Science.gov

Sample records for infrared snapshot survey

  1. Saturn's Infrared Temperature Snapshot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    Scientists have discovered a wave pattern, or oscillation, in Saturn's atmosphere only visible from Earth every 15 years. The pattern ripples back and forth like a wave within Saturn's upper atmosphere. In this region, temperatures switch from one altitude to the next in a candy cane-like, striped, hot-cold pattern.

    The temperature 'snapshot' shown in these two images captures two different phases of this wave oscillation: the temperature at Saturn's equator switches from hot to cold, and temperatures on either side of the equator switch from cold to hot every Saturn half-year.

    The image on the left was taken in 1997 and shows the temperature at the equator is colder than the temperature at 13 degrees south latitude. Conversely, the image on the right taken in 2006 shows the temperature at the equator is warmer.

    These images were taken with NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  2. Snapshot Survey: What Do Your Administrators and Teachers Really Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cathleen A.; Soloway, Elliot; Knezek, Gerald; Topp, Neal W.; Young, Jon; Box, Katherine L.

    2000-01-01

    A (nonrandomized) snapshot survey solicited educators' beliefs about technology-related activities, beliefs, and needs. Technologically mature groups of teachers used e-mail at home, used Internet in classrooms, and felt technology improved their teaching. Unlike teachers, administrators believed electronic media might replace textbooks and change…

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Near-infrared Snapshot Survey of 3CR Radio Source Counterparts. II. An Atlas and Inventory of the Host Galaxies, Mergers, and Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, David J. E.; Axon, David; Baum, Stefi; Capetti, Alessandro; Chiaberge, Marco; Macchetto, Duccio; Madrid, Juan; Miley, George; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Perlman, Eric; Quillen, Alice; Sparks, William; Tremblay, Grant

    2008-07-01

    We present the second part of an H-band (1.6 μm) "atlas" of z < 0.3 3CR radio galaxies, using the Hubble Space Telescope Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (HST NICMOS2). We present new imaging for 21 recently acquired sources and host galaxy modeling for the full sample of 101 (including 11 archival)—an 87% completion rate. Two different modeling techniques are applied, following those adopted by the galaxy morphology and the quasar host galaxy communities. Results are compared and found to be in excellent agreement, although the former breaks down in the case of sources with strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Companion sources are tabulated, and the presence of mergers, tidal features, dust disks, and jets are cataloged. The tables form a catalog for those interested in the structural and morphological dust-free host galaxy properties of the 3CR sample, and for comparison with morphological studies of quiescent galaxies and quasar host galaxies. Host galaxy masses are estimated and found to typically lie at around 2 × 1011 M⊙. In general, the population is found to be consistent with the local population of quiescent elliptical galaxies, but with a longer tail to low Sérsic index, mainly consisting of low-redshift (z < 0.1) and low-radio-power (FR I) sources. A few unusually disky FR II host galaxies are picked out for further discussion. Nearby external sources are identified in the majority of our images, many of which we argue are likely to be companion galaxies or merger remnants. The reduced NICMOS data are now publicly available from our Web site. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  4. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldón, J.; Deller, A. T.; Wucknitz, O.; Jackson, N.; Drabent, A.; Carozzi, T.; Conway, J.; Kapińska, A. D.; McKean, J. P.; Morabito, L.; Varenius, E.; Zarka, P.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bîrzan, L.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Carbone, D.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T. E.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Norden, M. J.; Offringa, A. R.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; White, S.; Wise, M. W.; Yatawatta, S.; Zensus, A.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for international LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods: We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full international LOFAR array. Sources were preselected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results: More than 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to show that the sky density of calibrators that are sufficiently bright to calibrate dispersive and non-dispersive delays for the international LOFAR using existing methods is 1.0 per square degree. Conclusions: The observed density of satisfactory delay calibrator sources means that observations with international LOFAR should be possible at virtually any point in the sky provided that a fast and efficient search, using the methodology described here, is conducted prior to the observation to identify the best calibrator. Full Table 6 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A73

  5. A Snapshot Survey of The Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald

    2010-09-01

    We propose the continuation of our highly successful HST/ACS SNAPshot survey of a sample of 123 very X-ray luminous clusters in the redshift range 0.3-0.7, detected and compiled by the MACS cluster survey. As demonstrated by dedicated HST observations of the 12 most distant MACS clusters {GO-09722} as well as by the MACS SNAPshots of an additional 25 obtained with ACS so far in Cycles 14 and 15, these systems frequently exhibit strong gravitational lensing as well as spectacular examples of violent galaxy evolution. A large number of additional MACS SNAPs have since been obtained with WFPC2, leading to the discovery of several more powerful cluster lenses. The dramatic loss, however, of depth, field-of-view, and angular resolution compared to ACS led to significantly reduced scientific returns, underlining the need for ACS for this project. The proposed observations will provide important constraints on the cluster mass distributions, on the physical nature of !galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and will yield a set of optically bright, lensed galaxies for further 8-10m spectroscopy. For those of our targets with existing ACS SNAPshot images, we propose SNAPshots in the WFC3 F110W and F140W passbands to obtain colour information that will greatly improve the secure identification of multiple-image systems and may, in the form of F606W or F814W dropouts, lead to the lensing-enabled discovery of very distant galaxies at z>5. Acknowledging the broad community interest in this sample {16 of the 25 targets of the approved MCT cluster program are MACS discoveries} we waive our data rights for these observations.This proposal is an updated and improved version of our successful Cycle 15 proposal of the same title. Alas, SNAP-10875 collected only six snapshots in the F606W or F814W passbands, due to, first, a clerical error at STScI which caused the program to be barred from execution for four months and, ultimately, the failure of ACS. With ACS

  6. Infrared Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  7. A Snapshot Survey of The Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald

    2007-07-01

    We propose the continuation of our highly successful SNAPshot survey of a sample of 125 very X-ray luminous clusters in the redshift range 0.3-0.7. As demonstrated by the 25 snapshots obtained so far in Cycle14 and Cycle15 these systems frequently exhibit strong gravitational lensing as well as spectacular examples of violent galaxy interactions. The proposed observations will provide important constraints on the cluster mass distributions, the physical nature of galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and a set of optically bright, lensed galaxies for further 8-10m spectroscopy. All of our primary science goals require only the detection and characterisation of high-surface-brightness features and are thus achievable even at the reduced sensitivity of WFPC2. Because of their high redshift and thus compact angular scale our target clusters are less adversely affected by the smaller field of view of WFPC2 than more nearby systems. Acknowledging the broad community interest in this sample we waive our data rights for these observations. Due to a clerical error at STScI our approved Cycle15 SNAP program was barred from execution for 3 months and only 6 observations have been performed to date - reinstating this SNAP at Cycle16 priority is of paramount importance to reach meaningful statistics.

  8. Snap-shot survey of unidentified Fermi sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangelov, Blagoy

    2014-09-01

    We propose a mini-survey of unclassified Fermi sources from the 2FGL catalog. Using an intelligent parameter selection, we have identified a sub-sample that is likely to be dominated by pulsars with a possible inclusion of HMXBs. We aim to identify 5 new gamma-ray pulsars and their X-ray counterparts, and thus increase the population of pulsars detected in both gamma-rays and X-rays. The existing limited data hint at an intriguing change in the slope of the L(Edot) dependence at log(Edot)=35-36 erg/s. By identifying more pulsars in both gamma- and X-rays, we will be able to confirm the existence of those breaks and investigate their origin. We will also identify new X-ray bright pulsars suitable for detailed study using the prudent snap-shot approach.

  9. The Snapshot Survey Service: A Web Site for Assessing Teachers' and Administrators' Technology Activities, Beliefs, and Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cathleen; Soloway, Elliot

    This paper documents the authors' efforts at constructing, deploying, and analyzing Snapshot Surveys in a range of educational settings. The Snapshot Survey Service is an Internet-based technology that enables educators at the local, state, and even national level to survey, quickly and at low-cost, other educators on issues that are particularly…

  10. The LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). I. Survey description and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, G. H.; Pizzo, R. F.; Orrú, E.; Breton, R. P.; Carbone, D.; Ferrari, C.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jurusik, W.; Macario, G.; Mulcahy, D.; Rafferty, D.; Asgekar, A.; Brentjens, M.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Toribio, M. C.; Adebahr, B.; Arts, M.; Bell, M. R.; Bonafede, A.; Bray, J.; Broderick, J.; Cantwell, T.; Carroll, P.; Cendes, Y.; Clarke, A. O.; Croston, J.; Daiboo, S.; de Gasperin, F.; Gregson, J.; Harwood, J.; Hassall, T.; Heesen, V.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Jones, D.; Kant, D.; Kokotanekov, G.; Martin, P.; McKean, J. P.; Morabito, L. K.; Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, M.; Pratley, L.; Riseley, C.; Rowlinson, A.; Sabater, J.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Scheers, L. H. A.; Sendlinger, K.; Shulevski, A.; Sipior, M.; Sobey, C.; Stewart, A. J.; Stroe, A.; Swinbank, J.; Tasse, C.; Trüstedt, J.; Varenius, E.; van Velzen, S.; Vilchez, N.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijnholds, S.; Williams, W. L.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Nijboer, R.; Wise, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Breitling, F.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Geus, E.; de Jong, A.; de Vos, M.; Deller, A.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H. A.; Intema, H.; Jackson, N. J.; Jütte, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Klijn, W. F. A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mevius, M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Noordam, J. E.; Norden, M. J.; Paas, H.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Renting, A.; Röttgering, H.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schwarz, D.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic multifrequency nature providing information about the spectral properties of the detected sources over more than two octaves (from 30 to 160 MHz). The broadband frequency coverage, together with the fast survey speed generated by LOFAR's multibeaming capabilities, make MSSS the first survey of the sort anticipated to be carried out with the forthcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Two of the sixteen frequency bands included in the survey were chosen to exactly overlap the frequency coverage of large-area Very Large Array (VLA) and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) surveys at 74 MHz and 151 MHz respectively. The survey performance is illustrated within the MSSS Verification Field (MVF), a region of 100 square degrees centered at (α,δ)J2000 = (15h,69°). The MSSS results from the MVF are compared with previous radio survey catalogs. We assess the flux and astrometric uncertainties in the catalog, as well as the completeness and reliability considering our source finding strategy. We determine the 90% completeness levels within the MVF to be 100 mJy at 135 MHz with 108″ resolution, and 550 mJy at 50 MHz with 166″ resolution. Images and catalogs for the full survey, expected to contain 150 000-200 000 sources, will be released to a public web server. We outline the plans for the ongoing production of the final survey products, and the ultimate public release of images and source catalogs.

  11. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Massive-Cluster Gravitational Lenses Observed by the Herschel Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi; Rawle, Timothy; Cava, Antonio; Clement, Benjamin; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Ebeling, Harald; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Richard, Johan; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Schaerer, Daniel; Walth, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory, our team has been conducting a large survey of the fields of massive galaxy clusters, 'The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS)' (PI: Egami; 419 hours). The main scientific goal is to penetrate the confusion limit of Herschel by taking advantage of the strong gravitational lensing power of these massive clusters and study the population of low-luminosity and/or high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies that are beyond the reach of field Herschel surveys. In the course of this survey, we have obtained deep PACS (100/160 um) and SPIRE (250/350/500 um) images for 54 clusters (HLS-deep) as well as shallower (but nearly confusion-limited) SPIRE images for 527 clusters (HLS-snapshot). The goal of this proposal is to obtain shallow (500 sec/band) 3.6/4.5 um images of 266 cluster fields that have been observed by the HLS-snapshot survey but do not have any corresponding IRAC data. The HLS-snapshot SPIRE images are deep enough to detect a large number of sources in the target cluster fields, many of which are distant star-forming galaxies lensed by the foreground clusters, and the large sample size of HLS-snapshot promises a great potential for making exciting discoveries. Yet, these Herschel images would be of limited use if we could not identify the counterparts of the Herschel sources accurately and efficiently. The proposed IRAC snapshot program will greatly enhance the utility of these Herschel data, and will feed powerful gound observing facilities like ALMA and NOEMA with interesting targets to follow up.

  12. Optical infrared sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a photographic survey of the northern sky currently underway at Steward Observatory. The survey is being conducted at a principal bandpass of 8000-9000 A supplemented by a V bandpass. The survey is the first of its type conducted using a small (20-in. aperture) wide-field telescope, a very large-format (146 mm) image intensifier with a red-extended, multialkali photocathode. The output phosphor of the intensifier is photographed with IIaD emulsion on film. One of the goals of the survey is to catalog red stellar objects on the photographs and to examine in detail regions of the sky which are obscured by hydrogen emission on conventional photographs.

  13. Balloon borne Infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip M.

    2015-08-01

    We report on modeling of a balloon borne mission to survey the 1-5 micron region with sensitivity close to the zodiacal light limits in portions of this band. Such a survey is compelling for numerous science programs and is complimentary to the upcoming Euclid, WFIRST and other orbital missions. Balloons borne missions offer much lower cost access and rapid technological implementation but with much less exposure time and increased backgrounds. For some science missions the complimentary nature of these is extremely useful. .

  14. Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil); "Family…

  15. A Snapshot Survey of the Sites of Recent, Nearby Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippenko, Alex

    2012-10-01

    During the past few years, robotic {or nearly robotic} searches for supernovae {SNe}, most notably our Lick Observatory Supernova Search {LOSS}, have found hundreds of SNe, many of them in quite nearby galaxies {cz < 4000 km/s}. Most of the objects were discovered before maximum brightness, and have follow-up photometry and spectroscopy; they include some of the best-studied SNe to date. We propose to conduct a survey program to image the sites of some of these nearby objects, to obtain late-time photometry that will help reveal the origin of their lingering energy. The images will also provide high-resolution information on the local environments of SNe that are far superior to what we can procure from the ground. For example, we will obtain color-magnitude diagrams of stars in these SN sites, to constrain the reddening and SN progenitor masses. We will provide statistics on the light echoes around SNe, an important clue to their progenitor systems. We also propose to image several "SN impostors" - faint SNe IIn with massive progenitors - to verify whether they are indeed superoutbursts of luminous blue variables and survived the explosions, or a new/weak class of massive star explosions. Finally, the data will add multi-filter, deep images of many nearby galaxies to the HST archive for future studies such as galaxy morphology, stellar populations, SN progenitors, and variable stars.

  16. ESO imaging survey: infrared deep public survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, L. F.; Miralles, J.-M.; da Costa, L.; Madejsky, R.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Mignano, A.; Arnouts, S.; Benoist, C.; Dietrich, J. P.; Slijkhuis, R.; Zaggia, S.

    2006-09-01

    This paper is part of the series presenting the final results obtained by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. It presents new J and Ks data obtained from observations conducted at the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) using the SOFI camera. These data were taken as part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS) carried out by the ESO Imaging Survey program, significantly extending the earlier optical/infrared EIS-DEEP survey presented in a previous paper of this series. The DPS-IR survey comprises two observing strategies: shallow Ks observations providing nearly full coverage of pointings with complementary multi-band (in general {UBVRI}) optical data obtained using ESO's wide-field imager (WFI) and deeper J and Ks observations of the central parts of these fields. Currently, the DPS-IR survey provides a coverage of roughly 2.1 square degrees ( 300 SOFI pointings) in Ks with 0.63 square degrees to fainter magnitudes and also covered in J, over three independent regions of the sky. The goal of the present paper is to briefly describe the observations, the data reduction procedures, and to present the final survey products which include fully calibrated pixel-maps and catalogs extracted from them. The astrometric solution with an estimated accuracy of ⪉0.15 arcsec is based on the USNO catalog and limited only by the accuracy of the reference catalog. The final stacked images presented here number 89 and 272, in J and K_s, respectively, the latter reflecting the larger surveyed area. The J and Ks images were taken with a median seeing of 0.77 arcsec and 0.8 arcsec. The images reach a median 5σ limiting magnitude of JAB˜23.06 as measured within an aperture of 2´´, while the corresponding limiting magnitude in KsAB is 21.41 and 22.16 mag for the shallow and deep strategies. Although some spatial variation due to varying observing conditions is observed, overall the observed limiting magnitudes are consistent with those originally proposed. The quality of the data

  17. Infrared surveys of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, W. A.; Moxham, R.M.; Polcyn, F.; Landis, G.H.

    1964-01-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.

  18. Long-Wavelength 640 x 486 GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Snap-Shot Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Liu, John K.; Hong, Winn; Sundaram, Mani; Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.; Shott, Craig A.; Carralejo, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    A 9-micrometer cutoff 640 x 486 snap-shot quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) camera has been demonstrated. The performance of this QWIP camera is reported including indoor and outdoor imaging. The noise equivalent differential temperature (NE.deltaT) of 36 mK has been achieved at 300 K background with f/2 optics. This is in good agreement with expected focal plane array sensitivity due to the practical limitations on charge handling capacity of the multiplexer, read noise, bias voltage, and operating temperature.

  19. Snapshot fecal survey of domestic animals in rural Ghana for Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Nicholas J.; Ammisah, Nana Ama; Ahortor, Evans K.; Wallace, John R.; Ablordey, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the source reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans is key to understanding the mode of transmission of this pathogen and controlling the spread of Buruli ulcer (BU). In Australia, the native possum can harbor M. ulcerans in its gastrointestinal tract and shed high concentrations of the bacteria in its feces. To date, an analogous animal reservoir in Africa has not been identified. Here we tested the hypothesis that common domestic animals in BU endemic villages of Ghana are reservoir species analogous to the Australian possum. Using linear-transects at 10-meter intervals, we performed systematic fecal surveys across four BU endemic villages and one non-endemic village in the Asante Akim North District of Ghana. One hundred and eighty fecal specimens from a single survey event were collected and analyzed by qPCR for the M. ulcerans diagnostic DNA targets IS2404 and KR-B. Positive and negative controls performed as expected but all 180 test samples were negative. This structured snapshot survey suggests that common domestic animals living in and around humans do not shed M. ulcerans in their feces. We conclude that, unlike the Australian native possum, domestic animals in rural Ghana are unlikely to be major reservoirs of M. ulcerans. PMID:27280071

  20. NEOWISE: A Mid-Infrared Synoptic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J. R.; Wright, E. L.; Nugent, C.; Stevenson, R.; Fabinsky, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer surveyed the entire sky in four infrared wavelengths (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns) over the course of one year. The mission’s long wavelength infrared channels were cooled by solid hydrogen; after its depletion, the mission continued using the two shortest wavelengths. Following completion of its one year survey, the mission was placed into hibernation. NASA has recently enabled the restart of the mission to discover, detect and characterize near-Earth objects (NEOs) using the 3.4 and 4.6 micron channels. With these wavelengths, it is possible to derive radiometric effective spherical diameters for NEOs with ~25% accuracy. In the process of surveying for NEOs over three years, NEOWISE will cover the sky multiple times, enabling a wide range of scientific investigations.

  1. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    We present WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) mid-infrared photometry of young stellar object candidates in the Canis Majoris clouds at a distance of 1 kpc. WISE has identified 682 objects with apparent 12 and 22 micron excess emission in a 7 deg x 10 deg field around the CMa Rl cloud . While a substantial fraction of these candidates are likely galaxies, AGB stars, and artifacts from confusion along the galactic plane, others are part of a spectacular cluster of YSOs imaged by WISE along a dark filament in the R1 cloud. Palomar Double Spectrograph observations of several sources in this cluster confirm their identity as young A and B stars with strong emission lines. In this contribution, we plot the optical -mid-infrared spectral energy distribution for the WISE YSO candidates and discuss potential contaminants to the sample . The data demonstrate the utility of WISE in performing wide-area surveys for young stellar objects.

  2. Point source detection in infrared astronomical surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelzmann, R. F., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Data processing techniques useful for infrared astronomy data analysis systems are reported. This investigation is restricted to consideration of data from space-based telescope systems operating as survey instruments. In this report the theoretical background for specific point-source detection schemes is completed, and the development of specific algorithms and software for the broad range of requirements is begun.

  3. The Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sick, J.; Courteau, S.; Cuillandre, J.-C.

    2014-03-01

    The Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey has mapped M31 in u* g' r' i' JKs wavelengths out to R = 40 kpc using the MegaCam and WIRCam wide-field cameras on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Our survey is uniquely designed to simultaneously resolve stars while also carefully reproducing the surface brightness of M31, allowing us to study M31's global structure in the context of both resolved stellar populations and spectral energy distributions. We use the Elixir-LSB method to calibrate the optical u* g' r' i' images by building real-time maps of the sky background with sky-target nodding. These maps are stable to μg ≲ 28.5 mag arcsec-2 and reveal warps in the outer M31 disk in surface brightness. The equivalent WIRCam mapping in the near-infrared uses a combination of sky-target nodding and image-to-image sky offset optimization to produce stable surface brightnesses. This study enables a detailed analysis of the systematics of spectral energy distribution fitting with near-infrared bands where asymptotic giant branch stars impose a significant, but ill-constrained, contribution to the near-infrared light of a galaxy. Here we present panchromatic surface brightness maps and initial results from our near-infrared resolved stellar catalog.

  4. Line Focus Receiver Infrared Temperature Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, Tim

    2010-06-01

    For ongoing maintenance and performance purposes, solar parabolic trough field operators desire to know that the Heat Collection Elements (HCEs) are performing properly. Measuring their temperature is one way of doing this One 30MW field can contain approximately 10,000 HCE's. This software interfaces with a GPS receiver and an infrared camera. It takes global positioning data from the GPS and uses this information to automate the infrared image capture and temperature analysis of individual solar parabolic HCEs in a solar parabolic trough field With this software system an entire 30MW field can be surveyed in 2-3 days.

  5. Line Focus Receiver Infrared Temperature Survey System

    2010-06-01

    For ongoing maintenance and performance purposes, solar parabolic trough field operators desire to know that the Heat Collection Elements (HCEs) are performing properly. Measuring their temperature is one way of doing this One 30MW field can contain approximately 10,000 HCE's. This software interfaces with a GPS receiver and an infrared camera. It takes global positioning data from the GPS and uses this information to automate the infrared image capture and temperature analysis of individual solarmore » parabolic HCEs in a solar parabolic trough field With this software system an entire 30MW field can be surveyed in 2-3 days.« less

  6. Infrared Applications In Transmission System Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Guy; Fernandez, Joe

    1988-01-01

    Five California Utilities participated in an electric power transmission and distribution system survey in the late fall of 1987. The survey consisted of visual and Infrared (IR) inspection of 12.5-kV to 230-kV AC transmission lines and equipment. This paper summarizes the results of the survey, including a cost/benefit analysis. The participating utilities, under Western Area Power Administration's sponsorship, were the City of Lodi, City of Roseville, Plumas-Sierra Rural Electric Cooperative, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, and Sierra Pacific Power Company. Three hundred miles of line and thirty substations were inspected using a helicopter and a high resolution infrared camera with visual recording capabilities. The transmission and distribution system covered a broad range of terrain; valleys, foothills, and mountains. All five utilities recognized the value of the IR inspection. The procedure gave the maintenance staff advanced notice of problem areas such as (1) loose connections on switches, (2) unbalanced lines, (3) poor splices, and (4) capacitor and transformer bank malfunction. In addition, the staff saw its potential in environmental and safety applications. The initial data shows an increased capacity carrying and reliability providing capability of about 50 KW per 100 transmission line miles. This capability increase results in a B/C ratio of about three. Other applications in transmission system surveys are worthy of study. These applications include power theft and vandalism. Also, the Utility can use technology as an effective public relations tool with customers by providing services such as roof and building envelope inspections.

  7. THE GALACTIC PLANE INFRARED POLARIZATION SURVEY (GPIPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D.; Taylor, B. W. E-mail: apinnick@bu.edu E-mail: bwtaylor@bu.edu

    2012-06-01

    The scientific motivation, data collection strategy, data reduction, and analysis methods are presented for the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS). The chief goal for the Survey was to reveal the nature of the magnetic field threading the Galactic disk, in particular through regions of low to moderate extinction (1-20 mag of A{sub V} ) and star formation in the cool interstellar medium. The Survey region spans 76 deg{sup 2} of the northern Milky Way disk, from l = 18 Degree-Sign to 56 Degree-Sign and b =-1 Degree-Sign to +1 Degree-Sign . Linear polarimetric imaging observations began in 2006 in the near-infrared H band (1.6 {mu}m) using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope, located outside Flagstaff, AZ. Mimir used a cold, fixed wire grid and a rotateable cold, compound half-wave plate to obtain 'step-and-integrate' polarimetry over its full 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 arcmin field of view. The GPIPS bright and faint polarimetric limits are approximately 7th and 15th mag, respectively, set by saturation and photon noise. Polarimetric uncertainties track with stellar magnitude, from about 0.1% to 25%, on average, from the brightest to faintest stars. Across the 3237 field GPIPS region, approximately 0.5 million stars are estimated to show detectable linear polarization (P/{sigma}{sub P} > 3); most of these have m{sub H} < 12. This represents many orders of magnitude improvement in the number of polarization measurements across this region. GPIPS observations are more than 90% complete and should finish in 2012.

  8. A Snapshot Survey of AGNS/QSOS for Intergalactic Medium Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Sembach, George

    2005-01-01

    This spectroscopic program with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program was designed to identify ultraviolet-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) for follow-up spectroscopy with FUSE and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). All of the FUSE spectra obtained for this snapshot program (FUSE identifier D808) have been examined for data quality and flux levels. As expected, only a small number of objects observed (4/19) have flux levels suitable for follow-up spectroscopy. A portion of our effort in this program was devoted to comparing the spectra obtained in these snapshot exposures to others to determine if the spectra could be used for detailed scientific analyses. The resulting effort demonstrated that some of the brighter sources are relatively stable (non- variable), as determined through comparisons of the spectra at multiple epochs. For these brighter sources, the exposure times are simply too short to perform meaningful detailed analyses. Comparisons of the absorption lines in these spectra with those of higher signal-to-noise spectra, like those of PG1116+215 and H1821+643, showed that many of the lines of interest could not be characterized adequately at the S/N levels reached in the short snapshot exposures. As a result, the FUSE D808 observations are suitable only for their original purpose - flux determination. Several bright objects identified as part of this program include: HE0153-4520, flux >2x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 at 1000 Angstroms IRASF04250-5718, flux >4x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms RXJ2154.1-4414, flux > 1.6x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms S50716+714, flux >2.5x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms. All of these objects have been incorporated into the primary target lists for the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Identifying such objects for follow-up observations with HST/COS was the primary goal of this program, so the program wa successful. In addition, some of the

  9. The HST Snapshot Survey of Nearby Dwarf Galaxy Candidates. III. Resolved Dwarf Galaxies In and Beyond the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebel, E. K.; Seitzer, P.; Dolphin, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Guhathakurta, P.; Hodge, P. W.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Sarajedini, A.; Sharina, M. E.

    1999-12-01

    We present results for several nearby, resolved dwarf galaxies imaged with WFPC2 in the framework of our HST snapshot survey of nearby dwarf galaxy candidates (Seitzer et al., paper I in this series). All data presented here were analyzed with the automated photometry package HSTPHOT (Dolphin et al., paper IV in this series). Our closest target is the recently discovered Cassiopeia dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy (Karachentsev & Karachentseva 1999, A&A, 341, 355), a new Local Group member and companion of M31 (Grebel & Guhathakurta 1999, ApJ, 511, 101). Our WFPC2 snapshot data reveal a pronounced red horizontal branch in Cas dSph. IC 5152 is a dwarf irregular (dIrr) just beyond the Local Group. Our data show a significant intermediate-age population with a strongly tilted asymptotic giant branch (AGB), a substantial young population, and a wide giant branch. Other nearby galaxies to be discussed include NGC 1560, ESO 471-G006, ESO 470-G018, and KK 035. Most of these galaxies are being resolved into stars for the first time. We describe their properties in detail and derive distances for all dwarfs with a well-defined tip of the red giant branch. Membership of these galaxies in nearby groups is discussed. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant GO-08192.97A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. EKG acknowledges support by NASA through grant HF-01108.01-98A from the Space Telescope Science Institute. EKG and IDK are supported by the Henri Chrétien International Research Grant administered by the American Astronomical Society. PG is an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow.

  10. a Snapshot Survey of X-Ray Selected Central Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Alastair

    1999-07-01

    Central cluster galaxies are the most massive stellar systems known and have been used as standard candles for many decades. Only recently have central cluster galaxies been recognised to exhibit a wide variety of small scale {<100 pc} features that can only be reliably detected with HST resolution. The most intriguing of these are dust lanes which have been detected in many central cluster galaxies. Dust is not expected to survive long in the hostile cluster environment unless shielded by the ISM of a disk galaxy or very dense clouds of cold gas. WFPC2 snapshot images of a representative subset of the central cluster galaxies from an X-ray selected cluster sample would provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of dust in cluster cores that cannot be obtained from ground-based observations. In addition, these images will allow the AGN component, the frequency of multiple nuclei, and the amount of massive-star formation in central cluster galaxies to be ass es sed. The proposed HST observatio ns would also provide high-resolution images of previously unresolved gravitational arcs in the most massive clusters in our sample resulting in constraints on the shape of the gravitational potential of these systems. This project will complement our extensive multi-frequency work on this sample that includes optical spectroscopy and photometry, VLA and X-ray images for the majority of the 210 targets.

  11. School Library Snapshots: A Brief Survey of Illinois School Library Collections in Three Areas of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Carol; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a survey of Illinois school library collections in astronomy, space, and the solar system; general biology and ecology; and human anatomy, physiology, and hygiene. The survey produced statistics on funding needs; provided a collection assessment tool; and determined whether libraries had resources for supporting state goals for science…

  12. Snapshots of Public Schools in the United States: Results from the Schools and Staffing Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Jin; Alt, Martha Naomi; Henke, Robin R.

    This booklet analyzes information obtained from the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). The SASS is a set of integrated questionnaires that collect information about schools and the staff who work in them. The survey asks for information from a random sample of schools, their principals, a subset of the teachers in each school, and public-school…

  13. WINGS: WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Benjamin

    WFIRST's combination of wide field and high resolution will revolutionize the study of nearby galaxies. We propose to produce and analyze simulated WFIRST data of nearby galaxies and their halos to maximize the scientific yield in the limited observing time available, ensuring the legacy value of WFIRST's eventual archive. We will model both halo structure and resolved stellar populations to optimize WFIRST's constraints on both dark matter and galaxy formation models in the local universe. WFIRST can map galaxy structure down to ~35 mag/square arcsecond using individual stars. The resulting maps of stellar halos and accreting dwarf companions will provide stringent tests of galaxy formation and dark matter models on galactic (and even sub-galactic) scales, which is where the most theoretical tension exists with the Lambda-CDM model. With a careful, coordinated plan, WFIRST can be expected to improve current sample sizes by 2 orders of magnitude, down to surface brightness limits comparable to those currently reached only in the Local Group, and that are >4 magnitudes fainter than achievable from the ground due to limitations in star-galaxy separation. WFIRST's maps of galaxy halos will simultaneously produce photometry for billions of stars in the main bodies of galaxies within 10 Mpc. These data will transform studies of star formation histories that track stellar mass growth as a function of time and position within a galaxy. They also will constrain critical stellar evolution models of the near-infrared bright, rapidly evolving stars that can contribute significantly to the integrated light of galaxies in the near-infrared. Thus, with WFIRST we can derive the detailed evolution of individual galaxies, reconstruct the complete history of star formation in the nearby universe, and put crucial constraints on the theoretical models used to interpret near-infrared extragalactic observations. We propose a three-component work plan that will ensure these gains by

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Community for Data Integration-NWIS Web Services Snapshot Tool for ArcGIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holl, Sally

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data resources are so vast that many scientists are unaware of data holdings that may be directly relevant to their research. Data are also difficult to access and large corporate databases, such as the National Water Information System (NWIS) that houses hydrologic data for the Nation, are challenging to use without considerable expertise and investment of time. The USGS Community for Data Integration (CDI) was established in 2009 to address data and information management issues affecting the proficiency of earth science research. A CDI workshop convened in 2009 identified common data integration needs of USGS scientists and targeted high value opportunities that might address these needs by leveraging existing projects in USGS science centers, in-kind contributions, and supplemental funding. To implement this strategy, CDI sponsored a software development project in 2010 to facilitate access and use of NWIS data with ArcGIS, a widely used Geographic Information System. The resulting software product, the NWIS Web Services Snapshot Tool for ArcGIS, is presented here.

  15. School Library Snapshots: A Brief Survey of Illinois School Library Collections in Three Areas of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois School Library Media Association, Fairfield.

    To study the strengths and weaknesses of Illinois school library collections in science and to quantify the need for increased funding for collection development, a survey was completed by over 400 members of the Illinois School Library Media Association. Topics of interest were astronomy, space, the solar system, general biology, ecology, human…

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-05-01

    We have conducted an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of 70 Galactic Cepheids, typically within 1 kpc, with the aim of finding resolved physical companions. The WFC3 field typically covers the 0.1 pc area where companions are expected. In this paper, we identify 39 Cepheids having candidate companions, based on their positions in color-magnitude diagrams, and having separations ⩾ 5'' from the Cepheids. We use follow-up observations of 14 of these candidates with XMM-Newton, and of one of them with ROSAT, to separate X-ray-active young stars (probable physical companions) from field stars (chance alignments). Our preliminary estimate, based on the optical and X-ray observations, is that only 3% of the Cepheids in the sample have wide companions. Our survey easily detects resolved main-sequence companions as faint as spectral type K. Thus the fact that the two most probable companions (those of FF Aql and RV Sco) are earlier than type K is not simply a function of the detection limit. We find no physical companions having separations larger than 4000 au in the X-ray survey. Two Cepheids are exceptions in that they do have young companions at significantly larger separations (δ Cep and S Nor), but both belong to a cluster or a loose association, so our working model is that they are not gravitationally bound binary members, but rather cluster/association members. All of these properties provide constraints on both star formation and subsequent dynamical evolution. The low frequency of true physical companions at separations > 5'' is confirmed by examination of the subset of the nearest Cepheids and also the density of the fields. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  17. Space-based infrared surveys of small bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, M.

    2014-07-01

    Most small bodies in the Solar System are too small and too distant to be spatially resolved, precluding a direct diameter derivation. Furthermore, measurements of the optical brightness alone only allow a rough estimate of the diameter, since the surface albedo is usually unknown and can have values between about 3 % and 60 % or more. The degeneracy can be resolved by considering the thermal emission of these objects, which is less prone to albedo effects and mainly a function of the diameter. Hence, the combination of optical and thermal-infrared observational data provides a means to independently derive an object's diameter and albedo. This technique is used in asteroid thermal models or more sophisticated thermophysical models (see, e.g., [1]). Infrared observations require cryogenic detectors and/or telescopes, depending on the actual wavelength range observed. Observations from the ground are additionally compromised by the variable transparency of Earth's atmosphere in major portions of the infrared wavelength ranges. Hence, space-based infrared telescopes, providing stable conditions and significantly better sensitivities than ground-based telescopes, are now used routinely to exploit this wavelength range. Two observation strategies are used with space-based infrared observatories: Space-based Infrared All-Sky Surveys. Asteroid surveys in the thermal infrared are less prone to albedo-related discovery bias compared to surveys with optical telescopes, providing a more complete picture of small body populations. The first space-based infrared survey of Solar System small bodies was performed with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) for 10 months in 1983. In the course of the 'IRAS Minor Planet Survey' [2], 2228 asteroids (3 new discoveries) and more than 25 comets (6 new discoveries) were observed. More recent space-based infrared all-sky asteroid surveys were performed by Akari (launched 2006) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE

  18. The snapshot Hubble U-band cluster survey (SHUCS). II. The star cluster population of NGC 2997

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, J. E.; Gallagher, J. S. III; Adamo, A.; Bastian, N.; Smith, L. J.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Larsen, S.; Zackrisson, E.

    2014-08-01

    We study the star cluster population of NGC 2997, a giant spiral galaxy located at 9.5 Mpc and targeted by the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS). Combining our U-band imaging from SHUCS with archival BVI imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, we select a high confidence sample of clusters in the circumnuclear ring and disk through a combination of automatic detection procedures and visual inspection. The cluster luminosity functions in all four filters can be approximated by power laws with indices of –1.7 to –2.3. Some deviations from pure power-law shape are observed, hinting at the presence of a high-mass truncation in the cluster mass function. However, upon inspection of the cluster mass function, we find it is consistent with a pure power law of index –2.2 ± 0.2 despite a slight bend at ∼2.5 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}. No statistically significant truncation is observed. From the cluster age distributions, we find a low rate of disruption (ζ ∼ –0.1) in both the disk and circumnuclear ring. Finally, we estimate the cluster formation efficiency (Γ) over the last 100 Myr in each region, finding 7% ± 2% for the disk, 12% ± 4% for the circumnuclear ring, and 10% ± 3% for the entire UBVI footprint. This study highlights the need for wide-field UBVI coverage of galaxies to study cluster populations in detail, though a small sample of clusters can provide significant insight into the characteristics of the population.

  19. Infrared airborne spectroradiometer survey results in the western Nevada area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.; Kuo, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark II airborne spectroradiometer system was flown over several geologic test sites in western Nevada. The infrared mineral absorption bands were observed and recorded for the first time using an airborne system with high spectral resolution in the 2.0 to 2.5 micron region. The data show that the hydrothermal alteration zone minerals, carbonates, and other minerals are clearly visible in the airborne survey mode. The finer spectral features that distinguish the various minerals with infrared bands are also clearly visible in the airborne survey data. Using specialized computer pattern recognition methods, it is possible to identify mineralogy and map alteration zones and lithologies by airborne spectroradiometer survey techniques.

  20. Airborne infrared mineral mapping survey of Marysvale, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Infrared spectroradiometer survey results from flights over the Marysvale, Utah district show that hydrothermal alteration mineralogy can be mapped using very rapid and effective airborne techniques. The system detects alteration mineral absorption band intensities in the infrared spectral region with high sensitivity. The higher resolution spectral features and high spectral differences characteristic of the various clay and carbonate minerals are also readily identified by the instrument allowing the mineralogy to be mapped as well as the mineralization intensity.

  1. THE SPITZER ARCHIVAL FAR-INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Hanish, D. J.; Capak, P.; Teplitz, H. I.; Desai, V.; Armus, L.; Brinkworth, C.; Brooke, T.; Colbert, J.; Fadda, D.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R.; Edwards, L.; Frayer, D.; Huynh, M.; Lacy, M.; Murphy, E.; Scarlata, C.; Shenoy, S.

    2015-03-15

    We present the Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SAFIRES). This program produces refined mosaics and source lists for all far-infrared (FIR) extragalactic data taken during the more than six years of the cryogenic operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The SAFIRES products consist of FIR data in two wavelength bands (70 and 160 μm) across approximately 180 square degrees of sky, with source lists containing far-infrared fluxes for almost 40,000 extragalactic point sources. Thus, SAFIRES provides a large, robust archival far-infrared data set suitable for many scientific goals.

  2. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  3. A Preliminary MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey Catalog: 8000 MG/PMN Sources at 4.8/8.4 GHz and 0.''3 Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, A. B.; Burke, B. F.; Conner, S. R.; Herold, L. K.; Lehar, J.; Winn, J. N.; Hewitt, J. N.; Langston, G. I.; Lawrence, C. R.; Bennett, C. L.

    1999-09-01

    A preliminary catalog of the 1981-1994 MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey for radio-loud gravitational lenses will be made available via anonymous ftp from MIT in June 1999 (ftp zenobia.mit.edu; cd pub/fletcher; get mitvla.readme). This plain text catalog contains detailed information on the VLA positions, flux densities and morphologies of ~ 6200 northern MIT-Greenbank (MG) and ~ 1800 Parkes-MIT-NRAO (PMN) radio sources at 4.8 and 8.4 GHz, and at angular resolutions ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 arcseconds. These sources represent ~ 80% of the entire 15 year MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey effort from 1981 to 1995, and are complementary to MIT's VLA-Magellan Gravitational Lens Survey of ~ 1900 flat-spectrum sources begun last year (see J. Winn et al., 1998, BAAS 30(4), p.1425, with a paper recently submitted to the ApJS). The 4.8 GHz single-dish flux densities of the ~ 8000 MIT-VLA sources range from ~ 70 mJy to ~ 5000 mJy. Though the sample is incomplete, it is consistently representative of the wide variety of source morphologies and spectral indices appearing in the MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey. This preliminary MIT-VLA catalog will be improved and checked before publication. It is meanwhile intended as a general purpose resource for the astronomical community; possible uses include (1) organizing an optical follow-up of known gravitational lens candidates within the sample (see A. Fletcher, 1998, MIT Ph.D. thesis), (2) assembling samples of new compact MG and PMN radio sources requiring further imaging using VLBI, such as compact doubles and position calibrators, (3) estimating the mean growth rate of the kiloparsec-scale extended structures in radio-loud AGN (see A. Fletcher & B. Burke, 1998, BAAS 30(4), p.1249), and (4) providing sub-arcsecond information missing from overlapping radio sky surveys made at lower angular resolution, such as the FIRST, WENSS, NVSS and Molonglo Wide Field Surveys.

  4. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-02-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of {approx}10 deg{sup 2} of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R {approx} 20) spectra in 2-5 {mu}m for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 {mu}m, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 {mu}m. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 {mu}m can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the

  5. Far-Infrared Extragalactic Surveys: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Samuel H., Jr.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As much as one third of the luminosity of the local universe is emitted in the far infrared. In order to understand the history of energy release in the universe, it is crucial to characterize this rest-frame far-infrared contribution from the present back to the era of initial galaxy formation. Over the redshift range from 0 to 10, this energy is received in the 80 micrometers to 1 mm spectral region. In the 1980's the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) all-sky survey provided the first comprehensive view of the far infrared emission from the local universe. The diffuse background measurements by Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) have provided constraints on the integral contributions from the high redshift universe. In the past five years, submillimeter measurements made using the SCUBA instrument have revealed powerful high redshift sources. To develop a clear history of energy release in the universe, we need numbers and redshifts of representative populations of energetically important objects. The near future will bring the Space Infrared Telescope Facility Multiband Imaging Photometer (SIRTF)(MIPS) survey, which will cover about 100 square degrees at wavelengths out to 160 micrometers, providing a large sample of energetically important galaxies out to z of approx.3. In 2005, the Japanese IRIS survey will provide a 160 micrometers full sky survey, which will provide larger samples of the high z galaxy populations and will find intrinsically rare high luminosity objects. The SPIRE instrument on the FIRST facility will extend these surveys to longer wavelengths, providing a view of the universe at higher redshifts in three spectral bands. A concept for an all-sky submillimeter survey is under development, called the Survey of Infrared Cosmic Evolution (SIRCE). With a 2 m cryogenic telescope, it can map the entire sky to the confusion limit in the 100 to 500 micrometers range in six months. This survey will provide photometric redshifts, number

  6. Nationwide Snapshot

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, Terry S.; Iverson, Megan M.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Britt, Michelle L.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this effort was to create a nationwide snapshot of the current residential building practices in the United States, and to identify trends in building practices as they relate to building energy efficiency. Information on typical insulation levels, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiencies, window profiles, and other residential building components and assemblies provided a foundation for (1) identifying trends in residential building practices over time, (2) assessing energy-efficiency improvements in single-family homes over time and correlating them with the applicable building energy codes if possible, and (3) identifying building energy code adoption and compliance needs. This report seeks to identify trends in the residential building practice from 1996 to 2009.

  7. ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES IN THE WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Shanshan; Kong, Xu; Li, Jinrong; Fang, Guanwen E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-11-20

    In this paper, we present a large catalog of 419 Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), carefully selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared data and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey eighth data release, and classify them into three subsamples, based on their emission line properties: H II-like ULIRGs, Seyfert 2 ULIRGs, and composite ULIRGs. We apply our new efficient spectral synthesis technique, which is based on mean field approach to Bayesian independent component analysis (MF-ICA) method, to the galaxy integrated spectra. We also analyze the stellar population properties, including percentage contribution, stellar age, and stellar mass, for these three types of ULIRGs, and explore the evolution among them. We find no significant difference between the properties of stellar populations in ULIRGs with or without active galactic nucleus components. Our results suggest that there is no evolutionary link among these three type ULIRGs.

  8. Wide Integral Field Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Moon, Dae-Sik; Zaritsky, Dennis F.; Chou, Richard; Meyer, Elliot; Ma, Ke; Jarvis, Miranda; Eisner, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    We are constructing a novel infrared integral field spectrograph with a large field of view (~50'x20') that will be available on the Kitt Peak 90' Bok telescope this spring. This wide integral field infrared spectrograph (WIFIS) operates over two wavelength ranges, zJ-band (0.9-1.35 microns) and H-band (1.5-1.8 microns), and has moderate spectral resolving power, 3,000 in zJ-band and 2,200 in H-band, respectively. WIFIS' field-of-view is comparable to current optical integral field spectrographs that are carrying out large galaxy surveys, e.g. SAMI, CALIFA, and MaNGA. We are designing a large nearby galaxy survey to complement the data already been taken by these optical integral field spectroscopic surveys. The near-infrared window provides a sensitive probe of the initial mass functions of stellar populations, the OB stellar fractions in massive star forming regions, and the kinematics of and obscured star formation within merging systems. This will be the first large scale infrared integral field spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies.

  9. Survey of material for an infrared-opaque coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon M.; Howitt, Richard V.

    1986-01-01

    More than 40 reflectance spectra in the range from 20 to 500 microns have been obtained of a variety of coatings, binders, and additives to identify promising components of an infrared-opaque coating for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. Certain combinations of materials showed a specular reflectance below 0.1 throughout the spectral range measured. In addition to estimating the optical constants of several combination coatings, this survey also supports three qualitative conclusions: (1) promising 'off-the-shelf' binders of different additives are Chemglaze Z-306, ECP-2200, and De Soto Black; (2) carbon black is very effective reducing far-infrared reflectance; and (3) the far-infrared reflectance from coatings containing 80 SiC grit is consistently lower than that from similar coatings containing TlBr powder.

  10. Survey of Material for an Infrared-Opaque Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon M.; Howitt, Richard V.

    1986-01-01

    More than 40 reflectance spectra in the range from 20 to 500 microns have been obtained for a variety of coatings, binders, and additives to identify promising components of an infrared-opaque coating for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. Certain combinations of materials showed a specular reflectance below 0.1 throughout the spectral range measured. In addition to estimating the optical constants of several combination coatings, this survey also supports three qualitative conclusions: (1) promising off-the-shelf binders of different additives are Chemglaze Z-306, ECP-2200, and De Soto Black; (2) carbon black is very effective in reducing far-infrared reflectance; (3) the far-infrared reflectance from coatings containing 80 SiC grit is consistently lower than that from similar coatings containing TiBr powder.

  11. THE SPITZER LOCAL VOLUME LEGACY: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Schuster, M. D.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Block, M.; Marble, A. R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Lee, J. C.; Begum, A.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Funes, J. G.; Gordon, K. D.; Johnson, B. D.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E. D.; Van Zee, L.; Walter, F.

    2009-09-20

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, Halpha, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc Halpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and the ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  12. A deep/wide 1-2 GHz snapshot survey of SDSS Stripe 82 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in a compact hybrid configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, I.; Jarvis, M. J.; Baker, A. J.; Bannister, K. W.; Carvalho, C. S.; Hardcastle, M.; Hilton, M.; Moodley, K.; Smirnov, O. M.; Smith, D. J. B.; White, S. V.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image ˜100 deg2 of SDSS Stripe 82 at 1-2 GHz. The survey consists of 1026 snapshot observations of 2.5 min duration, using the hybrid CnB configuration. The survey has good sensitivity to diffuse, low surface brightness structures and extended radio emission, making it highly synergistic with existing 1.4 GHz radio observations of the region. The principal data products are continuum images, with 16 × 10 arcsec resolution, and a catalogue containing 11 782 point and Gaussian components resulting from fits to the thresholded Stokes-I brightness distribution, forming approximately 8948 unique radio sources. The typical effective 1σ noise level is 88 μJy beam-1. Spectral index estimates are included, as derived from the 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth. Astrometric and photometric accuracy are in excellent agreement with existing narrowband observations. A large-scale simulation is used to investigate clean bias, which we extend into the spectral domain. Clean bias remains an issue for snapshot surveys with the VLA, affecting our total intensity measurements at the ˜1σ level. Statistical spectral index measurements are in good agreement with existing measurements derived from matching separate surveys at two frequencies. At flux densities below ˜35σ the median in-band spectral index measurements begin to exhibit a bias towards flatness that is dependent on both flux density and the intrinsic spectral index. In-band spectral curvature measurements are likely to be unreliable for all but the very brightest components. Image products and catalogues are publicly available via an FTP server.

  13. AKARI Infrared Camera Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Onaka, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is one of the closest external galaxies to the Milky Way and has been playing a central role in various fields of modern astronomy and astrophysics. We conducted an unbiased near- to mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic survey of the LMC with the infrared satellite AKARI. An area of about 10 square degrees of the LMC was observed by five imaging bands (each centered at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 micron) and the low-resolution slitless prism spectroscopy mode (2--5 micron, R~20) equipped with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. Based on the data obtained in the survey, we constructed the photometric and spectroscopic catalogues of point sources in the LMC. The photometric catalogue includes about 650,000, 90,000, 49,000, 17,000, 7,000 sources at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 micron, respectively (Ita et al. 2008, PASJ, 60, 435; Kato et al. 2012, AJ, 144, 179), while the spectroscopic catalogue includes 1,757 sources (Shimonishi et al. 2013, AJ, 145, 32). Both catalogs are publicly released and available through a website (AKARI Observers Page, http://www.ir.isas.ac.jp/AKARI/Observation/). The catalog includes various infrared sources such as young stellar objects, asymptotic giant branch stars, giants/supergiants, and many other cool or dust-enshrouded stars. A large number of near-infrared spectral data, coupled with complementary broadband photometric data, allow us to investigate infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their spectral energy distributions. Combined use of the present AKARI LMC catalogues with other infrared catalogues such as SAGE and HERITAGE possesses scientific potential that can be applied to various astronomical studies. In this presentation, we report the details of the AKARI photometric and spectroscopic catalogues of the LMC.

  14. Use of modern infrared thermography for wildlife population surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Dale L.; Underwood, H. Brian; Porter, William F.

    1995-03-01

    A commercially available thermal-infrared scanning system was used to survey populations of several wildlife species. The system's ability to detect species of different sizes in varying habitats relative to conventional survey methods, to differentiate between species in the same habitat, and the influence of environtmental factors on operational aspects of employing this technology in the field were evaluated. Total costs for the surveys were approximately 0.36/ha. There were marked discrepancies in the counts of untrained observers and those from trained analysis. Computer-assisted analysis of infrared imagery recorded 52% fewer deer than were estimated from drive counts, and densities of moose were five times those estimated from conventional aerial methods. By flying concentric circles and using telephoto, detailed counts of turkeys and deer were possible. With the aid of computer-assisted analysis, infrared thermography may become a useful wildlife population survey tool. More research is needed to verify the actual efficiency of detection by combining aerial scans with ground truthing for a variely of species and habitals.

  15. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Cao, Yi; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Jencson, Jacob; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The exploration of the dynamic mid-infrared sky has just begun. We propose to continue the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) --- a systematic search of 194 nearby galaxies within 20 Mpc, on timescales ranging between a week to a year, to a depth of 20 mag. During Cycle 10, SPIRITS has discovered over 40 infrared transients and over 1200 infrared variables. We are discovering explosive transients (ILRT, LRN, CNe, SNe), eruptive variables (LBV, RSG, YSG, AGB), and mysterious new infrared events devoid of optical counterparts (e.g. possible birth of a massive star system). Our Cycle 10 discoveries motivate our experiment design for Cycle 11 and 12. In particular, we request additional shorter cadence baselines to fill in missing pieces in our understanding of the end points of stellar evolution. Three years of SPIRITS will constitute the definitive study to ascertain the rate and origin of new classes of infrared transients, quantify the contribution of classical novae to galactic chemical evolution, and uncover supernovae buried in starbursts. We are also systematically probing mass-loss rates and dust formation in the most massive stars. SPIRITS yields a census of supergiant variability and asymptotic giant branch variability in diverse galaxy environments. The SPIRITS team continues to be committed to a concomitant ground-based NIR and optical survey and extensive spectroscopic follow-up: 308 nights of near-IR imaging, 135 nights of optical imaging and 34 nights of spectroscopy in Cycle 11 and 12. Follow-up will serve to maximize the discovery potential of our requested 795.3 hrs of Spitzer/IRAC and 10 orbits of HST/WFC3 observing time.

  16. Scientific Goals of the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Zheng, Jessica; Mould, Jeremy; Cooke, Jeff; Ireland, Michael; Uddin, Syed Ashraf; Zhang, Hui; Yuan, Xiangyan; Lawrence, Jon; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Wu, Xuefeng; Curtin, Chris; Wang, Lifan

    2016-09-01

    The high Antarctic plateau provides exceptional conditions for infrared observations on account of the cold, dry and stable atmosphere above the ice surface. This paper describes the scientific goals behind the first program to examine the time-varying universe in the infrared from Antarctica - the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS). This will employ a 50cm telescope to monitor the southern skies in the 2.4μmK dark window from China's Kunlun station at Dome A, on the summit of the Antarctic plateau, through the uninterrupted 4-month period of winter darkness. An earlier paper discussed optimisation of the K dark filter for sensitivity (Li et al. 2016). This paper examines the scientific program for KISS. We calculate the sensitivity of the camera for the extrema of observing conditions that will be encountered. We present the parameters for sample surveys that could then be carried out for a range of cadences and sensitivities. We then discuss several science programs that could be conducted with these capabilities, involving star formation, brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters, exoplanets around M dwarfs, the terminal phases of stellar evolution, fast transients, embedded supernova searches, reverberation mapping of AGN, gamma ray bursts and the detection of the cosmic infrared background.

  17. Ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the AKARI all-sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Kilerci Eser, E.; Goto, T.; Doi, Y. E-mail: doi@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-12-10

    We present a new catalog of 118 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and one hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HLIRG) by cross-matching the AKARI all-sky survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10) and the final data release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey. Forty of the ULIRGs and one HLIRG are new identifications. We find that ULIRGs are interacting pair galaxies or ongoing or postmergers. This is consistent with the widely accepted view: ULIRGs are major mergers of disk galaxies. We confirm the previously known positive trend between the active galactic nucleus fraction and infrared luminosity. We show that ULIRGs have a large offset from the main sequence up to z ∼ 1; their offset from the z ∼ 2 'main sequence' is relatively smaller. We find a result consistent with the previous studies showing that, compared to local star-forming SDSS galaxies of similar mass, local ULIRGs have lower oxygen abundances. We demonstrate for the first time that ULIRGs follow the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR). The scatter of ULIRGs around the FMR (0.09 dex-0.5 dex) is comparable to the scatter of z ∼ 2-3 galaxies. We provide the largest local (0.050

  18. Using internet snapshot surveys to enhance our understanding of the availability of the novel psychoactive substance 4-methylaminorex and 4,4'-dimethylaminorex.

    PubMed

    Nizar, Hisham; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M

    2015-03-01

    4,4'-Dimethylaminorex is a stimulant novel psychoactive substance (NPS) first detected in Europe in November 2012. It is a derivative of 4-methylaminorex, a substance controlled under Schedule 1 of the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances. There is currently no information on the availability or cost of these substances from Internet suppliers. An Internet snapshot study was undertaken in English using established European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) methodology to determine the availability of 4-methylaminorex and 4,4'-dimethylaminorex in April 2014. Twenty Internet sites selling 4-methylaminorex were identified, 18 selling in US dollars and two in GB Pound Sterling. Fourteen (70 %) Internet sites had a minimum purchase amount of ≥10 g (compared to user doses of 10-25 mg). For the 18 suppliers selling in US$, 9 quoted a fixed price per gram irrespective of the amount ordered and 11 had a reducing price per gram with increasing purchase quantity (US$30.8 ± 34.2/g for 1 g purchase to US$15.2 ± 20.3/g for 1 kg purchase). Only one Internet site selling 4,4'-dimethylaminorex was identified, selling in Euros. The minimum purchase quantity was 500 mg. The price per gram reduced from 36.08/g for a 500 mg purchase to 2.20/g for a 100 g purchase. This Internet snapshot demonstrated that there was a greater availability from Internet suppliers of products advertised as 4-methylaminorex than 4,4'-dimethylaminorex, despite the 4-methylaminorex being an internationally controlled substance. Whilst this may reflect misunderstanding by suppliers, it has the potential to put those purchasing at risk of contravening border control and/or local law enforcement legislation. The use of methodology such as Internet snapshot surveys is of increasing interest to clinical/medical toxicologists in their understanding of the supply, availability and cost of novel psychoactive substances.

  19. Using internet snapshot surveys to enhance our understanding of the availability of the novel psychoactive substance 4-methylaminorex and 4,4'-dimethylaminorex.

    PubMed

    Nizar, Hisham; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M

    2015-03-01

    4,4'-Dimethylaminorex is a stimulant novel psychoactive substance (NPS) first detected in Europe in November 2012. It is a derivative of 4-methylaminorex, a substance controlled under Schedule 1 of the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances. There is currently no information on the availability or cost of these substances from Internet suppliers. An Internet snapshot study was undertaken in English using established European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) methodology to determine the availability of 4-methylaminorex and 4,4'-dimethylaminorex in April 2014. Twenty Internet sites selling 4-methylaminorex were identified, 18 selling in US dollars and two in GB Pound Sterling. Fourteen (70 %) Internet sites had a minimum purchase amount of ≥10 g (compared to user doses of 10-25 mg). For the 18 suppliers selling in US$, 9 quoted a fixed price per gram irrespective of the amount ordered and 11 had a reducing price per gram with increasing purchase quantity (US$30.8 ± 34.2/g for 1 g purchase to US$15.2 ± 20.3/g for 1 kg purchase). Only one Internet site selling 4,4'-dimethylaminorex was identified, selling in Euros. The minimum purchase quantity was 500 mg. The price per gram reduced from 36.08/g for a 500 mg purchase to 2.20/g for a 100 g purchase. This Internet snapshot demonstrated that there was a greater availability from Internet suppliers of products advertised as 4-methylaminorex than 4,4'-dimethylaminorex, despite the 4-methylaminorex being an internationally controlled substance. Whilst this may reflect misunderstanding by suppliers, it has the potential to put those purchasing at risk of contravening border control and/or local law enforcement legislation. The use of methodology such as Internet snapshot surveys is of increasing interest to clinical/medical toxicologists in their understanding of the supply, availability and cost of novel psychoactive substances. PMID:25167967

  20. Update on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wright, Edward L.; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Irace, William; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024(sup 2) HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5 resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47' x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 launch vehicle. The WISE survey approach is simple and efficient. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft rotates at a constant rate while the scan mirror freezes the telescope line of sight during each exposure. WISE has completed its mission Preliminary Design Review and its NASA Confirmation Review, and the project is awaiting confirmation from NASA to proceed to the Critical Design phase. Much of the payload hardware is now complete, and assembly of the payload will occur over the next year. WISE is scheduled to launch in late 2009; the project web site can be found at www.wise.ssl.berkeley.edu.

  1. Surveying the Inner Solar System with an Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc W.; Reitsema, Harold J.; Linfield, Roger P.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of surveying the inner solar system for objects that may pose some threat to Earth. Most of the analysis is based on understanding the capability provided by Sentinel, a concept for an infrared space-based telescope placed in a heliocentric orbit near the distance of Venus. From this analysis, we show that (1) the size range being targeted can affect the survey design, (2) the orbit distribution of the target sample can affect the survey design, (3) minimum observational arc length during the survey is an important metric of survey performance, and (4) surveys must consider objects as small as D=15{--}30 m to meet the goal of identifying objects that have the potential to cause damage on Earth in the next 100 yr. Sentinel will be able to find 50% of all impactors larger than 40 m in a 6.5 yr survey. The Sentinel mission concept is shown to be as effective as any survey in finding objects bigger than D = 140 m but is more effective when applied to finding smaller objects on Earth-impacting orbits. Sentinel is also more effective at finding objects of interest for human exploration that benefit from lower propulsion requirements. To explore the interaction between space and ground search programs, we also study a case where Sentinel is combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and show the benefit of placing a space-based observatory in an orbit that reduces the overlap in search regions with a ground-based telescope. In this case, Sentinel+LSST can find more than 70% of the impactors larger than 40 m assuming a 6.5 yr lifetime for Sentinel and 10 yr for LSST.

  2. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Interim Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Schechter, P.; Baltay, C.; Bean, R.; Bennett, D.; Brown, R.; Conselice, C.; Donahue, M.; Gaudi, S.; Lauer, T.; Perlmutter, S.; Rauscher, B.; Rhodes, J.; Roellig, T.; Stern, D.; Sumi, T.; Gerhels, N.; Sambruna, R.; Barry, R. K.; Content, D.; Grady, K; Jackson, C.; Kruk, J.; Melton, M.; Rioux, N.

    2011-01-01

    The New Worlds, New Horizons (NWNH) in Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey prioritized the community consensus for ground-based and space-based observatories. Recognizing that many of the community s key questions could be answered with a wide-field infrared survey telescope in space, and that the decade would be one of budget austerity, WFIRST was top ranked in the large space mission category. In addition to the powerful new science that could be accomplished with a wide-field infrared telescope, the WFIRST mission was determined to be both technologically ready and only a small fraction of the cost of previous flagship missions, such as HST or JWST. In response to the top ranking by the community, NASA formed the WFIRST Science Definition Team (SDT) and Project Office. The SDT was charged with fleshing out the NWNH scientific requirements to a greater level of detail. NWNH evaluated the risk and cost of the JDEM-Omega mission design, as submitted by NASA, and stated that it should serve as the basis for the WFIRST mission. The SDT and Project Office were charged with developing a mission optimized for achieving the science goals laid out by the NWNH re-port. The SDT and Project Office opted to use the JDEM-Omega hardware configuration as an initial start-ing point for the hardware implementation. JDEM-Omega and WFIRST both have an infrared imager with a filter wheel, as well as counter-dispersed moderate resolution spectrometers. The primary advantage of space observations is being above the Earth's atmosphere, which absorbs, scatters, warps and emits light. Observing from above the atmosphere enables WFIRST to obtain precision infrared measurements of the shapes of galaxies for weak lensing, infrared light-curves of supernovae and exoplanet microlensing events with low systematic errors, and infrared measurements of the H hydrogen line to be cleanly detected in the 1

  3. Surveying Galaxy Evolution in the Far-Infrared: A Far-Infrared All-Sky Survey Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Amato, M. J.; Dwek, E.; Freund, M. M.; Gardner, J. P.; Kashlinsky, A.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z greater than or equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Quantifying the evolution of galaxies at these wavelengths is crucial to our understanding of the formation of structure in the Universe following the big bang. Surveying the whole sky will find the rare and unique objects, enabling follow-up observations. SIRCE, the Survey of Infrared Cosmic Evolution, is such a mission concept under study at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A helium-cooled telescope with ultrasensitive detectors can image the whole sky to the confusion limit in 6 months. Multiple wavelength bands permit the extraction of photometric redshifts, while a large telescope yields a low confusion limit. We discuss the implications of such a survey for galaxy formation and evolution, large-scale structure, star formation, and the structure of interstellar dust.

