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Sample records for infrared space observatory

  1. The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George; Kessler, Martin F.

    1995-01-01

    ISO, scheduled to launch in 1995, will carry into orbit the most sophisticated infrared observatory of the decade. Overviews of the mission, instrument payload and scientific program are given, along with a comparison of the strengths of ISO and SOFIA.

  2. The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George; Kessler, Martin F.

    1995-01-01

    ISO, scheduled to launch in 1995, will carry into orbit the most sophisticated infrared observatory of the decade. Overviews of the mission, instrument payload and scientific program are given, along with a comparison of the strengths of ISO and SOFIA.

  3. Introduction to the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, M. F.; Sibille, F.

    1989-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is an astronomical satellite, which will operate at infrared wavelengths (2.5 to 200 microns) for a period of at least 18 months. Imaging, spectroscopic, photometric and polarimetric observations will be obtained by four scientific instruments in the focal plane of its 60-cm diameter, cryogenically-cooled telescope. Two-thirds of ISO's observing time will be available to the astronomical community. ISO is a fully approved and funded project of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a foreseen launch date of May 1993.

  4. Edison - The next generation infrared space observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Davies, J. K.; Hackwell, J.; Hawarden, T. G.; Knacke, R. F.; Lester, D.; Mountain, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    Edison, a large-aperture, radiatively-cooled telescope, is proposed as the major international mission to follow the current generation of cryogenically-cooled infrared space telescopes. It is being studied at present as a 2.5-3.5 m mixed radiatively- and mechanically-cooled facility optimized to investigate the wavelength range 3-100+ microns. This paper outlines the status of the project, discusses some aspects of a smaller-aperture 'precursor' mission, and describes a portion of the baseline science mission.

  5. Future Large-Aperture Ultraviolet/Optical/Infrared Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Mandell, Avi; Polidan, Ron; Tumlinson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of modern astronomical science in the early 1900s, astronomers have yearned to escape the turbulence and absorption of Earth's atmosphere by placing observatories in space. One of the first papers to lay out the advantages of space astronomy was by Lyman Spitzer in 1946, "Astronomical Advantages of an Extra-Terrestrial Observatory," though later in life he minimized the influence of this work. Since that time, and especially gaining momentum in the 1960s after the launch of Sputnik, astronomers, technologists, and engineers continued to advance, organizing scientific conferences, advocating for necessary technologies, and assessing sophisticated designs for increasingly ambitious space observations at ultraviolet, visual, and infrared (UVOIR) wavelengths. These community-wide endeavors, combined with the explosion in technological capability enabled by the Apollo era, led to rapid advancement in space observatory performance that culminated in the spectacularly successful Hubble Space Telescope (HST), launched in 1990 and still returning surpassing scientific results.

  6. EDISON project and radiatively cooled infrared space observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Hawarden, Timothy G.; Bradshaw, Tom W.; Orlowska, Anna H.; Penny, Alan J.; Turner, R. F.; Rapp, Donald

    1993-11-01

    We describe the current design for Edison, the first large radiatively-cooled infrared space observatory, now under consideration by the European Space Agency. Without the large cryogen tanks, more of the spacecraft can be filled with light-collecting optics and, of course, the observatory has no built-in lifetime. Our proposal is for a telescope with a 1.7 m primary to be launched by an Atlas, Ariane 5, or Proton. The baseline orbit for the observatory is a 'halo' around L2, a location which allows additional radiating area to be placed anti-sunward. Models of the temperature behavior of the observatory indicate an equilibrium temperature via radiation alone of about 20 K. Use of near-future cryo-coolers may allow optical system temperatures as low as approximately 15 K. Consequently, Edison will be limited in sensitivity by the celestial thermal background at wavelengths shortward of about 60 micrometers and by celestial source confusion at longer wavelengths.

  7. Participation in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    All the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data have been transmitted from the ISO Data Centre, reduced, and calibrated. This has been rather labor-intensive as new calibrations for both the ISOPHOT and ISOCAM data have been released and the algorithms for data reduction have improved. We actually discovered errors in the calibration in earlier versions of the software. However the data reduction improvements have now converged and we have a self-consistent, well-calibrated database. It has also been a major effort to obtain the ground-based JHK imaging, 450 micrometer and 850 micrometer imaging and the 1-2.5 micrometer near-infrared spectroscopy for most of the sample galaxies.

  8. Cryosystems for the infrared missions German Infrared Lab. (GIRL), Infrared Background Signature (IBSS), and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Albert; Passvogel, Thomas

    1994-09-01

    For the infrared astronomy and earth atmosphere survey helium-cooled telescope and instruments are used since over 15 years. As a national program MBB (now DASA) had developed the GIRL (German Infrared Laboratory) - cryosystem from 1977 to 1985. Bases on the experience from there, the 'Infrared Background Signature Survey' (IBSS) -sensor was built, which flew successfully on Space Shuttle (STS39) in May 1991. Based on GIRL and IBSS DASA built the Payload Module (PLM) for the 'Infrared Space Observatory' (ISO) under ESA-contract. The basic designs of the GIRL-, IBSS-, and ISO-cryostats are described. Besides essential IBSS- flight data, important functional aspects of space cryostats are illustrated at the example of ISO. The flight hardware acceptance status of the ISO-PLM, which shall be launched for its 18-months IR-astronomy mission on an Ariane 4 - launcher in September 1995, is described together with important hardware elements and the total PLM.

  9. Infrared Space Observatory Measurements of a [C II] 158 micron Line Deficit in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-23

    INFRARED SPACE OBSERVATORY1 MEASUREMENTS OF A [C ii] 158 MICRON LINE DEFICIT IN ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES M. L. Luhman,2,3 S. Satyapal,4,5 J. Fischer...1998 July 23 ABSTRACT We report measurements of the [C ii] 157.74 mm fine-structure line in a sample of seven ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs) ( L...detection rate of high-z sources and on the usefulness of [C ii] as an eventual tracer of protogalaxies. Subject headings: galaxies: active — galaxies: ISM

  10. Infrared space observatory photometry of circumstellar dust in Vega-type systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fajardo-Acosta, S. B.; Stencel, R. E.; Backman, D. E.; Thakur, N.

    1998-01-01

    The ISOPHOT (Infrared Space Observatory Photometry) instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was used to obtain 3.6-90 micron photometry of Vega-type systems. Photometric data were calibrated with the ISOPHOT fine calibration source 1 (FCS1). Linear regression was used to derive transformations to make comparisons to ground-based and IRAS photometry systems possible. These transformations were applied to the photometry of 14 main-sequence stars. Details of these results are reported on.

  11. Near infrared imaging and {o I} spectroscopy of IC 443 using two micron all sky survey and infrared space observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rho, J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Cutri, C. M.; Reach, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    We present near-infrared J (1.25 mum), H (1.65 mum), and K-s (2.17 mum) imaging of the entire supernova remnant IC 443 from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) LWS observations of [O I] for 11 positions in the northeast.

  12. Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Tracy M.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Price, Stephan D.; Walker, Helen J.

    2004-04-01

    We have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-S spectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to the system developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra by Kraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclasses that are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or contain sources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed by either the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low Resolution Spectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry of objects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually be traced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of the instruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra) exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emission from zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of this serendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background. Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), a European Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France, Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  13. Silicate and carbonaceous grains from stars to the heliosphere: Recent progresses from the Infrared Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2000-05-01

    I review briefly the present understanding of the history of silicate and carbonaceous grains from their formation around stars or in active regions of the interstellar medium to their appearance in objects of the solar system. This review is based mainly on recent observations with the Infrared Space Observatory. Progress has been substantial, but there are still many missing links in the long and complex chain of events which govern the formation, transport, and processing of cosmic grains.

  14. Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Key Project: the Birth and Death of Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Backman, Dana

    1999-01-01

    This program was designed to continue to analyze observations of stars thought to be forming protoplanets, using the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, as one of NASA Key Projects with ISO. A particular class of Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) discovered stars, known after the prototype, Vega, are principal targets for these observations aimed at examining the evidence for processes involved in forming, or failing to form, planetary systems around other stars. In addition, this program continued to provide partial support for related science in the WIRE, SOFIA and Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) projects, plus approved ISO supplementary time observations under programs MCREE1 29 and VEGADMAP. Their goals include time dependent changes in SWS spectra of Long Period Variable stars and PHOT P32 mapping experiments of recognized protoplanetary disk candidate stars.

  15. Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Key Project: the Birth and Death of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Backman, Dana

    1999-09-01

    This program was designed to continue to analyze observations of stars thought to be forming protoplanets, using the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, as one of NASA Key Projects with ISO. A particular class of Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) discovered stars, known after the prototype, Vega, are principal targets for these observations aimed at examining the evidence for processes involved in forming, or failing to form, planetary systems around other stars. In addition, this program continued to provide partial support for related science in the WIRE, SOFIA and Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) projects, plus approved ISO supplementary time observations under programs MCREE1 29 and VEGADMAP. Their goals include time dependent changes in SWS spectra of Long Period Variable stars and PHOT P32 mapping experiments of recognized protoplanetary disk candidate stars.

  16. Cryogenic far-infrared laser absorptivity measurements of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope mirror coatings.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jacqueline; Klaassen, Tjeerd; Hovenier, Niels; Jakob, Gerd; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Sternberg, Oren

    2004-07-01

    Far-infrared laser calorimetry was used to measure the absorptivity, and thus the emissivity, of aluminum-coated silicon carbide mirror samples produced during the coating qualification run of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope to be launched by the European Space Agency in 2007. The samples were measured at 77 K to simulate the operating temperature of the telescope in its planned orbit about the second Lagrangian point, L2, of the Earth-Sun system. Together, the telescope's equilibrium temperature in space and the emissivity of the mirror surfaces will determine the far-infrared-submillimeter background and thus the sensitivity of two of the three astronomical instruments aboard the observatory if stray-light levels can be kept low relative to the mirror emission. Absorptivities of both clean and dust-contaminated samples were measured at 70, 118, 184, and 496 microm. Theoretical fits to the data predict absorptivities of 0.2-0.4% for the clean sample and 0.2-0.8% for the dusty sample, over the spectral range of the Herschel Space Observatory instruments.

  17. The Edison infrared space observatory and the study of extra-solar planetary material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Hawarden, T. G.; Bally, J.; Rapp, D.; Stern, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Edison is a proposed large-aperture, radiatively-cooled space observatory planned to operate at wavelengths between 2 and 130 micrometers or longer. Current estimates for the telescope allow an aperture of 1.7 m which will achieve a final equilibrium temperature of about 30 K, although use of cryocoolers may permit temperatures below 20 K. Edison will be a powerful tool to investigate our Solar System, as well as planetary material around distant stars. At near- and mid-infrared wavelengths, where planetary material emits most of its radiation, Edison will be the most sensitive photometric and spectroscopic observatory under current consideration by the space agencies. With its large aperture, Edison will be able both to resolve the structure in nearby circumstellar 'Vega disks' and to discriminate faint IR emission in the crowded environment of the galactic plane. With its long lifetime, Edison will allow extensive follow-up observations and increase the likelihood of catching transient events. We propose Edison as a precursor to elements of a future space-based IR interferometer.

  18. Improving the Air Force Infrared Stellar Calibration Network with High Spectral Resolution Data from the Infrared Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Engelke, C. W.; Price, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    We present preliminary results of a project to improve the spectral resolution of the Air Force Infrared Stellar Calibration Network by incorporating data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). This network and its deriviatives were created by Cohen and colleagues to support infrared calibration for government and civilian ground- and space-based observatories, such as the Infrared Telescope Facility, Gemini, and the Maui Optical Site. The reduced 2.4 to 45 μ m spectra from the ISO Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) are up to 100 times higher spectral resolution than the current network data. Appropriately substituting these spectra for the standard stars will improve the accuracy of the calibration network, particularly in spectral regions where the atmosphere limits ground-based data, and permit more accurate calibration of very narrow spectral bandpasses. The initial effort has photometrically calibrated the SWS spectra for the 9 stellar or secondary standards with composites. The model atmosphere spectrum for α Cen has been replaced by SWS data; the model spectra for α CMa and α Lyr have been retained in order to preserve the common calibration pedigree with the original Cohen et al. network (although see Price et al. 2004, AJ, 128, 889). Where available, high quality photometry from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) are used, supplemented by photometry from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experment (DIRBE) and the photometry used by Cohen et al. used to create the original composite. The next steps are to 1) replace the 10-15 tertiary standard stars with template spectra with measured spectra for the cases in which the SWS observations have sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios (this will double the number of secondary standards); 2) develop a set of high spectral resolution infrared templates based on the SWS observations for each MK spectral class of the secondary standards with which to upgrade the entire network; 3) create new templates for

  19. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  20. High-Resolution Infrared Space Observatory Spectroscopy of the Unidentified 21 Micron Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Kevin; Kwok, Sun; Hrivnak, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    We present Infrared Space Observatory SWS06 mode observations of the 21 micron feature in eight sources, including a first "detection of the feature in IRAS Z02229+6208. The observed feature peak-to-continuum ratios range from 0.13 in IRAS Z02229+6208 to 1.30 in IRAS 07134+1005. The normalized spectra, obtained by the removal of the underlying continua and by scaling the features to the same peak flux value. show that all features have the same intrinsic profile and peak wavelength. There is no evidence for any discrete substructure due to molecular bands in the observed spectra, suggesting that the 21 micron feature is due to either a solid substance or a mixture of many similarly structured large molecules.

  1. High-Resolution Infrared Space Observatory Spectroscopy of the Unidentified 21 Micron Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Kevin; Kwok, Sun; Hrivnak, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    We present Infrared Space Observatory SWS06 mode observations of the 21 micron feature in eight sources, including a first "detection of the feature in IRAS Z02229+6208. The observed feature peak-to-continuum ratios range from 0.13 in IRAS Z02229+6208 to 1.30 in IRAS 07134+1005. The normalized spectra, obtained by the removal of the underlying continua and by scaling the features to the same peak flux value. show that all features have the same intrinsic profile and peak wavelength. There is no evidence for any discrete substructure due to molecular bands in the observed spectra, suggesting that the 21 micron feature is due to either a solid substance or a mixture of many similarly structured large molecules.

  2. Mid- and Far-Infrared Infrared Space Observatory Limits on Dust Disks Around Millisecond Pulsars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-12

    pulsars: general 1. INTRODUCTION The first extrasolar planets discovered were found around the millisecond pulsar PSR B1257+12 (Wolszczan & Frail...Observatory. The pulsar PSR B1257+12 is orbited by three planets , and other millisecond pulsars may be orbited by dust disks that represent planets ...disk would be coupled only weakly to the pulsar’s emission. If the planets around PSR B1257+12 are composed largely of metals, our limits are probably

  3. THz Instrumentation for the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Mehdi, I.; Ward, J. S.; Maiwald, F.; Ferber, R. R.; Leduc, H. G.; Schlecht, E. T.; Gill, J. J.; Hatch, W. A.; Kawamura, J. H.; Stern, J. A.; Gaier, T. C.; Samoska, L. A.; Weinreb, S.; Bumble, B.; Pukala, D. M.; Javadi, H. H.; Finamore, B. P.; Lin, R. H.; Dengler, R. J.; Velebir, J. R.; Luong, E. M.; Tsang, R.; Peralta, A .; Wells, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) on ESA's Herschel Space Observatory utilizes a variety of novel RF components in its five SIS receiver channels covering 480-1250 GHz and two HEB receiver channels covering 1410-1910 GHz. The local oscillator unit will be passively cooled while the focal plane unit is cooled by superfluid helium and cold helium vapors. HIFI employs W-band GaAs amplifiers, InP HEMT low noise IF amplifiers, fixed tuned broadband planar diode multipliers, high power W-bapd Isolators, and novel material systems in the SIS mixers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is managing the development of the highest frequency (1119-1250 GHz) SIS mixers, the local oscillators oscillators for the three highest frequency receivers as well as W-band power amplifiers, high power W-band isolators, varactor diode devices for all high frequency multipliers and InP HEMT components for all the receiver channels intermediate frequency amplifiers. The NASA developed components represent a significant advancement in the available performance. This paper presents an update of the performance and the current state of development.

