing Whittet et al. 'primary' polarization standard stars were analyzed to yield 30 new 'secondary' standards. These are fainter than the primaries, allowing use with larger telescope apertures. The secondary standards have polarization position angle uncertainties under 5 Degree-Sign and range in degree of polarization from 0.4% to 8.5%.

  9. Thermal features at Volcanoes in the cascade range, as observed by aerial infrared surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    There have been no substantial changes in the thermal patterns at the summit of Mount Rainier in the period September 1964-September 1966, within the detection limits of the infrared instrumentation. Some differences in radiance are attributed to differences in snow cover. The highest apparent temperature is at a snow-free area on the west flank of the summit cone, several hundred feet below the west crater rim. An anomaly at this site was recorded on both infrared surveys, but no prior reports of thermal activity here have been made by ground parties. Other anomalous thermal zones at the summit are on the northern quadrants of both crater rims. A very small, low-temperature fumarole reported on Mount Adams was not detected, nor were any other thermal manifestations recorded. One anomaly consisting of a close-spaced cluster of thermal spots was detected at The Boot on Mount St. Helens and corresponds to a known fumarole area. The only thermal feature seen on Mount Shasta is near the summit at a thermal spring that has been observed by many climbers. Two anomalies were found on the north flank of Lassen Peak. Thermal activity had not been previously reported at either site, though one is in a known solfatarized area. No ground investigation has been made at the other location. Much of the other thermal activity in the Lassen Peak area is in the northeast quadrant of Brokeoff Caldera. Most of these features are well documented in the literature; others not previously described are in fairly accessible areas and doubtless result from springs and fumaroles related to Brokeoff Caldera. ?? 1970 Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli.

  10. Thermal features at some Cascade volcanoes as observed by aerial infrared surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    There have been no substantial changes in the thermal patterns at the summit of Mount Rainier in the period September 1964–September 1966, within the detection limits of the infrared instrumentation. Some differences in radiance are attributed to differences in snow cover. The highest apparent temperature is at a snow-free area on the west flank of the summit cone, several hundred feet below the west crater rim. An anomaly at this site was recorded on both infrared surveys, but no prior reports of thermal activity here have been made by ground parties. Other anomalous thermal zones at the summit are on the northern quadrants of both crater rims. A very small, low-temperature fumarole reported on Mount Adams was not detected, nor were any other thermal manifestations recorded. One anomaly consisting of a close-spaced cluster of thermal spots was detected at The Boot on Mount St. Helens and corresponds to a known fumarole area. The only thermal feature seen on Mount Shasta is near the summit at a thermal spring that has been observed by many climbers. Two anomalies were found on the north flank of Lassen Peak. Thermal activity had not been previously reported at either site, though one is in a known solfatarized area. No ground investigation has been made at the other location. Much of the other thermal activity in the Lassen Peak area is in the northeast quadrant of Brokeoff Caldera. Most of these features are well documented in the literature; others not previously described are in fairly accessible areas and doubtless result from springs and fumaroles related to Brokeoff Caldera.

  11. Progress Towards a High-Precision Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of the H_3^+ Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Adam J.; Hodges, James N.; Markus, Charles R.; Kocheril, G. Stephen; Jenkins, Paul A., II; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-06-01

    The trihydrogen cation, H_3^+, represents one of the most important and fundamental molecular systems. Having only two electrons and three nuclei, H_3^+ is the simplest polyatomic system and is a key testing ground for the development of new techniques for calculating potential energy surfaces and predicting molecular spectra. Corrections that go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, including adiabatic, non-adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamic corrections are becoming more feasible to calculate. As a result, experimental measurements performed on the H_3^+ ion serve as important benchmarks which are used to test the predictive power of new computational methods. By measuring many infrared transitions with precision at the sub-MHz level it is possible to construct a list of the most highly precise experimental rovibrational energy levels for this molecule. Until recently, only a select handful of infrared transitions of this molecule have been measured with high precision (˜ 1 MHz). Using the technique of Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy, we are aiming to produce the largest high-precision spectroscopic dataset for this molecule to date. Presented here are the current results from our survey along with a discussion of the combination differences analysis used to extract the experimentally determined rovibrational energy levels. O. Polyansky, et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2012), 370, 5014. M. Pavanello, et al., J. Chem. Phys. (2012), 136, 184303. L. Diniz, et al., Phys. Rev. A (2013), 88, 032506. L. Lodi, et al., Phys. Rev. A (2014), 89, 032505. J. Hodges, et al., J. Chem. Phys (2013), 139, 164201.

  12. A New All-Sky Catalogue of Candidate Protoplanetary Disks from Aggregated Optical and Infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horenstein, Daniel; Lepine, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 199,460 sources with optical and infrared colors that are consistent with protoplanetary disks. First, a list of known protoplanetary disks is compiled from the literature, and lists of field stars are selected from regions presumed to have little ongoing star formation. Optical and infrared magnitudes from multiple photometric surveys, covering up to 14 different bands, are then combined for these sources and used to define color-color cuts that reliably distinguish stars with known disks from other field objects. These cuts are applied in an all-sky search of the AllWISE catalogue. Of the sources returned by this query, 11.4% are listed in SIMBAD; their classifications and aggregated magnitudes are used to define additional color-color cuts that efficiently distinguish known young stellar objects from sources of various other types. These further cuts are applied to all targets either not listed in SIMBAD or with inconclusive SIMBAD types to form the new catalogue of 199,460 stars with likely warm circumstellar disks. An estimated false positive rate of 36.1% implies the detection of approximately 127,000 heretofore unidentified protoplanetary disks. The positions of these candidates on the sky are largely consistent with a spatial distribution in the young Galactic disk, showing a high density of sources in the Galactic plane and a low density in the Galactic bulge and at high Galactic latitudes. In addition, a number of nearby star-forming regions are successfully recovered through this process, and they include many sources not previously reported to be young stellar objects.

  13. Deep wide-field near-infrared survey of the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Kuderna, B.; Ohlendorf, H.; King, R. R.; Hodgkin, S.; Irwin, M.; Lewis, J. R.; McCaughrean, M. J.; Zinnecker, H.

    2011-06-01

    Context. The Great Nebula in Carina is a giant H ii region and a superb location in which to study the physics of violent massive star formation, but the population of the young low-mass stars remained very poorly studied until recently. Aims: Our aim was to produce a near-infrared survey that is deep enough to detect the full low-mass stellar population (i.e. down to ≈0.1 M⊙ and for extinctions up to AV ≈ 15 mag) and wide enough to cover all important parts of the Carina Nebula complex (CNC), including the clusters Tr 14, 15, and 16 as well as the South Pillars region. Methods: We used HAWK-I at the ESO VLT to survey the central ≈0.36 deg2 area of the Carina Nebula. These data reveal more than 600 000 individual infrared sources down to magnitudes as faint as J ≈ 23, H ≈ 22, and Ks ≈ 21. The results of a recent deep X-ray survey (which is complete down to stellar masses of ~0.5-1 M⊙) are used to distinguish between young stars in Carina and background contaminants. We analyze color - magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to derive information about the ages and masses of the low-mass stars. Results: The ages of the low-mass stars agree with previous age estimates for the massive stars. The CMD suggests that ≈3200 of the X-ray selected stars have masses of M∗ ≥ 1 M⊙; this number is in good agreement with extrapolations of the field IMF based on the number of high-mass (M∗ ≥ 20 M⊙) stars and shows that there is no deficit of low-mass stars in the CNC. The HAWK-I images confirm that about 50% of all young stars in Carina are in a widely distributed, non-clustered spatial configuration. Narrow-band images reveal six molecular hydrogen emission objects (MHOs) that trace jets from embedded protostars. However, none of the optical HH objects shows molecular hydrogen emission, suggesting that the jet-driving protostars are located very close to the edges of the globules in which they are embedded. Conclusions: The near-infrared excess fractions for the

  14. MID-INFRARED SIZE SURVEY OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS: DESCRIPTION OF KECK SEGMENT-TILTING EXPERIMENT AND BASIC RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Monnier, J. D.; Tannirkulam, A.; Tuthill, P. G.; Ireland, M.; Cohen, R.; Perrin, M. D.

    2009-07-20

    The mid-infrared properties of pre-planetary disks are sensitive to the temperature and flaring profiles of disks for the regions where planet formation is expected to occur. In order to constrain theories of planet formation, we have carried out a mid-infrared ({lambda} = 10.7 {mu}m) size survey of young stellar objects using the segmented Keck telescope in a novel configuration. We introduced a customized pattern of tilts to individual mirror segments to allow efficient sparse-aperture interferometry, allowing full aperture synthesis imaging with higher calibration precision than traditional imaging. In contrast to previous surveys on smaller telescopes and with poorer calibration precision, we find that most objects in our sample are partially resolved. Here, we present the main observational results of our survey of five embedded massive protostars, 25 Herbig Ae/Be stars, 3 T Tauri stars, 1 FU Ori system, and five emission-line objects of uncertain classification. The observed mid-infrared sizes do not obey the size-luminosity relation found at near-infrared wavelengths and a companion paper will provide further modeling analysis of this sample. In addition, we report imaging results for a few of the most resolved objects, including complex emission around embedded massive protostars, the photoevaporating circumbinary disk around MWC 361A, and the subarcsecond binaries T Tau, FU Ori, and MWC 1080.

  15. New M, L, and T Dwarf Companions to Nearby Stars from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Mace, Gregory N.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Young, Michael D.; Terrien, Ryan C.; McLean, Ian S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Rhode, Katherine L.

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar. Based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, 2MASS, the W.M. Keck Observatory, the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, the WIYN Observatory at Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope.

  16. The Cornell Mid-Infrared Asteroid Spectroscopy (MIDAS) Survey: Results from 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, L. F.; Bell, J. F.; McConnochie, T. H.; Clark, B. E.; Hayward, T. L.

    2002-09-01

    The minerals thought to be major constituents of asteroid surfaces exhibit diagnostic emissivity features in the thermal infrared. Here we report new results from the Cornell Mid-IR Asteroid Spectroscopy (MIDAS) survey, a long-term program of ground-based observations designed to characterize the 8-14 micron spectral properties of a statistically significant sample of asteroids from a wide variety of visible to near-IR spectral classes. MIDAS is conducted at Palomar Observatory using the Spectrocam-10 (SC-10) spectrograph on the 200-inch Hale telescope. We have measured spectra of varying quality for sixteen asteroids to date: 2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 10 Hygiea, 11 Parthenope, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 24 Themis, 40 Harmonia, 54 Alexandra, 89 Julia, 95 Arethusa, 145 Adeona, 498 Tokio, and 704 Interamnia. We derive temperature estimates from our data that are consistent with the predictions of the standard thermal model, and we use the derived temperatures to generate estimated emissivity spectra for our objects. In no case yet do we find emissivity features with spectral contrast greater than 5%, although a few of our spectra suggest emissivity variations at the 2-3% level. Published spectra of the small number of asteroids studied by ISO (4 of which are also included in our survey), which appear to exhibit much stronger emissivity features, are difficult to reconcile with our measurements. Laboratory work on mineral and meteorite samples has shown that the contrast of mid-IR spectral features is greatly reduced at fine grain sizes. Moreover, the NEAR mission found that 433 Eros is covered by a relatively thick fine-grained regolith. If small bodies in general possess such regoliths, their mid-IR spectral features may be quite subtle, and may explain the apparent lack of strong emissivity variations in the MIDAS results so far.

  17. A WIDE-FIELD SURVEY OF THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect

    Robberto, M.; Soderblom, D. R.; Scandariato, G.; Smith, K.; Da Rio, N.; Pagano, I.; Spezzi, L. E-mail: drs@stsci.edu E-mail: smith@mpia-hd.mpg.de E-mail: ipa@oact.inaf.it

    2010-03-15

    We present J, H, and K {sub S} photometry of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) obtained at the CTIO/Blanco 4 m telescope at Cerro Tololo with the Infrared Side Port Imager camera. From the observations we have assembled a catalog of about {approx}7800 sources distributed over an area of approximately 30' x 40', the largest of any survey deeper than the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in this region. The catalog provides absolute coordinates accurate to about 0.15 arcsec and 3{sigma} photometry in the 2MASS system, enough to detect planetary size objects 1 Myr old under A{sub V} {approx_equal} 10 mag of extinction at the distance of the Orion Nebula. We present a preliminary analysis of the catalog, done by comparing the (J-H, H-K {sub S} ) color-color diagram, the (H, J-H) and (K {sub S} , H-K {sub S} ) color-magnitude diagrams, and the J H K {sub S} luminosity functions (LFs) of three regions at an increasing projected distance from the Trapezium. Sources in the inner region typically show IR colors compatible with reddened T Tauri stars, whereas the outer fields are dominated by field stars seen through an amount of extinction which decreases with the distance from the center. The color-magnitude diagrams make it possible to clearly distinguish between the main ONC population, spread across the full field, and background sources. The LFs of the inner region, corrected for completeness, remain relatively flat in the substellar regime regardless of the strategy adopted to remove background contamination.

  18. Near-Infrared Surveys and the Potential of an Upgraded WFCAM on UKIRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Richard F.; Kerr, Tom; Varricatt, Watson; Bold, Matthew; Kendrick, Rick; Hodapp, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Near-infrared surveys provide the samples of faint objects essential for characterizing the assembly and evolution of galaxies, both at earliest cosmic times and near the peak of star formation and black hole activity. Near-IR broad and medium-band filter measurements are critical for accurate photometric redshifts and spectral energy distributions. The same areal coverage combined with time domain sampling reveals the variability properties of pre-main sequence stars in regions of active star formation, particularly in the presence of appreciable reddening. The possibility of deep, very wide-area K-band coverage creates the opportunity to trace the outer regions of the Galaxy and the Local Group. Targeting for James Webb Space Telescope will depend on accurate contemporaneous Near-IR astrometry. NASA's mission objectives for protecting working spacecraft from orbital debris are facilitated by near-IR characterization of debris, particularly for objects dark in the visible like solar panels.As one realization of advanced survey capability, we describe a proposed upgrade to the Wide-Field camera on the UKIRT 3.8-m. The powerful performance of an array of Teledyne Hawaii-4RG detectors combined with a new corrector and filters promise a Northern Hemisphere capability matched to the next generation of science requirements. Anticipated improvements include (nearly) contiguous detectors (alleviating the need for a large-step dither pattern), higher DQE, and no restriction on field because of guide stars. We would be assured of better wide-area astrometry and sensitivity compared to the generation of devices used for UKIDSS and HEMISPHERE.

  19. Payette National Forest aerial survey project using the Kodak digital color infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1997-11-01

    Staff of the Payette National Forest located in central Idaho used the Kodak Digital Infrared Camera to collect digital photographic images over a wide variety of selected areas. The objective of this aerial survey project is to collect airborne digital camera imagery and to evaluate it for potential use in forest assessment and management. The data collected from this remote sensing system is being compared with existing resource information and with personal knowledge of the areas surveyed. Resource specialists are evaluating the imagery to determine if it may be useful for; identifying cultural sites (pre-European settlement tribal villages and camps); recognizing ecosystem landscape pattern; mapping recreation areas; evaluating the South Fork Salmon River road reconstruction project; designing the Elk Summit Road; assessing the impact of sediment on anadramous fish in the South Fork Salmon River; assessing any contribution of sediment to the South Fork from the reconstructed road; determining post-wildfire stress development in conifer timber; in assessing the development of insect populations in areas initially determined to be within low intensity wildfire burn polygons; and to search for Idaho Ground Squirrel habitat. Project sites include approximately 60 linear miles of the South Fork of the Salmon River; a parallel road over about half that distance; 3 archaeological sites; two transects of about 6 miles each for landscape patterns; 3 recreation areas; 5 miles of the Payette River; 4 miles of the Elk Summit Road; a pair of transects 4.5 miles long for stress assessment in timber; a triplet of transects about 3 miles long for the assessment of the identification of species; and an area of about 640 acres to evaluate habitat for the endangered Idaho Ground Squirrel. Preliminary results indicate that the imagery is an economically viable way to collect site specific resource information that is of value in the management of a national forest.

  20. The First Ultra-cool Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Skrutskie, M.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; Beaton, R.; Dietrich, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Garnavich, P.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.; Marsh, K.; McLean, I.; Padgett, D.; Rueff, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 μm spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~36 at 4.6 μm. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  1. THE TAURUS SPITZER SURVEY: NEW CANDIDATE TAURUS MEMBERS SELECTED USING SENSITIVE MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; McCabe, C.-E.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Brooke, T.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Angione, J. R.; Huard, T.; Terebey, S.; Audard, M.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Monin, J.-L.; Menard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Guedel, M.; Knapp, G. R.; Allen, L. E.

    2010-02-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in seven mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our {approx}44 deg{sup 2} map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that {approx}20% of the bona fide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 new candidate members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, three probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15%-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, seven are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candidate objects await additional analysis and/or data to be confirmed or rejected as Taurus members. Most of the new members are Class II M stars and are located along the same cloud filaments as the previously identified Taurus members. Among non-members with Spitzer colors similar to young, dusty stars are evolved Be stars, planetary nebulae, carbon stars, galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.

  2. DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE PIPE NEBULA. II. DATA, METHODS, AND DUST EXTINCTION MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco

    2010-12-20

    We present a new set of high-resolution dust extinction maps of the nearby and essentially starless Pipe Nebula molecular cloud. The maps were constructed from a concerted deep near-infrared imaging survey with the ESO-VLT, ESO-NTT, CAHA 3.5 m telescopes, and 2MASS data. The new maps have a resolution three times higher than the previous extinction map of this cloud by Lombardi et al. and are able to resolve structures down to 2600 AU. We detect 244 significant extinction peaks across the cloud. These peaks have masses between 0.1 and 18.4 M{sub sun}, diameters between 1.2 and 5.7 x 10{sup 4} AU (0.06 and 0.28 pc), and mean densities of about 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, all in good agreement with previous results. From the analysis of the mean surface density of companions we find a well-defined scale near 1.4 x 10{sup 4} AU below which we detect a significant decrease in structure of the cloud. This scale is smaller than the Jeans length calculated from the mean density of the peaks. The surface density of peaks is not uniform but instead it displays clustering. Extinction peaks in the Pipe Nebula appear to have a spatial distribution similar to the stars in Taurus, suggesting that the spatial distribution of stars evolves directly from the primordial spatial distribution of high-density material.

  3. Infra-Red Characteristics of Faint Galactic Carbon Stars from the First Byurakan Spectral Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostandyan, G. R.; Gigoyan, K. S.

    2017-07-01

    Infra-Red (IR) astronomical databases, namely, IRAS, 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer, are used to analyze photometric data of 126 carbon (C) stars whose spectra are visible in the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) (Markarian et al. 1989) low-resolution (lr) spectral plates. In this work several IR color-color diagrams are studied. Early and late-type C stars are separated in the JHK Near-Infra-Red (NIR) color-color plots, as well as in the WISE W3-W4 versus W1-W2 diagram. Late N-type Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are redder in W1-W2, while early-types (CH and R giants) are redder in W3-W4 as expected. Objects with W2-W3 > 1.0m show double-peaked spectral energy distribution (SED), indicating the existence of the circumstellar envelopes around them. 26 N-type stars have IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC) associations. The reddest object among the targets is N-type C star FBS 2213+421, which belong to the group of the cold post-AGB R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) variables (Rossi et al. 2016).

  4. 2D Emission Line Galaxies in the Faint Infrared Galaxy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Ryan, Russell E.; Rothberg, Barry; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Finkelstein, Steven; Grogin, Norman A.

    2015-08-01

    The Faint Infrared Galaxy Survey (FIGS) provides us with a unique opportunity to identify emission line galaxies. Emission lines such as [OII], [OIII], Hα and Lya lines can be identified in the FIGS slitless spectroscopic observations down to faint line fluxes of a few times 10-17 erg/s/cm2. Crucially, the use of multiple observations, taken at different position angles on the sky allows us to accurately determine the location of these star forming regions within individual galaxies using the Emission Line 2D (EM2D) method. Our ability to detect high equivalent width lines independently of any host galaxies allows us to search for naked emission line objects. Combining this method with the wavelength coverage of the G102 grism, we are able to identify emission line objects using [OII] and [OIII], and Hα over 0.2 < z < 2 and using Lyman alpha from 6 < z < 8. Here, we present the first results on star forming galaxies selected using this method and demonstrate the wealth of data to be expected from the FIGS project.

  5. THE FIRST ULTRA-COOL BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Skrutskie, M.; Beaton, R.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; McLean, I.; Dietrich, M.; Garnavich, P.; Rueff, K.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 {mu}m spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}36 at 4.6 {mu}m. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  6. UNIVERSALITY OF THE NEAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW BASED ON THE APOGEE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B. W. E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-06-10

    Whether the near-infrared (NIR) extinction law is universal has long been a debated topic. Based on the APOGEE H-band spectroscopic survey, a key project of SDSS-III, the intrinsic colors of a large number of giant stars are accurately determined from the stellar effective temperature. Taking advantage of this and using a sample of 5942 K-type giants, the NIR extinction law is carefully revisited. The color excess ratio E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), representative of the NIR extinction law, shows no dependence on the color excess when E(J – K {sub S}) changes from ∼0.3 to ∼4.0, which implies a universal NIR extinction law from diffuse to dense regions. The constant value of E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), 0.64, corresponds to a power law index of 1.95. The other two ratios, E(H – K {sub S})/E(J – K {sub S}) and E(J – H)/E(H – K {sub S}), are 0.36 and 1.78, respectively. The results are consistent with the MRN dust size distribution.

  7. S-CANDELS: The Spitzer-Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Survey. Survey Design, Photometry, and Deep IRAC Source Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Dunlop, J. S.; Egami, E.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Grogin, N. A.; Hora, J. L.; Huang, J.-S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Labbé, I.; Wang, Z.

    2015-06-01

    The Spitzer-Cosmic Assembly Deep Near-infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (S-CANDELS; PI G.Fazio) is a Cycle 8 Exploration Program designed to detect galaxies at very high redshifts (z\\gt 5). To mitigate the effects of cosmic variance and also to take advantage of deep coextensive coverage in multiple bands by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Multi-cycle Treasury Program CANDELS, S-CANDELS was carried out within five widely separated extragalactic fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the HST Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. S-CANDELS builds upon the existing coverage of these fields from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS), a Cycle 6 Exploration Program, by increasing the integration time from SEDS’ 12 hr to a total of 50 hr but within a smaller area, 0.16 deg2. The additional depth significantly increases the survey completeness at faint magnitudes. This paper describes the S-CANDELS survey design, processing, and publicly available data products. We present Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) dual-band 3.6+4.5 μ {{m}} catalogs reaching to a depth of 26.5 AB mag. Deep IRAC counts for the roughly 135,000 galaxies detected by S-CANDELS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. The increase in depth beyond earlier Spitzer/IRAC surveys does not reveal a significant additional contribution from discrete sources to the diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB). Thus it remains true that only roughly half of the estimated CIB flux from COBE/DIRBE is resolved.