  4. The search for brown dwarfs with infrared surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chester, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), ISO, Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), WIRE, Deep Near-Infrared Survey (DENIS), and Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) observations were used to compute the maximum number of observable brown dwarfs for various infrared surveys by combining the maximum possible Oort limit (0.1 'missing' solar mass p/cu c) with all possible brown dwarf mass and age distributions. This approach shows what limits will be placed on the contribution of brown dwarfs to any possible 'missing mass' if no brown dwarfs are observed. I consider brown dwarfs with masses of 0.01-0.08 solar mass and ages of 10(exp 9)-10(exp 10) years. The full range of predicted numbers of brown dwarfs above approx. 6 times the noise of each of the below surveys is: IRAS Point Source Catalog, 0.02-6; IRAS Faint Source Catalog absolute value of b greater than 10 deg, 0.05-16; ISO (2 week 12 micrometer survey), 0.15-80; SIRTF (2 week 12 micrometer survey), 2.50-1600; WIRE (4 month 12 micrometer survey), 21.80-6000; DENIS(half sky) absolute value of b greater than 10 deg, 0.00-2000; and 2MASS(full sky) absolute value of b greater than 10 deg, 0.00-8800. A failure to find brown dwarfs in the IRAS FSC would just barely rule out about half of the mass-age range for Oort limit total masses. A failure to find brown dwarfs in 2MASS/DENIS would rule out roughly the same mass-age range, but would set a limit of 0.1-0.01 times the Oort mass in that mass-age region. No limits would be set for the other half of the mass-age range since both IRAS and 2MASS/DENIS have insufficient sensitivity for brown dwarfs with T less than 750 K. A failure to find brown dwarfs with ISO would rule out almost all of the mass-age range for Oort limit total masses, but would not set a significantly lower limit to the brown dwarf mass limit. A failure to find brown dwarfs with SIRTF or WIRE would rule out the entire mass-age range for Oort limit total masses and set an upper limit of 0.1-0.001 times

  5. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Lau, Ryan; Cao, Yi; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Jencson, Jacob; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos; Jones, Olivia; Ressler, Michael; Adams, Scott; Moore, Anna; Cook, David; Fox, Ori; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab; Monson, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Spitzer is pioneering a systematic exploration of the dynamic infrared sky. Our SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) has already discovered 147 explosive transients and 1948 eruptive variables. Of these 147 infrared transients, 35 are so red that they are devoid of optical counterparts and we call them SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). The nature of SPRITEs is unknown and progress on deciphering the explosion physics depends on mid-IR spectroscopy. Multiple physical origins have been proposed including stellar merger, birth of a massive binary, electron capture supernova and stellar black-hole formation. Hence, we propose a modest continuation of SPIRITS, focusing on discovering and monitoring SPRITEs, in preparation for follow-up with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As the SPRITEs evolve and cool, the bulk of the emission shifts to longer wavelengths. MIRI aboard JWST will be the only available platform in the near future capable of characterizing SPRITEs out to 28um. Specifically, the low resolution spectrometer would determine dust mass, grain chemistry, ice abundance and energetics to disentangle the proposed origins. The re-focused SPIRITS program consists of continued Spitzer monitoring of only those 104 luminous galaxies that are known SPRITE hosts or are most likely to host new SPRITEa. Scaling from the SPIRITS discovery rate, we estimate finding 22 new SPRITEs and 6 new supernovae over the next two years. The SPIRITS team remains committed to extensive ground-based follow-up. The Spitzer observations proposed here are essential for determining the final fates of active SPRITEs as well as bridging the time lag between the current SPIRITS survey and JWST launch.

  6. Perioperative management of antithrombotic treatment during implantation or revision of cardiac implantable electronic devices: the European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI).

    PubMed

    Deharo, Jean-Claude; Sciaraffia, Elena; Leclercq, Christophe; Amara, Walid; Doering, Michael; Bongiorni, Maria G; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nicolaus; Estner, Heidi; Larsen, Torben B; Johansen, Jens B; Potpara, Tatjana S; Proclemer, Alessandro; Pison, Laurent; Brunet, Caroline; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2016-05-01

    The European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI) was a prospective European survey of consecutive adults who had undergone implantation/surgical revision of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) on chronic antithrombotic therapy (enrolment March-June 2015). The aim of the survey was to investigate perioperative treatment with oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets in CIED implantation or surgical revision and to determine the incidence of complications, including clinically significant pocket haematomas. Information on antithrombotic therapy before and after surgery and bleeding and thromboembolic complications occurring after the intervention was collected at first follow-up. The study population comprised 723 patients (66.7% men, 76.9% aged ≥66 years). Antithrombotic treatment was continued during surgery in 489 (67.6%) patients; 6 (0.8%) had their treatment definitively stopped; 46 (6.4%) were switched to another antithrombotic therapy. Heparin bridging was used in 55 out of 154 (35.8%) patients when interrupting vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) treatment was interrupted in 88.7% of patients, with heparin bridging in 25.6%, but accounted for only 25.3% of the oral anticoagulants used. A total of 108 complications were observed in 98 patients. No intracranial haemorrhage or embolic events were observed. Chronic NOAC treatment before surgery was associated with lower rates of minor pocket haematoma (1.4%; P= 0.042) vs. dual antiplatelet therapy (13.0%), VKA (11.4%), VKA + antiplatelet (9.2%), or NOAC + antiplatelet (7.7%). Similar results were observed for bleeding complications (P= 0.028). Perioperative management of patients undergoing CIED implantation/surgical revision while on chronic antithrombotic therapy varies, with evidence of a disparity between guideline recommendations and practice patterns in Europe. Haemorrhagic complications were significantly

  7. Infrared Surveys of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Aerial surveys with infrared imaging radiometer depict volcanic thermal patterns and structural features.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W A; Moxham, R M; Polcyn, F; Landis, G H

    1964-11-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.

  8. Deep near-infrared survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deul, E.

    1992-01-01

    DENIS (Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky) will be the first complete census of astronomical sources in the near-infrared spectral range. The challenges of this novel survey are both scientific and technical. Phenomena radiating in the near-infrared range from brown dwarfs to galaxies in the early stages of cosmological evolution, the scientific exploitation of data relevant over such a wide range requires pooling expertise from several of the leading European astronomical centers. The technical challenges of a project which will provide an order of magnitude more sources than given by the IRAS space mission, and which will involve advanced data-handling and image-processing techniques, likewise require pooling of hardware and software resources, as well as of human expertise. The DENIS project team is composed of some 40 scientists, computer specialists, and engineers located in 5 European Community countries (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, and Spain), with important contributions from specialists in Australia, Brazil, Chile, and Hungary. DENIS will survey the entire southern sky in 3 colors, namely in the I band at a wavelength of 0.8 micron, in the 1.25 micron J band, and in the 2.15 micron K' band. The sensitivity limits will be 18th magnitude in the I band, 16th in the J band, and 14.5th in the K' band. The angular resolution achieved will be 1 arcsecond in the I band, and 3.0 arcseconds in the J and K' bands. The European Southern Observatory 1 m telescope on La Silla will be dedicated to survey use during operations expected to last four years, commencing in late 1993. DENIS aims to provide the astronomical community with complete digitized infrared images of the full southern sky and a catalogue of extracted objects, both of the best quality and in readily accessible form. This will be achieved through dedicated software packages and specialized catalogues, and with assistance from the Leiden and Paris Data Analysis Centers. The data

  9. PROBING THE PHYSICS OF NARROW LINE REGIONS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES. II. THE SIDING SPRING SOUTHERN SEYFERT SPECTROSCOPIC SNAPSHOT SURVEY (S7)

    SciTech Connect

    Dopita, Michael A.; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Sutherland, Ralph; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S.; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2015-03-15

    Here we describe the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of 38 × 25 arcsec at a spectral resolution of R = 7000 in the red (530–710 nm), and R = 3000 in the blue (340–560 nm). From these data cubes we have extracted the narrow-line region spectra from a 4 arcsec aperture centered on the nucleus. We also determine the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 luminosities determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed. We present a set of images of the galaxies in [O iii] λ5007, [N ii] λ6584, and Hα, which serve to delineate the spatial extent of the extended narrow-line region and also to reveal the structure and morphology of the surrounding H ii regions. Finally, we provide a preliminary discussion of those Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies that display coronal emission lines in order to explore the origin of these lines.

  10. Aerial infrared surveys in the investigation of geothermal and volcanic heat sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    This factsheet briefly summarizes and clarifies the application of aerial infrared surveys in geophysical exploration for geothermal energy sources and environmental monitoring for potential volcanic hazards.

  11. The AKARI far-infrared all-sky survey maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Komugi, Shinya; White, Glenn J.; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Chinone, Yuji; Etxaluze, Mireya; Cypriano, Elysandra F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a far-infrared all-sky atlas from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese AKARI satellite. The survey covers > 99% of the sky in four photometric bands centred at 65 μm, 90 μm, 140 μm, and 160 μm, with spatial resolutions ranging from 1' to 1{^''.}5. These data provide crucial information on the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the interstellar medium (ISM), since a significant portion of its energy is emitted between ˜ 50 and 200 μm. The large-scale distribution of interstellar clouds, their thermal dust temperatures, and their column densities can be investigated with the improved spatial resolution compared to earlier all-sky survey observations. In addition to the point source distribution, the large-scale distribution of ISM cirrus emission, and its filamentary structure, are well traced. We have made the first public release of the full-sky data to provide a legacy data set for use in the astronomical community.

  12. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope WFIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Schechter, P.; Baltay, C.; Bean, R.; Bennett, D.; Brown, R.; Conselice, C.; Donahue, M.; Fan, X.; Rauscher, B.; Rhodes, J.; Roellig, T.; Stern, D.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R.; Traub, W.; Barry, R. K.; Content, D.; Goullioud, R.; Grady, K.; Kruk, J.; Melton, M.; Peddie, C.; Rioux, N.; Seiffert, M.

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, NASA created a Science Definition Team (SDT) for WFIRST, the Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope, recommended by the Astro 2010 Decadal Survey as the highest priority for a large space mission. The SDT was chartered to work with the WFIRST Project Office at GSFC and the Program Office at JPL to produce a Design Reference Mission (DRM) for WFIRST. Part of the original charge was to produce an interim design reference mission by mid-2011. That document was delivered to NASA and widely circulated within the astronomical community. In late 2011 the Astrophysics Division augmented its original charge, asking for two design reference missions. The first of these, DRM1, was to be a finalized version of the interim DRM, reducing overall mission costs where possible. The second of these, DRM2, was to identify and eliminate capabilities that overlapped with those of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (henceforth JWST), ESA's Euclid mission, and the NSF's ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (henceforth LSST), and again to reduce overall mission cost, while staying faithful to NWNH. This report presents both DRM1 and DRM2.

  13. Predicting future space near-IR grism surveys using the WFC3 infrared spectroscopic parallels survey

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, James W.; Atek, Hakim; Teplitz, Harry; Rafelski, Marc; Bunker, Andrew; Ross, Nathaniel; Malkan, Matt; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Dominguez, Alberto; Masters, Dan; Siana, Brian; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.

    2013-12-10

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg{sup 2}) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10{sup –17} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg{sup –2} above an Hα flux of 2 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution

  14. Predicting Future Space Near-IR Grism Surveys Using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James W.; Teplitz, Harry; Atek, Hakim; Bunker, Andrew; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Dominguez, Alberto; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Martin, Crystal L.; Masters, Dan; McCarthy, Patrick; Siana, Brian

    2013-12-01

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg2) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg-2 above an Hα flux of 2 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution in both the Hα luminosity function from z = 0.3-1.5 and the [O III] luminosity function from z = 0.7-2.3 is

  15. THE GALACTIC PLANE INFRARED POLARIZATION SURVEY (GPIPS): DATA RELEASE 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pavel, M. D.; Cashman, L. R. E-mail: pavelmi@bu.edu

    2012-06-01

    The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS) covers 76 deg{sup 2} of the first Galactic quadrant midplane, 18 Degree-Sign {<=} l {<=} 56 Degree-Sign and -1 Degree-Sign {<=} b {<=} +1 Degree-Sign , in H-band (1.6 {mu}m) linear polarimetry to reveal the plane-of-the-sky orientation of the magnetic field in diffuse and denser atomic and molecular clouds. The Survey consists of 3237 overlapping 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 arcmin fields observed using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope. Here, the first community release of GPIPS data for 559 fields (17% of the Survey) is announced and basic characteristics are described. Data products consist of H-band stellar photometry and polarimetry as well as combined images. The formats and contents of the products are described and quality cuts are explored to provide insight into opportunities and limitations of the data. The Survey probes to distances as far as the Galactic bulge, revealing magnetic field properties that correlate with spiral arms and also show significant small-scale structure. The polarizations are classified into three 'usage' samples, based on stellar brightness and polarimetric uncertainty. The brightest, lowest uncertainty polarizations are suitable for individual use and direct magnetic field mapping. The next two fainter samples are useful, once averaged, for probing magnetic fields to greater distances, albeit with lower resolution. Based on this release, the full GPIPS data set will number about 5.6 million stars, with more than 1 million in the high-quality sample. This increases, by many orders of magnitude, the number of polarimetric probes of the Milky Way's magnetic field.

  16. Poetry Workshop. Holiday Snapshots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinan, Bee

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a poetry workshop to create a snapshot of unique moments in family history during the holidays. The workshop includes a working on a family photo poetry poster and participating in extension activities (e.g., writing personal poetry notebooks). A reproducible offers a holiday album of poetry snapshots. (SM)

  17. Mass Assembly In The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James; Teplitz, Harry; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Malkan, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Henry, Alaina; Atek, Hakim; Fosbury, Robert; Ross, Nathanial; Hathi, Nimish; Bridge, Carrie; Bunker, Andrew; Dressler, Alan; Shim, Hyunjin; Bedregal, Alejandro; Dominguez, Alberto; Rafelski, Marc; Masters, Dan; Martin, Crystal

    2013-10-01

    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel (WISP) Survey uses over 1300 HST orbits to study galaxy evolution over a majority of cosmic history. Its slitless grism spectroscopy over a wide, continuous spectral range (0.8-1.7 micron) provides an unbiased selection of thousands of emission line galaxies over 0.5 < z < 2.5. Hundreds of these galaxies are detected in multiple emission lines, allowing for important diagnostics of metallicity and dust extinction. We propose deep 3.6 micron imaging (5 sigma, 0.9 micro-Jy) of 40 of the deepest WISP fields observed with the combination of G102+G141 grisms, in order to detect emission-line galaxies down to 0.1 L*. Combined with our HST optical and near-IR photometry, these IRAC data will be critical to determining accurate stellar masses for both passive and active galaxies in our survey. We will determine the evolution of the faint end slope of the stellar mass function and the mass-metallicity relation down to low-mass galaxies, including measurement of a possible mass-metallicity-SFR fundamental plane. The addition of the IRAC photometry will also provide much stronger constraints on dust extinction and star formation history, especially when combined with information available from the emission lines themselves.

  18. Hi-GAL: The Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, S.; Swinyard, B.; Bally, J.; Barlow, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Martin, P.; Moore, T.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Plume, R.; Testi, L.; Zavagno, A.; Abergel, A.; Ali, B.; André, P.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Benedettini, M.; Berné, O.; Billot, N. P.; Blommaert, J.; Bontemps, S.; Boulanger, F.; Brand, J.; Brunt, C.; Burton, M.; Campeggio, L.; Carey, S.; Caselli, P.; Cesaroni, R.; Cernicharo, J.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chrysostomou, A.; Codella, C.; Cohen, M.; Compiegne, M.; Davis, C. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; Di Francesco, J.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Elia, D.; Faustini, F.; Fischera, J. F.; Fukui, Y.; Fuller, G. A.; Ganga, K.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Glenn, J.:; Goldsmith, P.; Griffin, M.; Hoare, M.; Huang, M.; Jiang, B.; Joblin, C.; Joncas, G.; Juvela, M.; Kirk, J.; Lagache, G.; Li, J. Z.; Lim, T. L.; Lord, S. D.; Lucas, P. W.; Maiolo, B.; Marengo, M.; Marshall, D.; Masi, S.; Massi, F.; Matsuura, M.; Meny, C.; Minier, V.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Montier, L.; Motte, F.; Müller, T. G.; Natoli, P.; Neves, J.; Olmi, L.; Paladini, R.; Paradis, D.; Pestalozzi, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Piacentini, F.; Pomarès, M.; Popescu, C. C.; Reach, W. T.; Richer, J.; Ristorcelli, I.; Roy, A.; Royer, P.; Russeil, D.; Saraceno, P.; Sauvage, M.; Schilke, P.; Schneider-Bontemps, N.; Schuller, F.; Schultz, B.; Shepherd, D. S.; Sibthorpe, B.; Smith, H. A.; Smith, M. D.; Spinoglio, L.; Stamatellos, D.; Strafella, F.; Stringfellow, G.; Sturm, E.; Taylor, R.; Thompson, M. A.; Tuffs, R. J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Vavrek, R.; Viti, S.; Waelkens, C.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H. W.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-03-01

    Hi-GAL, the Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey, is an Open Time Key Project of the Herschel Space Observatory. It will make an unbiased photometric survey of the inner Galactic plane by mapping a 2° wide strip in the longitude range midlmid < 60° in five wavebands between 70 μm and 500 μm. The aim of Hi-GAL is to detect the earliest phases of the formation of molecular clouds and high-mass stars and to use the optimum combination of Herschel wavelength coverage, sensitivity, mapping strategy, and speed to deliver a homogeneous census of star-forming regions and cold structures in the interstellar medium. The resulting representative samples will yield the variation of source temperature, luminosity, mass and age in a wide range of Galactic environments at all scales from massive YSOs in protoclusters to entire spiral arms, providing an evolutionary sequence for the formation of intermediate and high-mass stars. This information is essential to the formulation of a predictive global model of the role of environment and feedback in regulating the star-formation process. Such a model is vital to understanding star formation on galactic scales and in the early universe. Hi-GAL will also provide a science legacy for decades to come with incalculable potential for systematic and serendipitous science in a wide range of astronomical fields, enabling the optimum use of future major facilities such as JWST and ALMA.

  19. Applications of thermal infrared imagery for energy conservation and environmental surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, J. R.; Vogel, T. C.; Howard, G. E., Jr.; Love, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The survey procedures, developed during the winter and summer of 1976, employ color and color infrared aerial photography, thermal infrared imagery, and a handheld infrared imaging device. The resulting imagery was used to detect building heat losses, deteriorated insulation in built-up type building roofs, and defective underground steam lines. The handheld thermal infrared device, used in conjunction with the aerial thermal infrared imagery, provided a method for detecting and locating those roof areas that were underlain with wet insulation. In addition, the handheld infrared device was employed to conduct a survey of a U.S. Army installation's electrical distribution system under full operating loads. This survey proved to be cost effective procedure for detecting faulty electrical insulators and connections that if allowed to persist could have resulted in both safety hazards and loss in production.

  20. Spectrophotometric Redshifts in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharo, John; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined HST grism spectroscopy and deep broadband imaging to measure spectro-photometric redshifts (SPZs) of faint galaxies. Using a technique pioneered by Ryan et al. 2007, one can combine spectra and photometry to yield an SPZ that is more accurate than pure photometric redshifts, and can probe more deeply than ground-based spectroscopic redshifts. By taking mid-resolution spectra from the HST Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS), SPZs can be found for measurements potentially down to 27th magnitude (the typical brightness of a dwarf galaxy at redshift ˜1.5). A galaxy’s redshift is vital for understanding its place in the growth and evolution of the universe. The measurement of high-accuracy SPZs for FIGS sources will improve the faint-end and high-redshift portions of the luminosity function, and make possible a robust analysis of the FIGS fields for signs of Large Scale Structure (LSS). The improved redshift and distance measurements allowed for the identification of a structure at z=0.83 in one of the FIGS fields.

  1. Spectrophotometric Redshifts in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharo, John; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined HST grism spectroscopy and deep broadband imaging to measure spectro-photometric redshifts (SPZs) of faint galaxies. Using a technique pioneered by Ryan et al. 2007, one can combine spectra and photometry to yield an SPZ that is more accurate than pure photometric redshifts, and can probe more deeply than ground-based spectroscopic redshifts. By taking mid-resolution spectra from the HST Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS), SPZs can be found for measurements potentially down to 27th magnitude (the typical brightness of a dwarf galaxy at redshift ∼1.5). A galaxy’s redshift is vital for understanding its place in the growth and evolution of the universe. The measurement of high-accuracy SPZs for FIGS sources will improve the faint-end and high-redshift portions of the luminosity function, and make possible a robust analysis of the FIGS fields for signs of Large Scale Structure (LSS). The improved redshift and distance measurements allowed for the identification of a structure at z=0.83 in one of the FIGS fields.

  2. DISCOVERIES FROM A NEAR-INFRARED PROPER MOTION SURVEY USING MULTI-EPOCH TWO MICRON ALL-SKY SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cutri, Roc M.; Looper, Dagny L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Sweet, Anne C.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Barman, Travis S.; Bochanski, John J.; Roellig, Thomas L.; McLean, Ian S.; McGovern, Mark R.; Rice, Emily L.

    2010-09-15

    We have conducted a 4030 deg{sup 2} near-infrared proper motion survey using multi-epoch data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). We find 2778 proper motion candidates, 647 of which are not listed in SIMBAD. After comparison to Digitized Sky Survey images, we find that 107 of our proper motion candidates lack counterparts at B, R, and I bands and are thus 2MASS-only detections. We present results of spectroscopic follow-up of 188 targets that include the infrared-only sources along with selected optical-counterpart sources with faint reduced proper motions or interesting colors. We also establish a set of near-infrared spectroscopic standards with which to anchor near-infrared classifications for our objects. Among the discoveries are six young field brown dwarfs, five 'red L' dwarfs, three L-type subdwarfs, twelve M-type subdwarfs, eight 'blue L' dwarfs, and several T dwarfs. We further refine the definitions of these exotic classes to aid future identification of similar objects. We examine their kinematics and find that both the 'blue L' and 'red L' dwarfs appear to be drawn from a relatively old population. This survey provides a glimpse of the kinds of research that will be possible through time-domain infrared projects such as the UKIDSS Large Area Survey, various VISTA surveys, and WISE, and also through z- or y-band enabled, multi-epoch surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  3. THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL (WISP) SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Atek, H.; Scarlata, C.; Colbert, J. W.; Shim, H.; Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R.; McCarthy, P.; Dressler, A.; Teplitz, H. I.; Siana, B.; Bridge, C.; Henry, A.; Martin, C.; Bunker, A. J.; Fosbury, R. A. E.

    2010-11-01

    We present the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel (WISP) Survey. WISP is obtaining slitless, near-infrared grism spectroscopy of {approx}90 independent, high-latitude fields by observing in the pure-parallel mode with the Wide Field Camera Three on the Hubble Space Telescope for a total of {approx}250 orbits. Spectra are obtained with the G{sub 102} ({lambda} = 0.8-1.17 {mu}m, R {approx}210) and G{sub 141} grisms ({lambda} = 1.11-1.67 {mu}m, R {approx}130), together with direct imaging in the J and H bands (F110W and F140W, respectively). In the present paper, we present the first results from 19 WISP fields, covering approximately 63 arcmin{sup 2}. For typical exposure times ({approx}6400 s in G{sub 102} and {approx}2700 s in G{sub 141}), we reach 5{sigma} detection limits for emission lines of f {approx} 5 x 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for compact objects. Typical direct imaging 5{sigma} limits are 26.3 and 26.1 mag. (AB) in F110W and F140W, respectively. Restricting ourselves to the lines measured with the highest confidence, we present a list of 328 emission lines, in 229 objects, in a redshift range 0.3 < z < 3. The single-line emitters are likely to be a mix of H{alpha} and [O III]5007,4959 A, with H{alpha} predominating. The overall surface density of high-confidence emission-line objects in our sample is approximately 4 per arcmin{sup 2}. These first fields show high equivalent width sources, active galactic nucleus, and post-starburst galaxies. The median observed star formation rate (SFR) of our H{alpha}-selected sample is 4 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. At intermediate redshifts, we detect emission lines in galaxies as faint as H{sub 140} {approx} 25, or M{sub R} < -19, and are sensitive to SFRs down to less than 1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The slitless grisms on WFC3 provide a unique opportunity to study the spectral properties of galaxies much fainter than L* at the peak of the galaxy assembly epoch.

  4. Demonstration of First 9 Micron cutoff 640 x 486 GaAs Based Quantum Well Infrared PhotoDetector (QWIP) Snap-Shot Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hong, W.; Sundaram, M.; Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long waelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array (FPA) and its performance in quantum efficiency, NEAT, uniformity, and operability.

  5. A NuSTAR SURVEY OF NEARBY ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Ptak, Andrew; Stern, Daniel; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Stephen E.; Craig, William W.; Brandt, W. Niel; Luo, Bin; Christensen, Finn E.; Comastri, Andrea; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Koss, Michael; and others

    2015-11-20

    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously possible. Six of the nine sources observed were detected sufficiently well by NuSTAR to model in detail their broadband X-ray spectra, and recover the levels of obscuration and intrinsic X-ray luminosities. Only one source (IRAS 13120–5453) has a spectrum consistent with a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), but we cannot rule out that a second source (Arp 220) harbors an extremely highly obscured AGN as well. Variability in column density (reduction by a factor of a few compared to older observations) is seen in IRAS 05189–2524 and Mrk 273, altering the classification of these borderline sources from Compton-thick to Compton-thin. The ULIRGs in our sample have surprisingly low observed fluxes in high-energy (>10 keV) X-rays, especially compared to their bolometric luminosities. They have lower ratios of unabsorbed 2–10 keV to bolometric luminosity, and unabsorbed 2–10 keV to mid-IR [O iv] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths.

  6. CS (5-4) survey towards nearby infrared bright galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Yong

    2011-09-01

    With the observations of the CS (5-4) line towards a sample of 24 infrared bright galaxies using Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope (HHSMT), we detected CS (5-4) emission in 14 galaxies, including 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs)/luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and two nearby normal galaxies. As a good dense gas tracer, which has been well used for studying star formation in the Milky Way, CS (5-4) can trace the active star-forming gas in galaxies. The correlation between CS (5-4) luminosity, which is estimated with detected CS (5-4) line emission, and the infrared luminosity in these 14 galaxies, is fitted with a correlation coefficient of 0.939 and a slope close to unity. This correlation confirms that dense gas, which is closely linked to star formation, is very important for understanding star formation in galaxies.

  7. A far-infrared spectral line survey of 23 infrared-bright Galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Steven D.; Hollenbach, David J.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Haas, Michael R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Carral, Patricia; Maloney, Philip R.; Erickson, Edwin F.

    1995-01-01

    We present results from a KAO survey of fine-structure lines observed in 23 infrared-luminous galaxies. One or more of the following lines was observed and/or detected in each galaxy: (S III) 19, 33 microns, (Ne V) 24 microns, (O IV) 26 microns, (Fe II) 26 microns, (Si II) 35 microns, (O III) 52, 88 microns, (0 I) 63, 146 microns, (N III) 57 micro ns, (N II) 122, 205 microns, (C II) 158 microns. The galaxies span a wide range of morphologies (irregular to grand design), have varying metallicities, and include mergers, AGN's, and starburst systems. The observations were made beginning in 1988 using the facility Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer onboard the KAO at a typical resolution of approximately 60-140 km/s and with a 30-44 deg beam. We interpret the (C II) and (O I) fluxes, along with previous measurements of the IR continuum fluxes, in the context of photo dissociation region (PDR) models (Tielens & Hollenbach 1985; Wolfire et al. 1990). With these models, we obtain estimates of the typical interstellar UV fields incident on the line emitting regions (102-104 times the local interstellar radiation field) and the total masses (10(exp 7)-10(exp 8) Solar Mass), densities (10(exp 3)-10(exp 4)/cu cm), and temperatures (100-250 K) of the warm atomic gas. The (O III) (52/88) and (S III) (33/19) line flux ratios constrain the range of electron densities and pressures found within the ionized regions. The (O III) and (S III) lines also provide estimates of the effective temperature of the ionizing stars and elemental abundances within the ionized regions of these galactic nuclei. Our measurements imply typical gas pressures of nT approximately 5 x 10(exp 6)/cu cm K and typical upper mass cutoffs of 25-35 Solar Mass. The low-metallicity systems show high (C II)/CO and (O I)/CO flux ratios, 3-5 times the Milky Way value, indicating that they contain a larger fraction of photodissociated gas relative to the molecular material.

  8. Snapshot polarimeter fundus camera.

    PubMed

    DeHoog, Edward; Luo, Haitao; Oka, Kazuhiko; Dereniak, Eustace; Schwiegerling, James

    2009-03-20

    A snapshot imaging polarimeter utilizing Savart plates is integrated into a fundus camera for retinal imaging. Acquired retinal images can be processed to reconstruct Stokes vector images, giving insight into the polarization properties of the retina. Results for images from a normal healthy retina and retinas with pathology are examined and compared. PMID:19305463

  9. Single snapshot DOA estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häcker, P.; Yang, B.

    2010-10-01

    In array signal processing, direction of arrival (DOA) estimation has been studied for decades. Many algorithms have been proposed and their performance has been studied thoroughly. Yet, most of these works are focused on the asymptotic case of a large number of snapshots. In automotive radar applications like driver assistance systems, however, only a small number of snapshots of the radar sensor array or, in the worst case, a single snapshot is available for DOA estimation. In this paper, we investigate and compare different DOA estimators with respect to their single snapshot performance. The main focus is on the estimation accuracy and the angular resolution in multi-target scenarios including difficult situations like correlated targets and large target power differences. We will show that some algorithms lose their ability to resolve targets or do not work properly at all. Other sophisticated algorithms do not show a superior performance as expected. It turns out that the deterministic maximum likelihood estimator is a good choice under these hard conditions.

  10. WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey WISP: A Survey of Star Formation Across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkan, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    Our WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISPs) have shown the power of slitless spectroscopy to probe galaxy evolution from 0.5surveys. The broad, continuous, spectral coverage of the G102 and G141 grisms (0.8--1.7 um) provides the best measurement of the de-reddened star formation rate, and the mass-metallicity relation, throughout this epoch, over which ground-based searches are severely limited.We propose to extend this cost-effective WFC3 Survey by using 375 pure parallel orbits for grism spectroscopy in 50 deep (4-5 orbit) and 50 shallow (3-orbit) fields. This will complete a sample of 6000 galaxies with [OII], [OIII], Ha, Hb, or [SII] in the redshift desert. Our primary science goals are: (1) Derive the extinction-corrected Ha luminosity function, and the resulting cosmic history of star formation across 0.51 to low masses, with the support of our ongoing ground-based follow-up. (3) Examine the role of metal-poor dwarfs and extreme starbursts in galaxy assembly. (4) Use the Balmer break and D4000 diagnostics to find and determine the ages of absorption-line galaxies down to J=24-25. (5) Search for rare objects such as Lya emitters at z>6, reddened AGN, close physical pairs of galaxies, T- and Y-dwarf stars (of which we have already found three).The WISP value-added public data release is likely to be one of Hubble's major legacies of 0.8--1.7 um spectroscopy.

  11. WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey WISP: A Survey of Star Formation Across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkan, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Our WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels {WISPs} have shown the power of slitless spectroscopy to probe galaxy evolution from 0.5surveys. The broad, continuous, spectral coverage of the G102 and G141 grisms {0.8-1.7 um} provides the best measurement of the de-reddened star formation rate, and the mass-metallicity relation, throughout this epoch, over which ground-based searches are severely limited.We propose to extend this cost-effective WFC3 Survey by using 260 pure parallel orbits for grism spectroscopy in 30 deep {4-5 orbit} and 65 shallow {2 orbit} fields. This will complete a sample of 4000 galaxies with [OII], [OIII], Ha, Hb, or [SII] in the redshift desert. Our primary science goals are: {1} Derive the extinction-corrected Ha luminosity function, and the resulting cosmic history of star formation across 0.51 to low masses, with the support of our ongoing ground-based follow-up. {3} Examine the role of metal-poor dwarf galaxies in galaxy assembly. {4} Use the Balmer break and D4000 diagnostics to find and determine the ages of absorption-line galaxies down to J=25. {5} Search for rare objects such as Lya emitters at z>5.5, reddened AGN, close physical pairs of galaxies, and L- and T-dwarf stars {of which we have already found three}.The WISP value-added public data release is likely to be Hubble's principal legacy of 0.8-1.7 um spectroscopy.

  12. WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey WISP: A Survey of Star Formation Across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkan, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    Our WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels {WISPs} have shown the power of slitless spectroscopy to probe galaxy evolution from 0.5surveys. The broad, continuous, spectral coverage of the G102 and G141 grisms {0.8-1.7 um} provides the best measurement of the de-reddened star formation rate, and the mass-metallicity relation, throughout this epoch, over which ground-based searches are severely limited.We propose to extend this cost-effective WFC3 Survey by using 375 pure parallel orbits for grism spectroscopy in 50 deep {4-5 orbit} and 50 shallow {3-orbit} fields. This will complete a sample of 6000 galaxies with [OII], [OIII], Ha, Hb, or [SII] in the redshift desert. Our primary science goals are: {1} Derive the extinction-corrected Ha luminosity function, and the resulting cosmic history of star formation across 0.51 to low masses, with the support of our ongoing ground-based follow-up. {3} Examine the role of metal-poor dwarfs and extreme starbursts in galaxy assembly. {4} Use the Balmer break and D4000 diagnostics to find and determine the ages of absorption-line galaxies down to J=24-25. {5} Search for rare objects such as Lya emitters at z>6, reddened AGN, close physical pairs of galaxies, T- and Y-dwarf stars {of which we have already found three}.The WISP value-added public data release is likely to be one of Hubble's major legacies of 0.8-1.7 um spectroscopy.

  13. The WIRED Survey. 2; Infrared Excesses in the SDSS DR7 White Dwarf Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debes, John H.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With the launch of the Wide-field Infrar.ed Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris and brown dwarfs (BDs) around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED Survey is sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs. In this paper, we present a cross-correlation of the preliminary Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) WD catalog between the WISE, Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and SDSS DR7 photometric catalogs. From -18,000 input targets, there are WISE detections comprising 344 "naked" WDs (detection of the WD photosphere only), 1020 candidate WD+M dwarf binaries, 42 candidate WD+BD systems, 52 candidate WD+dust disk systems, and 69 targets with indeterminate infrared excess. We classified all of the detected targets through spectral energy distribution model fitting of the merged optical, near-IR, and WISE photometry. Some of these detections could be the result of contaminating sources within the large (approx. 6") WISE point-spread function; we make a preliminary estimate for the rates of contamination for our WD+BD and WD+disk candidates and provide notes for each target of interest. Each candidate presented here should be confirmed with higher angular resolution infrared imaging or infrared spectroscopy. We also present an overview of the observational characteristics of the detected WDs in the WISE photometric bands, including the relative frequencies of candidate WD+M, WD+BD, and WD+disk systems.

  14. Infrared sky noise survey. [over observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A 10 micron infrared sky noise survey, which was conducted during the period from June 1, 1970 to June 30, 1974, is reported along with associated electronics and recording equipment which was developed and deployed for periods up to 18 months at various potential or existing infrared observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile. The results of the data activity are given, and variables are defined which influence the intensity and duration of the sky noise.

  15. THE WIRED SURVEY. II. INFRARED EXCESSES IN THE SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Debes, John H.; Leisawitz, David T.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Cohen, Martin

    2011-12-01

    With the launch of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris and brown dwarfs (BDs) around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED Survey is sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs. In this paper, we present a cross-correlation of the preliminary Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) WD catalog between the WISE, Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and SDSS DR7 photometric catalogs. From {approx}18,000 input targets, there are WISE detections comprising 344 'naked' WDs (detection of the WD photosphere only), 1020 candidate WD+M dwarf binaries, 42 candidate WD+BD systems, 52 candidate WD+dust disk systems, and 69 targets with indeterminate infrared excess. We classified all of the detected targets through spectral energy distribution model fitting of the merged optical, near-IR, and WISE photometry. Some of these detections could be the result of contaminating sources within the large ( Almost-Equal-To 6'') WISE point-spread function; we make a preliminary estimate for the rates of contamination for our WD+BD and WD+disk candidates and provide notes for each target of interest. Each candidate presented here should be confirmed with higher angular resolution infrared imaging or infrared spectroscopy. We also present an overview of the observational characteristics of the detected WDs in the WISE photometric bands, including the relative frequencies of candidate WD+M, WD+BD, and WD+disk systems.

  16. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VIII. A MID-INFRARED KINEMATIC DISTANCE DISCRIMINATION METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Rosolowsky, Erik; Mairs, Steven; Evans, Neal J. II; Shirley, Yancy L.

    2013-06-10

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular

  17. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. VIII. A Mid-infrared Kinematic Distance Discrimination Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Rosolowsky, Erik; Mairs, Steven; Evans, Neal J., II; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Shirley, Yancy L.; Bally, John

    2013-06-01

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7.°5 <= l <= 65°. The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular cloud clumps is generally

  18. The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS): The Full Poster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Hoq, S.; Montgomery, J.; Pavel, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    GPIPS will be completed in 2013, and the first data release (DR1) took place in August 2012 (see poster by L. Cashman). All of the 3,237 independent field observations, designed for the 10x10 arcmin Mimir instrument field of view, have been obtained, though a small number are being re-observed to meet our 2 arcsec seeing criterion. GPIPS data products include catalogs of stellar polarizations (POLCATs), catalogs of stellar photometry in the H-band (PHOTCATs), and deep co-added images for each field. The images for the entire 76 square degree region of the northern Galactic midplane surveyed have been mosaicked to create a large-format poster, which can be found elsewhere in the room. On the poster, data from the POLCATs are overlaid as polarization vectors, or circled stars for those exhibiting significant upper limits. Comparisons with other key data sets for correlative studies, such as the Galactic Ring Survey (Jackson et al. 2006), 2MASS (Skrutskie et al. 2006), WISE (Wright et al. 2010), the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS; Aguirre et al. 2011), GLIMPSE (Benjamin et al. 2003), and MIPSGAL (Mizuno et al. 2008) are also shown. Access to released GPIPS data is currently through our web server (gpips0.bu.edu), with planned upgrades to VO compliance and mirroring from other sites. This work is partially supported by NSF/MPS grants AST 06-07500 and AST 09-07790.

  19. From ISO to SIRTF Cosmological Surveys: Exploring the Cosmic Infrared Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dole, H.

    2003-06-01

    Understanding and observing the sources contributing to the extragalactic background at all wavelengths has become one of the most rapidly evolving fields in observational cosmology since the discovery of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB, Puget et al, 1996; Hauser & Dwek, 2000). Cosmological surveys conducted from space with ISO (Infrared Space Observatory) and from the ground in the mm/submm range, together with observations at other wavelengths for source identification, begin to provide a global view of galaxy evolution. In particular, ISO (Genzel & Cesarsky, 2000, Franceschini et al, 2001) performed many deep surveys in the mid and far infrared, mainly at 15 mu m (Elbaz et al, 2002) and at 170 mu m (Dole et al, 2001).

  20. Characterization of High Proper Motion Objects from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ~12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08-623558.7, may belong to the thick disk. Based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Gemini Observatory, the SOAR Telescope, and the Magellan Telescopes.

  1. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  2. A REDSHIFT SURVEY OF HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SELECTED STARBURSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSCURED STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C. M.; Budynkiewicz, J.; Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Bethermin, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Burgarella, D.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conselice, C. J.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ivison, R. J.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations and redshifts for a sample of 767 Herschel-SPIRE selected galaxies (HSGs) at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. The redshift distribution of these SPIRE sources from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey peaks at z = 0.85, with 731 sources at z < 2 and a tail of sources out to z {approx} 5. We measure more significant disagreement between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts (({Delta}z/(1 + z{sub spec})) = 0.29) than is seen in non-infrared selected samples, likely due to enhanced star formation rates and dust obscuration in infrared-selected galaxies. The infrared data are used to directly measure integrated infrared luminosities and dust temperatures independent of radio or 24 {mu}m flux densities. By probing the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) at its peak, we estimate that the vast majority (72%-83%) of z < 2 Herschel-selected galaxies would drop out of traditional submillimeter surveys at 0.85-1 mm. We find that dust temperature traces infrared luminosity, due in part to the SPIRE wavelength selection biases, and partially from physical effects. As a result, we measure no significant trend in SPIRE color with redshift; if dust temperature were independent of luminosity or redshift, a trend in SPIRE color would be expected. Composite infrared SEDs are constructed as a function of infrared luminosity, showing the increase in dust temperature with luminosity, and subtle change in near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral properties. Moderate evolution in the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation is measured for this partially radio-selected sample, with q{sub IR}{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup -0.30{+-}0.02} at z < 2. We estimate the luminosity function and implied star formation rate density contribution of HSGs at z < 1.6 and find overall agreement with work based on 24 {mu}m extrapolations of the LIRG

  3. A Near-infrared Spectroscopic Survey of Class I Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelley, Michael S.; Greene, Thomas P.

    2010-11-01

    We present the results of a near-IR spectroscopic survey of 110 Class I protostars observed from 0.80 μm to 2.43 μm at a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1200. This survey is unique in its selection of targets from the whole sky, its sample size, wavelength coverage, depth, and sample selection. We find that Class I objects exhibit a wide range of lines and the continuum spectroscopic features. Eighty-five percent of Class I protostars exhibit features indicative of mass accretion, and we found that the veiling excess, CO emission, and Br γ emission are closely related. We modeled the spectra to estimate the veiling excess (rk ) and extinction to each target. We also used near-IR colors and emission line ratios, when available, to also estimate extinction. In the course of this survey, we observed the spectra of 10 FU Orionis-like objects, including 2 new ones, as well as 3 Herbig Ae-type stars among our Class I young stellar objects. We used photospheric absorption lines, when available, to estimate the spectral type of each target. Although most targets are late-type stars, there are several A- and F-type stars in our sample. Notably, we found no A or F class stars in the Taurus-Auriga or Perseus star-forming regions. There are several cases where the observed CO and/or water absorption bands are deeper than expected from the photospheric spectral type. We find a correlation between the appearance of the reflection nebula, which traces the distribution of material on very large scales, and the near-IR spectrum, which probes smaller scales. All of the FU Orionis-like objects are associated with reflection nebulae. The spectra of the components of spatially resolved protostellar binaries tend to be very similar. In particular both components tend to have similar veiling and H2 emission, inconsistent with random selection from the sample as a whole. There is a strong correlation between [Fe II] and H2 emission, supporting previous results showing that H2 emission

  4. FLAMINGOS Near Infrared Survey of the Serpens Cloud Main Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlova, Nadya; Steinhauer, Aaron; Lada, Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    We obtained JHK images and low-resolution JH spectra in the embedded young cluster in the Serpens cloud Main core (also known as Serpens North). We determined spectral types (SpT) for fifteen previously identified cluster members (the first time for five of them), one new candidate, and eleven stars that appear to be field interlopers. Extinction, for which we derived an analytical expression, was obtained by taking SpT and near-IR excess into account. The location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram indicates that we probed a low-mass population of the cloud (0.05-1.5 M sun), including one to three brown dwarfs. We used our individually determined photospheric parameters to analyze the Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer determined spectral energy distribution (SED) classes. The latter were correlated with the age and location of the sources in the cloud. We find that most flat objects from our study (four out of five) have SEDs consistent with reddened classical T Tau stars; however, when comparing to the thick disk SEDs of lower mass M-type objects, we find that the flat ones show more excess, perhaps indicating an earlier evolutionary stage. We determined a median age for the cluster to be 1 Myr for distance of 380 pc, and 3 Myr for a less likely distance of 260 pc. The core of the cluster is on average younger than the rest of the cluster. We do not find objects with disks past 5 Myr. We do find diskless, X-ray bright objects younger than 1 Myr, as was also noted in the study of Winston et al. We find two groups of young objects associated with dark filaments, indicating that star formation was not always confined to the core.

  5. FLAMINGOS NEAR INFRARED SURVEY OF THE SERPENS CLOUD MAIN CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlova, Nadya; Lada, Elizabeth; Steinhauer, Aaron

    2010-06-10

    We obtained JHK images and low-resolution JH spectra in the embedded young cluster in the Serpens cloud Main core (also known as Serpens North). We determined spectral types (SpT) for fifteen previously identified cluster members (the first time for five of them), one new candidate, and eleven stars that appear to be field interlopers. Extinction, for which we derived an analytical expression, was obtained by taking SpT and near-IR excess into account. The location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram indicates that we probed a low-mass population of the cloud (0.05-1.5 M {sub sun}), including one to three brown dwarfs. We used our individually determined photospheric parameters to analyze the Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer determined spectral energy distribution (SED) classes. The latter were correlated with the age and location of the sources in the cloud. We find that most flat objects from our study (four out of five) have SEDs consistent with reddened classical T Tau stars; however, when comparing to the thick disk SEDs of lower mass M-type objects, we find that the flat ones show more excess, perhaps indicating an earlier evolutionary stage. We determined a median age for the cluster to be 1 Myr for distance of 380 pc, and 3 Myr for a less likely distance of 260 pc. The core of the cluster is on average younger than the rest of the cluster. We do not find objects with disks past 5 Myr. We do find diskless, X-ray bright objects younger than 1 Myr, as was also noted in the study of Winston et al. We find two groups of young objects associated with dark filaments, indicating that star formation was not always confined to the core.

  6. Estimating the Supernova Cosmological Constraints Possible With the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Miles; Rubin, David; Aldering, Greg Scott; Baltay, Charles; Fagrelius, Parker; Law, David R.; Perlmutter, Saul; Pontoppidan, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The proposed Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) supernova survey will measure precision distances continuously in redshift to 1.7 with excellent systematics control. However, the Science Definition Team report presented a idealized version of the survey, and we now work to add realism. Using SNe from HST programs, we investigate the expected contamination from the host-galaxy light to estimate required exposure times. We also present estimates of purity and completeness, generated by degrading well-measured nearby SN spectra to WFIRST resolution and signal-to-noise. We conclude with a more accurate prediction of the cosmological constraints possible with WFIRST SNe.

  7. Super Star Clusters in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: the SUNBIRD Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, P.; Randriamanakoto, Z.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kniazev, A.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Mattila, S.; Ramphul, R.; Ryder, S.; Tekola, A.

    2014-09-01

    We summarize recent results from an Adaptive Optics (AO) imaging survey of 40 Luminous IR Galaxies (LIRGs). We have constructed the first statistically significant sample of Luminosity Functions (LFs) of Super Star Clusters (SSCs) in the near-IR, and find evidence that the LF slopes in LIRGs are shallower than in more quiescent spiral galaxies. Distance and blending effects were investigated in detail paving the way for SSC studies further out than done previously. We have also correlated the luminosities of the brightest clusters with the star formation rates of the hosts and find that the characteristics of the relation suggest an underlying physical driver rather than solely a size-of-sample effect. Finally we present early results of using SSC age and mass properties to trace the histories of the target LIRG systems.

  8. Optical Design Trade Study for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, David A.; Goullioud, R.; Lehan, John P.; Mentzell, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics mission by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)-Omega payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of NWNH, the WFIRST project has been working with the WFIRST science definition team (SDT) to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the driving requirements. The current interim reference mission point design, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slitless spectroscopy science channels, is consistent with the requirements, requires no technology development, and out performs the JDEM-Omega design.

  9. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-11-20

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ≤ z ≤ 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ∼ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L {sub C} {sub II}–L {sub FIR} relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratio and the far-IR color L {sub 60}/L {sub 100} observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L {sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} or L {sub IR}/M{sub H{sub 2}}), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the

  10. Infrared survey of the Pisgah Crater area, San Bernardino County, California - a geologic interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gawarecki, Stephen J.

    1968-01-01

    The infrared survey of the Pisgah Crater Area, San Bernardino County, California was primarily undertaken to establish parameters by which rock types, structures, and textures peculiar to this locale could be recognized or differentiated. A secondary purpose was to provide an adequate evaluation and calibration of airborne and ground-based instruments used in the survey. Pisgah Crater and its vicinity was chosen as one of the fundamental test sites for the NASA remote sensing program because of its relatively fresh basaltic flows and pyroclastics. Its typical exposure of basalt also made it a possible lunar analogue. A fundamental test site for the purpose of the program is defined as a readily accessible area for which the topography, geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation and other features are relatively well known. All remote sensor instrument teams, i.e. infrared, radar, microwave, and photography, were obligated to use the fundamental test sites for instrument evaluation and to establish terrain identification procedures. Pisgah Crater, nearby Sunshine Cone, and their associated lava flows are in the southern Mojave Desert about 40 miles east-southeast of Barstow, California. (See fig. 1.) U. S. Highway 66 skirts .the northern part of the area and provides access via asphalt-paved and dirt roads to the Crater and to the perimeters of the flows. Pisgah Crater, which is a pumiceous cone, is owned and occasionally quarried by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. The remaining part of the area to the south is within the boundary of the Marine Corps Base, Twentynine Palms, California and is currently being used as a gunnery, and bombing range. The proximate area to east, west, and north of Pisgah Crater is public domain. Originally, an area totaling 10 square miles was outlined for detailed study. (See plate 1.) This included an 8 mile long strip extending south- east from and including Pisgah Crater to Lavic Dry Lake, and a 2 mile strip aligned to include a

  11. CANDELS: THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Grogin, Norman A.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brown, Thomas M.; Casertano, Stefano; Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Cassata, Paolo; Castellano, Marco; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; and others

    2011-12-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, over the approximate redshift (z) range 8-1.5. It will image >250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope, from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standardizable candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} to z Almost-Equal-To 2, reaching the knee of the ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies to z Almost-Equal-To 8. The survey covers approximately 800 arcmin{sup 2} and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5{sigma} point-source limit H = 27.7 mag) covers {approx}125 arcmin{sup 2} within Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)-N and GOODS-S. The CANDELS/Wide survey includes GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-deep Survey) and covers the full area to a 5{sigma} point-source limit of H {approx}> 27.0 mag. Together with the Hubble Ultra Deep Fields, the strategy creates a three-tiered 'wedding-cake' approach that has proven efficient for extragalactic surveys. Data from the survey are nonproprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this paper, we describe the basic motivations for the survey, the CANDELS team science goals and the resulting observational requirements, the field selection and geometry, and the observing design. The Hubble data processing and products are described in a companion paper.

  12. Snapshot Hyperspectral Volumetric Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiamin; Xiong, Bo; Lin, Xing; He, Jijun; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-04-01

    The comprehensive analysis of biological specimens brings about the demand for capturing the spatial, temporal and spectral dimensions of visual information together. However, such high-dimensional video acquisition faces major challenges in developing large data throughput and effective multiplexing techniques. Here, we report the snapshot hyperspectral volumetric microscopy that computationally reconstructs hyperspectral profiles for high-resolution volumes of ~1000 μm × 1000 μm × 500 μm at video rate by a novel four-dimensional (4D) deconvolution algorithm. We validated the proposed approach with both numerical simulations for quantitative evaluation and various real experimental results on the prototype system. Different applications such as biological component analysis in bright field and spectral unmixing of multiple fluorescence are demonstrated. The experiments on moving fluorescent beads and GFP labelled drosophila larvae indicate the great potential of our method for observing multiple fluorescent markers in dynamic specimens.

  13. Snapshot Hyperspectral Volumetric Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiamin; Xiong, Bo; Lin, Xing; He, Jijun; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis of biological specimens brings about the demand for capturing the spatial, temporal and spectral dimensions of visual information together. However, such high-dimensional video acquisition faces major challenges in developing large data throughput and effective multiplexing techniques. Here, we report the snapshot hyperspectral volumetric microscopy that computationally reconstructs hyperspectral profiles for high-resolution volumes of ~1000 μm × 1000 μm × 500 μm at video rate by a novel four-dimensional (4D) deconvolution algorithm. We validated the proposed approach with both numerical simulations for quantitative evaluation and various real experimental results on the prototype system. Different applications such as biological component analysis in bright field and spectral unmixing of multiple fluorescence are demonstrated. The experiments on moving fluorescent beads and GFP labelled drosophila larvae indicate the great potential of our method for observing multiple fluorescent markers in dynamic specimens. PMID:27103155

  14. Snapshot Hyperspectral Volumetric Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiamin; Xiong, Bo; Lin, Xing; He, Jijun; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis of biological specimens brings about the demand for capturing the spatial, temporal and spectral dimensions of visual information together. However, such high-dimensional video acquisition faces major challenges in developing large data throughput and effective multiplexing techniques. Here, we report the snapshot hyperspectral volumetric microscopy that computationally reconstructs hyperspectral profiles for high-resolution volumes of ~1000 μm × 1000 μm × 500 μm at video rate by a novel four-dimensional (4D) deconvolution algorithm. We validated the proposed approach with both numerical simulations for quantitative evaluation and various real experimental results on the prototype system. Different applications such as biological component analysis in bright field and spectral unmixing of multiple fluorescence are demonstrated. The experiments on moving fluorescent beads and GFP labelled drosophila larvae indicate the great potential of our method for observing multiple fluorescent markers in dynamic specimens. PMID:27103155

  15. An X-ray and infrared survey of the Lynds 1228 cloud core

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Rebull, Luisa

    2014-04-01

    The nearby Lynds 1228 (L1228) dark cloud at a distance of ∼200 pc is known to harbor several young stars including the driving sources of the giant HH 199 and HH 200 Herbig-Haro (HH) outflows. L1228 has previously been studied at optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths but not in X-rays. We present results of a sensitive 37 ks Chandra ACIS-I X-ray observation of the L1228 core region. Chandra detected 60 X-ray sources, most of which are faint (<40 counts) and non-variable. Infrared counterparts were identified for 53 of the 60 X-ray sources using archival data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Object classes were assigned using mid-IR colors for those objects with complete photometry, most of which were found to have colors consistent with extragalactic background sources. Seven young stellar object candidates were identified including the class I protostar HH 200-IRS which was detected as a faint hard X-ray source. No X-ray emission was detected from the luminous protostar HH 199-IRS. We summarize the X-ray and infrared properties of the detected sources and provide IR spectral energy distribution modeling of high-interest objects including the protostars driving the HH outflows.

  16. New DSH planetary nebulae and candidates from optical and infrared surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberger, Matthias; Parker, Quentin A.; Jacoby, George H.; Acker, Agnes; Alves, Filipe; Bojicic, Ivan; Eigenthaler, Paul; Frew, David J.; Harmer, Dianne; Patchick, Dana; Reid, Warren; Schedler, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    To date, the planetary nebula (PN) survey of the Deep Sky Hunters collaboration has led to the detection of more than 250 previously unknown candidate planetary nebulae (PNe). About 60% of them were found during the past two years and are expected to be true, likely or possible PNe because careful vetting has already thrown out more doubtful objects. The majority of the new PN candidates are located within the boundaries of the SHS and IPHAS Ha surveys and were discovered by combining MIR data from the WideField Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) with optical data from the IPHAS, SHS and DSS surveys, and UV data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer(GALEX).

  17. A Near-infrared Survey of the Rosette Complex: Clues of Early Cluster Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Ferreira, Bruno

    2008-05-01

    The majority of stars in our galaxy are born in embedded clusters, which can be considered the fundamental units of star formation. We have recently surveyed the star forming content of the Rosette Complex using FLAMINGOS in order to investigate the properties of its embedded clusters. We discuss the results of our near-infrared imaging survey. In particular, we on the first evidence for the early evolution and expansion of the embedded clusters. In addition we present data suggesting a temporal sequence of cluster formation across the cloud and discuss the influence of the HII region on the star forming history of the Rosette.

  18. FIRBACK Cosmological Survey With ISO: Observing the Cosmic Infrared Background at 170 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dole, H.; Gispert, R.; Lagache, G.; Puget, J.-L.; Aussel, H.; Bouchet, F. R.; Ciliegi, P.; Clements, D. L.; Cesarsky, C. J.; Désert, F.-X.; Elbaz, D.; Franceschini, A.; Guiderdoni, B.; Harwit, M.; Laureijs, R.; Lemke, D.; McMahon, R.; Moorwood, A. F. M.; Oliver, S.; Reach, W. T.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Stickel, M.

    FIRBACK, one of the deepest surveys performed at 170 microns with ISOPHOT, is aimed at the study of the Cosmic Far Infrared Background (CIB). We just summarize here the main results: 1. we studied the footprint of PHOT at 170 microns and check the calibration (see Lagache, 99a) 2. source counts of resolved galaxies suggest strong evolution (see Dole, 99) 3. fluctuations of the CIB are detected (see Lagache, 99)

  19. THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE): MISSION DESCRIPTION AND INITIAL ON-ORBIT PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Ressler, Michael E.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Cutri, Roc M.; Jarrett, Thomas; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Padgett, Deborah; McMillan, Robert S.; Skrutskie, Michael; Stanford, S. A.; Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.; Mather, John C.; Leisawitz, David; Benford, Dominic; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Blain, Andrew

    2010-12-15

    The all sky surveys done by the Palomar Observatory Schmidt, the European Southern Observatory Schmidt, and the United Kingdom Schmidt, the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey have proven to be extremely useful tools for astronomy with value that lasts for decades. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is mapping the whole sky following its launch on 2009 December 14. WISE began surveying the sky on 2010 January 14 and completed its first full coverage of the sky on July 17. The survey will continue to cover the sky a second time until the cryogen is exhausted (anticipated in 2010 November). WISE is achieving 5{sigma} point source sensitivities better than 0.08, 0.11, 1, and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic in bands centered at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 {mu}m. Sensitivity improves toward the ecliptic poles due to denser coverage and lower zodiacal background. The angular resolution is 6.''1, 6.''4, 6.''5, and 12.''0 at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 {mu}m, and the astrometric precision for high signal-to-noise sources is better than 0.''15.

  20. The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Mainzer, Amy; Ressler, Michael E.; Cutri, Roc M.; Jarrett, Thomas; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Padgett, Deborah; McMillan, Robert S.; Skrutskie,Michael; Stanford, S. A.; Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.; Mather, John C.; Leisawitz, David; Gautier, Thomas N., III; McLean, Ian; Benford, Dominic; Lonsdale,Carol J.; Blain, Andrew; Mendez,Bryan; Irace, William R.; Duval, Valerie; Liu, Fengchuan; Royer, Don

    2010-01-01

    The all sky surveys done by the Palomar Observatory Schmidt, the European Southern Observatory Schmidt, and the United Kingdom Schmidt, the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite and the 2 Micron All Sky Survey have proven to be extremely useful tools for astronomy with value that lasts for decades. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is mapping the whole sky following its launch on 14 December 2009. WISE began surveying the sky on 14 Jan 2010 and completed its first full coverage of the sky on July 17. The survey will continue to cover the sky a second time until the cryogen is exhausted (anticipated in November 2010). WISE is achieving 5 sigma point source sensitivities better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic in bands centered at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers. Sensitivity improves toward the ecliptic poles due to denser coverage and lower zodiacal background. The angular resolution is 6.1", 6.4", 6.5" and 12.0" at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers, and the astrometric precision for high SNR sources is better than 0.15".

  1. The Case for Space-Borne Far-Infrared Line Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Earle, L.; Glenn, J.; Naylor, B.; Nguyen, H. T.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The combination of sensitive direct detectors and a cooled aperture promises orders of magnitude improvement in the sensitivity and survey time for far-infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy compared to existing or planned capabilities. Continuing advances in direct detector technology enable spectroscopy that approaches the background limit available only from space at these wavelengths. Because the spectral confusion limit is significantly lower than the more familiar spatial confusion limit encountered in imaging applications, spectroscopy can be carried out to comparable depth with a significantly smaller aperture. We are developing a novel waveguide-coupled grating spectrometer that disperses radiation into a wide instantaneous bandwidth with moderate resolution (R 1000) in a compact 2-dimensional format. A line survey instrument coupled to a modest cooled single aperture provides an attractive scientific application for spectroscopy with direct detectors. Using a suite of waveguide spectrometers, we can obtain complete coverage over the entire far-infrared and sub-millimeter. This concept requires no moving parts to modulate the optical signal. Such an instrument would be able to conduct a far-infrared line survey 10 6 times faster than planned capabilities, assuming existing detector technology. However, if historical improvements in bolometer sensitivity continue, so that photon-limited sensitivity is obtained, the integration time can be further reduced by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude, depending on wavelength. The line flux sensitivity would be comparable to ALMA, but at shorter wavelengths and with the continuous coverage needed to extract line fluxes for sources at unknown redshifts. For example, this capability would break the current spectroscopic bottleneck in the study of far-infrared galaxies, the recently discovered, rapidly evolving objects abundant at cosmological distances.

  2. A Snapshot of Organizational Climate: Perceptions of Extension Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Bowen, Elaine; Alkadry, Mohamad G.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a snapshot of the perceptions of workplace climate of Extension faculty at a land-grant, research-high activity university, compared with the perceptions of non-Extension faculty at the same university. An online survey was conducted with a validated instrument. The response rate for university faculty was 44% (968); the…

  3. A Snapshot of Homelessness in Massachusetts Public High Schools: 2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Data collected by the Massachusetts Department of Education (Department) during the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) suggest that, despite significant efforts to identify homeless students, many are going undetected by their schools. Since the reauthorization of the McKinney Vento Homeless Assistance Education Improvement Act under the No…

  4. The AKARI/IRC mid-infrared all-sky survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, D.; Onaka, T.; Kataza, H.; Salama, A.; Alfageme, C.; Cassatella, A.; Cox, N.; García-Lario, P.; Stephenson, C.; Cohen, M.; Fujishiro, N.; Fujiwara, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Ita, Y.; Kim, W.; Matsuhara, H.; Murakami, H.; Müller, T. G.; Nakagawa, T.; Ohyama, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Pyo, J.; Sakon, I.; Shibai, H.; Takita, S.; Tanabé, T.; Uemizu, K.; Ueno, M.; Usui, F.; Wada, T.; Watarai, H.; Yamamura, I.; Yamauchi, C.

    2010-05-01

    Context. AKARI is the first Japanese astronomical satellite dedicated to infrared astronomy. One of the main purposes of AKARI is the all-sky survey performed with six infrared bands between 9 μm and 200 μm during the period from 2006 May 6 to 2007 August 28. In this paper, we present the mid-infrared part (9 μm and 18 μm bands) of the survey carried out with one of the on-board instruments, the infrared camera (IRC). Aims: We present unprecedented observational results of the 9 μm and 18 μm AKARI all-sky survey and detail the operation and data processing leading to the point source detection and measurements. Methods: The raw data are processed to produce small images for every scan, and the point sources candidates are derived above the 5σ noise level per single scan. The celestial coordinates and fluxes of the events are determined statistically and the reliability of their detections is secured through multiple detections of the same source within milli-seconds, hours, and months from each other. Results: The sky coverage is more than 90% for both bands. A total of 877 091 sources (851 189 for 9 μm, 195 893 for 18 μm) are confirmed and included in the current release of the point source catalog. The detection limit for point sources is 50 mJy and 90 mJy for the 9 μm and 18 μm bands, respectively. The position accuracy is estimated to be better than 2''. Uncertainties in the in-flight absolute flux calibration are estimated to be 3% for the 9 μm band and 4% for the 18 μm band. The coordinates and fluxes of detected sources in this survey are also compared with those of the IRAS survey and are found to be statistically consistent. Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/514/A1

  5. Preliminary Results from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer's NEOWISE Search for Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J. M.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Tholen, D. J.; Wright, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Cutri, R.; Neowise Team

    2011-12-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) imaged the entire sky twice between January, 2010 and January, 2011 at four wavelengths spanning the near through mid-IR at sensitivities hundreds of times greater than previous surveys [1]. The WISE band-passes (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22mm) sample the flux from most inner-solar-system bodies near the peak of their thermal emission. Overlapping sky regions were sampled repeatedly at 3 hour intervals. The same region of sky was observed a minimum of 8 times. While the primary WISE science objectives focus on ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and brown dwarfs, additions to the baseline WISE pipeline (collectively known as "NEOWISE") have enabled the detection of undiscovered moving objects, as well as previously known bodies [2]. NEOWISE has detected more than 155,000 minor planets, including more than 500 near-Earth objects (NEOs), ~2000 Jupiter Trojans, ~120 comets, and ~20 outer Solar System objects such as Centaurs. The survey has discovered ~34,000 new minor planets, including 130 new NEOs and 20 new comets. The NEOWISE data will drive a wide range of new Solar System investigations. NEOWISE allows precise determination of IR-derived diameters and albedos for minor planets throughout the Solar System [3],[4]. We will summarize the latest results from the project, including studies of the statistical properties of asteroid populations such as the NEOs, and comparisons between albedo and asteroid taxonomic classification.