  4. The Edison Infrared Space Observatory and the Study of Extra-Solar Planetary Meterial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A.; Hawarden, T. G.; Rapp, D.; Stern, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Edison is a proposed large-aperture, radiatively-cooled space observatory planned to operate at wavelengths between 2 and 130mue or longer. Current estimates for the telescope allow an aperture of 1.7m which will achive a final equilibrium temperature of about 30 K, although use of cryo-coolers may permit temperatures below 20K.

  5. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becklin, Eric E.

    2001-01-01

    The joint U.S. and German SOFIA project to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP is now well into development. First science flights will begin in 2004 with 20% of the observing time assigned to German investigators. The observatory is expected to operate for over 20 years. The sensitivity, characteristics and science instrument complement are discussed. Present and future instrumentation will allow unique astrobiology experiments to be carried out. Several experiments related to organic molecules in space will be discussed.

  6. GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarden, Timothy G.; Johnstone, Callum; Johnstone, Graeme

    2004-07-01

    We describe GISMO, a concept for a 30-m class achromatic diffractive Fesnel space telescope operating in the far-IR and submillimeter from ~20 μm to ~700 μm. The concept is based on the precepts of Hyde (1999). It involves two units, the Lens and Instrument spacecraft, 3 km apart in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point. The primary lens, L1, is a 30.1-m, 32-zone f/100 Fresnel lens, fabricated from ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE). It is 1.0 to 3.4 mm thick (the features are 2.4 mm high for a "design wavelength" of 1.2 mm) and made in 5 strips linked by fabric hinges. It is stowed for launch by folding and rolling. It is deployed warm, unrolled by pneumatic or mechanical means, unfolded by carbon-fiber struts with Shape Memory Alloy hinges and stiffened until cold by a peripheral inflatable ring. Re-oriented edgeways-on to the Sun behind a 5-layer sunshade, L1 will then cool by radiation to space, approaching ~10K after 200 - 300 days. The low equilibrium temperature occurs because the lens is very thin and has a huge view factor to space but a small one to the sunshade. The Instrument spacecraft resembles a smaller, colder (~4K) version of the James Webb Space Telescope and shares features of a concept for the SAFIR mission. A near-field Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 3-segment off-axis 6m x 3m primary acts as field lens, re-imaging L1 on a 30-cm f/1 Fresnel Corrector lens of equal and opposite dispersion, producing an achromatic beam which is directed to a focal plane equipped with imaging and spectroscopic instruments. The "design wavelength" of the telescope is 1.2 mm and it is employed at its second and higher harmonics. The shortest wavelength, ~20μm, is set by the transmission properties of the lens material (illustrated here) and determines the design tolerances of the optical system. The overall mass is estimated at ~5 tonnes and the stowed length around 14 m. Technical challenges and areas of uncertainty for the design concept

  7. The Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Odell, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    A convenient guide to the expected characteristics of the Space Telescope Observatory for astronomers and physicists is presented. An attempt is made to provide enough detail so that a professional scientist, observer or theorist, can plan how the observatory may be used to further his observing programs or to test theoretical models.

  8. A Herschel Space Observatory Spectral Line Survey of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies from 194 to 671 Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao; Zhao, Yinghe; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Armus, Lee; Isaak, Kate G.; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Appleton, Philip N.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Evans, Aaron S.; Howell, Justin; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Leech, Jamie; Lord, Steven; Petric, Andreea O.; Privon, George C.; Sanders, David B.; Schulz, Bernhard; Surace, Jason A.

    2017-05-01

    We describe a Herschel Space Observatory 194-671 μm spectroscopic survey of a sample of 121 local luminous infrared galaxies and report the fluxes of the CO J to J-1 rotational transitions for 4≤slant J≤slant 13, the [N ii] 205 μm line, the [C i] lines at 609 and 370 μm, as well as additional and usually fainter lines. The CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) presented here are consistent with our earlier work, which was based on a smaller sample, that calls for two distinct molecular gas components in general: (i) a cold component, which emits CO lines primarily at J ≲ 4 and likely represents the same gas phase traced by CO (1-0), and (ii) a warm component, which dominates over the mid-J regime (4 < J ≲ 10) and is intimately related to current star formation. We present evidence that the CO line emission associated with an active galactic nucleus is significant only at J > 10. The flux ratios of the two [C i] lines imply modest excitation temperatures of 15-30 K; the [C i] 370 μm line scales more linearly in flux with CO (4-3) than with CO (7-6). These findings suggest that the [C i] emission is predominantly associated with the gas component defined in (i) above. Our analysis of the stacked spectra in different far-infrared (FIR) color bins reveals an evolution of the SLED of the rotational transitions of {{{H}}}2{{O}} vapor as a function of the FIR color in a direction consistent with infrared photon pumping. Based on Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Photo-Spectrometer and the Camera Circular Variable Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Price, S. D.; Hodge, T. M.; Engelke, C. W.

    2003-12-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observed over 2,500 objects with its three mid-infrared spectrometers, the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), the Photo-Spectrometer (PHT-S), and the Camera Circular Variable Filters (CVF). Kraemer et al. (2002) developed an infrared classification system based on the 2.4-45.2 \\micron\\ full-grating spectra from the SWS. Here, we present the results of the classification of the PHT-S and CVF spectra under this system. From the PHT-S observations, we classified over 1,500 spectra, which were supplemented by data from the Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) from IRAS in order to extend the wavelength range of the data. For the CVF spectra, the data were processed and recalibrated prior to classification. Several new categories have been added which were not represented in the original SWS-based scheme. Modifications to the classification scheme due to the shorter wavelength ranges of the PHT-S and CVF data relative to the SWS data are discussed. The classifications of objects observed by more than one instrument are compared, as are those also observed with the IRAS LRS.

  10. The far-infrared view of M87 as seen by the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, M.; Clemens, M.; Xilouris, E. M.; Fritz, J.; Cotton, W. D.; Davies, J. I.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Cortese, L.; De Looze, I.; Pohlen, M.; Verstappen, J.; Böhringer, H.; Bomans, D. J.; Boselli, A.; Corbelli, E.; Dariush, A.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vlahakis, C.; Zibetti, S.

    2011-02-01

    The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We observed M87 with PACS and SPIRE as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We compare the new Herschel data with a synchrotron model based on infrared, submm and radio data to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. We find that both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M87.

  11. The Nature of Ultraluminous Galaxies: Infrared Space Observatory Analysis and Instrument Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyapal, Shobita

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of the proposed research was to investigate the physical conditions in the nuclear regions of infrared luminous galaxies by carrying out detailed infrared spectroscopic observations of a large sample of infrared luminous galaxies. During the past year, these observations have been successfully analyzed and extensive modeling using photoionization and photodissociation codes has been carried out. Two first-author publications and a second-author publication have been submitted to the Astrophysical Journal and results were presented at two invited talks. Four additional journal papers are in preparation and will be submitted during year 2 of the grant. The secondary project included in this program was the development of a near-infrared cryogenic Fabry-Perot interferometer for use on future large aperture telescopes. System integration and room temperature testing was successfully carried out for this project during year 1.

  12. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Eric; Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  13. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  14. A kilo-pixel imaging system for future space based far-infrared observatories using microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baselmans, J. J. A.; Bueno, J.; Yates, S. J. C.; Yurduseven, O.; Llombart, N.; Karatsu, K.; Baryshev, A. M.; Ferrari, L.; Endo, A.; Thoen, D. J.; de Visser, P. J.; Janssen, R. M. J.; Murugesan, V.; Driessen, E. F. C.; Coiffard, G.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Hargrave, P.; Griffin, M.

    2017-05-01

    Aims: Future astrophysics and cosmic microwave background space missions operating in the far-infrared to millimetre part of the spectrum will require very large arrays of ultra-sensitive detectors in combination with high multiplexing factors and efficient low-noise and low-power readout systems. We have developed a demonstrator system suitable for such applications. Methods: The system combines a 961 pixel imaging array based upon Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) with a readout system capable of reading out all pixels simultaneously with only one readout cable pair and a single cryogenic amplifier. We evaluate, in a representative environment, the system performance in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, optical efficiency, cosmic ray rejection, pixel-pixel crosstalk and overall yield at an observation centre frequency of 850 GHz and 20% fractional bandwidth. Results: The overall system has an excellent sensitivity, with an average detector sensitivity < NEPdet> =3×10-19 WHz measured using a thermal calibration source. At a loading power per pixel of 50 fW we demonstrate white, photon noise limited detector noise down to 300 mHz. The dynamic range would allow the detection of 1 Jy bright sources within the field of view without tuning the readout of the detectors. The expected dead time due to cosmic ray interactions, when operated in an L2 or a similar far-Earth orbit, is found to be <4%. Additionally, the achieved pixel yield is 83% and the crosstalk between the pixels is <-30 dB. Conclusions: This demonstrates that MKID technology can provide multiplexing ratios on the order of a 1000 with state-of-the-art single pixel performance, and that the technology is now mature enough to be considered for future space based observatories and experiments.

  15. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor Toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 micron grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power lambda/delat.lambda of approximately 2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of approximately 25 solar luminosity . In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the (sup 2)product(sub 1/2) (J = 5/2) left arrow (sup 2)product(sub 3/2) (J = 3/2) OH feature near 34.6 micron in absorption. Additional SWS observations of VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 7(sub 25)-6(sub 16) line at 29.8367 micron, the 4(sub 41)-3(sub 12) line at 31.7721 micron, and the 4(sub 32)-3(sub 03) line at 40.6909 micron. The higher spectral resolving power lambda/delta.lambda of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the "P Cygni" profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope.

  16. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor Toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 micron grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power lambda/delat.lambda of approximately 2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of approximately 25 solar luminosity . In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the (sup 2)product(sub 1/2) (J = 5/2) left arrow (sup 2)product(sub 3/2) (J = 3/2) OH feature near 34.6 micron in absorption. Additional SWS observations of VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 7(sub 25)-6(sub 16) line at 29.8367 micron, the 4(sub 41)-3(sub 12) line at 31.7721 micron, and the 4(sub 32)-3(sub 03) line at 40.6909 micron. The higher spectral resolving power lambda/delta.lambda of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the "P Cygni" profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope.

  17. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-06-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 μm grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of ~2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of ~25 Lsolar. In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the 2Π1/2(J=5/2)<--2Π3/2(J=3/2) OH feature near 34.6 μm in absorption. Additional SWS observations of VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 725-616 line at 29.8367 μm, the 441-312 line at 31.7721 μm, and the 432-303 line at 40.6909 μm. The higher spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the ``P Cygni'' profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  18. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, Eric

    2015-08-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, is now fully operational with cameras and spectrometers in the 1 to 240 micron region. It will be one of the major observatories for the next 20 years to observe the local ISM in this spectral region. We will give a brief overview of the SOFIA observatory, telescope, instrumentation and recent science. Future observing opportunities and participation in future instrument developments, over the lifetime of the SOFIA observatory will be discussed.

  19. Building International Space Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananbaum, Harvey

    2013-04-01

    In this brief presentation I will focus on international collaborations for building x-ray observatories. Two primary approaches seem relevant for discussion: 1. Contribution of an instrument by one Agency to a mission led by another 2. Substantial participation by 2 or more Agencies in designing and building an Observatory - close to equal partnerships. Most of our experience in x-ray astronomy falls into the first category, and I will illustrate by briefly summarizing Chandra. The second case will be assessed by reviewing the community's and Agencies' efforts on the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). What can we distill from the successes and difficulties encountered over the past several years? Thoughts about how we might proceed in the future will be shared during the subsequent Panel Discussion. Independent of the development approach, we seem to have general agreement that the bulk of the observing time should be open to scientists world-wide through Peer Review to optimize the science return.

  20. Mauna Kea Observatory infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Galactic and solar system infrared observations are reported using a broad variety of radiometric and spectroscopic instrumentation. Infrared programs and papers published during this period are listed.

  1. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    SOFIA, (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is a planned 2.5 meter telescope to be installed in a Boeing 747 aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 46,000 feet. It will permit routine measurement of infrared radiation inaccessible from the ground-based sites, and observation of astronomical objects and transient events from anywhere in the world. The concept is based on 18 years of experience with NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which SOFIA would replace.

  2. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. L.; Becklin, E. E.

    2015-09-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), project has been operating airborne astronomy flights from Palmdale, California since 2011. The observatory consists of a modified 747sp aircraft with a 2.5meter telescope in the tail section. In addition to observing flights out of Palmdale, Ca. this airborne observatory has been able to take advantage of its mobility to observe in the southern hemisphere (New Zealand), to perform multi-wavelength observations of the Super Novae (SN 2014b) in 2014, and to intersect the track of a Pluto Occultation in the southern hemisphere just a few weeks prior to the New Horizons mission fly by of the planet in summer 2015. Science results, observatory operations, current instrument status and participation in future instrument developments, over the lifetime of the observatory will be discussed.

  3. SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes Artwork. Concepts: Based on 18 Years of Experience of Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) Operation, Characteristics, Operations and Science

  4. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Young, E. T.; Savage, M. L.

    2016-09-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), project has been operating airborne astronomy flights from Palmdale, California since 2011. The observatory consists of a modified 747-SP aircraft with a 2.5-meter telescope in its aft section. SOFIA has a suite of eight science instruments spanning visible to far-infrared wavelengths. For the majority of the year SOFIA operates out of the Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, California, giving access to Northern Hemisphere targets. SOFIA's mobility also allows observations in the Southern Hemisphere (Christchurch, New Zealand), of objects such as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the Galactic Center, and Eta Carinae In 2016, SOFIA added polarimetry capability on SOFIA, with HAWC+ commissioning flights. Selected science results, current instrument suite status, new capabilities, and some expectations of future instrument developments over the lifetime of the observatory will be discussed.

  5. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.

    1992-01-01

    The features and scientific aims of SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy), a planned 2.5 m telescope to be installed in an aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 46,000 ft, are discussed. A brief overview of the SOFIA program is given.

  6. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa; Petty, Bryan M.; Sternke, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Andrew M.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2015-11-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is a ten (10) week pre-college research program for students in grades 9-12. Our mission is to prepare students for academic and professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to space and aide in their individual academic and social development. Our objectives are to (1) Supplement the student’s STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) Immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) To foster in every student an interest in science by exploiting their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. AOSA provides students with the opportunity to share lectures with Arecibo Observatory staff, who have expertise in various STEM fields. Each Fall and Spring semester, selected high school students, or Cadets, from all over Puerto Rico participate in this Saturday academy where they receive experience designing, proposing, and carrying out research projects related to space exploration, focusing on four fields: Physics/Astronomy, Biology, Engineering, and Sociology. Cadets get the opportunity to explore their topic of choice while practicing many of the foundations of scientific research with the goal of designing a space settlement, which they present at the NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Contest. At the end of each semester students present their research to their peers, program mentors, and Arecibo Observatory staff. Funding for this program is provided by NASA SSERVI-LPI: Center for Lunar Science and Exploration with partial support from the Angel Ramos Visitor Center through UMET and management by USRA.

  7. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a program to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, has obtained first science with the FORCAST camera in the 5 to 40 micron spectral region and the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer in the 130 to 240 micron spectral region. We briefly review the characteristics and status of the observatory. Spectacular science results on regions of star formation will be discussed. The FORCAST images show several discoveries and the potential for determining how massive stars form in our Galaxy. The GREAT heterodyne spectrometer has made mapping observations of the [C II] line at 158 microns, high J CO lines, and other molecular lines including SH. The HIPO high speed photometer and the high speed camera FDC were used to observe the 2011 June 23 UT stellar occultation by Pluto.