  8. Electric Vehicles--A Historical Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't realize that the history of electric vehicles (EVs) predates the Civil War. This article provides a historical snapshot of EVs to spark the interest of both teachers and students in this important transportation technology.

  9. Electric Vehicles--A Historical Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't realize that the history of electric vehicles (EVs) predates the Civil War. This article provides a historical snapshot of EVs to spark the interest of both teachers and students in this important transportation technology.

  10. SnapShot: antiviral restriction factors.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Silvia F; Sauter, Daniel; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2015-10-22

    Restriction factors are cellular proteins that inhibit viruses at different steps of their replication cycle and represent an important first line of defense against viral pathogens. This SnapShot provides an overview of cell-intrinsic antiviral factors, describes their properties, and illustrates the striking variety of antiviral mechanisms as well the sophisticated viral countermeasures. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Ground-Based Mid-Infrared Imaging Survey of Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the Rho Ophiuchi Cloud Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsony, M.; Ressler, M. E.; Marsh, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    Results of a comprehensive, new, ground-based mid-infrared imaging survey of the young stellar population of the ρ Ophiuchi cloud are presented. Data were acquired at the Palomar 5-m and at the Keck 10-m telescopes with the MIRLIN and LWS instruments, at 0.5'' and 0.25'' resolutions, respectively. Of 172 survey objects, 85 were detected. A plot of the frequency distribution of the detected objects with SED spectral slope shows that YSOs spend ˜ 3 × 105 yr in the Flat Spectrum phase, clearing out their remnant infall envelopes. Mid-infrared variability is found among a significant fraction of the surveyed objects and is found to occur for all SED classes with optically thick disks. Large amplitude near-infrared variability, also found for all SED classes with optically thick disks, seems to occur with somewhat higher frequency at the earlier evolutionary stages. The highly variable value of K-band veiling that a single source can exhibit in any of the SED classes in which active disk accretion can take place is striking, and is direct observational evidence for highly time-variable accretion activity in disks. Finallly, by comparing mid-infrared vs. near-infrared excesses in a subsample with well-determined effective temperatures and extinction values, disk clearing mechanisms are explored. Financial support for this project through NSF grants AST 00-96087 (CAREER), AST 97-53229 (POWRE), and AST 02-06146 is gratefully acknowledged. MB further thanks the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship program at JPL, that made this work possible.

  12. Galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - VII. The merger-luminous infrared galaxy connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Scudder, Jillian M.; Patton, David R.; Palmer, Michael J. D.

    2013-04-01

    We use a sample of 9397 low-redshift (z ≤ 0.1) galaxies with a close companion to investigate the connection between mergers and luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs). The pairs are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and have projected separations rp ≤ 80 h{^{- 1}_{70}} kpc, relative velocities ΔV ≤ 300 km s-1 and stellar mass ratios within a factor of 1:10. A control sample consisting of four galaxies per pair galaxy is constructed by simultaneously matching in stellar mass, redshift and environment to galaxies with no close companion. The IR luminosities (LIR) of galaxies in the pair and control samples are determined from the SDSS - Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) matched catalogue of Hwang et al. Over the redshift range of our pairs sample, the IRAS matches are complete to LIRG luminosities (LIR ≥ 1011 L⊙), allowing us to investigate the connection between mergers and luminous IR galaxies. We find a trend for increasing LIRG fraction towards smaller pair separations, peaking at a factor of ˜5-10 above the median control fraction at the smallest separations (rp < 20 h{^{- 1}_{70}} kpc), but remaining elevated by a factor ˜2-3 even out to 80 h{^{- 1}_{70}} kpc (the widest separations in our sample). LIRG pairs predominantly have high star formation rates (SFRs), high extinction and are found in relatively low-density environments, relative to the full pairs sample. We also find that LIRGs are most likely to be found in high-mass galaxies which have an approximately equal-mass companion. We confirm the results of previous studies that both the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction and merger fraction increase strongly as a function of IR luminosity. About 7 per cent of LIRGs are associated with major mergers, as defined within the criteria and mass completion of our sample. Finally, we quantify an SFR offset (ΔSFR) as the enhancement (or decrement) relative to star-forming galaxies of the same mass and redshift. We

  13. Discovery of three z > 6.5 quasars in the VISTA kilo-degree infrared galaxy (VIKING) survey

    SciTech Connect

    Venemans, B. P.; Findlay, J. R.; Sutherland, W. J.; De Rosa, G.; McMahon, R. G.; González-Solares, E. A.; Lewis, J. R.; Simcoe, R.; Kuijken, K.

    2013-12-10

    Studying quasars at the highest redshifts can constrain models of galaxy and black hole formation, and it also probes the intergalactic medium in the early universe. Optical surveys have to date discovered more than 60 quasars up to z ≅ 6.4, a limit set by the use of the z-band and CCD detectors. Only one z ≳ 6.4 quasar has been discovered, namely the z = 7.08 quasar ULAS J1120+0641, using near-infrared imaging. Here we report the discovery of three new z ≳ 6.4 quasars in 332 deg{sup 2} of the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy (VIKING) survey, thus extending the number from 1 to 4. The newly discovered quasars have redshifts of z = 6.60, 6.75, and 6.89. The absolute magnitudes are between –26.0 and –25.5, 0.6-1.1 mag fainter than ULAS J1120+0641. Near-infrared spectroscopy revealed the Mg II emission line in all three objects. The quasars are powered by black holes with masses of ∼(1-2) × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. In our probed redshift range of 6.44 < z < 7.44 we can set a lower limit on the space density of supermassive black holes of ρ(M {sub BH} > 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) > 1.1 × 10{sup –9} Mpc{sup –3}. The discovery of three quasars in our survey area is consistent with the z = 6 quasar luminosity function when extrapolated to z ∼ 7. We do not find evidence for a steeper decline in the space density of quasars with increasing redshift from z = 6 to z = 7.

  14. The establishment and use of the point source catalog database of the 2MASS near infrared survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y. F.; Shan, H. G.; Cheng, D.

    2003-02-01

    The 2MASS near infrared survey project is introduced briefly. The 2MASS point sources catalog (2MASS PSC) database and the network query system are established by using the PHP Hypertext Preprocessor and MySQL database server. By using the system, one can not only query information of sources listed in the catalog, but also draw the plots related. Moreover, after the 2MASS data are diagnosed , some research fields which can be benefited from this database are suggested.

  15. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  16. The Extended High A(V) Quasar Survey: Searching for Dusty Absorbers toward Mid-infrared-selected Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Heintz, K. E.; Geier, S.; Ledoux, C.; Møller, P.; Noterdaeme, P.; Venemans, B. P.; Vestergaard, M.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a new spectroscopic survey for dusty intervening absorption systems, particularly damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs), toward reddened quasars. The candidate quasars are selected from mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer combined with optical and near-infrared photometry. Out of 1073 candidates, we secure low-resolution spectra for 108 using the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, Spain. Based on the spectra, we are able to classify 100 of the 108 targets as quasars. A large fraction (50%) is observed to have broad absorption lines (BALs). Moreover, we find six quasars with strange breaks in their spectra, which are not consistent with regular dust reddening. Using template fitting, we infer the amount of reddening along each line of sight ranging from A(V) ≈ 0.1 to 1.2 mag (assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve). In four cases, the reddening is consistent with dust exhibiting the 2175 Å feature caused by an intervening absorber, and for two of these, an Mg ii absorption system is observed at the best-fit absorption redshift. In the rest of the cases, the reddening is most likely intrinsic to the quasar. We observe no evidence for dusty DLAs in this survey. However, the large fraction of BAL quasars hampers the detection of absorption systems. Out of the 50 non-BAL quasars, only 28 have sufficiently high redshift to detect Lyα in absorption.

  17. THE SPITZER MID-INFRARED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SURVEY. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF OBSCURED CANDIDATES AND NORMAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SELECTED IN THE MID-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, M.; Ridgway, S. E.; Gates, E. L.; Petric, A. O.; Sajina, A.; Urrutia, T.; Cox Drews, S.; Harrison, C.; Seymour, N.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGNs closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} to highly luminous quasars (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}), all with redshifts ranging from 0 to 4.3. Samples of candidate AGNs were selected with mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 μm flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGNs and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type 1 AGNs with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type 2 objects with extinctions A{sub V} ∼> 5 toward their AGNs, 96 (14%) are AGNs with lower extinctions (A{sub V} ∼ 1), and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. Of the survey objects 50% have L {sub bol} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}, in the quasar regime. We present composite spectra for type 2 quasars and objects with no signs of AGN activity in their spectra. We also discuss the mid-infrared—emission-line luminosity correlation and present the results of cross correlations with serendipitous X-ray and radio sources. The results show that: (1) obscured objects dominate the overall AGN population, (2) mid-infrared selected AGN candidates exist which lack AGN signatures in their optical spectra but have AGN-like X-ray or radio counterparts, and (3) X-ray and optical classifications of obscured and unobscured AGNs often differ.

  18. Long Hole Film Cooling Dataset for CFD Development . Part 1; Infrared Thermography and Thermocouple Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Phillip; Ameri, Ali; Eichele, Peter; Knight, James

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigating flow and heat transfer of long (length to diameter ratio of 18) cylindrical film cooling holes has been completed. In this paper, the thermal field in the flow and on the surface of the film cooled flat plate is presented for nominal freestream turbulence intensities of 1.5 and 8 percent. The holes are inclined at 30deg above the downstream direction, injecting chilled air of density ratio 1.0 onto the surface of a flat plate. The diameter of the hole is 0.75 in. (0.01905 m) with center to center spacing (pitch) of 3 hole diameters. Coolant was injected into the mainstream flow at nominal blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. The Reynolds number of the freestream was approximately 11,000 based on hole diameter. Thermocouple surveys were used to characterize the thermal field. Infrared thermography was used to determine the adiabatic film effectiveness on the plate. Hotwire anemometry was used to provide flowfield physics and turbulence measurements. The results are compared to existing data in the literature. The aim of this work is to produce a benchmark dataset for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) development to eliminate the effects of hole length to diameter ratio and to improve resolution in the near-hole region. In this report, a Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS), also known as Partially Resolved Navier Stokes (PRNS), method that was implemented in the Glenn-HT code is used to model coolant-mainstream interaction. This method is a high fidelity unsteady method that aims to represent large scale flow features and mixing more accurately.

  19. Widening of Protostellar Outflows: An Infrared Outflow Survey in Low-luminosity Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    We present an outflow survey toward 20 low-luminosity objects (LLOs), namely, protostars with an internal luminosity lower than 0.2 {L}⊙ . Although a number of studies have reported the properties of individual LLOs, the reasons for their low luminosity remain uncertain. To answer this question, we need to know the evolutionary status of LLOs. Protostellar outflows are found to widen as their parent cores evolve, and therefore the outflow opening angle could be used as an evolutionary indicator. The infrared scattered light escapes out through the outflow cavity and highlights the cavity wall, giving us the opportunity to measure the outflow opening angle. Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we detected outflows toward eight LLOs out of 20 at Ks band, and based on archival Spitzer IRAC1 images, we added four outflow-driving sources from the remaining 12 sources. By fitting these images with radiative transfer models, we derive the outflow opening angles and inclination angles. To study the widening of outflow cavities, we compare our sample with the young stellar objects from Arce & Sargent and Velusamy et al. in a plot of opening angle versus bolometric temperature taken as an evolutionary indicator. Our LLO targets match well the trend of increasing opening angle with bolometric temperature reported by Arce & Sargent and are broadly consistent with that reported by Velusamy et al., suggesting that the opening angle could be a good evolutionary indicator for LLOs. Accordingly, we conclude that at least 40% of the outflow-driving LLOs in our sample are young Class 0 objects.

  20. The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: Constraining Protostellar Models with Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Elise; HOPS Team

    2013-01-01

    During the protostellar stage of star formation, a young star is surrounded by a large infalling envelope of dust and gas; the material falls onto a circumstellar disk and is eventually accreted by the central star. The dust in the disk and envelope emits prominently at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths; at 10 micron, absorption by small silicate grains causes a broad absorption feature. By modeling the near- to far-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of protostars, properties of their disks and envelopes can be derived; in particular, mid-IR spectroscopy reveals the detailed emission around the silicate absorption feature and thus provides additional constraints for the models. Here we present results from modeling a sample of protostars in the Orion star-forming region that were observed as part of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). These protostars represent a subsample of HOPS; they have Spitzer/IRS spectra, which cover the mid-IR SED from 5 to 35 micron, and photometry in the near-IR (2MASS), mid-IR (Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS), and far-IR (Herschel/PACS). We show the importance of adding Spitzer/IRS spectra with appropriate weights in determining the best fit to the SED from a large grid of protostellar models. The 10 micron silicate absorption feature and the mid- to far-IR SED slope provide key constraints for the inclination angle of the object and its envelope density, with a deep absorption feature and steep SED slope for the most embedded and highly inclined objects. We show a few examples that illustrate our SED fitting method and present preliminary results from our fits.

  1. THERMAL MODEL CALIBRATION FOR MINOR PLANETS OBSERVED WITH WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER/NEOWISE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Ressler, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Wright, E.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Cohen, M.

    2011-08-01

    With the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we have observed over 157,000 minor planets. Included in these are a number of near-Earth objects, main-belt asteroids, and irregular satellites which have well measured physical properties (via radar studies and in situ imaging) such as diameters. We have used these objects to validate models of thermal emission and reflected sunlight using the WISE measurements, as well as the color corrections derived in Wright et al. for the four WISE bandpasses as a function of effective temperature. We have used 50 objects with diameters measured by radar or in situ imaging to characterize the systematic errors implicit in using the WISE data with a faceted spherical near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) to compute diameters and albedos. By using the previously measured diameters and H magnitudes with a spherical NEATM model, we compute the predicted fluxes (after applying the color corrections given in Wright et al.) in each of the four WISE bands and compare them to the measured magnitudes. We find minimum systematic flux errors of 5%-10%, and hence minimum relative diameter and albedo errors of {approx}10% and {approx}20%, respectively. Additionally, visible albedos for the objects are computed and compared to the albedos at 3.4 {mu}m and 4.6 {mu}m, which contain a combination of reflected sunlight and thermal emission for most minor planets observed by WISE. Finally, we derive a linear relationship between subsolar temperature and effective temperature, which allows the color corrections given in Wright et al. to be used for minor planets by computing only subsolar temperature instead of a faceted thermophysical model. The thermal models derived in this paper are not intended to supplant previous measurements made using radar or spacecraft imaging; rather, we have used them to characterize the errors that should be expected when computing diameters and albedos of minor planets observed by WISE using a spherical

  2. THE SPITZER INTERACTING GALAXIES SURVEY: A MID-INFRARED ATLAS OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brassington, N. J.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Lanz, L.; Smith, Howard A.; Willner, S. P.; Klein, C.

    2015-05-15

    The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey is a sample of 103 nearby galaxies in 48 systems, selected using association likelihoods and therefore free from disturbed morphology biases. All galaxies have been observed with Infrared Array Camera and MIPS 24 μm bands from the Spitzer Space Telescope. This catalog presents the global flux densities and colors of all systems and correlations between the interacting systems and their specific star formation rate (sSFR). This sample contains a wide variety of galaxy interactions with systems ranging in mass, mass ratios, and gas-content as well as interaction strength. This study seeks to identify the process of triggering star formation in galaxy interactions, therefore, we focus on the non-active galactic nucleus spiral galaxies only. From this subset of 70 spiral galaxies we have determined that this sample has enhanced sSFR compared to a sample of non-interacting field galaxies. Through optical data we have classified each system by “interaction strength”; the strongly interacting (Stage 4) galaxies have higher sSFR values than the weakly (Stage 2) and moderately (Stage 3) interacting systems. However, the Stage 2 and 3 systems have statistically identical sSFR properties, despite the lack of optical interaction signatures exhibited by the Stage 2 galaxies. We suggest that the similarity of sSFR in these stages could be a consequence of some of these Stage 2 systems actually being post-perigalactic and having had sufficient time for their tidal features to fade to undetectable levels. This interpretation is consistent with the correlation of sSFR with separation, which we have determined to have little variation up to 100 kpc.

  3. The VISTA Carina Nebula Survey. II. Spatial distribution of the infrared-excess-selected young stellar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, P.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Roccatagliata, V.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a deep wide-field (6.76 sq. deg) near-infrared survey with the VISTA telescope that covers the entire extent of the Carina nebula complex (CNC). The point-source catalog created from these data contains around four million individual objects down to masses of 0.1 M⊙. We present a statistical study of the large-scale spatial distribution and an investigation of the clustering properties of infrared-excesses objects, which are used to trace disk-bearing young stellar objects (YSOs). A selection based on a near-infrared (J-H) versus (H-Ks) color-color diagram shows an almost uniform distribution over the entire observed area. We interpret this as a result of the very high degree of background contamination that arises from the Carina Nebula's location close to the Galactic plane. Complementing the VISTA near-infrared catalog with Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry improves the situation of the background contamination considerably. We find that a (J-H) versus (Ks- [4.5]) color-color diagram is well suited to tracing the population of YSO-candidates (cYSOs) by their infrared excess. We identify 8781 sources with strong infrared excess, which we consider as cYSOs. This sample is used to investigate the spatial distribution of the cYSOs with a nearest-neighbor analysis. The surface density distribution of cYSOs agrees well with the shape of the clouds as seen in our Herschel far-infrared survey. The strong decline in the surface density of excess sources outside the area of the clouds supports the hypothesis that our excess-selected sample consists predominantly of cYSOs with a low level of background contamination. This analysis allows us to identify 14 groups of cYSOs outside the central area.Our results suggest that the total population of cYSOs in the CNC comprises about 164 000 objects, with a substantial fraction (~35%) located in the northern, still not well studied parts. Our cluster analysis suggests that roughly half of the cYSOs constitute a

  4. An ISO far-infrared survey of line and continuum emission for 227 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauher, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared line and continuum fluxes are presented for a sample of 227 galaxies observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory, selected from the ISO Data Archive and having an IRAS 60/100 mu m color ration of 0.2-1.4 and IRAS 60 mu m flux density between 0.1 Jy and 1300 Jy.

  5. An ISO far-infrared survey of line and continuum emission for 227 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauher, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared line and continuum fluxes are presented for a sample of 227 galaxies observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory, selected from the ISO Data Archive and having an IRAS 60/100 mu m color ration of 0.2-1.4 and IRAS 60 mu m flux density between 0.1 Jy and 1300 Jy.

  6. Ten Cities, 1997-1998: A Snapshot of Family Homelessness across America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.

    In 1997, the Institute for Children and Poverty of Homes for the Homeless joined with more than 58 organizations from 10 cities across the country to develop a national snapshot of family homelessness in the United States. Nearly 800 families were surveyed. This report presents the results of this research. The typical homeless family in the…

  7. HIGH RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE PIPE NEBULA. I. A DEEP INFRARED EXTINCTION MAP OF BARNARD 59

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Alves, Joao F.; Lada, Charles J.

    2009-10-10

    We present our analysis of a fully sampled, high resolution dust extinction map of the Barnard 59 complex in the Pipe Nebula. The map was constructed with the infrared color excess technique applied to a photometric catalog that combines data from both ground and space based observations. The map resolves for the first time the high density center of the main core in the complex, which is associated with the formation of a small cluster of stars. We found that the central core in Barnard 59 shows an unexpected lack of significant substructure consisting of only two significant fragments. Overall, the material appears to be consistent with being a single, large core with a density profile that can be well fit by a King model. A series of NH{sub 3} pointed observations toward the high column density center of the core appear to show that the core is still thermally dominated, with subsonic non-thermal motions. The stars in the cluster could be providing feedback to support the core against collapse, but the relatively narrow radio lines suggest that an additional source of support, for example, a magnetic field, may be required to stabilize the core. Outside the central core our observations reveal the structure of peripheral cores and resolve an extended filament into a handful of significant substructures whose spacing and masses appear to be consistent with Jeans fragmentation.

  8. Photogeologic and thermal infrared reconnaissance surveys of the Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal area, Michoacan, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, Valle R.; Friedman, J.D.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Banwell, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    New techniques, involving interpretation of panchromatic, ektachrome and ektachrome infrared aerographic photogaphs and thermographic infrared imagery recording emission from the earth's surface in middle and far infrared wavelengths (3-5??m and 8-14??m), are being introduced in geothermal investigations in Mexico to identify outstanding structural and geologic features in a rapid and economical manner. The object of this work is to evaluate the new airborne infrared techniques and equipment as a complement to the data obtained from panchromatic aerial photography. This project is part of the Mexican remote sensing program of natural resources carried out under the auspices of the Comision Nacional del Espacio Exterior and in which the Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica) is actively participating. The present study was made cooperatively with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal fields are located east of Lake Chapala at the intersection of the Sierra Madre occidental and the west-central segment of the neovolcanic axis of Mexico. The two principal zones of hydrothermal activity occur in a tectonic trench filled with lake sediments of the Quaternary intercalated with Quaternary and Holocene volcanic rocks and characterized by an intricate system of block-fault tectonics, part of the Chapala-Acambay tectonic system, along which there has been volcanic activity in modern time. Surface manifestations of geothermal activity consist of relatively high heat flow and hot springs, small geysers and small steam vents aligned along an E-W axis at Ixtlan, possibly at the intersection of major fault trends and mud volcanoes and hot pools aligned NE-SW at Los Negritos. More than 20 exit points of thermal waters are shown on infrared imagery to be aligned along an extension of the Ixtlan fault between Ixtlan and El Salitre. A narrow zone of

  9. Temperature, Pressure, and Infrared Image Survey of an Axisymmetric Heated Exhaust Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Edward L.; Mahan, J. Robert; Birckelbaw, Larry D.; Turk, Jeffrey A.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Hange, Craig E.

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research is to numerically predict an infrared image of a jet engine exhaust plume, given field variables such as temperature, pressure, and exhaust plume constituents as a function of spatial position within the plume, and to compare this predicted image directly with measured data. This work is motivated by the need to validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes through infrared imaging. The technique of reducing the three-dimensional field variable domain to a two-dimensional infrared image invokes the use of an inverse Monte Carlo ray trace algorithm and an infrared band model for exhaust gases. This report describes an experiment in which the above-mentioned field variables were carefully measured. Results from this experiment, namely tables of measured temperature and pressure data, as well as measured infrared images, are given. The inverse Monte Carlo ray trace technique is described. Finally, experimentally obtained infrared images are directly compared to infrared images predicted from the measured field variables.