  6. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Survey (emph{IRSIS}) payload for an Indian satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. K.

    The Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Survey (IRSIS) experiment, targeted for the Small Satellite Mission of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), will carry out spectroscopic measurements in the wavelength range 1.7 to 6.4 μm seamlessly for the first time, covering a large fraction (˜ 50%) of the sky (including the Galactic Plane), with a reasonable sensitivity (completeness at 2.2 μm, K = 14 mag.). The planned Spectral Resolution is ˜ 100. Primary science goals include : (i) Discovery & classification of Brown Dwarfs, M-L-T Dwarfs (faint end of Initial Mass Function); (ii) Large scale mapping in emission features; e.g. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) at 3.3 μm, 6.2 μm, etc. (Galactic Plane survey); (iii) Minor bodies of Solar System : Asteroids, Comets, Inter- Planetary Dust; Origin, evolution & types of Organics; History of Solar System; and (iv) Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), Red-Super-Giant (RSG), Carbon-rich stars; (Galactic Bulge survey). In addition, it will support studies of time critical phenomena like novae, comets etc, under Targets of Opportunity (ToO) observations. The IRSIS database is expected to provide better understanding of energetics and composition of the ISM, infrared characterisation of stars, and various types of Solar system bodies.

  7. Ten Years Long Near-infrared Variable Star Survey In The Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ita, Yoshifusa

    2012-05-01

    We started the near-infrared variable star survey in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds in December 2000. Since then, we keep monitoring an area of 3 square degrees along the bar in the LMC, and also an area of 1 square degree in the central part of the SMC until the end of 2010. In the 10 years, we observed these areas about 80-90 and 100-110 times for LMC and SMC, respectively. Our survey is the world's first and the only one that provides near-infrared time-series data with such a long baseline and of such a large scale. We will show some preliminary results from the survey in the poster. This work is supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Young Scientists (B) No.21740142 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. This work is also supported by the Brain Circulation Program (R2301) by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  8. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. I. CHARACTERIZING WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Benford, Dominic J.; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, Frank; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Yan, Lin; Dey, Arjun; Lake, Sean; Petty, Sara; Wright, E. L.; Stanford, S. A.; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is an extremely capable and efficient black hole finder. We present a simple mid-infrared color criterion, W1 - W2 {>=} 0.8 (i.e., [3.4]-[4.6] {>=}0.8, Vega), which identifies 61.9 {+-} 5.4 active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates per deg{sup 2} to a depth of W2 {approx} 15.0. This implies a much larger census of luminous AGNs than found by typical wide-area surveys, attributable to the fact that mid-infrared selection identifies both unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) AGNs. Optical and soft X-ray surveys alone are highly biased toward only unobscured AGNs, while this simple WISE selection likely identifies even heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGNs. Using deep, public data in the COSMOS field, we explore the properties of WISE-selected AGN candidates. At the mid-infrared depth considered, 160 {mu}Jy at 4.6 {mu}m, this simple criterion identifies 78% of Spitzer mid-infrared AGN candidates according to the criteria of Stern et al. and the reliability is 95%. We explore the demographics, multiwavelength properties and redshift distribution of WISE-selected AGN candidates in the COSMOS field.

  9. LWIR Snapshot Imaging Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Robert E Sampson

    2009-04-01

    This report describes the results of a phase 1 STTR to design a longwave infrared imaging polarimeter. The system design, expected performance and components needed to construct the imaging polarimeter are described. Expected performance is modeled and sytem specifications are presented.

  10. The Infrared Properties of Sources Matched in the Wise All-Sky and Herschel ATLAS Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Amblard, Alexandre; Fleuren, Simone; Blain, Andrew W.; Dunne, Loretta; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Auld, Robbie; Bales, Maarten; Bonfield, David; Bourne, Nathan; Bridge, Carrie; Buttiglione, Sara; Cava, Antonio; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Dariush, Ali; deZotti, Gianfranco; Driver, Simon; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over approx 36 sq deg of sky in the GAMA 15-hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (HATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5sigma point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 micron and 3.4 micron, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of approx 630 deg(exp -2). Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 micron and that at 250 micron, with +/- 50% scatter over approx 1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, approx 10(exp 9) - 10(exp 10.5) Solar Luminosity By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r approx > 20.5) have 250-350 micron flux density ratios that suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z approx > 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T approx < 20). Their small 3.4-250 micron flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large AGN fraction (approx 30%) in a 12 micron flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample

  11. The Infrared Properties of Sources Matched in the WISE All-Sky and Herschel Atlas Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Amblard, Alexandre; Temi, Pasquale; Fleuren, Simone; Blain, Andrew W.; Dunne, Loretta; Smith, Daniel J.; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Dye, Simon; Baes, Maarten; Bonfield, David; Bourne, Nathan; Bridge,Carrie

    2012-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over approx. 36 deg2 of sky in the GAMA 15-hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5(sigma) point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 microns and 3.4 microns, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of approx. 630 deg-2. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 microns and that at 250 microns, with +/-50% scatter over approx. 1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, approx. 10(exp 9) - 10(exp 10.5) Stellar Luminosity. By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r > or approx. 20.5) have 250-350 microns flux density ratios that suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z > or approx. 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T < or approx. 20). Their small 3.4-250 microns flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large AGN fraction (approx. 30%) in a 12 microns flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  12. COOL WHITE DWARFS FOUND IN THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, S. K.; Nitta, A.; Lodieu, N.

    2011-07-01

    We present the results of a search for cool white dwarfs in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). The UKIDSS LAS photometry was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify cool hydrogen-rich white dwarf candidates by their neutral optical colors and blue near-infrared colors, as well as faint reduced proper motion magnitudes. Optical spectroscopy was obtained at Gemini Observatory and showed the majority of the candidates to be newly identified cool degenerates, with a small number of G- to K-type (sub)dwarf contaminants. Our initial search of 280 deg{sup 2} of sky resulted in seven new white dwarfs with effective temperature T{sub eff} {approx} 6000 K. The current follow-up of 1400 deg{sup 2} of sky has produced 13 new white dwarfs. Model fits to the photometry show that seven of the newly identified white dwarfs have 4120 K {<=}T{sub eff} {<=} 4480 K, and cooling ages between 7.3 Gyr and 8.7 Gyr; they have 40 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub tan} {<=} 85 km s{sup -1} and are likely to be thick disk 10-11 Gyr-old objects. The other half of the sample has 4610 K {<=}T{sub eff} {<=} 5260 K, cooling ages between 4.3 Gyr and 6.9 Gyr, and 60 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub tan} {<=} 100 km s{sup -1}. These are either thin disk remnants with unusually high velocities, or lower-mass remnants of thick disk or halo late-F or G stars.

  13. THE INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SOURCES MATCHED IN THE WISE ALL-SKY AND HERSCHEL ATLAS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Amblard, Alexandre; Blain, Andrew W.; Dunne, Loretta; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Bourne, Nathan; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Bonfield, David; Baes, Maarten; Bridge, Carrie; Buttiglione, Sara; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Cava, Antonio; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Dariush, Ali; and others

    2012-05-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over {approx}36 deg{sup 2} of sky in the GAMA 15 hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5{sigma} point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 {mu}m and 3.4 {mu}m, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of {approx}630 deg{sup -2}. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 {mu}m and that at 250 {mu}m, with {+-}50% scatter over {approx}1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, {approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10.5} L{sub Sun }. By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r {approx}> 20.5) have 250-350 {mu}m flux density ratios which suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z {approx}> 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T {approx}< 20). Their small 3.4-250 {mu}m flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large active galactic nucleus fraction ({approx}30%) in a 12 {mu}m flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  14. The First Hundred Brown Dwarfs Discovered by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; McLean, Ian S.; Bauer, James M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Stern, Daniel; Vacca, William D.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of six Y dwarfs also Cushing et al.), eighty-nine T dwarfs, eight L dwarfs, and one M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types > or =T6, six of which have been announced earlier in Mainzer et al. and I3urgasser et al. We present color-color and colortype diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. "

  15. THE COORDINATED RADIO AND INFRARED SURVEY FOR HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION. II. SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Cotton, W. D.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Marti, J. [Departamento de Fisica, EPSJ, Universidad de Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s and others

    2013-03-01

    The CORNISH project is the highest resolution radio continuum survey of the Galactic plane to date. It is the 5 GHz radio continuum part of a series of multi-wavelength surveys that focus on the northern GLIMPSE region (10 Degree-Sign < l < 65 Degree-Sign ), observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-infrared. Observations with the Very Large Array in B and BnA configurations have yielded a 1.''5 resolution Stokes I map with a root mean square noise level better than 0.4 mJy beam{sup -1}. Here we describe the data-processing methods and data characteristics, and present a new, uniform catalog of compact radio emission. This includes an implementation of automatic deconvolution that provides much more reliable imaging than standard CLEANing. A rigorous investigation of the noise characteristics and reliability of source detection has been carried out. We show that the survey is optimized to detect emission on size scales up to 14'' and for unresolved sources the catalog is more than 90% complete at a flux density of 3.9 mJy. We have detected 3062 sources above a 7{sigma} detection limit and present their ensemble properties. The catalog is highly reliable away from regions containing poorly sampled extended emission, which comprise less than 2% of the survey area. Imaging problems have been mitigated by down-weighting the shortest spacings and potential artifacts flagged via a rigorous manual inspection with reference to the Spitzer infrared data. We present images of the most common source types found: H II regions, planetary nebulae, and radio galaxies. The CORNISH data and catalog are available online at http://cornish.leeds.ac.uk.

  16. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  17. The Infrared Medium-Deep Survey. II. How to Trigger Radio AGNs? Hints from their Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Chapman, Scott; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Pak, Soojong; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-01

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ~25 deg2 and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (Mu - Mr ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  18. Predicting Future Space-Based Slitless Spectroscopic Surveys Using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James W.; Teplitz, H.; Malkan, M.; Atek, H.; Ross, N.; Siana, B.; Henry, A.; McCarthy, P.; Bunker, A.; Scarlata, C.

    2012-01-01

    Future space telescopes are likely to make extensive use of slitless grism spectroscopy in the near-IR over large areas of sky. Both ESA's recently selected Euclid mission and the WFIRST mission being studied by NASA plan slitless spectroscopic surveys to obtain redshifts over thousands of square degrees. The HST WFC3 camera has two near-infrared grisms, G102 and G141, covering 0.8-1.6 microns, making it perfect the perfect laboratory for predicting what these future missions will find. We present results from the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program, which has been taking deep WFC3 observations using both grisms at random locations across the sky in parallel with primary COS observations. The WISP survey presently consists of more than 150 fields, covering 700 square arcminutes, reaching fluxes of 5 x 10-17 ergs/s/cm2. We will present completeness corrected number counts, luminosity functions, and predicted counts for the proposed future missions. We will also discuss the issue of line identification of the emission lines, particularly H-alpha and [OIII]5007 which often have similar fluxes and equivalent widths.

  19. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  20. Infrared observations of eight X-ray sources from Galactic plane surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, M. G.; Kniazev, A.; Karasev, D. I.; Berdnikov, L.; Barway, S.

    2013-08-01

    Increasing the identification completeness of sources from new X-ray sky surveys is a necessary condition for further works on analyzing the formation and long-term evolution of star systems in our Galaxy. Infrared observations of several sources selected from Galactic plane surveys as candidates for low-mass X-ray binaries with the IRSF telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory are presented. The infrared fluxes have been reliably measured from five of the eight sources (4U 1556-60, 4U 1708-40, AX J165901-4208, IGR J16287-5021, IGR J17350-2045, AX J171922-3703, SAX J1712.6-3739, 4U 1705-32). One of the objects (AX J165901-4208) may be a candidate for symbiotic X-ray binaries, i.e., binaries in which the companion of a relativistic object is a giant star. The distances have been estimated for three sources and the orbital periods have been estimated for two.

  1. A Sub-Arcsecond Mid-Infrared Survey of X-Ray-Selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson, N. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Packham, Chris; Los Piratas AGN Science Team

    2015-08-01

    Detailed studies of local active galactic nuclei (AGN) following X-ray selection yields significant measurements of the physical properties of the AGN and their host galaxies. In turn, the complete analysis of the nearby cases at high spatial resolution---to distinguish multiple physical components---and high signal-to-noise ratio informs broader surveys of more distant examples where such observations are not possible. We apply these methods in the Los Piratas survey, which emphasizes new observations at mid-infrared wavelengths obtained using CanariCam on the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We measure intrinsic bolometric luminosity of the roughly 100 AGN in the sample using X-rays, ensuring a span of luminosity over a range of activity level (from low-ionization nuclei through Seyfert galaxies and quasars), optical type, and radio loudness. The mid-infrared observations at resolution of ~0.3arcsec correspond to typical spatial scales of 60 pc for the low-luminosity AGN and Seyferts and 400 pc for other types. We isolate the AGN emission that is reprocessed by dust in the central regions, which we model in a clumpy distribution. We distinguish this emission from the stellar contributions on larger scales. Across types, the AGN-heated dust emission is overall well-correlated with the X-ray flux, but stellar contributions can be significant on larger scales, especially at moderate AGN luminosity.

  2. Characterization of high proper motion objects from the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ∼12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08–623558.7, may belong to the thick disk.

  3. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION SURVEY IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CORRELATIONS AND TRENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Lucas, Phil W.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2014-11-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of 10 sub-regions in 6 star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65 pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20%, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star-forming regions.

  4. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars.We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks.We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  5. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  6. MOIRCS Deep Survey. IX. Deep Near-Infrared Imaging Data and Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajisawa, Masaru; Ichikawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamada, Toru; Akiyama, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Katsuno Uchimoto, Yuka; Konishi, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Omata, Koji; Ouchi, Masami; Iwata, Ikuru; Hamana, Takashi; Onodera, Masato

    2011-03-01

    We present deep J-, H-, and Ks-band imaging data of the MOIRCS Deep Survey (MODS), which was carried out with the Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope in the GOODS-North region. The data reach 5σ total limiting magnitudes for point sources of J = 23.9, H = 22.8, and Ks = 22.8 (Vega magnitude) over 103 arcmin2 (wide field). In 28 arcmin2 of the survey area, which is an ultra-deep field of the MODS (deep field), the data reach 5σ depths of J = 24.8, H = 23.4, and Ks = 23.8. The spatial resolutions of the combined images are FWHM ˜0''.6 and ˜0''.5 for the wide and deep fields in all bands, respectively. Combining the MODS data with the multi-wavelength public data taken with the HST, Spitzer, and other ground-based telescopes in the GOODS field, we constructed a multi-wavelength photometric catalog of Ks-selected sources. Using the catalog, we present Ks-band number counts and near-infrared color distribution of the detected objects; we also demonstrate some selection techniques with the NIR colors for high redshift galaxies. These data and catalog are publicly available via Internet.

  7. The WIRCAM Deep Infrared Cluster Survey. I. Groups and clusters at z ⪆ 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielby, R. M.; Finoguenov, A.; Tanaka, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Daddi, E.; Hudelot, P.; Ilbert, O.; Kneib, J. P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mellier, Y.; Nandra, K.; Petitjean, P.; Srianand, R.; Stalin, C. S.; Willott, C. J.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We use a combination of CFHTLS deep optical data, WIRcam Deep Survey (WIRDS) near-infrared data and XMM-Newton survey data to identify z ⪆ 1.1 clusters in the CFHTLS D1 and D4 fields. Counterparts to such clusters can not be identified without deep near-infrared data and as such the total of ≈ 1 deg2 of J, H and Ks band imaging provided by WIRDS is an indispensable tool in such work. Methods: Using public XMM X-ray data, we identify extended X-ray sources in the two fields. The resulting catalogue of extended X-ray sources was then analyzed for optical/near-infrared counterparts, using a red-sequence algorithm applied to the deep optical and near-infrared data. Redshifts of candidate groups and clusters were estimated using the median photometric redshifts of detected counterparts and where available these were combined with spectroscopic data (from VVDS deep and ultra-deep and using AAT AAOmega data). Additionally, we surveyed X-ray point sources for potential group systems at the limit of our detection range in the X-ray data. A catalogue of z > 1.1 cluster candidates in the two fields has been compiled and cluster masses, radii and temperatures have been estimated using the scaling relations. Results: The catalogue of group and cluster candidates consists of 15 z ⪆ 1.1 objects. We find several massive clusters (M ⪆ 1014 {M_⊙}) and a number of lower mass clusters/groups. Three of the detections are previously published extended X-ray sources. Of note is JKSC 041 (previously detected via Chandra X-ray data and reported as a z = 1.9 cluster based on UKIDSS infrared imaging) for which we identify a number of structures at redshifts of z = 0.8, z = 0.96, z = 1.13 and z = 1.49 (but see no evidence of a structure at z = 1.9). We also make an independent detection of the massive cluster, XMMXCS J2215.9-1738, for which we estimate a redshift of z = 1.37 (compared to the spectroscopically confirmed redshift of z = 1.45). We use the z ⪆ 1.1 catalogue to

  8. Blue not brown: UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey T dwarfs with suppressed K-band flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, D. N.; Burningham, B.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Leggett, S. K.; Tinney, C. G.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Weights, D. J.; Lodieu, N.; Pérez Prieto, J. A.; Nickson, E.; Zhang, Z. H.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Jenkins, J. S.; Tamura, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have used blue near-infrared colours to select a group of 12 spectroscopically confirmed United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) T dwarfs later than T4. From amongst these, we identify the first two kinematic halo T-dwarf candidates. Blue near-infrared colours have been attributed to collisionally induced hydrogen absorption, which is enhanced by either high surface gravity or low metallicity. Proper motions are measured and distances estimated, allowing the determination of tangential velocities. U and V components are estimated for our objects by assuming Vrad= 0. From this, ULAS J0926+0835 is found to have U= 62 km s-1 and V=-140 km s-1, and ULAS J1319+1209 is found to have U= 192 km s-1 and V=-92 km s-1. These values are consistent with potential halo membership. However, these are not the bluest objects in our selection. The bluest is ULAS J1233+1219, with J-K=-1.16 ± 0.07, and surprisingly this object is found to have young disc-like U and V. Our sample also contains Hip 73786B, companion to the metal-poor K5 dwarf Hip 73786. Hip 73786 is a metal-poor star, with [Fe/H] =-0.3 ± 0.1 and is located at a distance of 19 ± 0.7 pc. U, V, W space velocity components are calculated for Hip 73786A and B, finding that U=-48 ± 7 km s-1, V=-75 ± 4 km s-1 and W=-44 ± 8 km s-1. From the properties of the primary, Hip 73786B is found to be at least 1.6-Gyr old. As a metal-poor object, Hip 73786B represents an important addition to the sample of known T dwarf benchmarks.

  9. Aerial infrared surveys of Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas, Iceland, with a section on cost of exploration surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pálmason, G.; Friedman, J.D.; Williams, R.S.; Jónsson, J.; Saemundsson, K.

    1970-01-01

    In 1966 and 1968 aerial infrared surveys were conducted over 10 of 13 high-temperature thermal areas in Iceland. The surveys were made with an airborne scanner system, utilizing radiation in the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength band. Supplementary ground geological studies were made in the Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas to interpret features depicted on the infrared imagery and to relate zones of high heat flux to tectonic structure. In the Reykjanes area in southwestern Iceland a shallow ground temperature map was prepared for temperatures at a depth of 0.5 meters; comparison of this map with the infrared imagery reveals some striking similarities. It appears that aerial infrared surveys outline the surface thermal patterns of high-temperature areas and aid in relating these patterns to possible geological structures controlling the upflow of hot water. Amplitude-slicing techniques applied to the magnetically taped airborne scanner data permit an estimate to be made of the natural heat output on the basis of size of area and specific radiance. In addition to their value in preliminary studies of high-temperature areas, infrared surveys conducted at regular intervals over thermal area under exploitation can provide valuable data on changes that occur in surface manifestations with time.

  10. Combining Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data with near-infrared data from the ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Manda; Jouvel, S.; Lin, H.; McMahon, R. G.; Lahav, O.; Castander, F. J.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bertin, E.; Bosman, S. E.; Carnero, A.; Kind, M. Carrasco; da Costa, L. N.; Gerdes, D.; Gschwend, J.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Merson, A.; Miller, C.; Ogando, R.; Pellegrini, P.; Reed, S.; Saglia, R.; Sánchez, C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J.; Bernstein, R.; Capozzi, D.; Childress, M.; Cunha, Carlos E.; Davis, T. M.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Findlay, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; González-Fernández, C.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Honscheid, K.; Irwin, M. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kim, A.; Koposov, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kupcu-Yoldas, A.; Lagattuta, D.; Lewis, J. R.; Lidman, C.; Makler, M.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, Joseph J.; Neilsen, E.; Peoples, J.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Sharp, R.; Soares-Santos, M.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Wechsler, R.; Wester, W.; Yuan, F.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the combination of optical data from the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with near-infrared (NIR) data from the European Southern Observatory VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). The deep optical detections from DES are used to extract fluxes and associated errors from the shallower VHS data. Joint seven-band (grizYJK) photometric catalogues are produced in a single 3 sq-deg dedicated camera field centred at 02h26m-04d36m where the availability of ancillary multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy allows us to test the data quality. Dual photometry increases the number of DES galaxies with measured VHS fluxes by a factor of ˜4.5 relative to a simple catalogue level matching and results in a ˜1.5 mag increase in the 80 per cent completeness limit of the NIR data. Almost 70 per cent of DES sources have useful NIR flux measurements in this initial catalogue. Photometric redshifts are estimated for a subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and initial results, although currently limited by small number statistics, indicate that the VHS data can help reduce the photometric redshift scatter at both z < 0.5 and z > 1. We present example DES+VHS colour selection criteria for high-redshift luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z ˜ 0.7 as well as luminous quasars. Using spectroscopic observations in this field we show that the additional VHS fluxes enable a cleaner selection of both populations with <10 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and <0.5 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed LRGs. The combined DES+VHS data set, which will eventually cover almost 5000 sq-deg, will therefore enable a range of new science and be ideally suited for target selection for future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.

  11. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  12. White dwarfs in the UKIRT infrared deep sky survey data release

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Kalirai, J. S.; Leggett, S. K.; Lodieu, N.; Bergeron, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2014-06-20

    We have identified 8 to 10 new cool white dwarfs from the Large Area Survey (LAS) Data Release 9 of the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The data set was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to obtain proper motions and a broad ugrizYJHK wavelength coverage. Optical spectroscopic observations were secured at Gemini Observatory and confirm the degenerate status for eight of our targets. The final sample includes two additional white dwarf candidates with no spectroscopic observations. We rely on improved one-dimensional model atmospheres and new multi-dimensional simulations with CO5BOLD to review the stellar parameters of the published LAS white dwarf sample along with our additional discoveries. Most of the new objects possess very cool atmospheres with effective temperatures below 5000 K, including two pure-hydrogen remnants with a cooling age between 8.5 and 9.0 Gyr, and tangential velocities in the range 40 km s{sup –1} ≤v {sub tan} ≤ 60 km s{sup –1}. They are likely thick disk 10-11 Gyr old objects. In addition, we find a resolved double degenerate system with v {sub tan} ∼ 155 km s{sup –1} and a cooling age between 3.0 and 5.0 Gyr. These white dwarfs could be disk remnants with a very high velocity or former halo G stars. We also compare the LAS sample with earlier studies of very cool degenerates and observe a similar deficit of helium-dominated atmospheres in the range 5000 < T {sub eff} (K) < 6000. We review the possible explanations for the spectral evolution from helium-dominated toward hydrogen-rich atmospheres at low temperatures.

  13. Mobility. Snapshot Report, Spring 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This snapshot report presents information on student mobility for 2012. It offers data on the following: (1) Percentage of Students Completing Degrees at Four-Year Institutions Who Previously Enrolled at Two-Year Institutions; (2) Number of Years Between Degree Completion at Four-Year Institutions and Most Recent Enrollment at Two-Year…

  14. American Youth: A Statistical Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, James R.

    This document presents a statistics snapshot of young people, aged 15 to 24 years. It provides a broad overview of trends documenting the direction of changes in social behavior and economic circumstances. The projected decline in the total number of youth from 43 million in 1980 to 35 million in 1995 will affect marriage and childbearing…

  15. Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1995-03-01

    Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from a detailed infrared survey of 50 buildings from six Swedish military camps is presented. The presentation is limited to a comparison of thermal performance and damage conditions of buildings of various ages, functions, and constructions, of a building period of more than 100 years. The result is expected to be relevant even to civilian buildings. Infrared surveys were performed during 1992-1993, with airborne, and mobile short- and longwave infrared systems, out- and indoor thermography. Interpretation and analysis of infrared data was performed with interactive image and analyzing systems. Field inspections were carried out with fiber optics system, and by ocular inspections. Air-exchange rate was measured in order to quantify air leakages through the building envelope, indicated in thermograms. The objects studied were single-family houses, barracks, office-, service-, school- and exercise buildings, military hotels and restaurants, aircraft hangars, and ship factory buildings. The main conclusions from this study are that most buildings from 1880 - 1940 have a solid construction with a high quality of craftsmanship, relatively good thermal performance, due to extremely thick walls, and adding insulation at the attic floor. From about 1940 - 1960 the quality of construction, thermal performance and craftsmanship seem to vary a lot. Buildings constructed during the period of 1960 - 1990 have in general the best thermal performance due to a better insulation capacity, however, also one finds here the greatest variety of problems. The result from this

  16. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM NEOWISE: AN ENHANCEMENT TO THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER FOR SOLAR SYSTEM SCIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Brandenburg, H.; Conrow, T.; Evans, T.; Fowler, J.; Jarrett, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Wright, E.; Walker, R.; Jedicke, R.; Tholen, D.; Spahr, T.

    2011-04-10

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the entire sky at four infrared wavelengths with greatly improved sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to its predecessors, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. NASA's Planetary Science Division has funded an enhancement to the WISE data processing system called 'NEOWISE' that allows detection and archiving of moving objects found in the WISE data. NEOWISE has mined the WISE images for a wide array of small bodies in our solar system, including near-Earth objects (NEOs), Main Belt asteroids, comets, Trojans, and Centaurs. By the end of survey operations in 2011 February, NEOWISE identified over 157,000 asteroids, including more than 500 NEOs and {approx}120 comets. The NEOWISE data set will enable a panoply of new scientific investigations.

  17. IPHAS A-TYPE STARS WITH MID-INFRARED EXCESSES IN SPITZER SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, Michael J.; Drew, Janet E.; Unruh, Yvonne C.; Greimel, Robert; Irwin, Michael J.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo E-mail: mjb@star.ucl.ac.uk E-mail: y.unruh@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-04-10

    We have identified 17 A-type stars in the Galactic Plane that have mid-infrared (mid-IR) excesses at 8 {mu}m. From observed colors in the (r' - H{alpha}) - (r' - i') plane, we first identified 23,050 early A-type main-sequence (MS) star candidates in the Isaac Newton Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS) point source database that are located in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire Galactic plane fields. Imposing the requirement that they be detected in all seven Two Micron All Sky Survey and Infrared Astronomical Satellite bands led to a sample of 2692 candidate A-type stars with fully sampled 0.6 to 8 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Optical classification spectra of 18 of the IPHAS candidate A-type MS stars showed that all but one could be well fitted using MS A-type templates, with the other being an A-type supergiant. Out of the 2692 A-type candidates 17 (0.6%) were found to have 8 {mu}m excesses above the expected photospheric values. Taking into account non-A-Type contamination estimates, the 8 {mu}m excess fraction is adjusted to {approx}0.7%. The distances to these sources range from 0.7 to 2.5 kpc. Only 10 out of the 17 excess stars had been covered by Spitzer MIPSGAL survey fields, of which five had detectable excesses at 24 {mu}m. For sources with excesses detected in at least two mid-IR wavelength bands, blackbody fits to the excess SEDs yielded temperatures ranging from 270 to 650 K, and bolometric luminosity ratios L {sub IR}/L {sub *} from 2.2 x 10{sup -3} - 1.9 x 10{sup -2}, with a mean value of 7.9 x 10{sup -3} (these bolometric luminosities are lower limits as cold dust is not detectable by this survey). Both the presence of mid-IR excesses and the derived bolometric luminosity ratios are consistent with many of these systems being in the planet-building transition phase between the early protoplanetary disk phase and the later debris disk phase.

  18. Near-infrared colors of minor planets recovered from VISTA-VHS survey (MOVIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M.; Licandro, J.; Morate, D.; de León, J.; Nedelcu, D. A.; Rebolo, R.; McMahon, R. G.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Irwin, M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) provide information about the surface composition of about 100 000 minor planets. The resulting visible colors and albedos enabled us to group them in several major classes, which are a simplified view of the diversity shown by the few existing spectra. A large set of data in the 0.8-2.5 μm, where wide spectral features are expected, is required to refine and complement the global picture of these small bodies of the solar system. Aims: We aim to obtain the near-infrared colors for a large sample of solar system objects using the observations made during the VISTA-VHS survey. Methods: We performed a serendipitous search in VISTA-VHS observations using a pipeline developed to retrieve and process the data that corresponds to solar system objects (SSo). The resulting photometric data is analyzed using color-color plots and by comparison with the known spectral properties of asteroids. Results: The colors and the magnitudes of the minor planets observed by the VISTA survey are compiled into three catalogs that are available online: the detections catalog (MOVIS-D), the magnitudes catalog (MOVIS-M), and the colors catalog (MOVIS-C). They were built using the third data release of the survey (VISTA VHS-DR3). A total of 39 947 objects were detected, including 52 NEAs, 325 Mars Crossers, 515 Hungaria asteroids, 38 428 main-belt asteroids, 146 Cybele asteroids, 147 Hilda asteroids, 270 Trojans, 13 comets, 12 Kuiper Belt objects and Neptune with its four satellites. The colors found for asteroids with known spectral properties reveal well-defined patterns corresponding to different mineralogies. The distributions of MOVIS-C data in color-color plots shows clusters identified with different taxonomic types. All the diagrams that use (Y - J) color separate the spectral classes more effectively than the (J - H) and (H - Ks) plots used until now: even for large color errors (<0.1), the

  19. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  20. The Latest Results from Project NIRRVS: Precise Near Infrared Radial Velocity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; NIRRVS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We will present the latest results from a prototype PRV survey with CSHELL. With CSHELL at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility atop Mauna Kea (R~46,000), we have completed a PRV 2.3 micron survey to detect exoplanets around ~30 red, low mass, and young stars. We are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~30 m/s on our survey targets. We are following up candidate RV variables, and have confirmed other previously known RV variables. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm at 2.3 microns, this performance with CSHELL is limited by detector artifacts, and fringing in the data and flatfields. iSHELL will replace CSHELL at IRTF, with first light expected in May 2016. iSHELL is a 1.15-5.4 micron high spectral resolution (R~70,000) immersion grating, cross-dispersed, white pupil spectrograph. With iSHELL we should be able to obtain a precision of less than 5 m/s in the NIR with iSHELL from the improvements in spectral grasp alone.

  1. The Latest Results from Project NIRRVS: Precise Near Infrared Radial Velocity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; NIRRVS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We will present the latest results from a prototype PRV survey with CSHELL. With CSHELL at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility atop Mauna Kea (R~46,000), we have completed a PRV 2.3 micron survey to detect exoplanets around ~30 red, low mass, and young stars. We are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~30 m/s on our survey targets. We are following up candidate RV variables, and have confirmed other previously known RV variables. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm at 2.3 microns, this performance with CSHELL is limited by detector artifacts, and fringing in the data and flatfields. iSHELL will replace CSHELL at IRTF, with first light expected in April 2016. iSHELL is a 1.15-5.4 micron high spectral resolution (R~70,000) immersion grating, cross-dispersed, white pupil spectrograph. With iSHELL we should be able to obtain a precision of less than 5 m/s in the NIR with iSHELL from the improvements in spectral grasp alone.

  2. Managing the Development of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irace, William; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Greanias, George; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Royer, Donald; Wright, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission, is surveying the entire sky in four bands from 3.4 to 22 microns with a sensitivity hundreds to hundreds of thousands times better than previous all-sky surveys at these wavelengths. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm three-mirror anastigmatic telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 6" resolution (full-width-half-maximum). WISE was placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta II 7320 launch vehicle on December 14, 2009. NASA selected WISE as a MIDEX in 2002 following a rigorous competitive selection process. To gain further confidence in WISE, NASA extended the development period one year with an option to cancel the mission if certain criteria were not met. MIDEX missions are led by the principal investigator who in this case delegated day-to-day management to the project manager. With a cost cap and relatively short development schedule, it was essential for all WISE partners to work seamlessly together. This was accomplished with an integrated management team representing all key partners and disciplines. The project was developed on budget and on schedule in spite of the need to surmount significant technical challenges. This paper describes our management approach, key challenges and critical decisions made. Results are described from a programmatic, technical and scientific point of view. Lessons learned are offered for projects of this type.

  3. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Slitless Spectrometer: Design, Prototype, and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David; Dominguez, Margaret; Emmett, Thomas; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John; Kruk, Jeffrey; Marx, Catherine; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; Whipple, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The slitless spectrometer plays an important role in the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission for the survey of emission-line galaxies. This will be an unprecedented very wide field, HST quality 3D survey of emission line galaxies. The concept of the compound grism as a slitless spectrometer has been presented previously. The presentation briefly discusses the challenges and solutions of the optical design, and recent specification updates, as well as a brief comparison between the prototype and the latest design. However, the emphasis of this paper is the progress of the grism prototype: the fabrication and test of the complicated diffractive optical elements and powered prism, as well as grism assembly alignment and testing. Especially how to use different tools and methods, such as IR phase shift and wavelength shift interferometry, to complete the element and assembly tests. The paper also presents very encouraging results from recent element tests to assembly tests. Finally we briefly touch the path forward plan to test the spectral characteristic, such as spectral resolution and response.

  4. Infrared near-Earth-object survey modeling for observatories interior to the Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, M.

    2014-07-01

    The search for and dynamical characterization of the near-Earth population of objects (NEOs) has been a busy topic for surveys for many years. Most of the work thus far has been from ground-based optical surveys such as the Catalina Sky Survey and LINEAR. These surveys have essentially reached a complete inventory of objects down to 1 km diameter and have shown that the known objects do not pose any significant impact threat. Smaller objects are correspondingly smaller threats but there are more of them and fewer of them have so far been discovered. The next generation of surveys is looking to extend their reach down to much smaller sizes. From an impact risk perspective, those objects as small as 30--40 m are still of interest (similar in size to the Tunguska bolide). Smaller objects than this are largely of interest from a space resource or in-situ analysis efforts. A recent mission concept promoted by the B612 Foundation and Ball Aerospace calls for an infrared survey telescope in a Venus-like orbit, known as the Sentinel Mission. This wide-field facility has been designed to complete the inventory down to a 140 m diameter while also providing substantial constraints on the NEO population down to a Tunguska-sized object. I have been working to develop a suite of tools to provide survey modeling for this class of survey telescope. The purpose of the tool is to uncover hidden complexities that govern mission design and operation while also working to quantitatively understand the orbit quality provided on its catalog of objects without additional followup assets. The baseline mission design calls for a 6.5 year survey lifetime. This survey model is a statistically based tool for establishing completeness as a function of object size and survey duration. Effects modeled include the ability to adjust the field-of-regard (includes all pointing restrictions), field-of-view, focal plane array fill factor, and the observatory orbit. Consequences tracked include time

  5. A near-infrared interferometric survey of debris-disc stars. V. PIONIER search for variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, S.; Defrère, D.; Absil, O.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Augereau, J.-C.; Berger, J.-P.; Blind, N.; Bonsor, A.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lebreton, J.; Marion, L.; Milli, J.; Olofsson, J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Extended circumstellar emission has been detected within a few 100 milli-arcsec around ≳10% of nearby main sequence stars using near-infrared interferometry. Follow-up observations using other techniques, should they yield similar results or non-detections, can provide strong constraints on the origin of the emission. They can also reveal the variability of the phenomenon. Aims: We aim to demonstrate the persistence of the phenomenon over the timescale of a few years and to search for variability of our previously detected excesses. Methods: Using Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI)/Precision Integrated Optics Near Infrared ExpeRiment (PIONIER) in H band we have carried out multi-epoch observations of the stars for which a near-infrared excess was previously detected using the same observation technique and instrument. The detection rates and distribution of the excesses from our original survey and the follow-up observations are compared statistically. A search for variability of the excesses in our time series is carried out based on the level of the broadband excesses. Results: In 12 of 16 follow-up observations, an excess is re-detected with a significance of > 2σ, and in 7 of 16 follow-up observations significant excess (> 3σ) is re-detected. We statistically demonstrate with very high confidence that the phenomenon persists for the majority of the systems. We also present the first detection of potential variability in two sources. Conclusions: We conclude that the phenomenon responsible for the excesses persists over the timescale of a few years for the majority of the systems. However, we also find that variability intrinsic to a target can cause it to have no significant excess at the time of a specific observation. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 088.C-0266, 089.C-0365, 090.C-0526, 091.C-0576, 091.C-0597, 094.C-0232, and commissioning data.

  6. THE DISCOVERY OF Y DWARFS USING DATA FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Prato, Lisa A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-12-10

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, the latest-type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f{sub {lambda}}, so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH{sub 3}. These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS 0722-05 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spectral standard. In total, six of the seven new brown dwarfs are classified as Y dwarfs: four are classified as Y0, one is classified as Y0 (pec?), and WISEP J1828+2650 is classified as >Y0. We have also compared the spectra to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon and infer that the brown dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K, making them the coldest spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs known to date.

  7. Science yield estimate with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Breckinridge, James; Greene, Thomas P.; Guyon, Olivier; Jeremy Kasdin, N.; Macintosh, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraph instrument (CGI) on the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope will directly image and spectrally characterize planets and circumstellar disks around nearby stars. Here we estimate the expected science yield of the CGI for known radial-velocity (RV) planets and potential circumstellar disks. The science return is estimated for three types of coronagraphs: the hybrid Lyot and shaped pupil are the currently planned designs, and the phase-induced amplitude apodizing complex mask coronagraph is the backup design. We compare the potential performance of each type for imaging as well as spectroscopy. We find that the RV targets can be imaged in sufficient numbers to produce substantial advances in the science of nearby exoplanets. To illustrate the potential for circumstellar disk detections, we estimate the brightness of zodiacal-type disks, which could be detected simultaneously during RV planet observations.

  8. An Unbiased Near-infrared Interferometric Survey for Hot Exozodiacal Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, S.; Augereau, J.-C.; Absil, O.; Defrère, D.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Marion, L.; Bonsor, A.; Lebreton, J.

    2015-03-01

    Exozodiacal dust is warm or hot dust found in the inner regions of planetary systems orbiting main sequence stars, in or around their habitable zones. The dust can be the most luminous component of extrasolar planetary systems, but predominantly emits in the near- to mid-infrared where it is outshone by the host star. Interferometry provides a unique method of separating this dusty emission from the stellar emission. The visitor instrument PIONIER at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) has been used to search for hot exozodiacal dust around a large sample of nearby main sequence stars. The results of this survey are summarised: 9 out of 85 stars show excess exo- zodiacal emission over the stellar photospheric emission.

  9. Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) 2.4-Meter Mission Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, D.; Aaron, K.; Alplanalp, L.; Anderson, K.; Capps, R.; Chang, Z.; Dooley, J.; Egerman, R.; Goullioud, R.; Klein, D.; Kruk, J.; Kuan, G.; Melton, M.; Ruffa, J.; Underhill, M.; Buren, D. Van

    2013-01-01

    The most recent study of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission is based on reuse of an existing 2.4m telescope. This study was commissioned by NASA to examine the potential science return and cost effectiveness of WFIRST by using this significantly larger aperture telescope. We review the science program envisioned by the WFIRST 2012-2013 Science Definition Team (SDT), an overview of the mission concept, and the telescope design and status. Comparisons against the previous 1.3m and reduced cost 1.1m WFIRST design concepts are discussed. A significant departure from past point designs is the option for serviceability and the geostationary orbit location which enables servicing and replacement instrument insertion later during mission life. Other papers at this conference provide more in depth discussion of the wide field instrument and the optional exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument.

  10. Physical properties of asteroids in comet-like orbits in infrared asteroid survey catalogs

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoonyoung; Ishiguro, Masateru; Usui, Fumihiko

    2014-07-10

    We investigated the population of asteroids in comet-like orbits using available asteroid size and albedo catalogs of data taken with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, AKARI, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer on the basis of their orbital properties (i.e., the Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter, T{sub J}, and the aphelion distance, Q). We found that (1) there are 123 asteroids in comet-like orbits by our criteria (i.e., Q > 4.5 AU and T{sub J} < 3), (2) 80% of them have low albedo, p{sub v} < 0.1, consistent with comet nuclei, (3) the low-albedo objects among them have a size distribution shallower than that of active comet nuclei, that is, the power index of the cumulative size distribution is around 1.1, and (4) unexpectedly, a considerable number (i.e., 25 by our criteria) of asteroids in comet-like orbits have high albedo, p{sub v} > 0.1. We noticed that such high-albedo objects mostly consist of small (D < 3 km) bodies distributed in near-Earth space (with perihelion distance of q < 1.3 AU). We suggest that such high-albedo, small objects were susceptible to the Yarkovsky effect and drifted into comet-like orbits via chaotic resonances with planets.

  11. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  12. An integrated payload design for the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccleston, Paul; Tinetti, Giovanna; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Güdel, Manuel; Hartogh, Paul; Micela, Giuseppina; Min, Michiel; Rataj, Miroslaw; Ray, Tom; Ribas, Ignasi; Vandenbussche, Bart; Auguères, Jean-Louis; Bishop, Georgia; Da Deppo, Vania; Focardi, Mauro; Hunt, Thomas; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Ollivier, Marc; Pace, Emanuele; Pascale, Enzo; Taylor, William

    2016-07-01

    ARIEL (the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three candidates for the next ESA medium-class science mission (M4) expected to be launched in 2026. This mission will be devoted to observing spectroscopically in the infrared a large population of warm and hot transiting exoplanets (temperatures from ~500 K to ~3000 K) in our nearby Galactic neighborhood, opening a new discovery space in the field of extrasolar planets and enabling the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far away worlds. The three candidate missions for M4 are now in a Phase A study which will run until mid-2017 at which point one mission will be selected for implementation. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope feeding both a moderate resolution spectrometer covering the wavelengths from 1.95 to 7.8 microns, and a four channel photometer (which also acts as a Fine Guidance Sensor) with bands between 0.55 and 1.65 microns. During its 3.5 years of operation from an L2 orbit, ARIEL will continuously observe exoplanets transiting their host star.

  13. MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY FROM THE SPITZER DEEP WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, Szymon; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Assef, Roberto J.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Gorjian, V.; Griffith, R.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Bock, J. J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Grogin, N.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, Arjun; Gonzalez, A.; Ivison, R.

    2010-06-10

    We use the multi-epoch, mid-infrared Spitzer Deep Wide-Field Survey to investigate the variability of objects in 8.1 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Booetes field. We perform a Difference Image Analysis of the four available epochs between 2004 and 2008, focusing on the deeper 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. Out of 474, 179 analyzed sources, 1.1% meet our standard variability selection criteria that the two light curves are strongly correlated (r>0.8) and that their joint variance ({sigma}{sub 12}) exceeds that for all sources with the same magnitude by 2{sigma}. We then examine the mid-IR colors of the variable sources and match them with X-ray sources from the XBooetes survey, radio catalogs, 24 {mu}m selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). Based on their mid-IR colors, most of the variable sources are AGNs (76%), with smaller contributions from stars (11%), galaxies (6%), and unclassified objects, although most of the stellar, galaxy, and unclassified sources are false positives. For our standard selection criteria, 11%-12% of the mid-IR counterparts to X-ray sources, 24 {mu}m AGN candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs show variability. The exact fractions depend on both the search depth and the selection criteria. For example, 12% of the 1131 known z>1 AGNs in the field and 14%-17% of the known AGNs with well-measured fluxes in all four Infrared Array Camera bands meet our standard selection criteria. The mid-IR AGN variability can be well described by a single power-law structure function with an index of {gamma} {approx} 0.5 at both 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, and an amplitude of S {sub 0} {approx_equal} 0.1 mag on rest-frame timescales of 2 yr. The variability amplitude is higher for shorter rest-frame wavelengths and lower luminosities.

  14. ARIEL – Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Drossart, Pierre; Eccleston, Paul; Hartogh, Paul; Leconte, Jérémy; Micela, Giusi; Ollivier, Marc; Pilbratt, Göran; Puig, Ludovic; Turrini, Diego; Vandenbussche, Bart; Wolkenberg, Paulina; ARIEL consortium, ARIEL ESA Study Team

    2016-10-01

    The Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL) is one of the three candidate missions selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) for its next medium-class science mission due for launch in 2026. The goal of the ARIEL mission is to investigate the atmospheres of several hundreds planets orbiting distant stars in order to address the fundamental questions on how planetary systems form and evolve.During its four (with a potential extension to six) years mission ARIEL will observe 500+ exoplanets in the visible and the infrared with its meter-class telescope in L2. ARIEL targets will include Jupiter- and Neptune-size down to super-Earth and Earth-size around different types of stars. The main focus of the mission will be on hot and warm planets orbiting very close to their star, as they represent a natural laboratory in which to study the chemistry and formation of exoplanets. In cooler planets, different gases separate out through condensation and sinking into distinct cloud layers. The scorching heat experienced by hot exoplanets overrides these processes and keeps all molecular species circulating throughout the atmosphere.The ARIEL mission concept has been developed by a consortium of more than 50 institutes from 12 countries, which include UK, France, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Denmark, Ireland and Portugal. The analysis of ARIEL spectra and photometric data will allow to extract the chemical fingerprints of gases and condensates in the planets' atmospheres, including the elemental composition for the most favorable targets. It will also enable the study of thermal and scattering properties of the atmosphere as the planet orbit around the star.ARIEL will have an open data policy, enabling rapid access by the general community to the high-quality exoplanet spectra that the core survey will deliver.

  15. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY FOR CO{sub 2} IN 18 COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Kawakita, Hideyo; Hamada, Saki; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Mitsuru; Usui, Fumihiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Ueno, Munetaka; Ishiguro, Masateru; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Sakon, Itsuki; Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi

    2012-06-10

    We conducted a spectroscopic survey of cometary volatiles with the Infrared Camera on board the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 5 {mu}m. In our survey, 18 comets, including both the Oort cloud comets and the Jupiter-family comets, were observed in the period from 2008 June to 2010 January, most of which were observed at least twice. The prominent emission bands in the observed spectra are the fundamental vibrational bands of water (H{sub 2}O) at 2.7 {mu}m and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at 4.3 {mu}m. The fundamental vibrational band of carbon monoxide (CO) around 4.7 {mu}m and the broad emission feature, probably related to carbon-hydrogen-bearing molecules, can also be recognized around the 3.3-3.5-{mu}m region in some of the comets. With respect to H{sub 2}O, gas production rate ratios of CO{sub 2} have been derived in 17 comets, except for the comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our data set provides the largest homogeneous database of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O production rate ratios in comets obtained so far. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O production rate ratios are considered to reflect the composition of cometary ice when a comet is observed at a heliocentric distance within {approx}2.5 AU, since H{sub 2}O ice fully sublimates there. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ratio in cometary ice spans from several to {approx}30% among the comets observed at <2.5 AU (13 out of the 17 comets). Alternatively, the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2} in the comets seems to be smaller than unity based on our observations, although we only obtain upper limits for CO in most of the comets.

  16. The science of ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinetti, G.; Drossart, P.; Eccleston, P.; Hartogh, P.; Heske, A.; Leconte, J.; Micela, G.; Ollivier, M.; Pilbratt, G.; Puig, L.; Turrini, D.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wolkenberg, P.; Pascale, E.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Güdel, M.; Min, M.; Rataj, M.; Ray, T.; Ribas, I.; Barstow, J.; Bowles, N.; Coustenis, A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Decin, L.; Encrenaz, T.; Forget, F.; Friswell, M.; Griffin, M.; Lagage, P. O.; Malaguti, P.; Moneti, A.; Morales, J. C.; Pace, E.; Rocchetto, M.; Sarkar, S.; Selsis, F.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, J.; Venot, O.; Waldmann, I. P.; Wright, G.; Zingales, T.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    The Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL) is one of the three candidate missions selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) for its next medium-class science mission due for launch in 2026. The goal of the ARIEL mission is to investigate the atmospheres of several hundred planets orbiting distant stars in order to address the fundamental questions on how planetary systems form and evolve. During its four (with a potential extension to six) years mission ARIEL will observe 500+ exoplanets in the visible and the infrared with its meter-class telescope in L2. ARIEL targets will include gaseous and rocky planets down to the Earth-size around different types of stars. The main focus of the mission will be on hot and warm planets orbiting close to their star, as they represent a natural laboratory in which to study the chemistry and formation of exoplanets. The ARIEL mission concept has been developed by a consortium of more than 50 institutes from 12 countries, which include UK, France, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Denmark, Ireland and Portugal. The analysis of the ARIEL spectra and photometric data in the 0.5-7.8 micron range will allow to extract the chemical fingerprints of gases and condensates in the planets' atmospheres, including the elemental composition for the most favorable targets. It will also enable the study of thermal and scattering properties of the atmosphere as the planet orbit around the star. ARIEL will have an open data policy, enabling rapid access by the general community to the high-quality exoplanet spectra that the core survey will deliver.

  17. RAPID INFRARED VARIABILITY OF THREE RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: A VIEW FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ning; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Tinggui; Dong Xiaobo; Jiang Peng; Ho, Luis C.; Yuan Weimin; Ji Tuo; Tian Qiguo

    2012-11-10

    Using newly released data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we report the discovery of rapid infrared variability in three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) selected from the 23 sources in the sample of Yuan et al. J0849+5108 and J0948+0022 clearly show intraday variability, while J1505+0326 has a longer measurable timescale within 180 days. Their variability amplitudes, corrected for measurement errors, are {approx}0.1-0.2 mag. The detection of intraday variability restricts the size of the infrared-emitting region to {approx}10{sup -3} pc, significantly smaller than the scale of the torus but consistent with the base of a jet. The three variable sources are exceptionally radio-loud, have the highest radio brightness temperature among the whole sample, and all show detected {gamma}-ray emission in Fermi/LAT observations. Their spectral energy distributions resemble those of low-energy-peaked blazars, with a synchrotron peak around infrared wavelengths. This result strongly confirms the view that at least some radio-loud NLS1s are blazars with a relativistic jet close to our line of sight. The beamed synchrotron emission from the jet contributes significantly to and probably dominates the spectra in the infrared and even optical bands.

  18. AKARI Infrared Camera Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. Point-source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Onaka, Takashi; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Shimonishi, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawamura, Akiko; Wada, Takehiko; Usui, Fumihiko; Koo, Bon-Chul; Matsuura, Mikako; Takahashi, Hidenori

    2012-12-01

    We present a near- to mid-infrared point-source catalog of five photometric bands at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 μm for a 10 deg2 area of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained with the Infrared Camera on board the AKARI satellite. To cover the survey area the observations were carried out at three separate seasons from 2006 May to June, 2006 October to December, and 2007 March to July. The 10σ limiting magnitudes of the present survey are 17.9, 13.8, 12.4, 9.9, and 8.6 mag at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 μm, respectively. The photometric accuracy is estimated to be about 0.1 mag at 3.2 μm and 0.06-0.07 mag in the other bands. The position accuracy is 0farcs3 at 3.2, 7, and 11 μm and 1farcs0 at 15 and 24 μm. The sensitivities at 3.2, 7, and 24 μm are roughly comparable to those of the Spitzer SAGE LMC point-source catalog, while the AKARI catalog provides the data at 11 and 15 μm, covering the mid-infrared spectral range contiguously. Two types of catalog are provided: a Catalog and an Archive. The Archive contains all the detected sources, while the Catalog only includes the sources that have a counterpart in the Spitzer SAGE point-source catalog. The Archive contains about 650,000, 140,000, 97,000, 43,000, and 52,000 sources at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 μm, respectively. Based on the catalog, we discuss the luminosity functions at each band, the color-color diagram, and the color-magnitude diagram using the 3.2, 7, and 11 μm band data. Stars without circumstellar envelopes, dusty C-rich and O-rich stars, young stellar objects, and background galaxies are located at distinct regions in the diagrams, suggesting that the present catalog is useful for the classification of objects toward the LMC.

  19. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. I. POINT-SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Daisuke; Onaka, Takashi; Shimonishi, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawamura, Akiko; Wada, Takehiko; Usui, Fumihiko; Koo, Bon-Chul; Matsuura, Mikako E-mail: onaka@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2012-12-01

    We present a near- to mid-infrared point-source catalog of five photometric bands at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 {mu}m for a 10 deg{sup 2} area of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained with the Infrared Camera on board the AKARI satellite. To cover the survey area the observations were carried out at three separate seasons from 2006 May to June, 2006 October to December, and 2007 March to July. The 10{sigma} limiting magnitudes of the present survey are 17.9, 13.8, 12.4, 9.9, and 8.6 mag at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 {mu}m, respectively. The photometric accuracy is estimated to be about 0.1 mag at 3.2 {mu}m and 0.06-0.07 mag in the other bands. The position accuracy is 0.''3 at 3.2, 7, and 11 {mu}m and 1.''0 at 15 and 24 {mu}m. The sensitivities at 3.2, 7, and 24 {mu}m are roughly comparable to those of the Spitzer SAGE LMC point-source catalog, while the AKARI catalog provides the data at 11 and 15 {mu}m, covering the mid-infrared spectral range contiguously. Two types of catalog are provided: a Catalog and an Archive. The Archive contains all the detected sources, while the Catalog only includes the sources that have a counterpart in the Spitzer SAGE point-source catalog. The Archive contains about 650,000, 140,000, 97,000, 43,000, and 52,000 sources at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 {mu}m, respectively. Based on the catalog, we discuss the luminosity functions at each band, the color-color diagram, and the color-magnitude diagram using the 3.2, 7, and 11 {mu}m band data. Stars without circumstellar envelopes, dusty C-rich and O-rich stars, young stellar objects, and background galaxies are located at distinct regions in the diagrams, suggesting that the present catalog is useful for the classification of objects toward the LMC.

  20. SnapShot: Interferon Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kwan T; Gale, Michael

    2015-12-17

    Interferons (IFNs) are crucial cytokines of antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activity. The three types of IFN (I, II, and III) are classified by their receptor specificity and sequence homology. IFNs are produced and secreted by cells in response to specific stimuli. Here, we review the subsequent IFN signaling events occurring through unique receptors leading to regulation of gene expression for modulation of innate and adaptive immunity. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

  1. SAGE-Var: An Infrared Survey of Variability in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebel, D.; Boyer, M. L.; Srinivasan, S.; Whitelock, P.; Meixner, M.; Babler, B.; Feast, M.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Ita, Y.; Meade, M.; Shiao, B.; Whitney, B.

    2015-07-01

    We present the first results from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Var program, a follow up to the Spitzer legacy program SAGE (Meixner et al.). We obtained four epochs of photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 μm covering the bar of the LMC and the central region of the SMC in order to probe the variability of extremely red sources missed by variability surveys conducted at shorter wavelengths, and to provide additional epochs of observation for known variables. Our six total epochs of observations allow us to probe infrared (IR) variability on 15 different timescales ranging from ˜20 days to ˜5 yr. Out of a full catalog of 1 717 554 (LMC) and 457 760 (SMC) objects, we find 10 (LMC) and 6 (SMC) large amplitude Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) variables without optically measured variability owing to circumstellar dust obscuration. The catalog also contains multiple observations of known AGB variables, type I and II Cepheids, eclipsing variables, R CrB stars, and young stellar objects, which will be discussed in following papers. Here we present IR Period-Luminosity (PL) relations for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds, as well as improved PL relationships for AGB stars pulsating in the fundamental mode using mean magnitudes constructed from six epochs of observations.

  2. SAGE-VAR: AN INFRARED SURVEY OF VARIABILITY IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Riebel, D.; Boyer, M. L.; Srinivasan, S.; Whitelock, P.; Feast, M.; Meixner, M.; Shiao, B.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Ita, Y.

    2015-07-01

    We present the first results from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Var program, a follow up to the Spitzer legacy program SAGE (Meixner et al.). We obtained four epochs of photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 μm covering the bar of the LMC and the central region of the SMC in order to probe the variability of extremely red sources missed by variability surveys conducted at shorter wavelengths, and to provide additional epochs of observation for known variables. Our six total epochs of observations allow us to probe infrared (IR) variability on 15 different timescales ranging from ∼20 days to ∼5 yr. Out of a full catalog of 1 717 554 (LMC) and 457 760 (SMC) objects, we find 10 (LMC) and 6 (SMC) large amplitude Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) variables without optically measured variability owing to circumstellar dust obscuration. The catalog also contains multiple observations of known AGB variables, type I and II Cepheids, eclipsing variables, R CrB stars, and young stellar objects, which will be discussed in following papers. Here we present IR Period–Luminosity (PL) relations for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds, as well as improved PL relationships for AGB stars pulsating in the fundamental mode using mean magnitudes constructed from six epochs of observations.

  3. Discovery of Three Distant, Cold Brown Dwarfs in the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, D.; McCarthy, P.; Burgasser, A. J.; Hathi, N. P.; Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R.; Siana, B.; Scarlata, C.; Henry, A.; Colbert, J.; Atek, H.; Rafelski, M.; Teplitz, H.; Bunker, A.; Dressler, A.

    2012-06-01

    We present the discovery of three late-type (>=T4.5) brown dwarfs, including a probable Y dwarf, in the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) survey. We use the G141 grism spectra to determine the spectral types of the dwarfs and derive distance estimates based on a comparison with nearby T dwarfs with known parallaxes. These are the most distant spectroscopically confirmed T/Y dwarfs, with the farthest at an estimated distance of ~400 pc. We compare the number of cold dwarfs found in the WISP survey with simulations of the brown dwarf mass function. The number found is generally consistent with an initial stellar mass function dN/dMvpropM -α with α = 0.0-0.5, although the identification of a Y dwarf is somewhat surprising and may be indicative of either a flatter absolute magnitude/spectral-type relation than previously reported or an upturn in the number of very-late-type brown dwarfs in the observed volume.

  4. Low Mass Galaxy Evolution In The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James; Teplitz, Harry; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Malkan, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Henry, Alaina; Atek, Hakim; Fosbury, Robert; Ross, Nathanial; Hathi, Nimish; Bridge, Carrie; Bunker, Andrew; Dressler, Alan; Shim, Hyunjin; Bedregal, Alejandro; Dominguez, Alberto; Rafelski, Marc; Masters, Dan

    2012-12-01

    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel (WISP) Survey uses nearly 1000 HST orbits to study the epoch of peak star formation. Its slitless grism spectroscopy over a wide, continuous spectral range (0.8-1.7 micron) provides an unbiased selection of thousands of emission line galaxies over 0.5 < z < 2.5. Hundreds of these galaxies are detected in multiple emission lines, allowing for important diagnostics of metallicity and dust extinction. We propose deep 3.6 micron imaging (5 sigma, 0.9 micro-Jy) of 39 of the deepest WISP fields observed with the combination of G102+G141 grisms, in order to detect emission-line galaxies down to 0.1 L*. Combined with our HST optical and near-IR photometry, these IRAC data will be critical to determining accurate stellar masses for both passive and active galaxies in our survey. We will determine the evolution of the faint end slope of the stellar mass function and the mass-metallicity relation down to low-mass galaxies, including measurement of a possible mass-metallicity-SFR fundamental plane. The addition of the IRAC photometry will also provide much stronger constraints on dust extinction and star formation history, especially when combined with information available from the emission lines themselves.

  5. Measuring Low Mass Galaxies In The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James; Teplitz, Harry; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Malkan, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Henry, Alaina; Atek, Hakim; Fosbury, Robert; Ross, Nathanial; Hathi, Nimish; Bridge, Carrie; Bunker, Andrew; Dressler, Alan; Shim, Hyunjin; Bedregal, Alejandro; Dominguez, Alberto; Rafelski, Marc; Masters, Dan; Martin, Crystal; Dai, Sophia

    2015-10-01

    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel (WISP) Survey uses over 1800 HST orbits to study galaxy evolution over a majority of cosmic history. Its slitless grism spectroscopy over a wide, continuous spectral range (0.8-1.7 micron) provides an unbiased selection of thousands of emission line galaxies over 0.5 < z < 2.5. Hundreds of these galaxies are detected in multiple emission lines, allowing for important diagnostics of metallicity and dust extinction. We propose deep 3.6 micron imaging (5 sigma, 0.9 micro-Jy) of 60 of the deepest WISP fields observed with the combination of G102+G141 grisms, in order to detect emission-line galaxies down to 0.1 L* and masses below 10^8 Mo. Combined with our HST optical and near-IR photometry, these IRAC data will be critical to determining accurate stellar masses for both passive and active galaxies in our survey. We will determine the evolution of the faint end slope of the stellar mass function and the mass-metallicity relation down to low-mass galaxies. The addition of the IRAC photometry will also provide much stronger constraints on dust extinction and star formation history, especially when combined with information available from the emission lines themselves.

  6. DISCOVERY OF THREE DISTANT, COLD BROWN DWARFS IN THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLELS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, D.; Siana, B.; McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A.; Burgasser, A. J.; Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R.; Scarlata, C.; Henry, A.; Colbert, J.; Atek, H.; Rafelski, M.; Teplitz, H.; Bunker, A.

    2012-06-10

    We present the discovery of three late-type ({>=}T4.5) brown dwarfs, including a probable Y dwarf, in the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) survey. We use the G141 grism spectra to determine the spectral types of the dwarfs and derive distance estimates based on a comparison with nearby T dwarfs with known parallaxes. These are the most distant spectroscopically confirmed T/Y dwarfs, with the farthest at an estimated distance of {approx}400 pc. We compare the number of cold dwarfs found in the WISP survey with simulations of the brown dwarf mass function. The number found is generally consistent with an initial stellar mass function dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} = 0.0-0.5, although the identification of a Y dwarf is somewhat surprising and may be indicative of either a flatter absolute magnitude/spectral-type relation than previously reported or an upturn in the number of very-late-type brown dwarfs in the observed volume.

  7. Automated classification of periodic variable stars detected by the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Masci, Frank J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Cutri, Roc M.; Hoffman, Douglas I.

    2014-07-01

    We describe a methodology to classify periodic variable stars identified using photometric time-series measurements constructed from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) full-mission single-exposure Source Databases. This will assist in the future construction of a WISE Variable Source Database that assigns variables to specific science classes as constrained by the WISE observing cadence with statistically meaningful classification probabilities. We have analyzed the WISE light curves of 8273 variable stars identified in previous optical variability surveys (MACHO, GCVS, and ASAS) and show that Fourier decomposition techniques can be extended into the mid-IR to assist with their classification. Combined with other periodic light-curve features, this sample is then used to train a machine-learned classifier based on the random forest (RF) method. Consistent with previous classification studies of variable stars in general, the RF machine-learned classifier is superior to other methods in terms of accuracy, robustness against outliers, and relative immunity to features that carry little or redundant class information. For the three most common classes identified by WISE: Algols, RR Lyrae, and W Ursae Majoris type variables, we obtain classification efficiencies of 80.7%, 82.7%, and 84.5% respectively using cross-validation analyses, with 95% confidence intervals of approximately ±2%. These accuracies are achieved at purity (or reliability) levels of 88.5%, 96.2%, and 87.8% respectively, similar to that achieved in previous automated classification studies of periodic variable stars.