  8. Swift Observatory Space Simulation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espiritu, Mellina; Choi, Michael K.; Scocik, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory is a Middle-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission that is a rapidly re-pointing spacecraft with immediate data distribution capability to the astronomical community. Its primary objectives are to characterize and determine the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and to use the collected data on GRB phenomena in order to probe the universe and gain insight into the physics of black hole formation and early universe. The main components of the spacecraft are the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT), X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Optical Bench (OB) instruments coupled with the Swift spacecraft (S/C) bus. The Swift Observatory will be tested at the Space Environment Simulation (SES) chamber at the Goddard Space Flight Center from May to June 2004 in order to characterize its thermal behavior in a vacuum environment. In order to simulate the independent thermal zones required by the BAT, XRT, UVOT, and OB instruments, the spacecraft is mounted on a chariot structure capable of maintaining adiabatic interfaces and enclosed in a modified, four section MSX fixture in order to accommodate the strategic placement of seven cryopanels (on four circuits), four heater panels, and a radiation source burst simulator mechanism. There are additionally 55 heater circuits on the spacecraft. To mitigate possible migration of silicone contaminants from BAT to the XRT and UVOT instruments, a contamination enclosure is to be fabricated around the BAT at the uppermost section of the MSX fixture. This paper discuses the test requirements and implemented thermal vacuum test configuration for the Swift Observatory.

  9. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.

    1989-01-01

    SOFIA will be a three meter class telescope operating in a Boeing 747, offering astronomers routine access to infrared wavelengths unavailable from the ground, and with the means to observe transient astronomical events from anywhere in the world. The concept is based on 15 years of experience with NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which SOFIA will replace in the mid 1990's. SOFIA's wavelength range covers nearly four decades of the electromagnetic spectrum: from the visible, throughout the infrared and submillimeter, to the microwave region. Relative to the KAO, SOFIA will be roughly ten times more sensitive for compact sources, enabling observations of fainter objects and measurements at higher spectral resolution. Also, it will have three times the angular resolving power for wavelengths greater than 30 microns, permitting more detailed imaging at far infrared wavelengths.

  10. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Molecular Hydrogen in HH 54: Measurement of a Nonequilibrium Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Harwit, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We have detected the S(1), S(2), S(3), S(4), and S(5) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen toward the outflow source HH 54 using the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. The observed H2 line ratios indicate the presence of warm molecular gas with an H2 density of at least 10(sup 5) /cc and a temperature approximately 650 K in which the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 is only 1.2 -+ 0.4, significantly smaller than the equilibrium ratio of 3 expected in gas at that temperature. These observations imply that the measured ratio of ortho- to para-H2 is the legacy of an earlier stage in the thermal history of the gas when the gas had reached equilibrium at a temperature approximately 90 K. Based upon the expected timescale for equilibration, we argue that the nonequilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 observed in HH 54 serves as a chronometer that places a conservative upper limit of approximately 5000 yr on the period for which the emitting gas has been warm. The S(2)/,S(l) and S(3)/S(1) H2 line ratios measured toward HH 54 are consistent with recent theoretical models of Timmermann for the conversion of para- to ortho-H2 behind slow, C-type shocks, but only if the preshock ratio of ortho- to para-H2 was approximately < 0.2.

  11. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Molecular Hydrogen in HH 54: Measurement of a Nonequilibrium Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Harwit, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We have detected the S(1), S(2), S(3), S(4), and S(5) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen toward the outflow source HH 54 using the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. The observed H2 line ratios indicate the presence of warm molecular gas with an H2 density of at least 10(sup 5) /cc and a temperature approximately 650 K in which the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 is only 1.2 -+ 0.4, significantly smaller than the equilibrium ratio of 3 expected in gas at that temperature. These observations imply that the measured ratio of ortho- to para-H2 is the legacy of an earlier stage in the thermal history of the gas when the gas had reached equilibrium at a temperature approximately 90 K. Based upon the expected timescale for equilibration, we argue that the nonequilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 observed in HH 54 serves as a chronometer that places a conservative upper limit of approximately 5000 yr on the period for which the emitting gas has been warm. The S(2)/,S(l) and S(3)/S(1) H2 line ratios measured toward HH 54 are consistent with recent theoretical models of Timmermann for the conversion of para- to ortho-H2 behind slow, C-type shocks, but only if the preshock ratio of ortho- to para-H2 was approximately < 0.2.

  12. Joint US-Japan Observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO): Deep Surveys and Observations of High-Z Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, David B.

    1997-01-01

    Several important milestones were passed during the past year of our ISO observing program: (1) Our first ISO data were successfully obtained. ISOCAM data were taken for our primary deep field target in the 'Lockman Hole'. Thirteen hours of integration (taken over 4 contiguous orbits) were obtained in the LW2 filter of a 3 ft x 3 ft region centered on the position of minimum HI column density in the Lockman Hole. The data were obtained in microscanning mode. This is the deepest integration attempted to date (by almost a factor of 4 in time) with ISOCAM. (2) The deep survey data obtained for the Lockman Hole were received by the Japanese P.I. (Yoshi Taniguchi) in early December, 1996 (following release of the improved pipeline formatted data from Vilspa), and a copy was forwarded to Hawaii shortly thereafter. These data were processed independently by the Japan and Hawaii groups during the latter part of December 1996, and early January, 1997. The Hawaii group made use of the U.S. ISO data center at IPAC/Caltech in Pasadena to carry out their data reduction, while the Japanese group used a copy of the ISOCAM data analysis package made available to them through an agreement with the head of the ISOCAM team, Catherine Cesarsky. (3) Results of our LW2 Deep Survey in the Lockman Hole were first reported at the ISO Workshop "Taking ISO to the Limits: Exploring the Faintest Sources in the Infrared" held at the ISO Science Operations Center in Villafranca, Spain (VILSPA) on 3-4 February, 1997. Yoshi Taniguchi gave an invited presentation summarizing the results of the U.S.-Japan team, and Dave Sanders gave an invited talk summarizing the results of the Workshop at the conclusion of the two day meeting. The text of the talks by Taniguchi and Sanders are included in the printed Workshop Proceedings, and are published in full on the Web. By several independent accounts, the U.S.-Japan Deep Survey results were one of the highlights of the Workshop; these data showed

  13. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the great astronomical observatories both space and land based that are now operational. It shows the history of the development of SOFIA, from its conception in 1986 through the contract awards in 1996 and through the planned first flight in 2007. The major components of the observatory are shown and there is a comparison of the SOFIA with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which is the direct predecessor to SOFIA. The development of the aft ramp of the KAO was developed as a result of the wind tunnel tests performed for SOFIA development. Further slides show the airborne observatory layout and the telescope's optical layout. Included are also vies of the 2.5 Meter effective aperture, and the major telescope's components. The presentations reviews the technical challenges encountered during the development of SOFIA. There are also slides that review the wind tunnel tests, and CFD modeling performed during the development of SOFIA. Closing views show many views of the airplane, and views of SOFIA.

  14. SOFIA, an airborne observatory for infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, Alfred; Mehlert, Dörte; Röser, Hans-Peter; Scorza, Cecilia

    2013-11-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project operating a 2.7 m infrared airborne telescope onboard a modified Boeing 747-SP in the stratosphere at altitudes up to 13.7 km. SOFIA covers a spectral range from 0.3 µm to 1.6 mm, with an average atmospheric transmission greater than 80%. After successfully completing its commissioning, SOFIA commenced regular astronomical observation in spring 2013, and will ramp up to more than one hundred 8 to 10 h flights per year by 2015. The observatory is expected to operate until the mid 2030s. SOFIA's initial complement of seven focal plane instruments includes broadband imagers, moderate-resolution spectrographs and high-resolution spectrometers. SOFIA also includes an elaborate program for Education and Public Outreach. We describe the SOFIA facility together with its first light instrumentation and include some of its first scientific results. In addition, the education and public outreach program is presented.

  15. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (sofia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Becklin, E. E.

    2011-06-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5- meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP that began science flights in 2010. Flying in the stratosphere at altitudes as high as 45,000 feet, SOFIA can conduct photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging observations at wavelengths from 0.3 microns to 1.6 millimeters with an average transmission of greater than 80 percent. SOFIA is staged out of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center aircraft operations facility at Palmdale, CA and the SOFIA Science Mission Operations Center (SSMOC) is located at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. SOFIA's first-generation instrument complement includes high speed photometers, broadband imagers, moderate resolution spectrographs capable of resolving broad features due to dust and large molecules, and high resolution spectrometers suitable for kinematic studies of molecular and atomic gas lines at km/s resolution. About 100 eight to ten hour flights per year are expected by 2014, and the observatory will operate until the mid 2030's. We will review the status of the SOFIA facility, its initial complement of science instruments, and the opportunities for advanced instrumentation.

  16. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Fernanda Zambrano Marin, Luisa; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida; Soto, Sujeily; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2016-10-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is an intense fifteen-week pre-college research program for qualified high school students residing in Puerto Rico, which includes ten days for hands-on, on site research activities. Our mission is to prepare students for their professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to the multidisciplinary field of space science. Our objectives are to (1) supplement the student's STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) foster in every student an interest in the STEM fields by harnessing their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. Students interested in participating in the program go through an application, interview and trial period before being offered admission. They are welcomed as candidates the first weeks, and later become cadets while experiencing designing, proposing, and conducting research projects focusing in fields like Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Chemistry, and Engineering. Each individual is evaluated with program compatibility based on peer interaction, preparation, participation, and contribution to class, group dynamics, attitude, challenges, and inquiry. This helps to ensure that specialized attention can be given to students who demonstrate a dedication and desire to learn. Deciding how to proceed in the face of setbacks and unexpected problems is central to the learning experience. At the end of the semester, students present their research to the program mentors, peers, and scientific staff. This year, AOSA students also focused on science communication and were trained by NASA's FameLab. Students additionally presented their research at this year's International Space Development Conference (ISDC), which was held in

  17. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Molecular Hydrogen in HH 54: Measurement of a Nonequilibrium Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Harwit, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We have detected the S(1), S(2), S(3), S(4), and S(5) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen toward the outflow source HH 54 using the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. The observed H2 line ratios indicate the presence of warm molecular gas with an H2 density of at least 10(exp 5) cm(exp -3) and a temperature approximately 650 K in which the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 is only 1.2 +/- 0.4, significantly smaller than the equilibrium ratio of 3 expected in gas at that temperature. These observations imply that the measured ratio of ortho- to para-H2 is the legacy of an earlier stage in the thermal history of the gas when the gas had reached equilibrium at a temperature approximately less than 90 K. Based upon the expected timescale for equilibration, we argue that the nonequilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 observed in HH 54 serves as a chronometer that places a conservative upper limit of approximately 5000 yr on the period for which the emitting gas has been warm. The S(2)/S(1) and S(3)/S(1) H2 line ratios measured toward HH 54 are consistent with recent theoretical models of Timmermann for the conversion of para- to ortho-H2 behind slow, C-type shocks, but only if the preshock ratio of ortho- to para-H2 was approximately less than 0.2.

  18. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Molecular Hydrogen in HH 54: Measurement of a Nonequilibrium Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Harwit, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We have detected the S(1), S(2), S(3), S(4), and S(5) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen toward the outflow source HH 54 using the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. The observed H2 line ratios indicate the presence of warm molecular gas with an H2 density of at least 10(exp 5) cm(exp -3) and a temperature approximately 650 K in which the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 is only 1.2 +/- 0.4, significantly smaller than the equilibrium ratio of 3 expected in gas at that temperature. These observations imply that the measured ratio of ortho- to para-H2 is the legacy of an earlier stage in the thermal history of the gas when the gas had reached equilibrium at a temperature approximately less than 90 K. Based upon the expected timescale for equilibration, we argue that the nonequilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 observed in HH 54 serves as a chronometer that places a conservative upper limit of approximately 5000 yr on the period for which the emitting gas has been warm. The S(2)/S(1) and S(3)/S(1) H2 line ratios measured toward HH 54 are consistent with recent theoretical models of Timmermann for the conversion of para- to ortho-H2 behind slow, C-type shocks, but only if the preshock ratio of ortho- to para-H2 was approximately less than 0.2.

  19. Space-Based Near-Infrared CO2 Measurements: Testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory Retrieval Algorithm and Validation Concept Using SCIAMACHY Observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosch, H.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Wennberg, P. O.; Buchwitz, M.; deBeek, R.; Burrows, J. P.; Crisp, D.; Christi, M.; Connor, B. J.; Natraj, V.; Yung, Y. L.

    2006-01-01

    Space-based measurements of reflected sunlight in the near-infrared (NIR) region promise to yield accurate and precise observations of the global distribution of atmospheric CO2. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a future NASA mission, which will use this technique to measure the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) with the precision and accuracy needed to quantify CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales (approx.1000 x 1000 sq km and to characterize their variability on seasonal timescales. Here, we have used the OCO retrieval algorithm to retrieve XCO2 and surface pressure from space-based Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) measurements and from coincident ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the O2 A band at 0.76 mm and the 1.58 mm CO2 band for Park Falls,Wisconsin. Even after accounting for a systematic error in our representation of the O2 absorption cross sections, we still obtained a positive bias between SCIAMACHY and FTS XCO2 retrievals of approx.3.5%. Additionally, the retrieved surface pressures from SCIAMACHY systematically underestimate measurements of a calibrated pressure sensor at the FTS site. These findings lead us to speculate about inadequacies in the forward model of our retrieval algorithm. By assuming a 1% intensity offset in the O2 A band region for the SCIAMACHY XCO2 retrieval, we significantly improved the spectral fit and achieved better consistency between SCIAMACHY and FTS XCO2 retrievals. We compared the seasonal cycle of XCO2 at Park Falls from SCIAMACHY and FTS retrievals with calculations of the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (MATCH/CASA) and found a good qualitative agreement but with MATCH/CASA underestimating the measured seasonal amplitude. Furthermore, since SCIAMACHY observations are similar in viewing geometry and spectral range to those of OCO, this study represents an important

  20. Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: Testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BöSch, H.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Wennberg, P. O.; Buchwitz, M.; de Beek, R.; Burrows, J. P.; Crisp, D.; Christi, M.; Connor, B. J.; Natraj, V.; Yung, Y. L.

    2006-12-01

    Space-based measurements of reflected sunlight in the near-infrared (NIR) region promise to yield accurate and precise observations of the global distribution of atmospheric CO2. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a future NASA mission, which will use this technique to measure the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 ? with the precision and accuracy needed to quantify CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales (˜1000 × 1000 km2) and to characterize their variability on seasonal timescales. Here, we have used the OCO retrieval algorithm to retrieve ? and surface pressure from space-based Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) measurements and from coincident ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the O2 A band at 0.76 μm and the 1.58 μm CO2 band for Park Falls, Wisconsin. Even after accounting for a systematic error in our representation of the O2 absorption cross sections, we still obtained a positive bias between SCIAMACHY and FTS ? retrievals of ˜3.5%. Additionally, the retrieved surface pressures from SCIAMACHY systematically underestimate measurements of a calibrated pressure sensor at the FTS site. These findings lead us to speculate about inadequacies in the forward model of our retrieval algorithm. By assuming a 1% intensity offset in the O2 A band region for the SCIAMACHY ? retrieval, we significantly improved the spectral fit and achieved better consistency between SCIAMACHY and FTS ? retrievals. We compared the seasonal cycle of ? at Park Falls from SCIAMACHY and FTS retrievals with calculations of the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (MATCH/CASA) and found a good qualitative agreement but with MATCH/CASA underestimating the measured seasonal amplitude. Furthermore, since SCIAMACHY observations are similar in viewing geometry and spectral range to those of OCO, this study represents an important test of the OCO retrieval

  1. Space-Based Near-Infrared CO2 Measurements: Testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory Retrieval Algorithm and Validation Concept Using SCIAMACHY Observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosch, H.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Wennberg, P. O.; Buchwitz, M.; deBeek, R.; Burrows, J. P.; Crisp, D.; Christi, M.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Space-based measurements of reflected sunlight in the near-infrared (NIR) region promise to yield accurate and precise observations of the global distribution of atmospheric CO2. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a future NASA mission, which will use this technique to measure the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) with the precision and accuracy needed to quantify CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales (approx.1000 x 1000 sq km and to characterize their variability on seasonal timescales. Here, we have used the OCO retrieval algorithm to retrieve XCO2 and surface pressure from space-based Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) measurements and from coincident ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the O2 A band at 0.76 mm and the 1.58 mm CO2 band for Park Falls,Wisconsin. Even after accounting for a systematic error in our representation of the O2 absorption cross sections, we still obtained a positive bias between SCIAMACHY and FTS XCO2 retrievals of approx.3.5%. Additionally, the retrieved surface pressures from SCIAMACHY systematically underestimate measurements of a calibrated pressure sensor at the FTS site. These findings lead us to speculate about inadequacies in the forward model of our retrieval algorithm. By assuming a 1% intensity offset in the O2 A band region for the SCIAMACHY XCO2 retrieval, we significantly improved the spectral fit and achieved better consistency between SCIAMACHY and FTS XCO2 retrievals. We compared the seasonal cycle of XCO2 at Park Falls from SCIAMACHY and FTS retrievals with calculations of the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (MATCH/CASA) and found a good qualitative agreement but with MATCH/CASA underestimating the measured seasonal amplitude. Furthermore, since SCIAMACHY observations are similar in viewing geometry and spectral range to those of OCO, this study represents an important

  2. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Jim; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will describe the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) mission. EUSO is an ESA mission to explore the most powerful energy sources in the universe. The mission objectives of EUSO are to investigate EECRs, those with energies above 3x10(exp 19) eV, and very high-energy cosmic neutrinos. These objectives are directly related to extreme conditions in the physical world and possibly involve the early history of the big bang and the framework of GUTs. EUSO tackles the basic problem posed by the existence of these extreme-energy events. The solution could have a unique impact on fundamental physics, cosmology, and/or astrophysics. At these energies, magnetic deflection is thought to be so small that the EECR component would serve as the particle channel for astronomy. EUSO will make the first measurements of EAS from space by observing atmospheric fluorescence in the Earth's night sky. With measurements of the airshower track, EUSO will determine the energy and arrival direction of these extreme-energy events. EUSO will make high statistics observations of CRs beyond the predicted GZK cutoff energy and widen the channel for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The energy spectra, arrival directions, and shower profiles will be analyzed to distinguish the nature of these events and search for their sources. With EUSO data, we will have the possibility to discover a local EECR source, test Z-burst scenarios and other theories, and look for evidence of the breakdown of the relativity principle at extreme Lorentz factors.