  10. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. V. Period–Luminosity Relations of Miras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas M.; He, Shiyuan; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong

    2017-10-01

    We study the near-infrared properties of 690 Mira candidates in the central region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on time-series observations at JHK s . We use densely sampled I-band observations from the OGLE project to generate template light curves in the near-infrared and derive robust mean magnitudes at those wavelengths. We obtain near-infrared Period–Luminosity relations for oxygen-rich Miras with a scatter as low as 0.12 mag at K s . We study the Period–Luminosity–Color relations and the color excesses of carbon-rich Miras, which show evidence for a substantially different reddening law.

  11. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Maio, Rosa; Meola, Carosena; Fedi, Maurizio; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2010-05-01

    An integration of high-resolution non-destructive techniques is presented for the inspection and evaluation of ancient architectonic structures. Infrared thermography (IRT) represents a valuable tool for nondestructive evaluation of architectonic structures and artworks because it is capable of giving indications about most of the degradation sources of artworks and buildings of both historical interest and civil use. In particular, it is possible to detect cracks, disbondings, alteration of material consistency, etc. Indeed, by choosing the most adequate thermographic technique, it is possible to monitor the conservation state of artworks in time and to detect the presence of many types of defects (e.g., voids, cracks, disbondings, etc.) in different types of materials (e.g., concrete, masonry structures, bronze, etc.). The main advantages of infrared thermography when dealing with precious artworks may be summarized with three words: non-contact, non-invasive, and two-dimensionality. It is possible to inspect either a large surface such as the facade of a palace, or a very small surface of only few square millimetres. Conversely, the inspection depth is quite small; generally, of the order of centimetres. However, as demonstrated in previous work, IRT well matches with electric-and electromagnetic-type geophysical methods to characterize the overlapping zone from low-to-high depth in masonry structures. In particular, the use of high-frequency electromagnetic techniques, such as the ground penetrating radar (GPR), permits to reach investigation depths of some ten of centimetres by choosing appropriate frequencies of the transmitted electromagnetic signal. In the last decade a large utilisation of the GPR methodology to non-destructive analysis of engineering and architectural materials and structures has been experienced. This includes diverse features, such as definition of layer thickness, characterisation of different constructive materials, identification of

  12. Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey: detection of a far-infrared population around galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, K. E. K.; Geach, J. E.; Smail, Ian; Dunne, L.; Edge, A. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, S.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Jarvis, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Murphy, D. N. A.; Negrello, M.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; van der Werf, P.

    2011-09-01

    We report the detection of a significant excess in the surface density of far-infrared sources from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey within ˜1 Mpc of the centres of 66 optically selected clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with ˜ 0.25. From the analysis of the multiwavelength properties of their counterparts we conclude that the far-infrared emission is associated with dust-obscured star formation and/or active galactic nuclei (AGN) within galaxies in the clusters themselves. The excess reaches a maximum at a radius of ˜0.8 Mpc, where we find 1.0 ± 0.3 S250 > 34 mJy sources on average per cluster above what would be expected for random field locations. If the far-infrared emission is dominated by star formation (as opposed to AGN) then this corresponds to an average star formation rate of ˜7 M⊙ yr-1 per cluster in sources with LIR > 5 × 1010 L⊙. Although lensed sources make a negligible contribution to the excess signal, a fraction of the sources around the clusters could be gravitationally lensed, and we have identified a sample of potential cases of cluster-lensed Herschel sources that could be targeted in follow-up studies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  13. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA REGION AS SELECTED FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A. E-mail: alberto@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: karl.r.stapelfeldt@nasa.gov

    2011-09-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg{sup 2}. The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a {approx}260 deg{sup 2} region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  14. VLT/X-Shooter survey of near-infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.; Cami, J.; Kaper, L.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; van Hooff, S. H. M.; Salama, F.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The unknown identity of the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) carriers poses one of the longest standing unresolved problems in astrophysics. While the presence, properties, and behaviour of hundreds of optical DIBs between 4000 Å and 9000 Å have been well established, information on DIBs in both the ultra-violet and near-infrared (NIR) ranges is limited. Aims: In this paper, we present a spectral survey of the NIR range, from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm. Our observations were designed to detect new DIBs, confirm previously proposed NIR DIBs, and characterise their behaviour with respect to known line-of-sight properties (including the optical DIBs present in our spectra). Methods: Using the X-Shooter instrument mounted on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) we obtained medium-resolution spectra of eight known DIB targets and one telluric reference star, from 3000 Å to 25 000 Å in one shot. Results: In addition to the known 9577, 9632, 10 780, 11 797, and 13 175 Å NIR DIBs, we confirm 9 out of the 13 NIR DIBs that were presented by Geballe et al. (2011, Nature, 479, 200). Furthermore, we report 11 new NIR DIB candidates. The strengths of the strongest NIR DIBs show a general correlation with reddening, E(B - V), but with a large scatter. Several NIR DIBs are more strongly correlated with the 5780 Å DIB strength than with E(B - V); this is especially the case for the 15 268 Å DIB. The NIR DIBs are strong: the summed equivalent widths of the five strongest NIR DIBs represent a small percent of the total equivalent width of the entire average DIB spectrum (per unit reddening). The NIR DIBs towards the translucent cloud HD 147889 are all weak with respect to the general trend. No direct match was found between observed NIR DIBs and laboratory matrix-isolation spectroscopic data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Conclusions: The strong correlation between the 5780-15 268 DIB pair implies that (Nf)5780/(Nf)15 268 = 14. However, the reduced strength of the

  15. Clustering Properties of Far-infrared Sources in the Herschel infrared GALactic Survey (Hi-Gal) Science Demonstration Phase Fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billot, Nicolas; Schisano, E.; Molinari, S.; Pestalozzi, M.; Hi-GAL Team

    2011-01-01

    While the study of star forming activity usually relies on fitting spectral energy distributions to probe the physical properties of forming stars, we explore an alternative method to complement this multi-wavelength strategy: we use a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) algorithm to characterize the spatial distribution of Galactic Far-IR sources and derive their clustering properties. We aim at revealing the spatial imprint of different types of star forming processes, e.g. isolated spontaneous fragmentation of dense molecular clouds, or events of triggered star formation around Hii regions, and evidence global properties of star formation in the Galaxy. We plan on exploiting the entire HiGAL survey of the inner Galactic plane (270 square degrees observed in 5 bands between 70 and 500 microns, P.I. Sergio Molinari) to gather significant statistics on the clustering properties of star forming regions, and to look for possible correlations with source properties such as mass, temperature or evolutionary stage. In this poster we present a pilot study of our project on two 2×2 square degrees fields centered at longitudes l=30 and 59 degrees obtained during the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) of the Herschel mission.

  16. CONSTRAINING THE EXOZODIACAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: COMPLETE RESULTS FROM THE KECK NULLER MID-INFRARED SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M.; Bryden, G.; Doré, O.; Traub, W.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Absil, O.; Wyatt, M.; Danchi, W.; Kuchner, M.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Defrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Ragland, S.; Scott, N.; Woillez, J.

    2014-12-20

    Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust. Observations of a subset of the sample have already been reported, focusing essentially on stars with no previously known dust. Here we extend this previous analysis to the whole KIN sample, including 22 more stars with known near- and/or far-infrared excesses. In addition to an analysis similar to that of the first paper of this series, which was restricted to the 8-9 μm spectral region, we present measurements obtained in all 10 spectral channels covering the 8-13 μm instrumental bandwidth. Based on the 8-9 μm data alone, which provide the highest signal-to-noise measurements, only one star shows a large excess imputable to dust emission (η Crv), while four more show a significant (>3σ) excess: β Leo, β UMa, ζ Lep, and γ Oph. Overall, excesses detected by KIN are more frequent around A-type stars than later spectral types. A statistical analysis of the measurements further indicates that stars with known far-infrared (λ ≥ 70 μm) excesses have higher exozodiacal emission levels than stars with no previous indication of a cold outer disk. This statistical trend is observed regardless of spectral type and points to a dynamical connection between the inner (zodi-like) and outer (Kuiper-Belt-like) dust populations. The measured levels for such stars are clustering close to the KIN detection limit of a few hundred zodis and are indeed consistent with those expected from a population of dust that migrated in from the outer belt by Poynting-Robertson drag. Conversely, no significant mid-infrared excess is found around sources with previously reported near-infrared resolved excesses, which typically have levels of the order of 1% over the photospheric flux. If dust emission is really at play in these near-infrared detections, the absence of a strong mid-infrared

  17. Constraining the Exozodiacal Luminosity Function of Main-sequence Stars: Complete Results from the Keck Nuller Mid-infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M.; Absil, O.; Bryden, G.; Wyatt, M.; Danchi, W.; Defrère, D.; Doré, O.; Hinz, P.; Kuchner, M.; Ragland, S.; Scott, N.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Traub, W.; Woillez, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust. Observations of a subset of the sample have already been reported, focusing essentially on stars with no previously known dust. Here we extend this previous analysis to the whole KIN sample, including 22 more stars with known near- and/or far-infrared excesses. In addition to an analysis similar to that of the first paper of this series, which was restricted to the 8-9 μm spectral region, we present measurements obtained in all 10 spectral channels covering the 8-13 μm instrumental bandwidth. Based on the 8-9 μm data alone, which provide the highest signal-to-noise measurements, only one star shows a large excess imputable to dust emission (η Crv), while four more show a significant (>3σ) excess: β Leo, β UMa, ζ Lep, and γ Oph. Overall, excesses detected by KIN are more frequent around A-type stars than later spectral types. A statistical analysis of the measurements further indicates that stars with known far-infrared (λ >= 70 μm) excesses have higher exozodiacal emission levels than stars with no previous indication of a cold outer disk. This statistical trend is observed regardless of spectral type and points to a dynamical connection between the inner (zodi-like) and outer (Kuiper-Belt-like) dust populations. The measured levels for such stars are clustering close to the KIN detection limit of a few hundred zodis and are indeed consistent with those expected from a population of dust that migrated in from the outer belt by Poynting-Robertson drag. Conversely, no significant mid-infrared excess is found around sources with previously reported near-infrared resolved excesses, which typically have levels of the order of 1% over the photospheric flux. If dust emission is really at play in these near-infrared detections, the absence of a strong mid-infrared

  18. Snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Kudenov, Michael; Kashani, Amir; Schwiegerling, Jim; Escuti, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Early diagnosis of glaucoma, which is a leading cause for visual impairment, is critical for successful treatment. It has been shown that Imaging polarimetry has advantages in early detection of structural changes in the retina. Here, we theoretically and experimentally present a snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter fundus camera, which has the potential to record the polarization-altering characteristics of retina with a single snapshot. It is made by incorporating polarization gratings into a fundus camera design. Complete Mueller Matrix data sets can be obtained by analyzing the polarization fringes projected onto the image plane. In this paper, we describe the experimental implementation of the snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SRIMMP), highlight issues related to calibration, and provide preliminary images acquired from the camera.

  19. Visible and near-infrared spectral survey of lunar meteorites recovered by the National Institute of Polar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, T.; Kaiden, H.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kojima, H.; Uemoto, K.; Ohtake, M.; Arai, T.; Sasaki, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lunar meteorite chip samples recovered by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) have been studied by a UV-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, targeting small areas of about 3 × 2 mm in size. Rock types and approximate mineral compositions of studied meteorites have been identified or obtained through this spectral survey with no sample preparation required. A linear deconvolution method was used to derive end-member mineral spectra from spectra of multiple clasts whenever possible. In addition, the modified Gaussian model was used in an attempt of deriving their major pyroxene compositions. This study demonstrates that a visible-near-infrared spectrometer on a lunar rover would be useful for identifying these kinds of unaltered (non-space-weathered) lunar rocks. In order to prepare for such a future mission, further studies which utilize a smaller spot size are desired for improving the accuracy of identifying the clasts and mineral phases of the rocks.

  20. A survey of infrared supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Seok, Ji Yeon; Koo, Bon-Chul; Onaka, Takashi

    2013-12-20

    We present a comprehensive infrared study of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using near- to mid-infrared images taken by Infrared Array Camera (IRAC; 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm) and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS; 24 and 70 μm) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. Among the 47 bona fide LMC SNRs, 29 were detected in infrared, giving a high detection rate of 62%. All 29 SNRs show emission at 24 μm, and 20 out of 29 show emission in one or several IRAC bands. We present their 4.5, 8, 24, and 70 μm images and a table summarizing their Spitzer fluxes. We find that the LMC SNRs are considerably fainter than the Galactic SNRs, and that, among the LMC SNRs, Type Ia SNRs are significantly fainter than core-collapse SNRs. We conclude that the MIPS emission of essentially all SNRs originates from dust emission, whereas their IRAC emissions originate from ionic/molecular lines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emission, or synchrotron emission. The infrared fluxes show correlation with radio and X-ray fluxes. For SNRs that have similar morphology in infrared and X-rays, the ratios of 24 to 70 μm fluxes have good correlation with the electron density of hot plasma. The overall correlation is explained well by the emission from collisionally heated silicate grains of 0.1 μm size, but for mature SNRs with relatively low gas temperatures, the smaller-sized grain population is favored more. For those that appear different between infrared and X-rays, the emission in the MIPS bands is probably from dust heated by shock radiation.

  1. The infrared luminosities of ˜332 000 SDSS galaxies predicted from artificial neural networks and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Teimoorinia, Hossein; Rosario, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The total infrared (IR) luminosity (LIR) can be used as a robust measure of a galaxy's star formation rate (SFR), even in the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), or when optical emission lines are weak. Unfortunately, existing all sky far-IR surveys, such as the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and AKARI, are relatively shallow and are biased towards the highest SFR galaxies and lowest redshifts. More sensitive surveys with the Herschel Space Observatory are limited to much smaller areas. In order to construct a large sample of LIR measurements for galaxies in the nearby Universe, we employ artificial neural networks (ANNs), using 1136 galaxies in the Herschel Stripe 82 sample as the training set. The networks are validated using two independent data sets (IRAS and AKARI) and demonstrated to predict the LIR with a scatter σ ˜ 0.23 dex, and with no systematic offset. Importantly, the ANN performs well for both star-forming galaxies and those with an AGN. A public catalogue is presented with our LIR predictions which can be used to determine SFRs for 331 926 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including ˜129 000 SFRs for AGN-dominated galaxies for which SDSS SFRs have large uncertainties.

  2. First discoveries of z ˜ 6 quasars with the Kilo-Degree Survey and VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, B. P.; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Mwebaze, J.; Valentijn, E. A.; Bañados, E.; Decarli, R.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Findlay, J. R.; Kuijken, K. H.; Barbera, F. La; McFarland, J. P.; McMahon, R. G.; Napolitano, N.; Sikkema, G.; Sutherland, W. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of our first year of quasar search in the ongoing ESO public Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) and VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy (VIKING) surveys. These surveys are among the deeper wide-field surveys that can be used to uncover large numbers of z ˜ 6 quasars. This allows us to probe a more common population of z ˜ 6 quasars that is fainter than the well-studied quasars from the main Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From this first set of combined survey catalogues covering ˜250 deg2 we selected point sources down to ZAB = 22 that had a very red i - Z (i - Z > 2.2) colour. After follow-up imaging and spectroscopy, we discovered four new quasars in the redshift range 5.8 < z < 6.0. The absolute magnitudes at a rest-frame wavelength of 1450 Å are between -26.6 < M1450 < -24.4, confirming that we can find quasars fainter than M*, which at z = 6 has been estimated to be between M* = -25.1 and M* = -27.6. The discovery of four quasars in 250 deg2 of survey data is consistent with predictions based on the z ˜ 6 quasar luminosity function. We discuss various ways to push the candidate selection to fainter magnitudes and we expect to find about 30 new quasars down to an absolute magnitude of M1450 = -24. Studying this homogeneously selected faint quasar population will be important to gain insight into the onset of the co-evolution of the black holes and their stellar hosts.

  3. Galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - IX. Merger-induced AGN activity as traced by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyapal, Shobita; Ellison, Sara L.; McAlpine, William; Hickox, Ryan C.; Patton, David R.; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between galaxies are predicted to cause gas inflows that can potentially trigger nuclear activity. Since the inflowing material can obscure the central regions of interacting galaxies, a potential limitation of previous optical studies is that obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be missed at various stages along the merger sequence. We present the first large mid-infrared study of AGNs in mergers and galaxy pairs, in order to quantify the incidence of obscured AGNs triggered by interactions. The sample consists of galaxy pairs and post-mergers drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that are matched to detections by the Wide-Field Infrared Sky Explorer. We find that the fraction of AGNs in the pairs, relative to a mass-, redshift- and environment-matched control sample, increases as a function of decreasing projected separation. This enhancement is most dramatic in the post-merger sample, where we find a factor of 10-20 excess in the AGN fraction compared with the control. Although this trend is in qualitative agreement with results based on optical AGN selection, the mid-infrared-selected AGN excess increases much more dramatically in the post-mergers than is seen for an optical AGN. Our results suggest that energetically dominant optically obscured AGNs become more prevalent in the most advanced mergers, consistent with theoretical predictions.

  4. Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Orbit Determination Accuracy for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sease, Bradley; Myers, Jessica; Lorah, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a 2.4-meter telescope planned for launch to the Sun-Earth L2 point in 2026. This paper details a preliminary study of the achievable accuracy for WFIRST from ground-based orbit determination routines. The analysis here is divided into two segments. First, a linear covariance analysis of early mission and routine operations provides an estimate of the tracking schedule required to meet mission requirements. Second, a simulated operations'' scenario gives insight into the expected behavior of a daily Extended Kalman Filter orbit estimate over the first mission year given a variety of potential momentum unloading schemes.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of Ground-based Orbit Determination Accuracy for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sease, Brad

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a 2.4-meter telescope planned for launch to the Sun-Earth L2 point in 2026. This paper details a preliminary study of the achievable accuracy for WFIRST from ground-based orbit determination routines. The analysis here is divided into two segments. First, a linear covariance analysis of early mission and routine operations provides an estimate of the tracking schedule required to meet mission requirements. Second, a simulated operations scenario gives insight into the expected behavior of a daily Extended Kalman Filter orbit estimate over the first mission year given a variety of potential momentum unloading schemes.

  6. A redshift survey of IRAS galaxies. VII - The infrared and redshift data for the 1.936 Jansky sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Michael A.; Huchra, John P.; Davis, Marc; Yahil, Amos; Fisher, Karl B.; Tonry, John

    1992-01-01

    We present the data for a redshift survey of galaxies selected from the database of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The sample is flux limited to 1.936 Jy at 60 microns and covers 11.01 sr of the sky. It consists of 5014 objects, of which 2658 are galaxies. The remaining 2356 sources are listed in a separate table with identifications. Redshift data are also given for 212 IRAS galaxies which are not part of the complete sample, but were measured in conjunction with this project.

  7. The optical, infrared and radio properties of extragalactic sources observed by SDSS, 2mass and first surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Ivezic et al.

    2002-10-08

    We positionally match sources observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey. Practically all 2MASS sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; {approx} 11% of them are optically resolved galaxies and the rest are dominated by stars. About 1/3 of FIRST sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; {approx} 80% of these are galaxies and the rest are dominated by quasars. Based on these results, we project that by the completion of these surveys the matched samples will include about 10{sup 7} and 10{sup 6} galaxies observed by both SDSS and 2MASS, and about 250,000 galaxies and 50,000 quasars observed by both SDSS and FIRST. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical, infrared and radio properties for the extragalactic sources from the matched samples. In particular, we find that the fraction of quasars with stellar colors missed by the SDSS spectroscopic survey is probably not larger than {approx} 10%, and that the optical colors of radio-loud quasars are {approx} 0.05 mag. redder (with 4{sigma} significance) than the colors of radio-quiet quasars.

  8. Structural and Functional Micro-Infrared Survey of Pristine Carbonaceous Chondrites Insoluble Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Quirico, E.; Beck, P.; Brissaud, O.; Schmitt, B.

    2010-03-01

    We present a mid-infrared study of C2 and C1 chondrites IOM. All have similar aliphatic structure at 50°C under 10-7 mbar. Oxidized functions are depleted in less altered chondrites. 300°C heating in ambient air turns aliphatic chains to esters.

  9. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Troffers

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-12-01

    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  10. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Light Bulbs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  11. A Snapshot of Philadelphia's Accelerated Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Kimberly; Fonseca, Ean

    2011-01-01

    This snapshot is a guide to the School District of Philadelphia's (the District's) 13 accelerated high schools in the 2010-11 school year. The accelerated high schools were the result of a partnership between the District and Project U-Turn, a city-wide coalition dedicated to reducing student drop-out and increasing graduation rates and readiness…

  12. Gender Equity in Education: A Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This data snapshot highlights several differences in educational opportunities between males and females from prekindergarten through higher education. The information herein, gathered from a variety of education data sources, shows that--despite the enormous progress made in ensuring equal educational opportunities since the passage of Title IX…

  13. SnapShot: chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Maria; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J; Calin, George A

    2014-11-10

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia among adults in western countries. This SnapShot depicts the origins and evolution of this B cell malignancy, describes prognostic factors and CLL animal models, and illustrates therapies in preclinical and clinical development against CLL.