  8. Airborne Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Survey of the Southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Tratt, D. M.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) between Desert Hot Springs and Bombay Beach has been surveyed with Mako, an airborne hyperspectral imager operating across the wavelength range 7.6-13.2 μm in the thermal-infrared (TIR) spectral region. The data were acquired with a 4-km swath width centered on the SAF, and many tectonic features are recorded in the imagery. Spectral analysis using diagnostic features of minerals can identify rocks, soils and vegetation. Mako imagery can also locate rupture zones and measure slip distances. Designed and built by The Aerospace Corporation, the innovative and highly capable airborne imaging spectrometer used for this work enables low-noise performance (NEΔT ≲ 0.1 K @ 10 μm) at small pixel IFOV (0.55 mrad) and high frame rates, making possible an area-coverage rate of 20 km2 per minute with 2-m ground resolution from 12,500 ft (3.8 km) above-ground altitude. Since its commissioning in 2010, Mako has been used in numerous studies involving other earthquake fault systems (Hector Mine, S. Bristol Mts.), mapping of surface geology, geothermal sources (fumaroles near the Salton Sea), urban surveys, and the detection, quantification, and tracking of natural and anthropogenic gaseous emission plumes. Mako is available for airborne field studies and new applications are of particular interest. It can be flown at any altitude below 20,000 ft to achieve the desired GSD.

  9. HECTOSPEC AND HYDRA SPECTRA OF INFRARED LUMINOUS SOURCES IN THE AKARI NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE SURVEY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Hyunjin; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Seong Jin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Ko, Jongwan; Karouzos, Marios; Papovich, Casey; Willmer, Christopher; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2013-08-15

    We present spectra of 1796 sources selected in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey field, obtained with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra, for which we measure 1645 redshifts. We complemented the generic flux-limited spectroscopic surveys at 11 {mu}m and 15 {mu}m, with additional sources selected based on the MIR and optical colors. In MMT/Hectospec observations, the redshift identification rates are {approx}80% for objects with R < 21.5 mag. On the other hand, in WIYN/Hydra observations, the redshift identification rates are {approx}80% at R magnitudes brighter than 19 mag. The observed spectra were classified through the visual inspection or from the line diagnostics. We identified 1128 star-forming or absorption-line-dominated galaxies, 198 Type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 8 Type-2 AGNs, 121 Galactic stars, and 190 spectra in unknown category due to low signal-to-noise ratio. The spectra were flux-calibrated but to an accuracy of 0.1-0.18 dex for most of the targets and worse for the remainder. We derive star formation rates (SFRs) from the mid-infrared fluxes or from the optical emission lines, showing that our sample spans an SFR range of 0.1 to a few hundred M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We find that the extinction inferred from the difference between the IR and optical SFR increases as the IR luminosity increases but with a large scatter.

  10. GTC/OSIRIS SPECTROSCOPIC IDENTIFICATION OF A FAINT L SUBDWARF IN THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Lodieu, N.

    2010-01-10

    We present the discovery of an L subdwarf in 234 deg{sup 2} common to the UK InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey Data Release 2 and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. This is the fifth L subdwarf announced to date, the first one identified in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and the faintest known. The blue optical and near-infrared colors of ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 and its overall spectra energy distribution are similar to the known mid-L subdwarfs. Low-resolution optical (700-1000 nm) spectroscopy with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy spectrograph on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias reveals that ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 exhibits a strong K I pressure-broadened line at 770 nm and a red slope longward of 800 nm, features characteristics of L-type dwarfs. From direct comparison with the four known L subdwarfs, we estimate its spectral type to be sdL4-sdL6 and derive a distance in the interval 94-170 pc. We provide a rough estimate of the space density for mid-L subdwarfs of 1.5 x 10{sup -4} pc{sup -3}.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of water bodies dynamic by means of thermal infrared and multispectral surveys on the Venetian lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberotanza, L.; Lechi, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys employing a two channel Daedalus infrared scanner and multispectral photography were performed. The spring waning tide, the velocity of the water mass, and the types of suspended matter were among the topics studied. Temperature, salinity, sediment transport, and ebb stream velocity were recorded. The bottom topography was correlated with the dynamic characteristics of the sea surface.

  12. A Mid-Infrared Imaging Survey of Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the (rho) Ophiuchi Cloud Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsony, Mary; Ressler, Michael E.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a comprehensive, new, ground-based mid-infrared imaging survey of the young stellar population of the (rho) Ophiuchi cloud are presented. Data were acquired at the Palomar 5m and at the Keck 10m telescopes with the MIRLIN and LWS instruments, at 0'.5 and 0'.25 resolutions, respectively. Of 172 survey objects, 85 were detected. Among the 22 multiple systems observed, 15 were resolved and their individual component fluxes determined. A plot of the frequency distribution of the detected objects with SED spectral slope shows that YSOs spend approx.4 x 10(exp 5) yr in the flat-spectrum phase, clearing out their remnant infall envelopes. Mid-infrared variability is found among a significant fraction of the surveyed objects and is found to occur for all SED classes with optically thick disks. Large-amplitude near-infrared variability, also found for all SED classes with optically thick disks, seems to occur with somewhat higher frequency at the earlier evolutionary stages. Although a general trend of mid-infrared excess and near-infrared veiling exists progressing through SED classes, with Class I objects generally exhibiting r(sub K) >= 1, flat-spectrum objects with r(sub K) >= 0.58, and Class III objects with r(sub K) =0, Class II objects exhibit the widest range of r(sub K) values, ranging from 0 <= r(sub K) <= 4.5. However, the highly variable value of veiling that a single source can exhibit in any of the SED classes in which active disk accretion can take place is striking and is direct observational evidence for highly time-variable accretion activity in disks. Finally, by comparing mid-infrared versus near-infrared excesses in a subsample with well-determined effective temperatures and extinction values, disk-clearing mechanisms are explored. The results are consistent with disk clearing proceeding from the inside out.

  13. Predictions for Cosmological Infrared Surveys from Space with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dole, H.; Lagache, G.; Puget, J.-L.

    2003-03-01

    We make predictions for the cosmological surveys to be conducted by the Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF (MIPS) at 24, 70, and 160 μm for the Guaranteed Time Observer and the Legacy programs, using the latest knowledge of the instrument. In addition to the detector noise and the cirrus confusion noise, we discuss in detail the derivation of the confusion noise due to extragalactic sources, which depends strongly on the shape of the source counts at a given wavelength and on the telescope and detector pixel sizes. We show that it is wise in general to compare the classical photometric criterion, used for decades, and the so-called source density criterion to predict the confusion levels. We obtain, using the model of Lagache, Dole, and Puget, limiting fluxes of 50 μJy, 3.2 mJy, and 36 mJy at 24, 70, and 160 μm, respectively. After taking into account other known sources of noise that will limit the surveys' sensitivities, we compute the redshift distributions of the detected sources at each wavelength and show that they extend up to z~2.7 at 24 μm and up to z~2.5 at 70 and 160 μm, leading to the resolution of at most 69%, 54%, and 24% of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 24, 70, and 160 μm, respectively. We estimate which galaxy populations will be used to derive the luminosity function evolution with redshift. We also give the redshift distributions of the unresolved sources in the far-IR range, which dominates the fluctuations of the CIB, and a predicted power spectrum showing the feasibility of fluctuations (due to both Poissonian and clustered source distributions) measurements. The main conclusion is that MIPS (and SIRTF in general) cosmological surveys will greatly improve our understanding of galaxy evolution by giving data with unprecedented accuracy in the mid-IR and far-IR range.

  14. UltraVISTA: a new ultra-deep near-infrared survey in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, H. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Dunlop, J.; Franx, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Fèvre, O.; Holt, J.; Caputi, K. I.; Goranova, Y.; Buitrago, F.; Emerson, J. P.; Freudling, W.; Hudelot, P.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Magnard, F.; Mellier, Y.; Møller, P.; Nilsson, K. K.; Sutherland, W.; Tasca, L.; Zabl, J.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we describe the first data release of the UltraVISTA near-infrared imaging survey of the COSMOS field. We summarise the key goals and design of the survey and provide a detailed description of our data reduction techniques. We provide stacked, sky-subtracted images in YJHKs and narrow-band filters constructed from data collected during the first year of UltraVISTA observations. Our stacked images reach 5σAB depths in an aperture of 2″ diameter of ~25 in Y and ~24 in JHKs bands and all have sub-arcsecond seeing. To this 5σ limit, our Ks catalogue contains 216 268 sources. We carry out a series of quality assessment tests on our images and catalogues, comparing our stacks with existing catalogues. The 1σ astrometric rms in both directions for stars selected with 17.0 < Ks(AB) < 19.5 is ~0.08″ in comparison to the publicly-available COSMOS ACS catalogues. Our images are resampled to the same pixel scale and tangent point as the publicly available COSMOS data and so may be easily used to generate multi-colour catalogues using this data. All images and catalogues presented in this paper are publicly available through ESO's "phase 3" archiving and distribution system and from the UltraVISTA web site. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium.Catalogs are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/544/A156

  15. POLARIMETRIC CALIBRATION OF MIMIR AND THE GALACTIC PLANE INFRARED POLARIZATION SURVEY (GPIPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D. E-mail: apinnick@bu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Methods and observations are described for the full field of view (FOV) polarimetric calibration of the Mimir near-infrared imaging polarimeter in support of the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey and other applications. Polarimetric calibration consisted of three steps: (1) flat fielding using in-dome images obtained with the compound zero-order half-wave-plate (HWP) in the 16 position angles employed in polarimetric observations, (2) mapping and removing the remaining instrumental polarization via observations of globular cluster stars, and (3) using polarization standard stars to convert instrument-based polarization position angles to equatorial and to determine the linear polarimetric efficiency. For Mimir, the polarization flat fielding reduced systematic variations of the polarization efficiency across the FOV by a factor of 20. The 151 observations of eight globular clusters yielded 40,000 stars for measuring the remaining 0.05%-0.45% instrumental polarization to uncertainties of 0.02%-0.04%. After these corrections, the 444 observations of 23 polarized stars enabled equatorial polarization position angles to be determined to typical uncertainties of 0.{sup 0}5, and the on-axis (corrected to full FOV) polarization efficiency of 91.1% {+-} 0.4% to be determined. Fully corrected standard star observations showed excellent agreement with published values of polarization percentage and position angle. Additionally, the observations of four sky fields containing Whittet et al. 'primary' polarization standard stars were analyzed to yield 30 new 'secondary' standards. These are fainter than the primaries, allowing use with larger telescope apertures. The secondary standards have polarization position angle uncertainties under 5 Degree-Sign and range in degree of polarization from 0.4% to 8.5%.

  16. Progress Towards a High-Precision Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of the H_3^+ Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Adam J.; Hodges, James N.; Markus, Charles R.; Kocheril, G. Stephen; Jenkins, Paul A., II; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-06-01

    The trihydrogen cation, H_3^+, represents one of the most important and fundamental molecular systems. Having only two electrons and three nuclei, H_3^+ is the simplest polyatomic system and is a key testing ground for the development of new techniques for calculating potential energy surfaces and predicting molecular spectra. Corrections that go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, including adiabatic, non-adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamic corrections are becoming more feasible to calculate. As a result, experimental measurements performed on the H_3^+ ion serve as important benchmarks which are used to test the predictive power of new computational methods. By measuring many infrared transitions with precision at the sub-MHz level it is possible to construct a list of the most highly precise experimental rovibrational energy levels for this molecule. Until recently, only a select handful of infrared transitions of this molecule have been measured with high precision (˜ 1 MHz). Using the technique of Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy, we are aiming to produce the largest high-precision spectroscopic dataset for this molecule to date. Presented here are the current results from our survey along with a discussion of the combination differences analysis used to extract the experimentally determined rovibrational energy levels. O. Polyansky, et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2012), 370, 5014. M. Pavanello, et al., J. Chem. Phys. (2012), 136, 184303. L. Diniz, et al., Phys. Rev. A (2013), 88, 032506. L. Lodi, et al., Phys. Rev. A (2014), 89, 032505. J. Hodges, et al., J. Chem. Phys (2013), 139, 164201.

  17. Thermal features at some Cascade volcanoes as observed by aerial infrared surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    There have been no substantial changes in the thermal patterns at the summit of Mount Rainier in the period September 1964–September 1966, within the detection limits of the infrared instrumentation. Some differences in radiance are attributed to differences in snow cover. The highest apparent temperature is at a snow-free area on the west flank of the summit cone, several hundred feet below the west crater rim. An anomaly at this site was recorded on both infrared surveys, but no prior reports of thermal activity here have been made by ground parties. Other anomalous thermal zones at the summit are on the northern quadrants of both crater rims. A very small, low-temperature fumarole reported on Mount Adams was not detected, nor were any other thermal manifestations recorded. One anomaly consisting of a close-spaced cluster of thermal spots was detected at The Boot on Mount St. Helens and corresponds to a known fumarole area. The only thermal feature seen on Mount Shasta is near the summit at a thermal spring that has been observed by many climbers. Two anomalies were found on the north flank of Lassen Peak. Thermal activity had not been previously reported at either site, though one is in a known solfatarized area. No ground investigation has been made at the other location. Much of the other thermal activity in the Lassen Peak area is in the northeast quadrant of Brokeoff Caldera. Most of these features are well documented in the literature; others not previously described are in fairly accessible areas and doubtless result from springs and fumaroles related to Brokeoff Caldera.

  18. Thermal features at Volcanoes in the cascade range, as observed by aerial infrared surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    There have been no substantial changes in the thermal patterns at the summit of Mount Rainier in the period September 1964-September 1966, within the detection limits of the infrared instrumentation. Some differences in radiance are attributed to differences in snow cover. The highest apparent temperature is at a snow-free area on the west flank of the summit cone, several hundred feet below the west crater rim. An anomaly at this site was recorded on both infrared surveys, but no prior reports of thermal activity here have been made by ground parties. Other anomalous thermal zones at the summit are on the northern quadrants of both crater rims. A very small, low-temperature fumarole reported on Mount Adams was not detected, nor were any other thermal manifestations recorded. One anomaly consisting of a close-spaced cluster of thermal spots was detected at The Boot on Mount St. Helens and corresponds to a known fumarole area. The only thermal feature seen on Mount Shasta is near the summit at a thermal spring that has been observed by many climbers. Two anomalies were found on the north flank of Lassen Peak. Thermal activity had not been previously reported at either site, though one is in a known solfatarized area. No ground investigation has been made at the other location. Much of the other thermal activity in the Lassen Peak area is in the northeast quadrant of Brokeoff Caldera. Most of these features are well documented in the literature; others not previously described are in fairly accessible areas and doubtless result from springs and fumaroles related to Brokeoff Caldera. ?? 1970 Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli.

  19. Development of a near infrared camera for conducting a survey of northern Galactic Cepheid variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, Andrew John

    In the past few decades there has been growing realization that the Cepheid Near-Infrared (NIR) Period-Luminosity (PL) relation is superior to the Optical PL relation, however, there has been little to no new NIR data gathered on Galactic Cepheids despite the growing popularity and availability of NIR detectors. Galactic Cepheids are, in general, too bright to be observed by telescopes with apertures larger than 1-meter and most NIR detector arrays are too costly to justify placing on sub-1m class telescopes. I describe the development of a near-infrared (NIR) camera for the University of Wyoming's 0.6m telescope at Red Buttes Observatory. The camera, known as BIRCAM (Buttes InfraRed CAMera), was conceived to be a temporary, inexpensive test-bed instrument designed to test the electronic and cryo-mechanical components of another large-scale NIR imaging camera. BIRCAM was designed to make use of a CMOS HgCdTe Hawaii-2 detector array sensitive from 0.9-2.5 microns and during its relatively short lifetime I used BIRCAM to synoptically survey 130 fields containing Galactic Cepheids. These data will help provide the means to calibrate the NIR Cepheid Period-Luminosity Relation. The Cepheid Period-Luminosity (PL) Relation is fundamental to determining distances to nearby galaxies and as such is essential to calibrating the distance scale of the Universe. The accuracy and precision of the distance scale is determined in part by the accuracy and precision of the Galactic PL relation. Observations of Galactic Cepheids in the NIR play an important role in reducing systematic errors inherent to optical observations. The future calibration and refinement of the distance scale relies on providing accurate NIR photometry of Galactic Cepheid Variable Stars. Current photometric studies of Galactic Cepheids in the NIR are limited in size and homo-geneity. The goal of this project is to provide a homogenous photometric study that triples the number of well-sampled Galactic Cepheid

  20. MID-INFRARED SIZE SURVEY OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS: DESCRIPTION OF KECK SEGMENT-TILTING EXPERIMENT AND BASIC RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Monnier, J. D.; Tannirkulam, A.; Tuthill, P. G.; Ireland, M.; Cohen, R.; Perrin, M. D.

    2009-07-20

    The mid-infrared properties of pre-planetary disks are sensitive to the temperature and flaring profiles of disks for the regions where planet formation is expected to occur. In order to constrain theories of planet formation, we have carried out a mid-infrared ({lambda} = 10.7 {mu}m) size survey of young stellar objects using the segmented Keck telescope in a novel configuration. We introduced a customized pattern of tilts to individual mirror segments to allow efficient sparse-aperture interferometry, allowing full aperture synthesis imaging with higher calibration precision than traditional imaging. In contrast to previous surveys on smaller telescopes and with poorer calibration precision, we find that most objects in our sample are partially resolved. Here, we present the main observational results of our survey of five embedded massive protostars, 25 Herbig Ae/Be stars, 3 T Tauri stars, 1 FU Ori system, and five emission-line objects of uncertain classification. The observed mid-infrared sizes do not obey the size-luminosity relation found at near-infrared wavelengths and a companion paper will provide further modeling analysis of this sample. In addition, we report imaging results for a few of the most resolved objects, including complex emission around embedded massive protostars, the photoevaporating circumbinary disk around MWC 361A, and the subarcsecond binaries T Tau, FU Ori, and MWC 1080.

  1. Near-Infrared Surveys and the Potential of an Upgraded WFCAM on UKIRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Richard F.; Kerr, Tom; Varricatt, Watson; Bold, Matthew; Kendrick, Rick; Hodapp, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Near-infrared surveys provide the samples of faint objects essential for characterizing the assembly and evolution of galaxies, both at earliest cosmic times and near the peak of star formation and black hole activity. Near-IR broad and medium-band filter measurements are critical for accurate photometric redshifts and spectral energy distributions. The same areal coverage combined with time domain sampling reveals the variability properties of pre-main sequence stars in regions of active star formation, particularly in the presence of appreciable reddening. The possibility of deep, very wide-area K-band coverage creates the opportunity to trace the outer regions of the Galaxy and the Local Group. Targeting for James Webb Space Telescope will depend on accurate contemporaneous Near-IR astrometry. NASA's mission objectives for protecting working spacecraft from orbital debris are facilitated by near-IR characterization of debris, particularly for objects dark in the visible like solar panels.As one realization of advanced survey capability, we describe a proposed upgrade to the Wide-Field camera on the UKIRT 3.8-m. The powerful performance of an array of Teledyne Hawaii-4RG detectors combined with a new corrector and filters promise a Northern Hemisphere capability matched to the next generation of science requirements. Anticipated improvements include (nearly) contiguous detectors (alleviating the need for a large-step dither pattern), higher DQE, and no restriction on field because of guide stars. We would be assured of better wide-area astrometry and sensitivity compared to the generation of devices used for UKIDSS and HEMISPHERE.

  2. OT1_nlu_1: Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.

    2010-07-01

    We propose to survey CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED), from J=4-3 up to J=13-12, on 93 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L_{IR} > 1.0E11 L_{sun}) with Herschel SPIRE FTS spectrometer. These galaxies, plus 32 additional LIRGs that will have similar data from existing Herschel programs (mainly the HerCULES project), form a flux-limited subset of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS) sample. Our proposal is built on the legacy of GOALS and extends beyond the existing Herschel HerCULES program, which emphasizes more on ULIRGs, to a much needed sample coverage of the more numerous and diverse population of less luminous LIRGs. The data from the proposed observations will not only provide much needed local LIRG templates for future ALMA studies of high-redshift counterparts, but also lend us a powerful diagnostic tool to probe the warm and dense molecular gas that are more closely related to the starburst or AGN activity in the nuclei of LIRGs. The data from this proposal will provide important statistical clues to the interplay between the cold and warm molecular gas, IR luminosity, star formation rate and efficiency, and the diverse properties of LIRGs. Specifically, using the homogeneous CO SLED data from this proposal, together with ground-base, low-order CO line data (mainly J=1-0) and other data that have been compiled for the GOALS sample, we will address the following questions: (1) What is the dominant nuclear power source in individual sample galaxy: starburst or AGN? (2) What are the typical physical properties of warm molecular gas in the nuclei of LIRGs? (3) How do the nuclear warm gas components correlate to the cold gas component, star formation rate and efficiency, dust temperature, etc? and (4) How does molecular gas excitation change along a merger sequence?

  3. Payette National Forest aerial survey project using the Kodak digital color infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1997-11-01

    Staff of the Payette National Forest located in central Idaho used the Kodak Digital Infrared Camera to collect digital photographic images over a wide variety of selected areas. The objective of this aerial survey project is to collect airborne digital camera imagery and to evaluate it for potential use in forest assessment and management. The data collected from this remote sensing system is being compared with existing resource information and with personal knowledge of the areas surveyed. Resource specialists are evaluating the imagery to determine if it may be useful for; identifying cultural sites (pre-European settlement tribal villages and camps); recognizing ecosystem landscape pattern; mapping recreation areas; evaluating the South Fork Salmon River road reconstruction project; designing the Elk Summit Road; assessing the impact of sediment on anadramous fish in the South Fork Salmon River; assessing any contribution of sediment to the South Fork from the reconstructed road; determining post-wildfire stress development in conifer timber; in assessing the development of insect populations in areas initially determined to be within low intensity wildfire burn polygons; and to search for Idaho Ground Squirrel habitat. Project sites include approximately 60 linear miles of the South Fork of the Salmon River; a parallel road over about half that distance; 3 archaeological sites; two transects of about 6 miles each for landscape patterns; 3 recreation areas; 5 miles of the Payette River; 4 miles of the Elk Summit Road; a pair of transects 4.5 miles long for stress assessment in timber; a triplet of transects about 3 miles long for the assessment of the identification of species; and an area of about 640 acres to evaluate habitat for the endangered Idaho Ground Squirrel. Preliminary results indicate that the imagery is an economically viable way to collect site specific resource information that is of value in the management of a national forest.

  4. THE FIRST ULTRA-COOL BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Skrutskie, M.; Beaton, R.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; McLean, I.; Dietrich, M.; Garnavich, P.; Rueff, K.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 {mu}m spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}36 at 4.6 {mu}m. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  5. Recalibrating the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W4 Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. J. I.; Jarrett, T. H.; Cluver, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    We present a revised effective wavelength and photometric calibration for the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W4 band, including tests of empirically motivated modifications to its pre-launch laboratory-measured relative system response curve. We derived these by comparing measured W4 photometry with photometry synthesised from spectra of galaxies and planetary nebulae. The difference between measured and synthesised photometry using the pre-launch laboratory-measured W4 relative system response can be as large as 0.3 mag for galaxies and 1 mag for planetary nebulae. We find the W4 effective wavelength should be revised upward by 3.3%, from 22.1 to 22.8 μm, and the W4 AB magnitude of Vega should be revised from m W4 = 6.59 to m W4 = 6.66. In an attempt to reproduce the observed W4 photometry, we tested three modifications to the pre-launch laboratory-measured W4 relative system response curve, all of which have an effective wavelength of 22.8 μm. Of the three relative system response curve models tested, a model that matches the laboratory-measured relative system response curve, but has the wavelengths increased by 3.3% (or ≃ 0.73 μm) achieves reasonable agreement between the measured and synthesised photometry.

  6. DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE PIPE NEBULA. II. DATA, METHODS, AND DUST EXTINCTION MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco

    2010-12-20

    We present a new set of high-resolution dust extinction maps of the nearby and essentially starless Pipe Nebula molecular cloud. The maps were constructed from a concerted deep near-infrared imaging survey with the ESO-VLT, ESO-NTT, CAHA 3.5 m telescopes, and 2MASS data. The new maps have a resolution three times higher than the previous extinction map of this cloud by Lombardi et al. and are able to resolve structures down to 2600 AU. We detect 244 significant extinction peaks across the cloud. These peaks have masses between 0.1 and 18.4 M{sub sun}, diameters between 1.2 and 5.7 x 10{sup 4} AU (0.06 and 0.28 pc), and mean densities of about 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, all in good agreement with previous results. From the analysis of the mean surface density of companions we find a well-defined scale near 1.4 x 10{sup 4} AU below which we detect a significant decrease in structure of the cloud. This scale is smaller than the Jeans length calculated from the mean density of the peaks. The surface density of peaks is not uniform but instead it displays clustering. Extinction peaks in the Pipe Nebula appear to have a spatial distribution similar to the stars in Taurus, suggesting that the spatial distribution of stars evolves directly from the primordial spatial distribution of high-density material.

  7. UNIVERSALITY OF THE NEAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW BASED ON THE APOGEE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B. W. E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-06-10

    Whether the near-infrared (NIR) extinction law is universal has long been a debated topic. Based on the APOGEE H-band spectroscopic survey, a key project of SDSS-III, the intrinsic colors of a large number of giant stars are accurately determined from the stellar effective temperature. Taking advantage of this and using a sample of 5942 K-type giants, the NIR extinction law is carefully revisited. The color excess ratio E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), representative of the NIR extinction law, shows no dependence on the color excess when E(J – K {sub S}) changes from ∼0.3 to ∼4.0, which implies a universal NIR extinction law from diffuse to dense regions. The constant value of E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), 0.64, corresponds to a power law index of 1.95. The other two ratios, E(H – K {sub S})/E(J – K {sub S}) and E(J – H)/E(H – K {sub S}), are 0.36 and 1.78, respectively. The results are consistent with the MRN dust size distribution.

  8. Identification of oxygen-rich evolved stars by maser surveys and statistical studies on infrared data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Bosco H.-K.

    2013-10-01

    The post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) phase is a short episode in the life of a star with mass between 0.8 to 8 M⊙. It comes after the AGB phase, and before the planetary nebula phase. A rapid change in many physical properties of a star is suggested to happen in this phase, for example the onset of jets. However, a lot of details are still unknown. In this thesis, three major problems are addressed: insufficient samples of post-AGB stars, identification of post-AGB stars, and the true status of a special class of objects called the "water fountains (WFs)". WFs are evolved stars associated with high velocity collimated bipolar jets that can be traced by H2O maser emissions. For the first two problems, new searching criteria are introduced with two new maser surveys on oxygen-rich post-AGB stars. It is necessary to collect more samples of post-AGB stars for further studies. Nonetheless, there has been no systematic searching method because most of the post-AGB stars are dim in optical and near-infrared wavelengths, which increases the difficulty in identification. Maser thus becomes a good alternative tool. In the first survey which focused only on H2O masers, over 200 AGB or post-AGB star candidates have been selected and observed. Those candidates were mainly chosen by new colour criteria with the far-infrared AKARI data. In particular, four characteristic maser sources were found, and they are currently suggested as possible very young post-AGB stars. In the second survey, another 100 objects were observed in OH and/or H2O masers. Three possible high velocity objects were discovered, including a new rare member of WFs. The colour criteria are proved to be quite sensitive in distinguishing post-AGB stars from AGB stars or other types of objects, even though there are still some contamination from young stellar objects. A follow-up study shows that the Q-parameters are effective in isolating objects with spherical or aspherical envelopes, which are also

  9. Seeing liquids from static snapshots.

    PubMed

    Paulun, Vivian C; Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya; Fleming, Roland W

    2015-10-01

    Perceiving material properties can be crucial for many tasks-such as determining food edibility, or avoiding getting splashed-yet the visual perception of materials remains poorly understood. Most previous research has focussed on optical characteristics (e.g., gloss, translucency). Here, however, we show that shape also provides powerful visual cues to material properties. When liquids pour, splash or ooze, they organize themselves into characteristic shapes, which are highly diagnostic of the material's properties. Subjects viewed snapshots of simulated liquids of different viscosities, and rated their similarity. Using maximum likelihood difference scaling (Maloney & Yang, 2003), we reconstructed perceptual scales for perceived viscosity as a function of the physical viscosity of the simulated fluids. The resulting psychometric function revealed a distinct sigmoidal shape, distinguishing runny liquids that flow easily from viscous gels that clump up into piles. A parameter-free model based on 20 simple shape statistics predicted the subjects' data surprisingly well. This suggests that when subjects are asked to compare the viscosity of static snapshots of liquids that differ only in terms of viscosity, they rely primarily on relatively simple measures of shape similarity. PMID:25676882

  10. A Precise Determination of the Mid-infrared Interstellar Extinction Law Based on the APOGEE Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Mengyao; Jiang, B. W.; Gao, Jian; Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Shu; Li, Aigen

    2016-06-01

    A precise measure of the mid-infrared interstellar extinction law is crucial for investigating the properties of interstellar dust, especially larger-sized grains. Based on the stellar parameters derived from the SDSS-III/Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectroscopic survey, we select a large sample of G-type and K-type giants as the tracers of the Galactic mid-infrared extinction. We calculate the intrinsic stellar color excesses from the stellar effective temperatures and use them to determine the mid-infrared extinction for a given line of sight. For the entire sky of the Milky Way surveyed by APOGEE, we derive the extinctions (relative to {A}{{{K}}{{S}}}, the K S-band extinction at wavelength λ = 2.16 μm) for the four Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm, the four Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera bands at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm, the Spitzer/MIPS24 band at 23.7 μm, and, for the first time, the AKARI/S9W band at 8.23 μm. Our results agree with previous works in that the extinction curve is flat in the ˜3-8 μm wavelength range and is generally consistent with the {R}V = 5.5 model curve, except our determination exceeds the model prediction in the WISE/W4 band. Although some previous works found that the mid-IR extinction law appears to vary with the extinction depth {A}{{{K}}{{S}}}, no noticeable variation has been found in this work. The uncertainties are analyzed in terms of the bootstrap resampling method and Monte-Carlo simulation and are found to be rather small.

  11. Discovery of three z > 6.5 quasars in the VISTA kilo-degree infrared galaxy (VIKING) survey

    SciTech Connect

    Venemans, B. P.; Findlay, J. R.; Sutherland, W. J.; De Rosa, G.; McMahon, R. G.; González-Solares, E. A.; Lewis, J. R.; Simcoe, R.; Kuijken, K.

    2013-12-10

    Studying quasars at the highest redshifts can constrain models of galaxy and black hole formation, and it also probes the intergalactic medium in the early universe. Optical surveys have to date discovered more than 60 quasars up to z ≅ 6.4, a limit set by the use of the z-band and CCD detectors. Only one z ≳ 6.4 quasar has been discovered, namely the z = 7.08 quasar ULAS J1120+0641, using near-infrared imaging. Here we report the discovery of three new z ≳ 6.4 quasars in 332 deg{sup 2} of the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy (VIKING) survey, thus extending the number from 1 to 4. The newly discovered quasars have redshifts of z = 6.60, 6.75, and 6.89. The absolute magnitudes are between –26.0 and –25.5, 0.6-1.1 mag fainter than ULAS J1120+0641. Near-infrared spectroscopy revealed the Mg II emission line in all three objects. The quasars are powered by black holes with masses of ∼(1-2) × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. In our probed redshift range of 6.44 < z < 7.44 we can set a lower limit on the space density of supermassive black holes of ρ(M {sub BH} > 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) > 1.1 × 10{sup –9} Mpc{sup –3}. The discovery of three quasars in our survey area is consistent with the z = 6 quasar luminosity function when extrapolated to z ∼ 7. We do not find evidence for a steeper decline in the space density of quasars with increasing redshift from z = 6 to z = 7.

  12. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  13. Long Hole Film Cooling Dataset for CFD Development . Part 1; Infrared Thermography and Thermocouple Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Phillip; Ameri, Ali; Eichele, Peter; Knight, James

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigating flow and heat transfer of long (length to diameter ratio of 18) cylindrical film cooling holes has been completed. In this paper, the thermal field in the flow and on the surface of the film cooled flat plate is presented for nominal freestream turbulence intensities of 1.5 and 8 percent. The holes are inclined at 30deg above the downstream direction, injecting chilled air of density ratio 1.0 onto the surface of a flat plate. The diameter of the hole is 0.75 in. (0.01905 m) with center to center spacing (pitch) of 3 hole diameters. Coolant was injected into the mainstream flow at nominal blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. The Reynolds number of the freestream was approximately 11,000 based on hole diameter. Thermocouple surveys were used to characterize the thermal field. Infrared thermography was used to determine the adiabatic film effectiveness on the plate. Hotwire anemometry was used to provide flowfield physics and turbulence measurements. The results are compared to existing data in the literature. The aim of this work is to produce a benchmark dataset for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) development to eliminate the effects of hole length to diameter ratio and to improve resolution in the near-hole region. In this report, a Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS), also known as Partially Resolved Navier Stokes (PRNS), method that was implemented in the Glenn-HT code is used to model coolant-mainstream interaction. This method is a high fidelity unsteady method that aims to represent large scale flow features and mixing more accurately.

  14. THE SPITZER INTERACTING GALAXIES SURVEY: A MID-INFRARED ATLAS OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brassington, N. J.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Lanz, L.; Smith, Howard A.; Willner, S. P.; Klein, C.

    2015-05-15

    The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey is a sample of 103 nearby galaxies in 48 systems, selected using association likelihoods and therefore free from disturbed morphology biases. All galaxies have been observed with Infrared Array Camera and MIPS 24 μm bands from the Spitzer Space Telescope. This catalog presents the global flux densities and colors of all systems and correlations between the interacting systems and their specific star formation rate (sSFR). This sample contains a wide variety of galaxy interactions with systems ranging in mass, mass ratios, and gas-content as well as interaction strength. This study seeks to identify the process of triggering star formation in galaxy interactions, therefore, we focus on the non-active galactic nucleus spiral galaxies only. From this subset of 70 spiral galaxies we have determined that this sample has enhanced sSFR compared to a sample of non-interacting field galaxies. Through optical data we have classified each system by “interaction strength”; the strongly interacting (Stage 4) galaxies have higher sSFR values than the weakly (Stage 2) and moderately (Stage 3) interacting systems. However, the Stage 2 and 3 systems have statistically identical sSFR properties, despite the lack of optical interaction signatures exhibited by the Stage 2 galaxies. We suggest that the similarity of sSFR in these stages could be a consequence of some of these Stage 2 systems actually being post-perigalactic and having had sufficient time for their tidal features to fade to undetectable levels. This interpretation is consistent with the correlation of sSFR with separation, which we have determined to have little variation up to 100 kpc.

  15. The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey: A Mid-infrared Atlas of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassington, N. J.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Lanz, L.; Smith, Howard. A.; Willner, S. P.; Klein, C.

    2015-05-01

    The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey is a sample of 103 nearby galaxies in 48 systems, selected using association likelihoods and therefore free from disturbed morphology biases. All galaxies have been observed with Infrared Array Camera and MIPS 24 μm bands from the Spitzer Space Telescope. This catalog presents the global flux densities and colors of all systems and correlations between the interacting systems and their specific star formation rate (sSFR). This sample contains a wide variety of galaxy interactions with systems ranging in mass, mass ratios, and gas-content as well as interaction strength. This study seeks to identify the process of triggering star formation in galaxy interactions, therefore, we focus on the non-active galactic nucleus spiral galaxies only. From this subset of 70 spiral galaxies we have determined that this sample has enhanced sSFR compared to a sample of non-interacting field galaxies. Through optical data we have classified each system by “interaction strength” the strongly interacting (Stage 4) galaxies have higher sSFR values than the weakly (Stage 2) and moderately (Stage 3) interacting systems. However, the Stage 2 and 3 systems have statistically identical sSFR properties, despite the lack of optical interaction signatures exhibited by the Stage 2 galaxies. We suggest that the similarity of sSFR in these stages could be a consequence of some of these Stage 2 systems actually being post-perigalactic and having had sufficient time for their tidal features to fade to undetectable levels. This interpretation is consistent with the correlation of sSFR with separation, which we have determined to have little variation up to 100 kpc.

  16. THERMAL MODEL CALIBRATION FOR MINOR PLANETS OBSERVED WITH WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER/NEOWISE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Ressler, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Wright, E.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Cohen, M.

    2011-08-01

    With the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we have observed over 157,000 minor planets. Included in these are a number of near-Earth objects, main-belt asteroids, and irregular satellites which have well measured physical properties (via radar studies and in situ imaging) such as diameters. We have used these objects to validate models of thermal emission and reflected sunlight using the WISE measurements, as well as the color corrections derived in Wright et al. for the four WISE bandpasses as a function of effective temperature. We have used 50 objects with diameters measured by radar or in situ imaging to characterize the systematic errors implicit in using the WISE data with a faceted spherical near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) to compute diameters and albedos. By using the previously measured diameters and H magnitudes with a spherical NEATM model, we compute the predicted fluxes (after applying the color corrections given in Wright et al.) in each of the four WISE bands and compare them to the measured magnitudes. We find minimum systematic flux errors of 5%-10%, and hence minimum relative diameter and albedo errors of {approx}10% and {approx}20%, respectively. Additionally, visible albedos for the objects are computed and compared to the albedos at 3.4 {mu}m and 4.6 {mu}m, which contain a combination of reflected sunlight and thermal emission for most minor planets observed by WISE. Finally, we derive a linear relationship between subsolar temperature and effective temperature, which allows the color corrections given in Wright et al. to be used for minor planets by computing only subsolar temperature instead of a faceted thermophysical model. The thermal models derived in this paper are not intended to supplant previous measurements made using radar or spacecraft imaging; rather, we have used them to characterize the errors that should be expected when computing diameters and albedos of minor planets observed by WISE using a spherical

  17. Thermal Model Calibration for Minor Planets Observed with Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer/NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Wright, E.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Cohen, M.; Ressler, M.; Eisenhardt, P.

    2011-08-01

    With the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we have observed over 157,000 minor planets. Included in these are a number of near-Earth objects, main-belt asteroids, and irregular satellites which have well measured physical properties (via radar studies and in situ imaging) such as diameters. We have used these objects to validate models of thermal emission and reflected sunlight using the WISE measurements, as well as the color corrections derived in Wright et al. for the four WISE bandpasses as a function of effective temperature. We have used 50 objects with diameters measured by radar or in situ imaging to characterize the systematic errors implicit in using the WISE data with a faceted spherical near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) to compute diameters and albedos. By using the previously measured diameters and H magnitudes with a spherical NEATM model, we compute the predicted fluxes (after applying the color corrections given in Wright et al.) in each of the four WISE bands and compare them to the measured magnitudes. We find minimum systematic flux errors of 5%-10%, and hence minimum relative diameter and albedo errors of ~10% and ~20%, respectively. Additionally, visible albedos for the objects are computed and compared to the albedos at 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm, which contain a combination of reflected sunlight and thermal emission for most minor planets observed by WISE. Finally, we derive a linear relationship between subsolar temperature and effective temperature, which allows the color corrections given in Wright et al. to be used for minor planets by computing only subsolar temperature instead of a faceted thermophysical model. The thermal models derived in this paper are not intended to supplant previous measurements made using radar or spacecraft imaging; rather, we have used them to characterize the errors that should be expected when computing diameters and albedos of minor planets observed by WISE using a spherical NEATM model.

  18. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey-Infrared (NGVS-IR). I. A New Near-Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-Infrared Globular Cluster Selection Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric W.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Mei, Simona; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Hudelot, Patrick; Courteau, Stéphane; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Balogh, Michael L.; Boselli, Alessandro; Bournaud, Frédéric; Carlberg, Raymond G.; Chapman, Scott C.; Durrell, Patrick; Eigenthaler, Paul; Emsellem, Eric; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Gwyn, Stephen; Huertas-Company, Marc; Ilbert, Olivier; Jordán, Andrés; Läsker, Ronald; Licitra, Rossella; Liu, Chengze; MacArthur, Lauren; McConnachie, Alan; McCracken, Henry Joy; Mellier, Yannick; Peng, Chien Y.; Raichoor, Anand; Taylor, Matthew A.; Tonry, John L.; Tully, R. Brent; Zhang, Hongxin

    2014-01-01

    The NGVS-IR project (Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey-Infrared) is a contiguous, near-infrared imaging survey of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. It complements the optical wide-field survey of Virgo (NGVS). In its current state, NGVS-IR consists of Ks -band imaging of 4 deg2 centered on M87 and J- and Ks -band imaging of ~16 deg2 covering the region between M49 and M87. We present observations of the central 4 deg2 centered on Virgo's core region. The data were acquired with WIRCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and the total integration time was 41 hr distributed over 34 contiguous tiles. A survey-specific strategy was designed to account for extended galaxies while still measuring accurate sky brightness within the survey area. The average 5σ limiting magnitude is Ks = 24.4 AB mag, and the 50% completeness limit is Ks = 23.75 AB mag for point-source detections, when using only images with better than 0.''7 seeing (median seeing 0.''54). Star clusters are marginally resolved in these image stacks, and Virgo galaxies with \\mu _{K_s} \\simeq 24.4 AB mag arcsec-2 are detected. Combining the Ks data with optical and ultraviolet data, we build the uiKs color-color diagram, which allows a very clean color-based selection of globular clusters in Virgo. This diagnostic plot will provide reliable globular cluster candidates for spectroscopic follow-up campaigns, needed to continue the exploration of Virgo's photometric and kinematic substructures, and will help the design of future searches for globular clusters in extragalactic systems. We show that the new uiKs diagram displays significantly clearer substructure in the distribution of stars, globular clusters, and galaxies than the gzKs diagram—the NGVS + NGVS-IR equivalent of the BzK diagram that is widely used in cosmological surveys. Equipped with this powerful new tool, future NGVS-IR investigations based on the uiKs diagram will address the mapping and analysis of extended structures and compact

  19. THE SPITZER MID-INFRARED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SURVEY. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF OBSCURED CANDIDATES AND NORMAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SELECTED IN THE MID-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, M.; Ridgway, S. E.; Gates, E. L.; Petric, A. O.; Sajina, A.; Urrutia, T.; Cox Drews, S.; Harrison, C.; Seymour, N.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGNs closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} to highly luminous quasars (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}), all with redshifts ranging from 0 to 4.3. Samples of candidate AGNs were selected with mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 μm flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGNs and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type 1 AGNs with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type 2 objects with extinctions A{sub V} ∼> 5 toward their AGNs, 96 (14%) are AGNs with lower extinctions (A{sub V} ∼ 1), and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. Of the survey objects 50% have L {sub bol} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}, in the quasar regime. We present composite spectra for type 2 quasars and objects with no signs of AGN activity in their spectra. We also discuss the mid-infrared—emission-line luminosity correlation and present the results of cross correlations with serendipitous X-ray and radio sources. The results show that: (1) obscured objects dominate the overall AGN population, (2) mid-infrared selected AGN candidates exist which lack AGN signatures in their optical spectra but have AGN-like X-ray or radio counterparts, and (3) X-ray and optical classifications of obscured and unobscured AGNs often differ.

  20. The VISTA Carina Nebula Survey. II. Spatial distribution of the infrared-excess-selected young stellar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, P.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Roccatagliata, V.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a deep wide-field (6.76 sq. deg) near-infrared survey with the VISTA telescope that covers the entire extent of the Carina nebula complex (CNC). The point-source catalog created from these data contains around four million individual objects down to masses of 0.1 M⊙. We present a statistical study of the large-scale spatial distribution and an investigation of the clustering properties of infrared-excesses objects, which are used to trace disk-bearing young stellar objects (YSOs). A selection based on a near-infrared (J-H) versus (H-Ks) color-color diagram shows an almost uniform distribution over the entire observed area. We interpret this as a result of the very high degree of background contamination that arises from the Carina Nebula's location close to the Galactic plane. Complementing the VISTA near-infrared catalog with Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry improves the situation of the background contamination considerably. We find that a (J-H) versus (Ks- [4.5]) color-color diagram is well suited to tracing the population of YSO-candidates (cYSOs) by their infrared excess. We identify 8781 sources with strong infrared excess, which we consider as cYSOs. This sample is used to investigate the spatial distribution of the cYSOs with a nearest-neighbor analysis. The surface density distribution of cYSOs agrees well with the shape of the clouds as seen in our Herschel far-infrared survey. The strong decline in the surface density of excess sources outside the area of the clouds supports the hypothesis that our excess-selected sample consists predominantly of cYSOs with a low level of background contamination. This analysis allows us to identify 14 groups of cYSOs outside the central area.Our results suggest that the total population of cYSOs in the CNC comprises about 164 000 objects, with a substantial fraction (~35%) located in the northern, still not well studied parts. Our cluster analysis suggests that roughly half of the cYSOs constitute a

  1. An ISO far-infrared survey of line and continuum emission for 227 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauher, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared line and continuum fluxes are presented for a sample of 227 galaxies observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory, selected from the ISO Data Archive and having an IRAS 60/100 mu m color ration of 0.2-1.4 and IRAS 60 mu m flux density between 0.1 Jy and 1300 Jy.

  2. Photogeologic and thermal infrared reconnaissance surveys of the Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal area, Michoacan, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, Valle R.; Friedman, J.D.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Banwell, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    New techniques, involving interpretation of panchromatic, ektachrome and ektachrome infrared aerographic photogaphs and thermographic infrared imagery recording emission from the earth's surface in middle and far infrared wavelengths (3-5??m and 8-14??m), are being introduced in geothermal investigations in Mexico to identify outstanding structural and geologic features in a rapid and economical manner. The object of this work is to evaluate the new airborne infrared techniques and equipment as a complement to the data obtained from panchromatic aerial photography. This project is part of the Mexican remote sensing program of natural resources carried out under the auspices of the Comision Nacional del Espacio Exterior and in which the Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica) is actively participating. The present study was made cooperatively with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal fields are located east of Lake Chapala at the intersection of the Sierra Madre occidental and the west-central segment of the neovolcanic axis of Mexico. The two principal zones of hydrothermal activity occur in a tectonic trench filled with lake sediments of the Quaternary intercalated with Quaternary and Holocene volcanic rocks and characterized by an intricate system of block-fault tectonics, part of the Chapala-Acambay tectonic system, along which there has been volcanic activity in modern time. Surface manifestations of geothermal activity consist of relatively high heat flow and hot springs, small geysers and small steam vents aligned along an E-W axis at Ixtlan, possibly at the intersection of major fault trends and mud volcanoes and hot pools aligned NE-SW at Los Negritos. More than 20 exit points of thermal waters are shown on infrared imagery to be aligned along an extension of the Ixtlan fault between Ixtlan and El Salitre. A narrow zone of

  3. Temperature, Pressure, and Infrared Image Survey of an Axisymmetric Heated Exhaust Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Edward L.; Mahan, J. Robert; Birckelbaw, Larry D.; Turk, Jeffrey A.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Hange, Craig E.

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research is to numerically predict an infrared image of a jet engine exhaust plume, given field variables such as temperature, pressure, and exhaust plume constituents as a function of spatial position within the plume, and to compare this predicted image directly with measured data. This work is motivated by the need to validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes through infrared imaging. The technique of reducing the three-dimensional field variable domain to a two-dimensional infrared image invokes the use of an inverse Monte Carlo ray trace algorithm and an infrared band model for exhaust gases. This report describes an experiment in which the above-mentioned field variables were carefully measured. Results from this experiment, namely tables of measured temperature and pressure data, as well as measured infrared images, are given. The inverse Monte Carlo ray trace technique is described. Finally, experimentally obtained infrared images are directly compared to infrared images predicted from the measured field variables.

  4. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Maio, Rosa; Meola, Carosena; Fedi, Maurizio; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2010-05-01

    An integration of high-resolution non-destructive techniques is presented for the inspection and evaluation of ancient architectonic structures. Infrared thermography (IRT) represents a valuable tool for nondestructive evaluation of architectonic structures and artworks because it is capable of giving indications about most of the degradation sources of artworks and buildings of both historical interest and civil use. In particular, it is possible to detect cracks, disbondings, alteration of material consistency, etc. Indeed, by choosing the most adequate thermographic technique, it is possible to monitor the conservation state of artworks in time and to detect the presence of many types of defects (e.g., voids, cracks, disbondings, etc.) in different types of materials (e.g., concrete, masonry structures, bronze, etc.). The main advantages of infrared thermography when dealing with precious artworks may be summarized with three words: non-contact, non-invasive, and two-dimensionality. It is possible to inspect either a large surface such as the facade of a palace, or a very small surface of only few square millimetres. Conversely, the inspection depth is quite small; generally, of the order of centimetres. However, as demonstrated in previous work, IRT well matches with electric-and electromagnetic-type geophysical methods to characterize the overlapping zone from low-to-high depth in masonry structures. In particular, the use of high-frequency electromagnetic techniques, such as the ground penetrating radar (GPR), permits to reach investigation depths of some ten of centimetres by choosing appropriate frequencies of the transmitted electromagnetic signal. In the last decade a large utilisation of the GPR methodology to non-destructive analysis of engineering and architectural materials and structures has been experienced. This includes diverse features, such as definition of layer thickness, characterisation of different constructive materials, identification of

  5. The Las Campanas Infrared Survey: Early-Type Galaxy Progenitors beyond z=1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, P. J.; Carlberg, R. G.; Chen, H.-W.; Marzke, R. O.; Firth, A. E.; Ellis, R. S.; Persson, S. E.; McMahon, R. G.; Lahav, O.; Wilson, J.; Martini, P.; Abraham, R. G.; Sabbey, C. N.; Oemler, A.; Murphy, D. C.; Somerville, R. S.; Beckett, M. G.; Lewis, J. R.; MacKay, C. D.

    2001-10-01

    We have identified a population of faint red galaxies from a 0.62 deg2 region of the Las Campanas Infrared Survey whose properties are consistent with their being the progenitors of early-type galaxies. The optical and IR colors, number-magnitude relation, and angular clustering together indicate modest evolution and increased star formation rates among the early-type field population at redshifts between 1 and 2. The counts of red galaxies with H magnitudes between 17 and 20 rise with a slope that is much steeper than that of the total H sample. The surface density of red galaxies drops from roughly 3000 deg-2 at H=20.5, I-H>3 to ~20 deg-2 at H=20, I-H>5. The V-I colors are approximately 1.5 mag bluer on average than a pure old population and span a range of more than 3 mag. The strength of the angular clustering of the red galaxies is an order of magnitude larger than that of the full galaxy sample. The colors, and photometric redshifts derived from them, indicate that the red galaxies have redshift distributions adequately described by Gaussians with σz~=0.2 centered near z=1, with the exception that galaxies having V-I<1.6 and I-H>3 are primarily in the 1.5<~z<~2 range. We invert the angular correlation functions using these n(z) and find comoving correlation lengths of r0~=9-10 h-1 Mpc at z~=1, comparable to, or larger than, those found for early-type galaxies at lower redshifts. A simple photometric evolution model reproduces the counts of the red galaxies, with only an ~30% decline in the underlying space density of early-type galaxies at z~1.2. The colors indicate characteristic star formation rates of ~1 Msolar yr-1 per 1010 Msolar. We suggest on the basis of the colors, counts, and clustering that these red galaxies are the bulk of the progenitors of present-day early-type galaxies.

  6. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA REGION AS SELECTED FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A. E-mail: alberto@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: karl.r.stapelfeldt@nasa.gov

    2011-09-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg{sup 2}. The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a {approx}260 deg{sup 2} region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  7. Snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart polariscopes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qizhi; Zhang, Chunmin; DeHoog, Edward

    2012-08-20

    In this paper, based on the combination of two modified Savart polariscopes, we present a snapshot imaging polarimeter and show that the carrier frequency is two times higher than that of the snapshot imaging polarimeter using two conventional Savart polariscopes. The signal-to-noise ratio and the spatial resolution of imagery in each channel are improved due to the increase of the carrier frequency when we filter the channels to recover the Stokes vector images. Moreover, compared with conventional imaging polarimetry, the remarkable advantage of the proposed instrument is that it is also simple, compact, miniature, snapshotted, and static (no moving parts). To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed snapshot imaging polarimeter, the numerical simulation of a design example is presented in detail. PMID:22907005

  8. Electric Vehicles--A Historical Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't realize that the history of electric vehicles (EVs) predates the Civil War. This article provides a historical snapshot of EVs to spark the interest of both teachers and students in this important transportation technology.

  9. CONSTRAINING THE EXOZODIACAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: COMPLETE RESULTS FROM THE KECK NULLER MID-INFRARED SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M.; Bryden, G.; Doré, O.; Traub, W.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Absil, O.; Wyatt, M.; Danchi, W.; Kuchner, M.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Defrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Ragland, S.; Scott, N.; Woillez, J.

    2014-12-20

    Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust. Observations of a subset of the sample have already been reported, focusing essentially on stars with no previously known dust. Here we extend this previous analysis to the whole KIN sample, including 22 more stars with known near- and/or far-infrared excesses. In addition to an analysis similar to that of the first paper of this series, which was restricted to the 8-9 μm spectral region, we present measurements obtained in all 10 spectral channels covering the 8-13 μm instrumental bandwidth. Based on the 8-9 μm data alone, which provide the highest signal-to-noise measurements, only one star shows a large excess imputable to dust emission (η Crv), while four more show a significant (>3σ) excess: β Leo, β UMa, ζ Lep, and γ Oph. Overall, excesses detected by KIN are more frequent around A-type stars than later spectral types. A statistical analysis of the measurements further indicates that stars with known far-infrared (λ ≥ 70 μm) excesses have higher exozodiacal emission levels than stars with no previous indication of a cold outer disk. This statistical trend is observed regardless of spectral type and points to a dynamical connection between the inner (zodi-like) and outer (Kuiper-Belt-like) dust populations. The measured levels for such stars are clustering close to the KIN detection limit of a few hundred zodis and are indeed consistent with those expected from a population of dust that migrated in from the outer belt by Poynting-Robertson drag. Conversely, no significant mid-infrared excess is found around sources with previously reported near-infrared resolved excesses, which typically have levels of the order of 1% over the photospheric flux. If dust emission is really at play in these near-infrared detections, the absence of a strong mid-infrared

  10. Constraining the Exozodiacal Luminosity Function of Main-sequence Stars: Complete Results from the Keck Nuller Mid-infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M.; Absil, O.; Bryden, G.; Wyatt, M.; Danchi, W.; Defrère, D.; Doré, O.; Hinz, P.; Kuchner, M.; Ragland, S.; Scott, N.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Traub, W.; Woillez, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust. Observations of a subset of the sample have already been reported, focusing essentially on stars with no previously known dust. Here we extend this previous analysis to the whole KIN sample, including 22 more stars with known near- and/or far-infrared excesses. In addition to an analysis similar to that of the first paper of this series, which was restricted to the 8-9 μm spectral region, we present measurements obtained in all 10 spectral channels covering the 8-13 μm instrumental bandwidth. Based on the 8-9 μm data alone, which provide the highest signal-to-noise measurements, only one star shows a large excess imputable to dust emission (η Crv), while four more show a significant (>3σ) excess: β Leo, β UMa, ζ Lep, and γ Oph. Overall, excesses detected by KIN are more frequent around A-type stars than later spectral types. A statistical analysis of the measurements further indicates that stars with known far-infrared (λ >= 70 μm) excesses have higher exozodiacal emission levels than stars with no previous indication of a cold outer disk. This statistical trend is observed regardless of spectral type and points to a dynamical connection between the inner (zodi-like) and outer (Kuiper-Belt-like) dust populations. The measured levels for such stars are clustering close to the KIN detection limit of a few hundred zodis and are indeed consistent with those expected from a population of dust that migrated in from the outer belt by Poynting-Robertson drag. Conversely, no significant mid-infrared excess is found around sources with previously reported near-infrared resolved excesses, which typically have levels of the order of 1% over the photospheric flux. If dust emission is really at play in these near-infrared detections, the absence of a strong mid-infrared

  11. The infrared luminosities of ˜332 000 SDSS galaxies predicted from artificial neural networks and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Teimoorinia, Hossein; Rosario, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The total infrared (IR) luminosity (LIR) can be used as a robust measure of a galaxy's star formation rate (SFR), even in the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), or when optical emission lines are weak. Unfortunately, existing all sky far-IR surveys, such as the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and AKARI, are relatively shallow and are biased towards the highest SFR galaxies and lowest redshifts. More sensitive surveys with the Herschel Space Observatory are limited to much smaller areas. In order to construct a large sample of LIR measurements for galaxies in the nearby Universe, we employ artificial neural networks (ANNs), using 1136 galaxies in the Herschel Stripe 82 sample as the training set. The networks are validated using two independent data sets (IRAS and AKARI) and demonstrated to predict the LIR with a scatter σ ˜ 0.23 dex, and with no systematic offset. Importantly, the ANN performs well for both star-forming galaxies and those with an AGN. A public catalogue is presented with our LIR predictions which can be used to determine SFRs for 331 926 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including ˜129 000 SFRs for AGN-dominated galaxies for which SDSS SFRs have large uncertainties.

  12. A survey of infrared supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Seok, Ji Yeon; Koo, Bon-Chul; Onaka, Takashi

    2013-12-20

    We present a comprehensive infrared study of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using near- to mid-infrared images taken by Infrared Array Camera (IRAC; 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm) and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS; 24 and 70 μm) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. Among the 47 bona fide LMC SNRs, 29 were detected in infrared, giving a high detection rate of 62%. All 29 SNRs show emission at 24 μm, and 20 out of 29 show emission in one or several IRAC bands. We present their 4.5, 8, 24, and 70 μm images and a table summarizing their Spitzer fluxes. We find that the LMC SNRs are considerably fainter than the Galactic SNRs, and that, among the LMC SNRs, Type Ia SNRs are significantly fainter than core-collapse SNRs. We conclude that the MIPS emission of essentially all SNRs originates from dust emission, whereas their IRAC emissions originate from ionic/molecular lines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emission, or synchrotron emission. The infrared fluxes show correlation with radio and X-ray fluxes. For SNRs that have similar morphology in infrared and X-rays, the ratios of 24 to 70 μm fluxes have good correlation with the electron density of hot plasma. The overall correlation is explained well by the emission from collisionally heated silicate grains of 0.1 μm size, but for mature SNRs with relatively low gas temperatures, the smaller-sized grain population is favored more. For those that appear different between infrared and X-rays, the emission in the MIPS bands is probably from dust heated by shock radiation.

  13. First discoveries of z ˜ 6 quasars with the Kilo-Degree Survey and VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, B. P.; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Mwebaze, J.; Valentijn, E. A.; Bañados, E.; Decarli, R.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Findlay, J. R.; Kuijken, K. H.; Barbera, F. La; McFarland, J. P.; McMahon, R. G.; Napolitano, N.; Sikkema, G.; Sutherland, W. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of our first year of quasar search in the ongoing ESO public Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) and VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy (VIKING) surveys. These surveys are among the deeper wide-field surveys that can be used to uncover large numbers of z ˜ 6 quasars. This allows us to probe a more common population of z ˜ 6 quasars that is fainter than the well-studied quasars from the main Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From this first set of combined survey catalogues covering ˜250 deg2 we selected point sources down to ZAB = 22 that had a very red i - Z (i - Z > 2.2) colour. After follow-up imaging and spectroscopy, we discovered four new quasars in the redshift range 5.8 < z < 6.0. The absolute magnitudes at a rest-frame wavelength of 1450 Å are between -26.6 < M1450 < -24.4, confirming that we can find quasars fainter than M*, which at z = 6 has been estimated to be between M* = -25.1 and M* = -27.6. The discovery of four quasars in 250 deg2 of survey data is consistent with predictions based on the z ˜ 6 quasar luminosity function. We discuss various ways to push the candidate selection to fainter magnitudes and we expect to find about 30 new quasars down to an absolute magnitude of M1450 = -24. Studying this homogeneously selected faint quasar population will be important to gain insight into the onset of the co-evolution of the black holes and their stellar hosts.

  14. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey - III. A statistical study of non-linearity in the Leavitt Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anupam; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Macri, Lucas M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ishida, Emille E. O.

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of possible non-linearities in the period-luminosity (PL), period-Wesenheit (PW) and period-colour (PC) relations for Cepheid variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at optical (VI) and near-infrared (JHKs) wavelengths. We test for the presence of possible non-linearities and determine their statistical significance by applying a variety of robust statistical tests (F-test, random-walk, testimator and the Davies test) to optical data from third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment and near-infrared data from Large Magellanic Cloud Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey. For fundamental-mode Cepheids, we find that the optical PL, PW and PC relations are non-linear at 10 d. The near-infrared PL and the W^H_{V,I} relations are non-linear around 18 d; this break is attributed to a distinct variation in mean Fourier amplitude parameters near this period for longer wavelengths as compared to optical bands. The near-infrared PW relations are also non-linear except for the W_{H,K_s} relation. For first-overtone mode Cepheids, a significant change in the slope of PL, PW and PC relations is found around 2.5 d only at optical wavelengths. We determine a global slope of -3.212 ± 0.013 for the W^H_{V,I} relation by combining our LMC data with observations of Cepheids in Supernovae host galaxies. We find this slope to be consistent with the corresponding LMC relation at short periods, and significantly different to the long-period value. We do not find any significant difference in the slope of the global-fit solution using a linear or non-linear LMC PL relation as calibrator, but the linear version provides a two times better constraint on the slope and metallicity coefficient.

  15. Ten Cities, 1997-1998: A Snapshot of Family Homelessness across America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.

    In 1997, the Institute for Children and Poverty of Homes for the Homeless joined with more than 58 organizations from 10 cities across the country to develop a national snapshot of family homelessness in the United States. Nearly 800 families were surveyed. This report presents the results of this research. The typical homeless family in the…

  16. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE WESTERN CIRCINUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wilson M.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Padgett, Deborah L.; Leisawitz, David; Koenig, Xavier P.

    2011-05-20

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has uncovered a population of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Western Circinus molecular cloud. Images show the YSOs to be clustered into two main groups that are coincident with dark filamentary structure in the nebulosity. Analysis of photometry shows numerous Class I and II objects. The locations of several of these objects are found to correspond to known dense cores and CO outflows. Class I objects tend to be concentrated in dense aggregates, and Class II objects more evenly distributed throughout the region.

  17. Structural and Functional Micro-Infrared Survey of Pristine Carbonaceous Chondrites Insoluble Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Quirico, E.; Beck, P.; Brissaud, O.; Schmitt, B.

    2010-03-01

    We present a mid-infrared study of C2 and C1 chondrites IOM. All have similar aliphatic structure at 50°C under 10-7 mbar. Oxidized functions are depleted in less altered chondrites. 300°C heating in ambient air turns aliphatic chains to esters.