  3. World Space Observatory Ultraviolet mission: status 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, Mikhail; Shustov, Boris; Gómez de Castro, Ana Inés.

    2016-07-01

    The WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is intended to built and operate an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 310 nm) range, where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied. It is the solution to the problem of future access to UV spectroscopy. Dedicated to spectroscopic and imaging observations of the ultraviolet sky, the World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet mission is a Russian-Spanish collaboration with potential Mexican minor contribution. This paper provides a summary on the project, its status and the major outcomes since the last SPIE meeting.

  4. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, J.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ˜2.4 km by ˜5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  5. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is lowered onto a transporter to be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is lowered onto a transporter to be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is ready to be lowered to the ground and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is ready to be lowered to the ground and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is moved toward the outside of the launch tower. It will be lowered and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is moved toward the outside of the launch tower. It will be lowered and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is lowered to the ground and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is lowered to the ground and taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is moved into NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is moved into NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is on a transporter to be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is on a transporter to be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is being dismantled from atop the Delta II rocket. It will be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory is being dismantled from atop the Delta II rocket. It will be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, start dismantling the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory from atop the Delta II rocket. It will be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, start dismantling the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) observatory from atop the Delta II rocket. It will be taken back to NASA Spacecraft Hangar AE. SIRTF will remain in the clean room at Hangar AE until it returns to the pad in early August.

  14. Long-lived space observatories for astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Becklin, Eric E.; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Elliot, James L.; Gallagher, John S.; Helfand, David J.; Jenkins, Edward F.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's plan to build and launch a fleet of long-lived space observatories that include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Advanced X Ray Astrophysics Observatory (AXAF), and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are discussed. These facilities are expected to have a profound impact on the sciences of astronomy and astrophysics. The long-lived observatories will provide new insights about astronomical and astrophysical problems that range from the presence of planets orbiting nearby stars to the large-scale distribution and evolution of matter in the universe. An important concern to NASA and the scientific community is the operation and maintenance cost of the four observatories described above. The HST cost about $1.3 billion (1984 dollars) to build and is estimated to require $160 million (1986 dollars) a year to operate and maintain. If HST is operated for 20 years, the accumulated costs will be considerably more than those required for its construction. Therefore, it is essential to plan carefully for observatory operations and maintenance before a long-lived facility is constructed. The primary goal of this report is to help NASA develop guidelines for the operations and management of these future observatories so as to achieve the best possible scientific results for the resources available. Eight recommendations are given.

  15. Cosmic Ray Observatories for Space Weather Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX) was created in October 2014. Some observatories measure data for the service at different frequencies and particles. Two cosmic ray observatories detect the particle variations attributed to solar emissions, and are an important source of information for the SCiESMEX. The Mexico City Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a neutron monitor (6-NM-64) and a muon telescope, that detect the hadronic and hard component of the secondary cosmic rays in the atmosphere. It has been in continous operation since 1990. The Sierra Negra Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a solar neutron telescope and the scintillator cosmic ray telescope. These telescopes can detect the neutrons, generated in solar flares and the hadronic and hard components of the secondary cosmic rays. It has been in continous operation since 2004. We present the two observatories and the capability to detect variations in the cosmic rays, generated by the emissions of the solar activity.

  16. Darwin: A Space Observatory for the Direct Detection of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollivier, M.; Léger, A.

    2006-11-01

    The DARWIN mission aims at directly detecting telluric extrasolar planets in the solar neighborhood and performing a spectral analysis of their potential atmosphere to determine their composition and identify tracers of biological activity. The concept under study is a space infrared interferometric observatory made of 3 to 6 telescopes combined in a so-called "nulling" mode to cancel the light of the star and thus reduce the contrast between the star itself and the planet to detect. In this paper, we present the science cases of such an observatory, the concept of the beam combining instrument, and the associated key technologies. Finally, we consider what a post-DARWIN could be.

  17. Nex-Gen Space Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-26

    Dr. John Grunsfeld, former astronaut and Deputy Director, Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore speaks at the presentation of the permanent exhibit of the James Webb Space Telescope at the Maryland Science Center on Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2011 in Baltimore. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Nex-Gen Space Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-26

    Dr. John Grunsfeld, former astronaut and Deputy Director, Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, far right, speaks with U.S. Senator Barbara Mikulski about the James Webb Space Telescope at the Maryland Science Center in Baltimore on Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2011. Looking on are Van Reiner, President and CEO of the Maryland Science Center, Baltimore, far left; NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver and Jeffrey Grant, VP and General Manager of the Space Systems Division, Northrop Grumman. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Nex-Gen Space Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-26

    NASA, space science industry and government officials are seen in front of a full-size model of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope at the Maryland Science Center in Baltimore, Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2011. From left, back row are: Dr. John Grunsfeld, former astronaut and Deputy Director, Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore; Jeffrey Grant, VP and General Manager of the Space Systems Division, Northrop Grumman; Van Reiner, President and CEO of the Maryland Science Center, Baltimore and Adam Reiss, recipient of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics and professor of astronomy and physics at Johns Hopkins University. In the front row are NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, left, and U.S. Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.). Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Nex-Gen Space Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-26

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver speaks at the presentation of the permanent exhibit of the James Webb Space Telescope at the Maryland Science Center on Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2011 in Baltimore. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Science with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the fourth and final member of NASA's series of Great Observatories, is scheduled to launch on April 15,2003. Together with the Hubbie Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma ray Telescope, and the Chandra X-Ray Telescope this series of observatories offers observational capabilities across the electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared to high-energy gamma rays. SIRTF is based on three focal plane instruments - an infrared spectrograph and two infrared imagers - coupled to a superfluid-helium cooled telescope to achieve unprecedented sensitivity from 3 to 180 microns. Although SIRTF is a powerful general-purpose infrared observatory, its design was based on the capability to address four broad science themes: (1) understanding the structure and composition of the early universe, (2) understanding the nature of brown dwarfs and super-planets, (3) probing protostellar, protoplanetary, and planetary debris disk systems, and (4) understanding the origin and structure of ultraluminous infrared galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This talk will address the design and capabilities of the SIRTF observatory, provide an overview of some of the initial science investigations planned by the SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers, and give a brief overview of the General Observer proposal process.

  2. Science with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the fourth and final member of NASA's series of Great Observatories, is scheduled to launch on April 15,2003. Together with the Hubbie Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma ray Telescope, and the Chandra X-Ray Telescope this series of observatories offers observational capabilities across the electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared to high-energy gamma rays. SIRTF is based on three focal plane instruments - an infrared spectrograph and two infrared imagers - coupled to a superfluid-helium cooled telescope to achieve unprecedented sensitivity from 3 to 180 microns. Although SIRTF is a powerful general-purpose infrared observatory, its design was based on the capability to address four broad science themes: (1) understanding the structure and composition of the early universe, (2) understanding the nature of brown dwarfs and super-planets, (3) probing protostellar, protoplanetary, and planetary debris disk systems, and (4) understanding the origin and structure of ultraluminous infrared galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This talk will address the design and capabilities of the SIRTF observatory, provide an overview of some of the initial science investigations planned by the SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers, and give a brief overview of the General Observer proposal process.

  3. Nex-Gen Space Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-26

    U.S. Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.), third from right, cuts the yellow ribbon presenting the James Webb Space Telescope permanent exhibit at the Maryland Science Center on Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2011 in Baltimore. Mikulski is joined by NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, far left; Adam Reiss, recipient of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics and professor of astronomy and physics at Johns Hopkins University; Jeffrey Grant, VP and General Manager of the Space Systems Division, Northrop Grumman; Van Reiner, President and CEO of the Maryland Science Center, Baltimore and Dr. John Grunsfeld, former astronaut and Deputy Director, Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore. The Webb telescope will provide images of the first galaxies ever formed and explore planets around distant stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Nex-Gen Space Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-26

    U.S. Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.) speaks at the presentation of the permanent exhibit of the James Webb Space Telescope at the Maryland Science Center on Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2011 in Baltimore. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Nex-Gen Space Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-26

    Adam Reiss, recipient of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics and professor of astronomy and physics at Johns Hopkins University speaks at the presentation of the permanent exhibit of the James Webb Space Telescope at the Maryland Science Center on Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2011 in Baltimore. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Nex-Gen Space Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-26

    U.S. Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.), right, answers a reporter's question, while NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver looks on at the Maryland Science Center, Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2011 in Baltimore. A full size model of the James Webb Space Telescope is on display at the MSC through Oct. 26 as part of the recent Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) annual conference recently held in Baltimore. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. The great observatories for space astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, M.; Neal, V.

    1986-01-01

    Motivated by the ancient urge to observe, measure, compute, and understand the nature of the Universe, the available advanced technology is used to place entire observatories into space for investigations across the spectrum. Stellar evolution, development and nature of the Universe, planetary exploration, technology, NASA's role, and careers in asronomy are displayed.

  8. Gamma-Ray Observatory - The next great observatory in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Fishman, Gerald; Kniffen, Donald

    1990-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) which is part of NASA's Great Observatories space program is presented. The GRO is equipped with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (which detects low-energy gamma-ray photons from 20 keV to 600 keV and locates sources of gamma-ray bursts), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (which detects celestial gamma rays from 100 keV to 10 MeV and identifies the elements producing these rays by measuring the ray's spectra and time variability), the Imaging Compton Telescope (which images gamma rays with energies from 1 to 30 MeV created when cosmic rays interact with interstellar matter), and the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (which detects high-energy photons associated with the most energetic processes occurring in nature). After the energies of photons from each source are classified, the gamma-ray mechanisms can be modelled. Nuclei, radioactive isotopes, and nuclear reactions can be identified, and the physical conditions at the radiation's source can also be modelled. From these models, theories can be developed about the creation of elements in the explosion and collapse of giant stars, the acceleration of charged particles to velocities approaching the speed of light, and the destruction of matter and antimatter.

  9. Gamma-Ray Observatory - The next great observatory in space

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, V.; Fishman, G.; Kniffen, D. Essex Corp., Huntsville, AL NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1990-08-01

    The Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) which is part of NASA's Great Observatories space program is presented. The GRO is equipped with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (which detects low-energy gamma-ray photons from 20 keV to 600 keV and locates sources of gamma-ray bursts), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (which detects celestial gamma rays from 100 keV to 10 MeV and identifies the elements producing these rays by measuring the ray's spectra and time variability), the Imaging Compton Telescope (which images gamma rays with energies from 1 to 30 MeV created when cosmic rays interact with interstellar matter), and the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (which detects high-energy photons associated with the most energetic processes occurring in nature). After the energies of photons from each source are classified, the gamma-ray mechanisms can be modelled. Nuclei, radioactive isotopes, and nuclear reactions can be identified, and the physical conditions at the radiation's source can also be modelled. From these models, theories can be developed about the creation of elements in the explosion and collapse of giant stars, the acceleration of charged particles to velocities approaching the speed of light, and the destruction of matter and antimatter.

  10. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a cryogenic, 6.5 meter diameter space telescope. JWST has a unique architecture, compared to previous space telescopes, that is driven by its science requirements, ia passively cooled cryogenic design, and the need to stow the observatory for launch. JWST's large, segmented mirror meets the requirement for high angular resolution in the infrared coupled with a significant increase in collecting area compared to the Spitzer and Hubble Space telescopes in order to detect the first galaxies. JWST's unique five-layer sunshield allows the telescope and instrument module to passively cool to cryogenic temperatures. JWST will be launched on an Ariane 5, and so both its telescope optics, and the sunshield have to be stowed in order to fit the Ariane 5 fairing. Following launch the sunshield and telescope optics must be deployed, and the primary mirror phased for science operations. In this presentation we will review the design of the observatory and highlight recent progress in the construction of the JWST observatory. In particular, we address recent progress with the telescope optics, sunshield and spacecraft. We will discuss predicted observatory performance in terms of the scientific goals of JWST and address key operational considerations that might bear upon frontier science observations.

  11. SOFIA: The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Roger H.; Davidson, Jacqueline A.

    1990-01-01

    SOFIA, an airborne observatory intended to be carried aboard a Boeing 747 high performance aircraft, is described. The observatory is predicted to provide a threefold greater aperture than that of the Kuiper telescope. The Boeing aircraft will carry the 2.5 diameter telescope and its observers to altitudes of 14,000 and above where the atmosphere is very nearly transparent at all wavelengths. Various aspects and specific missions of the SOFIA project, a cooperative venture of the U.S. and Germany, are described.

  12. A mission architecture for future space observatories optimized for SAFIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, C. F.; Dailey, D. R.

    2005-08-01

    We have developed generic mission architecture with James Webb Space Telescope heritage that can accommodate a wide variety of future space observatories. This paper describes the optimization of this architecture for the Single Aperture Far InfraRed (SAFIR) mission. This mission calls for a 10-meter telescope in an L2 orbit that is actively cooled to 4 Kelvin, enabling background-limited observations of celestial objects in the 30 to 800 micron region of the spectrum. A key feature of our architecture is a boom that attaches the payload to the spacecraft, providing thermal and dynamic isolation and minimizing disturbances from the spacecraft bus. Precision mechanisms, hinges and latches enable folding the observatory into a 5-m diameter fairing for launch and a precision deployment once on orbit. Precision mechanisms also articulate the telescope to minimize solar torques and increase the field of regard. The details of our design and the trades considered during its development are also described

  13. Solar Terrestrial Observatory Space Station Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. T. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    In response to a need to develop and document requirements of the Solar Terrestrial Observatory at an early time, a mini-workshop was organized and held on June 6, 1985. The participants at this workshop set as their goal the preliminary definition of the following areas: (1) instrument descriptions; (2) placement of instrumentation on the IOC Space Station; (3) servicing and repair assessment; and (4) operational scenarios. This report provides a synopsis of the results of that workshop.

  14. Toward a Space based Gravitational Wave Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    A space-based GW observatory will produce spectacular science. The LISA mission concept: (a) Long history, (b) Very well-studied, including de-scopes, (c) NASAs Astrophysics Strategic Plan calls for a minority role in ESAs L3 mission opportunity. To that end, NASA is Participating in LPF and ST7 Developing appropriate technology for a LISA-like mission Preparing to seek an endorsement for L3 participation from the 2020 decadal review.