  14. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Downlight - 2016

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-04-01

    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  15. Assessing Collection Availability: A Snapshot Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Topsy N.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the use of "snapshot inventories" to assess the availability of a library collection by measuring the presence/absence of a representative sample of library materials at a given moment. Explains the methods and results of an inventory conducted at Monterey Peninsula College in California. (DMM)

  16. Examining Social Acceptance & Rejection. FPG Snapshot #44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This FPG Snapshot summarizes the findings of a study, published in the November 2006 issue of the "Journal of Educational Psychology," that examined whether children with disabilities are accepted or rejected by their classmates in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, the study examined two sets of related questions: (1) Are individual…

  17. Snapshot Imaging Spectropolarimeter for the Long Wavelength Infrared

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    see the spectral features due to the filter. INCORPORATING CHANNELED SPECTROPOLARIMETERY To incorporate channeled spectropolarimetry into a...components across spectrum. When channeled spectropolarimetry in incorporated into a CTIS system, the imaging system is now able to determine... spectropolarimetry in the 8 to 12 micron region works. Using a combination of Computed Tomographic Imaging Spectrometry (CTIS) and channeled

  18. Examining the infrared variable star population discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the SAGE-SMC survey

    SciTech Connect

    Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Marengo, M.; Seale, J.; Sewiło, M.; Vijh, U. P.; Terrazas, M.; Meixner, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S{sup 3}MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 μm band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ∼2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

  19. A payload-centric integration and test approach on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fengchuan; Abid, Mohamed; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Irace, William R.; LaPointe, Jason; Larsen, Mark; Shannon, Mark; Taylor, Nicholas; Wright, Edward

    2010-08-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission was successfully launched on December 14, 2009. All spacecraft subsystems and the single instrument consisting of four imaging bands from 3.4 to 22 microns, a 40 cm afocal telescope, reimaging optics, and a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat have performed nominally on orbit, enabling the trouble-free survey of the entire infrared sky. Among the many factors that contributed to the WISE post-launch success is the thorough pre-launch system integration and test (I&T) approach tailored to the cryogenic payload. The simple and straightforward interfaces between the spacecraft and the payload allowed the payload to be fully tested prior to integration with the spacecraft. A payload high-fidelity thermal, mass and dynamic simulator allowed the spacecraft I&T to proceed independently through the system-level thermal vacuum test and random vibration test. A payload electrical simulator, a high-rate data processor and a science data ingest processor enabled very early end-to-end data flow and radio-frequency testing using engineering model payload electronics and spacecraft avionics, which allowed engineers to identify and fix developmental issues prior to building flight electronics. This paper describes in detail the WISE I&T approach, its benefits, challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  20. THE TAIWAN ECDFS NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY: VERY BRIGHT END OF THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z > 7

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Lin, Lihwai; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P.; Yan, Haojing; Karoji, Hiroshi; Tsai, Chao-Wei

    2012-04-10

    The primary goal of the Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS) is to find well-screened galaxy candidates at z > 7 (z' dropout) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS). To this end, TENIS provides relatively deep J and K{sub s} data ({approx}25.3 ABmag, 5{sigma}) for an area of 0.5 Multiplication-Sign 0.5 deg. Leveraged with existing data at mid-infrared to optical wavelengths, this allows us to screen for the most luminous high-z objects, which are rare and thus require a survey over a large field to be found. We introduce new color selection criteria to select a z > 7 sample with minimal contaminations from low-z galaxies and Galactic cool stars; to reduce confusion in the relatively low angular resolution Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images, we introduce a novel deconvolution method to measure the IRAC fluxes of individual sources. Illustrating perhaps the effectiveness at which we screen out interlopers, we find only one z > 7 candidate, TENIS-ZD1. The candidate has a weighted z{sub phot} of 7.8, and its colors and luminosity indicate a young (45M years old) starburst galaxy with a stellar mass of 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The result matches with the observational luminosity function analysis and the semianalytic simulation result based on the Millennium Simulations, which may over predict the volume density for high-z massive galaxies. The existence of TENIS-ZD1, if confirmed spectroscopically to be at z > 7, therefore poses a challenge to current theoretical models for how so much mass can accumulate in a galaxy at such a high redshift.

  1. The Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey: Very Bright End of the Luminosity Function at z > 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Yan, Haojing; Lin, Lihwai; Karoji, Hiroshi; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tsai, Chao-Wei

    2012-04-01

    The primary goal of the Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS) is to find well-screened galaxy candidates at z > 7 (z' dropout) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS). To this end, TENIS provides relatively deep J and Ks data (~25.3 ABmag, 5σ) for an area of 0.5 × 0.5 deg. Leveraged with existing data at mid-infrared to optical wavelengths, this allows us to screen for the most luminous high-z objects, which are rare and thus require a survey over a large field to be found. We introduce new color selection criteria to select a z > 7 sample with minimal contaminations from low-z galaxies and Galactic cool stars; to reduce confusion in the relatively low angular resolution Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images, we introduce a novel deconvolution method to measure the IRAC fluxes of individual sources. Illustrating perhaps the effectiveness at which we screen out interlopers, we find only one z > 7 candidate, TENIS-ZD1. The candidate has a weighted z phot of 7.8, and its colors and luminosity indicate a young (45M years old) starburst galaxy with a stellar mass of 3.2 × 1010 M ⊙. The result matches with the observational luminosity function analysis and the semianalytic simulation result based on the Millennium Simulations, which may over predict the volume density for high-z massive galaxies. The existence of TENIS-ZD1, if confirmed spectroscopically to be at z > 7, therefore poses a challenge to current theoretical models for how so much mass can accumulate in a galaxy at such a high redshift.

  2. Andromeda (M31) optical and infrared disk survey. I. Insights in wide-field near-IR surface photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; De Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent

    2014-05-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and K{sub s} images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ∼0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  3. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF T TAURI STARS IN TAURUS

    SciTech Connect

    Furlan, E.; Luhman, K. L.; Espaillat, C. E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu

    2011-07-01

    We present 161 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. All of the targets were selected based on their infrared excess and are therefore surrounded by protoplanetary disks; they form the complete sample of all available IRS spectra of T Tauri stars with infrared excesses in Taurus. We also present the IRS spectra of seven Class 0/I objects in Taurus to complete the sample of available IRS spectra of protostars in Taurus. We use spectral indices that are not significantly affected by extinction to distinguish between envelope- and disk-dominated objects. Together with data from the literature, we construct spectral energy distributions for all objects in our sample. With spectral indices derived from the IRS spectra we infer disk properties such as dust settling and the presence of inner disk holes and gaps. We find a transitional disk frequency, which is based on objects with unusually large 13-31 {mu}m spectral indices indicative of a wall surrounding an inner disk hole, of about 3%, and a frequency of about 20% for objects with unusually large 10 {mu}m features, which could indicate disk gaps. The shape and strength of the 10 {mu}m silicate emission feature suggests weaker 10 {mu}m emission and more processed dust for very low mass objects and brown dwarfs (spectral types M6-M9). These objects also display weaker infrared excess emission from their disks, but do not appear to have more settled disks than their higher-mass counterparts. We find no difference for the spectral indices and properties of the dust between single and multiple systems.

  4. Ground-based infrared surveys: imaging the thermal fields at volcanoes and revealing the controlling parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleo, Michele; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Temperature monitoring is a widespread procedure in the frame of volcano hazard monitoring. Indeed temperature changes are expected to reflect changes in volcanic activity. We propose a new approach, within the thermal monitoring, which is meant to shed light on the parameters controlling the fluid pathways and the fumarole sites by using infrared measurements. Ground-based infrared cameras allow one to remotely image the spatial distribution, geometric pattern and amplitude of fumarole fields on volcanoes at metre to centimetre resolution. Infrared mosaics and time series are generated and interpreted, by integrating geological field observations and modeling, to define the setting of the volcanic degassing system at shallow level. We present results for different volcano morphologies and show that lithology, structures and topography control the appearance of fumarole field by the creation of permeability contrasts. We also show that the relative importance of those parameters is site-dependent. Deciphering the setting of the degassing system is essential for hazard assessment studies because it would improve our understanding on how the system responds to endogenous or exogenous modification.

  5. A SPITZER SURVEY OF MID-INFRARED MOLECULAR EMISSION FROM PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. DETECTION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Meijerink, Rowin; Salyk, Colette; Carr, John S.; Najita, Joan

    2010-09-01

    We present a Spitzer InfraRed Spectrometer search for 10-36 {mu}m molecular emission from a large sample of protoplanetary disks, including lines from H{sub 2}O, OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and CO{sub 2}. This paper describes the sample and data processing and derives the detection rate of mid-infrared molecular emission as a function of stellar mass. The sample covers a range of spectral type from early M to A, and is supplemented by archival spectra of disks around A and B stars. It is drawn from a variety of nearby star-forming regions, including Ophiuchus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon. Spectra showing strong emission lines are used to identify which lines are the best tracers of various physical and chemical conditions within the disks. In total, we identify 22 T Tauri stars with strong mid-infrared H{sub 2}O emission. Integrated water line luminosities, where water vapor is detected, range from 5 x 10{sup -4} to 9 x 10{sup -3} L{sub sun}, likely making water the dominant line coolant of inner disk surfaces in classical T Tauri stars. None of the five transitional disks in the sample show detectable gaseous molecular emission with Spitzer upper limits at the 1% level in terms of line-to-continuum ratios (apart from H{sub 2}), but the sample is too small to conclude whether this is a general property of transitional disks. We find a strong dependence on detection rate with spectral type; no disks around our sample of 25 A and B stars were found to exhibit water emission, down to 1%-2% line-to-continuum ratios, in the mid-infrared, while more than half of disks around late-type stars (M-G) show sufficiently intense water emission to be detected by Spitzer, with a detection rate approaching 2/3 for disks around K stars. Some Herbig Ae/Be stars show tentative H{sub 2}O/OH emission features beyond 20 {mu}m at the 1%-2% level, however, and one of them shows CO{sub 2} in emission. We argue that the observed differences between T Tauri disks and Herbig Ae/Be disks are due to a

  6. FAR-IR/SUBMILLIMETER SPECTROSCOPIC COSMOLOGICAL SURVEYS: PREDICTIONS OF INFRARED LINE LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS FOR z < 4 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Dasyra, Kalliopi M.; Gruppioni, Carlotta; Valiante, Elisabetta; Isaak, Kate

    2012-02-01

    Star formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes in the nuclei of galaxies are the two most energetic processes in the universe, producing the bulk of the observed emission throughout its history. We simulated the luminosity functions of star-forming and active galaxies for spectral lines that are thought to be good spectroscopic tracers of either phenomenon, as a function of redshift. We focused on the infrared (IR) and submillimeter domains, where the effects of dust obscuration are minimal. Using three different and independent theoretical models for galaxy formation and evolution, constrained by multi-wavelength luminosity functions, we computed the number of star-forming and active galaxies per IR luminosity and redshift bin. We converted the continuum luminosity counts into spectral line counts using relationships that we calibrated on mid- and far-IR spectroscopic surveys of galaxies in the local universe. Our results demonstrate that future facilities optimized for survey-mode observations, i.e., the Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics and the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope, will be able to observe thousands of z > 1 galaxies in key fine-structure lines, e.g., [Si II], [O I], [O III], [C II], in a half-square-degree survey, with 1 hr integration time per field of view. Fainter lines such as [O IV], [Ne V], and H{sub 2} (0-0)S1 will be observed in several tens of bright galaxies at 1 < z < 2, while diagnostic diagrams of active nucleus versus star formation activity will be feasible even for normal z {approx} 1 galaxies. We discuss the new parameter space that these future telescopes will cover and that strongly motivates their construction.

  7. Deep Near-Infrared Surveys and Young Brown Dwarf Populations in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, M.; Naoi, T.; Oasa, Y.; Nakajima, Y.; Nagashima, C.; Nagayama, T.; Baba, D.; Nagata, T.; Sato, S.; Kato, D.; Kurita, M.; Sugitani, K.; Itoh, Y.; Nakaya, H.; Pickles, A.

    2003-06-01

    We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.

  8. A Kinematic Survey in the Perseus Molecular Cloud: Results from the APOGEE Infrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kevin R.; Cottaar, M.; Foster, J. B.; Nidever, D. L.; Meyer, M.; Tan, J.; Da Rio, N.; Flaherty, K. M.; Stassun, K.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Majewski, S.; APOGEE IN-SYNC Team

    2014-01-01

    Demographic studies of stellar clusters indicate that relatively few persist as bound structures for 100 Myrs or longer. If cluster dispersal is a 'violent' process, it could strongly influence the formation and early evolution of stellar binaries and planetary systems. Unfortunately, measuring the dynamical state of 'typical' (i.e., ~300-1000 member) young star clusters has been difficult, particularly for clusters still embedded within their parental molecular cloud. The near-infrared spectrograph for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which can measure precise radial velocities for 230 cluster stars simultaneously, is uniquely suited to diagnosing the dynamics of Galactic star formation regions. We give an overview of the INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC), an APOGEE ancillary science program that is carrying out a comparative study of young clusters in the Perseus molecular cloud: NGC 1333, a heavily embedded cluster, and IC 348, which has begun to disperse its surrounding molecular gas. These observations appear to rule out a significantly super-virial velocity dispersion in IC 348, contrary to predictions of models where a cluster's dynamics is strongly influenced by the dispersal of its primordial gas. We also summarize the properties of two newly identified spectroscopic binaries; binary systems such as these play a key role in the dynamical evolution of young clusters, and introduce velocity offsets that must be accounted for in measuring cluster velocity dispersions.

  9. The INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC): Surveying the Dynamics and Star Formation Histories of Young Clusters with APOGEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kevin R.; Cottaar, Michiel; Foster, Jonathan B.; Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan; Meyer, Michael; Nidever, David L.; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Arce, Hector G.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Hearty, Fred R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stassun, Keivan; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Young clusters are the most prolific sites of star formation in the Milky Way, but demographic studies indicate that relatively few of the Milky Way's stellar clusters persist as bound structures for 100 Myrs or longer. Uniform & precise measurements of the stellar populations and internal dynamics of these regions are difficult to obtain, however, particularly for extremely young clusters whose optical visibility is greatly hampered by their parental molecular cloud. The INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC), an SDSS-III ancillary science program, leverages the stability and multiplex capability of the APOGEE spectrograph to obtain high resolution spectra at near-infrared wavelengths, where photospheric emission is better able to penetrate the dusty shrouds that surround sites of active star formation. We summarize our recent measurements of the kinematics and stellar populations of IC 348 and NGC 1333, two young clusters in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, and of the members of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and L1641 filament in the Orion molecular complex. These measurements highlight the dynamically 'warm' environment within these young clusters, and suggest a range of stellar radii within these quasi-single-age populations. We close with a preview of plans for continuing this work as part of the APOGEE-2 science portfolio: self-consistent measurements of the kinematics and star formation histories for clusters spanning a range of initial conditions and ages will provide a opportunity to disentangle the mechanisms that drive the formation and dissolution of sites of active star formation.

  10. CANDELS: The Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Casertano, Stefano; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; DeMello, Duilla; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Straughn, Amber N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, from z approx. 8 - 1.5. It will image > 250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Tele8cope, from the mid-UV to near-IR, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae beyond z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 10(exp 9) solar mass to z approx. 2, reaching the knee of the UV luminosity function of galaxies to z approx. 8. The survey covers approximately 800 square arc minutes and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5(sigma) point-source limit H =27.7mag) covers approx. 125 square arcminutes within GOODS-N and GOODS-S. The CANDELS/Wide survey includes GOODS and three additional fields (EGS, COSMOS, and UDS) and covers the full area to a 50(sigma) point-source limit of H ? or approx. = 27.0 mag. Together with the Hubble Ultradeep Fields, the strategy creates a three-tiered "wedding cake" approach that has proven efficient for extragalactic surveys. Data from the survey are non-proprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this paper, we describe the basic motivations for the survey, the CANDELS team science goals and the resulting observational requirements, the field selection and geometry, and the observing design.

  11. The Chandra Xbootes Survey - IV: Mid-Infrared and Submillimeter Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Arianna; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Cooray, Asantha R.; Nayyeri, Hooshang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we use a Bayesian technique to identify mid-IR and submillimeter counterparts for 3,213 X-ray point sources detected in the Chandra XBoötes Survey so as to characterize the relationship between black hole activity and star formation in the XBoötes region. The Chandra XBoötes Survey is a 5-ks X-ray survey of the 9.3 square degree Boötes Field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS), a survey imaged from the optical to the near-IR. We use a likelihood ratio analysis on Spitzer-IRAC data taken from The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) to determine mid-IR counterparts, and a similar method on Herschel-SPIRE sources detected at 250µm from The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to determine the submillimeter counterparts. The likelihood ratio analysis (LRA) provides the probability that a(n) IRAC or SPIRE point source is the true counterpart to a Chandra source. The analysis is comprised of three parts: the normalized magnitude distributions of counterparts and background sources, and the radial probability distribution of the separation distance between the IRAC or SPIRE source and the Chandra source. Many Chandra sources have multiple prospective counterparts in each band, so additional analysis is performed to determine the identification reliability of the candidates. Identification reliability values lie between 0 and 1, and sources with identification reliability values ≥0.8 are chosen to be the true counterparts. With these results, we will consider the statistical implications of the sample's redshifts, mid-IR and submillimeter luminosities, and star formation rates.

  12. Near-Infrared Photometric Parameters of Bulge Globular Clusters from the VVV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. E.

    2015-05-01

    Despite spanning a remarkable variety of properties (e.g., mass, metallicity and horizontal branch morphology), severe and variable extinction has often thwarted detailed analyses of the globular clusters of the Milky Way bulge. We present results from recent and ongoing investigations of these clusters using deep, wide-field near-infrared photometry independently, and also in combination with, the plethora of existing photometry and spectroscopy. The results and their homogeneity facilitate not only the characterization of relations between cluster photometric properties and abundances and comparison to evolutionary models, but can also corroborate and further constrain recent results regarding the extinction law of the inner Milky Way.

  13. Managing Spatial Selections With Contextual Snapshots

    PubMed Central

    Mindek, P; Gröller, M E; Bruckner, S

    2014-01-01

    Spatial selections are a ubiquitous concept in visualization. By localizing particular features, they can be analysed and compared in different views. However, the semantics of such selections often depend on specific parameter settings and it can be difficult to reconstruct them without additional information. In this paper, we present the concept of contextual snapshots as an effective means for managing spatial selections in visualized data. The selections are automatically associated with the context in which they have been created. Contextual snapshots can also be used as the basis for interactive integrated and linked views, which enable in-place investigation and comparison of multiple visual representations of data. Our approach is implemented as a flexible toolkit with well-defined interfaces for integration into existing systems. We demonstrate the power and generality of our techniques by applying them to several distinct scenarios such as the visualization of simulation data, the analysis of historical documents and the display of anatomical data. PMID:25821284

  14. A mid-infrared imaging survey of post-AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagadec, Eric; Verhoelst, Tijl; Mékarnia, Djamel; Suárez, Olga; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Bendjoya, Philippe; Szczerba, Ryszard; Chesneau, Olivier; Van Winckel, Hans; Barlow, Michael J.; Matsuura, Mikako; Bowey, Janet E.; Lorenz-Martins, Silvia; Gledhill, Tim

    2012-08-01

    Post-AGB stars are key objects for the study of the dramatic morphological changes of low- to intermediate-mass stars on their evolution from the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) towards the planetary nebula stage. There is growing evidences that binary interaction processes may very well have a determining role in the shaping process of many objects, but so far direct evidence is still weak. We aim at a systematic study of the dust distribution around a large sample of post-AGB stars as a probe of the symmetry breaking in the nebulae around these systems. We used imaging in the mid-infrared to study the inner part of these evolved stars to probe direct emission from dusty structures in the core of post-AGB stars in order to better understand their shaping mechanisms. We imaged a sample of 93 evolved stars and nebulae in the mid-infrared using VISIR/VLT, T-Recs/Gemini South and Michelle/Gemini North. We found that all the the proto-planetary nebulae we resolved show a clear departure from spherical symmetry. 59 out of the 93 observed targets appear to be non resolved. The resolved targets can be divided in two categories. The nebulae with a dense central core, that are either bipolar and multipolar. The nebulae with no central core have an elliptical morphology. The dense central torus observed likely host binary systems which triggered fast outflows that shaped the nebulae.

  15. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Di Maio, Rosa; Fedi, Maurizio; Meola, Carosena

    2011-09-01

    This work is focused on the integration of infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar for the inspection of architectonic structures. First, laboratory tests were carried out with both techniques by considering an ad hoc specimen made of concrete and with the insertion of anomalies of a different nature and at different depths. Such tests provided helpful information for ongoing inspections in situ, which were later performed in two important Italian archaeological sites, namely Pompeii (Naples) and Nora (Cagliari). In the first site, the exploration was devoted to the analysis of the wall paintings of Villa Imperiale with the aim of evaluating the state of conservation of frescoes as well of the underneath masonry structure. As main findings, the applied techniques allowed outlining some areas, which were damaged by ingression in-depth of moisture and/or by disaggregation of the constituent materials, and also for recognition of previous restoration. In the archaeological area of Nora, instead, the attention was driven towards the evaluation of the state of degradation of the theatre remnants. Our prospections show that the front side of the theatre, being more strongly affected by degradation, needs a massive restoration work. As a general result, we demonstrated that a joint interpretation of infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar data supplies detailed 3D information from near-surface to deep layers, which may assist in restoration planning.

  16. SnapShot: GI tract development.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Patrick S; Wells, James M

    2015-03-26

    The endoderm germ layer contributes to the respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) lineages during development, giving rise to an array of specialized epithelial cell types lining organs, including the thyroid, thymus, lungs, liver, biliary system, pancreas, and intestines. This SnapShot timelines and summarizes key stages following gastrulation, including endoderm patterning, organ specification, and organogenesis. A lineage tree of the developing endocrine pancreas is outlined to further illustrate this process.

  17. A Herschel Space Observatory Spectral Line Survey of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies from 194 to 671 Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao; Zhao, Yinghe; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Armus, Lee; Isaak, Kate G.; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Appleton, Philip N.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Evans, Aaron S.; Howell, Justin; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Leech, Jamie; Lord, Steven; Petric, Andreea O.; Privon, George C.; Sanders, David B.; Schulz, Bernhard; Surace, Jason A.

    2017-05-01

    We describe a Herschel Space Observatory 194-671 μm spectroscopic survey of a sample of 121 local luminous infrared galaxies and report the fluxes of the CO J to J-1 rotational transitions for 4≤slant J≤slant 13, the [N ii] 205 μm line, the [C i] lines at 609 and 370 μm, as well as additional and usually fainter lines. The CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) presented here are consistent with our earlier work, which was based on a smaller sample, that calls for two distinct molecular gas components in general: (i) a cold component, which emits CO lines primarily at J ≲ 4 and likely represents the same gas phase traced by CO (1-0), and (ii) a warm component, which dominates over the mid-J regime (4 < J ≲ 10) and is intimately related to current star formation. We present evidence that the CO line emission associated with an active galactic nucleus is significant only at J > 10. The flux ratios of the two [C i] lines imply modest excitation temperatures of 15-30 K; the [C i] 370 μm line scales more linearly in flux with CO (4-3) than with CO (7-6). These findings suggest that the [C i] emission is predominantly associated with the gas component defined in (i) above. Our analysis of the stacked spectra in different far-infrared (FIR) color bins reveals an evolution of the SLED of the rotational transitions of {{{H}}}2{{O}} vapor as a function of the FIR color in a direction consistent with infrared photon pumping. Based on Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF FIVE LATE-TYPE T DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, James M.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Looper, Dagny L.; Tinney, Christopher; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-07-10

    We present the discovery of five late-type T dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan Folded-port InfraRed Echellette reveal strong H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} absorption in all five sources, and spectral indices and comparison to spectral templates indicate classifications ranging from T5.5 to T8.5:. The spectrum of the latest-type source, WISE J1812+2721, is an excellent match to that of the T8.5 companion brown dwarf Wolf 940B. WISE-based spectrophotometric distance estimates place these T dwarfs at 12-13 pc from the Sun, assuming they are single. Preliminary fits of the spectral data to the atmosphere models of Saumon and Marley indicate effective temperatures ranging from 600 K to 930 K, both cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres, and a broad range of ages and masses. In particular, two sources show evidence of both low surface gravity and cloudy atmospheres, tentatively supporting a trend noted in other young brown dwarfs and exoplanets. In contrast, the high proper motion T dwarf WISE J2018-7423 exhibits a suppressed K-band peak and blue spectrophotometric J - K colors indicative of an old, massive brown dwarf; however, it lacks the broadened Y-band peak seen in metal-poor counterparts. These results illustrate the broad diversity of low-temperature brown dwarfs that will be uncovered with WISE.