  18. Examining the Infrared Variable Star Population Discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using the SAGE-SMC Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Seale, J.; Sewiło, M.; Vijh, U. P.; Meixner, M.; Marengo, M.; Terrazas, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S3MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 μm band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ˜2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

  19. Examining the infrared variable star population discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the SAGE-SMC survey

    SciTech Connect

    Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Marengo, M.; Seale, J.; Sewiło, M.; Vijh, U. P.; Terrazas, M.; Meixner, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program “Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud” (SAGE-SMC) and the “Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud” (S{sup 3}MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzer’s InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 μm band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (“variability index”) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ∼2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

  20. A High Resolution, Unobscured View of the Active Regions in (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies from a VLA 33 GHz Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcos-Muñoz, Loreto; Leroy, Adam K.; Evans, Aaron S.; Armus, Lee; Condon, James J.; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Meier, David S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Murphy, Eric J.; Ott, Juergen; Privon, George C.; Reichardt, Ashley; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Sanders, David B.; Schinnerer, Eva; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Surace, Jason A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Walter, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    I will present a new survey of 33 GHz radio continuum emission from local U/LIRGs carried out using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). This is the first such survey and it combines high resolution, good sensitivity, and multi-configuration observations that should have sensitivity to emission on all spatial scales. (Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies host some of the most extreme star-forming environments in the local universe, with large reservoirs of molecular gas and dust concentrated in the central few kpc. Our VLA observations allow us to see through the dust in these systems and to resolve the sizes of their active regions, which is essential to understand the surface and volume densities of star formation and gas in these extreme systems. I will present the best size measurements to date of the active regions for our 22 targets. I will show what these sizes imply about gas volume and surface density and infrared luminosity surface densities. I will also lay out the physical implications of these values for the strength of star formation and feedback (especially radiative feedback) in extreme environments.

  1. A High Resolution, Unobscured View of the Active Regions in (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies from a VLA 33 GHz Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcos-Muñoz, L.; Leroy, A.; Evans, A.; et al.

    2016-06-01

    I will present a new survey of 33 GHz radio continuum emission from local U/LIRGs carried out using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). This is the first such survey and it combines high resolution, good sensitivity, and multi-configuration observations that should have sensitivity to emission on all spatial scales. (Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies host some of the most extreme star-forming environments in the local universe, with large reservoirs of molecular gas and dust concentrated in the central few kpc. Our VLA observations allow us to see through the dust in these systems to resolve the sizes of their active regions, which is essential to understand the surface and volume densities of star formation and gas in these extreme systems. I will present the best size measurements to date of the active regions for our 22 targets. I will show what these sizes imply about gas volume and surface density and infrared luminosity surface densities. I will also lay out the physical implications of these values for the strength of star formation and feedback (especially radiative feedback) in extreme environments.

  2. Andromeda (M31) optical and infrared disk survey. I. Insights in wide-field near-IR surface photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; De Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent

    2014-05-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and K{sub s} images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ∼0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  3. Andromeda (M31) Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. I. Insights in Wide-field Near-IR Surface Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; de Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent

    2014-05-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and Ks images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ~0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  4. Near-infrared survey of high mass X-ray binary candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrejón, J. M.; Negueruela, I.; Smith, D. M.; Harrison, T. E.

    2010-02-01

    Context. The INTEGRAL satellite is detecting a large population of new X-ray sources that were missed by previous missions because of high obscuration and, in some cases, very short duty cycles. The nature of these sources must be addressed by characterizing their optical and/or infrared counterparts. Aims: We investigate the nature of the optical counterparts to five of these newly discovered X-ray sources. Methods: We combine infrared spectra in the I, J,H, and K bands with JHK photometry to characterize the spectral type, luminosity class, and distance to the infrared counterparts to these systems. For IGR J19140+0951, we present spectroscopy from the red to the K band and new red and infrared photometry. For SAX J18186-1703 and IGR J18483-0311, we present the first intermediate-resolution spectroscopy to be published. Finally, for IGR J18027-2016, we present new I and K band spectra. Results: We find that four systems harbour early-type B supergiants. All of them are heavily obscured, with E(B-V) ranging between 3 and 5, implying visual extinctions of ~ 9 to 15 mag. We refine the published classifications of IGR J18027-2016 and IGR J19140+0951 by constraining their luminosity class. In the first case, we confirm the supergiant nature but exclude a class III. In the second case, we propose a slightly higher luminosity class (Ia instead of Iab) and provide an improved value of the distance based on new optical photometry. Two other systems, SAX J18186-1703 and IGR J18483-0311 are classified as supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs). XTE J1901+014, on the other hand, contains no bright infrared source in its error circle. Conclusions: Owing to their infrared and X-ray characteristics, IGR J18027-2016 and IGR J19140+0951, emerge as supergiant X-ray binaries with X-ray luminosities of the order of L_X˜ [1-2]× 1036 erg s-1, while SAX J1818.6-1703 and IGR J18483-0311, are found to be SFXTs at 2 and 3 kpc, respectively. Finally, XTE J1901+014 emerges as a puzzling

  5. Near-infrared spectroscopic survey of B-type asteroids: compositional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Licandro, J.; Campins, H.; Marzo, G. A.

    2011-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of 23 B-type asteroids obtained with the NICS cameraspectrograph at the 3.56 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. We also include visible and near-infrared spectra of 20 additional B-type asteroids from the literature, including near-Earth asteroid 1999 RQ36, primary target of NASA's OSIRIS-Rex sample return mission. A plot of the spectra of all the asteroids shows a continuous trend in the nearinfrared between red and blue slopes. We apply a clustering technique to reduce the volume of data to six "average spectra" or "centroids" representative of the whole sample. These spectra are then compared against the entire RELAB database to search for best analogs.

  6. X-ray and Infrared Surveys of Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Marc

    2005-07-01

    Since most stars in the Galaxy probably formed in giant molecular clouds, identifying nearly complete samples of low-mass stars in galactic star-forming regions is an important step in understanding the overall star-formation process. Recent X-ray, optical, and near-infrared studies of the galactic HII regions M8, M16, M17 and M20 have significantly increased the number of known cluster stars. By comparing their X-ray and infrared properties with stars in well-studied regions like the Orion Nebula Cluster, we can estimate distance, age and completeness. These studies will be used to assess the prevalence of triggered star-formation.

  7. FAR-IR/SUBMILLIMETER SPECTROSCOPIC COSMOLOGICAL SURVEYS: PREDICTIONS OF INFRARED LINE LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS FOR z < 4 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Dasyra, Kalliopi M.; Gruppioni, Carlotta; Valiante, Elisabetta; Isaak, Kate

    2012-02-01

    Star formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes in the nuclei of galaxies are the two most energetic processes in the universe, producing the bulk of the observed emission throughout its history. We simulated the luminosity functions of star-forming and active galaxies for spectral lines that are thought to be good spectroscopic tracers of either phenomenon, as a function of redshift. We focused on the infrared (IR) and submillimeter domains, where the effects of dust obscuration are minimal. Using three different and independent theoretical models for galaxy formation and evolution, constrained by multi-wavelength luminosity functions, we computed the number of star-forming and active galaxies per IR luminosity and redshift bin. We converted the continuum luminosity counts into spectral line counts using relationships that we calibrated on mid- and far-IR spectroscopic surveys of galaxies in the local universe. Our results demonstrate that future facilities optimized for survey-mode observations, i.e., the Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics and the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope, will be able to observe thousands of z > 1 galaxies in key fine-structure lines, e.g., [Si II], [O I], [O III], [C II], in a half-square-degree survey, with 1 hr integration time per field of view. Fainter lines such as [O IV], [Ne V], and H{sub 2} (0-0)S1 will be observed in several tens of bright galaxies at 1 < z < 2, while diagnostic diagrams of active nucleus versus star formation activity will be feasible even for normal z {approx} 1 galaxies. We discuss the new parameter space that these future telescopes will cover and that strongly motivates their construction.

  8. Snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Kudenov, Michael; Kashani, Amir; Schwiegerling, Jim; Escuti, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Early diagnosis of glaucoma, which is a leading cause for visual impairment, is critical for successful treatment. It has been shown that Imaging polarimetry has advantages in early detection of structural changes in the retina. Here, we theoretically and experimentally present a snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter fundus camera, which has the potential to record the polarization-altering characteristics of retina with a single snapshot. It is made by incorporating polarization gratings into a fundus camera design. Complete Mueller Matrix data sets can be obtained by analyzing the polarization fringes projected onto the image plane. In this paper, we describe the experimental implementation of the snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SRIMMP), highlight issues related to calibration, and provide preliminary images acquired from the camera.

  9. A SPITZER SURVEY OF MID-INFRARED MOLECULAR EMISSION FROM PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. DETECTION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Meijerink, Rowin; Salyk, Colette; Carr, John S.; Najita, Joan

    2010-09-01

    We present a Spitzer InfraRed Spectrometer search for 10-36 {mu}m molecular emission from a large sample of protoplanetary disks, including lines from H{sub 2}O, OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and CO{sub 2}. This paper describes the sample and data processing and derives the detection rate of mid-infrared molecular emission as a function of stellar mass. The sample covers a range of spectral type from early M to A, and is supplemented by archival spectra of disks around A and B stars. It is drawn from a variety of nearby star-forming regions, including Ophiuchus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon. Spectra showing strong emission lines are used to identify which lines are the best tracers of various physical and chemical conditions within the disks. In total, we identify 22 T Tauri stars with strong mid-infrared H{sub 2}O emission. Integrated water line luminosities, where water vapor is detected, range from 5 x 10{sup -4} to 9 x 10{sup -3} L{sub sun}, likely making water the dominant line coolant of inner disk surfaces in classical T Tauri stars. None of the five transitional disks in the sample show detectable gaseous molecular emission with Spitzer upper limits at the 1% level in terms of line-to-continuum ratios (apart from H{sub 2}), but the sample is too small to conclude whether this is a general property of transitional disks. We find a strong dependence on detection rate with spectral type; no disks around our sample of 25 A and B stars were found to exhibit water emission, down to 1%-2% line-to-continuum ratios, in the mid-infrared, while more than half of disks around late-type stars (M-G) show sufficiently intense water emission to be detected by Spitzer, with a detection rate approaching 2/3 for disks around K stars. Some Herbig Ae/Be stars show tentative H{sub 2}O/OH emission features beyond 20 {mu}m at the 1%-2% level, however, and one of them shows CO{sub 2} in emission. We argue that the observed differences between T Tauri disks and Herbig Ae/Be disks are due to a

  10. Snapshot hyperspectral fovea vision system (HyperVideo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriesel, Jason; Scriven, Gordon; Gat, Nahum; Nagaraj, Sheela; Willson, Paul; Swaminathan, V.

    2012-06-01

    The development and demonstration of a new snapshot hyperspectral sensor is described. The system is a significant extension of the four dimensional imaging spectrometer (4DIS) concept, which resolves all four dimensions of hyperspectral imaging data (2D spatial, spectral, and temporal) in real-time. The new sensor, dubbed "4×4DIS" uses a single fiber optic reformatter that feeds into four separate, miniature visible to near-infrared (VNIR) imaging spectrometers, providing significantly better spatial resolution than previous systems. Full data cubes are captured in each frame period without scanning, i.e., "HyperVideo". The current system operates up to 30 Hz (i.e., 30 cubes/s), has 300 spectral bands from 400 to 1100 nm (~2.4 nm resolution), and a spatial resolution of 44×40 pixels. An additional 1.4 Megapixel video camera provides scene context and effectively sharpens the spatial resolution of the hyperspectral data. Essentially, the 4×4DIS provides a 2D spatially resolved grid of 44×40 = 1760 separate spectral measurements every 33 ms, which is overlaid on the detailed spatial information provided by the context camera. The system can use a wide range of off-the-shelf lenses and can either be operated so that the fields of view match, or in a "spectral fovea" mode, in which the 4×4DIS system uses narrow field of view optics, and is cued by a wider field of view context camera. Unlike other hyperspectral snapshot schemes, which require intensive computations to deconvolve the data (e.g., Computed Tomographic Imaging Spectrometer), the 4×4DIS requires only a linear remapping, enabling real-time display and analysis. The system concept has a range of applications including biomedical imaging, missile defense, infrared counter measure (IRCM) threat characterization, and ground based remote sensing.

  11. A Kinematic Survey in the Perseus Molecular Cloud: Results from the APOGEE Infrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kevin R.; Cottaar, M.; Foster, J. B.; Nidever, D. L.; Meyer, M.; Tan, J.; Da Rio, N.; Flaherty, K. M.; Stassun, K.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Majewski, S.; APOGEE IN-SYNC Team

    2014-01-01

    Demographic studies of stellar clusters indicate that relatively few persist as bound structures for 100 Myrs or longer. If cluster dispersal is a 'violent' process, it could strongly influence the formation and early evolution of stellar binaries and planetary systems. Unfortunately, measuring the dynamical state of 'typical' (i.e., ~300-1000 member) young star clusters has been difficult, particularly for clusters still embedded within their parental molecular cloud. The near-infrared spectrograph for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which can measure precise radial velocities for 230 cluster stars simultaneously, is uniquely suited to diagnosing the dynamics of Galactic star formation regions. We give an overview of the INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC), an APOGEE ancillary science program that is carrying out a comparative study of young clusters in the Perseus molecular cloud: NGC 1333, a heavily embedded cluster, and IC 348, which has begun to disperse its surrounding molecular gas. These observations appear to rule out a significantly super-virial velocity dispersion in IC 348, contrary to predictions of models where a cluster's dynamics is strongly influenced by the dispersal of its primordial gas. We also summarize the properties of two newly identified spectroscopic binaries; binary systems such as these play a key role in the dynamical evolution of young clusters, and introduce velocity offsets that must be accounted for in measuring cluster velocity dispersions.

  12. The INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC): Surveying the Dynamics and Star Formation Histories of Young Clusters with APOGEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kevin R.; Cottaar, Michiel; Foster, Jonathan B.; Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan; Meyer, Michael; Nidever, David L.; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Arce, Hector G.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Hearty, Fred R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stassun, Keivan; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Young clusters are the most prolific sites of star formation in the Milky Way, but demographic studies indicate that relatively few of the Milky Way's stellar clusters persist as bound structures for 100 Myrs or longer. Uniform & precise measurements of the stellar populations and internal dynamics of these regions are difficult to obtain, however, particularly for extremely young clusters whose optical visibility is greatly hampered by their parental molecular cloud. The INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC), an SDSS-III ancillary science program, leverages the stability and multiplex capability of the APOGEE spectrograph to obtain high resolution spectra at near-infrared wavelengths, where photospheric emission is better able to penetrate the dusty shrouds that surround sites of active star formation. We summarize our recent measurements of the kinematics and stellar populations of IC 348 and NGC 1333, two young clusters in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, and of the members of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and L1641 filament in the Orion molecular complex. These measurements highlight the dynamically 'warm' environment within these young clusters, and suggest a range of stellar radii within these quasi-single-age populations. We close with a preview of plans for continuing this work as part of the APOGEE-2 science portfolio: self-consistent measurements of the kinematics and star formation histories for clusters spanning a range of initial conditions and ages will provide a opportunity to disentangle the mechanisms that drive the formation and dissolution of sites of active star formation.

  13. CANDELS: The Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Casertano, Stefano; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; DeMello, Duilla; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Straughn, Amber N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, from z approx. 8 - 1.5. It will image > 250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Tele8cope, from the mid-UV to near-IR, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae beyond z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 10(exp 9) solar mass to z approx. 2, reaching the knee of the UV luminosity function of galaxies to z approx. 8. The survey covers approximately 800 square arc minutes and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5(sigma) point-source limit H =27.7mag) covers approx. 125 square arcminutes within GOODS-N and GOODS-S. The CANDELS/Wide survey includes GOODS and three additional fields (EGS, COSMOS, and UDS) and covers the full area to a 50(sigma) point-source limit of H ? or approx. = 27.0 mag. Together with the Hubble Ultradeep Fields, the strategy creates a three-tiered "wedding cake" approach that has proven efficient for extragalactic surveys. Data from the survey are non-proprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this paper, we describe the basic motivations for the survey, the CANDELS team science goals and the resulting observational requirements, the field selection and geometry, and the observing design.

  14. The Chandra Xbootes Survey - IV: Mid-Infrared and Submillimeter Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Arianna; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Cooray, Asantha R.; Nayyeri, Hooshang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we use a Bayesian technique to identify mid-IR and submillimeter counterparts for 3,213 X-ray point sources detected in the Chandra XBoötes Survey so as to characterize the relationship between black hole activity and star formation in the XBoötes region. The Chandra XBoötes Survey is a 5-ks X-ray survey of the 9.3 square degree Boötes Field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS), a survey imaged from the optical to the near-IR. We use a likelihood ratio analysis on Spitzer-IRAC data taken from The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) to determine mid-IR counterparts, and a similar method on Herschel-SPIRE sources detected at 250µm from The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to determine the submillimeter counterparts. The likelihood ratio analysis (LRA) provides the probability that a(n) IRAC or SPIRE point source is the true counterpart to a Chandra source. The analysis is comprised of three parts: the normalized magnitude distributions of counterparts and background sources, and the radial probability distribution of the separation distance between the IRAC or SPIRE source and the Chandra source. Many Chandra sources have multiple prospective counterparts in each band, so additional analysis is performed to determine the identification reliability of the candidates. Identification reliability values lie between 0 and 1, and sources with identification reliability values ≥0.8 are chosen to be the true counterparts. With these results, we will consider the statistical implications of the sample's redshifts, mid-IR and submillimeter luminosities, and star formation rates.

  15. Spitzer SAGE Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Evolved Stars and Infrared Color-Magnitude Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, R. D.; Mould, J. R.; Olsen, K. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Werner, M.; Meixner, M.; Markwick-Kemper, F.; Indebetouw, R.; Whitney, B.; Meade, M.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E. B.; Gordon, K.; Engelbracht, C.; For, B.-Q.; Misselt, K.; Vijh, U.; Leitherer, C.; Volk, K.; Points, S.; Reach, W.; Hora, J. L.; Bernard, J.-P.; Boulanger, F.; Bracker, S.; Cohen, M.; Fukui, Y.; Gallagher, J.; Gorjian, V.; Harris, J.; Kelly, D.; Kawamura, A.; Latter, W. B.; Madden, S.; Mizuno, A.; Mizuno, N.; Nota, A.; Oey, M. S.; Onishi, T.; Paladini, R.; Panagia, N.; Perez-Gonzalez, P.; Shibai, H.; Sato, S.; Smith, L.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ueta, T.; Van Dyk, S.; Zaritsky, D.

    2006-11-01

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are presented for the Spitzer SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). IRAC and MIPS 24 μm epoch 1 data are presented. These data represent the deepest, widest mid-infrared CMDs of their kind ever produced in the LMC. Combined with the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the diagrams are used to delineate the evolved stellar populations in the LMC, as well as Galactic foreground and extragalactic background populations. Some 32,000 evolved stars brighter than the tip of the red giant branch are identified. Of these, approximately 17,500 are classified as oxygen-rich, 7000 as carbon-rich, and another 1200 as ``extreme'' asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Brighter members of the latter group have been called ``obscured'' AGB stars in the literature owing to their dusty circumstellar envelopes. A large number (1200) of luminous oxygen-rich AGB stars/M supergiants are also identified. Finally, there is strong evidence from the 24 μm MIPS channel that previously unexplored, lower luminosity oxygen-rich AGB stars contribute significantly to the mass-loss budget of the LMC (1200 such sources are identified).

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopic survey of B-type asteroids: Compositional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.; Licandro, J.; Marzo, G. A.

    2012-03-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of 23 B-type asteroids obtained with the NICS camera-spectrograph at the 3.56 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. We also compile additional visible and near-infrared spectra of another 22 B-type asteroids from the literature. A total of 45 B-types are analyzed. No significant trends in orbital properties of our sample were detected when compared with all known B-types and all known asteroids. The reflectance spectra of the asteroids in the 0.8-2.5 μm range show a continuous shape variation, from a monotonic negative (blue) slope to a positive (red) slope. This continuous spectral trend is filling the gap between the two main groups of B-types published by Clark et al. ([2010]. J. Geophys. Res., 115, 6005-6027). We found no clear correlations between the spectral slope and the asteroids’ sizes or heliocentric distances. We apply a clustering technique to reduce the volume of data to six optimized “average spectra” or “centroids”, representative of the whole sample. These centroids are then compared against meteorite spectra from the RELAB database. We found carbonaceous chondrites as the best meteorite analogs for the six centroids. There is a progressive change in analogs that correlates with the spectral slope: from CM2 chondrites (water-rich, aqueously altered) for the reddest centroid, to CK4 chondrites (dry, heated/thermally altered) for the bluest one.

  17. FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF FIVE LATE-TYPE T DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, James M.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Looper, Dagny L.; Tinney, Christopher; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-07-10

    We present the discovery of five late-type T dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan Folded-port InfraRed Echellette reveal strong H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} absorption in all five sources, and spectral indices and comparison to spectral templates indicate classifications ranging from T5.5 to T8.5:. The spectrum of the latest-type source, WISE J1812+2721, is an excellent match to that of the T8.5 companion brown dwarf Wolf 940B. WISE-based spectrophotometric distance estimates place these T dwarfs at 12-13 pc from the Sun, assuming they are single. Preliminary fits of the spectral data to the atmosphere models of Saumon and Marley indicate effective temperatures ranging from 600 K to 930 K, both cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres, and a broad range of ages and masses. In particular, two sources show evidence of both low surface gravity and cloudy atmospheres, tentatively supporting a trend noted in other young brown dwarfs and exoplanets. In contrast, the high proper motion T dwarf WISE J2018-7423 exhibits a suppressed K-band peak and blue spectrophotometric J - K colors indicative of an old, massive brown dwarf; however, it lacks the broadened Y-band peak seen in metal-poor counterparts. These results illustrate the broad diversity of low-temperature brown dwarfs that will be uncovered with WISE.

  18. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Leisawitz, David

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  19. A search for a distant companion to the sun with the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.

    2014-01-20

    I have used multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to perform a search for a distant companion to the Sun via its parallactic motion. I have not found an object of this kind down to W2 = 14.5. This limit corresponds to analogs of Saturn and Jupiter at 28,000 and 82,000 AU, respectively, according to models of the Jovian planets by Fortney and coworkers. Models of brown dwarfs by Burrows and coworkers predict fainter fluxes at a given mass for the age of the solar system, producing a closer distance limit of 26,000 AU for a Jupiter-mass brown dwarf. These constraints exclude most combinations of mass and separation at which a solar companion has been suggested to exist by various studies over the years.

  20. Molecular clouds and star formation in the inner galaxy - A comparison of CO, H II, and far-infrared surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, P. C.; Dame, T. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Cohen, R. S.; Silverberg, R. F.; Dwek, E.; Hauser, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys of the galactic plane over galactic latitudes from -1 degree to +1 degree and galactic longitudes from 12 degrees to 60 degrees are compared in the CO line at 2.6 mm, in the far-infrared (FIR) continuum at 150 micrometers and 250 micrometers, and in the radio continuum and H 110-alpha recombination line at 6 cm. The main purposes are to determine the degree of association between FIR sources, H II regions, and molecular clouds in the first quadrant and to describe and analyze the stellar content of these molecular clouds. Among the conclusions it is noted that most FIR sources coincide with HII regions, and nearly all H II regions coincide with molecular clouds, and that clouds in the inner galaxy are probably several tens of millions of years old and may have been producing O stars for only about the most recent 20 percent of their lives.

  1. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of Young Stellar Objects in the Lynds 1509 Dark Cloud in Auriga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Wilson M.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Leisawitz, David

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  2. Spatially Resolved Molecular Gas Star Formation Law in CARMA Survey Towards Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, A.; STING Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    The STING is a CARMA 3mm survey of nearby galaxies. We will present a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the star formation rate surface density and molecular gas surface at the sub-kpc level in the STING sample. To construct the tracers of molecular gas and star formation rate surface densities, respectively, we will use high resolution (3-5") CO (J=1-0) data from CARMA and the mid-infrared 24 micron data of comparable resolution (6") from Spitzer Space Telescope. We measure the relation in the bright region of these galaxies. In our preliminary analysis we find an approximately linear relation and no strong trends for either the logarithmic slope or the molecular depletion time across the range of galaxy masses sampled (10^9-10^11.5 Msun).

  3. PACS photometry of the Herschel Reference Survey - far-infrared/submillimetre colours as tracers of dust properties in nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.; Fritz, J.; Bianchi, S.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Boquien, M.; Roussel, H.; Baes, M.; Buat, V.; Clemens, M.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; Eales, S. A.; Fuller, C.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Munoz-Mateos, J.; Pappalardo, C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Sauvage, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 μm wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique data set to investigate the properties and shape of the far-infrared/submillimetre spectral energy distribution in nearby galaxies. We show that, in the stellar mass range covered by the HRS (8 ≲ log (M*/M⊙) ≲ 12), the far-infrared/submillimetre colours are inconsistent with a single modified blackbody having the same dust emissivity index β for all galaxies. In particular, either β decreases or multiple temperature components are needed, when moving from metal-rich/gas-poor to metal-poor/gas-rich galaxies. We thus investigate how the dust temperature and mass obtained from a single modified blackbody depend on the assumptions made on β. We show that, while the correlations between dust temperature, galaxy structure and star formation rate are strongly model dependent, the dust mass scaling relations are much more reliable, and variations of β only change the strength of the observed trends.

  4. Identifications of The Most Luminous, Highest-Redshift Objects Discovered by WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, Dominic; Stanford, Adam; Jarrett, Tom; Yan, Lin; Eisenhardt, Peter; Lonsdale, Carol; Wright, Ned; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc

    2010-08-01

    We request 4 nights to obtain KPNO/FLAMINGOS near-IR photometry and spectroscopy follow-up observations of a sample of extremely luminous, z > 1 galaxy candidates selected from WISE, a new NASA mission which is in the process of surveying the whole sky at 3.4,4.6,12 and 22 (micron) in 6 months (Jan-July 2010). The candidates are selected to have mid-IR colors indicating starburst-dominated spectra at redshifts of z=1.2 - 3, but are 100 times more luminous than local ULIRGs with L_FIR > 10^14 L_⊙, called extreme hyperluminous infrared galaxies (eHyLIRGs). In combination with the WISE mid-infrared photometry, the near-IR photometric and spectroscopic observations will allow us to distinguish high-z targets from local red populations, determine the luminosity, and further study the star formation activity from hydrogen recombination lines, extinction toward the star formation regions, and SED modeling on the stellar population of these galaxies.

  5. The VMC Survey - XXI. New star cluster candidates discovered from infrared photometry in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Rubele, Stefano; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Bekki, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    We report the first search for new star clusters performed using the VISTA near-infrared YJKs Magellanic Clouds survey (VMC) data sets. We chose a pilot field of ˜0.4 deg2 located in the South-west of the Small Magelllanic Cloud bar, where the star field is among the densest and highest reddened region in the galaxy. In order to devise an appropriate automatic procedure we made use of dimensions and stellar densities observed in the VMC data sets of the known clusters in this area. We executed different kernel density estimations over a sample of more than 358 000 stars with magnitudes measured in the three YJKs filters. We analysed the new cluster candidates whose colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), cleaned from field star contamination, were used to assess the clusters' reality and estimate reddenings and ages of the genuine systems. As a result 38 objects (≈ a 55 per cent increase in the known star clusters located in the surveyed field) of 0.15-0.40 arcmin (2.6-7.0 pc) in radius resulted to have near-infrared CMD features which resemble those of star clusters of young to moderate intermediate age (log(t yr-1) ˜7.5-9.0). Most of the new star cluster candidates are hardly recognizable in optical images without the help of a sound star field decontaminated CMD analysis. For highly reddened star cluster candidates (E(B - V) ≥ 0.6 mag) the VMC data sets were necessary in order to recognize them.

  6. Examining Social Acceptance & Rejection. FPG Snapshot #44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This FPG Snapshot summarizes the findings of a study, published in the November 2006 issue of the "Journal of Educational Psychology," that examined whether children with disabilities are accepted or rejected by their classmates in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, the study examined two sets of related questions: (1) Are individual children…

  7. A Snapshot of Philadelphia's Accelerated Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Kimberly; Fonseca, Ean

    2011-01-01

    This snapshot is a guide to the School District of Philadelphia's (the District's) 13 accelerated high schools in the 2010-11 school year. The accelerated high schools were the result of a partnership between the District and Project U-Turn, a city-wide coalition dedicated to reducing student drop-out and increasing graduation rates and readiness…

  8. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Light Bulbs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  9. SnapShot: Neuronal Regulation of Aging.

    PubMed

    Weir, Heather J; Mair, William B

    2016-07-28

    Aging is characterized by loss of homeostasis across multiple tissues. The nervous system governs whole-body homeostasis by communicating external and internal signals to peripheral tissues. Here, we highlight neuronal mechanisms and downstream outputs that regulate aging and longevity. Targeting these neuronal pathways may be a novel strategy to promote healthy aging. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

  10. SnapShot: The Bacterial Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Fink, Gero; Szewczak-Harris, Andrzej; Löwe, Jan

    2016-07-14

    Most bacteria and archaea contain filamentous proteins and filament systems that are collectively known as the bacterial cytoskeleton, though not all of them are cytoskeletal, affect cell shape, or maintain intracellular organization. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27419875

  11. Snapshot: Diabetes in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    A SNAPSHOT DIABETES IN THE UNITED STATES DIABETES 29.1 MILLION 29.1 million people have diabetes That's about 1 out of every 11 people 1 4 ... estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States, 2014. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health ...

  12. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF YOUNG STARS IN THE CHAMAELEON I STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, P.; Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Forrest, W. J.; Bohac, C.; Arnold, L. A.; Furlan, E.; McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Luhman, K. L.; Espaillat, C.; Najita, J. R.; D'Alessio, P.; Adame, L.; Sargent, B. A.; Green, J. D.

    2011-03-15

    We present 5-36 {mu}m mid-infrared spectra of 82 young stars in the {approx}2 Myr old Chamaeleon I star-forming region, obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We have classified these objects into various evolutionary classes based on their spectral energy distributions and the spectral features seen in the IRS spectra. We have analyzed the mid-IR spectra of Class II objects in Chamaeleon I in detail, in order to study the vertical and radial structure of the protoplanetary disks surrounding these stars. We find evidence for substantial dust settling in most protoplanetary disks in Chamaeleon I. We have identified several disks with altered radial structures in Chamaeleon I, among them transitional disk candidates which have holes or gaps in their disks. Analysis of the silicate emission features in the IRS spectra of Class II objects in Cha I shows that the dust grains in these disks have undergone significant processing (grain growth and crystallization). However, disks with radial holes/gaps appear to have relatively unprocessed grains. We further find the crystalline dust content in the inner ({approx}<1-2 AU) and the intermediate ({approx}<10 AU) regions of the protoplanetary disks to be tightly correlated. We also investigate the effects of accretion and stellar multiplicity on the disk structure and dust properties. Finally, we compare the observed properties of protoplanetary disks in Cha I with those in slightly younger Taurus and Ophiuchus regions and discuss the effects of disk evolution in the first 1-2 Myr.

  13. Concentration of mycotoxins and chemical composition of corn silage: a farm survey using infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P; Novinski, C O; Junges, D; Almeida, R; de Souza, C M

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated the chemical composition and mycotoxin incidence in corn silage from 5 Brazilian dairy-producing regions: Castro, in central-eastern Paraná State (n=32); Toledo, in southwestern Paraná (n=20); southeastern Goiás (n=14); southern Minas Gerais (n=23); and western Santa Catarina (n=20). On each dairy farm, an infrared thermography camera was used to identify 3 sampling sites that exhibited the highest temperature, a moderate temperature, and the lowest temperature on the silo face, and 1 sample was collected from each site. The chemical composition and concentrations of mycotoxins were evaluated, including the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; zearalenone; ochratoxin A; deoxynivalenol; and fumonisins B1 and B2. The corn silage showed a highly variable chemical composition, containing, on average, 7.1±1.1%, 52.5±5.4%, and 65.2±3.6% crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients, respectively. Mycotoxins were found in more than 91% of the samples, with zearalenone being the most prevalent (72.8%). All samples from the Castro region contained zearalenone at a high average concentration (334±374µg/kg), even in well-preserved silage. The incidence of aflatoxin B1 was low (0.92%). Silage temperature and the presence of mycotoxins were not correlated; similarly, differences were not observed in the concentration or incidence of mycotoxins across silage locations with different temperatures. Infrared thermography is an accurate tool for identifying heat sites, but temperature cannot be used to predict the chemical composition or the incidence of mycotoxins that have been analyzed, within the silage. The pre-harvest phase of the ensiling process is most likely the main source of mycotoxins in silage.

  14. TRANSITIONAL DISKS AND THEIR ORIGINS: AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF ORION A

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Arnold, Laura; Najita, Joan; Furlan, Elise; Sargent, Benjamin; Espaillat, Catherine; Muzerolle, James; Megeath, S. T.; Calvet, Nuria; Green, Joel D.

    2013-06-01

    Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks around young stars, with inner holes or gaps which are surrounded by optically thick outer, and often inner, disks. Here we present observations of 62 new transitional disks in the Orion A star-forming region. These were identified using the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph and followed up with determinations of stellar and accretion parameters using the Infrared Telescope Facility's SpeX. We combine these new observations with our previous results on transitional disks in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, Ophiuchus, and Perseus, and with archival X-ray observations. This produces a sample of 105 transitional disks of ''cluster'' age 3 Myr or less, by far the largest hitherto assembled. We use this sample to search for trends between the radial structure in the disks and many other system properties, in order to place constraints on the possible origins of transitional disks. We see a clear progression of host-star accretion rate and the different disk morphologies. We confirm that transitional disks with complete central clearings have median accretion rates an order of magnitude smaller than radially continuous disks of the same population. Pre-transitional disks-those objects with gaps that separate inner and outer disks-have median accretion rates intermediate between the two. Our results from the search for statistically significant trends, especially related to M-dot , strongly support that in both cases the gaps are far more likely to be due to the gravitational influence of Jovian planets or brown dwarfs orbiting within the gaps, than to any of the photoevaporative, turbulent, or grain-growth processes that can lead to disk dissipation. We also find that the fraction of Class II YSOs which are transitional disks is large, 0.1-0.2, especially in the youngest associations.

  15. The 6dF Galaxy Survey: the near-infrared Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magoulas, Christina; Springob, Christopher M.; Colless, Matthew; Jones, D. Heath; Campbell, Lachlan A.; Lucey, John R.; Mould, Jeremy; Jarrett, Tom; Merson, Alex; Brough, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    We determine the near-infrared Fundamental Plane (FP) for ˜104 early-type galaxies in the 6-degree Field Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). We fit the distribution of central velocity dispersion, near-infrared surface brightness and half-light radius with a 3D Gaussian model using a maximum-likelihood method. The model provides an excellent empirical fit to the observed FP distribution and the method proves robust and unbiased. Tests using simulations show that it gives superior results to regression techniques in the presence of significant and correlated uncertainties in all three parameters, censoring of the data by various selection effects and outliers in the data sample. For the 6dFGS J-band sample we find an FP with Re ∝ σ01.52±0.03Ie-0.89±0.01, similar to previous near-infrared determinations and consistent with the H- and K-band FPs once allowance is made for differences in mean colour. The overall scatter in Re about the FP is σr = 29 per cent, and is the quadrature sum of an 18 per cent scatter due to observational errors and a 23 per cent intrinsic scatter. Because of the Gaussian distribution of galaxies in FP space, σr is not the distance error, which we find to be σd = 23 per cent. Using group richness and local density as measures of environment, and morphologies based on visual classifications, we find that the FP slopes do not vary with environment or morphology. However, for fixed velocity dispersion and surface brightness, field galaxies are on average 5 per cent larger than galaxies in groups or higher density environments, and the bulges of early-type spirals are on average 10 per cent larger than ellipticals and lenticulars. The residuals about the FP show significant trends with environment, morphology and stellar population. The strongest trend is with age, and we speculate that age is the most important systematic source of offsets from the FP, and may drive the other trends through its correlations with environment, morphology and

  16. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.; WFIRST SDT Project

    2015-05-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and well- funded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  17. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. II. The Wesenheit Relations and Their Application to the Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anupam; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Macri, Lucas M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Sarajedini, Ata

    2016-04-01

    We present new near-infrared (NIR) Cepheid period-Wesenheit (P-W) relations in the LMC using time-series observations from the Large Magellanic Cloud NIR Synoptic Survey. We also derive optical+NIR P-W relations using V and I magnitudes from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. We employ our new JHKs data to determine an independent distance to the LMC of {μ }{{LMC}}\\=\\18.47+/- 0.07(statistical) mag, using an absolute calibration of the Galactic relations based on several distance determination methods and accounting for the intrinsic scatter of each technique. We also derive new NIR period-luminosity and Wesenheit relations for Cepheids in M31 using observations from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey. We use the absolute calibrations of the Galactic and LMC {W}J,H relations to determine the distance modulus of M31, {μ }{{M31}}\\=\\24.46+/- 0.20 mag. We apply a simultaneous fit to Cepheids in several Local Group galaxies covering a range of metallicities (7.7\\lt 12+{log}[{{O}}/{{H}}]\\lt 8.6 dex) to determine a global slope of -3.244 ± 0.016 mag dex-1 for the {W}J,{Ks} relation and obtain robust distance estimates. Our distances are in good agreement with recent TRGB based distance estimates and we do not find any evidence for a metallicity dependence in the NIR P-W relations.

  18. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and wellfunded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  19. AN INFRARED/X-RAY SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Mamajek, E. E.; Cruz, K. L.

    2009-09-20

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M {approx} 4-7 M{sub Jup}). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy distribution, which indicates that it could be in the protostellar class I stage (star+disk+envelope). Upon inspection of archival images from various observatories, we find that one of the new young stars has a large edge-on disk (r = 2.''5 = 350 AU). The scattered light from this disk has undergone significant variability on a timescale of days in optical images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Using the updated census of Taurus, we have measured the initial mass function for the fields observed by XMM-Newton. The resulting mass function is similar to previous ones that we have reported for Taurus, showing a surplus of stars at spectral types of K7-M1 (0.6-0.8 M{sub sun}) relative to other nearby star-forming regions, such as IC 348, Chamaeleon I, and the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  20. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopic survey of Jupiter Trojan asteroids: investigation of dynamical families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, E.; Fornasier, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Boehnhardt, H.; Hainaut, O.; Marzari, F.; Licandro, J.; de Bergh, C.

    2004-11-01

    Trojan asteroids located in the Jupiter Lagrangian points L4 and L5 (60 degrees ahead and behind Jupiter) are widely believed to be primordial bodies since their orbits are stable over the age of the Solar System. They seem to have been formed in a region of the solar nebula rich in frozen volatiles and to have never suffered selective induction heating. They probably still contain ices in their interiors.Moreover the discovery of several dynamical families among Trojans suggests that they are at least as collisionally evolved as the main asteroid belt. Since 2002, we started an observational program on Jupiter Trojans at ESO-NTT, ESO-VLT and TNG. In particular we concentrated on members of dynamical families, as defined by Beauge and Roig (2001), and we observed also several background objects. We carry out visible and near-infrared spectroscopy and photometry in order to i) characterize the mineralogical composition of families, ii) give evidence of ongoing space weathering, and iii) confirm family membership. As expected, the spectra of the non-family members are more heterogeneous compared to the spectra of family members. The obtained results will be presented and discussed.

  1. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) slitless spectrometer: design, prototype, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David A.; Dominguez, Margaret; Emmett, Thomas; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John; Kruk, Jeffrey; Marx, Catherine; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; Whipple, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    The slitless spectrometer plays an important role in the WFIRST mission for the survey of emission-line galaxies. This will be an unprecedented very wide field, HST quality 3D survey of emission line galaxies1. The concept of the compound grism as a slitless spectrometer has been presented previously. The presentation briefly discusses the challenges and solutions of the optical design, and recent specification updates, as well as a brief comparison between the prototype and the latest design. However, the emphasis of this paper is the progress of the grism prototype: the fabrication and test of the complicated diffractive optical elements and powered prism, as well as grism assembly alignment and testing. Especially how to use different tools and methods, such as IR phase shift and wavelength shift interferometry, to complete the element and assembly tests. The paper also presents very encouraging results from recent element tests to assembly tests. Finally we briefly touch the path forward plan to test the spectral characteristic, such as spectral resolution and response.

  2. INFRARED AND HARD X-RAY DIAGNOSTICS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IDENTIFICATION FROM THE SWIFT/BAT AND AKARI ALL-SKY SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuta, K.; Dotani, T.; Yamamura, I.; Gandhi, P.; Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Stawarz, L.; Ueda, Y.; Ichikawa, K.; Terashima, Y.; Oyabu, S.

    2012-07-10

    We combine data from two all-sky surveys in order to study the connection between the infrared and hard X-ray (>10 keV) properties for local active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope all-sky survey provides an unbiased, flux-limited selection of hard X-ray-detected AGNs. Cross-correlating the 22 month hard X-ray survey with the AKARI all-sky survey, we studied 158 AGNs detected by the AKARI instruments. We find a strong correlation for most AGNs between the infrared (9, 18, and 90 {mu}m) and hard X-ray (14-195 keV) luminosities, and quantify the correlation for various subsamples of AGNs. Partial correlation analysis confirms the intrinsic correlation after removing the redshift contribution. The correlation for radio galaxies has a slope and normalization identical to that for Seyfert 1 galaxies, implying similar hard X-ray/infrared emission processes in both. In contrast, Compton-thick (CT) sources show a large deficit in the hard X-ray band, because high gas column densities diminish even their hard X-ray luminosities. We propose two photometric diagnostics for source classification: one is an X-ray luminosity versus infrared color diagram, in which type 1 radio-loud AGNs are well isolated from the others in the sample. The other uses the X-ray versus infrared color as a useful redshift-independent indicator for identifying CT AGNs. Importantly, CT AGNs and starburst galaxies in composite systems can also be differentiated in this plane based upon their hard X-ray fluxes and dust temperatures. This diagram may be useful as a new indicator to classify objects in new and upcoming surveys such as WISE and NuSTAR.

  3. The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Survey of Protoplanetary Disks in Orion A. I. Disk Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Furlan, Elise; Najita, Joan; Sargent, Benjamin; Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Adame, Lucía; Espaillat, Catherine; Megeath, S. T.; Muzerolle, James; McClure, M. K.

    2016-09-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer/IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μm silicate feature (F 11.3/F 9.8). (4) The 20–31 μm continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ 1 Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.

  4. The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Survey of Protoplanetary Disks in Orion A. I. Disk Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Furlan, Elise; Najita, Joan; Sargent, Benjamin; Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Adame, Lucía; Espaillat, Catherine; Megeath, S. T.; Muzerolle, James; McClure, M. K.

    2016-09-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer/IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μm silicate feature (F 11.3/F 9.8). (4) The 20-31 μm continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ 1 Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.

  5. The Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanets Large-survey (ARIEL) payload electronic subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Pace, E.; Colomé, J.; Ribas, I.; Rataj, M.; Ottensamer, R.; Farina, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Wawer, P.; Pancrazzi, M.; Noce, V.; Pezzuto, S.; Morgante, G.; Artigues, B.; Sierra-Roig, C.; Gesa, L.; Eccleston, P.; Crook, M.; Micela, G.

    2016-07-01

    The ARIEL mission has been proposed to ESA by an European Consortium as the first space mission to extensively perform remote sensing on the atmospheres of a well defined set of warm and hot transiting gas giant exoplanets, whose temperature range between ~600 K and 3000 K. ARIEL will observe a large number (~500) of warm and hot transiting gas giants, Neptunes and super-Earths around a range of host star types using transit spectroscopy in the ~2-8 μm spectral range and broad-band photometry in the NIR and optical. ARIEL will target planets hotter than 600 K to take advantage of their well-mixed atmospheres, which should show minimal condensation and sequestration of high-Z materials and thus reveal their bulk and elemental composition. One of the major motivations for exoplanet characterisation is to understand the probability of occurrence of habitable worlds, i.e. suitable for surface liquid water. While ARIEL will not study habitable planets, its major contribution to this topic will results from its capability to detect the presence of atmospheres on many terrestrial planets outside the habitable zone and, in many cases, characterise them. This represents a fundamental breakthrough in understanding the physical and chemical processes of a large sample of exoplanets atmospheres as well as their bulk properties and to probe in-space technology. The ARIEL infrared spectrometer (AIRS) provides data on the atmospheric composition; these data are acquired and processed by an On-Board Data Handling (OBDH) system including the Cold Front End Electronics (CFEE) and the Instrument Control Unit (ICU). The Telescope Control Unit (TCU) is also included inside the ICU. The latter is directly connected to the Control and Data Management Unit (CDMU) on board the Service Module (SVM). The general hardware architecture and the application software of the ICU are described. The Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) electronics and the Cooler Control Electronics are also presented.

  6. Chemistry in Infrared Dark Cloud Clumps: A Molecular Line Survey at 3 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanhueza, Patricio; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Garay, Guido; Silva, Andrea; Finn, Susanna C.

    2012-09-01

    We have observed 37 Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), containing a total of 159 clumps, in high-density molecular tracers at 3 mm using the 22 m ATNF Mopra Telescope located in Australia. After determining kinematic distances, we eliminated clumps that are not located in IRDCs and clumps with a separation between them of less than one Mopra beam. Our final sample consists of 92 IRDC clumps. The most commonly detected molecular lines are (detection rates higher than 8%) N2H+, HNC, HN13C, HCO+, H13CO+, HCN, C2H, HC3N, HNCO, and SiO. We investigate the behavior of the different molecular tracers and look for chemical variations as a function of an evolutionary sequence based on Spitzer IRAC and MIPS emission. We find that the molecular tracers behave differently through the evolutionary sequence and some of them can be used to yield useful relative age information. The presence of HNC and N2H+ lines does not depend on the star formation activity. On the other hand, HC3N, HNCO, and SiO are predominantly detected in later stages of evolution. Optical depth calculations show that in IRDC clumps the N2H+ line is optically thin, the C2H line is moderately optically thick, and HNC and HCO+ are optically thick. The HCN hyperfine transitions are blended, and, in addition, show self-absorbed line profiles and extended wing emission. These factors combined prevent the use of HCN hyperfine transitions for the calculation of physical parameters. Total column densities of the different molecules, except C2H, increase with the evolutionary stage of the clumps. Molecular abundances increase with the evolutionary stage for N2H+ and HCO+. The N2H+/HCO+ and N2H+/HNC abundance ratios act as chemical clocks, increasing with the evolution of the clumps.

  7. Galaxy evolution from deep multi-wavelength infrared surveys: a prelude to Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Vaccari, M.; Berta, S.; Marchetti, L.; Mainetti, G.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Studies of the generation and assembly of stellar populations in galaxies largely benefit from far-IR observations, considering that the IR flux is a close prior to the rate of star formation (the bulk of which happens in dust-obscured environments). At the same time, major episodes of nuclear AGN accretion are also dust-obscured and visible in the IR. Aims: At the end of the Spitzer cryogenic mission and the onset of the Herschel era, we review our current knowledge of galaxy evolution at IR wavelengths, and model it to achieve as far as a complete view of the evolution of cosmic sources. We also develop new tools for the analysis of background fluctuations to constrain source counts in regimes of high confusion, as it happens for the Herschel sub-mm surveys. Methods: We analysed a wide variety of new data on galaxy evolution and high-redshift source populations from Spitzer cosmological surveys, and confront them with complementary data from mm ground-based observations and constraints from the far-IR diffuse radiation, as well as preliminary results from Herschel surveys. Results: These data confirm earlier indications about a very rapid increase in galaxy volume emissivity with redshift up to z ≃ 1 [ ρ(z) ∝ (1+z)4] , the fastest evolution rate observed for galaxies at any wavelengths. The observed Spitzer counts require a combination of fast evolution for the dominant population and a bumpy spectrum with substantial PAH emission at z ~ 1 to 2. Number counts at long wavelengths (70 through 1100 μm) confirm these results. All the present data require that the fast observed evolution from z = 0 to 1 flattens around redshift 1 and then keeps approximately constant up to z ≃ 2.5 at least. Our estimated redshift-dependent bolometric comoving energy density keeps lower at z ⪆ 1.5 than some previously published results based on either large extinction corrections, or large spectral extrapolations. Conclusions: The present-day IR/sub-mm data provide

  8. First Results From an IRTF Near-Infrared SPeX Debris Disk Spectral Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Sitko, M. L.; Christian, D. J.; Melis, C.; Chen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 3 years we have conducted a focused SPeX study of nearby AFGK exosystems with strong IRAS/Spitzer mid-IR fluxes and < 1 Gyr ages. Objects were observed from 0.8 - 5.2 um using R=1000 to 2000 spectroscopy. Our observational goal is to characterize the primary star and determine the amount of scattered light, thermal emission, and line emission due to orbiting circumstellar material. The ultimate scientific goal is to characterize the circumstellar material and find evidence for material created by impacts, collisional grinding, and/or sublimation of bodies in these planet building systems. Our observations take advantage of and add to the SPeX spectral library of ~200 cool FGKM stars (Rayner et al. 2009). In this talk we report the preliminary findings of our survey of 20+ systems.

  9. Development of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fengchuan; Cutri, Roc; Greanias, George; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Irace, William; Mainzer, Amanda; Razzaghi, Andrea; Royer, Donald; Wright, Edward L.

    2008-07-01

    WISE is a NASA MIDEX mission to survey the entire sky in four bands from 3 to 25 microns with sensitivity about 500 times greater than the IRAS survey. WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, find the closest stars to the Sun, and detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. WISE launch is scheduled in November, 2009 on a Delta 7320-10 to a 525 km Sun-synchronous polar orbit. This paper gives an overview of WISE including development status and management approach. WISE flight system design is single string with selected redundancy and graceful degradation. Wherever possible, design heritage from prior missions is pursued and properly reviewed to reduce development time and cost. Further risk reduction is achieved since the WISE spacecraft has no deployable mechanisms and no propulsion. Nonetheless, a complex space mission with a sophisticated cryogenic IR telescope such as WISE demands a partnership of multiple organizations in government research, academia, and industry. With a cost cap and relatively short development schedule, it is essential for all WISE partners to work seamlessly together. This is accomplished by a single management team representing all key partners and disciplines in science, systems engineering, mission assurance, project and contract management. WISE uses a variety of management tools including frequent team interaction, schedule, milestone and critical path analysis, risk analysis, reliability analysis, earned value analysis, configuration management, and management of schedule and budget reserves. After a successful mission critical design review in June, 2007, WISE has completed building most of the flight hardware, and started integration and test within payload and spacecraft.

  10. CHEMISTRY IN INFRARED DARK CLOUD CLUMPS: A MOLECULAR LINE SURVEY AT 3 mm

    SciTech Connect

    Sanhueza, Patricio; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Finn, Susanna C.; Garay, Guido; Silva, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    We have observed 37 Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), containing a total of 159 clumps, in high-density molecular tracers at 3 mm using the 22 m ATNF Mopra Telescope located in Australia. After determining kinematic distances, we eliminated clumps that are not located in IRDCs and clumps with a separation between them of less than one Mopra beam. Our final sample consists of 92 IRDC clumps. The most commonly detected molecular lines are (detection rates higher than 8%) N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HNC, HN{sup 13}C, HCO{sup +}, H{sup 13}CO{sup +}, HCN, C{sub 2}H, HC{sub 3}N, HNCO, and SiO. We investigate the behavior of the different molecular tracers and look for chemical variations as a function of an evolutionary sequence based on Spitzer IRAC and MIPS emission. We find that the molecular tracers behave differently through the evolutionary sequence and some of them can be used to yield useful relative age information. The presence of HNC and N{sub 2}H{sup +} lines does not depend on the star formation activity. On the other hand, HC{sub 3}N, HNCO, and SiO are predominantly detected in later stages of evolution. Optical depth calculations show that in IRDC clumps the N{sub 2}H{sup +} line is optically thin, the C{sub 2}H line is moderately optically thick, and HNC and HCO{sup +} are optically thick. The HCN hyperfine transitions are blended, and, in addition, show self-absorbed line profiles and extended wing emission. These factors combined prevent the use of HCN hyperfine transitions for the calculation of physical parameters. Total column densities of the different molecules, except C{sub 2}H, increase with the evolutionary stage of the clumps. Molecular abundances increase with the evolutionary stage for N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HCO{sup +}. The N{sub 2}H{sup +}/HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}/HNC abundance ratios act as chemical clocks, increasing with the evolution of the clumps.

  11. Thermal-Infrared Surveys of Near-Earth Object Diameters and Albedos with Spitzer and IRTF/MIRSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven; Emery, Josh; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan W.; Moskovitz, Nick; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-08-01

    More than 12000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been discovered over the past few decades and current discovery surveys find on average 4 new NEOs every night. In comparison to asteroid discovery, the physical characterization of NEOs lags far behind: measured diameters and albedos exist only for roughly 10% of all known NEOs. We describe a current and a future observing program that provide diameter and albedo measurements of a large number of NEOs.In our Spitzer Space Telescope Exploration Science program 'NEOSurvey', we are performing a fast and efficient flux-limited survey in which we measure the diameters and albedos of ~600 NEOs in a total of 710 hrs of observing time. We measure the thermal emission of our targets at 4.5 micron and combine these measurements with optical data in a thermal model. Our diameters and albedos come with highly realistic uncertainties that account for a wide range of potential asteroid properties. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties, including diameters, albedos, and flux density data. This catalog is publicly accessible and provides the latest results usually within 2 weeks after the observation.Starting in 2016, we will also make use of the refurbished and recommissioned MIRSI mid-infrared imaging camera on NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) to derive the diameters and albedos of up to 750 NEOs over a period of 3 yrs. MIRSI will be equipped with an optical camera that will allow for simultaneous optical imaging, which will improve our thermal modeling results. With MIRSI, we will focus on newly discovered NEOs that are close to Earth and hence relatively bright.The results from both programs, together with already exisiting diameter and albedo results from the literature, will form the largest database of NEO physical properties available to date. With this data set, we will be able to refine the size distribution of small NEOs and the corresponding impact frequency, and compare the

  12. ALBEDO PROPERTIES OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS BASED ON THE ALL-SKY SURVEY OF THE INFRARED ASTRONOMICAL SATELLITE AKARI

    SciTech Connect

    Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Ishiguro, Masateru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mueller, Thomas G.; Ootsubo, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the albedo properties of main belt asteroids (MBAs) detected by the All-Sky Survey of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. The characteristics of 5120 asteroids detected by the survey, including their sizes and albedos, were cataloged in the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA). Size and albedo measurements were based on the standard thermal model, using inputs of infrared fluxes and absolute magnitudes measured at optical wavelengths. MBAs, which account for 4722 of the 5120 AcuA asteroids, have semimajor axes of 2.06-3.27 AU, except for the near-Earth asteroids. AcuA provides a complete data set of all MBAs brighter than the absolute magnitude of H < 10.3, which corresponds to the diameter of d > 20 km. We confirmed that the albedo distribution of the MBAs is strongly bimodal as was already known from the past observations, and that the bimodal distribution occurs not only in the total population, but also within inner, middle, and outer regions of the main belt. The bimodal distribution in each group consists of low-albedo components in C-type asteroids and high-albedo components in S-type asteroids. We found that the small asteroids have much more variety in albedo than the large asteroids. In spite of the albedo transition process like space weathering, the heliocentric distribution of the mean albedo of asteroids in each taxonomic type is nearly flat. The mean albedo of the total, on the other hand, gradually decreases with an increase in semimajor axis. This can be explained by the compositional ratio of taxonomic types; that is, the proportion of dark asteroids such as C- and D-types increases, while that of bright asteroids such as S-type decreases, with increasing heliocentric distance. The heliocentric distributions of X-subclasses: E-, M-, and P-types, which can be divided based on albedo values, are also examined. P-types, which are the major component in X-types, are distributed throughout the main belt regions, and the

  13. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Christopher J; Crooks, Daniel R; Sourbier, Carole; Schmidt, Laura S; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Linehan, W Marston

    2016-04-11

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease made up of a number of different cancer types, with distinct histologies, clinical courses, therapeutic responses, and genetic drivers. Germline mutations in 14 genes have been associated with increased risk of RCC and can result in HIF pathway activation, chromatin dysregulation, and altered metabolism. Knowledge of these pathway alterations can inform the development of targeted therapeutic approaches. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27070709

  14. SnapShot: Neuronal Regulation of Aging.

    PubMed

    Weir, Heather J; Mair, William B

    2016-07-28

    Aging is characterized by loss of homeostasis across multiple tissues. The nervous system governs whole-body homeostasis by communicating external and internal signals to peripheral tissues. Here, we highlight neuronal mechanisms and downstream outputs that regulate aging and longevity. Targeting these neuronal pathways may be a novel strategy to promote healthy aging. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27471972

  15. Resolving debris discs in the far-infrared: Early highlights from the DEBRIS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, B. C.; Sibthorpe, B.; Kennedy, G.; Phillips, N.; Churcher, L.; Duchêne, G.; Greaves, J. S.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Moro-Martin, A.; Wyatt, M. C.; Bastien, P.; Biggs, A.; Bouvier, J.; Butner, H. M.; Dent, W. R. F.; di Francesco, J.; Eislöffel, J.; Graham, J.; Harvey, P.; Hauschildt, P.; Holland, W. S.; Horner, J.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Johnstone, D.; Kalas, P.; Kavelaars, J.; Rodriguez, D.; Udry, S.; van der Werf, P.; Wilner, D.; Zuckerman, B.

    2010-07-01

    We present results from the earliest observations of DEBRIS, a Herschel key programme to conduct a volume- and flux-limited survey for debris discs in A-type through M-type stars. PACS images (from chop/nod or scan-mode observations) at 100 and 160 μm are presented toward two A-type stars and one F-type star: β Leo, β UMa and η Corvi. All three stars are known disc hosts. Herschel spatially resolves the dust emission around all three stars (marginally, in the case of β UMa), providing new information about discs as close as 11 pc with sizes comparable to that of the Solar System. We have combined these data with existing flux density measurements of the discs to refine the SEDs and derive estimates of the fractional luminosities, temperatures and radii of the discs. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. Learning Flow Regimes from Snapshot Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemati, Maziar

    2015-11-01

    Fluid flow regimes are often categorized based on the qualitative patterns observed by visual inspection of the flow field. For example, bluff body wakes are traditionally classified based on the number and groupings of vortices shed per cycle (e.g., 2S, 2P, P+S), as seen in snapshots of the vorticity field. Subsequently, the existence and nature of these identified flow regimes can be explained through dynamical analyses of the fluid mechanics. Unfortunately, due to the need for manual inspection, the approach described above can be impractical for studies that seek to learn flow regimes from large volumes of numerical and/or experimental snapshot data. Here, we appeal to established techniques from machine learning and data-driven dynamical systems analysis to automate the task of learning flow regimes from snapshot data. Moreover, by appealing to the dynamical structure of the fluid flow, this approach also offers the potential to reveal flow regimes that may be overlooked by visual inspection alone. Here, we will introduce the methodology and demonstrate its capabilities and limitations in the context of several model flows.

  17. SNAPSHOT: A MODERN, SUSTAINABLE HOLDUP MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Smith, Steven E; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Dunn, Michael E; Stewart, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    SNAPSHOT is a software platform designed to eventually replace Holdup Measurement System 4 (HMS 4), which is the current state-of-the-art for acquisition and analysis of nondestructive assay measurement data for in situ nuclear materials, holdup, in support of criticality safety and material control and accounting. HMS 4 is over 10 years old and is currently unsustainable due to hardware and software incompatibilities that have arisen from advances in detector electronics, primarily updates to multi-channel analyzers (MCAs), and both computer and handheld operating systems. SNAPSHOT is a complete redesign of HMS 4 that addresses the issue of compatibility with modern MCAs and operating systems and that is designed with a flexible architecture to support long-term sustainability. It also provides an updated and more user friendly interface and is being developed under an NQA 1 software quality assurance (SQA) program to facilitate site acceptance for safety-related applications. This paper provides an overview of the SNAPSHOT project including details of the software development process, the SQA program, and the architecture designed to support sustainability.

  18. Multiple and single snapshot compressive beamforming.

    PubMed

    Gerstoft, Peter; Xenaki, Angeliki; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph F

    2015-10-01

    For a sound field observed on a sensor array, compressive sensing (CS) reconstructs the direction of arrival (DOA) of multiple sources using a sparsity constraint. The DOA estimation is posed as an underdetermined problem by expressing the acoustic pressure at each sensor as a phase-lagged superposition of source amplitudes at all hypothetical DOAs. Regularizing with an ℓ1-norm constraint renders the problem solvable with convex optimization, and promoting sparsity gives high-resolution DOA maps. Here the sparse source distribution is derived using maximum a posteriori estimates for both single and multiple snapshots. CS does not require inversion of the data covariance matrix and thus works well even for a single snapshot where it gives higher resolution than conventional beamforming. For multiple snapshots, CS outperforms conventional high-resolution methods even with coherent arrivals and at low signal-to-noise ratio. The superior resolution of CS is demonstrated with vertical array data from the SWellEx96 experiment for coherent multi-paths. PMID:26520284

  19. ARIEL - The Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccleston, P.; Tinetti, G.

    2015-10-01

    More than 1,000 extrasolar systems have been discovered, hosting nearly 2,000 exoplanets. Ongoing and planned ESA and NASA missions from space such as GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, K2 and TESS, plus ground based surveys, will increase the number of known systems to tens of thousands. Of all these exoplanets we know very little; i.e. their orbital data and, for some of these, their physical parameters such as their size and mass. In the past decade, pioneering results have been obtained using transit spectroscopy with Hubble, Spitzer and ground-based facilities, enabling the detection of a few of the most abundant ionic, atomic and molecular species and to constrain the planet's thermal structure. Future general purpose facilities with large collecting areas will allow the acquisition of better exoplanet spectra, compared to the currently available, especially from fainter targets. A few tens of planets will be observed with JWST and E-ELT in great detail. A breakthrough in our understanding of planet formation and evolution mechanisms will only happen through the observation of the planetary bulk and atmospheric composition of a statistically large sample of planets. This requires conducting spectroscopic observations covering simultaneously a broad spectral region from the visible to the mid-IR. It also requires a dedicated space mission with the necessary photometric stability to perform these challenging measurements and sufficient agility to observe multiple times ~500 exoplanets over 3.5 years. The ESA Cosmic Vision M4 mission candidate ARIEL is designed to accomplish this goal and will provide a complete, statistically significant sample of gas-giants, Neptunes and super-Earths with temperatures hotter than 600K, as these types of planets will allow direct observation of their bulk properties, enabling us to constrain models of planet formation and evolution. The ARIEL consortium currently includes academic institutes and industry from eleven countries in Europe; the

  20. The HETDEX pilot survey. V. The physical origin of Lyα emitters probed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Chonis, Taylor; Jogee, Shardha; Livermore, Rachael; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bridge, Joanna; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P.; Fabricius, Maximilian; Gawiser, Eric; Salmon, Brett; and others

    2014-08-10

    We present the results from a Very Large Telescope/SINFONI and Keck/NIRSPEC near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 16 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.1-2.5 in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields discovered from the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Pilot Survey. We detect rest-frame optical nebular lines (Hα and/or [O III] λ5007) for 10 of the LAEs and measure physical properties, including the star formation rate (SFR), gas-phase metallicity, gas mass fraction, and Lyα velocity offset. We find that LAEs may lie below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at the same redshift. The LAEs all show velocity shifts of Lyα relative to the systemic redshift ranging between +85 and +296 km s{sup –1} with a mean of +180 km s{sup –1}. This value is smaller than measured for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The Lyα velocity offsets show a moderate correlation with the measured SFR (2.5σ), but no significant correlations are seen with the SFR surface density, specific SFR, stellar mass, or dynamical mass (≲1.5σ). Exploring the role of dust, kinematics of the interstellar medium (ISM), and geometry on the escape of Lyα photons, we find no signature of selective quenching of resonantly scattered Lyα photons. However, we also find no evidence that a clumpy ISM is enhancing the Lyα equivalent width. Our results suggest that the low metallicity in LAEs may be responsible for yielding an environment with a low neutral hydrogen column density and less dust, easing the escape of Lyα photons over that in continuum-selected star-forming galaxies.

  1. Joint US-Japan Observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO): Deep Surveys and Observations of High-Z Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, David B.