  15. The future of VLBI observatories in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Jordan, J. F.; Burke, B. F.; Doxsey, R.; Morgan, S. H.; Roberts, D. H.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1983-01-01

    The angular resolution of radio maps made by earth-based VLBI observations can be exceeded by placing at least one element of a VLBI array into earth orbit. A VLBI observatory in space can offer the additional advantages of increased sky coverage, higher density sampling of Fourier components, and rapid mapping of objects whose structure changes in less than a day. This paper explores the future of this technique.

  16. Space-borne gravitational wave observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the progress toward a space-borne gravitational wave observatory and its foreseeable science potential. In particular the paper describes the status of the LISA-like mission called eLISA, the reference mission for the Gravitational Universe theme adopted by ESA for its Large mission L3, and the status of its precursor LISA Pathfinder, due to launch in 2015.

  17. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiltsee, Christopher B.; Brooks, Walter F.

    1989-01-01

    The system concept for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), as developed by NASA Ames Research Center is described. The SOFIA facility is a 3-meter class optical/infrared/submillimeter telescope mounted in an open cavity in the forebody of a Boeing 747 aircraft, to be operational in 1992. It represents the next generation of Ames' existing airborne IR facilities, and is about ten times more sensitive than the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) with 3 times better angular resolution, and able to detect all the far-infrared point sources discovered by IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite) survey in 1983. Major requirements and design attributes of the SOFIA telescope are presented, along with a brief description of the Ground Support/Operations System.

  18. Development of a near-infrared detector and a fiber-optic integral field unit for a space solar observatory SOLAR-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Yukio; Kamata, Yukiko; Anan, Tetsu; Hara, Hirohisa; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Bando, Takamasa; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2016-07-01

    We are developing a high sensitivity and fast readout near-infrared (NIR) detector and an integral field unit (IFU) for making spectro-polarimetric observations of rapidly varying chromospheric spectrum lines, such as He I 1083 nm and Ca II 854 nm, in the next space-based solar mission SOLAR-C. We made tests of a 1.7 μm cutoff H2RG detector with the SIDECAR ASIC for the application in SOLAR-C. It's important to verify its perfor- mance in the temperature condition around -100 °C, which is hotter than the typical temperature environment used for a NIR detector. We built a system for testing the detector between -70 °C and -140 °C. We verified linearity, read-out noise, and dark current in both the slow and fast readout modes. We found the detector has to be cooled down lower than -100 °C because of significant increase of the number of hot pixels in the hotter environment. The compact and polarization maintenance IFU was designed using fiber-optic ribbons consisting of rectangular cores which exhibit good polarization maintenance. A Silicone adhesive DC-SE9187L was used to hold the fragile fiber-optic ribbons in a metal housing. Polarization maintenance property was confirmed though polarization calibration as well as temperature control are required to suppress polarization crosstalk and to achieve the polarization accuracy in SOLAR-C.

  19. EARLY SCIENCE WITH SOFIA, THE STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Young, E. T.; Becklin, E. E.; De Buizer, J. M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Casey, S. C.; Helton, L. A.; Marcum, P. M.; Roellig, T. L.; Temi, P.; Herter, T. L.; Guesten, R.; Dunham, E. W.; Backman, D.; Burgdorf, M.; Caroff, L. J.; Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Harper, D. A.; Harvey, P. M.; and others

    2012-04-20

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.

  20. Overview and Status of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments spanning the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST's primary science goals are to detect and characterize the first galaxies, study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. JWST has a unique design based on the concept of passive cooling by means of a multi-layer sunshield to achieve the telescope's cryogenic operating temperature. Each of the five layers of the sunshield is approximately the size of a tennis court, and made of aluminized kapton. By maintaining an observatory attitude whereby the sunshield keeps the telescope in the shade from the sun's rays, the telescope and science instruments can operate at cryogenic temperature (-40 K). On the sun facing side of the observatory the spacecraft bus houses most of the electronic sub-systems, and provides a platform for the solar array and communications hardware. JWST is sufficiently large that it cannot fit inside .the fairing of its Ariane 5 launcher without being stowed in a more compact configuration, so the ability to deploy its major SUb-systems such as the telescope optics and sunshield after launch are another major feature of the observatory. Development of observatory is making rapid progress as major hardware SUb-systems nearcompletion. Polishing of the JWST telescope mirrors is complete with 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, tertiary and fine steering mirror all gold coated and through acceptance testing. Engineering test articles of each sunshield membrane layer are underway. The first layer 3 membrane is complete and is undergoing testing to evaluate its tensioned shape for compliance with alignment tolerances. As each major SUb-system is tested, the expected scientific performance of the observatory can be evaluated using test results and integrated system models of the

  1. Development of the first infrared satellite observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. M.; Squibb, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    A development history is given for the Infrared Astronomical Satelite (IRAS), whose primary mission objective is an unbiased, all-sky survey in the 8-120 micron wavelength range. A point source catalog of more than 200,000 IR sources, to be published later this year, represents the accomplishment of this objective. IRAS has also conducted 10,000 pointed observations of specific objects. Attention is given to the cost increases and schedule slips which resulted from the substantial technical challenges of IRAS hardware and software development, and to the management techniques which had to be employed in this major international project.

  2. SOFIA: A Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.; Thorley, G.; Caroff, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    SOFIA is described as it was originally (May 1988) for the Space and Earth Sciences Advisory Committee (SESAC). The format and questions were provided by SESAC as a standard for judging the merit of potential U.S. space science projects. This version deletes Section IIF, which addressed development costs of the SOFIA facility. SOFIA's unique astronomical potential is described and it is shown how it complements and supports existing and planned facilities.

  3. AMS-02 as a Space Weather Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, K.; Bindi, V.; Chati, M.; Consolandi, C.; Corti, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state-of-the-art space detector that measures particles in the energy range of hundreds of MeV to a few TeV. AMS-02 has been installed onboard of the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011 where it will operate for the duration of the station. To date, there is an abundance of space-based solar data collected in the low energy regimes, whereas there are very few direct measurements of higher energy particles available. AMS-02 is capable of measuring arrival time and composition of the highest energy SEPs in space. It is crucial to build a better knowledge base regarding the most energetic and potentially harmful events. We are currently developing a program to employ AMS-02 as a real-time space weather observatory. SEPs with higher energies are usually accelerated during a short period of time and they are the first particles to reach the Earth. AMS-02, measuring these highest energy SEPs, can alert the onset of an SEP event. During the past two years of operation, we have identified two main quantities in AMS-02 that are particularly sensitive to the arrival of SEPs: the detector livetime and the transition radiation detector (TRD) event size. By monitoring the detector livetime and the TRD event size, AMS-02 can pinpoint in real-time the arrival of SEPs inside the Earth's magnetosphere operating as a space weather detector.

  4. Space Based Gravitational Wave Observatories (SGOs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected The Gravitational Universe as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.

  5. Planetary Science with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, Dana E.; Reach, William T.

    2015-11-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is currently conducting the third annual Cycle of guest investigator observing programs. Programs selected for the fourth Cycle (2016) were announced in October. The planetary science community has made a significant showing in all proposal Cycles, comprising approximately 15% of the time awarded in Cycles 1-3. SOFIA offers observers access to the complete infrared spectrum, with much less atmospheric absorption than from even the finest ground-based telescope sites. New capabilities include high-resolution spectroscopy in the mid-infrared with the Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) that allows spectroscopy of molecules from narrow stratospheric lines of planetary atmospheres, plus imaging spectroscopy with the Field Imaging Far-Infrared Line Spectrometer (FIFI-LS) capable, for example, of simultaneous observations in 9 spatial pixels in each of two far-infrared spectral lines. Also, the FLITECAM near-IR and FORCAST mid-IR cameras include grisms that allow moderate-resolution spectral imaging at wavelengths inaccessible from the ground, and HIPO and FPI+ high-speed photometric imagers are capable of high-S/N measurements of stellar occultations and exoplanet transits. Planetary science targets observed to date include comets ISON and PanSTARRS, main belt asteroids, Mars, Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Europa, exoplanets, and debris disks. This poster will showcase science highlights, give details regarding the SOFIA observatory and instrument capabilities, and present observing program statistics.

  6. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schember, Helene; Manhart, Paul; Guiar, Cecilia; Stevens, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will be the first true infrared observatory in space, building upon the technical and scientific experience gained through its two NASA survey-oriented predecessors: the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. During its minimum five year lifetime, the SIRTF will perform pointed scientific observations at wavelengths from 1.8 to 1200 microns with an increase in sensitivity over previous missions of several orders of magnitude. This paper discusses a candidate design for the SIRTF telescope, encompassing optics, cryostat, and instrument accommodation, which has been undertaken to provide a fulcrum for the development of functional requirements, interface definition, risk assessment and cost. The telescope optics employ a baffled Ritchey-Chretien Cassegrain system with a 1-m class primary mirror, an active secondary mirror, and a stationary facetted tertiary mirror. The optics are embedded in a large superfluid He cryostat designed to maintain the entire telescope-instrument system at temperatures below 3 K.

  7. Space-Based Laser Interferometric Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Guido

    Similar to the electromagnetic band, the gravitational wave band of interest stretches over many decades of frequencies searching for signals from a large range of masses. Maybe the signal-richest frequency range spans from a few μHz to a few hundred mHz. It includes many hundred thousand compact galactic binaries and merger signals involving 104 to 108 solar mass black holes; probably the most common black holes in the centers of galaxies throughout the history of the universe. This is the motivation behind plans for a space-based laser interferometric gravitational wave observatories which float around since the '70s. These plans culminated in the late '90s into plans for the well known Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) which, after being cancelled in 2011, is now reemerging as one of the most likely next large space missions. LISA and LISA-like missions use three spacecraft separated by a few million kilometers in a heliocentric orbit. Free floating proof masses inside each spacecraft define the end points of laser interferometer arms in a Michelson-like configuration. This chapter briefly reviews the sources and the history before it focuses on the design of a LISA-like mission.

  8. Space Subaru: great science observatories in the space station ERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu

    1998-08-01

    A concept of 'Space Factory' on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) is described. Following the four great observatories deployed by the Space Transportation System (STS), the next generation of great observatories would require a very large, 10-meter class optical telescope. A telescope of this size will require careful assembly and tuning by astronauts on orbit before deployment. Once built, it could visualize the universe to the earliest galaxies, and could explore the earth-like planet in other star- system. The 'Space Factory' is conceived by including four or five frontier astrophysics programs. Less demanding experiments could precede the construction of the most demanding optical telescope. Space SUBARU is a 10 meter- diameter optical telescope with a diffraction limited optics. Space-Submillimeter-and-IR-Telescope is a 20 meter- diameter sub-millimeter telescope. A 10-meter-cube telescope is for observing gamma-rays from 1 GeV to 10 TeV. The Multiple-OWL is an earth's night-sky-watcher for the highest energy cosmic rays. Space SUBARU envisages a plan of orbital construction, fine-tuning and deployment of large scale astrophysical instruments into the desired free-flying orbit. It incorporates physical aids of the robotics and extra-vehicle activities of astronauts.

  9. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) for Planetary Science and the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reach, W. T.

    2011-10-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA [1]) is a 2.5 meter telescope on a modified 747SP aircraft. The program is managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). Operations are supported by NASA and DLR in a partnership, with an 80/20 split per international Memorandum of Understanding.

  10. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astornomy and Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reach, William T.; SOFIA Sciece Mission Operations

    2016-10-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy enables observations at far-infrared wavelengths, including the range 30-300 microns that is nearly completely obscured from the ground. By flying in the stratosphere above 95% of atmospheric water vapor, access is opened to photometric, spectroscopic, and polarimetric observations of Solar System targets spanning small bodies through major planets. Extrasolar planetary systems can be observed through their debris disks or transits, and forming planetary systems through protoplanetary disks, protostellar envelopes, and molecular cloud cores. SOFIA operates out of Southern California most of the year. For the summer of 2016, we deployed to New Zealand with 3 scientific instruments. The HAWC+ far-infrared photopolarimeter was recently flown and is in commissioning, and two projects are in Phase A study to downselect to one new facility instrument. The Cycle 5 observing proposal results are anticipated to be be released by the time of this DPS meeting, and successful planetary proposals will be advertised.

  11. Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) System Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltsee, Christopher B.; Brooks, Walter F.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the system concept for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), as developed by in-house (Ames Research Center) Phase A level studies of the Telescope System and Ground Support/Operations System, and by contracted studies of the Aircraft System performed by the Boeing Military Airplane Company. The SOFIA facility will be a 3-meter class optical/infrared/submillimeter telescope mounted in an open cavity in the forebody of a Boeing 747 aircraft, to be operational in 1992. It represents the next generation of Ames' existing airborne IR facilities, including the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which is a 0.91 meter telescope flown on a Lockheed C-141 aircraft. The SOFIA telescope will be about 10 times more sensitive than the KAO, will have 3 times better angular resolution, and will be able to detect all of the far-infrared point sources discovered by the IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite) survey in 1983. We first present an overview of the SOFIA Phase A Telescope System concept, including its major requirements and design attributes. The Telescope System consists of the Telescope Assembly (optical train and support structures) and the Consoles and Electronics Subsystem, which provides the system's command, control, displays and communications. The major requirements and concept for the Aircraft System are next described, including the cavity modification and its supporting subsystems such as the cavity doors and shear layer control devices. Finally, a brief description of the Ground Support/Operations System is provided, including the ground-based facilities and equipment needed to support the airborne observatory, in addition to an overview of the operational scenarios and organization.

  12. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanson, James L.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Houck, James R.; Kelly, Tim; Rieke, George H.; Tenerelli, Domenick J.; Whitten, Milt

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the design of the space IR telescope Facility (SIRTF) as the project enters the detailed design phase. SIRTF is the fourth of NASA's Great Observatories, and is scheduled for launch in December 2001. SIRTF provides background limited imaging and spectroscopy covering the spectral range from 3 to 180 micrometers , complementing the capabilities of the other great observatories - the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. SIRTF will be the first mission to combine the high sensitivity achievable forma cryogenic space telescope with the imaging and spectroscopic power of the new generation of IR detector arrays. The scientific capabilities of this combination are so great that SIRTF was designated the highest priority major mission for all of US astronomy in the 1990s.

  13. Hinode ``a new solar observatory in space''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuneta, S.; Harra, L. K.; Masuda, S.

    2009-05-01

    Since its launch in September 2006, the Japan-US-UK solar physics satellite, Hinode, has continued its observation of the sun, sending back solar images of unprecedented clarity every day. Hinode is equipped with three telescopes, a visible light telescope, an X-ray telescope, and an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer. The Hinode optical telescope has a large primary mirror measuring 50 centimeters in diameter and is the world's largest space telescope for observing the sun and its vector magnetic fields. The impact of Hinode as an optical telescope on solar physics is comparable to that of the Hubble Space Telescope on optical astronomy. While the optical telescope observes the sun's surface, the Hinode X-ray telescope captures images of the corona and the high-temperature flares that range between several million and several tens of millions of degrees. The telescope has captured coronal structures that are clearer than ever. The Hinode EUV imaging spectrometer possesses approximately ten times the sensitivity and four times the resolution of a similar instrument on the SOHO satellite. The source of energy for the sun is in the nuclear fusion reaction that takes place at its core. Here temperature drops closer to the surface, where the temperature measures about 6,000 degrees. Mysteriously, the temperature starts rising again above the surface, and the temperature of the corona is exceptionally high, several millions of degrees. It is as if water were boiling fiercely in a kettle placed on a stove with no fire, inconceivable as it may sound. The phenomenon is referred to as the coronal heating problem, and it is one of the major astronomical mysteries. The Hinode observatory was designed to solve this mystery. It is expected that Hinode would also provide clues to unraveling why strong magnetic fields are formed and how solar flares are triggered. An overview on the initial results from Hinode is presented. Dynamic video pictures captured by Hinode can be

  14. Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Phase A: System concept description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Infrared astronomers have made significant discoveries using the NASA/Ames Research Center C-141 Kuiper airborne Observatory (KAO) with its 0.91-meter telescope. The need for a 3-meter class airborne observatory has been established to improve astronomy data gathering capability. The new system envisioned by NASA and the international community of astronomers will be known as the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The platform of choice for SOFIA is a modified Boeing 747SP. SOFIA is viewed as a logical progression from the KAO. Potentially, a 3-meter telescope operating at the altitude achievable by the 747SP aircraft can be 11 times more sensitive than the KAO, can have 3.3 times better angular resolution, and will allow observations of compact sources in a volume of space up to 36 times that of the KAO. The KAO has enabled detection of about 15 percent of the far infrared IRAS survey point-sources; SOFIA should be able to detect them all. This document presents the results of in-house ARC and contracted concept definition studies for SOFIA. Using the ARC-based Kuiper Airborne Observatory as a basis for both SOFIA design and operations concepts, the SOFIA system concept has been developed with a view toward demonstrating mission and technical feasibility, and preparing preliminary cost estimates. The reference concept developed is not intended to represent final design, and should be treated accordingly. The most important products of this study, other than demonstration of system feasibility, are the understanding of system trade-offs and the development of confidence in the technology base that exists to move forward with a program leading to implementation of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA).