  19. SNAPSHOT: A MODERN, SUSTAINABLE HOLDUP MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Smith, Steven E; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Dunn, Michael E; Stewart, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    SNAPSHOT is a software platform designed to eventually replace Holdup Measurement System 4 (HMS 4), which is the current state-of-the-art for acquisition and analysis of nondestructive assay measurement data for in situ nuclear materials, holdup, in support of criticality safety and material control and accounting. HMS 4 is over 10 years old and is currently unsustainable due to hardware and software incompatibilities that have arisen from advances in detector electronics, primarily updates to multi-channel analyzers (MCAs), and both computer and handheld operating systems. SNAPSHOT is a complete redesign of HMS 4 that addresses the issue of compatibility with modern MCAs and operating systems and that is designed with a flexible architecture to support long-term sustainability. It also provides an updated and more user friendly interface and is being developed under an NQA 1 software quality assurance (SQA) program to facilitate site acceptance for safety-related applications. This paper provides an overview of the SNAPSHOT project including details of the software development process, the SQA program, and the architecture designed to support sustainability.

  20. Identifications of The Most Luminous, Highest-Redshift Objects Discovered by WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, Dominic; Stanford, Adam; Jarrett, Tom; Yan, Lin; Eisenhardt, Peter; Lonsdale, Carol; Wright, Ned; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc

    2010-08-01

    We request 4 nights to obtain KPNO/FLAMINGOS near-IR photometry and spectroscopy follow-up observations of a sample of extremely luminous, z > 1 galaxy candidates selected from WISE, a new NASA mission which is in the process of surveying the whole sky at 3.4,4.6,12 and 22 (micron) in 6 months (Jan-July 2010). The candidates are selected to have mid-IR colors indicating starburst-dominated spectra at redshifts of z=1.2 - 3, but are 100 times more luminous than local ULIRGs with L_FIR > 10^14 L_⊙, called extreme hyperluminous infrared galaxies (eHyLIRGs). In combination with the WISE mid-infrared photometry, the near-IR photometric and spectroscopic observations will allow us to distinguish high-z targets from local red populations, determine the luminosity, and further study the star formation activity from hydrogen recombination lines, extinction toward the star formation regions, and SED modeling on the stellar population of these galaxies.

  1. PACS photometry of the Herschel Reference Survey - far-infrared/submillimetre colours as tracers of dust properties in nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.; Fritz, J.; Bianchi, S.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Boquien, M.; Roussel, H.; Baes, M.; Buat, V.; Clemens, M.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; Eales, S. A.; Fuller, C.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Munoz-Mateos, J.; Pappalardo, C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Sauvage, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 μm wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique data set to investigate the properties and shape of the far-infrared/submillimetre spectral energy distribution in nearby galaxies. We show that, in the stellar mass range covered by the HRS (8 ≲ log (M*/M⊙) ≲ 12), the far-infrared/submillimetre colours are inconsistent with a single modified blackbody having the same dust emissivity index β for all galaxies. In particular, either β decreases or multiple temperature components are needed, when moving from metal-rich/gas-poor to metal-poor/gas-rich galaxies. We thus investigate how the dust temperature and mass obtained from a single modified blackbody depend on the assumptions made on β. We show that, while the correlations between dust temperature, galaxy structure and star formation rate are strongly model dependent, the dust mass scaling relations are much more reliable, and variations of β only change the strength of the observed trends.

  2. Molecular clouds and star formation in the inner galaxy - A comparison of CO, H II, and far-infrared surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, P. C.; Dame, T. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Cohen, R. S.; Silverberg, R. F.; Dwek, E.; Hauser, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys of the galactic plane over galactic latitudes from -1 degree to +1 degree and galactic longitudes from 12 degrees to 60 degrees are compared in the CO line at 2.6 mm, in the far-infrared (FIR) continuum at 150 micrometers and 250 micrometers, and in the radio continuum and H 110-alpha recombination line at 6 cm. The main purposes are to determine the degree of association between FIR sources, H II regions, and molecular clouds in the first quadrant and to describe and analyze the stellar content of these molecular clouds. Among the conclusions it is noted that most FIR sources coincide with HII regions, and nearly all H II regions coincide with molecular clouds, and that clouds in the inner galaxy are probably several tens of millions of years old and may have been producing O stars for only about the most recent 20 percent of their lives.

  3. A search for a distant companion to the sun with the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.

    2014-01-20

    I have used multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to perform a search for a distant companion to the Sun via its parallactic motion. I have not found an object of this kind down to W2 = 14.5. This limit corresponds to analogs of Saturn and Jupiter at 28,000 and 82,000 AU, respectively, according to models of the Jovian planets by Fortney and coworkers. Models of brown dwarfs by Burrows and coworkers predict fainter fluxes at a given mass for the age of the solar system, producing a closer distance limit of 26,000 AU for a Jupiter-mass brown dwarf. These constraints exclude most combinations of mass and separation at which a solar companion has been suggested to exist by various studies over the years.

  4. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of Young Stellar Objects in the Lynds 1509 Dark Cloud in Auriga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Wilson M.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Leisawitz, David

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  5. Development of a near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph (WINERED) for a survey of bulge stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Yasui, C.; Kondo, S.; Minami, A.; Motohara, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Gouda, N.

    2008-07-01

    We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R[max] = 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9 1.35 μm. WINERED employs an innovative optical system; a portable design and a warm optics without any cold stops. The planned astrometric space mission JASMINE will provide precise positions, distances, and proper motions of the bulge stars. The missing components, the radial velocity and chemical composition will be measured by WINERED. These combined data brought by JASMINE and WINERED will certainly reveal the nature of the Galactic bulge. We plan to complete this instrument for observations of single objects by the end of 2008 and to attach it to various 4 10m telescopes as a PI-type instrument. We hope to upgrade WINERED with a multi-object feed in the future for efficient survey of the JASMINE bulge stars.

  6. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Leisawitz, David

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  7. Spatially Resolved Molecular Gas Star Formation Law in CARMA Survey Towards Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, A.; STING Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    The STING is a CARMA 3mm survey of nearby galaxies. We will present a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the star formation rate surface density and molecular gas surface at the sub-kpc level in the STING sample. To construct the tracers of molecular gas and star formation rate surface densities, respectively, we will use high resolution (3-5") CO (J=1-0) data from CARMA and the mid-infrared 24 micron data of comparable resolution (6") from Spitzer Space Telescope. We measure the relation in the bright region of these galaxies. In our preliminary analysis we find an approximately linear relation and no strong trends for either the logarithmic slope or the molecular depletion time across the range of galaxy masses sampled (10^9-10^11.5 Msun).

  8. The VMC Survey - XXI. New star cluster candidates discovered from infrared photometry in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Rubele, Stefano; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Bekki, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    We report the first search for new star clusters performed using the VISTA near-infrared YJKs Magellanic Clouds survey (VMC) data sets. We chose a pilot field of ˜0.4 deg2 located in the South-west of the Small Magelllanic Cloud bar, where the star field is among the densest and highest reddened region in the galaxy. In order to devise an appropriate automatic procedure we made use of dimensions and stellar densities observed in the VMC data sets of the known clusters in this area. We executed different kernel density estimations over a sample of more than 358 000 stars with magnitudes measured in the three YJKs filters. We analysed the new cluster candidates whose colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), cleaned from field star contamination, were used to assess the clusters' reality and estimate reddenings and ages of the genuine systems. As a result 38 objects (≈ a 55 per cent increase in the known star clusters located in the surveyed field) of 0.15-0.40 arcmin (2.6-7.0 pc) in radius resulted to have near-infrared CMD features which resemble those of star clusters of young to moderate intermediate age (log(t yr-1) ˜7.5-9.0). Most of the new star cluster candidates are hardly recognizable in optical images without the help of a sound star field decontaminated CMD analysis. For highly reddened star cluster candidates (E(B - V) ≥ 0.6 mag) the VMC data sets were necessary in order to recognize them.

  9. Cores in infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) seen in the Hi-GAL survey between l= 300° and 330°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, L. A.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. M.; Stamatellos, D.; Whitworth, A.; Elia, D.; Fuller, G. A.; DiGiorgio, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Molinari, S.; Martin, P.; Mottram, J. C.; Peretto, N.; Pestalozzi, M.; Schisano, E.; Plume, R.; Smith, H. A.; Thompson, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    We have used data taken as part of the Herschel infrared Galactic Plane survey (Hi-GAL) to study 3171 infrared dark cloud (IRDC) candidates that were identified in the mid-IR (8 μm) by Spitzer (we refer to these as 'Spitzer-dark' regions). They all lie in the range l= 300-330° and |b|≤ 1°. Of these, only 1205 were seen in emission in the far-IR (250-500 μm) by Herschel (we call these 'Herschel-bright' clouds). It is predicted that a dense cloud will not only be seen in absorption in the mid-IR, but will also be seen in emission in the far-IR at the longest Herschel wavebands (250-500 μm). If a region is dark at all wavelengths throughout the mid-IR and far-IR, then it is most likely to be simply a region of lower background IR emission (a 'hole in the sky'). Hence, it appears that previous surveys, based on Spitzer and other mid-IR data alone, may have overestimated the total IRDC population by a factor of ˜2. This has implications for estimates of the star formation rate in IRDCs in the Galaxy. We studied the 1205 Herschel-bright IRDCs at 250 μm and found that 972 of them had at least one clearly defined 250-μm peak, indicating that they contained one or more dense cores. Of these, 653 (67 per cent) contained an 8-μm point source somewhere within the cloud, 149 (15 per cent) contained a 24-μm point source but no 8-μm source and 170 (18 per cent) contained no 24- or 8-μm point sources. We use these statistics to make inferences about the lifetimes of the various evolutionary stages of IRDCs.

  10. The Infrared Medium-deep Survey. III. Survey of Luminous Quasars at 4.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Yiseul; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Jun, Hyunsung David; Pak, Soojong; Taak, Yoon Chan; Baek, Giseon; Choi, Changsu; Choi, Nahyun; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Ji, Tae-Geun; Karouzos, Marios; Kim, Duho; Kim, Jae-Woo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Minjin; Kim, Sanghyuk; Lee, Hye-In; Lee, Seong-Kook; Park, Won-Kee; Park, Woojin; Yoon, Yongmin

    2017-08-01

    We present the first results of our survey for high-redshift quasars at 5≲ z≲ 5.7. The search for quasars in this redshift range has been known to be challenging due to the limitations of the filter sets used in previous studies. We conducted a quasar survey for two specific redshift ranges, 4.60 ≤ z ≤ 5.40 and 5.50 ≤ z ≤ 6.05, using multi-wavelength data that include observations made with custom-designed filters, is and iz. Using these filters and a new selection technique, we were able to reduce the fraction of interlopers. Through optical spectroscopy, we confirmed six quasars at 4.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.4 with -27.4< {M}1450< -26.4 that recently were discovered independently by another group. We estimated black hole masses and Eddington ratios of four of these quasars from optical and near-infrared spectra, and found that these quasars are undergoing nearly Eddington-limited accretion that is consistent with the rapid growth of supermassive black holes in luminous quasars at z ˜ 5. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory, under programme 091.A-0878.

  11. Predictions for imaging and spectroscopic surveys of galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the mid-/far-Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, Matteo

    2015-02-01

    While continuum imaging data at far-infrared to sub-millimeter wavelengths have provided tight constraints on the population properties of dusty star-forming galaxies up to high redshifts, future space missions like the Space Infra-Red Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and ground based facilities like the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will allow detailed investigations of their physical properties via their mid-/far-infrared line emission. The goal of this thesis project was to carry out predictions for these spectroscopic surveys using both a phenomenological approach and physically grounded models. These predictions are useful to optimize the planning of the surveys. In the first part of the work, I present updated predictions for the number counts and the redshift distributions of star-forming galaxies spectroscopically detectable by these future missions. These predictions exploit a recent upgrade of evolutionary models, that includes the effect of strong gravitational lensing, in the light of the most recent Herschel and South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. Moreover the relations between line and continuum infrared luminosity are re-assessed, considering also differences among source populations, with the support of extensive simulations that take into account dust obscuration. My reference model for the redshift dependent IR luminosity functions is the one worked out by Cai et al. (2013) based on a comprehensive hybrid approach combining a physical model for the progenitors of early-type galaxies with a phenomenological one for late-type galaxies. The derived line luminosity functions are found to be highly sensitive to the spread of the line to continuum luminosity ratios. Estimates of the expected numbers of detections per spectral line by the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument (SAFARI) and by CCAT surveys for different integration times per field of view at fixed total observing

  12. Survey of Infrared Variability of Young Stellar Objects in Nearby Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huard, Tracy L.; Storm, S.; Mundy, L. G.

    2012-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope archive provides a means for studying mid-infrared variability in large numbers of young stellar objects (YSOs) in different star-forming regions. We are conducting such a study, as part of NASA's Astrophysics Data Analysis Program (ADAP), to identify those YSOs exhibiting variability and to characterize the frequency, magnitude, and color of this variability. Our results for isolated core regions, for example, demonstrate that (70 +/- 20)% of Class I and Flat-spectrum YSOs exhibit variability over timescales of 1-2 years, while only (24 +/- 8)% of Class II and III YSOs appear to be variable over these times, suggestive of a dependence on evolutionary class. In contrast, we find no such dependence in the IC 5146 cluster forming region or the Perseus or Serpens regions, where 35-45% of the YSOs exhibit variability. In general, the variable YSOs brighten or dim consistently across the IRAC 3.6-8.0 micron bands; the mid-infrared color changes are typically inconsistent with variable line-of-sight extinction. The magnitude of maximum IRAC variability for many YSOs is inconsistent with starspots as the dominant cause. Instead, intermittent heating and cooling by episodic accretion is the favored mechanism. In some cases, YSO observations were repeated over shorter timescales, from 0.2 to 2 days. We analyzed these observations to determine whether YSOs exhibited variability over these timescales and, if so, whether it was consistent with the longterm variations that we observed. Results from this study and implications for accretion will be presented.

  13. Concentration of mycotoxins and chemical composition of corn silage: a farm survey using infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P; Novinski, C O; Junges, D; Almeida, R; de Souza, C M

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated the chemical composition and mycotoxin incidence in corn silage from 5 Brazilian dairy-producing regions: Castro, in central-eastern Paraná State (n=32); Toledo, in southwestern Paraná (n=20); southeastern Goiás (n=14); southern Minas Gerais (n=23); and western Santa Catarina (n=20). On each dairy farm, an infrared thermography camera was used to identify 3 sampling sites that exhibited the highest temperature, a moderate temperature, and the lowest temperature on the silo face, and 1 sample was collected from each site. The chemical composition and concentrations of mycotoxins were evaluated, including the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; zearalenone; ochratoxin A; deoxynivalenol; and fumonisins B1 and B2. The corn silage showed a highly variable chemical composition, containing, on average, 7.1±1.1%, 52.5±5.4%, and 65.2±3.6% crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients, respectively. Mycotoxins were found in more than 91% of the samples, with zearalenone being the most prevalent (72.8%). All samples from the Castro region contained zearalenone at a high average concentration (334±374µg/kg), even in well-preserved silage. The incidence of aflatoxin B1 was low (0.92%). Silage temperature and the presence of mycotoxins were not correlated; similarly, differences were not observed in the concentration or incidence of mycotoxins across silage locations with different temperatures. Infrared thermography is an accurate tool for identifying heat sites, but temperature cannot be used to predict the chemical composition or the incidence of mycotoxins that have been analyzed, within the silage. The pre-harvest phase of the ensiling process is most likely the main source of mycotoxins in silage.

  14. TRANSITIONAL DISKS AND THEIR ORIGINS: AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF ORION A

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Arnold, Laura; Najita, Joan; Furlan, Elise; Sargent, Benjamin; Espaillat, Catherine; Muzerolle, James; Megeath, S. T.; Calvet, Nuria; Green, Joel D.

    2013-06-01

    Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks around young stars, with inner holes or gaps which are surrounded by optically thick outer, and often inner, disks. Here we present observations of 62 new transitional disks in the Orion A star-forming region. These were identified using the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph and followed up with determinations of stellar and accretion parameters using the Infrared Telescope Facility's SpeX. We combine these new observations with our previous results on transitional disks in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, Ophiuchus, and Perseus, and with archival X-ray observations. This produces a sample of 105 transitional disks of ''cluster'' age 3 Myr or less, by far the largest hitherto assembled. We use this sample to search for trends between the radial structure in the disks and many other system properties, in order to place constraints on the possible origins of transitional disks. We see a clear progression of host-star accretion rate and the different disk morphologies. We confirm that transitional disks with complete central clearings have median accretion rates an order of magnitude smaller than radially continuous disks of the same population. Pre-transitional disks-those objects with gaps that separate inner and outer disks-have median accretion rates intermediate between the two. Our results from the search for statistically significant trends, especially related to M-dot , strongly support that in both cases the gaps are far more likely to be due to the gravitational influence of Jovian planets or brown dwarfs orbiting within the gaps, than to any of the photoevaporative, turbulent, or grain-growth processes that can lead to disk dissipation. We also find that the fraction of Class II YSOs which are transitional disks is large, 0.1-0.2, especially in the youngest associations.

  15. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF YOUNG STARS IN THE CHAMAELEON I STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, P.; Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Forrest, W. J.; Bohac, C.; Arnold, L. A.; Furlan, E.; McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Luhman, K. L.; Espaillat, C.; Najita, J. R.; D'Alessio, P.; Adame, L.; Sargent, B. A.; Green, J. D.

    2011-03-15

    We present 5-36 {mu}m mid-infrared spectra of 82 young stars in the {approx}2 Myr old Chamaeleon I star-forming region, obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We have classified these objects into various evolutionary classes based on their spectral energy distributions and the spectral features seen in the IRS spectra. We have analyzed the mid-IR spectra of Class II objects in Chamaeleon I in detail, in order to study the vertical and radial structure of the protoplanetary disks surrounding these stars. We find evidence for substantial dust settling in most protoplanetary disks in Chamaeleon I. We have identified several disks with altered radial structures in Chamaeleon I, among them transitional disk candidates which have holes or gaps in their disks. Analysis of the silicate emission features in the IRS spectra of Class II objects in Cha I shows that the dust grains in these disks have undergone significant processing (grain growth and crystallization). However, disks with radial holes/gaps appear to have relatively unprocessed grains. We further find the crystalline dust content in the inner ({approx}<1-2 AU) and the intermediate ({approx}<10 AU) regions of the protoplanetary disks to be tightly correlated. We also investigate the effects of accretion and stellar multiplicity on the disk structure and dust properties. Finally, we compare the observed properties of protoplanetary disks in Cha I with those in slightly younger Taurus and Ophiuchus regions and discuss the effects of disk evolution in the first 1-2 Myr.

  16. A BACKWARD EVOLUTION MODEL FOR INFRARED SURVEYS: THE ROLE OF AGN- AND COLOR-L {sub TIR} DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Valiante, E.; Lutz, D.; Sturm, E.; Genzel, R.; Chapin, E. L. E-mail: sturm@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: valiante@phas.ubc.ca

    2009-08-20

    Empirical 'backward' galaxy evolution models for infrared (IR) bright galaxies are constrained using multiband IR surveys. We developed a new Monte Carlo algorithm for this task, implementing luminosity-dependent distribution functions for the galaxies' IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and for the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution, allowing for evolution of these quantities. The adopted SEDs take into account the contributions of both starbursts and AGN to the IR emission, for the first time in a coherent treatment rather than invoking separate AGN and star-forming populations. In the first part of the paper we consider the quantification of the AGN contribution for local universe galaxies, as a function of the total IR luminosity. It is made using a large sample of luminous infrared galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies for which mid-IR spectra are available in the Spitzer archive. We find the ratio of AGN 6 {mu}m luminosity and the total IR luminosity to rise with L {sup 1.4} {sub TIR} over the IR luminosity range 10{sup 11}-10{sup 13} L {sub sun} and estimate its spread. Judging from the modest number of distant sources with Spitzer spectroscopy, the relation changes at high-z. In the second part we present the model. Our best-fit model adopts very strong luminosity evolution, L = L {sub 0}(1 + z){sup 3.4}, up to z = 2.3, and density evolution, {rho} = {rho}{sub 0}(1 + z){sup 2}, up to z = 1, for the population of IR galaxies. At higher z, the evolution rates drop as (1 + z){sup -1} and (1 + z){sup -1.5}, respectively. To reproduce mid-IR to submillimeter number counts and redshift distributions, it is necessary to introduce both an evolution in the AGN contribution and an evolution in the luminosity-temperature relation. At a given total IR luminosity, high-redshift IR galaxies have typically smaller AGN contributions to the rest-frame mid-IR, and colder far-IR dust temperatures than locally. We also suggest an extension of the local IR

  17. A Little More Madness in Our Methods? A Snapshot of How the Educational Leadership, Management and Administration Field Conducts Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat

    2017-01-01

    The field of educational leadership, management and administration (ELMA) uses methods drawn primarily from cognate educational disciplines. But does this matter? This paper explores the methods used in recently published papers through a snapshot of six issues of six ELMA journals. The analysis showed a preponderance of survey, interview and case…

  18. Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]: Telescope Design and Simulated Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goullioud, R.; Content, D. A.; Kuan, G. M.; Moore, J. D.; Chang, Z.; Sunada, E. T.; Villalvazo, J.; Hawk, J. P.; Armani, N. V.; Johnson, E. L.; Powell, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey proposed multiple missions with NIR focal planes and 3 mirror wide field telescopes in the 1.5m aperture range. None of them would have won as standalone missions WFIRST is a combination of these missions, created by Astro 2010 committee. WFIRST Science Definition Team (SDT) tasked to examine the design. Project team is a GSFC-JPL-Caltech collaboration. This interim mission design is a result of combined work by the project team with the SDT.

  19. Infrared thermographic surveying of building debris: Tomsk High Military School of Communication Engineering catastrophe case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilov, Vladimir P.