    1997-01-01

    Several important milestones were passed during the past year of our ISO observing program: (1) Our first ISO data were successfully obtained. ISOCAM data were taken for our primary deep field target in the 'Lockman Hole'. Thirteen hours of integration (taken over 4 contiguous orbits) were obtained in the LW2 filter of a 3 ft x 3 ft region centered on the position of minimum HI column density in the Lockman Hole. The data were obtained in microscanning mode. This is the deepest integration attempted to date (by almost a factor of 4 in time) with ISOCAM. (2) The deep survey data obtained for the Lockman Hole were received by the Japanese P.I. (Yoshi Taniguchi) in early December, 1996 (following release of the improved pipeline formatted data from Vilspa), and a copy was forwarded to Hawaii shortly thereafter. These data were processed independently by the Japan and Hawaii groups during the latter part of December 1996, and early January, 1997. The Hawaii group made use of the U.S. ISO data center at IPAC/Caltech in Pasadena to carry out their data reduction, while the Japanese group used a copy of the ISOCAM data analysis package made available to them through an agreement with the head of the ISOCAM team, Catherine Cesarsky. (3) Results of our LW2 Deep Survey in the Lockman Hole were first reported at the ISO Workshop "Taking ISO to the Limits: Exploring the Faintest Sources in the Infrared" held at the ISO Science Operations Center in Villafranca, Spain (VILSPA) on 3-4 February, 1997. Yoshi Taniguchi gave an invited presentation summarizing the results of the U.S.-Japan team, and Dave Sanders gave an invited talk summarizing the results of the Workshop at the conclusion of the two day meeting. The text of the talks by Taniguchi and Sanders are included in the printed Workshop Proceedings, and are published in full on the Web. By several independent accounts, the U.S.-Japan Deep Survey results were one of the highlights of the Workshop; these data showed

  2. SXDF-ALMA 2 arcmin2 deep survey: Resolving and characterizing the infrared extragalactic background light down to 0.5 mJy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David; Ikarashi, Soh; Ishii, Shun; Ivison, Rob J.; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2016-08-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of five submillimeter sources (S1.1mm = 0.54-2.02 mJy) that were detected during our 1.1 mm deep continuum survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF)-UDS-CANDELS field (2 arcmin2, 1σ = 0.055 mJy beam-1) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The two brightest sources correspond to a known single-dish (AzTEC) selected bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG), whereas the remaining three are faint SMGs newly uncovered by ALMA. If we exclude the two brightest sources, the contribution of the ALMA-detected faint SMGs to the infrared extragalactic background light is estimated to be ˜ 4.1^{+5.4}_{-3.0}Jy deg-2, which corresponds to ˜ 16^{+22}_{-12}% of the infrared extragalactic background light. This suggests that their contribution to the infrared extragalactic background light is as large as that of bright SMGs. We identified multiwavelength counterparts of the five ALMA sources. One of the sources (SXDF-ALMA3) is extremely faint in the optical to near-infrared region despite its infrared luminosity (L_IR˜eq 1× 10^{12} L_{⊙} or SFR ≃ 100 M⊙ yr-1). By fitting the spectral energy distributions at the optical-to-near-infrared wavelengths of the remaining four ALMA sources, we obtained the photometric redshifts (zphoto) and stellar masses (M*): zphoto ≃ 1.3-2.5, M* ≃ (3.5-9.5) × 1010 M⊙. We also derived their star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs as ≃30-200 M⊙ yr-1 and ≃0.8-2 Gyr-1, respectively. These values imply that they are main sequence star-forming galaxies.

  3. SXDF-ALMA 2 arcmin2 deep survey: Resolving and characterizing the infrared extragalactic background light down to 0.5 mJy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David; Ikarashi, Soh; Ishii, Shun; Ivison, Rob J.; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of five submillimeter sources (S1.1mm = 0.54-2.02 mJy) that were detected during our 1.1 mm deep continuum survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF)-UDS-CANDELS field (2 arcmin2, 1σ = 0.055 mJy beam-1) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The two brightest sources correspond to a known single-dish (AzTEC) selected bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG), whereas the remaining three are faint SMGs newly uncovered by ALMA. If we exclude the two brightest sources, the contribution of the ALMA-detected faint SMGs to the infrared extragalactic background light is estimated to be ˜ 4.1^{+5.4}_{-3.0}Jy deg-2, which corresponds to ˜ 16^{+22}_{-12}% of the infrared extragalactic background light. This suggests that their contribution to the infrared extragalactic background light is as large as that of bright SMGs. We identified multiwavelength counterparts of the five ALMA sources. One of the sources (SXDF-ALMA3) is extremely faint in the optical to near-infrared region despite its infrared luminosity (L_IR˜eq 1× 10^{12} L_{⊙} or SFR ≃ 100 M⊙ yr-1). By fitting the spectral energy distributions at the optical-to-near-infrared wavelengths of the remaining four ALMA sources, we obtained the photometric redshifts (zphoto) and stellar masses (M*): zphoto ≃ 1.3-2.5, M* ≃ (3.5-9.5) × 1010 M⊙. We also derived their star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs as ≃30-200 M⊙ yr-1 and ≃0.8-2 Gyr-1, respectively. These values imply that they are main sequence star-forming galaxies.

  4. Compact and miniature snapshot imaging polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haitao; Oka, Kazuhiko; DeHoog, Edward; Kudenov, Michael; Schiewgerling, James; Dereniak, Eustace L

    2008-08-20

    We present and demonstrate a compact and miniature snapshot imaging polarimeter camera; it is anticipated that such a camera can be scaled down to less than 1.5 cm. Two Savart plates are used at the pupil plane to generate multiple fringes to encode the full Stokes vector in a single image. A geometric ray model is developed to explain the system. The numerical simulation based on this model is presented. Finally, the validity of the device is demonstrated by showing experimental results. PMID:18716648

  5. INFRARED SPECTRA AND PHOTOMETRY OF COMPLETE SAMPLES OF PALOMAR-GREEN AND TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yong; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Ogle, P. M.; Balog, Z.

    2014-10-01

    As a step toward a comprehensive overview of the infrared (IR) diagnostics of the central engines and host galaxies of quasars at low redshift, we present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic (5-40 μm) and photometric (24, 70, and 160 μm) measurements of all Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at z < 0.5 and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z < 0.3. We supplement these data with Herschel measurements at 160 μm. The sample is composed of 87 optically selected PG quasars and 52 near-IR-selected 2MASS quasars. Here we present the data, measure the prominent spectral features, and separate emission due to star formation from that emitted by the dusty circumnuclear torus. We find that the mid-IR (5-30 μm) spectral shape for the torus is largely independent of quasar IR luminosity with scatter in the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape of ≲0.2 dex. Except for the silicate features, no large difference is observed between PG (unobscured—silicate emission) and 2MASS (obscured—silicate absorption) quasars. Only mild silicate features are observed in both cases. When in emission, the peak wavelength of the silicate feature tends to be longer than 9.7 μm, possibly indicating effects on grain properties near the active galactic nucleus. The IR color is shown to correlate with the equivalent width of the aromatic features, indicating that the slope of the quasar mid- to far-IR SED is to first order driven by the fraction of radiation from star formation in the IR bands.

  6. Detector Control and Data Acquisition for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) with a Custom ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian S.; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; Luppino, Gerard; Culver, Harry; Wollack, Edward; Content, David

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally approx.300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  7. Design Evolution of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope Using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume L.; Peters, Carlton V.; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan E.; McDonald, Carson S.; Content, David A.; Jackson, Clifton E.

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) continues to evolve as each design cycle is analyzed. In 2012, two Hubble sized (2.4 m diameter) telescopes were donated to NASA from elsewhere in the Federal Government. NASA began investigating potential uses for these telescopes and identified WFIRST as a mission to benefit from these assets. With an updated, deeper, and sharper field of view than previous design iterations with a smaller telescope, the optical designs of the WFIRST instruments were updated and the mechanical and thermal designs evolved around the new optical layout. Beginning with Design Cycle 3, significant analysis efforts yielded a design and model that could be evaluated for Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) purposes for the Wide Field Imager (WFI) and provided the basis for evaluating the high level observatory requirements. Development of the Cycle 3 thermal model provided some valuable analysis lessons learned and established best practices for future design cycles. However, the Cycle 3 design did include some major liens and evolving requirements which were addressed in the Cycle 4 Design. Some of the design changes are driven by requirements changes, while others are optimizations or solutions to liens from previous cycles. Again in Cycle 4, STOP analysis was performed and further insights into the overall design were gained leading to the Cycle 5 design effort currently underway. This paper seeks to capture the thermal design evolution, with focus on major design drivers, key decisions and their rationale, and lessons learned as the design evolved.

  8. Design Evolution of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Peters, Carlton; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Content, David A.; Jackson, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) continues to evolve as each design cycle is analyzed. In 2012, two Hubble sized (2.4 m diameter) telescopes were donated to NASA from elsewhere in the Federal Government. NASA began investigating potential uses for these telescopes and identified WFIRST as a mission to benefit from these assets. With an updated, deeper, and sharper field of view than previous design iterations with a smaller telescope, the optical designs of the WFIRST instruments were updated and the mechanical and thermal designs evolved around the new optical layout. Beginning with Design Cycle 3, significant analysis efforts yielded a design and model that could be evaluated for Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) purposes for the Wide Field Imager (WFI) and provided the basis for evaluating the high level observatory requirements. Development of the Cycle 3 thermal model provided some valuable analysis lessons learned and established best practices for future design cycles. However, the Cycle 3 design did include some major liens and evolving requirements which were addressed in the Cycle 4 Design. Some of the design changes are driven by requirements changes, while others are optimizations or solutions to liens from previous cycles. Again in Cycle 4, STOP analysis was performed and further insights into the overall design were gained leading to the Cycle 5 design effort currently underway. This paper seeks to capture the thermal design evolution, with focus on major design drivers, key decisions and their rationale, and lessons learned as the design evolved.

  9. ARIEL: Atmospheric Remote Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey. A proposal for the ESA Cosmic Vision M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, E.; Micela, G.; Ariel Team

    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) is a proposal in response to the call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4). This mission will be devoted to observe spectroscopically in the IR a large population (hundreds to one thousand) of known planets in our Galaxy, opening a new discovery space in the field of extrasolar planet exploration and enabling a quantum leap in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far away worlds. The population of planets will include warm and hot gas‑giants, Neptunes and large terrestrial planets. The main ARIEL goal is the determination of the composition, formation and history of these planetary systems In order to fulfill the scientific goals of ARIEL, we propose the development of a 1‑meter class aperture space telescope, passively cooled to 70‑80K, to observe the combined light of stars and their planets, building on the current experience of transit and combined light observations with Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based telescopes. While JWST and EELT will initiate a detailed mid- to high-resolution IR spectroscopic observation of a few tens of planets, this mission will extend the study to a much larger (an order of magnitude difference) representative population of extrasolar planets discovered by ESA GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, NASA Kepler II, TESS and from the ground. The statistical perspective provided by this mission, will allow us to address some of the fundamental questions of the Cosmic Vision programme: What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? ls our Solar System unique, rare or very common? How does the Solar System work?

  10. White light Sagnac interferometer for snapshot linear polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Kudenov, Michael W; Jungwirth, Matthew E L; Dereniak, Eustace L; Gerhart, Grant R

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical and experimental demonstration of a dispersion-compensated polarization Sagnac interferometer (DCPSI) is presented. An application of the system is demonstrated by substituting the uniaxial crystal-based Savart plate (SP) in K. Oka's original snapshot polarimeter implementation with a DCPSI. The DCPSI enables the generation of an achromatic fringe field in white-light, yielding significantly more radiative throughput than the original quasi-monochromatic SP polarimeter. Additionally, this interferometric approach offers an alternative to the crystal SP, enabling the use of standard reflective or transmissive materials. Advantages are anticipated to be greatest in the thermal infrared, where uniaxial crystals are rare and the at-sensor radiance is often low when compared to the visible spectrum. First, the theoretical operating principles of the Savart plate polarimeter and a standard polarization Sagnac interferometer polarimeter are provided. This is followed by the theoretical and experimental development of the DCPSI, created through the use of two blazed diffraction gratings. Outdoor testing of the DCPSI is also performed, demonstrating the ability to detect either the S(2) and S(3), or the S(1) and S(2) Stokes parameters in white-light. PMID:20052177

  11. New Family Literacy Handbook Integrates Overlapping Fields. FPG Snapshot #18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This "snapshot" presents a review of a new family literacy handbook. Edited by Dr. Barbara Wasik of the FPG Child Development Institute, "The Handbook of Family Literacy" provides scholars, students, policymakers and practitioners (both inside and outside the field) with a valuable snapshot of its current boundaries and rapidly growing content.…

  12. Snapshot memories and landmark guidance in wood ants.

    PubMed

    Durier, Virginie; Graham, Paul; Collett, Thomas S

    2003-09-16

    Insects are thought to pinpoint a place by using memorized "snapshots," i.e., two-dimensional retinotopic views of the surrounding landmarks recorded when at the place (reviewed in ). Insects then reach the place by moving until their current view matches their snapshot. To determine when snapshots are recalled, and how differences between view and snapshot are translated into appropriate movements, we analyzed the approaches of wood ants to a feeding site that was located in the center of an array of two or three cylinders. In ants, contrary to flying hymenopterans, body orientation and direction of travel are collinear, so that an ant approaching an object always looks at it with frontal visual field. On their way to a food site, ants fixated and approached a cylinder predominantly when its angular size was smaller than when viewed from the food site. This finding implies that ants store snapshots at this place while fixating landmarks with frontal retina, so simplifying the later alignment of snapshots with their current view. It also means that ants recall snapshots well in advance of reaching the place. Although snapshots are centered on a landmark, we show that they extend at least 120 degrees into the periphery.

  13. Family Snapshots: A Descriptive Classroom Exercise in Memory and Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T.; Cox, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    "Family Snapshots" are 100-words-or-less descriptive memories of times in the lives of families that highlight poignant moments. They complement other exercises within a family counseling course, including the use of genograms. Modeled after the "Washington Post Magazine"'s series "Life Is Short: Autobiography as Haiku," these snapshots give…

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (b) Ext- General view rear, looking from north. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  15. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey employee.) (b) Ext- Main building, south end. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey Employee.) (a) Ext- General view from Southeast. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (a) Ext- General front view from southeast. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (c) Ext-Detail entrance on south. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  19. THE HIGH A{sub V} Quasar Survey: Reddened Quasi-Stellar Objects selected from optical/near-infrared photometry. II

    SciTech Connect

    Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Vestergaard, M.; Geier, S.; Venemans, B. P.; Ledoux, C.; Møller, P.; Noterdaeme, P.; Kangas, T.; Pursimo, T.; Smirnova, O.; Saturni, F. G.

    2015-03-15

    Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) whose spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are reddened by dust either in their host galaxies or in intervening absorber galaxies are to a large degree missed by optical color selection criteria like the ones used by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To overcome this bias against red QSOs, we employ a combined optical and near-infrared (near-IR) color selection. In this paper, we present a spectroscopic follow-up campaign of a sample of red candidate QSOs which were selected from the SDSS and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The spectroscopic data and SDSS/UKIDSS photometry are supplemented by mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In our sample of 159 candidates, 154 (97%) are confirmed to be QSOs. We use a statistical algorithm to identify sightlines with plausible intervening absorption systems and identify nine such cases assuming dust in the absorber similar to Large Magellanic Cloud sightlines. We find absorption systems toward 30 QSOs, 2 of which are consistent with the best-fit absorber redshift from the statistical modeling. Furthermore, we observe a broad range in SED properties of the QSOs as probed by the rest-frame 2 μm flux. We find QSOs with a strong excess as well as QSOs with a large deficit at rest-frame 2 μm relative to a QSO template. Potential solutions to these discrepancies are discussed. Overall, our study demonstrates the high efficiency of the optical/near-IR selection of red QSOs.

  20. Luminous and High Stellar Mass Candidate Galaxies at z ≈ 8 Discovered in the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Davé, Romeel; Faber, S. M.; Papovich, Casey; Guo, Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Reddy, Naveen; Cooray, Asantha R.; Siana, Brian D.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Ashby, Matthew; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Lucas, Ray A.; Dekel, Avishai; Pentericci, Laura; Conselice, Christopher J.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lai, Kamson

    2012-12-01

    One key goal of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey is to track galaxy evolution back to z ≈ 8. Its two-tiered "wide and deep" strategy bridges significant gaps in existing near-infrared surveys. Here we report on z ≈ 8 galaxy candidates selected as F105W-band dropouts in one of its deep fields, which covers 50.1 arcmin2 to 4 ks depth in each of three near-infrared bands in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field. Two of our candidates have J < 26.2 mag, and are >1 mag brighter than any previously known F105W-dropouts. We derive constraints on the bright end of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies at z ≈ 8, and show that the number density of such very bright objects is higher than expected from the previous Schechter luminosity function estimates at this redshift. Another two candidates are securely detected in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera images, which are the first such individual detections at z ≈ 8. Their derived stellar masses are on the order of a few × 109 M ⊙, from which we obtain the first measurement of the high-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function at z ≈ 8. The high number density of very luminous and very massive galaxies at z ≈ 8, if real, could imply a large stellar-to-halo mass ratio and an efficient conversion of baryons to stars at such an early time.

  1. Alumni Perspectives Survey. 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Alumni are a powerful force in building a business school's brand. They recommend programs to prospective students, they connect current students to job opportunities, and they contribute significantly to building a school's legacy. The findings in the 2014 Alumni Perspectives Survey Report provide a current snapshot of nearly 21,000 business…

  2. Spectrum slicer for snapshot spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamamitsu, Miu; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Oishi, Yu; Morita, Shin-ya; Yamagata, Yutaka; Motohara, Kentaro; Goda, Keisuke

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate an optical component that overcomes critical limitations in our previously demonstrated high-speed multispectral videography-a method in which an array of periscopes placed in a prism-based spectral shaper is used to achieve snapshot multispectral imaging with the frame rate only limited by that of an image-recording sensor. The demonstrated optical component consists of a slicing mirror incorporated into a 4f-relaying lens system that we refer to as a spectrum slicer (SS). With its simple design, we can easily increase the number of spectral channels without adding fabrication complexity while preserving the capability of high-speed multispectral videography. We present a theoretical framework for the SS and its experimental utility to spectral imaging by showing real-time monitoring of a dynamic colorful event through five different visible windows.

  3. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon by wet-chemical oxidation and infrared spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Kammer, James A.; Jha, Virendra K.; O'Mara-Lopez, Peggy G.; Woodworth, Mark T.

    1997-01-01

    Precision and accuracy results are described for the determination of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon (SOC) by silver-filter filtration, wet-chemical oxidation, and infrared determination of hte resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) used at the U.S. Geological Survey's nationalWater Quality Laboratory. An aliquot of raw water isfiltered through a 0.45-micrometer silver filter. The trapped organic material is oxidized using phosphoric acid and potassium persulfate in a scaled glass ampule,and the rseulting CO2 is measured by an infrared CO2 detector. The amount of CO3 is proportional to the concentration of chemically oxidizable nonpurgeable organic carbon in the sample. The SOC method detection limit for routine analysis is 0.2 milligram per liter. The average percent recovery is 97.1 percent and the average standard deviation is 11 percent.

  4. Infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

  5. Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow

    SciTech Connect

    Weyant, Anja; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Allen, Lori; Joyce, Richard; Matheson, Thomas; Garnavich, Peter M.; Jha, Saurabh W.

    2014-04-01

    We present 13 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the rest-frame near-infrared (NIR) from 0.02 < z < 0.09 with the WIYN High-resolution Infrared Camera on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. With only one to three points per light curve and a prior on the time of maximum from the spectrum used to type the object, we measure an H-band dispersion of spectroscopically normal SNe Ia of 0.164 mag. These observations continue to demonstrate the improved standard brightness of SNe Ia in an H band, even with limited data. Our sample includes two SNe Ia at z ∼ 0.09, which represent the most distant rest-frame NIR H-band observations published to date. This modest sample of 13 NIR SNe Ia represent the pilot sample for {sup S}weetSpot{sup —}a 3 yr NOAO Survey program that will observe 144 SNe Ia in the smooth Hubble flow. By the end of the survey we will have measured the relative distance to a redshift of z ∼ 0.05%-1%. Nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) observations such as these will test the standard nature of SNe Ia in the rest-frame NIR, allow insight into the nature of dust, and provide a critical anchor for future cosmological SN Ia surveys at higher redshift.

  6. A high-resolution infrared spectral survey of 103P/Hartley 2 on the night of the EPOXI closest approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ronald J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Cochran, Anita L.; Harris, Walter M.; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Biver, Nicolas; Crovisier, Jacques; McKay, Adam J.

    2013-02-01

    We obtained high-resolution (λ/Δλ ˜ 28,000) infrared spectra of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 on UT 2010 November 4.6 using the NIRSPEC spectrometer at the W.M. Keck Observatory. Here we present spectra of Hartley 2 between 2.832 and 3.639 μm (3531-2748 cm-1), representing the most complete high-resolution infrared survey of a Jupiter-family comet to date in this wavelength region. We have tabulated rest frequencies, line fluxes, line signal-to-noise ratios and line widths for all detected emissions. Fluorescence models, published line lists and laboratory spectra were used to obtain molecular assignments for detected emissions. Multiple lines of the following species were detected in Hartley 2: H2O, OH, CH3OH, C2H6, HCN, C2H2, H2CO, NH3 and NH2. All identified species seen in this survey have been previously detected in comets. There were 364 distinct emission features present in these spectra, of which 36 were unidentified. We compare the spectrum of Hartley 2 to chemically different Jupiter-family Comets 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3-B and 17P/Holmes in order to obtain additional information on the characteristics of unknown lines through the comparison of relative line fluxes for corresponding emissions in these comets. For the strongest unidentified emissions, additional information was also obtained through a comparison of their spatial distributions in the coma to that of known emission features in Hartley 2. This spectral survey of Hartley 2 provides detailed information about its overall volatile chemistry, provides a comparison to past and future high-resolution infrared datasets, and further characterizes the most promising spectral regions for future molecular searches in comets.

  7. SOAR Near-Infrared and Optical Survey of OIf* and OIf*/WN Stars in the Periphery of Galactic Massive Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Lopes, A.; Franco, G. A. P.; Sanmartin, D.

    In this contribution we present some preliminary results obtained from a SOAR-Goodman optical spectroscopic survey aimed to confirm the OIf* - OIf*/WN nature of a sample of Galactic candidates that were previously confirmed as massive stars based on near-infrared spectra taken with OSIRIS at SOAR. With only a few of such stars known in the Galaxy to date, our study significantly contributes to improve the number of known Galactic O2If* stars, as well as almost doubling the number of known members of the galactic sample of the rare type OIf*/WN.

  8. A survey of surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    A new era for the field of Galactic structure is about to be opened with the advent of wide-area digital sky surveys. In this article, the author reviews the status and prospects for research for 3 new ground-based surveys: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) and the Two Micron AU Sky Survey (2MASS). These surveys will permit detailed studies of Galactic structure and stellar populations in the Galaxy with unprecedented detail. Extracting the information, however, will be challenging.

  9. The PEP survey: clustering of infrared-selected galaxies and structure formation at z ˜ 2 in GOODS-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocchetti, M.; Santini, P.; Rodighiero, G.; Grazian, A.; Aussel, H.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Berta, S.; Cepa, J.; Castañeda, H.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Genzel, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Maiolino, R.; Popesso, P.; Poglitsch, A.; Pozzi, F.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.; Valtchanov, I.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the first direct estimate of the 3D clustering properties of far-infrared sources up to z˜ 3. This has been possible thanks to the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) survey of the GOODS-South field performed with the PACS instrument on board the Herschel satellite. 550 and 502 sources were detected respectively in the 100- and 160-μm channels down to fluxes ? mJy and ? mJy, cuts that ensure >80 per cent completeness of the two catalogues. More than 65 per cent of these sources have an (either photometric or spectroscopic) redshift determination from the MUSIC catalogue; this percentage rises to ˜95 per cent in the inner portion of GOODS-South which is covered by data at other wavelengths. An analysis of the deprojected two-point correlation function w(θ) over the whole redshift range spanned by the data reports for the (comoving) correlation length, r0˜ 6.3 and ˜6.7 Mpc, respectively at 100 and 160 μm, corresponding to dark matter halo masses M≳ 1012.4 M⊙, in an excellent agreement with previous estimates obtained for mid-IR selected sources in the same field. Objects at z˜ 2 instead seem to be more strongly clustered, with r0˜ 19 and ˜17 Mpc in the two considered PACS channels. This dramatic increase of the correlation length between z˜ 1 and ˜2 is connected with the presence, more visible at 100 μm than in the other band, of a wide (at least 4 Mpc across in projection), M≳ 1014 M⊙, filamentary structure which includes more than 50 per cent of the sources detected at z˜ 2. An investigation of the properties of such sources indicates the possibility of a boosted star-forming activity in those which reside within the overdense environment with respect to more isolated galaxies found in the same redshift range. If confirmed by larger data sets, this result can be explained as due to the combined effect of large reservoirs of gas available at high redshifts in deep potential wells such as those associated with large overdensities

  10. The Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey - IX. Galaxy evolution to z ~ 2 from optically selected catalogues†‡

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feulner, Georg; Goranova, Yuliana; Hopp, Ulrich; Gabasch, Armin; Bender, Ralf; Botzler, Christine S.; Drory, Niv

    2007-06-01

    We present B-, R- and I-band-selected galaxy catalogues based on the Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey (MUNICS) which, together with the previously used K-selected sample, serve as an important probe of galaxy evolution in the redshift range 0 <~ z <~ 2. Furthermore, used in comparison they are ideally suited to study selection effects in extragalactic astronomy. The construction of the B-, R- and I-selected photometric catalogues, containing ~9000, ~9000 and ~6000 galaxies, respectively, is described in detail. The catalogues reach 50 per cent completeness limits for point sources of B ~= 24.5 mag, R ~= 23.5 mag and I ~= 22.5 mag and cover an area of about 0.3deg2. Photometric redshifts are derived for all galaxies with an accuracy of δz/(1 + z) ~= 0.057, very similar to the K-selected sample. Galaxy number counts in the B, V, R, I, J and K bands demonstrate the quality of the data set. The rest-frame colour distributions of galaxies at different selection bands and redshifts suggest that the most-massive galaxies have formed the bulk of their stellar population at earlier times and are essentially in place at redshift unity. We investigate the influence of selection band and environment on the specific star formation rate (SSFR). We find that K-band selection indeed comes close to selection in stellar mass, while B-band selection purely selects galaxies in SFR. We use a galaxy group catalogue constructed on the K-band-selected MUNICS sample to study possible differences of the SSFR between the field and the group environment, finding a marginally lower average SSFR in groups as compared to the field, especially at lower redshifts. The field-galaxy luminosity function in the B and R band as derived from the R-selected sample evolves out to z ~= 2 in the sense that the characteristic luminosity increases but the number density decreases. This effect is smaller at longer rest-frame wavelengths and gets more pronounced at shorter wavelengths. Parametrizing the

  11. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  12. A Near-Infrared Imaging Survey of the Lupus 3 Dark Cloud: A Modest Cluster of Low-Mass, Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Oasa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Tadashi

    2000-02-01

    We present the first report on results of a near-infrared imaging survey of the Lupus 3 dark cloud. This cloud is known to be associated with a modest cluster of T Tauri stars from a previous optical Hα emission-line star survey. The survey covers 7'x11', which corresponds to a projected area of ~0.35x0.55 pc at a distance of 150 pc. Mapping was carried out at J, H, and Ks, to 10 σ limiting magnitudes of J=17.0, H=16.5, and Ks=15.5. A total of 229 sources brighter than Ks<15.8 were detected at all bands with a 90% completeness limit. Source classification is performed based on the near-infrared colors. Ten sources are candidates of Lada's Class II pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, as they have a color excess that cannot be explained by reddening resulting from interstellar dust. We also identified 11 Class I-like candidates that were not detected at J and have a large color excess (H-Ks>=2), which is unlikely to arise from extinction in the Lupus dark cloud. There are four subclusters in this survey area of which three are embedded and mainly consist of the Class I-like candidates. The average density of PMS stars is around 500 pc-3, suggesting the presence of a modest cluster of embedded PMS stars. We estimate masses of the Class II candidates with aid of an evolutionary model of PMS stars. Ten of them have masses less than 0.08 Msolar if we assume their age to be 106 yr. Hence, we consider them to be young brown dwarf (YBD) candidates. The relative population of YBDs in the Lupus 3 dark cloud is larger than in the Taurus.

  13. A Subtle Infrared Excess Associated with a Young White Dwarf in the Edinburgh-Cape Blue Object Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennihy, E.; Debes, John H.; Dunlap, B. H.; Dufour, P.; Teske, Johanna K.; Clemens, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    We report the discovery of a subtle infrared excess associated with the young white dwarf EC 05365–4749 at 3.35 and 4.6 μm. Follow-up spectroscopic observations are consistent with a hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf of effective temperature 22,800 K and log [g (cm s‑2)] = 8.19. High-resolution spectroscopy reveals atmospheric metal pollution with logarithmic abundances of [Mg/H] = ‑5.36 and [Ca/H] = ‑5.75, confirming the white dwarf is actively accreting from a metal-rich source with an intriguing abundance pattern. We find that the infrared excess is well modeled by a flat, opaque debris disk, though disk parameters are not well constrained by the small number of infrared excess points. We further demonstrate that relaxing the assumption of a circular dusty debris disk to include elliptical disks expands the widths of acceptable disks, adding an alternative interpretation to the subtle infrared excesses commonly observed around young white dwarfs.

  14. Addressing Thermal Model Run Time Concerns of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Guerrero, Sergio; Hawk, John; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Jackson, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) utilizes an existing 2.4 m diameter Hubble sized telescope donated from elsewhere in the federal government for near-infrared sky surveys and Exoplanet searches to answer crucial questions about the universe and dark energy. The WFIRST design continues to increase in maturity, detail, and complexity with each design cycle leading to a Mission Concept Review and entrance to the Mission Formulation Phase. Each cycle has required a Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis to ensure the design can meet the stringent pointing and stability requirements. As such, the models have also grown in size and complexity leading to increased model run time. This paper addresses efforts to reduce the run time while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for STOP analyses. A technique was developed to identify slews between observing orientations that were sufficiently different to warrant recalculation of the environmental fluxes to reduce the total number of radiation calculation points. The inclusion of a cryocooler fluid loop in the model also forced smaller time-steps than desired, which greatly increases the overall run time. The analysis of this fluid model required mitigation to drive the run time down by solving portions of the model at different time scales. Lastly, investigations were made into the impact of the removal of small radiation couplings on run time and accuracy. Use of these techniques allowed the models to produce meaningful results within reasonable run times to meet project schedule deadlines.

  15. First Results from the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS): First Simultaneous Detection of Lyα Emission and Lyman Break from a Galaxy at z = 7.51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilvi, V.; Pirzkal, N.; Malhotra, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Rhoads, J. E.; Windhorst, R.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A.; Zakamska, N. L.; Ryan, R.; Christensen, L.; Hathi, N.; Pharo, J.; Joshi, B.; Yang, H.; Gronwall, C.; Cimatti, A.; Walsh, J.; O'Connell, R.; Straughn, A.; Ostlin, G.; Rothberg, B.; Livermore, R. C.; Hibon, P.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2016-08-01

    Galaxies at high redshifts are a valuable tool for studying cosmic dawn, therefore it is crucial to reliably identify these galaxies. Here, we present an unambiguous and first simultaneous detection of both the Lyα emission and the Lyman break from a z=7.512 +/- 0.004 galaxy, observed in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with the G102 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6σ ) in two observational position angles (PAs), with Lyα line flux of 1.06+/- 0.19× {10}-17 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2. The line flux is nearly a factor of four higher than that in the archival MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations. This is consistent with other recent observations, implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates the total emission line fluxes, and if confirmed, can have strong implications for reionization studies that are based on ground-based Lyα measurements. A 4σ detection of the NV line in one PA also suggests a weak active galactic nucleus (AGN), and if confirmed, would make this source the highest-redshift AGN yet found. These observations from HST thus clearly demonstrate the sensitivity of the FIGS survey, and the capability of grism spectroscopy for studying the epoch of reionization.

  16. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. I. METHODS AND FIRST RESULTS: 41 NEW WR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Gerke, Jill; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, Rene; Villar-Sbaffi, Alfredo; Stanonik, Kathryn; Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent E-mail: jgerke@amnh.org E-mail: moffat@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: alfredovs@hotmail.com E-mail: eartigau@gemini.edu

    2009-08-15

    The discovery of new Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in our Galaxy via large-scale narrowband optical surveys has been severely limited by dust extinction. Recent improvements in infrared technology have made narrowband-broadband imaging surveys viable again. We report a new J, K, and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg{sup 2} of the plane of the Galaxy, spanning 150 degrees in Galactic longitude and reaching 1 degree above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 173 WR star candidates we have discovered 41 new WR stars, 15 of type WN and 26 of type WC. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with K-band spectra, and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. A few of the new WR stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new WR stars is seen to follow that of previously known WR stars along the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Tentative radial velocities were also measured for most of the new WR stars.

  17. Snapshot Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Ashley

    Optical coherence tomography systems are used to image the retina in 3D to allow ophthalmologists diagnose ocular disease. These systems yield large data sets that are often labor-intensive to analyze and require significant expertise in order to draw conclusions, especially when used over time to monitor disease progression. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) instantly acquires depth profiles at a single location with a broadband source. These systems require mechanical scanning to generate two- or three-dimensional images. Instead of mechanically scanning, a beamlet array was used to permit multiple depth measurements on the retina with a single snapshot using a 3x 3 beamlet array. This multi-channel system was designed, assembled, and tested using a 1 x 2 beamlet lens array instead of a 3 x 3 beamlet array as a proof of concept prototype. The source was a superluminescent diode centered at 840nm with a 45nm bandwidth. Theoretical axial resolution was 6.92um and depth of focus was 3.45mm. Glass samples of varying thickness ranging from 0.18mm to 1.14mm were measured with the system to validate that correct depth profiles can be acquired for each channel. The results demonstrated the prototype system performed as expected, and is ready to be modified for in vivo applicability.

  18. Phosphoryl Transfer Reaction Snapshots in Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Gerlits, Oksana; Tian, Jianhui; Das, Amit; Langan, Paul; Heller, William T.; Kovalevsky, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    To study the catalytic mechanism of phosphorylation catalyzed by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) a structure of the enzyme-substrate complex representing the Michaelis complex is of specific interest as it can shed light on the structure of the transition state. However, all previous crystal structures of the Michaelis complex mimics of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) were obtained with either peptide inhibitors or ATP analogs. Here we utilized Ca2+ ions and sulfur in place of the nucleophilic oxygen in a 20-residue pseudo-substrate peptide (CP20) and ATP to produce a close mimic of the Michaelis complex. In the ternary reactant complex, the thiol group of Cys-21 of the peptide is facing Asp-166 and the sulfur atom is positioned for an in-line phosphoryl transfer. Replacement of Ca2+ cations with Mg2+ ions resulted in a complex with trapped products of ATP hydrolysis: phosphate ion and ADP. The present structural results in combination with the previously reported structures of the transition state mimic and phosphorylated product complexes complete the snapshots of the phosphoryl transfer reaction by PKAc, providing us with the most thorough picture of the catalytic mechanism to date. PMID:25925954

  19. Architectures of Planetary System - Snapshots in Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Michele; Goel, Amit

    2015-08-01

    Architectures of planetary systems are observable snapshots in time, a study of which can aide in our understanding of how planetary systems form and evolve dynamically. For example, if we compare architectures of exoplanetary systems having various stellar host ages with laws that apply to our own Solar System architecture, population, and age, we gain insights into when these laws hold with stellar age and which systems are outliers at various stellar ages. In this work, we study Keplerian motion in confirmed planetary systems as a function of stellar age. Systems eliminated from the study are those with unknown planetary orbital periods, unknown planetary semi-major axis, and/or unknown stellar ages, the latter of which eliminates several Kepler multi-planet systems. As expected, we find Keplerian motion holds for systems that are the age of the Solar System or older, but this result does not seem to hold true for younger systems. In this work we discuss these findings, we identify the outlier systems at various stellar ages from our statistical analysis, and we provide explanations as to why these exo-systems are outliers.

  20. A High-precision Near-infrared Survey for Radial Velocity Variable Low-mass Stars Using CSHELL and a Methane Gas Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Plavchan, Peter; Gao, Peter; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Furlan, Elise; Davison, Cassy; Tanner, Angelle; Henry, Todd J.; Riedel, Adric R.; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Latham, David; Bottom, Michael; White, Russel; Mills, Sean; Beichman, Chas; Johnson, John A.; Ciardi, David R.; Wallace, Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; von Braun, Kaspar; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen R.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Walp, Bernie; Crawford, Timothy J.; Rougeot, Raphaël; Geneser, Claire S.; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of a precise near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) survey of 32 low-mass stars with spectral types K2–M4 using CSHELL at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility in the K band with an isotopologue methane gas cell to achieve wavelength calibration and a novel, iterative RV extraction method. We surveyed 14 members of young (≈25–150 Myr) moving groups, the young field star ɛ Eridani, and 18 nearby (<25 pc) low-mass stars and achieved typical single-measurement precisions of 8–15 m s‑1with a long-term stability of 15–50 m s‑1 over longer baselines. We obtain the best NIR RV constraints to date on 27 targets in our sample, 19 of which were never followed by high-precision RV surveys. Our results indicate that very active stars can display long-term RV variations as low as ˜25–50 m s‑1 at ≈2.3125 μm, thus constraining the effect of jitter at these wavelengths. We provide the first multiwavelength confirmation of GJ 876 bc and independently retrieve orbital parameters consistent with previous studies. We recovered RV variabilities for HD 160934 AB and GJ 725 AB that are consistent with their known binary orbits, and nine other targets are candidate RV variables with a statistical significance of 3σ–5σ. Our method, combined with the new iSHELL spectrograph, will yield long-term RV precisions of ≲5 m s‑1 in the NIR, which will allow the detection of super-Earths near the habitable zone of mid-M dwarfs.

  1. A High-precision Near-infrared Survey for Radial Velocity Variable Low-mass Stars Using CSHELL and a Methane Gas Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Plavchan, Peter; Gao, Peter; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Furlan, Elise; Davison, Cassy; Tanner, Angelle; Henry, Todd J.; Riedel, Adric R.; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Latham, David; Bottom, Michael; White, Russel; Mills, Sean; Beichman, Chas; Johnson, John A.; Ciardi, David R.; Wallace, Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; von Braun, Kaspar; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen R.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Walp, Bernie; Crawford, Timothy J.; Rougeot, Raphaël; Geneser, Claire S.; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of a precise near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) survey of 32 low-mass stars with spectral types K2-M4 using CSHELL at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility in the K band with an isotopologue methane gas cell to achieve wavelength calibration and a novel, iterative RV extraction method. We surveyed 14 members of young (≈25-150 Myr) moving groups, the young field star ɛ Eridani, and 18 nearby (<25 pc) low-mass stars and achieved typical single-measurement precisions of 8-15 m s-1with a long-term stability of 15-50 m s-1 over longer baselines. We obtain the best NIR RV constraints to date on 27 targets in our sample, 19 of which were never followed by high-precision RV surveys. Our results indicate that very active stars can display long-term RV variations as low as ˜25-50 m s-1 at ≈2.3125 μm, thus constraining the effect of jitter at these wavelengths. We provide the first multiwavelength confirmation of GJ 876 bc and independently retrieve orbital parameters consistent with previous studies. We recovered RV variabilities for HD 160934 AB and GJ 725 AB that are consistent with their known binary orbits, and nine other targets are candidate RV variables with a statistical significance of 3σ-5σ. Our method, combined with the new iSHELL spectrograph, will yield long-term RV precisions of ≲5 m s-1 in the NIR, which will allow the detection of super-Earths near the habitable zone of mid-M dwarfs.

  2. Merged infrared catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, M.; Brown, L. W.; Mead, J. M.; Nagy, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation of equatorial coordinates, spectral types, magnitudes, and fluxes from five catalogues of infrared observations is presented. This first edition of the Merged Infrared Catalogue contains 11,201 oservations from the Two-Micron Sky Survey, Observations of Infrared Radiation from Cool Stars, the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory four Color Infrared Sky Survey and its Supplemental Catalog, and from Catalog of 10 micron Celestial Objects (HALL). This compilation is a by-product of a computerized infrared data base under development at Goddard Space Flight Center; the objective is to maintain a complete and current record of all infrared observations from 1 micron m to 1000 micron m of nonsolar system objects. These observations are being placed into a standardized system.

  3. The LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South - radio and mid-infrared counterparts to submillimetre galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J.; Ibar, E.; Wardlow, J. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Smail, Ian; Walter, F.; Weiß, A.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; De Breuck, C.; Dickinson, M.; Knudsen, K. K.; Mainieri, V.; Menten, K.; Papovich, C.

    2011-06-01

    We present radio and infrared (3.6-24 μm) counterparts to submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South with the Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABOCA) 870-μm bolometer camera on the 12-m Atacama Pathfinder Experiment. Using the Very Large Array at 1.4 GHz and Spitzer, we have identified secure counterparts to 79 of the 126 SMGs [signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 3.7, S870 > 4.4 mJy] in the field, 62 via their radio and/or 24-μm emission, the remainder using a colour-flux cut on Infrared Array Camera 3.6- and 5.8-μm sources chosen to maximize the number of secure, coincident radio and 24-μm counterparts. In constructing our radio catalogue, we have corrected for the effects of 'flux boosting', then used the corrected flux densities to estimate the redshifts of the SMGs based on the radio/submm spectral indices. The effect of the boosting correction is to increase the median redshift by 0.2 resulting in a value of ? (1σ errors) for the secure radio counterparts, in agreement with other studies, both spectroscopic and photometric.

  4. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets coronagraphic operations: lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.; Ygouf, Marie; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Golimowski, David A.; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument (CGI) currently proposed for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. We review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA CGI. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: (1) detector health and evolution, (2) wavefront control, (3) observing strategies/postprocessing, (4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and (5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  5. Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) snapshot multispectral imager that utilizes the optical transmission characteristics of nanohole arrays (NHAs) in a gold film to resolve a mixture of input colors into multiple spectral bands. The multispectral device consists of blocks of NHAs, wherein each NHA has a unique periodicity that results in transmission resonances and minima in the visible and near-infrared regions. The multispectral device was illuminated over a wide spectral range, and the transmission was spectrally unmixed using a least-squares estimation algorithm. A NHA-based multispectral imaging system was built and tested in both reflection and transmission modes. The NHA-based multispectral imager was capable of extracting 2D multispectral images representative of four independent bands within the spectral range of 662 nm to 832 nm for a variety of targets. The multispectral device can potentially be integrated into a variety of imaging sensor systems. PMID:24005065

  6. Magellan FIRE Spectroscopy of Star-Forming Galaxies at 1.5 < z < 2.3 Selected from the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Daniel C.; McCarthy, P. J.; Hathi, N. P.; WISP survey Team

    2013-01-01

    We present high-resolution, near-infrared echelle spectra of strongly star-forming emission line galaxies at 1.5 < z < 2.3 taken with FIRE on Magellan. The sample was selected from the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) survey, using the slitless grism capability of the WFC3 to identify galaxies with strong emission lines in an unbiased way. We are able to identify low-mass, high sSFR galaxies at these redshifts, which are likely analogues to galaxies in the early stages of formation at much higher redshifts. FIRE follow-up observations provide high-resolution rest-frame optical spectra, allowing us to identify possible AGN activity in the sample, estimate metallicity, and investigate the gas-phase dynamics of the galaxies. By obtaining high-resolution near-IR spectra of a statistically significant number of these galaxies we can begin to understand the population in detail and probe the low-mass end of the mass-metallicity relationship at 2.

  7. THE WIRED SURVEY. III. AN INFRARED EXCESS AROUND THE ECLIPSING POST-COMMON ENVELOPE BINARY SDSS J030308.35+005443.7

    SciTech Connect

    Debes, John H.; Hoard, D. W.; Farihi, Jay; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2012-11-01

    We present the discovery with WISE of a significant infrared excess associated with the eclipsing post-common envelope binary SDSS J030308.35+005443.7, the first excess discovered around a non-interacting white dwarf+main-sequence M dwarf binary. The spectral energy distribution of the white dwarf+M dwarf companion shows significant excess longward of 3 {mu}m. A T {sub eff} of 8940 K for the white dwarf is consistent with a cooling age >2 Gyr, implying that the excess may be due to a recently formed circumbinary dust disk of material that extends from the tidal truncation radius of the binary at 1.96 R {sub Sun} out to <0.8 AU, with a total mass of {approx}10{sup 20} g. We also construct WISE and follow-up ground-based near-infrared light curves of the system and find variability in the K band that appears to be in phase with ellipsoidal variations observed in the visible. The presence of dust might be due to (1) material being generated by the destruction of small rocky bodies that are being perturbed by an unseen planetary system or (2) dust condensing from the companion's wind. The high inclination of this system and the presence of dust make it an attractive target for M dwarf transit surveys and long-term photometric monitoring.

  8. THE TAIWAN ECDFS NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY: ULTRA-DEEP J AND K{sub S} IMAGING IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Lihwai; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P.; Yan Haojing

    2012-12-15

    We present ultra-deep J and K{sub S} imaging observations covering a 30' Multiplication-Sign 30' area of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS) carried out by our Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS). The median 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes for all detected objects in the ECDFS reach 24.5 and 23.9 mag (AB) for J and K{sub S} , respectively. In the inner 400 arcmin{sup 2} region where the sensitivity is more uniform, objects as faint as 25.6 and 25.0 mag are detected at 5{sigma}. Thus, this is by far the deepest J and K{sub S} data sets available for the ECDFS. To combine TENIS with the Spitzer IRAC data for obtaining better spectral energy distributions of high-redshift objects, we developed a novel deconvolution technique (IRACLEAN) to accurately estimate the IRAC fluxes. IRACLEAN can minimize the effect of blending in the IRAC images caused by the large point-spread functions and reduce the confusion noise. We applied IRACLEAN to the images from the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy in the ECDFS survey (SIMPLE) and generated a J+K{sub S} -selected multi-wavelength catalog including the photometry of both the TENIS near-infrared and the SIMPLE IRAC data. We publicly release the data products derived from this work, including the J and K{sub S} images and the J+K{sub S} -selected multi-wavelength catalog.

  9. Maximum bandwidth snapshot channeled imaging polarimeter with polarization gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCasse, Charles F.; Redman, Brian J.; Kudenov, Michael W.; Craven, Julia M.

    2016-05-01

    Compact snapshot imaging polarimeters have been demonstrated in literature to provide Stokes parameter estimations for spatially varying scenes using polarization gratings. However, the demonstrated system does not employ aggressive modulation frequencies to take full advantage of the bandwidth available to the focal plane array. A snapshot imaging Stokes polarimeter is described and demonstrated through results. The simulation studies the challenges of using a maximum bandwidth configuration for a snapshot polarization grating based polarimeter, such as the fringe contrast attenuation that results from higher modulation frequencies. Similar simulation results are generated and compared for a microgrid polarimeter. Microgrid polarimeters are instruments where pixelated polarizers are superimposed onto a focal plan array, and this is another type of spatially modulated polarimeter, and the most common design uses a 2x2 super pixel of polarizers which maximally uses the available bandwidth of the focal plane array.

  10. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING): MOLECULAR GAS STAR FORMATION LAW IN NGC 4254

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Jameson, Katherine; Vogel, Stuart N.; Wong, Tony; Xue Rui; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Rosolowsky, Erik; West, Andrew A.; Bigiel, Frank; Blitz, Leo; Ott, Juergen

    2011-04-01

    This study explores the effects of different assumptions and systematics on the determination of the local, spatially resolved star formation law. Using four star formation rate (SFR) tracers (H{alpha} with azimuthally averaged extinction correction, mid-infrared 24 {mu}m, combined H{alpha} and mid-infrared 24 {mu}m, and combined far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared 24 {mu}m), several fitting procedures, and different sampling strategies, we probe the relation between SFR and molecular gas at various spatial resolutions (500 pc and larger) and surface densities ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}})approx. 10-245 M{sub sun} pc{sup -2}) within the central {approx}6.5 kpc in the disk of NGC 4254. We explore the effect of diffuse emission using an unsharp masking technique with varying kernel size. The fraction of diffuse emission, f{sub DE}, thus determined is a strong inverse function of the size of the filtering kernel. We find that in the high surface brightness regions of NGC 4254 the form of the molecular gas star formation law is robustly determined and approximately linear ({approx}0.8-1.1) and independent of the assumed fraction of diffuse emission and the SFR tracer employed. When the low surface brightness regions are included, the slope of the star formation law depends primarily on the assumed fraction of diffuse emission. In such a case, results range from linear when the fraction of diffuse emission in the SFR tracer is f{sub DE} {approx}< 30% (or when diffuse emission is removed in both the star formation and the molecular gas tracer) to super-linear ({approx}1.4) when f{sub DE} {approx}> 50%. We find that the tightness of the correlation between gas and star formation varies with the choice of star formation tracer. The 24 {mu}m SFR tracer by itself shows the tightest correlation with the molecular gas surface density, whereas the H{alpha} corrected for extinction using an azimuthally averaged correction shows the highest dispersion. We find that for R < 0.5R{sub 25

  11. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING): Molecular Gas Star Formation Law in NGC 4254

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Rosolowsky, Erik; West, Andrew A.; Bigiel, Frank; Ott, Jürgen; Xue, Rui; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Jameson, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2011-04-01

    This study explores the effects of different assumptions and systematics on the determination of the local, spatially resolved star formation law. Using four star formation rate (SFR) tracers (Hα with azimuthally averaged extinction correction, mid-infrared 24 μm, combined Hα and mid-infrared 24 μm, and combined far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared 24 μm), several fitting procedures, and different sampling strategies, we probe the relation between SFR and molecular gas at various spatial resolutions (500 pc and larger) and surface densities ({Σ_{H_2}}≈ 10-245 M sun pc-2) within the central ~6.5 kpc in the disk of NGC 4254. We explore the effect of diffuse emission using an unsharp masking technique with varying kernel size. The fraction of diffuse emission, f DE, thus determined is a strong inverse function of the size of the filtering kernel. We find that in the high surface brightness regions of NGC 4254 the form of the molecular gas star formation law is robustly determined and approximately linear (~0.8-1.1) and independent of the assumed fraction of diffuse emission and the SFR tracer employed. When the low surface brightness regions are included, the slope of the star formation law depends primarily on the assumed fraction of diffuse emission. In such a case, results range from linear when the fraction of diffuse emission in the SFR tracer is f DE <~ 30% (or when diffuse emission is removed in both the star formation and the molecular gas tracer) to super-linear (~1.4) when f DE >~ 50%. We find that the tightness of the correlation between gas and star formation varies with the choice of star formation tracer. The 24 μm SFR tracer by itself shows the tightest correlation with the molecular gas surface density, whereas the Hα corrected for extinction using an azimuthally averaged correction shows the highest dispersion. We find that for R < 0.5R 25 the local star formation efficiency is constant and similar to that observed in other large spirals, with a

  12. The Infrared Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habing, Harm J.; Neugebauer, Gerry

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is a survey instrument that has provided an overall view of the infrared sky and identified objects that merit further investigation. A description of the IRAS and examples of the types of astronomical data collected are presented. (JN)

  13. Infrared Astronomy with Arrays: The Next Generation; Sunset Village, Los Angeles, CA, Oct. 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Ian S.

    1994-01-01

    Conference papers on infrared array techniques and methods for infrared astronomy are presented. Topics covered include the following: infrared telescopes; infrared spectrometers; spaceborne astronomy; astronomical observatories; infrared cameras; imaging techniques; sky surveys; infrared photography; infrared photometry; infrared spectroscopy; equipment specifications; data processing and analysis; control systems; cryogenic equipment; adaptive optics; image resolution; infrared detector materials; and focal plane arrays.

  14. Snapshot spectral and polarimetric imaging; target identification with multispectral video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Brent D.; Rodriguez, Mikel D.

    2013-05-01

    As the number of pixels continue to grow in consumer and scientific imaging devices, it has become feasible to collect the incident light field. In this paper, an imaging device developed around light field imaging is used to collect multispectral and polarimetric imagery in a snapshot fashion. The sensor is described and a video data set is shown highlighting the advantage of snapshot spectral imaging. Several novel computer vision approaches are applied to the video cubes to perform scene characterization and target identification. It is shown how the addition of spectral and polarimetric data to the video stream allows for multi-target identification and tracking not possible with traditional RGB video collection.

  15. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothberg, Barry; Husemann, Bernd; Busch, Gerold; Dierkes, Jens; Eckart, Andreas; Krajnovic, Davor; Scharwaechter, Julia; Tremblay, Grant R.; Urrutia, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    We present the first science results from the Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS). This program is a snapshot survey of 39 local type 1 AGN (0.01 < z <0.06) designed to address the issue of AGN-driven star formation quenching by characterizing the condition for star formation in AGN host galaxies. The primary sample was observed with Multi Unit Spectrscopic Explorer (MUSE), an optical wavelength integral field unit (IFU) with a 1'x1' field of view on the VLT. The optical 3D spectroscopy complements existing sub-mm CO(1-0) data and near-IR imaging to establish a unique dataset combining molecular and stellar masses with star formation rates, gas, stellar kinematics and AGN properties. The primary goals of CARS are to:1) investigate if the star formation efficiency and gas depletion time scales are suppressed as a consequence of AGN feedback; 2) identify AGN-driven outflows and their relation to the molecular gas reservoir of the host galaxy; 3) investigate the the balance of AGN feeding and feedback through the ratio of the gas reservoir to the AGN luminosity; and 4) provide the community with a reference survey of local AGN with a high legacy value. Future work will incorporate near-infrared IFU observations to present a complete spatially resolved picture of the interplay among AGN, star-formation, stellar populations, and the ISM.

  16. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF NEARBY CLOUDS. I. ICE FORMATION AND GRAIN GROWTH IN LUPUS

    SciTech Connect

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Chiar, J. E.; Knez, C.; Mundy, L. G.; Öberg, K. I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-11-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 μm) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H{sub 2}O ices form at extinctions of A{sub K} = 0.25 ± 0.07 mag (A{sub V} = 2.1 ± 0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H{sub 2}O ice (2.3 ± 0.1 × 10{sup –5} relative to N{sub H}) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of three to four compared to dense envelopes of young stellar objects. The low solid CH{sub 3}OH abundance (<3%-8% relative to H{sub 2}O) indicates a low gas phase H/CO ratio, which is consistent with the observed incomplete CO freeze out. Furthermore it is found that the grains in Lupus experienced growth by coagulation. The mid-infrared (>5 μm) continuum extinction relative to A{sub K} increases as a function of A{sub K}. Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to R{sub V} ∼ 3.5 (A{sub K} = 0.71) and R{sub V} ∼ 5.0 (A{sub K} = 1.47). For lines of sight with A{sub K} > 1.0 mag, the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio is a factor of two lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter between the dense and diffuse medium ratios. The absence of a gradual transition between diffuse and dense medium-type dust indicates that local conditions matter in the process that sets the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio. This process is likely related to grain growth by coagulation, as traced by the A{sub 7.4}/A{sub K} continuum extinction ratio, but not to ice mantle formation. Conversely, grains acquire ice mantles before the process of coagulation starts.

  17. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SOUTHERN REGION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2264

    SciTech Connect

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Teixiera, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained JHK near-IR images and JH band low-resolution spectra of candidate members of the southern region of the young open cluster NGC 2264. We have determined spectral types from H-band spectra for 54 sources, 25 of which are classified for the first time. The stars in our sample cover a large range of spectral types (A8-M8). Using a cluster distance of 780 pc, we determined a median age of 1 Myr for this region of NGC 2264, with 90% of the stars being 5 Myr or younger. To improve the statistical significance of our sample, we included 66 additional cluster members within our field of view with optical spectral classification in the literature. We derived infrared excesses using stellar properties to model the photospheric emission for each source and the extinction to correct FLAMINGOS near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR photometry, and obtained a disk fraction of 51% {+-} 5% for the region. Binning the stars by stellar mass, we find a disk fraction of 38% {+-} 9% for the 0.1-0.3 solar mass group, 55% {+-} 6% for 0.3-1 solar masses, and 58% {+-} 10% for the higher than 1 solar mass group. The lower disk fraction for the lower mass stars is similar to the results found in non-cluster regions like Taurus and Chamaeleon, but differs from the older 3 Myr cluster IC 348 in which the disk fraction is lower for the higher mass stars. This mass-dependent disk fraction is accentuated in the sample with isochrone ages younger than 2 Myr. Here, we find that 45% {+-} 11% of the 0.1-0.3 solar mass stars have disks, 60% {+-} 7% of the 0.3-1 solar mass stars have disks, and all 1-3 solar mass stars have disks. Stellar masses might be an important factor in the ability of a system to form or retain a disk early on. However, regardless of the stellar mass, the large infrared excesses expected from optically thick disks disappear within the first 2 Myr for all stars in our study and small excesses from optically thin disks are found mostly in sources younger than 4 Myr.

  18. Near-infrared Imaging and Spectroscopic Survey of the Southern Region of the Young Open Cluster NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariñas, Naibí; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained JHK near-IR images and JH band low-resolution spectra of candidate members of the southern region of the young open cluster NGC 2264. We have determined spectral types from H-band spectra for 54 sources, 25 of which are classified for the first time. The stars in our sample cover a large range of spectral types (A8-M8). Using a cluster distance of 780 pc, we determined a median age of 1 Myr for this region of NGC 2264, with 90% of the stars being 5 Myr or younger. To improve the statistical significance of our sample, we included 66 additional cluster members within our field of view with optical spectral classification in the literature. We derived infrared excesses using stellar properties to model the photospheric emission for each source and the extinction to correct FLAMINGOS near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR photometry, and obtained a disk fraction of 51% ± 5% for the region. Binning the stars by stellar mass, we find a disk fraction of 38% ± 9% for the 0.1-0.3 solar mass group, 55% ± 6% for 0.3-1 solar masses, and 58% ± 10% for the higher than 1 solar mass group. The lower disk fraction for the lower mass stars is similar to the results found in non-cluster regions like Taurus and Chamaeleon, but differs from the older 3 Myr cluster IC 348 in which the disk fraction is lower for the higher mass stars. This mass-dependent disk fraction is accentuated in the sample with isochrone ages younger than 2 Myr. Here, we find that 45% ± 11% of the 0.1-0.3 solar mass stars have disks, 60% ± 7% of the 0.3-1 solar mass stars have disks, and all 1-3 solar mass stars have disks. Stellar masses might be an important factor in the ability of a system to form or retain a disk early on. However, regardless of the stellar mass, the large infrared excesses expected from optically thick disks disappear within the first 2 Myr for all stars in our study and small excesses from optically thin disks are found mostly in sources younger than 4 Myr. Based on observations

  19. A Spitzer Survey of Mid-infrared Molecular Emission from Protoplanetary Disks. II. Correlations and Local Thermal Equilibrium Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salyk, C.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Blake, G. A.; Najita, J. R.; Carr, J. S.

    2011-04-01

    We present an analysis of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations of H2O, OH, HCN, C2H2, and CO2 emission, and Keck-NIRSPEC observations of CO emission, from a diverse sample of T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be circumstellar disks. We find that detections and strengths of most mid-IR molecular emission features are correlated with each other, suggesting a common origin and similar excitation conditions for this mid-infrared line forest. Aside from the remarkable differences in molecular line strengths between T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be, and transitional disks discussed in Pontoppidan et al., we note that the line detection efficiency is anti-correlated with the 13/30 μm spectral slope, which is a measure of the degree of grain settling in the disk atmosphere. We also note a correlation between detection efficiency and Hα equivalent width, and tentatively with accretion rate, suggesting that accretional heating contributes to line excitation. If detected, H2O line fluxes are correlated with the mid-IR continuum flux, and other co-varying system parameters, such as L sstarf. However, significant sample variation, especially in molecular line ratios, remains, and its origin has yet to be explained. Local thermal equilibrium (LTE) models of the H2O emission show that line strength is primarily related to the best-fit emitting area, and this accounts for most source-to-source variation in H2O emitted flux. Best-fit temperatures and column densities cover only a small range of parameter space, near ~1018 cm-2 and 450 K for all sources, suggesting a high abundance of H2O in many planet-forming regions. Other molecules have a range of excitation temperatures from ~500to1500 K, also consistent with an origin in planet-forming regions. We find molecular ratios relative to water of ~10-3 for all molecules, with the exception of CO, for which n(CO)/n(H2O) ~ 1. However, LTE fitting caveats and differences in the way thermo-chemical modeling results are reported make comparisons with

  20. A SPITZER SURVEY OF MID-INFRARED MOLECULAR EMISSION FROM PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. CORRELATIONS AND LOCAL THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Salyk, C.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Blake, G. A.; Najita, J. R.; Carr, J. S.

    2011-04-20

    We present an analysis of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations of H{sub 2}O, OH, HCN, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} emission, and Keck-NIRSPEC observations of CO emission, from a diverse sample of T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be circumstellar disks. We find that detections and strengths of most mid-IR molecular emission features are correlated with each other, suggesting a common origin and similar excitation conditions for this mid-infrared line forest. Aside from the remarkable differences in molecular line strengths between T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be, and transitional disks discussed in Pontoppidan et al., we note that the line detection efficiency is anti-correlated with the 13/30 {mu}m spectral slope, which is a measure of the degree of grain settling in the disk atmosphere. We also note a correlation between detection efficiency and H{alpha} equivalent width, and tentatively with accretion rate, suggesting that accretional heating contributes to line excitation. If detected, H{sub 2}O line fluxes are correlated with the mid-IR continuum flux, and other co-varying system parameters, such as L{sub *}. However, significant sample variation, especially in molecular line ratios, remains, and its origin has yet to be explained. Local thermal equilibrium (LTE) models of the H{sub 2}O emission show that line strength is primarily related to the best-fit emitting area, and this accounts for most source-to-source variation in H{sub 2}O emitted flux. Best-fit temperatures and column densities cover only a small range of parameter space, near {approx}10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} and 450 K for all sources, suggesting a high abundance of H{sub 2}O in many planet-forming regions. Other molecules have a range of excitation temperatures from {approx}500to1500 K, also consistent with an origin in planet-forming regions. We find molecular ratios relative to water of {approx}10{sup -3} for all molecules, with the exception of CO, for which n(CO)/n(H{sub 2}O) {approx} 1. However, LTE

  1. VERY STRONG EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Atek, H.; Colbert, J.; Shim, H.; Siana, B.; Bridge, C.; Scarlata, C.; Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R.; McCarthy, P.; Dressler, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Teplitz, H.; Henry, A.; Martin, C.; Bunker, A. J.; Fosbury, R. A. E.