  15. Near infra-red astronomy with adaptive optics and laser guide stars at the Keck Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.; Gavel, D.T.; Olivier, S.S.

    1995-08-03

    A laser guide star adaptive optics system is being built for the W. M. Keck Observatory`s 10-meter Keck II telescope. Two new near infra-red instruments will be used with this system: a high-resolution camera (NIRC 2) and an echelle spectrometer (NIRSPEC). The authors describe the expected capabilities of these instruments for high-resolution astronomy, using adaptive optics with either a natural star or a sodium-layer laser guide star as a reference. They compare the expected performance of these planned Keck adaptive optics instruments with that predicted for the NICMOS near infra-red camera, which is scheduled to be installed on the Hubble Space Telescope in 1997.

  16. Science ground operations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Z. A.; Alvarez, P.; Black, D.; Ediss, G.; Granen, S.; Hanna, K.; Kandlagunta, M.; Koerber, C.; Lott, J.; Perryman, G.; Sandberg, E.; Tanaka, L.; Waddell, P.; Kaminski, C.; Latter, W.

    2016-09-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), is a 2.5 meter telescope in a modified Boeing 747SP aircraft that is flown at high altitude to do unique astronomy in the infrared. SOFIA is a singular integration of aircraft operations, telescope design, and science instrumentation that delivers observational opportunities outside the capability of any other facility. The science ground operations are the transition and integration point of the science, aircraft, and telescope. We present the ground operations themselves and the tools used to prepare for mission success. Specifically, we will discuss the concept of operations from science instrument delivery to aircraft operation and mission readiness. Included in that will be a description of the facilities and their development, an overview of the SOFIA telescope assembly simulator, as well as an outlook to the future of novel science instrument support for SOFIA

  17. Complementarity of NGST, ALMA, and far IR Space Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) will both start operations long before a new far IR observatory in space can be launched. What will be unknown even after they are operational, and what will a far IR space observatory be able to add? I will compare the telescope design concepts and capabilities and the advertised scientific programs for the projects and attempt to forecast the research topics that will be at the forefront in 2010.

  18. Status of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the largest cryogenic, space telescope ever built, and will address a broad range of scientific goals from first light in the universe and re-ionization, to characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Recently, significant progress has been made in the construction of the observatory with the completion of all 21 flight mirrors that comprise the telescope's optical chain, and the start of flight instrument deliveries to the Goddard Space Flight Center. In this paper we discuss the design of the observatory, and focus on the recent milestone achievements in each of the major observatory sub-systems.

  19. Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Robert D.; Sanders, David B.; Stockton, Alan; Hu, Esther

    1999-01-01

    Joseph is an ISO Co-Investigator. His Guaranteed Time Observations include both a major programme for which he is the Principal Investigator, and a number of other prgrammes in collaboration with other ISPHOT Co-Investigators, David Sanders, Alan Stockton, and Esther Hu.

  20. Wind Tunnel Testing for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenberger, Deborah; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is pursuing the development of SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy. SOFIA will consist of a 2.5 meter telescope mounted aft of the wing of a Boeing 747 aircraft. Since a large portion of the infrared spectrum is not visible at ground level due to absorption by water vapor in the atmosphere below 40,000 feet, it is highly desirable to make observations above this altitude. SOFIA will provide the opportunity for astronomers to conduct high-altitude research for extended periods of time. Current study is focused on wind tunnel testing for the open cavity. If not controlled, air would create resonance and damage the telescope. For this reason, SOFIA will design a boundary layer control device to achieve laminar flow over the cavity. This also provides a clearer flow for seeing, thus improving resolution on infrared sources. Other effects being tested in the wind tunnel are aerodynamic torque loads on the telescope, and flutter loads on the tail.

  1. Space telescope observatory management system preliminary test and verification plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, J. S.; Kaldenbach, C. F.; Williams, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary plan for the Space Telescope Observatory Management System Test and Verification (TAV) is provided. Methodology, test scenarios, test plans and procedure formats, schedules, and the TAV organization are included. Supporting information is provided.

  2. Integration of space geodesy: a US National Geodetic Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the U.S., in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO).

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) waits for encapsulation. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-14

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) waits for encapsulation. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA's Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) lifts off from Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, on Aug. 25 at 1:35:39 a.m. EDT. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-25

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA's Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) lifts off from Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, on Aug. 25 at 1:35:39 a.m. EDT. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the top of the fairing is seen as it moves into place around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-14

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the top of the fairing is seen as it moves into place around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, workers move the first half of the fairing around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) behind it for encapsulation. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-14

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, workers move the first half of the fairing around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) behind it for encapsulation. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing is moved around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-14

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing is moved around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, workers watch as the first half of the fairing moves closer around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-14

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, workers watch as the first half of the fairing moves closer around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing (background) moves toward the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (foreground) for encapsulation. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-14

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first half of the fairing (background) moves toward the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (foreground) for encapsulation. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Consisting of a 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF will be the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” Its highly sensitive instruments will give a unique view of the Universe and peer into regions of space that are hidden from optical telescopes.

  10. Space-based infrared surveys of small bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, M.

    2014-07-01

    Most small bodies in the Solar System are too small and too distant to be spatially resolved, precluding a direct diameter derivation. Furthermore, measurements of the optical brightness alone only allow a rough estimate of the diameter, since the surface albedo is usually unknown and can have values between about 3 % and 60 % or more. The degeneracy can be resolved by considering the thermal emission of these objects, which is less prone to albedo effects and mainly a function of the diameter. Hence, the combination of optical and thermal-infrared observational data provides a means to independently derive an object's diameter and albedo. This technique is used in asteroid thermal models or more sophisticated thermophysical models (see, e.g., [1]). Infrared observations require cryogenic detectors and/or telescopes, depending on the actual wavelength range observed. Observations from the ground are additionally compromised by the variable transparency of Earth's atmosphere in major portions of the infrared wavelength ranges. Hence, space-based infrared telescopes, providing stable conditions and significantly better sensitivities than ground-based telescopes, are now used routinely to exploit this wavelength range. Two observation strategies are used with space-based infrared observatories: Space-based Infrared All-Sky Surveys. Asteroid surveys in the thermal infrared are less prone to albedo-related discovery bias compared to surveys with optical telescopes, providing a more complete picture of small body populations. The first space-based infrared survey of Solar System small bodies was performed with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) for 10 months in 1983. In the course of the 'IRAS Minor Planet Survey' [2], 2228 asteroids (3 new discoveries) and more than 25 comets (6 new discoveries) were observed. More recent space-based infrared all-sky asteroid surveys were performed by Akari (launched 2006) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE

  11. Fatigue Management Strategies for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    Operation of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy entails a great deal of night-time work, with the potential for both acute and chronic sleep loss, as well as circadian rhythm dysynchrony. Such fatigue can result in performance decrements, with an increased risk of operator error. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center manages this fatigue risk by means of a layered approach, to include: 1) Education and Training 2) Work Schedule Scoring 3) Obtained Sleep Metrics 4) Workplace and Operational Mitigations and 5) Incident or Accident Investigation. Specifically, quantitative estimation of the work schedule score, as well as the obtained sleep metric, allows Supervisors and Managers to better manage the risk of fatigue within the context of mission requirements.

  12. The Infrared-Optical Telescope (IRT) of the Exist Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Bloom, Joshua; Gehrels, Neil; Golisano, Craig; Gong, Quan; Grindlay, Jonathan; Moseley, Samuel; Woodgate, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The IRT is a 1.1m visible and infrared passively cooled telescope, which can locate, identify and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. It will also acquire optical-IR, imaging and spectroscopy of AGN and transients discovered by the EXIST (The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope). The IRT imaging and spectroscopic capabilities cover a broad spectral range from 0.32.2m in four bands. The identical fields of view in the four instrument bands are each split in three subfields: imaging, objective prism slitless for the field and objective prism single object slit low resolution spectroscopy, and high resolution long slit on single object. This allows the instrument, to do simultaneous broadband photometry or spectroscopy of the same object over the full spectral range, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the observatory and its detection limits. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories.

  13. On-orbit assembly and servicing of future space observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, C. F.

    2006-06-01

    NASA's experience servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, including the installation of optical elements to compensate for a mirror manufacturing error; replacement of failed avionics and worn-out batteries, gyros, thermal insulation and solar arrays; upgrades to the data handling subsystem; installation of far more capable instruments; and retrofitting the NICMOS experiment with a mechanical cryocooler has clearly demonstrated the advantages of on-orbit servicing. This effort has produced a unique astronomical observatory that is orders of magnitude more capable than when it was launched and can be operated for several times its original design life. The in-space operations capabilities that are developed for NASA's Exploration Program will make it possible to assemble and service spacecraft in space and to service them in cis-lunar and L2 orbits. Future space observatories should be designed to utilize these capabilities. This paper discusses the application of the lessons learned from HST and our plans for servicing the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Observatory with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and the Space Station Freedom Customer Servicing Facility to future space observatories, such as SAFIR and LifeFinder that are designed to operate in heliocentric orbits. It addresses the use of human and robotic in-space capabilities that would be required for on-orbit assembly and servicing for future space observatories, and describes some of our design concepts for these activities.

  14. Herschel Space Observatory Telescope characterization with Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovillaire, Guillaume; Wang, Yong; Toth, Rémy; Porcar-Guézénec, Raphael

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory Telescope is the first of its kind to cover the 60-670 μm far infrared spectral band. Its optical characterization, performed in the visible range, was a true technological challenge requiring very large dynamic range coupled to very high accuracy. A specific Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (HWFS) was designed to meet the demanding specifications of the measurement. The metrological system used by the EADS Astrium team to characterize the silicon car-bide based telescope will be presented as well as the main features of the specifically developed HWFS. The large expected wavefront error was measured in a double path set-up using the HWFS positioned in an extra-focal plane and a point source in the focal plane. The auto-collimation was carried out thanks to several liquid mirrors covering the M1 pupil plane and located in the conjugation plane of the HWFS sub-apertures. The results on the wavefront error obtained at the Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL) in Belgium will be shown as well as the simulated Point Spread Function to be compared to the real PSF obtained during on flight measurements. The thermally induced focal length variations are also presented as the telescope is meant to operate at 70°K in space.

  15. Meteorological Necessities for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtas, Franzeska

    2011-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is joint program with NASA and DLR (German Aerospace Center) of a highly modified Boeing 747-SP. The purpose of this modification is to include a 2.5 m infrared telescope in a rear bulkhead of the airplane, with a retractable door open to the atmosphere. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is responsible for verifying that the aerodynamics, acoustics, and flying qualities of the modified aircraft stay within safe limits. Flight testing includes determining meteorological limitations of the aircraft, which is done by setting strict temporary operating limits and verifying through data analysis, what conditions are acceptable. Line operations are calibration tests of various telescope instruments that are done on the ground prior to flights. The method in determining limitations for this type of operation is similar to that of flight testing, but the meteorological limitations are different. Of great concern are the particulates near the surface that could cause damage to the telescope, as well as condensation forming on the mirror. Another meteorological involvement for this program is the process of obtaining Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums (RVSM) Certification from the FAA. This heavily involves obtaining atmospheric data pertinent to the flight, analyzing data to actual conditions for validity, and computing necessary results for comparison to aircraft instrumentation.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Viewed from below, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is lifted up the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Viewed from below, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is lifted up the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - After dawn, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is lifted up the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - After dawn, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is lifted up the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, watch as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) clears the platform. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, watch as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) clears the platform. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, wait for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) to reach their level. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, wait for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) to reach their level. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, help guide the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) toward the opening in the foreground. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, help guide the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) toward the opening in the foreground. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Before dawn, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is attached to an overhead crane that will lift it up the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Before dawn, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is attached to an overhead crane that will lift it up the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is lowered into the opening of the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is lowered into the opening of the mobile service tower on Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. SIRTF will be attached to the Delta II rocket and encapsulated in its fairing before launch. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is rolled out of the hangar at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station during pre-dawn hours. It is being transported to Launch Pad 17-B where it will be lifted into the mobile service tower and prepared for launch. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is rolled out of the hangar at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station during pre-dawn hours. It is being transported to Launch Pad 17-B where it will be lifted into the mobile service tower and prepared for launch. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Before dawn, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) arrives at Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, where it will be lifted into the mobile service tower and prepared for launch. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Before dawn, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) arrives at Launch Pad 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, where it will be lifted into the mobile service tower and prepared for launch. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA’s largest infrared telescopes to be launched. It is the fourth and final element in NASA’s family of orbiting “Great Observatories.” SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  5. Complementarity of NGST, ALMA, and Far IR Space Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) will both start operations long before a new far IR observatory to follow SIRTF into space can be launched. What will be unknown even after they are operational, and what will a far IR space observatory be able to add? I will compare the telescope design concepts and capabilities and the advertised scientific programs for the projects and attempt to forecast the research topics that will be at the forefront in 2010.

  6. Space Infrared Telescope Facility science instruments overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothwell, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will contain three cryogenically cooled infrared instruments: the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and the Multiband Infrared Photometer for SIRTF (MIPS). These instruments are sensitive to infrared radiation in the 1.8-1,200 micrometer range. This paper will discuss the three instruments' functional requirements and their accommodation in the SIRTF telescope system.

  7. Infrared divergences in de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect

    Polarski, D. Service d'Astrophysique, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France)

    1991-03-15

    Infrared divergences in de Sitter space are considered. It is shown that symmetry breaking is unavoidable only when the infrared divergence is strong enough. The static vacuum has no symmetry breaking despite the presence of an infrared divergence.

  8. World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet mission: state of art 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, Mikhail; Gomez De Castro, Ana; Shustov, Boris M.

    2016-07-01

    The WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is intended to built and operate an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 300 nm) range, where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied. The observatory includes a 170 cm aperture telescope capable of high-resolution spectroscopy and long slit low-resolution spectroscopy with the WUVS instrument; moreover UV imaging will be available with cameras. WSO-UV is a Russian led mission that will be operating in high Earth orbit (geosynchronous with inclination 51.^o6) for five+five years grating access to the UV range to the world-wide astronomical community in the post-Hubble era. Spain is a major partner to the project. Updated information of the WSO-UV project is provided periodically in the COSPAR meetings. Henceforth, this review provides a summary on the project, its status and the major outcomes since the last COSPAR Assembly.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopic Studies with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (sofia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Becklin, E. E.

    2011-06-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will be a premier facility for studying the physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium and the stellar evolution process for many decades. SOFIA's first-generation instrument complement includes broadband imagers, moderate resolution spectrographs capable of resolving broad features due to dust and large molecules, and high resolution spectrometers suitable for kinematic studies of molecular and atomic gas lines at km/s resolution. SOFIA spectroscopic science applications will be discussed, with special emphasis on investigations related to infrared spectroscopy of astrophysical gas, grains, and ices. First light images and early science results related to these topics will be presented.

  10. Vibration isolation system for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, T.; Kunz, N.

    1988-01-01

    The Vibration Isolation System for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is studied. Included are discussions of the various concepts, design goals, concerns, and the proposed configuration for the Vibration Isolation System.

  11. Innovative telescope architectures for future large space observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin R.; Dailey, Dean R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past few years, we have developed a concept for an evolvable space telescope (EST) that is assembled on orbit in three stages, growing from a 4×12-m telescope in Stage 1, to a 12-m filled aperture in Stage 2, and then to a 20-m filled aperture in Stage 3. Stage 1 is launched as a fully functional telescope and begins gathering science data immediately after checkout on orbit. This observatory is then periodically augmented in space with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope over the years to a 20-m space telescope. We discuss the EST architecture, the motivation for this approach, and the benefits it provides over current approaches to building and maintaining large space observatories.