    1998-03-01

    IR thermography was used in surveying dormitory debris of Tomsk High Military School of Communication Engineering in Siberia that collapsed on July 17, 1997, with 12 students dead. In total, the debris had the ambient temperature but plentiful joints between vertical brick-made columns and horizontal concrete beams were detected to be abnormally warm. The reasons for this temperature elevation are discussed. The arguments pro and contra possibility to identify temperature patterns as abnormal mechanical stresses are considered.

  20. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and wellfunded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  1. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. II. The Wesenheit Relations and Their Application to the Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anupam; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Macri, Lucas M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Sarajedini, Ata

    2016-04-01

    We present new near-infrared (NIR) Cepheid period-Wesenheit (P-W) relations in the LMC using time-series observations from the Large Magellanic Cloud NIR Synoptic Survey. We also derive optical+NIR P-W relations using V and I magnitudes from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. We employ our new JHKs data to determine an independent distance to the LMC of {μ }{{LMC}}\\=\\18.47+/- 0.07(statistical) mag, using an absolute calibration of the Galactic relations based on several distance determination methods and accounting for the intrinsic scatter of each technique. We also derive new NIR period-luminosity and Wesenheit relations for Cepheids in M31 using observations from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey. We use the absolute calibrations of the Galactic and LMC {W}J,H relations to determine the distance modulus of M31, {μ }{{M31}}\\=\\24.46+/- 0.20 mag. We apply a simultaneous fit to Cepheids in several Local Group galaxies covering a range of metallicities (7.7\\lt 12+{log}[{{O}}/{{H}}]\\lt 8.6 dex) to determine a global slope of -3.244 ± 0.016 mag dex-1 for the {W}J,{Ks} relation and obtain robust distance estimates. Our distances are in good agreement with recent TRGB based distance estimates and we do not find any evidence for a metallicity dependence in the NIR P-W relations.

  2. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and wellfunded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  3. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.; WFIRST SDT Project

    2015-05-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and well- funded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  4. AN INFRARED/X-RAY SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Mamajek, E. E.; Cruz, K. L.

    2009-09-20

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M {approx} 4-7 M{sub Jup}). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy distribution, which indicates that it could be in the protostellar class I stage (star+disk+envelope). Upon inspection of archival images from various observatories, we find that one of the new young stars has a large edge-on disk (r = 2.''5 = 350 AU). The scattered light from this disk has undergone significant variability on a timescale of days in optical images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Using the updated census of Taurus, we have measured the initial mass function for the fields observed by XMM-Newton. The resulting mass function is similar to previous ones that we have reported for Taurus, showing a surplus of stars at spectral types of K7-M1 (0.6-0.8 M{sub sun}) relative to other nearby star-forming regions, such as IC 348, Chamaeleon I, and the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  5. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Use in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany.

    PubMed

    Hoskote, Aparna U; Tume, Lyvonne N; Trieschmann, Uwe; Menzel, Christoph; Cogo, Paola; Brown, Katherine L; Broadhead, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of near-infrared spectroscopy across pediatric cardiac ICUs, there is significant variability and equipoise with no universally accepted management algorithms. We aimed to explore the use of near-infrared spectroscopy in pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany. A cross-sectional multicenter, multinational electronic survey of one consultant in each pediatric cardiac ICU. Pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n = 13), Italy (n = 12), and Germany (n = 33). Questionnaire targeted to establish use, targets, protocols/thresholds for intervention, and perceived usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Overall, 42 of 58 pediatric cardiac ICUs (72%) responded: United Kingdom and Ireland, 11 of 13 (84.6%); Italy, 12 of 12 (100%); and Germany, 19 of 33 (57%, included all major centers). Near-infrared spectroscopy usage varied with 35% (15/42) reporting that near-infrared spectroscopy was not used at all (7/42) or occasionally (8/42); near-infrared spectroscopy use was much less common in the United Kingdom (46%) when compared with 78% in Germany and all (100%) in Italy. Only four units had a near-infrared spectroscopy protocol, and 18 specifically used near-infrared spectroscopy in high-risk patients; 37 respondents believed that near-infrared spectroscopy added value to standard monitoring and 23 believed that it gave an earlier indication of deterioration, but only 19 would respond based on near-infrared spectroscopy data alone. Targets for absolute values and critical thresholds for intervention varied widely between units. The reasons cited for not or occasionally using near-infrared spectroscopy were expense (n = 6), limited evidence and uncertainty on how it guides management (n = 4), difficulty in interpretation, and unreliability of data (n = 3). Amongst the regular or occasional near-infrared spectroscopy users (n = 35), 28 (66%) agreed that a multicenter study is warranted

  6. The Hubble Space Telescope Survey of BL Lacertae Objects. IV. Infrared Imaging of Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Urry, C. Megan; Padovani, Paolo; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Dowd, Matthew

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Camera 2 was used for H-band imaging of 12 BL Lacertae objects taken from the larger sample observed with the WFPC2 in the R band by Urry and coworkers and Scarpa and coworkers. Ten of the 12 BL Lacs are clearly resolved, and the detected host galaxies are large, bright ellipticals with average absolute magnitude =-26.2+/-0.45 mag and effective radius =10+/-5 kpc. The rest-frame integrated color of the host galaxies is on average =2.3+/-0.3, consistent with the value for both radio galaxies and normal, nonactive elliptical galaxies and indicating that the dominant stellar population is old. The host galaxies tend to be bluer in their outer regions than in their cores, with average color gradient Δ(R-H)/Δlogr=-0.2 mag, again consistent with results for normal nonactive elliptical galaxies. The infrared Kormendy relation, derived for the first time for BL Lac host galaxies, is μe=3.8logre+14.8, fully in agreement with the relation for normal ellipticals. The close similarity between BL Lac host galaxies and normal ellipticals suggests that the active nucleus has surprisingly little effect on the host galaxy. This supports a picture in which all elliptical galaxies harbor black holes that can be actively accreting for some fraction of their lifetime.

  7. A near-infrared high-resolution spectroscopic survey of bulge stars - JASMINE prestudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, T.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Yasui, C.; Kondo, S.; Minami, A.; Motohara, K.; Ikeda, Y.

    2006-08-01

    We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R[max]= 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 μm. WINERED employs the novelty in the optical system; a potable design and a warm optics without any cold stops. The planned astrometric space mission JASMINE will provide the exact positions, distances, and proper motions of the bulge stars. The missing components, the radial velocity and chemical compositions will be measured by WINERED with high accuracies (δV< 1km/s). These combined data brought by JASMINE and WINERED will certainly reveal the nature of the Galactic bulge. We plan to complete this instrument for the observation of a single object by the end of 2008 and hope to attach it to various 4-10m telescopes as a PI-type instrument. In succession, we will develop it to the design for a simultaneous multi-object spectroscopy.

  8. Chemistry in Infrared Dark Cloud Clumps: a Molecular Line Survey at 3 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanhueza, Patricio; Jackson, J. M.; Foster, J. B.

    2011-05-01

    We have observed 37 Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) containing a total of 159 clumps with the 22-meter ATNF Mopra Telescope in Australia using high-density molecular tracers at 3 mm. We carried out single-pointing observations in the broad-band mode and detected 10 different molecular lines. The detections rates are dominated by HNC (1-0) (98%), N2H+ (1-0) (97%), and HCO+ (1-0) (88%) lines, showing similar values when we divide the sample into active and quiescent clumps (based on Spitzer IRAC and MIPS emission). However, we find differences of 30% in the detection rates for the H13CO+, HN13C, and HC3N lines. We also find that the N2H+ FWHMs of active clumps are broader than those of quiescent clumps, possibly due to ongoing star formation activity driving turbulence. Integrated intensity and abundance ratios of some molecular lines vary between quiescent and active clumps tracing chemical differences which arise from different evolutionary states.

  9. Further observations of new sources in the AFCRL survey. [infrared sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinmann, S. G.

    1977-01-01

    Salient aspects of follow-up observations carried out on new sources discovered earlier in the AFCRL rocket IR sky survey are summarized. Ground-based searches, studies of class properties of the new AFCRL sources (galactic distribution, IR spectra, time variation), and closer examination of some 'unusual objects' are discussed. Brief descriptions are offered of some unusual objects: possible protostars, and specifically CRL 877; H2O masers in the Mon R2 cloud; the Egg Nebula (CRL 2688); CRL 618, with featureless IR spectrum and optical spectrum reminiscent of a planetary nebula; CRL 437 and other objects associated with multiple-reflection nebulae.

  10. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) slitless spectrometer: design, prototype, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David A.; Dominguez, Margaret; Emmett, Thomas; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John; Kruk, Jeffrey; Marx, Catherine; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; Whipple, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    The slitless spectrometer plays an important role in the WFIRST mission for the survey of emission-line galaxies. This will be an unprecedented very wide field, HST quality 3D survey of emission line galaxies1. The concept of the compound grism as a slitless spectrometer has been presented previously. The presentation briefly discusses the challenges and solutions of the optical design, and recent specification updates, as well as a brief comparison between the prototype and the latest design. However, the emphasis of this paper is the progress of the grism prototype: the fabrication and test of the complicated diffractive optical elements and powered prism, as well as grism assembly alignment and testing. Especially how to use different tools and methods, such as IR phase shift and wavelength shift interferometry, to complete the element and assembly tests. The paper also presents very encouraging results from recent element tests to assembly tests. Finally we briefly touch the path forward plan to test the spectral characteristic, such as spectral resolution and response.

  11. The Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanets Large-survey (ARIEL) payload electronic subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Pace, E.; Colomé, J.; Ribas, I.; Rataj, M.; Ottensamer, R.; Farina, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Wawer, P.; Pancrazzi, M.; Noce, V.; Pezzuto, S.; Morgante, G.; Artigues, B.; Sierra-Roig, C.; Gesa, L.; Eccleston, P.; Crook, M.; Micela, G.

    2016-07-01

    The ARIEL mission has been proposed to ESA by an European Consortium as the first space mission to extensively perform remote sensing on the atmospheres of a well defined set of warm and hot transiting gas giant exoplanets, whose temperature range between ~600 K and 3000 K. ARIEL will observe a large number (~500) of warm and hot transiting gas giants, Neptunes and super-Earths around a range of host star types using transit spectroscopy in the ~2-8 μm spectral range and broad-band photometry in the NIR and optical. ARIEL will target planets hotter than 600 K to take advantage of their well-mixed atmospheres, which should show minimal condensation and sequestration of high-Z materials and thus reveal their bulk and elemental composition. One of the major motivations for exoplanet characterisation is to understand the probability of occurrence of habitable worlds, i.e. suitable for surface liquid water. While ARIEL will not study habitable planets, its major contribution to this topic will results from its capability to detect the presence of atmospheres on many terrestrial planets outside the habitable zone and, in many cases, characterise them. This represents a fundamental breakthrough in understanding the physical and chemical processes of a large sample of exoplanets atmospheres as well as their bulk properties and to probe in-space technology. The ARIEL infrared spectrometer (AIRS) provides data on the atmospheric composition; these data are acquired and processed by an On-Board Data Handling (OBDH) system including the Cold Front End Electronics (CFEE) and the Instrument Control Unit (ICU). The Telescope Control Unit (TCU) is also included inside the ICU. The latter is directly connected to the Control and Data Management Unit (CDMU) on board the Service Module (SVM). The general hardware architecture and the application software of the ICU are described. The Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) electronics and the Cooler Control Electronics are also presented.

  12. Design of a miniature SWIR hyperspectral snapshot imager utilizing multivariate optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priore, Ryan; Dougherty, John; Cohen, Omer; Bikov, Leonid; Hirsh, Itay

    2016-10-01

    CIRTEMO, SCD and Pixelteq have co-developed a miniature short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral snapshot imager utilizing Multivariate Optical Elements (MOEs). The resultant product may address many of the detection challenges facing multiple markets including commercial, medical, security and defense. This paper highlights the design process of developing MOEs for a targeted application, as well as the technological challenges faced and solutions developed for successful integration of a micro-patterned mosaic array to an InGaAs focal plane array.

  13. MID-INFRARED GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS FROM THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, X.; Assef, R. J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brodwin, M.; Dey, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Brown, M. J. I.; Caldwell, N.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S.; Cool, R. J.; Eisenstein, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Stern, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.

    2009-05-20

    We present galaxy luminosity functions at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m measured by combining photometry from the IRAC Shallow Survey with redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. The well defined IRAC samples contain 3800-5800 galaxies for the 3.6-8.0 {mu}m bands with spectroscopic redshifts and z < 0.6. We obtained relatively complete luminosity functions in the local redshift bin of z < 0.2 for all four IRAC channels that are well fitted by Schechter functions. After analyzing the samples for the whole redshift range, we found significant evolution in the luminosity functions for all four IRAC channels that can be fitted as an evolution in M {sub *} with redshift, {delta}M {sub *} = Qz. While we measured Q = 1.2 {+-} 0.4 and 1.1 {+-} 0.4 in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands consistent with the predictions from a passively evolving population, we obtained Q = 1.8 {+-} 1.1 in the 8.0 {mu}m band consistent with other evolving star formation rate estimates. We compared our luminosity functions with the predictions of semianalytical galaxy formation and found the best agreement at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, rough agreement at 8.0 {mu}m, and a large mismatch at 5.8 {mu}m. These models also predicted a comparable Q-value to our luminosity functions at 8.0 {mu}m, but predicted smaller values at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. We also measured the luminosity functions separately for early- and late-type galaxies. While the luminosity functions of late-type galaxies resemble those for the total population, the luminosity functions of early-type galaxies in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands indicate deviations from the passive evolution model, especially from the measured flat luminosity density evolution. Combining our estimates with other measurements in the literature, we found 53 {+-} 18% of the present stellar mass of early-type galaxies was assembled at z = 0.7.

  14. Galaxy evolution from deep multi-wavelength infrared surveys: a prelude to Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Vaccari, M.; Berta, S.; Marchetti, L.; Mainetti, G.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Studies of the generation and assembly of stellar populations in galaxies largely benefit from far-IR observations, considering that the IR flux is a close prior to the rate of star formation (the bulk of which happens in dust-obscured environments). At the same time, major episodes of nuclear AGN accretion are also dust-obscured and visible in the IR. Aims: At the end of the Spitzer cryogenic mission and the onset of the Herschel era, we review our current knowledge of galaxy evolution at IR wavelengths, and model it to achieve as far as a complete view of the evolution of cosmic sources. We also develop new tools for the analysis of background fluctuations to constrain source counts in regimes of high confusion, as it happens for the Herschel sub-mm surveys. Methods: We analysed a wide variety of new data on galaxy evolution and high-redshift source populations from Spitzer cosmological surveys, and confront them with complementary data from mm ground-based observations and constraints from the far-IR diffuse radiation, as well as preliminary results from Herschel surveys. Results: These data confirm earlier indications about a very rapid increase in galaxy volume emissivity with redshift up to z ≃ 1 [ ρ(z) ∝ (1+z)4] , the fastest evolution rate observed for galaxies at any wavelengths. The observed Spitzer counts require a combination of fast evolution for the dominant population and a bumpy spectrum with substantial PAH emission at z ~ 1 to 2. Number counts at long wavelengths (70 through 1100 μm) confirm these results. All the present data require that the fast observed evolution from z = 0 to 1 flattens around redshift 1 and then keeps approximately constant up to z ≃ 2.5 at least. Our estimated redshift-dependent bolometric comoving energy density keeps lower at z ⪆ 1.5 than some previously published results based on either large extinction corrections, or large spectral extrapolations. Conclusions: The present-day IR/sub-mm data provide

  15. Snapshots: Chromatin Control of Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, David M.; Lieberman, Paul M.; Jung, Jae U.; McBride, Alison A.; Morris, Kevin V.; Ott, Melanie; Margolis, David; Nieto, Amelia; Nevels, Michael; Parks, Robin J.; Kristie, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Like their cellular host counterparts, many invading viral pathogens must contend with, modulate, and utilize the host cell’s chromatin machinery to promote efficient lytic infection or control persistent-latent states. While not intended to be comprehensive, this review represents a compilation of conceptual snapshots of the dynamic interplay of viruses with the chromatin environment. Contributions focus on chromatin dynamics during infection, viral circumvention of cellular chromatin repression, chromatin organization of large DNA viruses, tethering and persistence, viral interactions with cellular chromatin modulation machinery, and control of viral latency-reactivation cycles. PMID:23217624

  16. SnapShot: Phosphoregulation of Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Andrew; Vuong, Jenny; Rogers, Samuel; Malumbres, Marcos; O'Donoghue, Seán I

    2017-06-15

    During mitosis, a cell divides its duplicated genome into two identical daughter cells. This process must occur without errors to prevent proliferative diseases (e.g., cancer). A key mechanism controlling mitosis is the precise timing of more than 32,000 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events by a network of kinases and counterbalancing phosphatases. The identity, magnitude, and temporal regulation of these events have emerged recently, largely from advances in mass spectrometry. Here, we show phosphoevents currently believed to be key regulators of mitosis. For an animated version of this SnapShot, please see http://www.cell.com/cell/enhanced/odonoghue2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Extending the Canada-France brown dwarfs survey to the near-infrared: first ultracool brown dwarfs from CFBDSIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Albert, L.; Forveille, T.; Artigau, E.; Delfosse, X.; Reylé, C.; Willott, C. J.; Bertin, E.; Wilkins, S. M.; Allard, F.; Arzoumanian, D.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: We present the first results of the ongoing Canada-France Brown Dwarfs Survey-InfraRed, hereafter CFBDSIR, a near infrared extension to the optical wide-field survey CFBDS. Our final objectives are to constrain ultracool atmosphere physics by finding a statistically significant sample of objects cooler than 650 K and to explore the ultracool brown dwarf mass function building on a well-defined sample of such objects. Methods: We identify candidates in CFHT/WIRCam J and CFHT/MegaCam z' images using optimised psf-fitting, and follow them up with pointed, near-infrared imaging with SOFI at the NTT. We finally obtain low-resolution spectroscopy of the coolest candidates to characterise their atmospheric physics. Results: We have so far analysed and followed up all candidates on the first 66 square degrees of the 335 square degree survey. We identified 55 T-dwarfs candidates with z'-J>3.5 and have confirmed six of them as T-dwarfs, including 3 that are strong later-than-T8 candidates, based on their far-red and NIR colours. We also present here the NIR spectra of one of these ultracool dwarfs, CFBDSIR1458+1013, which confirms it as one of the coolest brown dwarf known, possibly in the 550-600 K temperature range. Conclusions: From the completed survey we expect to discover 10 to 15 dwarfs later than T8, more than doubling the known number of such objects. This will enable detailed studies of their extreme atmospheric properties and provide a stronger statistical basis for studies of their luminosity function. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the

  18. WINGS: a WIde-field nearby Galaxy-cluster survey. III. Deep near-infrared photometry of 28 nearby clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentinuzzi, T.; Woods, D.; Fasano, G.; Riello, M.; D'Onofrio, M.; Varela, J.; Bettoni, D.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Fritz, J.; Moles, M.; Omizzolo, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Kjærgaard, P.

    2009-07-01

    Context: This is the third paper in a series devoted to the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS). WINGS is a long-term project aimed at gathering wide-field, multiband imaging and spectroscopy of galaxies in a complete sample of 77 X-ray selected, nearby clusters (0.04infrared (J,K) photometric catalogs of 28 clusters of the WINGS sample and describes the procedures followed to construct them. Methods: The raw data has been reduced at CASU and special care has been devoted to the final coadding, drizzling technique, astrometric solution, and magnitude calibration for the WFCAM pipeline-processed data. We constructed the photometric catalogs based on the final calibrated, coadded mosaics (≈0.79 deg^2) in J (19 clusters) and K (27 clusters) bands. A customized interactive pipeline was used to clean the catalogs and to make mock images for photometric errors and completeness estimates. Results: We provide deep near-infrared photometric catalogs (90% complete in detection rate at total magnitudes J≈ 20.5, K≈ 19.4, and in classification rate at J≈19.5 and K≈ 18.5), giving positions, geometrical parameters, total and aperture magnitudes for all detected sources. For each field we classify the detected sources as stars, galaxies, and objects of “unknown” nature. Based on observations taken at the United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope, operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the UK. J and K photometric catalogs are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/501/851

  19. CHEMISTRY IN INFRARED DARK CLOUD CLUMPS: A MOLECULAR LINE SURVEY AT 3 mm

    SciTech Connect

    Sanhueza, Patricio; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Finn, Susanna C.; Garay, Guido; Silva, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    We have observed 37 Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), containing a total of 159 clumps, in high-density molecular tracers at 3 mm using the 22 m ATNF Mopra Telescope located in Australia. After determining kinematic distances, we eliminated clumps that are not located in IRDCs and clumps with a separation between them of less than one Mopra beam. Our final sample consists of 92 IRDC clumps. The most commonly detected molecular lines are (detection rates higher than 8%) N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HNC, HN{sup 13}C, HCO{sup +}, H{sup 13}CO{sup +}, HCN, C{sub 2}H, HC{sub 3}N, HNCO, and SiO. We investigate the behavior of the different molecular tracers and look for chemical variations as a function of an evolutionary sequence based on Spitzer IRAC and MIPS emission. We find that the molecular tracers behave differently through the evolutionary sequence and some of them can be used to yield useful relative age information. The presence of HNC and N{sub 2}H{sup +} lines does not depend on the star formation activity. On the other hand, HC{sub 3}N, HNCO, and SiO are predominantly detected in later stages of evolution. Optical depth calculations show that in IRDC clumps the N{sub 2}H{sup +} line is optically thin, the C{sub 2}H line is moderately optically thick, and HNC and HCO{sup +} are optically thick. The HCN hyperfine transitions are blended, and, in addition, show self-absorbed line profiles and extended wing emission. These factors combined prevent the use of HCN hyperfine transitions for the calculation of physical parameters. Total column densities of the different molecules, except C{sub 2}H, increase with the evolutionary stage of the clumps. Molecular abundances increase with the evolutionary stage for N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HCO{sup +}. The N{sub 2}H{sup +}/HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}/HNC abundance ratios act as chemical clocks, increasing with the evolution of the clumps.