    2011-12-20

    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey uses the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared grism capabilities to obtain slitless spectra of thousands of galaxies over a wide redshift range including the peak of star formation history of the universe. We select a population of very strong emission-line galaxies with rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) higher than 200 A. A total of 176 objects are found over the redshift range 0.35 < z < 2.3 in the 180 arcmin{sup 2} area that we have analyzed so far. This population consists of young and low-mass starbursts with high specific star formation rates (sSFR). After spectroscopic follow-up of one of these galaxies with Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, we report the detection at z = 0.7 of an extremely metal-poor galaxy with 12 + log(O/H) =7.47 {+-} 0.11. After estimating the active galactic nucleus fraction in the sample, we show that the high-EW galaxies have higher sSFR than normal star-forming galaxies at any redshift. We find that the nebular emission lines can substantially affect the total broadband flux density with a median brightening of 0.3 mag, with some examples of line contamination producing brightening of up to 1 mag. We show that the presence of strong emission lines in low-z galaxies can mimic the color-selection criteria used in the z {approx} 8 dropout surveys. In order to effectively remove low-redshift interlopers, deep optical imaging is needed, at least 1 mag deeper than the bands in which the objects are detected. Without deep optical data, most of the interlopers cannot be ruled out in the wide shallow HST imaging surveys. Finally, we empirically demonstrate that strong nebular lines can lead to an overestimation of the mass and the age of galaxies derived from fitting of their spectral energy distribution (SED). Without removing emission lines, the age and the stellar mass estimates are overestimated by a factor of 2 on average and up to a factor of 10 for the high-EW galaxies

  2. The potential of mid- and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for determining major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from a geochemical survey of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, J. B.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, soils were collected at 220 sites along two transects across the USA and Canada as a pilot study for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). The objective of the current study was to examine the potential of diffuse reflectance (DR) Fourier Transform (FT) mid-infrared (mid-IR) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopy to reduce the need for conventional analysis for the determination of major and trace elements in such continental-scale surveys. Soil samples (n = 720) were collected from two transects (east-west across the USA, and north-south from Manitoba, Canada to El Paso, Texas (USA), n = 453 and 267, respectively). The samples came from 19 USA states and the province of Manitoba in Canada. They represented 31 types of land use (e.g., national forest, rangeland, etc.), and 123 different land covers (e.g., soybeans, oak forest, etc.). The samples represented a combination of depth-based sampling (0-5 cm) and horizon-based sampling (O, A and C horizons) with 123 different depths identified. The set was very diverse with few samples similar in land use, land cover, etc. All samples were analyzed by conventional means for the near-total concentration of 49 analytes (Ctotal, Ccarbonate and Corganic, and 46 major and trace elements). Spectra were obtained using dried, ground samples using a Digilab FTS-7000 FT spectrometer in the mid- (4000-400 cm-1) and near-infrared (10,000-4000 cm-1) at 4 cm-1 resolution (64 co-added scans per spectrum) using a Pike AutoDIFF DR autosampler. Partial least squares calibrations were develop using: (1) all samples as a calibration set; (2) samples evenly divided into calibration and validation sets based on spectral diversity; and (3) samples divided to have matching analyte concentrations in calibration and validation sets. In general, results supported the conclusion that neither mid-IR nor NIRS would be particularly useful in reducing the need for conventional

  3. The Evolutionary State of the Pre-main Sequence Population in Ophiuchus: A Large Infrared Spectrograph Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, M. K.; Furlan, E.; Manoj, P.; Luhman, K. L.; Watson, D. M.; Forrest, W. J.; Espaillat, C.; Calvet, N.; D'Alessio, P.; Sargent, B.; Tobin, J. J.; Chiang, Hsin-Fang

    2010-05-01

    Variations in molecular cloud environments have the potential to affect the composition and structure of the circumstellar disks therein. To this end, comparative analyses of nearby star-forming regions are essential to informing theoretical work. In particular, the Ophiuchus molecular clouds are ideal for comparison as they are more compact with much higher extinction than Taurus, the low-mass exemplar, and experience a moderate amount of external radiation. We have carried out a study of a collection of 136 young stellar objects in the <1 Myr old Ophiuchus star-forming region, featuring Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5 to 36 μm, supplemented with photometry from 0.3 μm to 1.3 mm. By classifying these objects using the McClure new molecular cloud extinction law to establish an extinction-independent index, we arrive at a ~10% embedded objects fraction, producing an embedded lifetime of 0.2 Myr, similar to that in Taurus. We analyze the degree of dust sedimentation and dust grain processing in the disks, finding that the disks are highly settled with signs of significant dust processing even at ~0.3 Myr. Finally, we discuss the wealth of evidence for radial gap structures which could be evidence for disk-planet interactions and explore the effects of stellar multiplicity on the degree of settling and radial structure.

  4. The Spitzer Mid-Infrared Survey of the Inner 2 x 1.5 Degrees of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. A.; Stolovy, S.; Ramirez, S.; Law, C.; Gezari, D.; Arendt, R.; Cotera, A.; Karr, J.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Moseley, H.; Sellgren, K.; Smith, R.

    2006-08-01

    We present IRAC observations of the central 2 x 1.5 degrees (280 x 210 pc) of the Galaxy with 1-2" spatial resolution, corresponding to 0.04-0.08 pc. These data represent the highest spatial resolution and sensitivity large-scale map made to date of the GC at mid-infrared wavelengths. The IRAC data provide a census of the optically obscured stellar sources as well as a detailed map of the highly filamentary structure in the interstellar medium, much of which is dominated by PAH emission from small grains in star-forming regions. Dark clouds displaying a large variety of sizes and morphologies are imaged, many of which remain opaque at IRAC wavelengths. Different views of the GC, spanning radio through x-ray wavelengths, provide comparisons we can use to determine which objects are likely to be foreground. We discuss in particular the 10x10 arcminute area around the Sickle, the Pistol star and the Pistol nebula. The Sickle, the ionized edge of a molecular cloud, has previously been observed in thermal radio emission to have a curved appearance with a center of curvature near the Quintuplet star cluster. Our Spitzer observations at 2'' resolution reveal that the Sickle is comprised of a series of finger-like structures. We interpret these to be formed by photoevaporation of the dense molecular material by the intense UV radiation from the hot, massive stars in the Quintuplet cluster.

  5. THE EVOLUTIONARY STATE OF THE PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE POPULATION IN OPHIUCHUS: A LARGE INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, M. K.; Espaillat, C.; Calvet, N.; Tobin, J. J. E-mail: ccespa@umich.ed E-mail: jjtobin@umich.ed

    2010-05-15

    Variations in molecular cloud environments have the potential to affect the composition and structure of the circumstellar disks therein. To this end, comparative analyses of nearby star-forming regions are essential to informing theoretical work. In particular, the Ophiuchus molecular clouds are ideal for comparison as they are more compact with much higher extinction than Taurus, the low-mass exemplar, and experience a moderate amount of external radiation. We have carried out a study of a collection of 136 young stellar objects in the <1 Myr old Ophiuchus star-forming region, featuring Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5 to 36 {mu}m, supplemented with photometry from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.3 mm. By classifying these objects using the McClure new molecular cloud extinction law to establish an extinction-independent index, we arrive at a {approx}10% embedded objects fraction, producing an embedded lifetime of 0.2 Myr, similar to that in Taurus. We analyze the degree of dust sedimentation and dust grain processing in the disks, finding that the disks are highly settled with signs of significant dust processing even at {approx}0.3 Myr. Finally, we discuss the wealth of evidence for radial gap structures which could be evidence for disk-planet interactions and explore the effects of stellar multiplicity on the degree of settling and radial structure.

  6. The Potential Of JWST Mid-infrared Instrument (MIRI) Followup Of The Spitzer Sage Survey Of The Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, Margaret; MIRI Science Team; SAGE Team

    2009-01-01

    The recycling of matter between the interstellar medium (ISM) and stars are key evolutionary drivers of a galaxy's baryonic matter. The Spitzer and JWST/MIRI wavelengths provide a sensitive probe of circumstellar and interstellar dust and hence, allow us to study the physical processes of the ISM, the formation of new stars and the injection of mass by evolved stars and their relationships on the galaxy-wide scale. We have performed a uniform and unbiased imaging survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC, 7x7 degrees), using the IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8 microns) and MIPS (24, 70, and 160 microns) instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer) in order to survey the agents of a galaxy's evolution (SAGE): the ISM, young stellar objects (YSOs) and dusty evolved stars (Meixner et al. 2006). Initial results from SAGE have revealed >1000 new YSOs (Whitney et al. 2008), a detailed map of the dust and ISM mass (Bernard et al. 2008) and estimates of the dusty mass-loss return (Srinivsan et al., submitted) of the 30,000 dusty evolved stars (Blum et al. 2006). Here we describe how the powerful capabilities of the JWST MIRI can be used to followup these new discoveries of SAGE-LMC and also how SAGE-like studies can be extended to nearby galaxies. The SAGE Project is supported by NASA/Spitzer grant 1275598 and MIRI science team work is supported by NASA NAG5-12595.

  7. Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The infrared astronomical data base and its principal data product, the catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), comprise a machine readable library of infrared (1 microns to 1000 microns astronomical observations. To date, over 1300 journal articles and 10 major survey catalogs are included in this data base, which contains about 55,000 individual observations of about 10,000 different infrared sources. Of these, some 8,000 sources are identifiable with visible objects, and about 2,000 do not have known visible counterparts.

  8. Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-05-01

    The infrared astronomical data base and its principal data product, the catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), comprise a machine readable library of infrared (1 microns to 1000 microns astronomical observations. To date, over 1300 journal articles and 10 major survey catalogs are included in this data base, which contains about 55,000 individual observations of about 10,000 different infrared sources. Of these, some 8,000 sources are identifiable with visible objects, and about 2,000 do not have known visible counterparts.

  9. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Bahamas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - a country consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets - of which only 30 are actually inhabited. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  10. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Outdoor Area Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-01

    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  11. A Portrait of Pre-kindergarten. FPG Snapshot #28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Multi-State Study of Pre-kindergarten by the National Center for Early Development & Learning (NCEDL) offers a first glance at pre-K children, teachers, and classroom quality in six states. This Snapshot overviews three recent articles co-authored by FPG scientists that summarize findings of the study about children, pre-K teachers, and…

  12. Connecting Kids to Technology: Challenges and Opportunities. KIDS COUNT Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Tony; Carmen, Delia; Reynolds, Megan

    The 2000 KIDS COUNT Data Book examined the isolation that plagues many low-income families. The lack of home Internet access will only deepen the isolation as opportunities and meaningful connections to support services become primarily available online. This snapshot examines the demographics of the digital divide between those who have and those…

  13. Snapshots of mathematics teacher noticing during task design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Ban Heng

    2016-08-01

    Designing a mathematically worthwhile task is critical for promoting students' reasoning. To improve task design skills, teachers often engage in collaborative lesson planning activities such as lesson study. However, to learn from the process of lesson study, it is important for teachers to notice productively the concepts, students' confusion and the design of the task. But what researchers mean by productive noticing varies. In this article, I present the FOCUS Framework which highlights two characteristics of productive noticing: having an explicit focus for noticing and focusing noticing through pedagogical reasoning. Using these two characteristics, I develop snapshots of noticing as a representation of practice to present a fine-grained analysis of teacher noticing. Through vignettes of teachers discussing the design of a task to teach fractions, I illustrate how two teachers' noticing can be analysed and represented using snapshots of noticing. To conclude, I highlight what snapshots of noticing tell us about a teacher's noticing and suggest ways to use these snapshots in future studies of noticing.

  14. SNAP/SHOT Your Ability to Support That Next Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ernest L.

    SNAP/SHOT (System Network Analysis Program-Simulated Host Overview Technique) is a discrete simulation of a network and/or host model available through IBM at the Raleigh System Center. The simulator provides an analysis of a total IBM Communications System. Input data must be obtained from RMF, SMF, and the CICS Analyzer to determine the existing…

  15. Drama and Theatre Education in Canada: A Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mindy R.

    2014-01-01

    This "Note from the Field" provides an overview of what is happening in Kindergarten to University drama and theatre education across Canada. In addition to this snapshot I offer some considerations for extending this discipline and its potential impact on curriculum, policy and practice.

  16. CALiPER Snapshot Report: MR16 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  17. Phase correction algorithms for a snapshot hyperspectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Victoria C.; Kudenov, Michael; Dereniak, Eustace

    2015-09-01

    We present image processing algorithms that improve spatial and spectral resolution on the Snapshot Hyperspectral Imaging Fourier Transform (SHIFT) spectrometer. Final measurements are stored in the form of threedimensional datacubes containing the scene's spatial and spectral information. We discuss calibration procedures, review post-processing methods, and present preliminary results from proof-of-concept experiments.

  18. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Turks & Caicos (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile presents a snapshot of the electricity generation and reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Turks and Caicos - a British overseas territory consisting of two groups of islands located southeast of the Bahamas. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  19. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Lucia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Saint Lucia, one of six Caribbean countries that make up the Windward Islands - the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles chain - at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  20. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Indoor LED Luminaires

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  1. pyGadgetReader: GADGET snapshot reader for python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert

    2014-11-01

    pyGadgetReader is a universal GADGET snapshot reader for python that supports type-1, type-2, HDF5, and TIPSY (ascl:1111.015) binary formats. It additionally supports reading binary outputs from FoF_Special, P-StarGroupFinder, Rockstar (ascl:1210.008), and Rockstar-Galaxies.

  2. Snapshots of mathematics teacher noticing during task design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Ban Heng

    2016-09-01

    Designing a mathematically worthwhile task is critical for promoting students' reasoning. To improve task design skills, teachers often engage in collaborative lesson planning activities such as lesson study. However, to learn from the process of lesson study, it is important for teachers to notice productively the concepts, students' confusion and the design of the task. But what researchers mean by productive noticing varies. In this article, I present the FOCUS Framework which highlights two characteristics of productive noticing: having an explicit focus for noticing and focusing noticing through pedagogical reasoning. Using these two characteristics, I develop snapshots of noticing as a representation of practice to present a fine-grained analysis of teacher noticing. Through vignettes of teachers discussing the design of a task to teach fractions, I illustrate how two teachers' noticing can be analysed and represented using snapshots of noticing. To conclude, I highlight what snapshots of noticing tell us about a teacher's noticing and suggest ways to use these snapshots in future studies of noticing.

  3. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. III. X-Ray to Infrared Spectra of 11 M and K Stars Hosting Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, R. O. P.; France, Kevin; Youngblood, Allison; Schneider, Christian; Brown, Alexander; Hu, Renyu; Linsky, Jeffrey; Froning, Cynthia S.; Redfield, Seth; Rugheimer, Sarah; Tian, Feng

    2016-06-01

    We present a catalog of panchromatic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 7 M and 4 K dwarf stars that span X-ray to infrared wavelengths (5 Å -5.5 μm). These SEDs are composites of Chandra or XMM-Newton data from 5-˜50 Å, a plasma emission model from ˜50-100 Å, broadband empirical estimates from 100-1170 Å, Hubble Space Telescope data from 1170-5700 Å, including a reconstruction of stellar Lyα emission at 1215.67 Å, and a PHOENIX model spectrum from 5700-55000 Å. Using these SEDs, we computed the photodissociation rates of several molecules prevalent in planetary atmospheres when exposed to each star’s unattenuated flux (“unshielded” photodissociation rates) and found that rates differ among stars by over an order of magnitude for most molecules. In general, the same spectral regions drive unshielded photodissociations both for the minimally and maximally FUV active stars. However, for O3 visible flux drives dissociation for the M stars whereas near-UV flux drives dissociation for the K stars. We also searched for an far-UV continuum in the assembled SEDs and detected it in 5/11 stars, where it contributes around 10% of the flux in the range spanned by the continuum bands. An ultraviolet continuum shape is resolved for the star ɛ Eri that shows an edge likely attributable to Si ii recombination. The 11 SEDs presented in this paper, available online through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes, will be valuable for vetting stellar upper-atmosphere emission models and simulating photochemistry in exoplanet atmospheres.

  4. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. III. X-Ray to Infrared Spectra of 11 M and K Stars Hosting Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, R. O. P.; France, Kevin; Youngblood, Allison; Schneider, Christian; Brown, Alexander; Hu, Renyu; Linsky, Jeffrey; Froning, Cynthia S.; Redfield, Seth; Rugheimer, Sarah; Tian, Feng

    2016-06-01

    We present a catalog of panchromatic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 7 M and 4 K dwarf stars that span X-ray to infrared wavelengths (5 Å –5.5 μm). These SEDs are composites of Chandra or XMM-Newton data from 5–˜50 Å, a plasma emission model from ˜50–100 Å, broadband empirical estimates from 100–1170 Å, Hubble Space Telescope data from 1170–5700 Å, including a reconstruction of stellar Lyα emission at 1215.67 Å, and a PHOENIX model spectrum from 5700–55000 Å. Using these SEDs, we computed the photodissociation rates of several molecules prevalent in planetary atmospheres when exposed to each star’s unattenuated flux (“unshielded” photodissociation rates) and found that rates differ among stars by over an order of magnitude for most molecules. In general, the same spectral regions drive unshielded photodissociations both for the minimally and maximally FUV active stars. However, for O3 visible flux drives dissociation for the M stars whereas near-UV flux drives dissociation for the K stars. We also searched for an far-UV continuum in the assembled SEDs and detected it in 5/11 stars, where it contributes around 10% of the flux in the range spanned by the continuum bands. An ultraviolet continuum shape is resolved for the star ɛ Eri that shows an edge likely attributable to Si ii recombination. The 11 SEDs presented in this paper, available online through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes, will be valuable for vetting stellar upper-atmosphere emission models and simulating photochemistry in exoplanet atmospheres.

  5. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    SciTech Connect

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Reid, I. Neill; Flateau, Davin

    2014-02-20

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f{sub min}=27{sub −7}{sup +11}% over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  6. ASSEMBLY OF THE RED SEQUENCE IN INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE IRAC SHALLOW CLUSTER SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Brodwin, Mark; Mancone, Conor M.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell; Perlmutter, Saul

    2012-09-10

    We present results for the assembly and star formation histories (SFHs) of massive ({approx}L*) red sequence galaxies (RSGs) in 11 spectroscopically confirmed, infrared-selected galaxy clusters at 1.0 < z < 1.5, the precursors to present-day massive clusters with M {approx} 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. Using rest-frame optical photometry, we investigate evolution in the color and scatter of the RSG population, comparing with models of possible SFHs. In contrast to studies of central cluster galaxies at lower redshift (z < 1), these data are clearly inconsistent with the continued evolution of stars formed and assembled primarily at a single, much earlier time. Specifically, we find that the colors of massive cluster galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 1.5 imply that the bulk of star formation occurred at z {approx} 3, whereas by z Almost-Equal-To 1 their colors imply formation at z {approx} 2; therefore these galaxies exhibit approximately the same luminosity-weighted stellar age at 1 < z < 1.5. This likely reflects star formation that occurs over an extended period, the effects of significant progenitor bias, or both. Our results generally indicate that massive cluster galaxy populations began forming a significant mass of stars at z {approx}> 4, contained some red spheroids by z Almost-Equal-To 1.5, and were actively assembling much of their final mass during 1 < z < 2 in the form of younger stars. Qualitatively, the slopes of the cluster color-magnitude relations are consistent with no significant evolution relative to local clusters.

  7. The COSMOS-WIRCam Near-Infrared Imaging Survey. I. BzK-Selected Passive and Star-Forming Galaxy Candidates at z gsim 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, H. J.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Thompson, D.; Daddi, E.; Sanders, D. B.; Kneib, J.-P.; Willott, C. J.; Mancini, C.; Renzini, A.; Cook, R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mellier, Y.; Murayama, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Shioya, Y.; Tanaguchi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new near-infrared survey covering the 2 deg2 COSMOS field conducted using WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. By combining our near-infrared data with Subaru B and z images, we construct a deep, wide-field optical-infrared catalog. At K s < 23 (AB magnitudes), our survey completeness is greater than 90% and 70% for stars and galaxies, respectively, and contains 143,466 galaxies and 13,254 stars. Using the BzK diagram, we divide our galaxy catalog into quiescent and star-forming galaxy candidates. At z ~ 2, our catalogs contain 3931 quiescent and 25,757 star-forming galaxies representing the largest and most secure sample at these depths and redshifts to date. Our counts of quiescent galaxies turns over at K s ~ 22, an effect that we demonstrate cannot be due to sample incompleteness. Both the number of faint and bright quiescent objects in our catalogs exceed the predictions of a recent semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, indicating potentially the need for further refinements in the amount of merging and active galactic nucleus feedback at z ~ 2 in these models. We measure the angular correlation function for each sample and find that the slope of the field galaxy correlation function flattens to 1.5 by K s ~ 23. At small angular scales, the angular correlation function for passive BzK galaxies is considerably in excess of the clustering of dark matter. We use precise 30-band photometric redshifts to derive the spatial correlation length and the redshift distributions for each object class. At K s < 22, we find r γ/1.8 0 = 7.0 ± 0.5h -1 Mpc for the passive BzK candidates and 4.7 ± 0.8 h -1 Mpc for the star-forming BzK galaxies. Our pBzK galaxies have an average photometric redshift of zp ~ 1.4, in approximate agreement with the limited spectroscopic information currently available. The stacked K s image will be made publicly available from IRSA. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National

  8. Near-Infrared high resolution spectral survey of comets with GIANO/TNG: The CN red-system at 1.1 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, Sara; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; Tozzi, Gian-Paolo; Brucato, John Robert

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared spectral range is a powerful tool to investigate chemical composition and isotopic fractionation.Comets are the best preserved relic of the enfant stages of the solar system. By targeting biologically relevant species in cometary comae and retrieving isotopic (e.g. D/H) and spin isomeric (e.g., ortho- and para- water) ratios, we can study the formation and evolution of solar system matter, address the origin of Earth's oceans and characterize the delivery of organic matter that was essential for the appearance of life on early Earth. We initiated the first high resolution spectral survey of comets ever conducted in the 0.9-2.5 μm range, targeting C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), C/2013 US10 (Catalina) and C/2013 X1 (Panstarrs) with GIANO - the near-IR high resolution spectrograph on Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). In comet Lovejoy, we detected eight ro-vibrational bands of H2O (Faggi et al., 2016, ApJ in press), emission from the red-system of CN, and many other emission lines whose precursors are now being identified. In this talk we will present a new quantum mechanical solar fluorescence model for the CN red system and the retrievals obtained with it from our cometary spectra. These observations open new pathways for cometary science in the near-infrared spectral range (0.9-2.5 μm) and establish the feasibility of astrobiology-related scientific investigations with future high resolution IR spectrographs on 30-m class telescopes, e.g., the HIRES spectrograph on the E-ELT telescope. This work is part of Sara Faggi's Ph.D. thesis project. NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program supported GLV and MJM through funding awarded under proposal 11-PAST11-0045 (M. J. Mumma, PI ).

  9. ISO deep far-infrared survey in the ``Lockman Hole". II. Power spectrum analysis: evidence of a strong evolution in number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhara, H.; Kawara, K.; Sato, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Okuda, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Sofue, Y.; Wakamatsu, K.; Cowie, L. L.; Joseph, R. D.; Sanders, D. B.

    2000-09-01

    We investigate the characteristics of FIR brightness fluctuations at 90 mu m and 170 mu m in the Lockman Hole, which were surveyed with ISOPHOT aboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We first calculated the angular correlation function of each field and then its Fourier transform (the angular Power Spectral Density: PSD) over the spatial frequency range of f=0.05-1 arcmin-1. The PSDs are found to be rather flat at low spatial frequencies (f <= 0.1 arcmin-1), slowly decreasing toward higher frequencies. These spectra are unlike the power-law ones seen in the IR cirrus fluctuations, and are well explained by randomly distributed point sources. Furthermore, point-to-point comparison between 90 mu m and 170 mu m brightness shows a linear correlation between them, and the slope of the linear fit is much shallower than that expected from the IR cirrus color, and is consistent with the color of galaxies at low or moderate redshift (z<1). We conclude that the brightness fluctuations in the Lockman Hole are not caused by the IR cirrus, but are most likely due to faint star-forming galaxies. We also give the constraints on the galaxy number counts down to 35 mJy at 90 mu m and 60 mJy at 170 mu m, which indicate the existence of a strong evolution down to these fluxes in the counts. The galaxies responsible for the fluctuations also significantly contribute to the cosmic infrared background radiation. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA. The ISOPHOT data presented in this paper was reduced using PIA, which is a joint development by ESA Astrophysics Division and the ISOPHOT consortium.

  10. Infrared astronomical data base and catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, M.; Gezari, D. Y.; Mead, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a computer data base of infrared astronomical observations. The data base represents a machine-readable library of infrared observational data published in the relevant literature since 1960 for celestial sources outside the solar system. It likewise includes the contents of infrared surveys and catalogs. A catalog of infrared observations has been developed in both printed and magnetic-tape formats. The data base will be accessed through a bibliographic guide and an atlas of infrared source names and positions. Future plans also include two-dimensional graphical displays of infrared data and a user-interactive data terminal.

  11. A Near-Infrared Spectral Survey of Hungaria Region Asteroids: Compositionally Diverse Neighbors of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2015-11-01

    The surface compositions of Hungaria region asteroids are poorly understood. These neighbors to the terrestrial planets are unique as they are found interior to the Main-belt and have resided in their current location since early in solar system history. Mars-crossing and near-Earth asteroids make closer approaches to the terrestrial planets, but they are dynamically short-lived (~10 Myr) escapees from the Main-belt. Original planetesimals within the terrestrial planet region were either accreted or scattered out early in solar system history, leaving the Hungarias as the closest remaining “survivors” of the asteroidal material from which the terrestrial planets accreted.We have undertaken an observational campaign to record the near-infrared reflectance spectra of 42 (36 background; 6 family) Hungaria asteroids with absolute magnitudes Hv <16 to characterize their surface mineralogy through spectral band parameter measurements. By comparing these telescopic data with spectral and geochemical data obtained in the laboratory from “free” asteroid samples that arrive to Earth as meteorites, we can establish connections between Hungaria asteroids and analogous meteorite groups.We find evidence of three main meteorite-groups represented in the Hungaria region; 1) enstatite achondrites (i.e., aubrites), 2) ordinary chondrites (i.e., H, L, and LL), and 3) primitive achondrites (i.e., acapulcoites and lodranites). Five of the six Hungaria family members are spectrally consistent with the largest collisional fragment (434) Hungaria, which is widely considered to be related to fully-melted aubrite meteorites. Analyses of spectral band centers and band area ratios for 25 of 36 Hungaria background objects reveal evidence for two other meteorite groups. Published laboratory data for ordinary chondrites compared with our asteroid spectra point to the existence of unmelted L and LL chondrites in the region. Preliminary results from the laboratory analyses of our suite of

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy of M dwarfs. IV. A preliminary survey on the carbon isotopic ratio in M dwarfs*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Carbon isotopic ratios are estimated in 48 M dwarfs based on the medium resolution near infrared spectra (λ/Δ λ ≈ 20000) of the 13CO (3,1) band. We find clear evidence for the presence of a 13CO feature for the first time in the spectra of M dwarfs. Spectral resolution of our observed data, however, is not high enough to analyze the 13CO feature directly. Instead, we compare the observed spectrum with synthetic spectra assuming 12C/13C = 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 for each of 48 M dwarfs and estimate the best possible 12C/13C ratio by chi-square analysis. The resulting 12C/13C ratios in M dwarfs distribute from 39 to a lower limit of 200. The mean value of 31 M dwarfs for which 12C/13C ratios are determined (i.e., excluding those with the lower limit only) is (12C/13C)dM = 87 ± 21 (p.e.), and that of 48 M dwarfs including those with the lower limit of 200 is (12C/13C)dM > 127 ± 41 (p.e.). These results are somewhat larger than the 12C/13C ratio of the present interstellar matter (ISM) determined from the molecular lines observed in the millimeter and optical wavelength regions. Since the amount of 13C in the ISM has increased with time due to mass loss from evolved stars, the 12C/13C ratios in M dwarfs, reflecting those of the past ISM, should be larger than those of the present ISM. In M dwarfs, log 13C/12C plotted against log AC shows a large scatter without clear dependence on the metallicity. This result shows a marked contrast to log 16O/12C (= log AO/AC) plotted against log AC, which shows a rather tight correlation with a larger value at the lower metallicity. Such a contrast can be a natural consequence of 16O and 12C being primary products in stellar nuclear synthesis while 13C is a secondary product, at least partly.

  13. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II - The IRAS faint source survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.; Conrow, T. P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling.

  14. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M. Queen Mary College, London )

    1990-07-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs.

  15. Optical/near-infrared polarization survey of Sh 2-29: Magnetic fields, dense cloud fragmentations, and anomalous dust grain sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Fábio P.; Franco, Gabriel A. P.; Reis, Wilson; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G. E-mail: franco@fisica.ufmg.br E-mail: roman@dfuls.cl

    2014-03-01

    Sh 2-29 is a conspicuous star-forming region marked by the presence of massive embedded stars as well as several notable interstellar structures. In this research, our goals were to determine the role of magnetic fields and to study the size distribution of interstellar dust particles within this turbulent environment. We have used a set of optical and near-infrared polarimetric data obtained at OPD/LNA (Brazil) and CTIO (Chile), correlated with extinction maps, Two Micron All Sky Survey data, and images from the Digitized Sky Survey and Spitzer. The region's most striking feature is a swept out interstellar cavity whose polarimetric maps indicate that magnetic field lines were dragged outward, piling up along its borders. This led to a higher magnetic strength value (≈400 μG) and an abrupt increase in polarization degree, probably due to an enhancement in alignment efficiency. Furthermore, dense cloud fragmentations with peak A{sub V} between 20 and 37 mag were probably triggered by its expansion. The presence of 24 μm point-like sources indicates possible newborn stars inside this dense environment. A statistical analysis of the angular dispersion function revealed areas where field lines are aligned in a well-ordered pattern, seemingly due to compression effects from the H II region expansion. Finally, Serkowski function fits were used to study the ratio of the total-to-selective extinction, revealing a dual population of anomalous grain particle sizes. This trend suggests that both effects of coagulation and fragmentation of interstellar grains are present in the region.

  16. a Goes-W Satellite Thermal Infrared Survey (2006-2014) Over South Western us Earthquake Prone Area: Preliminary Results on 24 August 2014 Napa Earthquake (M=6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Genzano, N.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Satriano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The RST (Robust Satellite Technique) methodology has been widely applied to tens of earthquakes occurred in different continents (Europe, Asia, America and Africa), in various geo-tectonic settings (compressive, extensional and transcurrent) and with a wide range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9) trying to identify anomalous fluctuations of the Earth's emitted TIR (Thermal InfraRed) radiation in possible relation with earthquake occurrence discriminating them from those variations due to other causes. An extended study is presented in the AGU2014 NH008 session by Tramutoli et al. which is devoted to verify to which extent Significant (space-time persistent, non-spurious) Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) appear within prefixed space-time windows around earthquakes of magnitude M>4 occurred on 6 years (2006-2011) over South Western US seismic area. Results of such a study (with a rate of false positive of 35%) give an idea on the possible relevance of RST based TIR surveys in the framework of an operational, multi-parametric system for time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH). In this paper all the data available from the new GOES-W satellite (in orbit in between 2010 and 2014) have been analysed by the same way in the case of the earthquake occurred on 24 August 2014 (M=6) over Napa valley (California). The results presented in this paper, even if still preliminary, seem to confirm the significance of RST based TIR survey in a t-DASH perspective. It should however mentioned, that such an approach (even if not devoted to be used for short-term Earthquake Forecast outside a multiparametric t-DASH system), when compared with whatever traditional OEF (Operational Earthquake Forecast) method (like the one abandoned ten years ago in US but recently re-proposed for Italy) seems already to gives forecast reliabilities of orders of magnitude greater.

  17. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. II. PROPERTIES OF WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE NDWFS BOOeTES FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Blain, A. W.; Brodwin, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Donoso, E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Yan, L.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Stanford, S. A.; Wu, J.

    2013-07-20

    Stern et al. presented a study of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 2 deg{sup 2} COSMOS field, finding that a simple criterion W1-W2 {>=} 0.8 provides a highly reliable and complete AGN sample for W2 < 15.05, where the W1 and W2 passbands are centered at 3.4 {mu}m and 4.6 {mu}m, respectively. Here we extend this study using the larger 9 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field which also has considerably deeper WISE observations than the COSMOS field, and find that this simple color cut significantly loses reliability at fainter fluxes. We define a modified selection criterion combining the W1-W2 color and the W2 magnitude to provide highly reliable or highly complete AGN samples for fainter WISE sources. In particular, we define a color-magnitude cut that finds 130 {+-} 4 deg{sup -2} AGN candidates for W2 < 17.11 with 90% reliability. Using the extensive UV through mid-IR broadband photometry available in this field, we study the spectral energy distributions of WISE AGN candidates. We find that, as expected, the WISE AGN selection can identify highly obscured AGNs, but that it is biased toward objects where the AGN dominates the bolometric luminosity output. We study the distribution of reddening in the AGN sample and discuss a formalism to account for sample incompleteness based on the step-wise maximum-likelihood method of Efstathiou et al. The resulting dust obscuration distributions depend strongly on AGN luminosity, consistent with the trend expected for a receding torus. At L{sub AGN} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}, 29% {+-} 7% of AGNs are observed as Type 1, while at {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} the fraction is 64% {+-} 13%. The distribution of obscuration values suggests that dust in the torus is present as both a diffuse medium and in optically thick clouds.

  18. A Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the N 49 Region around the Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater 0526-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klose, S.; Henden, A. A.; Geppert, U.; Greiner, J.; Guetter, H. H.; Hartmann, D. H.; Kouveliotou, C.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Stecklurn, B.; Vrba, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a deep near-infrared survey of the vicinity of supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which contains the soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 0526-66. Two of the four confirmed SGRs are potentially associated with compact stellar clusters. We thus searched for a similar association of SGR0526-66, and find the unexplored young stellar cluster SL 463 at a projected distance of approx. 30 pc from the SGR. This constitutes the third cluster-SGR link, and lends support to scenarios in which SGR progenitors originate in young, embedded clusters. If real, the cluster-SGR association constrains the age and thus the initial mass of these stars. In addition, our high-resolution images of the super- nova remnant N49 reveal an area of excess K-band flux in the southeastern part of the SNR. This feature coincides with the maximum flux area at 8.28 microns as detected by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX satellite), which we identify with IRAS 052594607.

  19. New Measurements of the Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations in Deep SpitzerllRAC Survey Data and their Cosmological Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Arendt, R. G.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Mather, J.; Moseley, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    We extend the previous measurements of CIB fluctuations to angular scales of less than or equal to 1 degree new data obtained in the course of the 2,000+ hour Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. Two fields with completed observations of approximately equal to 12 hr/pixel are analyzed for source-subtracted CIB fluctuations at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. The fields, EGS and UDS, cover a total area of approximately 0.25 deg and lie at high Galactic and Ecliptic latitudes, thus minimizing cirrus and zodiacal light contributions to the fluctuations. The observations have been conducted at 3 distinct epochs separated by about 6 months. As in our previous studies, the fields were assembled using the self-calibration method which is uniquely suitable for probing faint diffuse backgrounds. The assembled fields were cleaned off the bright sources down to the low shot noise levels corresponding to AB mag approximately equal to 25, Fourier-transformed and their power spectra evaluated. The noise was estimated from the time-differenced data and subtracted from the signal isolating the fluctuations remaining above the noise levels. The power spectra of the source-subtracted fields remain identical (within the observational uncertainties) for the three epochs of observations indicating that zodiacal light contributes negligibly to the fluctuations. By comparing to the measurements for the same regions at 8 micrometers we demonstrate that Galactic cirrus cannot account for the levels of the fluctuations either. The signal appears isotropically distributed on the sky as required by its origin in the CIB fluctuations. This measurement thus extends our earlier results to the important range of sub-degree scales. We find that the CIB fluctuations continue to diverge to more than 10 times those of known galaxy populations on angular scales out to less than or equal to 1 degree. The low shot noise levels remaining in the diffuse maps indicate that the large scale fluctuations arise from spatial

  20. A LABOCA SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH-SUBMILLIMETER PROPERTIES OF NEAR-INFRARED SELECTED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, T. R.; Walter, F.; Bell, E. F.; Dannerbauer, H.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E.; Weiss, A.; Kovacs, A.; Smail, I.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Alexander, D.; Zheng, X. Z.; Knudsen, K. K.; Bertoldi, F.; De Breuck, C.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Lutz, D.; Brandt, N.; Chapman, S. C.

    2010-08-10

    Using the 330 hr ESO-MPG 870 {mu}m survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) obtained with the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX), we have carried out a stacking analysis at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths of a sample of 8266 near-infra-red (near-IR) selected (K {sub vega} {<=} 20) galaxies, including 893 BzK galaxies, 1253 extremely red objects (EROs), and 737 distant red galaxies (DRGs), selected from the Multi-wavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). We measure average 870 {mu}m fluxes of 0.22 {+-} 0.01 mJy (22.0{sigma}), 0.48 {+-} 0.04 mJy (12.0{sigma}), 0.39 {+-} 0.03 mJy (13.0{sigma}), and 0.43 {+-} 0.04 mJy (10.8{sigma}) for the K {sub vega} {<=} 20, BzK, ERO, and DRG samples, respectively. For the BzK, ERO, and DRG sub-samples, which overlap to some degree and are likely to be at z {approx_equal} 1-2, this implies an average far-IR luminosity of {approx}(1-5) x 10{sup 11} L{sub sun} and star formation rate (SFR) of {approx}20-90 M{sub sun} . Splitting the BzK galaxies into star-forming (sBzK) and passive (pBzK) galaxies, the former is significantly detected (0.50 {+-} 0.04 mJy, 12.5{sigma}) while the latter is only marginally detected (0.34 {+-} 0.10 mJy, 3.4{sigma}), thus confirming that the sBzK and pBzK criteria to some extent select obscured, star-forming, and truly passive galaxies, respectively. The K {sub vega} {<=} 20 galaxies are found to contribute 7.27 {+-} 0.34 Jy deg{sup -2} (16.5% {+-} 5.7%) to the 870 {mu}m extragalactic background light (EBL). sBzK and pBzK galaxies contribute 1.49 {+-} 0.22 Jy deg{sup -2} (3.4% {+-} 1.3%) and 0.20 {+-} 0.14 Jy deg{sup -2} (0.5% {+-} 0.3%) to the EBL. We present the first delineation of the average submm signal from the K {sub vega} {<=} 20 selected galaxies and their contribution to the submm EBL as a function of (photometric) redshift, and find a decline in the average submm signal (and therefore IR luminosity and SFR) by a factor {approx}2

  1. Mental Snapshots: Creating an Organized Plan for Health Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fosbrook, Susan Curro

    2015-01-01

    Beginning nursing students enter a rapidly moving and changing health care climate. Multiple stimulations can frighten and overwhelm the student's ability to find order of essential patient information. Students need to know how to collect, process, and manage important health data accurately and efficiently in the clinical setting. An integrative method for teaching nursing students to walk into the patient's room and construct a patterned sequence of focused assessments assists students in creating an organized plan for health assessment. The Mental Snapshots Method includes three components for health assessment: (a) sequential assessment steps of the patient; (b) color-coded visual images of the patient representing a bodily condition; and (c) focused assessment questions of primary health complaint(s) with a plan for nursing care. This mental snapshots strategy employs an information processing model of sensory, memory, and motor functioning, which enable students to maintain patient quality and safety. PMID:26428347

  2. Multi-spectral compressive snapshot imaging using RGB image sensors.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Hoover; Lau, Daniel; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-05-01

    Compressive sensing is a powerful sensing and reconstruction framework for recovering high dimensional signals with only a handful of observations and for spectral imaging, compressive sensing offers a novel method of multispectral imaging. Specifically, the coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI) system has been demonstrated to produce multi-spectral data cubes color images from a single snapshot taken by a monochrome image sensor. In this paper, we expand the theoretical framework of CASSI to include the spectral sensitivity of the image sensor pixels to account for color and then investigate the impact on image quality using either a traditional color image sensor that spatially multiplexes red, green, and blue light filters or a novel Foveon image sensor which stacks red, green, and blue pixels on top of one another. PMID:25969307

  3. Serial snapshot crystallography for materials science with SwissFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Dejoie, Catherine; Smeets, Stef; Baerlocher, Christian; Tamura, Nobumichi; Pattison, Philip; Abela, Rafael; McCusker, Lynne B.

    2015-04-21

    New opportunities for studying (sub)microcrystalline materials with small unit cells, both organic and inorganic, will open up when the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) presently being constructed in Switzerland (SwissFEL) comes online in 2017. Our synchrotron-based experiments mimicking the 4%-energy-bandpass mode of the SwissFEL beam show that it will be possible to record a diffraction pattern of up to 10 randomly oriented crystals in a single snapshot, to index the resulting reflections, and to extract their intensities reliably. The crystals are destroyed with each XFEL pulse, but by combining snapshots from several sets of crystals, a complete set of data can be assembled, and crystal structures of materials that are difficult to analyze otherwise will become accessible. Even with a single shot, at least a partial analysis of the crystal structure will be possible, and with 10–50 femtosecond pulses, this offers tantalizing possibilities for time-resolved studies.

  4. Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS).

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Smith, R Theodore; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2012-01-01

    We present a snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) for eye imaging applications. The resulting system is capable of simultaneously acquiring 48 spectral channel images in the range 470 nm-650 nm with frame rate at 5.2 fps. The spatial sampling of each measured spectral scene is 350 × 350 pixels. The advantages of this snapshot device are elimination of the eye motion artifacts and pixel misregistration problems in traditional scanning-based hyperspectral retinal cameras, and real-time imaging of oxygen saturation dynamics with sub-second temporal resolution. The spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a human retinal imaging experiment in vivo. The absorption spectral signatures of oxy-hemoglobin and macular pigments were successfully acquired by using this device. PMID:22254167

  5. Snapshot RGB mapping of skin melanin and hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Oshina, Ilze

    2015-05-01

    The concept of snapshot red-green-blue (RGB) multispectral imaging was applied for skin chromophore mapping. Three monochromatic spectral images have been extracted from a single RGB image dataset at simultaneous illumination of skin by 473-, 532-, and 659-nm laser lines. The spectral images were further transformed into distribution maps of skin melanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin, related to pigmented and vascular skin malformations. The performance and clinical potential of the proposed technique are discussed.

  6. SnapShot: Nucleic acid immune sensors, part 2.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Veit

    2014-12-18

    The innate immune system has evolved sensors that can detect specific molecular fingerprints of non-self RNA or DNA. At the same time, some receptors respond to nucleic acids of both exogenous and endogenous origin, yet they are spatially segregated from endogenous nucleic acids. This SnapShot schematizes families and individual members of nucleic acid sensors with a focus on their ligands and the signaling pathways they employ.

  7. 5. Photographic copy of historic photography. Original snapshot print is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of historic photography. Original snapshot print is in narrative reports of the Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge for the 1930s, on file at the headquarters of the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Upham, North Dakota. DREDGING CHANNEL FOR THE SOURIS RIVER FOR DRAINAGE PURPOSES IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  8. 12. Photographic copy of historic photograph. Original snapshot print can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of historic photograph. Original snapshot print can be found in narrative reports of the Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge for the 1930s, on file at the headquarters of the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Upham, North Dakota. GATES OF DAM 320 ON APRIL 9, 1936 WITH ICE ON WATER 50 INCHES THICK - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 320, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  9. A tiny VIS-NIR snapshot multispectral camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geelen, Bert; Blanch, Carolina; Gonzalez, Pilar; Tack, Nicolaas; Lambrechts, Andy

    2015-03-01

    Spectral imaging can reveal a lot of hidden details about the world around us, but is currently confined to laboratory environments due to the need for complex, costly and bulky cameras. Imec has developed a unique spectral sensor concept in which the spectral unit is monolithically integrated on top of a standard CMOS image sensor at wafer level, hence enabling the design of compact, low cost and high acquisition speed spectral cameras with a high design flexibility. This flexibility has previously been demonstrated by imec in the form of three spectral camera architectures: firstly a high spatial and spectral resolution scanning camera, secondly a multichannel snapshot multispectral camera and thirdly a per-pixel mosaic snapshot spectral camera. These snapshot spectral cameras sense an entire multispectral data cube at one discrete point in time, extending the domain of spectral imaging towards dynamic, video-rate applications. This paper describes the integration of our per-pixel mosaic snapshot spectral sensors inside a tiny, portable and extremely user-friendly camera. Our prototype demonstrator cameras can acquire multispectral image cubes, either of 272x512 pixels over 16 bands in the VIS (470-620nm) or of 217x409 pixels over 25 bands in the VNIR (600-900nm) at 170 cubes per second for normal machine vision illumination levels. The cameras themselves are extremely compact based on Ximea xiQ cameras, measuring only 26x26x30mm, and can be operated from a laptop-based USB3 connection, making them easily deployable in very diverse environments.

  10. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-01

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones.

  11. Snapshots of Anderson localization beyond the ensemble average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dardiry, Ramy G. S.; Faez, Sanli; Lagendijk, Ad

    2012-09-01

    We study (1+1)D transverse localization of electromagnetic radiation at microwave frequencies directly by two-dimensional spatial scans. Since the longitudinal direction can be mapped onto time, our experiments provide unique snapshots of the buildup of localized waves. The evolution of the wave functions is compared with semianalytical calculations. Studies beyond ensemble averages reveal counterintuitive surprises. Oscillations of the wave functions are observed in space and explained in terms of a beating between the eigenstates.

  12. A Comprehensive Near-Infrared Spectral Survey of comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy): 0.9-2.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, Sara; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; Brucato, John Robert; Tozzi, Gian-Paolo; Oliva, Ernesto

    2015-11-01

    In February 2015, we acquired a comprehensive high resolution spectral survey of comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) in the 0.9-2.5 μm range, with GIANO - the near-IR spectrograph on TNG (the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in Canary Island, ES). We detected emission from multiple ro-vibrational bands of H2O, the red system of CN, and many other features whose precursors are now being identified. We also searched for overtone lines of other volatiles (e.g., CH4, CO, and C2) along with OH prompt and fluorescent emissions, and atomic carbon prompt emission at 9823/9850 Å. These species are relevant to astrobiology, owing to questions regarding the origin of water and organics on terrestrial planets.Comets are the most pristine bodies in the solar system and water is the most abundant constituent of cometary ice - its production rate is used to quantify cometary activity. Along with the water production rate, the newly discovered water bands offer the opportunity to measure the ortho-para ratio and nuclear spin temperature with high accuracy in a single instrument setting, thereby eliminating many sources of systematic error and permitting comparisons amongst comets. This can clarify the nature and meaning of the spin temperature in the cosmic context.High-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared (2.7 - 5 μm) is a well-established powerful tool for quantifying abundances of trace compounds and water in cometary comae. Implementing this approach in the near-IR region (0.9-2.5 μm) will extend this capability to new band systems and will also reduce thermal noise significantly.These observations open new pathways for cometary science in the near-infrared spectral range (0.9-2.5 μm) and establish the feasibility of astrobiology-related scientific investigations with future high resolution IR spectrographs on 30-m class telescopes, e.g., the HIRES spectrograph on the E-ELT telescope. This work is part of Sara Faggi’s Ph.D. thesis project.

  13. Demonstration of snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart polariscopes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qizhi; Zhang, Jing; DeHoog, Edward; Zhang, Chunmin

    2016-02-10

    In an earlier publication, [Appl. Opt.51, 5791 (2012)] we demonstrated by theoretical analysis that a snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart polariscopes (MSP-SIP) is comparable in carrier frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, and spatial resolution to a snapshot imaging polarimeter using conventional Savart polariscopes. In this investigation, numerical simulation is used to demonstrate the feasibility of MSP-SIP and investigate the limitation of the filtration and the Fourier analysis decoupling the polarization information encoded through the spatial modulation. In addition, a laboratory experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of MSP-SIP. The MSP-SIP operates on the principle of encoding polarization information within the spatial modulation of the image. This unique technology allows all Stokes parameters to be simultaneously recorded from every spatial position in an image with a single integration period of the imaging system. The device contains no moving parts and requires no scanning, allowing it to acquire data without the motion artifacts normally associated with a scanning polarimeter. In addition to snapshot imaging and static (no moving parts) capabilities, image processing is simple, and the device is compact and miniature. Therefore, we believe that MSP-SIP will be useful in many applications, such as remote sensing and bioscience.

  14. Limited-memory adaptive snapshot selection for proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Oxberry, Geoffrey M.; Kostova-Vassilevska, Tanya; Arrighi, Bill; Chand, Kyle

    2015-04-02

    Reduced order models are useful for accelerating simulations in many-query contexts, such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. However, offline training of reduced order models can have prohibitively expensive memory and floating-point operation costs in high-performance computing applications, where memory per core is limited. To overcome this limitation for proper orthogonal decomposition, we propose a novel adaptive selection method for snapshots in time that limits offline training costs by selecting snapshots according an error control mechanism similar to that found in adaptive time-stepping ordinary differential equation solvers. The error estimator used in this work is related to theory bounding the approximation error in time of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, and memory usage is minimized by computing the singular value decomposition using a single-pass incremental algorithm. Results for a viscous Burgers’ test problem demonstrate convergence in the limit as the algorithm error tolerances go to zero; in this limit, the full order model is recovered to within discretization error. The resulting method can be used on supercomputers to generate proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, or as a subroutine within hyperreduction algorithms that require taking snapshots in time, or within greedy algorithms for sampling parameter space.

  15. Demonstration of snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart polariscopes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qizhi; Zhang, Jing; DeHoog, Edward; Zhang, Chunmin

    2016-02-10

    In an earlier publication, [Appl. Opt.51, 5791 (2012)] we demonstrated by theoretical analysis that a snapshot imaging polarimeter using modified Savart polariscopes (MSP-SIP) is comparable in carrier frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, and spatial resolution to a snapshot imaging polarimeter using conventional Savart polariscopes. In this investigation, numerical simulation is used to demonstrate the feasibility of MSP-SIP and investigate the limitation of the filtration and the Fourier analysis decoupling the polarization information encoded through the spatial modulation. In addition, a laboratory experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of MSP-SIP. The MSP-SIP operates on the principle of encoding polarization information within the spatial modulation of the image. This unique technology allows all Stokes parameters to be simultaneously recorded from every spatial position in an image with a single integration period of the imaging system. The device contains no moving parts and requires no scanning, allowing it to acquire data without the motion artifacts normally associated with a scanning polarimeter. In addition to snapshot imaging and static (no moving parts) capabilities, image processing is simple, and the device is compact and miniature. Therefore, we believe that MSP-SIP will be useful in many applications, such as remote sensing and bioscience. PMID:26906358

  16. A Multi-Band Far-Infrared Survey with a Balloon-Borne Telescope. Final Report, 20 Nov. 1972 - 19 Feb. 1978. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, M. R.; Harwit, M.; Frederick, C.; Ward, D. B.; Melnick, G.; Stasavage, G.

    1978-01-01

    Nine additional radiation sources, above a 3-sigma confidence level of 1300 Jy, were identified at 100 microns by far infrared photometry of the galactic plane using a 0.4 meter aperture, liquid helium cooled, multichannel far infrared balloon-borne telescope. The instrument is described, including its electronics, pointing and suspension systems, and ground support equipment. Testing procedures and flight staging are discussed along with the reduction and analysis of the data acquired. The history of infrared astronomy is reviewed. General infrared techniques and the concerns of balloon astronomers are explored.

  17. A NEW INFRARED COLOR CRITERION FOR THE SELECTION OF 0 < z < 7 AGNs: APPLICATION TO DEEP FIELDS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR JWST SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Messias, H.; Afonso, J.; Salvato, M.; Mobasher, B.; Hopkins, A. M.

    2012-08-01

    It is widely accepted that observations at mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths enable the selection of galaxies with nuclear activity, which may not be revealed even in the deepest X-ray surveys. Many mid-IR color-color criteria have been explored to accomplish this goal and tested thoroughly in the literature. Besides missing many low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs), one of the main conclusions is that, with increasing redshift, the contamination by non-active galaxies becomes significant (especially at z {approx}> 2.5). This is problematic for the study of the AGN phenomenon in the early universe, the main goal of many of the current and future deep extragalactic surveys. In this work new near- and mid-IR color diagnostics are explored, aiming for improved efficiency-better completeness and less contamination-in selecting AGNs out to very high redshifts. We restrict our study to the James Webb Space Telescope wavelength range (0.6-27 {mu}m). The criteria are created based on the predictions by state-of-the-art galaxy and AGN templates covering a wide variety of galaxy properties, and tested against control samples with deep multi-wavelength coverage (ranging from the X-rays to radio frequencies). We show that the colors K{sub s} - [4.5], [4.5] - [8.0], and [8.0] - [24] are ideal as AGN/non-AGN diagnostics at, respectively, z {approx}< 1, 1 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.5, and z {approx}> 2.5-3. However, when the source redshift is unknown, these colors should be combined. We thus develop an improved IR criterion (using K{sub s} and IRAC bands, KI) as a new alternative at z {approx}< 2.5. KI does not show improved completeness (50%-60% overall) in comparison to commonly used Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) based AGN criteria, but is less affected by non-AGN contamination (revealing a >50%-90% level of successful AGN selection). We also propose KIM (using K{sub s} , IRAC, and MIPS 24 {mu}m bands, KIM), which aims to select AGN hosts from local distances to as far

  18. Infrared Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lascours, Jean; Albe, Virginie

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of simple and nontraditional experiments that enable students to discover the properties of infrared radiation by studying the propagation, reflection, diffusion, and refraction of infrared. The experiments rely on two modules, an infrared transmitter and an infrared receiver. (SAH)

  19. NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE GOODS-NORTH FIELD: SEARCH FOR LUMINOUS GALAXY CANDIDATES AT z {approx}> 6.5 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Hathi, Nimish P.; Mobasher, Bahram; Capak, Peter; Wang, Wei-Hao; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2012-09-20

    We present near-infrared (NIR; J and K{sub s}) survey of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N) field. The publicly available imaging data were obtained using the MOIRCS instrument on the 8.2 m Subaru and the WIRCam instrument on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These observations fulfill a serious wavelength gap in the GOODS-N data, i.e., lack of deep NIR observations. We combine the Subaru/MOIRCS and CFHT/WIRCam archival data to generate deep J- and K{sub s}-band images, covering the full GOODS-N field ({approx}169 arcmin{sup 2}) to an AB magnitude limit of {approx}25 mag (3{sigma}). We applied z{sub 850}-band dropout color selection criteria, using the NIR data generated here. We have identified two possible Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx}> 6.5 with J {approx}< 24.5. The first candidate is a likely LBG at z {approx_equal} 6.5 based on a weak spectral feature tentatively identified as Ly{alpha} line in the deep Keck/DEIMOS spectrum, while the second candidate is a possible LBG at z {approx_equal} 7 based on its photometric redshift. These z{sub 850}-dropout objects, if confirmed, are among the brightest such candidates found so far. At z {approx}> 6.5, their star formation rate is estimated as 100-200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. If they continue to form stars at this rate, they assemble a stellar mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} after about 400 million years, becoming the progenitors of massive galaxies observed at z {approx_equal} 5. We study the implication of the z{sub 850}-band dropout candidates discovered here, in constraining the bright end of the luminosity function and understanding the nature of high-redshift galaxies.

  20. A PUBLIC, K-SELECTED, OPTICAL-TO-NEAR-INFRARED CATALOG OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH (ECDFS) FROM THE MULTIWAVELENGTH SURVEY BY YALE-CHILE (MUSYC)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Edward N.; Franx, Marijn; Quadri, Ryan F.; Damen, Maaike; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Herrera, David; Gawiser, Eric; Bell, Eric F.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Castander, Francisco J.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Hall, Patrick B.; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Lira, Paulina; Maza, Jose; Rudnick, Gregory; Treister, Ezequiel

    2009-08-01

    We present a new, K-selected, optical-to-near infrared photometric catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), making it publicly available to the astronomical community.{sup 22}Imaging and spectroscopy data and catalogs are freely available through the MUSYC Public Data Release webpage: http://www.astro.yale.edu/MUSYC/. The data set is founded on publicly available imaging, supplemented by original z'JK imaging data collected as part of the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). The final photometric catalog consists of photometry derived from UU {sub 38} BVRIz'JK imaging covering the full 1/2 x 1/2 square circ of the ECDFS, plus H-band photometry for approximately 80% of the field. The 5{sigma} flux limit for point sources is K{sup (AB)}{sub tot}= 22.0. This is also the nominal completeness and reliability limit of the catalog: the empirical completeness for 21.75 < K < 22.00 is {approx}>85%. We have verified the quality of the catalog through both internal consistency checks, and comparisons to other existing and publicly available catalogs. As well as the photometric catalog, we also present catalogs of photometric redshifts and rest-frame photometry derived from the 10-band photometry. We have collected robust spectroscopic redshift determinations from published sources for 1966 galaxies in the catalog. Based on these sources, we have achieved a (1{sigma}) photometric redshift accuracy of {delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.036, with an outlier fraction of 7.8%. Most of these outliers are X-ray sources. Finally, we describe and release a utility for interpolating rest-frame photometry from observed spectral energy distributions, dubbed InterRest.{sup 23}InterRest is available via http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/{approx}ent/InterRest. Documentation and a complete walkthrough can be found at the same address.

  1. A Public, K-Selected, Optical-to-Near-Infrared Catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edward N.; Franx, Marijn; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Gawiser, Eric; Bell, Eric F.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Castander, Francisco J.; Damen, Maaike; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Hall, Patrick B.; Herrera, David; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Lira, Paulina; Maza, José; Rudnick, Gregory; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C. Megan; Willis, Jon P.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2009-08-01

    We present a new, K-selected, optical-to-near infrared photometric catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), making it publicly available to the astronomical community.22Imaging and spectroscopy data and catalogs are freely available through the MUSYC Public Data Release webpage: http://www.astro.yale.edu/MUSYC/. The data set is founded on publicly available imaging, supplemented by original z'JK imaging data collected as part of the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). The final photometric catalog consists of photometry derived from UU 38 BVRIz'JK imaging covering the full 1/2 × 1/2 square degrees of the ECDFS, plus H-band photometry for approximately 80% of the field. The 5σ flux limit for point sources is K^{(AB)}_{tot} = 22.0. This is also the nominal completeness and reliability limit of the catalog: the empirical completeness for 21.75 < K < 22.00 is gsim85%. We have verified the quality of the catalog through both internal consistency checks, and comparisons to other existing and publicly available catalogs. As well as the photometric catalog, we also present catalogs of photometric redshifts and rest-frame photometry derived from the 10-band photometry. We have collected robust spectroscopic redshift determinations from published sources for 1966 galaxies in the catalog. Based on these sources, we have achieved a (1σ) photometric redshift accuracy of Δz/(1 + z) = 0.036, with an outlier fraction of 7.8%. Most of these outliers are X-ray sources. Finally, we describe and release a utility for interpolating rest-frame photometry from observed spectral energy distributions, dubbed InterRest.23InterRest is available via http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~ent/InterRest. Documentation and a complete walkthrough can be found at the same address.

  2. Magellanic Cloud Structure from Near-Infrared Surveys. II. Star Count Maps and the Intrinsic Elongation of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2001-10-01

    I construct a near-IR star count map of the LMC and demonstrate, using the viewing angles derived in Paper I, that the LMC is intrinsically elongated. I argue that this is due to the tidal force from the Milky Way. The near-IR data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Deep Near-Infrared Southern Sky Survey (DENIS) are ideally suited for studies of LMC structure because of the large statistics and insensitivity to dust absorption. The survey data are used to create a star count map of red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch stars. The resulting LMC image shows the well-known bar but is otherwise quite smooth. Ellipse fitting is used for quantitative analysis. The radial number density profile is approximately exponential, with a scale length rd~1.3-1.5 kpc. However, there is an excess density at large radii that may be due to the tidal effect of the Milky Way. The position angle and ellipticity profile both show large radial variations but converge to P.A.maj=189.3d+/-1.4d and ɛ=0.199+/-0.008 for r>~5deg. At large radii, the image is influenced by viewing perspective (i.e., one side of the inclined LMC plane being closer to us than the other). This causes a drift of the center of the star count contours toward the near side of the plane. The observed drift is consistent with the position angle Θ=122.5d+/-8.3d of the list of nodes inferred in Paper I. The fact that Θ differs from P.A.maj indicates that the LMC disk is not circular. Deprojection shows that the LMC has an intrinsic ellipticity ɛ''=0.31 in its outer parts, considerably larger than typical for disk galaxies. The outer contours have a more or less common center, which lies ~0.4 kpc from the center of the bar. Neither agrees with the kinematic center of the H I gas disk. The LMC is elongated in the general direction of the Galactic center and is elongated perpendicular to the Magellanic Stream and the velocity vector of the LMC center of mass. This suggests that the elongation of the

  3. The WIRCam Deep Survey. I. Counts, colours, and mass-functions derived from near-infrared imaging in the CFHTLS deep fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielby, R.; Hudelot, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Daddi, E.; Le Fèvre, O.; Gonzalez-Perez, V.; Kneib, J.-P.; Marmo, C.; Mellier, Y.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Willott, C. J.

    2012-09-01

    We present a new near-infrared imaging survey in the four CFHTLS deep fields: the WIRCam Deep Survey or "WIRDS". WIRDS comprises extremely deep, high quality (FWHM ~ 0.6″) J, H, and Ks imaging covering a total effective area of 2.1 deg2 and reaching AB 50% completeness limits of ≈ 24.5. We combine our images with the CFHTLS to create a unique eight-band ugrizJHKS photometric catalogues in the four CFHTLS deep fields; these four separate fields allow us to make a robust estimate of the effect of cosmic variance for all our measurements. We use these catalogues in combination with ≈ 9800 spectroscopic redshifts to estimate precise photometric redshifts (σΔz/(1 + z) ≲ 0.03 at i < 25), galaxy types, star-formation rates and stellar masses for a unique sample of ≈ 1.8 million galaxies. Our JHKs number counts are consistent with previous studies. We apply the "BzK" selection to our gzK filter set and find that the star forming BzK selection successfully selects 76% of star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.4 < z < 2.5 in our photometric catalogue, based on our photometric redshift measurement. Similarly the passive BzK selection returns 52% of the passive 1.4 < z < 2.5 population identified in the photometric catalogue. We present the mass functions of the total galaxy population as a function of redshift up to z = 2 and present fits using double Schechter functions. A mass-dependent evolution of the mass function is seen with the numbers of galaxies with masses of M ≲ 1010.75 still evolving at z ≲ 1, but galaxies of higher mass reaching their present day numbers by z ~ 0.8-1. This is consistent with the present picture of downsizing in galaxy evolution. We compare our results with the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical galaxy formation model and find that the simulations provide a relatively successful fit to the observed mass functions at intermediate masses (i.e. 10 ≲ log (M/M⊙) ≲ 11). However, as is common with semi

  4. Snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter using polarization gratings.

    PubMed

    Kudenov, Michael W; Escuti, Michael J; Hagen, Nathan; Dereniak, Eustace L; Oka, Kazuhiko

    2012-04-15

    A snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SIMMP) is theoretically described and empirically demonstrated through simulation. Spatial polarization fringes are localized onto a sample by incorporating polarization gratings (PGs) into a polarization generator module. These fringes modulate the Mueller matrix (MM) components of the sample, which are subsequently isolated with PGs in an analyzer module. The MM components are amplitude modulated onto spatial carrier frequencies which, due to the PGs, maintain high visibility in spectrally broadband illumination. An interference model of the SIMMP is provided, followed by methods of reconstruction and calibration. Lastly, a numerical simulation is used to demonstrate the system's performance in the presence of noise. PMID:22513688

  5. Computer Generated Snapshot of Our Sun's Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These banana-shaped loops are part of a computer-generated snapshot of our sun's magnetic field. The solar magnetic-field lines loop through the sun's corona, break through the sun's surface, and cornect regions of magnetic activity, such as sunspots. This image --part of a magnetic-field study of the sun by NASA's Allen Gary -- shows the outer portion (skins) of interconnecting systems of hot (2 million degrees Kelvin) coronal loops within and between two active magnetic regions on opposite sides of the sun's equator. The diameter of these coronal loops at their foot points is approximately the same size as the Earth's radius (about 6,000 kilometers).