  12. SOFIA Project: SOFIA-Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Ting

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the SOFIA project is shown. The topics include: 1) Aircraft Information; 2) Major Components of SOFIA; 3) Aircraft External View; 4) Airborne Observatory Layout; 5) Telescope Assembly; 6) Uncoated Primary Mirror; 7) Airborne Astronomy; 8) Requirements & Specifications; 9) Technical Challenges; 10) Observatory Operation; and 11) SOFIA Flight Test.

  13. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory Super Pressure Balloon Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiencke, Lawrence; Olinto, Angela; Adams, Jim; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a super pressure balloon (EUSO-SPB) mission will make the first fluorescence observations of high energy cosmic ray extensive air showers by looking down on the atmosphere from near space. A long duration flight of at least 50 nights launched from Wanaka NZ is planned for 2017. We describe completed instrument, and the planned mission. We acknowledge the support of NASA through grants NNX13AH53G and NNX13AH55G.

  14. Photometric Performance of the Wyoming Infrared Observatory Prime-focus, Near-infrared Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaby, D.; Johnson, P. E.; Spillar, E. J.

    1994-12-01

    The Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO) prime-focus, near-infrared camera (nicknamed ``Babe'' after the famous ox of the same color) was designed specifically for wide-field imaging between 1 to 2.5 microns. To achieve the wide field-of-view, we mount the camera at the prime focus of the WIRO 2.3-meter telescope, a configuration which provides the camera with a total square field-of-view of 2stackrel {('}}{_{.}) 08 x 2stackrel {('}}{_{.}) 08. Since achieving first light in the summer of 1989, several scientific papers have been published based upon galaxy images obtained with this camera (for instance, Barnaby & Thronson 1994). The design and construction of the camera have been covered by Spillar et (1990), however the photometric accuracy and repeatability of this camera have not been described before now. In this paper, we show photometry obtained with the camera of calibration stars with near-infrared magnitudes ranging from 7() m to 14() m. These measurements indicate that over this range in brightness, the zero-point magnitude shifts about +0.06() m while the relative uncertainty increases from 0.03() m to 0.1() m. In addition to photometry of calibration stars, we report on data comparing Babe near-infrared photometry of the galaxy M51 to photometry obtained by authors using other near-infrared aperture photometers and cameras. This comparison shows our photometry is consistent to within 0.1() m with these other measurements down to a surface brightness of 18() m arcsec(-2) . These data, then, indicate that we can use our camera to measure near-infrared surface brightness of galaxies with a relative uncertainty of about 0.1() m and a systematic uncertainty of about 0.1() m. This work was supported by NSF through grant AST-9117096 and EPSCoR grant RII-8610680 and by a Theodore Dunham, Jr. Grant from the Fund for Astrophysical Research.

  15. Highly Adjustable Systems: An Architecture for Future Space Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Conti, Alberto; Redding, David; Lawrence, Charles R.; Hachkowski, Roman; Laskin, Robert; Steeves, John

    2017-06-01

    Mission costs for ground breaking space astronomical observatories are increasing to the point of unsustainability. We are investigating the use of adjustable or correctable systems as a means to reduce development and therefore mission costs. The poster introduces the promise and possibility of realizing a “net zero CTE” system for the general problem of observatory design and introduces the basic systems architecture we are considering. This poster concludes with an overview of our planned study and demonstrations for proving the value and worth of highly adjustable telescopes and systems ahead of the upcoming decadal survey.

  16. Space Observatories RadioAstron and Millimetron: Results and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardashev, Nikolay

    The Russian Academy of Sciences and Federal Space Agency, together with many international organizations, prepared the launch of the RadioAstron orbiting space observatory from the Baikonur cosmodrome on July 18, 2011. The spacecraft was launched by the Ukrainian Zenit-3F rocket with onboard 10-m reflector radio telescope, four feed and low noise receivers for operating at 1.2-1.6, 6.2, 18 and 92 cm wavelengths and both circular polarizations, a data formatter, a data transmission module and a hydrogen maser frequency standard. The orbital period in 2012-2015 will vary from 8.3 to 9.0 days, the perigee - from 7,065 km to 81,500 km, the apogee - from 280,000 to 353,000 km. Together with ground-based radio telescopes and a set of stations for tracking, collecting, and reducing the data obtained, this space radio telescope forms a multi-antenna ground-space radio interferometer with extremely long baselines, making it possible for the first time to study various objects in the Universe with angular resolutions a million times better than it is possible with the human eye. The project is targeted at systematic studies of compact radio-emitting sources and their dynamics. Objects to be studied include quasars (super massive black holes and relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, pulsars (neutron stars and hypothetical quark stars), cosmic masers (regions of stars and planetary systems formation in our and other galaxies), interplanetary and interstellar plasma, and the gravitational field of the Earth. The fringes with the ground-space interferometer were founded at the baseline projections up to 25 diameters of the Earth, and corresponding models of the sources will be reported. Millimetron is the next space mission with a 10-m cooled space telescope optimized for observations in the millimeter and far infrared wavelengths. This mission will be able to contribute to the explorations of several key problems in astrophysics, such as study of formation and evolution

  17. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy - A New Tool for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzek, M. J.; Becklin, E.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Reach, W.

    2010-12-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German effort to fly a 2.5 meter telescope on a modified Boeing 747SP aircraft at stratospheric altitudes where the atmosphere is largely transparent at infrared wavelengths. Key goals of the observatory include understanding the formation of stars and planets; the origin and evolution of the interstellar medium; the star formation history of galaxies; and planetary science. SOFIA offers the convenient accessibility of a ground-based observatory coupled with performance advantages of a space-based telescope. SOFIA’s scientific instruments can be exchanged regularly for repairs, to accommodate changing scientific requirements, and to incorporate new technologies. SOFIA’s portability will enable specialized observations of transient and location-specific events such as stellar occultations of Trans-Neptunian Objects. Unlike many spaceborne observatories, SOFIA can observe bright planets and moons directly, and can observe objects closer to the sun than Earth, e.g. comets in their most active phase, and the planet Venus. SOFIA’s first generation instruments cover the spectral range of .3 to 240 microns and have been designed with planetary science in mind. The High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO) is designed to measure occultations of stars by Kuiper Belt Objects, with SOFIA flying into the predicted shadows and timing the occultation ingress and egress to determine the size of the occulting body. HIPO will also enable transit observations of extrasolar planets. The Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) and the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) will enable mid-infrared and far-infrared (respectively) imaging with a wide range of filters for comets and giant planets, and colorimetric observations of small, unresolved bodies to measure the spectral energy distribution of their thermal emission. The German Receiver for Astronomy at

  18. Handling Qualities Flight Testing of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Scott T.; Strovers, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne infrared astronomy has a long successful history, albeit relatively unknown outside of the astronomy community. A major problem with ground based infrared astronomy is the absorption and scatter of infrared energy by water in the atmosphere. Observing the universe from above 40,000 ft puts the observation platform above 99% of the water vapor in the atmosphere, thereby addressing this problem at a fraction of the cost of space based systems. The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft is the most ambitious foray into the field of airborne infrared astronomy in history. Using a 747SP (The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) aircraft modified with a 2.5m telescope located in the aft section of the fuselage, the SOFIA endeavors to provide views of the universe never before possible and at a fraction of the cost of space based systems. The modification to the airplane includes moveable doors and aperture that expose the telescope assembly. The telescope assembly is aimed and stabilized using a multitude of on board systems. This modification has the potential to cause aerodynamic anomalies that could induce undesired forces either at the cavity itself or indirectly due to interference with the empennage, both of which could cause handling qualities issues. As a result, an extensive analysis and flight test program was conducted from December 2009 through March 2011. Several methods, including a Lower Order Equivalent Systems analysis and pilot assessment, were used to ascertain the effects of the modification. The SOFIA modification was found to cause no adverse handling qualities effects and the aircraft was cleared for operational use. This paper discusses the history and modification to the aircraft, development of test procedures and analysis, results of testing and analysis, lessons learned for future projects and justification for operational certification.

  19. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) design and thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    The design and performance characteristics of an observatory are compared with those of a storage dewar. The critical design technologies required to increase cryogen dewar lifetime are discussed. In particular, outer shell temperature, vapor cooled shields, multilayer insulation performance, and tank support systems are analyzed to assess their impact on cryogen lifetime for both the observatory and the storage dewar. The cryogen lifetime and cryogen mass loss rate of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are compared with that of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite. A 0.1 percent mass loss per day of superfluid helium dewar can be designed using current state-of-the-art dewar technology. Space-based liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks can be designed for a 5-year lifetime.

  20. 'HEXE' - X-ray observatory in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-06-01

    An overview is given of the design concept and scientific goals of the High-Energy X-ray Experiment (HEXE), developed in the FRG (by the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and the Astronomical Institute of Tuebingen University) for operation on the Soviet space station Mir. HEXE was launched to LEO using a Kvant vehicle on March 31, 1987; after initial docking problems, it was joined to Mir by two cosmonauts in a 3-hour EVA on April 12. HEXE has dimensions 45 x 45 x 75 cm and weight 180 kg; it employs an 800-sq-cm Tl-doped NaI/CsI phoswich detector for 15-250-keV X-rays, complementing the other Mir instruments: the ESTEC high-pressure gas-scintillation proportional counter (3-100 keV), the Soviet high-energy detector (20-800 keV), and the Dutch-British X-ray camera (2-30 keV). The Mir observations are intended to explore the energy spectra and time evolution of compact galactic and extragalactic objects.

  1. WUVS spectrographs of World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanov, Igor; Sachkov, Mikhail; Shustov, Boris M.; Shugarov, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 320 nm). It includes a 170 cm aperture telescope capable of high-resolution spectroscopy, long slit low-resolution spectroscopy and deep UV and optical imaging. WUVS - the set of three ultraviolet spectrographs are regarded as the main instrument of «Spektr -UF» space mission. The spectrographs unit includes three channels and is intended for acquisition of spectrums of high (R=50000) and low (R=1000) resolution of the observed objects in the electromagnetic radiation's ultraviolet range (115-310 nm). We present the design philosophy of WUVS and summarize its key characteristics. We shall present the main properties of WUVS new structure and current status of its mockups and prototypes manufacturing.

  2. The SOFIA Airborne Infrared Observatory - first science highlights and future science potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, H.

    2014-10-01

    SOFIA, short for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is a Boeing 747SP aircraft with a 2.7m telescope flying as high as 45000 ft in the stratosphere above 99 percent of the precipitable water vapor. SOFIA normally operates from its base in Palmdale, California, and a typical observing flight lasts for 10 hours before returning to base. SOFIA has started astronomical observations in Dec 2010 and has completed some 30 early science flights in 2011, delivering a number of exciting results and discoveries, both in mid-infrared imaging (5-40mu) and in far-infrared (THz) heterodyne high-resolution spectroscopy which were published in mid-2012 in special issues of ApJ Letters and A & A, respectively. Meanwhile, in July 2013, as part of Cycle 1, SOFIA has deployed to New Zealand for a total of 9 flights (all of them successful) and has observed key targets in the southern hemisphere at THz frequencies, including star forming regions in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. In this talk, I will present a few highlights of SOFIA early science and its future potential, when the full suite of 7 instruments will be implemented by the time of full operations in 2015. As Herschel ran out of cryogens in April 2013, SOFIA will be the premier FIR-astronomical facility for many years to come. Synergies with ALMA and CCAT must be explored. SOFIA is a major bilateral project between NASA and the German Space Agency (DLR), however as an international observatory it offers observing time to the whole astronomical community world-wide, not only to the US and German primary partners.

  3. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) lifted off from Cape Canaveral

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    KSC-2015-1363 (02/11/2015) --- The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft, or DSCOVR, lifts off from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida at 6:03 p.m. EST. DSCOVR is a partnership between NOAA, NASA and the U.S. Air Force, and will maintain the nation's real-time solar wind monitoring capabilities. To learn more about DSCOVR, visit www.nesdis.noaa.gov/DSCOVR. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tim Powers

  4. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) lifted off from Cape Canaveral

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Open Image KSC-2015-1368.KSC-2015-1368 (02/11/2015) --- The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft, or DSCOVR, lifts off from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Liftoff occurred at 6:03 p.m. EST. DSCOVR is a partnership between NOAA, NASA and the U.S. Air Force, and will maintain the nation's real-time solar wind monitoring capabilities. To learn more about DSCOVR, visit www.nesdis.noaa.gov/DSCOVR. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tim Powers

  5. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) lifted off from Cape Canaveral

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    KSC-2015-1342 (02/11/2015) --- Backdropped by a bright blue sky, the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft, or DSCOVR, soars away from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Liftoff occurred at 6:03 p.m. EST. DSCOVR is a partnership between NOAA, NASA and the U.S. Air Force, and will maintain the nation's real-time solar wind monitoring capabilities. To learn more about DSCOVR, visit www.nesdis.noaa.gov/DSCOVR. Photo credit: NASA/Ben Smegelsky..

  6. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) lifted off from Cape Canaveral

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    KSC-2015-1341 (02/11/2015) --- The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft, or DSCOVR, lifts off from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Liftoff occurred at 6:03 p.m. EST. DSCOVR is a partnership between NOAA, NASA and the U.S. Air Force, and will maintain the nation's real-time solar wind monitoring capabilities. To learn more about DSCOVR, visit www.nesdis.noaa.gov/DSCOVR. Photo credit: NASA/Ben Smegelsky

  7. Edison and radiatively-cooled IR space observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A.; Hawarden, T. G.; Bally, J.; Burnell, S. J. Bell; Penny, A. J.; Rapp, D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiative cooling of IR space telescopes is an alternative to embedding within massive cryostats and should offer advantages for future missions, including longer life, larger aperture for a fixed spacecraft size, lower cost due to less complex engineering, and easier ground handling. Relatively simple analyses of conventional designs show that it is possible to achieve telescope temperatures in the range of 25 to 40 K at distances from the sun of about 1 AU. Lower temperatures may be possible with 'open' designs or distant orbits. At approximately 25 K, an observatory will be limited by the celestial thermal background in the near- and mid-IR and by the confusion limit in the far-IR. We outline here our concept for a moderate aperture (approximately 1.75 m; Ariane 4 or Atlas launch) international space observatory for the next decade.

  8. The Science of Gravitational Waves with Space Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2013-01-01

    After decades of effort, direct detection of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources is on the horizon. Aside from teaching us about gravity itself, gravitational waves hold immense promise as a tool for general astrophysics. In this talk I will provide an overview of the science enabled by a space-based gravitational wave observatory sensitive in the milli-Hertz frequency band including the nature and evolution of massive black holes and their host galaxies, the demographics of stellar remnant compact objects in the Milky Way, and the behavior of gravity in the strong-field regime. I will also summarize the current status of efforts in the US and Europe to implement a space-based gravitational wave observatory.

  9. Infrared detectors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fick, Wolfgang; Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Haiml, Markus; Hanna, Stefan; Hübner, Dominique; Höhnemann, Holger; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Thöt, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The motivation and intended benefits for the use of infrared (IR) detectors for space applications are highlighted. The actual status of state-of-the-art IR detectors for space applications is presented based on some of AIM's currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength IR (SWIR) to the long-wavelength IR (LWIR) and very long-wavelength IR (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength IR (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP and the IR detectors for the Sentinel 3 SLSTR will be elaborated. Additionally, dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC, will be addressed.

  10. Mission design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Johnny H.; Osmolovsky, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is the fourth in NASA's series of Great Observatories. It will feature a one-meter class cryogenically cooled telescope. It is planned for a NASA fiscal start for the development phase in 1994 with a launch in about 2001. The launch vehicle will be the new upgraded Titan IV with a Centaur upper stage. The operational orbit will be circular at an altitude of about 100,000 km. The planned mission lifetime is 5 years. This paper addresses the rationale in the selection of the high altitude orbit, the performance of the launch vehicle in delivering the observatory to orbit, other orbit options, and the planned observational modes and capabilities of the observatory. The paper will also address the viewing geometry and viewing constraints affecting science observation, telescope aperture shade design, and spacecraft solar-panel and communication design.