  20. ALBEDO PROPERTIES OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS BASED ON THE ALL-SKY SURVEY OF THE INFRARED ASTRONOMICAL SATELLITE AKARI

    SciTech Connect

    Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Ishiguro, Masateru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mueller, Thomas G.; Ootsubo, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the albedo properties of main belt asteroids (MBAs) detected by the All-Sky Survey of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. The characteristics of 5120 asteroids detected by the survey, including their sizes and albedos, were cataloged in the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA). Size and albedo measurements were based on the standard thermal model, using inputs of infrared fluxes and absolute magnitudes measured at optical wavelengths. MBAs, which account for 4722 of the 5120 AcuA asteroids, have semimajor axes of 2.06-3.27 AU, except for the near-Earth asteroids. AcuA provides a complete data set of all MBAs brighter than the absolute magnitude of H < 10.3, which corresponds to the diameter of d > 20 km. We confirmed that the albedo distribution of the MBAs is strongly bimodal as was already known from the past observations, and that the bimodal distribution occurs not only in the total population, but also within inner, middle, and outer regions of the main belt. The bimodal distribution in each group consists of low-albedo components in C-type asteroids and high-albedo components in S-type asteroids. We found that the small asteroids have much more variety in albedo than the large asteroids. In spite of the albedo transition process like space weathering, the heliocentric distribution of the mean albedo of asteroids in each taxonomic type is nearly flat. The mean albedo of the total, on the other hand, gradually decreases with an increase in semimajor axis. This can be explained by the compositional ratio of taxonomic types; that is, the proportion of dark asteroids such as C- and D-types increases, while that of bright asteroids such as S-type decreases, with increasing heliocentric distance. The heliocentric distributions of X-subclasses: E-, M-, and P-types, which can be divided based on albedo values, are also examined. P-types, which are the major component in X-types, are distributed throughout the main belt regions, and the

  1. Family Snapshots: A Descriptive Classroom Exercise in Memory and Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T.; Cox, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    "Family Snapshots" are 100-words-or-less descriptive memories of times in the lives of families that highlight poignant moments. They complement other exercises within a family counseling course, including the use of genograms. Modeled after the "Washington Post Magazine"'s series "Life Is Short: Autobiography as Haiku," these snapshots give…

  2. Family Snapshots: A Descriptive Classroom Exercise in Memory and Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T.; Cox, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    "Family Snapshots" are 100-words-or-less descriptive memories of times in the lives of families that highlight poignant moments. They complement other exercises within a family counseling course, including the use of genograms. Modeled after the "Washington Post Magazine"'s series "Life Is Short: Autobiography as Haiku," these snapshots give…

  3. Far-infrared and submillimeter survey of the galactic center and nearby galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. F.; Niles, D. W.; Kanskar, M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Thronson, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Maps are presented with 12-arcmin resolution of the Galactic Center and adjacent galactic plane, from l(Pc) = 359 deg to l(Pc) = 5 deg. The data were obtained with the Steward Observatory's cryogenically-cooled, balloon-borne telescope. The data are from channels filtered for a bandpass of 70 to 110 microns and for a longpass of wavelength greater than 80 microns. For the typical effective temperature of 25 K of a galactic H II region at this spatial resolution, the effective wavelengths of the channels are 93 microns and 145 microns. Continuous emission is mapped along the galactic plane in both wavelengths. There are two contrasts between the immediate vicinity of SgrA l(Pc) smaller than 1 deg, and the galactic plane in general. Firstly, for l(Pi) greater than 1 deg the galactic plane narrows dramatically at 93 microns, while retaining its width at 145 microns. Secondly, the individual sources at l(Pc) (which are associated with H II regions) have greater peak brightness in the 145-micron channel than the 93-micron channel, while SgrA has approximately equal peak brightness in each. The maps demonstrate the importance of submillimeter wavelengths to galactic surveys.

  4. Far-infrared data for symbiotic stars. II - The IRAS survey observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Fernandez-Castro, T.; Stencel, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS survey data for all known symbiotic binaries are reported. S type systems have 25 micron excesses much larger than those of single red giant stars, suggesting that these objects lose mass more rapidly than do normal giants. D type objects have far-IR colors similar to those of Mira variables, implying mass-loss rate of about 10 to the -6th solar masses/yr. The near-IR extinctions of the D types indicate that their Mira components are enshrouded in optically thick dust shells, while their hot companions lie outside the shells. If this interpretation of the data is correct, then the very red near-IR colors of D type symbiotic stars are caused by extreme amounts of dust absorption rather than dust emission. The small group of D prime objects possesses far-IR colors resembling those of compact planetary nebulae or extreme OH/IR stars. It is speculated that these binaries are not symbiotic stars at all, but contain a hot compact star and an exasymptotic branch giant which is in the process of ejecting a planetary nebula shell.

  5. Far-infrared data for symbiotic stars. II - The IRAS survey observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Fernandez-Castro, T.; Stencel, R. E.

    1988-06-01

    IRAS survey data for all known symbiotic binaries are reported. S type systems have 25 micron excesses much larger than those of single red giant stars, suggesting that these objects lose mass more rapidly than do normal giants. D type objects have far-IR colors similar to those of Mira variables, implying mass-loss rate of about 10 to the -6th solar masses/yr. The near-IR extinctions of the D types indicate that their Mira components are enshrouded in optically thick dust shells, while their hot companions lie outside the shells. If this interpretation of the data is correct, then the very red near-IR colors of D type symbiotic stars are caused by extreme amounts of dust absorption rather than dust emission. The small group of D prime objects possesses far-IR colors resembling those of compact planetary nebulae or extreme OH/IR stars. It is speculated that these binaries are not symbiotic stars at all, but contain a hot compact star and an exasymptotic branch giant which is in the process of ejecting a planetary nebula shell.

  6. Large Millimeter Telescope Observations of Extremely Luminous High Redshift Infrared Galaxies Detected by the Planck Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corneilus Harrington, Kevin; Yun, Min Su; Cybulski, John R.; Wilson, Grant; Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) Team

    2015-01-01

    We present 8‧‧resolution, 1.1mm, continuum imaging and CO spectroscopic redshift measurements of extremely bright sub-millimeter galaxies identified from the Planck and Herschel surveys, taken with the Large Millimeter Telescope's AzTEC and Redshift Search Receiver instruments. Due to their exceedingly high flux density in the Herschel/SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 micron bands (S_250 ~ S_350 ~ S_500 > 100 mJy), these sources are likely to be strongly lensed dusty galaxies at high redshift. We compiled this target list of lens candidates after cross-correlating the Planck Surveyor mission's highest frequency channel (857 GHz/350 μm, FWHM = 4.5‧) data with archival data taken with the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE). Every Planck-Herschel counterpart found within a 150‧‧radius is further examined using the higher angular resolution Herschel and WISE images to identify only dusty, high-z starburst galaxies.

  7. The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS): Stellar mass fractions in a sample of infrared-selected galaxy clusters at z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Bandon; Brodwin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the universe. In addition to being interesting objects in their own right, they are excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy evolution and the properties and abundance of galaxy clusters provide important tests for cosmology. The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS) is a high-redshift (z~1) survey that selects galaxy clusters in the infrared over nearly the full extragalactic sky using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) AllWISE data release. We have measured Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) masses for twelve of the MaDCoWS clusters lying in the range 0.9 < z <1.3 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and used follow-up Spitzer/IRAC rest-frame near-infrared observations to measure the stellar mass of these clusters. With these data, we have measured the stellar mass fraction, f_star, and it's relation to total mass for a sample of infrared-selected clusters at z~1. We repeated our analysis of stellar mass fraction on a sample of SZ-selected clusters from the South Pole Telescope (SPT)-SZ survey that lie in a comparable range of mass and redshift to our MaDCoWS clusters to compare the selection methods. We found no significant difference in the trend of stellar mass fraction-to-total mass between infrared and radio selections. Comparing to similar measurements in the local Universe, we find no evidence of strong evolution in the trend over the last 8 Gyr.

  8. The SXDF-ALMA 2-arcmin2 Deep Survey: Stacking Rest-frame Near-infrared Selected Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Kohno, Kotaro; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Caputi, Karina I.; Dunlop, James S.; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J.; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanish, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Tamura, Yoichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Wilson, Grant W.; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S.; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Foucaud, Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    We present stacking analyses on our ALMA deep 1.1 mm imaging in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field using 1.6 and 3.6 μm selected galaxies in the CANDELS WFC3 catalog. We detect a stacked flux of ˜0.03-0.05 mJy, corresponding to {L}{IR}\\lt {10}11 {L}⊙ and a star formation rate (SFR) of ˜ 15 {M}⊙ yr-1 at z = 2. We find that galaxies that are brighter in the rest-frame near-infrared tend to also be brighter at 1.1 mm, and galaxies fainter than {m}3.6μ {{m}}=23 do not produce detectable 1.1 mm emission. This suggests a correlation between stellar mass and SFR, but outliers to this correlation are also observed, suggesting strongly boosted star formation or extremely large extinction. We also find tendencies that redder galaxies and galaxies at higher redshifts are brighter at 1.1 mm. Our field contains z˜ 2.5 Hα emitters and a bright single-dish source. However, we do not find evidence of bias in our results caused by the bright source. By combining the fluxes of sources detected by ALMA and fluxes of faint sources detected with stacking, we recover a 1.1 mm surface brightness of up to 20.3 ± 1.2 Jy deg-2, comparable to the extragalactic background light measured by COBE. Based on the fractions of optically faint sources in our and previous ALMA studies and the COBE measurements, we find that approximately half of the cosmic star formation may be obscured by dust and missed by deep optical surveys. Much deeper and wider ALMA imaging is therefore needed to better constrain the obscured cosmic star formation history.

  9. The HETDEX pilot survey. V. The physical origin of Lyα emitters probed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Chonis, Taylor; Jogee, Shardha; Livermore, Rachael; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bridge, Joanna; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P.; Fabricius, Maximilian; Gawiser, Eric; Salmon, Brett; and others

    2014-08-10

    We present the results from a Very Large Telescope/SINFONI and Keck/NIRSPEC near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 16 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.1-2.5 in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields discovered from the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Pilot Survey. We detect rest-frame optical nebular lines (Hα and/or [O III] λ5007) for 10 of the LAEs and measure physical properties, including the star formation rate (SFR), gas-phase metallicity, gas mass fraction, and Lyα velocity offset. We find that LAEs may lie below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at the same redshift. The LAEs all show velocity shifts of Lyα relative to the systemic redshift ranging between +85 and +296 km s{sup –1} with a mean of +180 km s{sup –1}. This value is smaller than measured for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The Lyα velocity offsets show a moderate correlation with the measured SFR (2.5σ), but no significant correlations are seen with the SFR surface density, specific SFR, stellar mass, or dynamical mass (≲1.5σ). Exploring the role of dust, kinematics of the interstellar medium (ISM), and geometry on the escape of Lyα photons, we find no signature of selective quenching of resonantly scattered Lyα photons. However, we also find no evidence that a clumpy ISM is enhancing the Lyα equivalent width. Our results suggest that the low metallicity in LAEs may be responsible for yielding an environment with a low neutral hydrogen column density and less dust, easing the escape of Lyα photons over that in continuum-selected star-forming galaxies.

  10. ARIEL - The Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccleston, P.; Tinetti, G.

    2015-10-01

    More than 1,000 extrasolar systems have been discovered, hosting nearly 2,000 exoplanets. Ongoing and planned ESA and NASA missions from space such as GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, K2 and TESS, plus ground based surveys, will increase the number of known systems to tens of thousands. Of all these exoplanets we know very little; i.e. their orbital data and, for some of these, their physical parameters such as their size and mass. In the past decade, pioneering results have been obtained using transit spectroscopy with Hubble, Spitzer and ground-based facilities, enabling the detection of a few of the most abundant ionic, atomic and molecular species and to constrain the planet's thermal structure. Future general purpose facilities with large collecting areas will allow the acquisition of better exoplanet spectra, compared to the currently available, especially from fainter targets. A few tens of planets will be observed with JWST and E-ELT in great detail. A breakthrough in our understanding of planet formation and evolution mechanisms will only happen through the observation of the planetary bulk and atmospheric composition of a statistically large sample of planets. This requires conducting spectroscopic observations covering simultaneously a broad spectral region from the visible to the mid-IR. It also requires a dedicated space mission with the necessary photometric stability to perform these challenging measurements and sufficient agility to observe multiple times ~500 exoplanets over 3.5 years. The ESA Cosmic Vision M4 mission candidate ARIEL is designed to accomplish this goal and will provide a complete, statistically significant sample of gas-giants, Neptunes and super-Earths with temperatures hotter than 600K, as these types of planets will allow direct observation of their bulk properties, enabling us to constrain models of planet formation and evolution. The ARIEL consortium currently includes academic institutes and industry from eleven countries in Europe; the

  11. New open cluster Cepheids in the VVV survey tightly constrain near-infrared period-luminosity relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodian; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai

    2017-01-01

    Classical Cepheids are among the most useful Galactic and nearby extragalactic distance tracers because of their well-defined period-luminosity relations (PLRs). Open cluster (OC) Cepheids are important objects to independently calibrate these PLRs. Based on Data Release 1 of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea VVV survey, we have discovered four new, faint, and heavily reddened OC Cepheids, including the longest period OC Cepheid known, ASAS J180342-2211.0 in Teutsch 14a. The other OC-Cepheid pairs include NGC 6334 and V0470 Sco, Majaess 170 and ASAS J160125-5150.3, and Teutsch 77 and BB Cen. ASAS J180342-2211.0, with a period of log P = 1.623 (d) is important to constrain the slope of the PLR. The currently most complete JHKs Galactic Cepheid PLRs are obtained based on a significantly increased sample of 31 OC Cepheids, with associated uncertainties that are improved by 40 per cent compared with previous determinations (in the J band). The near-infrared PLRs are in good agreement with previous PLRs determined based on other methods.

  12. Constraints on the Space Density of Methane Dwarfs and the Substellar Mass Function from a Deep Near-Infrared Survey.

    PubMed

    Herbst; Thompson; Fockenbrock; Rix; Beckwith

    1999-11-20

    We report preliminary results of a deep near-infrared search for methane-absorbing brown dwarfs; almost 5 yr after the discovery of Gl 229b, there are only a few confirmed examples of this type of object. New J-band, wide-field images, combined with preexisting R-band observations, allow efficient identification of candidates by their extreme (R-J) colors. Follow-up measurements with custom filters can then confirm objects with methane absorption. To date, we have surveyed a total of 11.4 deg2 to J approximately 20.5 and R approximately 25. Follow-up CH4 filter observations of promising candidates in one-fourth of these fields have turned up no methane-absorbing brown dwarfs. With 90% confidence, this implies that the space density of objects similar to Gl 229b is less than 0.012 pc-3. These calculations account for the vertical structure of the Galaxy, which can be important for sensitive measurements. Combining published theoretical atmospheric models with our observations sets an upper limit of alpha

  13. First Simultaneous Detection of Lyman-alpha Emission and Lyman Break from a Galaxy at Redshift 7.51 from Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilvi, Vithal; Pirzkal, Norbert; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Rhoads, James E.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ryan, Russell E.; Christensen, Lise; Hathi, Nimish P.; Pharo, John; Joshi, Bhavin; Yang, Huan; Gronwall, Caryl; Cimatti, Andrea; Walsh, J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Straughn, Amber; Östlin, Göran; Rothberg, Barry; Livermore, Rachael C.; Hibon, Pascale; Gardner, Jonathan P.; FIGS Team

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies at high-redshifts provide a powerful tool to probe cosmic dawn, and therefore it is crucial to reliably identify these galaxies. Here, we present an unambiguous and first simultaneous detection of a Lyman-alpha line and a Lyman break from a galaxy (FIGS_GN1_1292) at z=7.51, observed in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS: PI Mlahotra). FIGS is currently the most sensitive G102 grism survey, with 160-orbit depth equally distributed in four different fields in GOODS-N and GOODS-S. FIGS_GN1_1292 is detected independently in multiple position angles, and has a Lyman-alpha line flux of 1.06e-17 erg/s/cm^2, nearly a factor of four higher than in the archival MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations. This higher flux in the grism data is consistent with other recent observations implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy may underestimate the total emission line fluxes, and if confirmed, can have strong implications for reionization studies that are based on ground-based Lyman-alpha measurements. The successful detection of continuum in such a high-redshift galaxy demonstrates the sensitivity of the FIGS survey, and the capability of grism spectroscopy to study the epoch of reionization using upcoming missions like the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST).

  14. Joint US-Japan Observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO): Deep Surveys and Observations of High-Z Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, David B.

    1997-01-01

    Several important milestones were passed during the past year of our ISO observing program: (1) Our first ISO data were successfully obtained. ISOCAM data were taken for our primary deep field target in the 'Lockman Hole'. Thirteen hours of integration (taken over 4 contiguous orbits) were obtained in the LW2 filter of a 3 ft x 3 ft region centered on the position of minimum HI column density in the Lockman Hole. The data were obtained in microscanning mode. This is the deepest integration attempted to date (by almost a factor of 4 in time) with ISOCAM. (2) The deep survey data obtained for the Lockman Hole were received by the Japanese P.I. (Yoshi Taniguchi) in early December, 1996 (following release of the improved pipeline formatted data from Vilspa), and a copy was forwarded to Hawaii shortly thereafter. These data were processed independently by the Japan and Hawaii groups during the latter part of December 1996, and early January, 1997. The Hawaii group made use of the U.S. ISO data center at IPAC/Caltech in Pasadena to carry out their data reduction, while the Japanese group used a copy of the ISOCAM data analysis package made available to them through an agreement with the head of the ISOCAM team, Catherine Cesarsky. (3) Results of our LW2 Deep Survey in the Lockman Hole were first reported at the ISO Workshop "Taking ISO to the Limits: Exploring the Faintest Sources in the Infrared" held at the ISO Science Operations Center in Villafranca, Spain (VILSPA) on 3-4 February, 1997. Yoshi Taniguchi gave an invited presentation summarizing the results of the U.S.-Japan team, and Dave Sanders gave an invited talk summarizing the results of the Workshop at the conclusion of the two day meeting. The text of the talks by Taniguchi and Sanders are included in the printed Workshop Proceedings, and are published in full on the Web. By several independent accounts, the U.S.-Japan Deep Survey results were one of the highlights of the Workshop; these data showed

  15. SXDF-ALMA 2 arcmin2 deep survey: Resolving and characterizing the infrared extragalactic background light down to 0.5 mJy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David; Ikarashi, Soh; Ishii, Shun; Ivison, Rob J.; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of five submillimeter sources (S1.1mm = 0.54-2.02 mJy) that were detected during our 1.1 mm deep continuum survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF)-UDS-CANDELS field (2 arcmin2, 1σ = 0.055 mJy beam-1) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The two brightest sources correspond to a known single-dish (AzTEC) selected bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG), whereas the remaining three are faint SMGs newly uncovered by ALMA. If we exclude the two brightest sources, the contribution of the ALMA-detected faint SMGs to the infrared extragalactic background light is estimated to be ˜ 4.1^{+5.4}_{-3.0}Jy deg-2, which corresponds to ˜ 16^{+22}_{-12}% of the infrared extragalactic background light. This suggests that their contribution to the infrared extragalactic background light is as large as that of bright SMGs. We identified multiwavelength counterparts of the five ALMA sources. One of the sources (SXDF-ALMA3) is extremely faint in the optical to near-infrared region despite its infrared luminosity (L_IR˜eq 1× 10^{12} L_{⊙} or SFR ≃ 100 M⊙ yr-1). By fitting the spectral energy distributions at the optical-to-near-infrared wavelengths of the remaining four ALMA sources, we obtained the photometric redshifts (zphoto) and stellar masses (M*): zphoto ≃ 1.3-2.5, M* ≃ (3.5-9.5) × 1010 M⊙. We also derived their star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs as ≃30-200 M⊙ yr-1 and ≃0.8-2 Gyr-1, respectively. These values imply that they are main sequence star-forming galaxies.

  16. CANDELS: THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    SciTech Connect

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Casertano, Stefano; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Strolger, Louis; Castellano, Marco; Dickinson, Mark; and others

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z Almost-Equal-To 1.5-8, and to study Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive multi-wavelength observations. The primary CANDELS data consist of imaging obtained in the Wide Field Camera 3 infrared channel (WFC3/IR) and the WFC3 ultraviolet/optical channel, along with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The CANDELS/Deep survey covers {approx}125 arcmin{sup 2} within GOODS-N and GOODS-S, while the remainder consists of the CANDELS/Wide survey, achieving a total of {approx}800 arcmin{sup 2} across GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-Deep Survey). We summarize the observational aspects of the survey as motivated by the scientific goals and present a detailed description of the data reduction procedures and products from the survey. Our data reduction methods utilize the most up-to-date calibration files and image combination procedures. We have paid special attention to correcting a range of instrumental effects, including charge transfer efficiency degradation for ACS, removal of electronic bias-striping present in ACS data after Servicing Mission 4, and persistence effects and other artifacts in WFC3/IR. For each field, we release mosaics for individual epochs and eventual mosaics containing data from all epochs combined, to facilitate photometric variability studies and the deepest possible photometry. A more detailed overview of the science goals and observational design of the survey are presented in a companion paper.

  17. Conceptual model for the use of aerial color infrared photography by mosquito control districts as a survey technique for Psorophora columbiae oviposition habitats in Texas ricelands.

    PubMed

    Welch, J B; Olson, J K; Yates, M M; Benton, A R; Baker, R D

    1989-09-01

    Two photographic missions per year are recommended to provide information on land-use and mosquito oviposition habitats. A winter mission, following a rain, will-provide a view of low areas within fields which may be obscured by summer vegetation. A summer mission will provide current land-use and crop distribution information and may show plant stress conditions due to excessive soil moisture. An aerial color infrared photographic survey with directed ground verification should result in a substantial savings in cost and increased efficiency in surveillance of mosquito producing habitats over ground survey techniques currently employed by mosquito control districts.

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey Employee.) (a) Ext- General view from Southeast. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey employee.) (b) Ext- Main building, south end. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  20. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (b) Ext- General view rear, looking from north. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (a) Ext- General front view from southeast. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  2. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (c) Ext-Detail entrance on south. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  3. Detector Control and Data Acquisition for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) with a Custom ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian S.; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally approx.300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  4. Infrared Spectra and Photometry Of Complete Samples of Palomar-Green and Two Micron All Sky Survey Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yong; Rieke, G. H.; Ogle, P. M.; Su, K. Y. L.; Balog, Z.

    2014-10-01

    As a step toward a comprehensive overview of the infrared (IR) diagnostics of the central engines and host galaxies of quasars at low redshift, we present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic (5-40 μm) and photometric (24, 70, and 160 μm) measurements of all Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at z < 0.5 and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z < 0.3. We supplement these data with Herschel measurements at 160 μm. The sample is composed of 87 optically selected PG quasars and 52 near-IR-selected 2MASS quasars. Here we present the data, measure the prominent spectral features, and separate emission due to star formation from that emitted by the dusty circumnuclear torus. We find that the mid-IR (5-30 μm) spectral shape for the torus is largely independent of quasar IR luminosity with scatter in the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape of lsim0.2 dex. Except for the silicate features, no large difference is observed between PG (unobscured—silicate emission) and 2MASS (obscured—silicate absorption) quasars. Only mild silicate features are observed in both cases. When in emission, the peak wavelength of the silicate feature tends to be longer than 9.7 μm, possibly indicating effects on grain properties near the active galactic nucleus. The IR color is shown to correlate with the equivalent width of the aromatic features, indicating that the slope of the quasar mid- to far-IR SED is to first order driven by the fraction of radiation from star formation in the IR bands.