  6. Influence of the Viewing Geometry Within Hyperspectral Images Retrieved from Uav Snapshot Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasen, Helge

    2016-06-01

    Hyperspectral data has great potential for vegetation parameter retrieval. However, due to angular effects resulting from different sun-surface-sensor geometries, objects might appear differently depending on the position of an object within the field of view of a sensor. Recently, lightweight snapshot cameras have been introduced, which capture hyperspectral information in two spatial and one spectral dimension and can be mounted on unmanned aerial vehicles. This study investigates the influence of the different viewing geometries within an image on the apparent hyperspectral reflection retrieved by these sensors. Additionally, it is evaluated how hyperspectral vegetation indices like the NDVI are effected by the angular effects within a single image and if the viewing geometry influences the apparent heterogeneity with an area of interest. The study is carried out for a barley canopy at booting stage. The results show significant influences of the position of the area of interest within the image. The red region of the spectrum is more influenced by the position than the near infrared. The ability of the NDVI to compensate these effects was limited to the capturing positions close to nadir. The apparent heterogeneity of the area of interest is the highest close to a nadir.

  7. Making Science Teaching and Learning Visible through Web-Based "Snapshots of Practice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily H.; Roberts, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Documentary websites known as "snapshots of practice" provide vivid examples of teachers' inquiries into issues they have formulated in the context of their own teaching practices and students' learning. Designed with assistance from Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, snapshots of practice can be accessed in the K-12 section of…

  8. Occupational Task Profiles: Canadian Literacy and Essential Skills Workforce. A Pan-Canadian Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This "Pan-Canadian Snapshot" explores the competencies needed to work with adults participating in Literacy and/or Essential Skills (L/ES) programs in Canada. The purpose of the "Snapshot" is to: (1) lay a foundation from which to explore the topic of professionalism; (2) identify the types of supports that the L/ES workforce…

  9. The Role of "Family Snapshots" in Teaching Art History within a Dialogic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Studying images of families in works of art and in snapshots is compelling, and the author wondered if looking at both types of images side by side might help students understand both kinds of images more fully. Snapshots often prompt detailed and vivid stories among family members and friends. Therefore, she wondered if dialogue about snapshots…

  10. Beyond First Destinations. Graduate Employability Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Anita; Pell, Katherine; Brooke, Pam

    2004-01-01

    The First Destination Survey of new graduates provides only a snapshot of graduate employment. This longitudinal study explores more fully the career pathways taken by undergraduates from two programmes and examines which skills acquired at university contributed to successful employment and development of their careers. It was found that 99…

  11. Submillimeter and infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, T. G.

    An overview of the current state of submillimeter and infrared astronomy is given. In order to develop these fields, three areas must be considered. First, a platform immuned to atmospheric effects must be found, and satellites capable of supporting large telescopes must be designed. Current programs are considering specialized instruments such as COBE, a small cosmic background explorer; IRAS, a small cooled infrared survey telescope; and SIRTF, a small cooled infrared telescope. Second, a large area telescope with light gathering power and resolution, comparable to that available in the optical and radio, is essential to the program. Recent NASA studies have indicated the feasibility of constructing a 20 m diameter telescope with a 20 micron wavelength diffraction. Third, detectors are being developed which are near quantum noise limited, radio-style detectors. Questions which can be answered by submillimeter and infrared techniques pertain to star formation, existence of other planetary systems, and missing mass formation.

  12. Serial snapshot crystallography for materials science with SwissFEL

    PubMed Central

    Dejoie, Catherine; Smeets, Stef; Baerlocher, Christian; Tamura, Nobumichi; Pattison, Philip; Abela, Rafael; McCusker, Lynne B.

    2015-01-01

    New opportunities for studying (sub)microcrystalline materials with small unit cells, both organic and inorganic, will open up when the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) presently being constructed in Switzerland (SwissFEL) comes online in 2017. Our synchrotron-based experiments mimicking the 4%-energy-bandpass mode of the SwissFEL beam show that it will be possible to record a diffraction pattern of up to 10 randomly oriented crystals in a single snapshot, to index the resulting reflections, and to extract their intensities reliably. The crystals are destroyed with each XFEL pulse, but by combining snapshots from several sets of crystals, a complete set of data can be assembled, and crystal structures of materials that are difficult to analyze otherwise will become accessible. Even with a single shot, at least a partial analysis of the crystal structure will be possible, and with 10–50 femtosecond pulses, this offers tantalizing possibilities for time-resolved studies. PMID:25995845

  13. A Snapshot-Based Mechanism for Celestial Orientation.

    PubMed

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Khaldy, Lana; Byrne, Marcus J; Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily

    2016-06-01

    In order to protect their food from competitors, ball-rolling dung beetles detach a piece of dung from a pile, shape it into a ball, and roll it away along a straight path [1]. They appear to rely exclusively on celestial compass cues to maintain their bearing [2-8], but the mechanism that enables them to use these cues for orientation remains unknown. Here, we describe the orientation strategy that allows dung beetles to use celestial cues in a dynamic fashion. We tested the underlying orientation mechanism by presenting beetles with a combination of simulated celestial cues (sun, polarized light, and spectral cues). We show that these animals do not rely on an innate prediction of the natural geographical relationship between celestial cues, as other navigating insects seem to [9, 10]. Instead, they appear to form an internal representation of the prevailing celestial scene, a "celestial snapshot," even if that scene represents a physical impossibility for the real sky. We also find that the beetles are able to maintain their bearing with respect to the presented cues only if the cues are visible when the snapshot is taken. This happens during the "dance," a behavior in which the beetle climbs on top of its ball and rotates about its vertical axis [11]. This strategy for reading celestial signals is a simple but efficient mechanism for straight-line orientation. PMID:27185557

  14. SnapShot: Visualization to Propel Ice Hockey Analytics.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, H; Stolper, C D; Boyle, J M; Stasko, J T

    2012-12-01

    Sports analysts live in a world of dynamic games flattened into tables of numbers, divorced from the rinks, pitches, and courts where they were generated. Currently, these professional analysts use R, Stata, SAS, and other statistical software packages for uncovering insights from game data. Quantitative sports consultants seek a competitive advantage both for their clients and for themselves as analytics becomes increasingly valued by teams, clubs, and squads. In order for the information visualization community to support the members of this blossoming industry, it must recognize where and how visualization can enhance the existing analytical workflow. In this paper, we identify three primary stages of today's sports analyst's routine where visualization can be beneficially integrated: 1) exploring a dataspace; 2) sharing hypotheses with internal colleagues; and 3) communicating findings to stakeholders.Working closely with professional ice hockey analysts, we designed and built SnapShot, a system to integrate visualization into the hockey intelligence gathering process. SnapShot employs a variety of information visualization techniques to display shot data, yet given the importance of a specific hockey statistic, shot length, we introduce a technique, the radial heat map. Through a user study, we received encouraging feedback from several professional analysts, both independent consultants and professional team personnel.

  15. Serial snapshot crystallography for materials science with SwissFEL

    DOE PAGES

    Dejoie, Catherine; Smeets, Stef; Baerlocher, Christian; Tamura, Nobumichi; Pattison, Philip; Abela, Rafael; McCusker, Lynne B.

    2015-04-21

    New opportunities for studying (sub)microcrystalline materials with small unit cells, both organic and inorganic, will open up when the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) presently being constructed in Switzerland (SwissFEL) comes online in 2017. Our synchrotron-based experiments mimicking the 4%-energy-bandpass mode of the SwissFEL beam show that it will be possible to record a diffraction pattern of up to 10 randomly oriented crystals in a single snapshot, to index the resulting reflections, and to extract their intensities reliably. The crystals are destroyed with each XFEL pulse, but by combining snapshots from several sets of crystals, a complete set of datamore » can be assembled, and crystal structures of materials that are difficult to analyze otherwise will become accessible. Even with a single shot, at least a partial analysis of the crystal structure will be possible, and with 10–50 femtosecond pulses, this offers tantalizing possibilities for time-resolved studies.« less

  16. A Snapshot-Based Mechanism for Celestial Orientation.

    PubMed

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Khaldy, Lana; Byrne, Marcus J; Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily

    2016-06-01

    In order to protect their food from competitors, ball-rolling dung beetles detach a piece of dung from a pile, shape it into a ball, and roll it away along a straight path [1]. They appear to rely exclusively on celestial compass cues to maintain their bearing [2-8], but the mechanism that enables them to use these cues for orientation remains unknown. Here, we describe the orientation strategy that allows dung beetles to use celestial cues in a dynamic fashion. We tested the underlying orientation mechanism by presenting beetles with a combination of simulated celestial cues (sun, polarized light, and spectral cues). We show that these animals do not rely on an innate prediction of the natural geographical relationship between celestial cues, as other navigating insects seem to [9, 10]. Instead, they appear to form an internal representation of the prevailing celestial scene, a "celestial snapshot," even if that scene represents a physical impossibility for the real sky. We also find that the beetles are able to maintain their bearing with respect to the presented cues only if the cues are visible when the snapshot is taken. This happens during the "dance," a behavior in which the beetle climbs on top of its ball and rotates about its vertical axis [11]. This strategy for reading celestial signals is a simple but efficient mechanism for straight-line orientation.

  17. Harnessing Technology in Out-of-School Time Settings. Out-of-School Time Evaluation Snapshot. Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Family Research Project, Harvard University, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Harvard Family Research Project's series of Out-of-School Time Evaluation Snapshots distills the wealth of information compiled in our Out-of-School Time Program Evaluation Database and Bibliography into a single report. Each Snapshot examines a specific aspect of out-of-school time (OST) evaluation. This Snapshot draws on information from Harvard…

  18. Characterizing HII regions in High-z ULIRGs with far infrared fine structure lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbin, Drew; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Stacey, Gordon J.; Parshley, Stephen; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steve; Lamarche, Cody

    2015-01-01

    The nature of star-forming ULIRGs in the early Universe remains mysterious. Is their star formation fueled predominantly through cold flow accretion, or through major mergers? What fraction of the sources have AGN, and what is the stellar mass function powering the HII regions? Of particular importance to these questions is the characterization of the ionized gas properties, and the coupling with the cooler photodissociation region (PDR) gas. To address these issues we have undertaken a mini-survey of several z~1-2 luminous galaxies observed in multiple ionized oxygen far infrared fine structure lines. These fine structure lines allow us to constrain the density and radiation field of the ionized gas and test for the presence of harder AGN powered radiation. Coupled with previous data including the [CII] and [OI] fine structure lines emanating from PDR gas, we will also test the ability to simultaneously model both PDR and HII gas components. This survey, modest in extent, offers an illustrative snapshot of the diversity of systems in the early Universe.

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF DUSTY STAR FORMATION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS TO z = 1: SPITZER INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE FIRST RED-SEQUENCE CLUSTER SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, T. M. A.; O'Donnell, D.; Coppin, Kristen; Faloon, Ashley; Geach, James E.; Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C.; Gilbank, David; Ellingson, Erica; Gladders, Mike; Muzzin, Adam; Wilson, Gillian; Yan, Renbin

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of an infrared (IR) study of high-redshift galaxy clusters with the MIPS camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have assembled a sample of 42 clusters from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey-1 over the redshift range 0.3 < z < 1.0 and spanning an approximate range in mass of 10{sup 14-15} M {sub ☉}. We statistically measure the number of IR-luminous galaxies in clusters above a fixed inferred IR luminosity of 2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, assuming a star forming galaxy template, per unit cluster mass and find it increases to higher redshift. Fitting a simple power-law we measure evolution of (1 + z){sup 5.1±1.9} over the range 0.3 < z < 1.0. These results are tied to the adoption of a single star forming galaxy template; the presence of active galactic nuclei, and an evolution in their relative contribution to the mid-IR galaxy emission, will alter the overall number counts per cluster and their rate of evolution. Under the star formation assumption we infer the approximate total star formation rate per unit cluster mass (ΣSFR/M {sub cluster}). The evolution is similar, with ΣSFR/M {sub cluster} ∼ (1 + z){sup 5.4±1.9}. We show that this can be accounted for by the evolution of the IR-bright field population over the same redshift range; that is, the evolution can be attributed entirely to the change in the in-falling field galaxy population. We show that the ΣSFR/M {sub cluster} (binned over all redshift) decreases with increasing cluster mass with a slope (ΣSFR/M{sub cluster}∼M{sub cluster}{sup -1.5±0.4}) consistent with the dependence of the stellar-to-total mass per unit cluster mass seen locally. The inferred star formation seen here could produce ∼5%-10% of the total stellar mass in massive clusters at z = 0, but we cannot constrain the descendant population, nor how rapidly the star-formation must shut-down once the galaxies have entered the cluster environment. Finally, we show a clear decrease in the number of IR

  20. Infrared astronomical data base and catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Gezari, D. Y.; Mead, J. M.

    A computer data base of infrared astronomical observations has been established at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It contains a summary of all infrared (1-100 microns) observations of celestial sources outside the solar system, published in the major scientific journals since 1960, as well as the contents of infrared surveys and catalogs. A Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) has been developed from the data base in printed and magnetic tape versions. A bibliographic Guide to the Infrared Astronomical Literature, and an Altas of Infrared Source Names and Positions will be published in conjunction with the catalog. Future plans include development of an interactive data system at Goddard which will give a user direct access to the computerized data.

  1. Infrared astronomical data base and catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, M.; Gezari, D. Y.; Mead, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    A computer data base of infrared astronomical observations has been established at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It contains a summary of all infrared (1-100 microns) observations of celestial sources outside the solar system, published in the major scientific journals since 1960, as well as the contents of infrared surveys and catalogs. A Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) has been developed from the data base in printed and magnetic tape versions. A bibliographic Guide to the Infrared Astronomical Literature, and an Altas of Infrared Source Names and Positions will be published in conjunction with the catalog. Future plans include development of an interactive data system at Goddard which will give a user direct access to the computerized data.

  2. Modeling and optimization for a prismatic snapshot imaging polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haitao; Oka, Kazuhiko; Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Dereniak, Eustace L

    2006-11-20

    Thin birefringent prisms placed near an image plane introduce sinusoidal fringes onto a 2D polarized scene making possible a snapshot imaging polarimeter, which encodes polarization information into the modulation of the fringes. This approach was introduced by Oka and Kaneko [Opt. Express 11, 1510 (2003)], who analyzed the instrument through the Mueller calculus. We show that the plane-wave assumption adopted in the Mueller theory can introduce unnecessary error in a polarimeter design. To directly take prism effects such as beam splitting and deviating into accounts we introduce a geometric imaging model, which allows for a versatile simulation of the birefringent prisms and provides a means for optimization. A calcite visible system is investigated as an example, which essentially shows how each design parameter affects the overall image quality and how to modify the polarimeter design to optimize overall performance. The approach is applicable to any prismatic imaging polarimeter with different prism materials and different working wavelengths. PMID:17086247

  3. A snapshot of global health education at North American universities.

    PubMed

    Lencucha, Raphael; Mohindra, Katia

    2014-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in North America. It is widely agreed upon that global health is an important aspect of an education in the health sciences and increasingly in other disciplines such as law, economics and political science. There is currently a paucity of studies examining the content of global health courses at the post-secondary level. The purpose of our research is to identify the content areas being covered in global health curricula in North American universities, as a first step in mapping global health curricula across North America. We collected 67 course syllabi from 31 universities and analyzed the topics covered in the course. This snapshot of global health education will aid students searching for global health content, as well as educators and university administrators who are developing or expanding global health programs in Canada and the United States.

  4. Satellite Data Give Snapshot of the 2005 Pakistan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Satoshi; Tobita, Mikio; Sato, Hiroshi P.; Ozawa, Shinzaburo; Une, Hiroshi; Koarai, Mamoru; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Midori; Yarai, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takuya; Hayashi, Fumi

    2006-02-01

    While it is well-known that the collision of the Indian subcontinent with the Eurasian continent forms the Himalayas, the real-time spatial crustal movement of these plates is difficult to observe. However, scientists can witness a part of this process of the formation of the Himalayas through an eye in space: synthetic aperture radar (SAR). From the European Space Agency's Envisat, a satellite with SAR, the details of crustal deformation resulting from a major earthquake-a chance snapshot of the growth of the Himalayas-has been captured. Envisat's SAR has provided important data about the northern Pakistan earthquake (M7.6) of 8 October 2005, which occurred in the Kashmir region in the northwestern part of the Himalayas.

  5. Multiscale snapshot imaging spectrometer with large FOV and fast speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yiqun; Sasian, Jose; Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Jiankang

    2014-11-01

    A novel snapshot imaging spectrometer with large field-of-view (FOV) up to 100° is achieved by taking the advantages of a multiscale fore-optics and a compact Offner imaging spectrograph. Based on the diffraction imaging theory, the multiscale fore-optics composed of a monocentric spherical lens and multi-channel microlens array is designed, over which panchromatic images with small FOV are of uniform image quality. And identical imaging spectrographs with a dimension less than 30 cubic millimeters and with a high spectral resolution of about 2nm are designed correspondingly. The presented imaging spectrometer works at the visible wavelength range which is from 400nm to 780nm. It is of a fast speed about F/2.4 and a compact configuration of only 200mm×300mm×300mm in dimension. But the smile and keystone distortions are negligible.

  6. Snapshot fan beam coded aperture coherent scatter tomography.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mehadi; Greenberg, Joel A; Odinaka, Ikenna; Brady, David J

    2016-08-01

    We use coherently scattered X-rays to measure the molecular composition of an object throughout its volume. We image a planar slice of the object in a single snapshot by illuminating it with a fan beam and placing a coded aperture between the object and the detectors. We characterize the system and demonstrate a resolution of 13 mm in range and 2 mm in cross-range and a fractional momentum transfer resolution of 15%. In addition, we show that this technique allows a 100x speedup compared to previously-studied pencil beam systems using the same components. Finally, by scanning an object through the beam, we image the full 4-dimensional data cube (3 spatial and 1 material dimension) for complete volumetric molecular imaging.

  7. Light-guide snapshot spectrometer for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2016-04-01

    We present a proof-of-principle prototype of a fiber-based snapshot spectrometer to provide high spatial and spectral sampling for biomedical application such as cell signaling or diagnostics. An image is collected by a custom fiber bundle and then divided into spatial groups with spaces in between for dispersion. The image is later scaled down by an image taper (to scale down the image size and allow smaller optical components), dispersed with a prism and captured by a CCD camera. An interpolation algorithm is used to locate each wavelength and reconstruct the image for each spectral channel. The fiber bundle is fabricated by aligning multi-mode bare fiber ribbons as matrix, gluing together in Teflon molds, laser cutting and polishing. We present preliminary finger occlusion results obtained with the spectrometer where the oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin spectrum could be differentiated.

  8. Snapshot fan beam coded aperture coherent scatter tomography.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mehadi; Greenberg, Joel A; Odinaka, Ikenna; Brady, David J

    2016-08-01

    We use coherently scattered X-rays to measure the molecular composition of an object throughout its volume. We image a planar slice of the object in a single snapshot by illuminating it with a fan beam and placing a coded aperture between the object and the detectors. We characterize the system and demonstrate a resolution of 13 mm in range and 2 mm in cross-range and a fractional momentum transfer resolution of 15%. In addition, we show that this technique allows a 100x speedup compared to previously-studied pencil beam systems using the same components. Finally, by scanning an object through the beam, we image the full 4-dimensional data cube (3 spatial and 1 material dimension) for complete volumetric molecular imaging. PMID:27505791

  9. Snapshot 3D optical coherence tomography system using image mappingspectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuc-Uyen; Pierce, Mark C; Higgins, Laura; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2013-01-01

    A snapshot 3-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography system was developed using Image MappingSpectrometry. This system can give depth information (Z) at different spatial positions (XY) withinone camera integration time to potentially reduce motion artifact and enhance throughput. Thecurrent (x,y,λ) datacube of (85×356×117) provides a 3Dvisualization of sample with 400 μm depth and 13.4μm in transverse resolution. Axial resolution of 16.0μm can also be achieved in this proof-of-concept system. We present ananalysis of the theoretical constraints which will guide development of future systems withincreased imaging depth and improved axial and lateral resolutions. PMID:23736629

  10. Snapshots of the Universe: A Multilingual Astronomy Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, R. L.; Sokal, K. R.; Liss, S. E.; Johnson, K. E.

    2015-11-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is an outreach organization at the University of Virginia, focused on enhancing elementary level science education in under-served communities. Early in the program, DSBK volunteers encountered difficulties connecting with English as a second language (ESL) students. To meet that challenge, DSBK volunteers created story-book style art with short descriptions of astronomical objects in both Spanish and English to help communicate basic astronomy concepts to these students. Building on this initial success, our simple project has evolved into a full multilingual children's book targeted at 2nd-5th grade students. Though originally in Spanish and English, a partnership with the University of Alberta (Canada) has produced a French translation of the text, broadening the outreach potential of the book. In this contribution, we describe Snapshots of the Universe (Instantáneas del Universo) and reflect upon the process of creating this unique resource.

  11. Three new cool brown dwarfs discovered with the wide-field infrared survey explorer (WISE) and an improved spectrum of the Y0 dwarf wise J041022.71+150248.4

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Gould, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As part of a larger search of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data for cool brown dwarfs with effective temperatures less than 1000 K, we present the discovery of three new cool brown dwarfs with spectral types later than T7. Using low-resolution, near-infrared spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope, we derive spectral types of T9.5 for WISE J094305.98+360723.5, T8 for WISE J200050.19+362950.1, and Y0: for WISE J220905.73+271143.9. The identification of WISE J220905.73+271143.9 as a Y dwarf brings the total number of spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to 17. In addition, we present an improved spectrum (i.e., higher signal-to-noise ratio) of the Y0 dwarf WISE J041022.71+150248.4 that confirms the Cushing et al. classification of Y0. Spectrophotometric distance estimates place all three new brown dwarfs at distances less than 12 pc, with WISE J200050.19+362950.1 lying at a distance of only 3.9-8.0 pc. Finally, we note that brown dwarfs like WISE J200050.19+362950.1 that lie in or near the Galactic plane offer an exciting opportunity to directly measure the mass of a brown dwarf via astrometric microlensing.

  12. First Results from the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS): First Simultaneous Detection of Lyα Emission and Lyman Break from a Galaxy at z = 7.51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilvi, V.; Pirzkal, N.; Malhotra, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Rhoads, J. E.; Windhorst, R.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A.; Zakamska, N. L.; Ryan, R.; Christensen, L.; Hathi, N.; Pharo, J.; Joshi, B.; Yang, H.; Gronwall, C.; Cimatti, A.; Walsh, J.; O’Connell, R.; Straughn, A.; Ostlin, G.; Rothberg, B.; Livermore, R. C.; Hibon, P.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2016-08-01

    Galaxies at high redshifts are a valuable tool for studying cosmic dawn, therefore it is crucial to reliably identify these galaxies. Here, we present an unambiguous and first simultaneous detection of both the Lyα emission and the Lyman break from a z=7.512 +/- 0.004 galaxy, observed in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with the G102 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6σ ) in two observational position angles (PAs), with Lyα line flux of 1.06+/- 0.19× {10}-17 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2. The line flux is nearly a factor of four higher than that in the archival MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations. This is consistent with other recent observations, implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates the total emission line fluxes, and if confirmed, can have strong implications for reionization studies that are based on ground-based Lyα measurements. A 4σ detection of the NV line in one PA also suggests a weak active galactic nucleus (AGN), and if confirmed, would make this source the highest-redshift AGN yet found. These observations from HST thus clearly demonstrate the sensitivity of the FIGS survey, and the capability of grism spectroscopy for studying the epoch of reionization.

  13. A snapshot of catastrophic post-disaster health expenses after Typhoon Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Espallardo, Noel; Villanueva, Raul; Gavino, Roy; Nievera, Lucille Angela; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This paper provides a snapshot of the health-care costs, out-of-pocket expenditures and available safety nets post-Typhoon Haiyan. Methods This descriptive study used a survey and document review to report direct and indirect health-care costs and existing financial protection mechanisms used by households in two municipalities in the Philippines at one week and at seven months post-Haiyan. Results Reported out-of-pocket health-care expenses were high immediately after the disaster and increased after seven months. The mean reported out-of-pocket expenses were higher than the reported average household income (US$ 24 to US$ 59). Discussion The existing local and national mechanisms for health financing were promising and should be strengthened to reduce out-of-pocket expenses and protect people from catastrophic expenditures. Longer-term mechanisms are needed to ensure financial protection, especially among the poorest, beyond three months when most free services and medicines have ended. Preparedness should include prior registration of households that would ensure protection when a disaster comes. PMID:26767141

  14. Smoking behavior among patients and staff: a snapshot from a major metropolitan hospital in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Wilson, Andrew M; Sanders, Rhonda; Castle, David; Daws, Karen; Thompson, David R; Ski, Chantal F; Matthews, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional study was conducted to provide a snapshot of smoking behavior among staff and patients at a major metropolitan hospital in Melbourne. Methods Patients and staff were surveyed using a questionnaire exploring demographics, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom test), readiness to quit, and preference for smoking cessation options. Results A total of 1496 people were screened within 2 hours; 1,301 participated (1,100 staff, 199 patients). Mean age was 42 years, 68% were female. There were 113 (9%) current smokers and 326 (25%) ex-smokers. Seven percent of the staff were current smokers compared with 19% of the patients. The Fagerstrom test showed that 47% of patients who smoked were moderately nicotine dependent compared with 21% of staff. A third of the staff who smoked did not anticipate health problems related to smoking. Most patients (79%) who smoked disagreed that their current health problems were related to smoking. Although more than half of the current smokers preferred pharmacotherapy, one in two of them did not prefer behavior counseling; with consistent results among staff and patients. Multivariate analyses showed that patients were three times more likely (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.9–4.7) to smoke than staff. Conclusion This study reports lower prevalence of smoking among hospital staff compared with national data. It also indicates an under-appreciation of health effects of smoking, and a preference not to use conventional methods of quitting. PMID:24470770

  15. HST Snapshot Study of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters: Inner Region of NGC 6441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Layden, Andrew C.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope snapshot program to survey the inner region of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6441 for its variable stars. A total of 57 variable stars was found including 38 RR Lyrae stars, 6 Population II Cepheids, and 12 long period variables. Twenty-four of the RR Lyrae stars and all of the Population II Cepheids were previously undiscovered in ground-based surveys. Of the RR Lyrae stars observed in h s survey, 26 are pulsating in the fundamental mode with a mean period of 0.753 d and 12 are first-overtone mode pulsators with a mean period of 0.365 d. These values match up very well with those found in ground-based surveys. Combining all the available data for NGC 6441, we find mean periods of 0.759 d and 0.375 d for the RRab and RRc stars, respectively. We also find that the RR Lyrae in this survey are located in the same regions of a period-amplitude diagram as those found in ground-based surveys. The overall ratio of RRc to total RR Lyrae is 0.33. Although NGC 6441 is a metal-rich globular cluster and would, on that ground, be expected either to have few RR Lyrae stars, or to be an Oosterhoff type I system, its RR Lyrae more closely resemble those in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. However, even compared to typical Oosterhoff type II systems, the mean period of its RRab stars is unusually long. We also derived I-band period-luminosity relations for the RR Lyrae stars. Of the six Population II Cepheids, five are of W Virginis type and one is a BL Herculis variable star. This makes NGC 6441, along with NGC 6388, the most metal-rich globular cluster known to contain these types of variable stars. Another variable, V118, may also be a Population II Cepheid given its long period and its separation in magnitude from the RR Lyrae stars. We examine the period-luminosity relation for these Population II Cepheids and compare it to those in other globular clusters and in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We argue that there does

  16. Infrared Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    This review on infrared spectrometry covering the period from late 1981 to late 1983, is divided into nine sections. Topic areas include: books; reviews; analytical applications; biochemical applications; environmental applications; polymer applications; infrared instrumentation; sampling techniques; and software and algorithms. (JN)

  17. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Saint Martin/Sint Maarten

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the northeast Caribbean island Saint Martin. The island is divided between two nations, France in the north (Saint-Martin) and the Netherlands in the south (Sint Maarten).

  18. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  19. 77 FR 2340 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Snapshot: Painters and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Snapshot: Painters and Photography... Photography, Bonnard to Vuillard'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States,...

  20. POD-Galerkin reduced-order modeling with adaptive finite element snapshots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, Sebastian; Rotkvic, Marko; Lang, Jens

    2016-11-01

    We consider model order reduction by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) for parametrized partial differential equations, where the underlying snapshots are computed with adaptive finite elements. We address computational and theoretical issues arising from the fact that the snapshots are members of different finite element spaces. We propose a method to create a POD-Galerkin model without interpolating the snapshots onto their common finite element mesh. The error of the reduced-order solution is not necessarily Galerkin orthogonal to the reduced space created from space-adapted snapshot. We analyze how this influences the error assessment for POD-Galerkin models of linear elliptic boundary value problems. As a numerical example we consider a two-dimensional convection-diffusion equation with a parametrized convective direction. To illustrate the applicability of our techniques to non-linear time-dependent problems, we present a test case of a two-dimensional viscous Burgers equation with parametrized initial data.

  1. Cancer Snapshots: Facts and statistics for each cancer type or topic

    Cancer.gov

    Snapshots provide key information on disease incidence and mortality, NCI funding trends, relevant research activities, and recent scientific advances related to specific types of cancer and on special populations and scientific topics.

  2. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  3. NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey + Herschel PACS-SPIRE: Constraining the Infrared Properties of a Mass-Complete Sample of 5000 Galaxies at 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, Danilo

    Understanding the formation mechanisms and evolution with cosmic time of massive galaxies is one of the key unsolved problems in astrophysics. At the endpoint of the hierarchical merging process, massive galaxies are most sensitive to various model assumptions, offering a strong opportunity to constrain models of galaxy formation. For the first time, the NEWFIRM Medium-band Survey (NMBS) made it possible to construct mass-complete samples of massive galaxies with accurate photometric redshifts at 1 < z < 4. Recent measurements show a dramatic evolution of the stellar mass function of galaxies with redshift and evidence of mass-dependent evolution. Moreover, it has become established that a substantial fraction of the massive quiescent galaxies that dominate the red-sequence at z=0 are already in place at z~2.3. The rapid assembly and quiescent nature of this population, and the remarkable lack of evolution in the number density of massive galaxies seems inconsistent with predictions from models of galaxy formation. To further our understanding of the evolution of massive galaxies, detailed characterization of the infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and emission from dust, and accurate estimates of (dust-obscured) star-formation rates (SFRs) and AGN contribution are needed for a large, complete sample of massive galaxies with accurate redshifts at z>1. We propose to augment the well-sampled UV-to-MIPS SEDs delivered by the NMBS with the photometry from Herschel PACS and SPIRE (100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron). The NMBS uses a set of five medium-bandwidth NIR filters to provide very precise photometric redshifts and well-sampled SEDs at z>1.5. The public NMBS catalogs consist of about 60,000 objects at z<4 with photometry in the UV (GALEX), optical, NIR (broad- and medium-band filters), and mid-IR (Spitzer). The proposed program will extend the NMBS SEDs into the IR (100-500 micron). The construction and public release of the combined NMBS

  4. Snapshot advantage: a review of the light collection improvement for parallel high-dimensional measurement systems

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan; Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2012-01-01

    The snapshot advantage is a large increase in light collection efficiency available to high-dimensional measurement systems that avoid filtering and scanning. After discussing this advantage in the context of imaging spectrometry, where the greatest effort towards developing snapshot systems has been made, we describe the types of measurements where it is applicable. We then generalize it to the larger context of high-dimensional measurements, where the advantage increases geometrically with measurement dimensionality. PMID:22791926

  5. Unsupervised classification of single-particle X-ray diffraction snapshots by spectral clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Schwander, Peter; Abergel, Chantal; Andersson, Inger; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Bajt, Saša.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J.; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Chapman, Henry N.; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Coppola, Nicola; Deponte, Daniel P.; Ekeberg, Tomas; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hartmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Elisabeth; Hartmann, Robert; Hauser, Gunter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Kiskinova, Maya; Liang, Mengning; Duane Loh, Ne-Te; Lomb, Lukas; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Martin, Andrew V.; Nass, Karol; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Reich, Christian; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, Marvin; Seltzer, Virginie; Shoeman, Robert L.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Steinbrener, Jan; Stier, Gunter; Strüder, Lothar; Svenda, Martin; Ullrich, Joachim; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Thomas A.; Wunderer, Cornelia; Ourmazd, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Single-particle experiments using X-ray Free Electron Lasers produce more than 105 snapshots per hour, consisting of an admixture of blank shots (no particle intercepted), and exposures of one or more particles. Experimental data sets also often contain unintentional contamination with different species. We present an unsupervised method able to sort experimental snapshots without recourse to templates, specific noise models, or user-directed learning. The results show 90% agreement with manual classification.

  6. Unsupervised classification of single-particle X-ray diffraction snapshots by spectral clustering.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Schwander, Peter; Abergel, Chantal; Andersson, Inger; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Chapman, Henry N; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Coppola, Nicola; DePonte, Daniel P; Ekeberg, Tomas; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Elisabeth; Hartmann, Robert; Hauser, Gunter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Kiskinova, Maya; Liang, Mengning; Loh, Ne-Te Duane; Lomb, Lukas; Maia, Filipe R N C; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Reich, Christian; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, Marvin; Seltzer, Virginie; Shoeman, Robert L; Sierra, Raymond G; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Steinbrener, Jan; Stier, Gunter; Strüder, Lothar; Svenda, Martin; Ullrich, Joachim; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Thomas A; Wunderer, Cornelia; Ourmazd, Abbas

    2011-08-15

    Single-particle experiments using X-ray Free Electron Lasers produce more than 10(5) snapshots per hour, consisting of an admixture of blank shots (no particle intercepted), and exposures of one or more particles. Experimental data sets also often contain unintentional contamination with different species. We present an unsupervised method able to sort experimental snapshots without recourse to templates, specific noise models, or user-directed learning. The results show 90% agreement with manual classification.

  7. Unsupervised classification of single-particle X-ray diffraction snapshots by spectral clustering.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Schwander, Peter; Abergel, Chantal; Andersson, Inger; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Chapman, Henry N; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Coppola, Nicola; DePonte, Daniel P; Ekeberg, Tomas; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Elisabeth; Hartmann, Robert; Hauser, Gunter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Kiskinova, Maya; Liang, Mengning; Loh, Ne-Te Duane; Lomb, Lukas; Maia, Filipe R N C; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Reich, Christian; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, Marvin; Seltzer, Virginie; Shoeman, Robert L; Sierra, Raymond G; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Steinbrener, Jan; Stier, Gunter; Strüder, Lothar; Svenda, Martin; Ullrich, Joachim; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Thomas A; Wunderer, Cornelia; Ourmazd, Abbas

    2011-08-15

    Single-particle experiments using X-ray Free Electron Lasers produce more than 10(5) snapshots per hour, consisting of an admixture of blank shots (no particle intercepted), and exposures of one or more particles. Experimental data sets also often contain unintentional contamination with different species. We present an unsupervised method able to sort experimental snapshots without recourse to templates, specific noise models, or user-directed learning. The results show 90% agreement with manual classification. PMID:21935018

  8. Infrared Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Jet Propulsion Laboratory Technical Support Package (TSP) describing a technique for processing data from an infrared radiometer assisted a manufacturer of laminates for printed circuit boards. To reduce emissions and lower the cost of producing prepreg (a continuous glass cloth, or web, impregnated with epoxy resin and partially cured by applying heat), Norplex Oak switched to infrared treating towers. The TSP confirmed the company's computer prediction of heat flux patterns, provided information that allowed the company to modify infrared treaters for consistency, and furnished a basis for development of optimal heater placements. The treaters are now successfully operating at increased speeds with improved product consistency.

  9. Cancer screening via infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP): results for the upper respiratory and digestive tracts.

    PubMed

    Diem, Max; Miljković, Miloš; Bird, Benjamin; Mazur, Antonella I; Schubert, Jen M; Townsend, Douglas; Laver, Nora; Almond, Max; Old, Oliver

    2016-01-21

    Instrumental advances in infrared micro-spectroscopy have made possible the observation of individual human cells and even subcellular structures. The observed spectra represent a snapshot of the biochemical composition of a cell; this composition varies subtly but reproducibly with cellular effects such as progression through the cell cycle, cell maturation and differentiation, and disease. The aim of this summary is to provide a synopsis of the progress achieved in infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP) - the combination of infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate methods of analysis - for the detection of abnormalities in exfoliated human cells of the upper respiratory and digestive tract, namely the oral and nasopharyngeal cavities, and the esophagus.

  10. Absorption Line Survey of H3+ toward the Galactic Center Sources. II. Eight Infrared Sources within 30 pc of the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Miwa; Usuda, Tomonori; Nagata, Tetsuya; Geballe, T. R.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Indriolo, Nick; Suto, Hiroshi; Henning, Thomas; Morong, Christopher P.; Oka, Takeshi

    2008-11-01

    Infrared absorption lines of H+3, including the metastable R(3,3)l line, have been observed toward eight bright infrared sources associated with hot and massive stars located in and between the Galactic center cluster and the Quintuplet cluster 30 pc to the east. The absorption lines with high-velocity dispersion arise in the Galaxy's central molecular zone (CMZ) as well as in foreground spiral arms. The temperature and density of the gas in the CMZ, as determined from the relative strengths of the H3+ lines, are T = 200-300 K and n <= 50-200 cm-3. The detection of high column densities of H3+ toward all eight stars implies that this warm and diffuse gaseous environment is widespread in the CMZ. The products of the ionization rate and path length for these sight lines are 1000 and 10 times higher than in dense and diffuse clouds in the Galactic disk, respectively, indicating that the ionization rate, ζ, is not less than 10-15 s-1 and that L is at least on the order of 50 pc. The warm and diffuse gas is an important component of the CMZ, in addition to the three previously known gaseous environments: (1) cold molecular clouds observed by radio emission of CO and other molecules; (2) hot (T = 104-106 K) and highly ionized diffuse gas (ne = 10-100 cm-3) seen in radio recombination lines, far infrared atomic lines, and radio-wave scattering; and (3) ultrahot (T = 107-108 K) X-ray emitting plasma. Its prevalence significantly changes the understanding of the environment of the CMZ. The sight line toward GC IRS 3 is unique in showing an additional H3+ absorption component, which is interpreted as being due to either a cloud associated with circumnuclear disk or the "50 km s-1 cloud" known from radio observations. An infrared pumping scheme is examined as a mechanism to populate the (3,3) metastable level in this cloud. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  11. A near-infrared interferometric survey of debris-disc stars. III. First statistics based on 42 stars observed with CHARA/FLUOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absil, O.; Defrère, D.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Di Folco, E.; Mérand, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Ertel, S.; Hanot, C.; Kervella, P.; Mollier, B.; Scott, N.; Che, X.; Monnier, J. D.; Thureau, N.; Tuthill, P. G.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; McAlister, H. A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Dust is expected to be ubiquitous in extrasolar planetary systems owing to the dynamical activity of minor bodies. Inner dust populations are, however, still poorly known because of the high contrast and small angular separation with respect to their host star, and yet, a proper characterisation of exozodiacal dust is mandatory for the design of future Earth-like planet imaging missions. Aims: We aim to determine the level of near-infrared exozodiacal dust emission around a sample of 42 nearby main sequence stars with spectral types ranging from A to K and to investigate its correlation with various stellar parameters and with the presence of cold dust belts. Methods: We use high-precision K-band visibilities obtained with the FLUOR interferometer on the shortest baseline of the CHARA array. The calibrated visibilities are compared with the expected visibility of the stellar photosphere to assess whether there is an additional, fully resolved circumstellar emission source. Results: Near-infrared circumstellar emission amounting to about 1% of the stellar flux is detected around 13 of our 42 target stars. Follow-up observations showed that one of them (eps Cep) is associated with a stellar companion, while another one was detected around what turned out to be a giant star (kap CrB). The remaining 11 excesses found around single main sequence stars are most probably associated with hot circumstellar dust, yielding an overall occurrence rate of 28+8-6 for our (biased) sample. We show that the occurrence rate of bright exozodiacal discs correlates with spectral type, K-band excesses being more frequent around A-type stars. It also correlates with the presence of detectable far-infrared excess emission in the case of solar-type stars. Conclusions: This study provides new insight into the phenomenon of bright exozodiacal discs, showing that hot dust populations are probably linked to outer dust reservoirs in the case of solar-type stars. For A-type stars, no

  12. Why Infrared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses applications of techniques developed for the remote sensing of infrared radiation. In addition to military applications, remote sensing has become important in collecting environmental data and detecting ecological problems. (JR)

  13. Alignment error analysis of the snapshot imaging polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Yang, Wei-Feng; Ye, Qing-Hao; Hong, Jin; Gong, Guan-Yuan; Zheng, Xiao-Bing

    2016-03-10

    A snapshot imaging polarimeter (SIP) system is able to reconstruct two-dimensional spatial polarization information through a single interferogram. In this system, the alignment errors of the half-wave plate (HWP) and the analyzer have a predominant impact on the accuracies of reconstructed complete Stokes parameters. A theoretical model for analyzing the alignment errors in the SIP system is presented in this paper. Based on this model, the accuracy of the reconstructed Stokes parameters has been evaluated by using different incident states of polarization. An optimum thickness of the Savart plate for alleviating the perturbation introduced by the alignment error of the HWP is found by using the condition number of the system measurement matrix as an objective function in a minimization procedure. The result shows that when the thickness of a Savart plate is 23 mm, corresponding to the condition number 2.06, the precision of the SIP system can reach to 0.21% at 1° alignment tolerance of the HWP. PMID:26974785

  14. Capturing snapshots of APE1 processing DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Freudenthal, Bret D; Beard, William A; Cuneo, Matthew J; Dyrkheeva, Nadezhda S; Wilson, Samuel H

    2015-11-01

    DNA apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) sites are prevalent noncoding threats to genomic stability and are processed by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 incises the AP-site phosphodiester backbone, generating a DNA-repair intermediate that is potentially cytotoxic. The molecular events of the incision reaction remain elusive, owing in part to limited structural information. We report multiple high-resolution human APE1-DNA structures that divulge new features of the APE1 reaction, including the metal-binding site, the nucleophile and the arginine clamps that mediate product release. We also report APE1-DNA structures with a T-G mismatch 5' to the AP site, representing a clustered lesion occurring in methylated CpG dinucleotides. These structures reveal that APE1 molds the T-G mismatch into a unique Watson-Crick-like geometry that distorts the active site, thus reducing incision. These snapshots provide mechanistic clarity for APE1 while affording a rational framework to manipulate biological responses to DNA damage. PMID:26458045

  15. Single-snapshot DOA estimation by using Compressed Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunati, Stefano; Grasso, Raffaele; Gini, Fulvio; Greco, Maria S.; LePage, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of estimating the directions of arrival (DOA) of multiple source signals from a single observation vector of an array data. In particular, four estimation algorithms based on the theory of compressed sensing (CS), i.e., the classical ℓ 1 minimization (or Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator, LASSO), the fast smooth ℓ 0 minimization, and the Sparse Iterative Covariance-Based Estimator, SPICE and the Iterative Adaptive Approach for Amplitude and Phase Estimation, IAA-APES algorithms, are analyzed, and their statistical properties are investigated and compared with the classical Fourier beamformer (FB) in different simulated scenarios. We show that unlike the classical FB, a CS-based beamformer (CSB) has some desirable properties typical of the adaptive algorithms (e.g., Capon and MUSIC) even in the single snapshot case. Particular attention is devoted to the super-resolution property. Theoretical arguments and simulation analysis provide evidence that a CS-based beamformer can achieve resolution beyond the classical Rayleigh limit. Finally, the theoretical findings are validated by processing a real sonar dataset.

  16. Capturing snapshots of APE1 processing DNA damage

    DOE PAGES

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Cuneo, Matthew J.; Dyrkheeva, Nadezhda S.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2015-10-12

    DNA apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) sites are prevalent noncoding threats to genomic stability and are processed by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 incises the AP-site phosphodiester backbone, generating a DNA-repair intermediate that is potentially cytotoxic. The molecular events of the incision reaction remain elusive, owing in part to limited structural information. Here we report multiple high-resolution human APE1-DNA structures that divulge new features of the APE1 reaction, including the metal-binding site, the nucleophile and the arginine clamps that mediate product release. We also report APE1-DNA structures with a T-G mismatch 5' to the AP site, representing a clustered lesion occurring in methylatedmore » CpG dinucleotides. Moreover, these structures reveal that APE1 molds the T-G mismatch into a unique Watson-Crick-like geometry that distorts the active site, thus reducing incision. Finally, these snapshots provide mechanistic clarity for APE1 while affording a rational framework to manipulate biological responses to DNA damage.« less

  17. A Snapshot View of High Temperature Superconductivity 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Bansil, Arun; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2002-04-05

    This report outlines the conclusions of a workshop on High Temperature Superconductivity held April 5-8, 2002 in San Diego. The purpose of this report is to outline and highlight some outstanding and interesting issues in the field of High Temperature Superconductivity. The range of activities and new ideas that arose within the context of High Temperature Superconductors is so vast and extensive that it is impossible to summarize it in a brief document. Thus this report does not pretend to be all-inclusive and cover all areas of activity. It is a restricted snapshot and it only presents a few viewpoints. The complexity and difficulties with high temperature superconductivity is well illustrated by the Buddhist parable of the blind men trying to describe “experimentally” an elephant. These very same facts clearly illustrate that this is an extremely active field, with many unanswered questions, and with a great future potential for discoveries and progress in many (sometimes unpredictable) directions. It is very important to stress that independently of any current or future applications, this is a very important area of basic research.

  18. Dual-order snapshot spectral imaging of plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusz, Gregory J.; Marinakos, Stella M.; Rangarajan, Srinath; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2011-07-01

    The development of truly scalable, multiplexed optical microarrays requires a detection platform capable of simultaneous detection of multiple signals in real-time. We present a technique we term dual-order snapshot spectroscopic imaging (DOSSI) and demonstrate that it can be effectively used to collect spectrally resolved images of a full field of view of sparsely located spots in real time. Resonant peaks of plasmonic gold nanoparticles were tracked as a function of their surrounding refractive index. Measurement uncertainty analysis indicated that the spectral resolution of DOSSI in the described configuration is approximately 0.95nm. Further, real-time measurements by DOSSI allowed discrimination between optically identical nanoparticles that were functionalized with two homologous small molecule ligands that bound to the same protein, albeit with different affinity, based purely on their different molecular interaction kinetics---a feat not possible with slower raster-type hyperspectral imaging systems, or other dark-field optical detection systems that solely rely on end point measurements. Kinetic measurements of plasmon bands by DOSSI can be performed with a relatively simple optical system, thereby opening up the possibility of developing low-cost detectors for arrayed plasmonic diagnostics.

  19. Goal seeking in honeybees: matching of optic flow snapshots?

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Laura; Stürzl, Wolfgang; Baird, Emily; Boeddeker, Norbert; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2010-09-01

    Visual landmarks guide humans and animals including insects to a goal location. Insects, with their miniature brains, have evolved a simple strategy to find their nests or profitable food sources; they approach a goal by finding a close match between the current view and a memorised retinotopic representation of the landmark constellation around the goal. Recent implementations of such a matching scheme use raw panoramic images ('image matching') and show that it is well suited to work on robots and even in natural environments. However, this matching scheme works only if relevant landmarks can be detected by their contrast and texture. Therefore, we tested how honeybees perform in localising a goal if the landmarks can hardly be distinguished from the background by such cues. We recorded the honeybees' flight behaviour with high-speed cameras and compared the search behaviour with computer simulations. We show that honeybees are able to use landmarks that have the same contrast and texture as the background and suggest that the bees use relative motion cues between the landmark and the background. These cues are generated on the eyes when the bee moves in a characteristic way in the vicinity of the landmarks. This extraordinary navigation performance can be explained by a matching scheme that includes snapshots based on optic flow amplitudes ('optic flow matching'). This new matching scheme provides a robust strategy for navigation, as it depends primarily on the depth structure of the environment. PMID:20709919

  20. Capturing snapshots of APE1 processing DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Cuneo, Matthew J.; Dyrkheeva, Nadezhda S.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2015-10-12

    DNA apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) sites are prevalent noncoding threats to genomic stability and are processed by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 incises the AP-site phosphodiester backbone, generating a DNA-repair intermediate that is potentially cytotoxic. The molecular events of the incision reaction remain elusive, owing in part to limited structural information. Here we report multiple high-resolution human APE1-DNA structures that divulge new features of the APE1 reaction, including the metal-binding site, the nucleophile and the arginine clamps that mediate product release. We also report APE1-DNA structures with a T-G mismatch 5' to the AP site, representing a clustered lesion occurring in methylated CpG dinucleotides. Moreover, these structures reveal that APE1 molds the T-G mismatch into a unique Watson-Crick-like geometry that distorts the active site, thus reducing incision. Finally, these snapshots provide mechanistic clarity for APE1 while affording a rational framework to manipulate biological responses to DNA damage.

  1. Snapshot polarimeter based on the conical refraction phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinado, Alba; Lizana, Angel; Turpin, Alex; Estévez, Irene; Iemmi, Claudio; Kalkanjiev, Todor K.; Mompart, Jordi; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    A complete and punctual Stokes polarimeter based on the conical refraction (CR) phenomenon is presented. The CR phenomenon occurs when light travels along one of the optical axes of a biaxial crystal (BC), leading to a bright ring of light at the focal plane of the system. We propose using the connection between the intensity pattern of the CR ring and the state of polarization (SOP) of the incident beam as a new tool for polarization metrology. In order to implement a complete polarimeter, the instrument is designed with a beam splitter and two BCs, one BC for each sub-beam. In the second sub-beam, a retarder is introduced before the BC, allowing us to measure the ellipticity content of the input SOP. The CR-based polarimeter presents several appealing features compared to standard polarimeters. To name some of them, CR polarimeters retrieve the SOP of an input beam with a single snapshot measurement, allow for substantially enhancing the data redundancy without increasing measuring time, and avoid instrumental errors related to rotating elements or active polarization devices. This work shows the instrument design, in particular the parameters of the set-up have been optimized in order to reduce the amplification of noise. Then, the experimental implementation of the instrument is detailed, including the experimental calibration of the system. Finally, the implemented polarimeter is experimentally tested by measuring different SOPs, including fully and partially polarized light.

  2. Capturing Snapshots of APE1 Processing DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Cuneo, Matthew J.; Dyrkheeva, Nadezhda S.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    DNA apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) sites are prevalent non-coding threats to genomic stability and are processed by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 incises the AP-site phosphodiester backbone, generating a DNA repair intermediate that is potentially cytotoxic. The molecular events of the incision reaction remain elusive due in part to limited structural information. We report multiple high-resolution human APE1:DNA structures that divulge novel features of the APE1 reaction, including the metal binding site, nucleophile, and arginine clamps that mediate product release. We also report APE1:DNA structures with a T:G mismatch 5′ to the AP-site, representing a clustered lesion occurring in methylated CpG dinucleotides. These reveal that APE1 molds the T:G mismatch into a unique Watson-Crick like geometry that distorts the active site reducing incision. These snapshots provide mechanistic clarity for APE1, while affording a rational framework to manipulate biological responses to DNA damage. PMID:26458045

  3. SPIRITS Discoveries of New Infrared Transients and Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, J. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Tinyanont, S.; Cao, Y.; Prince, T.; Lau, R. M.; Perley, D.; Masci, F.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.; Dyk, S. D. Van; Cody, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Khan, R.; Bond, H. E.; Monson, A.; Bally, J.; Levesque, E.; Williams, R.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Gehrz, R. D.; Amodeo, S.; Shenoy, D.; Carlon, R.; Cass, A.; Corgan, D.; Dykhoff, D.; Faella, J.; Gburek, T.; Smith, N.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; Ofek, E.; Johansson, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Fox, O.; Hsiao, E.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Contreras, C.

    2016-04-01

    We report several recently discovered mid-infrared transients/strong variables found in the course of the Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS), using Spitzer Early Release Data (ATel #6644, #7929, #8688).

  4. Catalog of infrared observations. Part 2: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1987-01-01

    The Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) is a compilation of infrared astronomical observational data obtained from an extensive literature search of astronomical journals and major astronomical catalogs and surveys. The literature searches are complete for years 1965 to 1986. Supporting appendixes are published in this part. The appendices include an atlas of infrared source positions, two bibliographies of infrared literature upon which the search was based, and, keyed to the main Catalog listings (organized alphabetically by first author, and by date), an atlas of infrared spectral ranges, and IRAS data for the CIO sources. The complete CIO database is available to qualified users in printed microfiche and magnetic tape formats.

  5. Catalog of infrared observations. Part 2: Appendixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1987-12-01

    The Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) is a compilation of infrared astronomical observational data obtained from an extensive literature search of astronomical journals and major astronomical catalogs and surveys. The literature searches are complete for years 1965 to 1986. Supporting appendixes are published in this part. The appendices include an atlas of infrared source positions, two bibliographies of infrared literature upon which the search was based, and, keyed to the main Catalog listings (organized alphabetically by first author, and by date), an atlas of infrared spectral ranges, and IRAS data for the CIO sources. The complete CIO database is available to qualified users in printed microfiche and magnetic tape formats.

  6. Computed tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) with 2D reflective grating for ultraviolet to long-wave infrared detection especially useful for surveying transient events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Mouroulis, Pantazis Z. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The optical system of this invention is an unique type of imaging spectrometer, i.e. an instrument that can determine the spectra of all points in a two-dimensional scene. The general type of imaging spectrometer under which this invention falls has been termed a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). CTIS's have the ability to perform spectral imaging of scenes containing rapidly moving objects or evolving features, hereafter referred to as transient scenes. This invention, a reflective CTIS with an unique two-dimensional reflective grating, can operate in any wavelength band from the ultraviolet through long-wave infrared. Although this spectrometer is especially useful for rapidly occurring events it is also useful for investigation of some slow moving phenomena as in the life sciences.

  7. Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS) with 2D Reflective Grating for Ultraviolet to Long-Wave Infrared Detection Especially Useful for Surveying Transient Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Mouroulis, Pantazis Z. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The optical system of this invention is an unique type of imaging spectrometer, i.e. an instrument that can determine the spectra of all points in a two-dimensional scene. The general type of imaging spectrometer under which this invention falls has been termed a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). CTIS's have the ability to perform spectral imaging of scenes containing rapidly moving objects or evolving features, hereafter referred to as transient scenes. This invention, a reflective CTIS with an unique two-dimensional reflective grating, can operate in any wavelength band from the ultraviolet through long-wave infrared. Although this spectrometer is especially useful for events it is also for investigation of some slow moving phenomena as in the life sciences.

  8. Experimental long-term survey of mid-infrared supercontinuum source based on As2S3 suspended-core fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouawad, O.; Kedenburg, S.; Steinle, T.; Steinmann, A.; Kibler, B.; Désévédavy, F.; Gadret, G.; Jules, J.-C.; Giessen, H.; Smektala, F.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide suspended-core microstructured optical fibers is studied with regard to their exposure to the room atmosphere. We report the experimental proof of aging-induced supercontinuum generation drift in chalcogenide microstructured fibers. Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 2.5-5.5-µm spectral region is demonstrated in a fresh and 7-month-aged counterpart As2S3 fibers, by means of a home-built multistage oscillator power amplifier delivering 300 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 43 MHz in the 3.0-4.1-µm range. Numerical simulations based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation confirm the significant alteration of supercontinuum generation due to increasing fundamental OH and SH absorption bands.

  9. 2014 Survey of States: Initiatives, Trends, and Accomplishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyyan, Vitaliy; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the fourteenth survey of states by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) at the University of Minnesota. Results are presented for the 50 regular states and eight of the 11 unique states. The purpose of this report is to provide a snapshot of the new initiatives, trends, accomplishments, and emerging issues…

  10. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, Rene; Gerke, Jill; Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org E-mail: moffat@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: gerke@astronomy.ohio-state.edu E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.ca

    2012-06-15

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg{sup 2} of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150 Degree-Sign in Galactic longitude and reaches 1 Degree-Sign above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  11. International Polar Year 2007/2008 - snapshots from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezek, K.

    2003-04-01

    Satellite observations are revolutionizing our ability to observe the poles and polar processes. No other technology developed since the IGY of 1957 provides the high-resolution, continental-scale, frequent-repeat, and all-weather observations available from spaceborne sensors. The utility of that technology is evidenced by associated scientific advances including measurements of long term trends in polar sea ice cover and extent, the realization that the polar ice sheets can change dramatically at decade or less time scales, and the quantification of relationships between processes at the poles and at mid and equatorial latitudes. There are many examples of successful spaceborne observations from pole to pole for scientific, commercial and governmental purposes. These successes encourage the use of the capabilities and consequently, the competition for access to resources from the international constellation of satellites becomes increasingly more intense. Frequently, this means that there are only limited opportunities for conducting large-scale projects that consume a significant fraction of system capabilities for some dedicated period of time. An example of a large-scale coordinated effort is the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project that required months of dedicated satellite and ground support time to achieve its objective of obtaining near instantaneous 'snapshots' of Antarctica to serve as gauges for measuring future changes. Large-scale coordinated-experiments will continue to be important for polar scientists seeking to understand the role of polar processes in climate change. These future missions will be further enhanced if complementary observations and data analysis from different satellite sensors can be coordinated (for example IceSAT laser altimeter observations of ice sheet surface topography with EnviSAT SAR observation of ice sheet motion). That coordination is challenging in part because of resource allocation issues and in part because space

  12. More coral, more fish? Contrasting snapshots from a remote Pacific atoll.

    PubMed

    Beldade, Ricardo; Mills, Suzanne C; Claudet, Joachim; Côté, Isabelle M

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are in decline across the globe as a result of overexploitation, pollution, disease and, more recently, climate change. The impacts of changes in coral cover on associated fish communities can be difficult to predict because of the uneven dependence of reef fish species on corals for food, shelter or the three-dimensional structure they provide. We compared live coral cover, reef fish community metrics, and their associations in two surveys of the lagoon of the remote atoll of Mataiva (French Polynesia) carried out 31 years apart. In contrast to the general pattern of decreasing coral cover reported for many parts of the Indo-Pacific region, live coral cover increased 6-7 fold at Mataiva between 1981 and 2012, and fish density nearly doubled. The stable overall reef fish species richness belied a significant shift in community structure. There was little overlap in community composition across years, and fish assemblages in 2012 were more homogeneous in composition than they were in 1981. Changes in species abundance were not clearly related to species-specific reliance on corals. The strong positive relationships between live coral cover and fish diversity and abundance noted in 1981, when coral cover rarely exceeded 10%, were no longer present in 2012, when coral cover rarely fell below this value. The most parsimonious explanation for these contrasting relationships is that, over the combined range of coral cover observed in the 1981 and 2012 snapshots, there is a rapidly asymptotic relationship between coral and fish. Our results, and other data from the south and west Pacific, suggest that fish diversity and abundance might accumulate rapidly up to a threshold of approximately 10% live coral cover. Such a relationship would have implications for our expectations of resistance and recovery of reef fish communities facing an increasingly severe regime of coral reef disturbances.

  13. More coral, more fish? Contrasting snapshots from a remote Pacific atoll

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Suzanne C.; Claudet, Joachim; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are in decline across the globe as a result of overexploitation, pollution, disease and, more recently, climate change. The impacts of changes in coral cover on associated fish communities can be difficult to predict because of the uneven dependence of reef fish species on corals for food, shelter or the three-dimensional structure they provide. We compared live coral cover, reef fish community metrics, and their associations in two surveys of the lagoon of the remote atoll of Mataiva (French Polynesia) carried out 31 years apart. In contrast to the general pattern of decreasing coral cover reported for many parts of the Indo-Pacific region, live coral cover increased 6–7 fold at Mataiva between 1981 and 2012, and fish density nearly doubled. The stable overall reef fish species richness belied a significant shift in community structure. There was little overlap in community composition across years, and fish assemblages in 2012 were more homogeneous in composition than they were in 1981. Changes in species abundance were not clearly related to species-specific reliance on corals. The strong positive relationships between live coral cover and fish diversity and abundance noted in 1981, when coral cover rarely exceeded 10%, were no longer present in 2012, when coral cover rarely fell below this value. The most parsimonious explanation for these contrasting relationships is that, over the combined range of coral cover observed in the 1981 and 2012 snapshots, there is a rapidly asymptotic relationship between coral and fish. Our results, and other data from the south and west Pacific, suggest that fish diversity and abundance might accumulate rapidly up to a threshold of approximately 10% live coral cover. Such a relationship would have implications for our expectations of resistance and recovery of reef fish communities facing an increasingly severe regime of coral reef disturbances. PMID:25650118

  14. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SNAPSHOT SEARCH FOR PLANETARY NEBULAE IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Howard E.

    2015-04-15

    Single stars in ancient globular clusters (GCs) are believed incapable of producing planetary nebulae (PNs), because their post-asymptotic-giant-branch evolutionary timescales are slower than the dissipation timescales for PNs. Nevertheless, four PNs are known in Galactic GCs. Their existence likely requires more exotic evolutionary channels, including stellar mergers and common-envelope binary interactions. I carried out a snapshot imaging search with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for PNs in bright Local Group GCs outside the Milky Way. I used a filter covering the 5007 Å nebular emission line of [O iii], and another one in the nearby continuum, to image 66 GCs. Inclusion of archival HST frames brought the total number of extragalactic GCs imaged at 5007 Å to 75, whose total luminosity slightly exceeds that of the entire Galactic GC system. I found no convincing PNs in these clusters, aside from one PN in a young M31 cluster misclassified as a GC, and two PNs at such large angular separations from an M31 GC that membership is doubtful. In a ground-based spectroscopic survey of 274 old GCs in M31, Jacoby et al. found three candidate PNs. My HST images of one of them suggest that the [O iii] emission actually arises from ambient interstellar medium rather than a PN; for the other two candidates, there are broadband archival UV HST images that show bright, blue point sources that are probably the PNs. In a literature search, I also identified five further PN candidates lying near old GCs in M31, for which follow-up observations are necessary to confirm their membership. The rates of incidence of PNs are similar, and small but nonzero, throughout the GCs of the Local Group.

  15. Catchment areas of panoramic snapshots in outdoor scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeil, Jochen; Hofmann, Martin I.; Chahl, Javaan S.

    2003-03-01

    We took panoramic snapshots in outdoor scenes at regular intervals in two- or three-dimensional grids covering 1 m2 or 1 m3 and determined how the root mean square pixel differences between each of the images and a reference image acquired at one of the locations in the grid develop over distance from the reference position. We then asked whether the reference position can be pinpointed from a random starting position by moving the panoramic imaging device in such a way that the image differences relative to the reference image are minimized. We find that on time scales of minutes to hours, outdoor locations are accurately defined by a clear, sharp minimum in a smooth three-dimensional (3D) volume of image differences (the 3D difference function). 3D difference functions depend on the spatial-frequency content of natural scenes and on the spatial layout of objects therein. They become steeper in the vicinity of dominant objects. Their shape and smoothness, however, are affected by changes in illumination and shadows. The difference functions generated by rotation are similar in shape to those generated by translation, but their plateau values are higher. Rotational difference functions change little with distance from the reference location. Simple gradient descent methods are surprisingly successful in recovering a goal location, even if faced with transient changes in illumination. Our results show that view-based homing with panoramic images is in principle feasible in natural environments and does not require the identification of individual landmarks. We discuss the relevance of our findings to the study of robot and insect homing.

  16. Infrared Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive infrared camera that observes the blazing plumes from the Space Shuttle or expendable rocket lift-offs is capable of scanning for fires, monitoring the environment and providing medical imaging. The hand-held camera uses highly sensitive arrays in infrared photodetectors known as quantum well infrared photo detectors (QWIPS). QWIPS were developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Center for Space Microelectronics Technology in partnership with Amber, a Raytheon company. In October 1996, QWIP detectors pointed out hot spots of the destructive fires speeding through Malibu, California. Night vision, early warning systems, navigation, flight control systems, weather monitoring, security and surveillance are among the duties for which the camera is suited. Medical applications are