  5. Design Evolution of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope Using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume L.; Peters, Carlton V.; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan E.; McDonald, Carson S.; Content, David A.; Jackson, Clifton E.

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) continues to evolve as each design cycle is analyzed. In 2012, two Hubble sized (2.4 m diameter) telescopes were donated to NASA from elsewhere in the Federal Government. NASA began investigating potential uses for these telescopes and identified WFIRST as a mission to benefit from these assets. With an updated, deeper, and sharper field of view than previous design iterations with a smaller telescope, the optical designs of the WFIRST instruments were updated and the mechanical and thermal designs evolved around the new optical layout. Beginning with Design Cycle 3, significant analysis efforts yielded a design and model that could be evaluated for Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) purposes for the Wide Field Imager (WFI) and provided the basis for evaluating the high level observatory requirements. Development of the Cycle 3 thermal model provided some valuable analysis lessons learned and established best practices for future design cycles. However, the Cycle 3 design did include some major liens and evolving requirements which were addressed in the Cycle 4 Design. Some of the design changes are driven by requirements changes, while others are optimizations or solutions to liens from previous cycles. Again in Cycle 4, STOP analysis was performed and further insights into the overall design were gained leading to the Cycle 5 design effort currently underway. This paper seeks to capture the thermal design evolution, with focus on major design drivers, key decisions and their rationale, and lessons learned as the design evolved.

  6. Design Evolution of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Peters, Carlton; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Content, David A.; Jackson, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) continues to evolve as each design cycle is analyzed. In 2012, two Hubble sized (2.4 m diameter) telescopes were donated to NASA from elsewhere in the Federal Government. NASA began investigating potential uses for these telescopes and identified WFIRST as a mission to benefit from these assets. With an updated, deeper, and sharper field of view than previous design iterations with a smaller telescope, the optical designs of the WFIRST instruments were updated and the mechanical and thermal designs evolved around the new optical layout. Beginning with Design Cycle 3, significant analysis efforts yielded a design and model that could be evaluated for Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) purposes for the Wide Field Imager (WFI) and provided the basis for evaluating the high level observatory requirements. Development of the Cycle 3 thermal model provided some valuable analysis lessons learned and established best practices for future design cycles. However, the Cycle 3 design did include some major liens and evolving requirements which were addressed in the Cycle 4 Design. Some of the design changes are driven by requirements changes, while others are optimizations or solutions to liens from previous cycles. Again in Cycle 4, STOP analysis was performed and further insights into the overall design were gained leading to the Cycle 5 design effort currently underway. This paper seeks to capture the thermal design evolution, with focus on major design drivers, key decisions and their rationale, and lessons learned as the design evolved.

  7. NEW MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS IN DEEP SPITZER/IRAC SURVEY DATA AND THEIR COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kashlinsky, A.; Arendt, R. G.; Mather, J.; Moseley, S. H.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.

    2012-07-01

    We extend previous measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations to {approx}< 1 Degree-Sign using new data from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. Two fields with depths of {approx_equal} 12 hr pixel{sup -1} over three epochs are analyzed at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Maps of the fields were assembled using a self-calibration method uniquely suitable for probing faint diffuse backgrounds. Resolved sources were removed from the maps to a magnitude limit of mag{sub AB} {approx_equal} 25, as indicated by the level of the remaining shot noise. The maps were then Fourier transformed and their power spectra were evaluated. Instrumental noise was estimated from the time-differenced data, and subtracting this isolates the spatial fluctuations of the actual sky. The power spectra of the source-subtracted fields remain identical (within the observational uncertainties) for the three epochs indicating that zodiacal light contributes negligibly to the fluctuations. Comparing to 8 {mu}m power spectra shows that Galactic cirrus cannot account for the fluctuations. The signal appears isotropically distributed on the sky as required for an extragalactic origin. The CIB fluctuations continue to diverge to >10 times those of known galaxy populations on angular scales out to {approx}< 1 Degree-Sign . The low shot-noise levels remaining in the diffuse maps indicate that the large-scale fluctuations arise from the spatial clustering of faint sources well below the confusion noise. The spatial spectrum of these fluctuations is in reasonable agreement with an origin in populations clustered according to the standard cosmological model ({Lambda}CDM) at epochs coinciding with the first stars era.

  8. Observations of Near-Earth Asteroid 2010 CN141 with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Sean; Wright, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 2010 CN141 was discovered by NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) in February 2010, with follow-up observations from Mauna Kea by M. Micheli, G. T. Elliott, and D. J. Tholen from February to April. 2010 CN141's low visual albedo and its proximity to Earth caught the attention of observers, and it was selected for more detailed analysis. Its orbit brought it back into WISE's field of view in May, though it was near WISE's detection limit, and it was uncertain whether the asteroid would actually be visible. Subsequent analysis of the relevant WISE frames revealed a faint spot inside the error ellipse that was probably but not conclusively 2010 CN141. The spot was about three arcseconds from the asteroid's expected position. An independent observation from Mauna Kea in April also found a faint object, which was likely 2010 CN141, near the expected coordinates. Thermal modeling of the February observations, using both the Standard Thermal Model (which assumes slow rotation) and the Fast-Rotating Model, indicates that the asteroid has a diameter of 287 m ± 18 m (random) ± 29 m (systematic), a visual geometric albedo of 0.0252 ± 0.0040 (random) ± 0.0051 (systematic), and a bolometric Bond albedo of 0.0099 ± 0.0016 (random) ± 0.0020 (systematic). 2010 CN141 will come relatively close to Earth in the fall of 2011, and there will be good opportunities to observe it for several months.

  9. The Nobeyama 45 m 12CO(J=1-0) Survey of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takuji; Komugi, Shinya; Matsuhara, Hideo; Armus, Lee; Inami, Hanae; Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Kohno, Kotaro; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Arimatsu, Ko; Evans, Aaron

    2015-08-01

    Cold molecular gas and star formation in local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) are studied along the stage of the galaxy merger sequence. Most local LIRGs are starbursting and are involved with galaxy-galaxy interactions or mergers. The evolution and the direct trigger of the merger-driven starbursts are not clear observationally, although there are several theoretical explanations. In order to address these issues, information of the molecular gas, which is traced by a 12CO(J=1-0) emission line, of an unbiased LIRG sample is required. To this end, a CO survey of 79 galaxies in 62 LIRG systems were conducted with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. A method is developed to estimate the extent of CO gas in galaxies using combinations of two single-aperture telescopes with different beam sizes. The majority of the sources have the CO radius of less than ~ 4 kpc. The CO extent is found to possibly decrease from the early stage to the late stage of the merger. The molecular gas mass in the central several kilo-parsecs is constant throughout the merger sequence. These results statistically support a theoretically predicted scenario where the global gas inflow towards the galaxy center is common in merging LIRGs. The star formation efficiencies (SFE) in the central regions are derived and are high compared to disk star-forming galaxies as is well known. The SFE are found to be fairly independent of the merger stage. The star formation of merging LIRGs may be controlled by a common relation from gas to stars regardless of the merger stage, where SFR and resultant IR luminosity are determined by the amount of the molecular gas supplied by global inflow.

  10. Detector control and data acquisition for the wide field infrared survey telescope (WFIRST) with a custom ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brian; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; Luppino, Gerard; Culver, Harry; Wollack, Edward; Content, David

    2016-07-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally 300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  11. INFRARED SPECTRA AND PHOTOMETRY OF COMPLETE SAMPLES OF PALOMAR-GREEN AND TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yong; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Ogle, P. M.; Balog, Z.

    2014-10-01

    As a step toward a comprehensive overview of the infrared (IR) diagnostics of the central engines and host galaxies of quasars at low redshift, we present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic (5-40 μm) and photometric (24, 70, and 160 μm) measurements of all Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at z < 0.5 and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z < 0.3. We supplement these data with Herschel measurements at 160 μm. The sample is composed of 87 optically selected PG quasars and 52 near-IR-selected 2MASS quasars. Here we present the data, measure the prominent spectral features, and separate emission due to star formation from that emitted by the dusty circumnuclear torus. We find that the mid-IR (5-30 μm) spectral shape for the torus is largely independent of quasar IR luminosity with scatter in the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape of ≲0.2 dex. Except for the silicate features, no large difference is observed between PG (unobscured—silicate emission) and 2MASS (obscured—silicate absorption) quasars. Only mild silicate features are observed in both cases. When in emission, the peak wavelength of the silicate feature tends to be longer than 9.7 μm, possibly indicating effects on grain properties near the active galactic nucleus. The IR color is shown to correlate with the equivalent width of the aromatic features, indicating that the slope of the quasar mid- to far-IR SED is to first order driven by the fraction of radiation from star formation in the IR bands.

  12. Thermal ecology on an exposed algal reef: infrared imagery a rapid tool to survey temperature at local spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, T. E.; Smith, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    We tested the feasibility of infra-red (IR) thermography as a tool to survey in situ temperatures in intertidal habitats. We employed this method to describe aspects of thermal ecology for an exposed algal reef in the tropics (O`ahu, Hawai`i). In addition, we compared temperatures of the surrounding habitat as determined by IR thermography and traditional waterproof loggers. Images of reef organisms (6 macroalgae, 9 molluscs, 1 anthozoan, and 2 echinoderms), loggers, and landscapes were taken during two diurnal low tides. Analysis of IR thermographs revealed remarkable thermal complexity on a narrow tropical shore, as habitats ranged from 18.1 to 38.3°C and surfaces of organisms that ranged from 21.1 to 33.2°C. The near 20°C difference between abiotic habitats and the mosaic of temperatures experienced by reef organisms across the shore are similar to findings from temperate studies using specialized longterm loggers. Further, IR thermography captured rapid temperature fluctuations that were related to tidal height and cross-correlated to wave action. Finally, we gathered evidence that tidal species were associated with particular temperature ranges and that two species possess morphological characteristics that limit thermal stress. Loggers provided similar results as thermography but lack the ability to resolve variation in fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns. Our results support the utility of IR thermography in exploring thermal ecology, and demonstrate the steps needed to calibrate data leading to establishment of baseline conditions in a changing and heterogeneous environment.

  13. ARIEL: Atmospheric Remote Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey. A proposal for the ESA Cosmic Vision M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, E.; Micela, G.; Ariel Team

    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) is a proposal in response to the call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4). This mission will be devoted to observe spectroscopically in the IR a large population (hundreds to one thousand) of known planets in our Galaxy, opening a new discovery space in the field of extrasolar planet exploration and enabling a quantum leap in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far away worlds. The population of planets will include warm and hot gas‑giants, Neptunes and large terrestrial planets. The main ARIEL goal is the determination of the composition, formation and history of these planetary systems In order to fulfill the scientific goals of ARIEL, we propose the development of a 1‑meter class aperture space telescope, passively cooled to 70‑80K, to observe the combined light of stars and their planets, building on the current experience of transit and combined light observations with Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based telescopes. While JWST and EELT will initiate a detailed mid- to high-resolution IR spectroscopic observation of a few tens of planets, this mission will extend the study to a much larger (an order of magnitude difference) representative population of extrasolar planets discovered by ESA GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, NASA Kepler II, TESS and from the ground. The statistical perspective provided by this mission, will allow us to address some of the fundamental questions of the Cosmic Vision programme: What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? ls our Solar System unique, rare or very common? How does the Solar System work?

  14. A high resolution far-infrared survey of a section of the galactic plane. I - The nature of the sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, D. T.; Stier, M. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    1982-01-01

    Far-infrared, radio continuum and (C-12)O and (C-13)O line observations are presented of 42 far-infrared sources. The sources range in luminosity from 4000 to 3,000,000 solar luminosities. Most of them are associated with (C-12)O peaks. More than half the sources have associated H2O maser emission, and half possess associated radio continuum emission at a limit of 100 mJy. Eight have radio emission at weaker levels. In many cases, the far-infrared source is smaller than its associated radio source. The difference can be explained in the context of the 'blister' picture of H II regions. One group of sources emits many fewer Lyman continuum photons than expected, considering the far-infrared luminosities. A number of possible reasons for this are examined; the explanation holding that clusters of early type stars rather than single stars excite the far-infrared sources is considered the most reasonable.

  15. A high resolution far-infrared survey of a section of the galactic plane. I - The nature of the sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, D. T.; Stier, M. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    1982-01-01

    Far-infrared, radio continuum and (C-12)O and (C-13)O line observations are presented of 42 far-infrared sources. The sources range in luminosity from 4000 to 3,000,000 solar luminosities. Most of them are associated with (C-12)O peaks. More than half the sources have associated H2O maser emission, and half possess associated radio continuum emission at a limit of 100 mJy. Eight have radio emission at weaker levels. In many cases, the far-infrared source is smaller than its associated radio source. The difference can be explained in the context of the 'blister' picture of H II regions. One group of sources emits many fewer Lyman continuum photons than expected, considering the far-infrared luminosities. A number of possible reasons for this are examined; the explanation holding that clusters of early type stars rather than single stars excite the far-infrared sources is considered the most reasonable.

  16. Alumni Perspectives Survey. 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Alumni are a powerful force in building a business school's brand. They recommend programs to prospective students, they connect current students to job opportunities, and they contribute significantly to building a school's legacy. The findings in the 2014 Alumni Perspectives Survey Report provide a current snapshot of nearly 21,000 business…

  17. 49. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, 1957) PIER III DAMAGE FROM M/V KORSHOLMA COLLISION - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 47. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, October, 1957) SHEAR FENCE DAMAGE FROM M/V KORSHOLMA - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  19. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  20. A snapshot of the latest heart failure guidelines.

    PubMed

    Caboral-Stevens, Meriam F

    2014-07-13

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex chronic condition with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this article is to present a snapshot of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guidelines focusing on management and treatment of HF in primary care.

  1. LUMINOUS AND HIGH STELLAR MASS CANDIDATE GALAXIES AT z Almost-Equal-To 8 DISCOVERED IN THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Haojing; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Dave, Romeel; Faber, S. M.; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Reddy, Naveen; Siana, Brian D.; Cooray, Asantha R.; Hathi, Nimish P.; and others

    2012-12-20

    One key goal of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey is to track galaxy evolution back to z Almost-Equal-To 8. Its two-tiered ''wide and deep'' strategy bridges significant gaps in existing near-infrared surveys. Here we report on z Almost-Equal-To 8 galaxy candidates selected as F105W-band dropouts in one of its deep fields, which covers 50.1 arcmin{sup 2} to 4 ks depth in each of three near-infrared bands in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field. Two of our candidates have J < 26.2 mag, and are >1 mag brighter than any previously known F105W-dropouts. We derive constraints on the bright end of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 8, and show that the number density of such very bright objects is higher than expected from the previous Schechter luminosity function estimates at this redshift. Another two candidates are securely detected in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera images, which are the first such individual detections at z Almost-Equal-To 8. Their derived stellar masses are on the order of a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, from which we obtain the first measurement of the high-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function at z Almost-Equal-To 8. The high number density of very luminous and very massive galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 8, if real, could imply a large stellar-to-halo mass ratio and an efficient conversion of baryons to stars at such an early time.

  2. THE HIGH A{sub V} Quasar Survey: Reddened Quasi-Stellar Objects selected from optical/near-infrared photometry. II

    SciTech Connect

    Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Vestergaard, M.; Geier, S.; Venemans, B. P.; Ledoux, C.; Møller, P.; Noterdaeme, P.; Kangas, T.; Pursimo, T.; Smirnova, O.; Saturni, F. G.

    2015-03-15

    Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) whose spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are reddened by dust either in their host galaxies or in intervening absorber galaxies are to a large degree missed by optical color selection criteria like the ones used by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To overcome this bias against red QSOs, we employ a combined optical and near-infrared (near-IR) color selection. In this paper, we present a spectroscopic follow-up campaign of a sample of red candidate QSOs which were selected from the SDSS and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The spectroscopic data and SDSS/UKIDSS photometry are supplemented by mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In our sample of 159 candidates, 154 (97%) are confirmed to be QSOs. We use a statistical algorithm to identify sightlines with plausible intervening absorption systems and identify nine such cases assuming dust in the absorber similar to Large Magellanic Cloud sightlines. We find absorption systems toward 30 QSOs, 2 of which are consistent with the best-fit absorber redshift from the statistical modeling. Furthermore, we observe a broad range in SED properties of the QSOs as probed by the rest-frame 2 μm flux. We find QSOs with a strong excess as well as QSOs with a large deficit at rest-frame 2 μm relative to a QSO template. Potential solutions to these discrepancies are discussed. Overall, our study demonstrates the high efficiency of the optical/near-IR selection of red QSOs.

  3. GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Pacific survey mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowdle, David A.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Arnold, James E.; Williams, Steven F.

    1991-01-01

    NASA conducted the GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Survey Mission over the near coastal and remote Pacific Ocean during 6 to 30 Nov. 1989 (GLOBE 1) and 13 May to 5 Jun. 1990 (GLOBE 2). These missions studied the optical, physical, and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Particular emphasis was given to the magnitude and spatial variability of aerosol backscatter coefficients at mid-infrared wavelengths, and to the remote middle and upper troposphere, where these aerosol properties are poorly understood. Survey instruments were selected to provide either direct beta measurements at the key wavelengths, empirical links with long term or global scale aerosol climatologies, or aerosol microphysics data required to model any of these quantities. The survey deployment included both long distance 6 to 8 hour transit flights and detailed 4 to 6 hour local flights. Several general features were observed from preliminary Survey data analyses. Validation and intercomparison results have shown good agreement, usually better than a factor of two. Atmospheric aerosols frequently exhibited a three layer vertical structure, with (1) high and fairly uniform backscatter in the shallow cloud capped marine boundary layer; (2) moderate and highly variable backscatter in a deeper overlaying cloud pumped layer; and (3) low, regionally uniform, but seasonally and latitudinally variable backscatter in the middle and upper troposphere. The survey missions represent two isolated snapshots of a small portion of the global aerosol system. Consequently, Survey results can best be understood by synthesizing them with the more comprehensive GLOBE data base, which is being compiled at NASA-Marshall.

  4. MOIRCS DEEP SURVEY. VI. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF K-SELECTED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Tokoku, Chihiro; Yamada, Toru; Ichikawa, Takashi; Alexander, David M.; Ohta, Kouji; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tanaka, Ichi; Omata, Koji; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Konishi, Masahiro; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brandt, Niel

    2010-07-20

    We present the results of near-infrared multi-object spectroscopic observations for 37 BzK-color-selected star-forming galaxies conducted with MOIRCS on the Subaru Telescope. The sample is drawn from the K{sub s} -band-selected catalog of the MOIRCS Deep Survey in the GOODS-N region. About half of our samples are selected from the publicly available 24 {mu}m-source catalog of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. H{alpha} emission lines are detected from 23 galaxies, of which the median redshift is 2.12. We derived the star formation rates (SFRs) from extinction-corrected H{alpha} luminosities. The extinction correction is estimated from the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of multiband photometric data covering UV to near-infrared wavelengths. The Balmer decrement of the stacked emission lines shows that the amount of extinction for the ionized gas is larger than that for the stellar continuum. From a comparison of the extinction-corrected H{alpha} luminosity and other SFR indicators, we found that the relation between the dust properties of stellar continuum and ionized gas is different depending on the intrinsic SFR (differential extinction). We compared SFRs estimated from extinction-corrected H{alpha} luminosities with stellar masses estimated from SED fitting. The comparison shows no correlation between SFR and stellar mass. Some galaxies with stellar mass smaller than {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub sun} show SFRs higher than {approx}100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The specific SFRs (SSFRs) of these galaxies are remarkably high; galaxies which have SSFR higher than {approx}10{sup -8} yr{sup -1} are found in eight of the present sample. From the best-fit parameters of SED fitting for these high-SSFR galaxies, we find that the average age of the stellar population is younger than 100 Myr, which is consistent with the implied high SSFR. The large SFR implies the possibility that the high-SSFR galaxies significantly

  5. Infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

  6. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven

    2006-10-01

    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  7. Spectroscopic follow-up of 70-μm sources in Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, H.; Clements, D. L.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Vaccari, M.

    2011-08-01

    We present spectroscopic follow-up observations of 70-μm selected galaxies from the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey XMM-LSS and Lockman Hole fields. We have measured spectroscopic redshifts for 293 new sources down to a 70 μm flux limit of 9 mJy and r < 22 mag. The redshift distribution peaks at z ˜ 0.3 and has a high redshift tail out to z = 3.5. We perform emission line diagnostics for 91 sources where [O III], Hβ, [N II], Hα and [S II] emission lines are available to determine their power source. We find in our sample 13 quasi-stellar objects, one type 2 Seyfert galaxy, 33 star-forming galaxies, 30 composite galaxies, five LINERs and 21 ambiguous galaxies. We fit single temperature dust spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to 81 70-μm sources with 160-μm photometry to estimate dust temperatures and masses. Assuming the dust emissivity factor (β) as 1.5, we determine dust temperatures in the range ˜20-60 K and dust masses with a range of 106-109 M⊙. Plotting these objects in the luminosity-temperature diagram suggests that these objects have lower dust temperatures than local IR luminous galaxies. The Herschel Space Observatory will be crucial in understanding the nature of these sources and to accurately determine the shape of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the dust SED. We then model SEDs from optical to far-IR (FIR) for each source using a set of galaxy and quasar templates in the optical and near-IR and with a set of dust emission templates [cirrus, M82 starburst, Arp 220 starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) dust torus] in the mid-IR to FIR. The numbers of objects fitted with each dust template are 57 Arp 220, 127 M82, nine cirrus, one AGN dust torus, 70 M82 and cirrus, 26 M82 and AGN dust torus, and three Arp 220 and AGN dust torus. We determine the total IR luminosity (LIR) in range 108-1015 L⊙ by integrating the SED models from 8 to 1000 μm.

  8. Cosmic infrared background fluctuations of the COSMOS field in the SPLASH survey: new measurements and the cosmological explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    The cosmic infrared background (CIB) is the integrated emission of all sources through cosmic time and carries an abundance of information about the star formation and galaxy growth in the Universe. Due to significant and complex foregrounds from our Galaxy, the optimal way to study the unresolved background is to actually study its fluctuations, especially at large angular scales where they reflect the clusterin