  11. A Wide-field Camera and Fully Remote Operations at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Joseph R.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Weger, James S.; Bucher, Gerald A.; Perry, Marvin C.; Myers, Adam D.; Pierce, Michael J.; Vogel, Conrad

    2016-11-01

    Upgrades at the 2.3 meter Wyoming Infrared Observatory telescope have provided the capability for fully remote operations by a single operator from the University of Wyoming campus. A line-of-sight 300 Megabit s-1 11 GHz radio link provides high-speed internet for data transfer and remote operations that include several realtime video feeds. Uninterruptable power is ensured by a 10 kVA battery supply for critical systems and a 55 kW autostart diesel generator capable of running the entire observatory for up to a week. The construction of a new four-element prime-focus corrector with fused-silica elements allows imaging over a 40‧ field of view with a new 40962 UV-sensitive prime-focus camera and filter wheel. A new telescope control system facilitates the remote operations model and provides 20″ rms pointing over the usable sky. Taken together, these improvements pave the way for a new generation of sky surveys supporting space-based missions and flexible-cadence observations advancing emerging astrophysical priorities such as planet detection, quasar variability, and long-term time-domain campaigns.

  12. Decomposability and scalability in space-based observatory scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Stephen F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss issues of problem and model decomposition within the HSTS scheduling framework. HSTS was developed and originally applied in the context of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling problem, motivated by the limitations of the current solution and, more generally, the insufficiency of classical planning and scheduling approaches in this problem context. We first summarize the salient architectural characteristics of HSTS and their relationship to previous scheduling and AI planning research. Then, we describe some key problem decomposition techniques supported by HSTS and underlying our integrated planning and scheduling approach, and we discuss the leverage they provide in solving space-based observatory scheduling problems.

  13. Far-Infrared Astronomy with The Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Roger, H.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes work made possible by NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The results of the work have appeared in over 80 papers. The publications fall in three main areas: instrumentation, observations, and analysis. Although there is considerable overlap between these categories it will be convenient to group them separately.

  14. Infrared space astrometry project JASMINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yano, T.; Yano

    2008-07-01

    A Japanese plan of an infrared (z-band:0.9 μas or k-band:2.2 μas) space astrometry (JASMINE-project) is introduced. JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration) will measure distances and tangential motions of stars in the bulge of the Milky Way. It will measure parallaxes, positions with an accuracy of 10 μas and proper motions with an accuracy of 10 μas/year for stars brighter than z=14 mag or k=11 mag. JASMINE will observe about ten million stars belonging to the bulge component of our Galaxy. With a completely new “map” of the Galactic bulge, it is expected that many new exciting scientific results will be obtained in various fields of astronomy. Presently, JASMINE is in a development phase, with a targeted launch date around 2016. Science targets, preliminary design of instruments, observing strategy, critical technical issues in JASMINE and also Nano-JASMINE project are described in this paper.

  15. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Reference Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Rioux, Norman; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  16. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  17. The Newly-named "Herschel Space Observatory" revisits its science goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    In science, new answers often trigger new questions. And in astronomy, new questions often mean new instruments. The ESA 'Herschel Space Observatory', formerly called 'Far Infrared and Submillimetre Telescope' (FIRST), is the instrument that inherits many of the questions triggered by its predecessor, ESA's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). 200 astronomers from all over the world met last week in Toledo, Spain, to discuss how to insert these new questions in Herschel's 'scientific agenda'. Thus, Herschel will study the origin of stars and galaxies -its main goals-, but it will also keep on searching for water in space -as ISO did-, and will help us to understand the formation of our own Solar System through detailed observations of comets and of the poorly known 'transneptunian objects'. A new name for 'FIRST' The new name for FIRST, 'Herschel Space Observatory', or 'Herschel', was announced at the opening of the Toledo conference by ESA's Director of Science, Roger Bonnet. William Herschel was an Anglo-German astronomer who discovered infrared light in 1800. Thanks to his discovery, astronomers can now observe a facet of the Universe that remains hidden to other telescopes. ESA's Herschel is the first space observatory covering a major part of the far-infrared and submillimetre waveband (from 57 to 670 microns) and its new name honours Herschel on the 200th anniversary of his discovery. Roger Bonnet explained: "It strikes me that we are at a key scientific conference devoted to the next ESA infrared space mission, gathering many 'infrared pioneers', 200 years after a famous musician and astronomer discovered that by placing a thermometer in the remote part of the solar spectrum, where apparently there was no light, he could detect heat. What we call now infrared radiation. This meeting marks two events: the beginning of a very promising utilisation of FIRST, and the adoption of a new name for the telescope: the Herschel Space Observatory". Roger Bonnet also

  18. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This poster will discuss a possible mission concept, Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO-Mid) developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  19. Contributions of the Onsala Space Observatory to the GGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Rüdiger; Elgered, Gunnar; Hobiger, Thomas; Scherneck, Hans-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The Onsala Space Observatory on the Swedish west coast is the fundamental geodetic station of Sweden and operates several geodetic and geophysical infrastructures that contribute to the GGOS. Onsala is the European observatory with the longest history in Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Already 1968 Onsala was involved in geodetic/astrometric VLBI observations, at that time with the 25 m telescope. Since 1979 the 20 m telescope is used for geodetic/astrometric VLBI, and currently about 40-50 sessions per year are observed in the programs of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Onsala also participated in all continuous (CONT) campaigns of the IVS. In 2011 we received funding for twin telescopes at Onsala, to be part of the VLBI2010 Global Observing System (VGOS) network. The project has been delayed due to difficulties to get the necessary building permits, but finally a contract to purchase the new telescopes has been signed in late 2014. We expect that the Onsala Twin Telescopes will become operational in 2016/2017. In parallel to the VLBI activities, the observatory operates other instrumentation for geosciences, in particular receivers for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and ground-based microwave radiometers. There are several monuments used for GNSS measurements, and Onsala is actively contributing to the International GNSS Service (IGS). Recently a GNSS array consisting of six new GNSS monuments, in the area around the Onsala Twin Telescopes, has been installed. Also several microwave radiometers are operated for tropospheric measurements. A superconducting gravimeter is operated at the observatory since 2009 in a dedicated gravity laboratory which is also hosting visiting absolute gravimeters, and in 2011 a seismometer station has been installed that is part of the Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN). Since 2010 we operate a so-called GNSS-R tide gauge, based on the principle of reflectometry. Additional

  20. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 747SP shows off its new blue-and-white livery at L-3 Communications' Integrated Systems in Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-25

    NASA's freshly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 747SP is shown at L-3 Communications Integrated Systems' facility in Waco, Texas, where major modifications and installation was performed. The observatory, which features a German-built 100-inch (2.5 meter) diameter infrared telescope weighing 20 tons, is approaching the flight test phase as part of a joint program by NASA and DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center). SOFIA's science and mission operations are being planned jointly by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI). Once operational, SOFIA will be the world's primary infrared observatory during a mission lasting up to 20 years, as well as an outstanding laboratory for developing and testing instrumentation and detector technology.

  1. NASA's newly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 747SP is pushed back from L-3 Communications' Integrated Systems hangar in Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-25

    NASA's freshly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 747SP aircraft sits outside a hangar at L-3 Communications Integrated Systems' facility in Waco, Texas. The observatory, which features a German-built 100-inch (2.5 meter) diameter infrared telescope weighing 20 tons, is approaching the flight test phase as part of a joint program by NASA and DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center). SOFIA's science and mission operations are being planned jointly by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI). Once operational, SOFIA will be the world's primary infrared observatory during a mission lasting up to 20 years, as well as an outstanding laboratory for developing and testing instrumentation and detector technology.

  2. Vacuum Strength of Two Candidate Glasses for a Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Timothy Andrew; Tucker, Dennis S.; Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2007-01-01

    The strengths of two candidate glass types for use in a space observatory were measured. Samples of ultra-low expansion glass (ULE) and borosilicate (Pyrex) were tested in air and in vacuum at room temperature (20 degrees C) and in vacuum after being heated to 200 degrees C. Both glasses tested in vacuum showed a significant increase in strength over those tested in air. However, there was no statistical difference between the strength of samples tested in vacuum at room temperature and those tested in vacuum after heating to 200 degrees C.

  3. Vacuum Strength of Two Candidate Glasses for a Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, T. a.; Tucker, D. S.; Herren, K. A.; Gregory, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    The strengths of two candidate glass types for use in a space observatory were measured. Samples of ultra-low expansion glass (ULE) and borosilicate (Pyrex) were tested in air and in vacuum at room temperature (20 C) and in vacuum after being heated to 200 C. Both glasses tested in vacuum showed an increase in strength over those tested in air. However, there was no statistical difference between the strength of samples tested in vacuum at room temperature and those tested in vacuum after heating to 200 C.

  4. METEOSPACE, solar monitoring and space weather at Calern observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbard, T.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Crussaire, D.; Morand, F.; Ruty, F.; Biree, L.; Aboudarham, J.; Fuller, N.; Renaud, C.; Meftah, M.

    2016-12-01

    METEOSPACE is a new partnership project between the Paris Observatory (OP), the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), the French Air Force and a service company (LUNA technology) for the development and operation of a set of small telescopes Hα / Ca II K / Ca II H / G band to be installed at on the Calern plateau (OCA). The objective is to monitor solar activity for both research and its applications in space weather through continuous optical observations of the dynamic phenomena that are visible in the chromosphere: eruptions, destabilization of the filaments triggering coronal mass ejections and associated Moreton waves.

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope: Observatory Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwain, Michael W.; Bowers, Charles W.; Clampin, Mark; Niedner, Malcolm B.; Kimble, Randy A.

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.5 m) segmented aperture telescope equipped with near- and mid-infrared instruments (0.6-28 microns), all of which are passively cooled to ~40 K by a 5-layer sunshield while the mid-infrared instrument is actively cooled to 7 K. JWST is currently in the integration and test phase, with parallel activities on-going across the project. The current estimated JWST performance metrics will be presented, such as the image quality, pointing stability, sensitivity, and stray light backgrounds. The JWST development status and future schedule will be described for the full integration, launch, and commissioning.

  6. New generation high-energy space observatory GAMMA-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topchiev, Nikolay

    Space gamma radiation gives unique information on high-energy processes in our Universe. Gammas are not deflected by magnetic field and mainly come to the vicinity of the Earth with the same direction and energy as they were generated in astrophysical objects. GAMMA-400 is the gamma-ray space observatory planned to be launched in 2019 to the high-elliptical orbit with an apogee of 300000 km. The observatory carries two instruments onboard: the gamma-ray burst monitor KONUS and the high-energy gamma-ray telescope GAMMA-400 for the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. The main goal of the project is to study high-energy gamma radiation and also electrons+positrons. Having both angular and energy resolution 5-10 times better than achieved present instruments, GAMMA-400 will make a new step in gamma-ray astronomy. Expected advances are: searching for signatures of dark matter, studying the center of Galaxy, identifying numerous unassociated gamma-ray sources.

  7. THE INVISIBLE MONSTER HAS TWO FACES: OBSERVATIONS OF {epsilon} AURIGAE WITH THE HERSCHEL SPACE OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, D. W.; Ladjal, D.; Stencel, R. E.; Howell, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    We present Herschel Space Observatory photometric observations of the unique, long-period eclipsing binary star {epsilon} Aurigae. Its extended spectral energy distribution is consistent with our previously published cool (550 K) dust disk model. We also present an archival infrared spectral energy distribution of the side of the disk facing the bright F-type star in the binary, which is consistent with a warmer (1150 K) disk model. The lack of strong molecular emission features in the Herschel bands suggests that the disk has a low gas-to-dust ratio. The spectral energy distribution and Herschel images imply that the 250 GHz radio detection reported by Altenhoff et al. is likely contaminated by infrared-bright, extended background emission associated with a nearby nebular region and should be considered an upper limit to the true flux density of {epsilon} Aur.

  8. The Invisible Monster Has Two Faces: Observations of epsilon Aurigae with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, D. W.; Ladjal, D.; Stencel, R. E.; Howell, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    We present Herschel Space Observatory photometric observations of the unique, long-period eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae. Its extended spectral energy distribution is consistent with our previously published cool (550 K) dust disk model. We also present an archival infrared spectral energy distribution of the side of the disk facing the bright F-type star in the binary, which is consistent with a warmer (1150 K) disk model. The lack of strong molecular emission features in the Herschel bands suggests that the disk has a low gas-to-dust ratio. The spectral energy distribution and Herschel images imply that the 250 GHz radio detection reported by Altenhoff et al. is likely contaminated by infrared-bright, extended background emission associated with a nearby nebular region and should be considered an upper limit to the true flux density of epsilon Aur.

  9. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) science rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Jacqueline A.; Erickson, Edwin F.

    1989-01-01

    SOFIA, a proposed 3-meter class telescope in a Boeing 747 aircraft, would have the ability to make astronomical observations over a wavelength range from 0.3 microns to 1.6mm. Relative to the KAO (Kuiper Airborne Observatory) the larger telescope on SOFIA would provide a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity for compact sources and a factor of 3 improvement in (diffraction-limited) angular resolution at wavelengths beyond 30 microns. In addition, SOFIA will retain the major features of the KAO which have made the airborne astronomy program so successful. Among these are continuous in-flight access to focal plane instruments while flying at or above 41,000 ft altitude; pointing stability of 0.2 arcseconds; and mobility and scheduling flexibility to accommodate targets of opportunity such as comets, eclipses, occultations, and novae.

  10. Launch and Commissioning of the Deep Space Climate Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Nicholas P.; Davis, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), formerly known as Triana, successfully launched on February 11th, 2015. To date, each of the five space-craft attitude control system (ACS) modes have been operating as expected and meeting all guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) requirements, although since launch, several anomalies were encountered. While unplanned, these anomalies have proven to be invaluable in developing a deeper understanding of the ACS, and drove the design of three alterations to the ACS task of the flight software (FSW). An overview of the GN&C subsystem hardware, including re-furbishment, and ACS architecture are introduced, followed by a chronological discussion of key events, flight performance, as well as anomalies encountered by the GN&C team.

  11. Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2014-08-01

    Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected “The Gravitational Universe” as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.

  12. Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.; Spitzer Science Center

    2016-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, launched on 2003 August 25, continues to produce new and exciting views of the Universe as seen in infrared light. Spitzer is the fourth and final space telescope in NASA's Great Observatory series. Originally it consisted of a liquid-helium-cooled 85-cm telescope and three imaging and spectroscopic instruments capable of observing infrared light (3-160 micron wavelength) from regions of space invisible to optical telescopes. In mid-2009 Spitzer's cryogen was exhausted, leaving the observatory with two operating imaging arrays at 3.6 and 4.5 micron wavelength. "Warm" Spitzer, as it is now called, continues to match the sensitivity achieved at these wavelengths during the cryogenic mission and remains very much in demand. The Spitzer Space Telescope has changed our view of the Universe. Spitzer's scientific results include the study of the formation and evolution of galaxies in the early Universe, star formation and evolution, exoplanets, the structure and evolution of planetary disks around nearby stars, the cosmic distance scale, clusters of galaxies, near-Earth asteroids, and comets. After a brief description of the Spitzer mission, achievements of Spitzer's extragalactic and galactic observational programs will be presented, including many of Spitzer's very spectacular images.

  13. Development of Short Wavelength Infrared Array Detectors for Space Astronomy Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    1997-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and its team - the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Rochester (UR), Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) - are carrying out a research program with the goal of developing and optimizing infrared arrays in the 2-27 micron range for space infrared astronomy. This report summarizes research results for the entire grant period 1 January 1992 through 30 June 1996.

  14. Briefings Set for Launch of Next "Great Observatory" in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    NASA's next Space Shuttle flight will provide astronomers with a new look at the universe and make history with NASA's first female mission commander. Reporters can get an overview of the mission at a series of briefings July 7. The briefings will begin at 9 a.m. EDT at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. The five-day flight is scheduled for launch no earlier than July 20. STS-93 will be led by U.S. Air Force Colonel Eileen Collins, the first woman to command an American space mission. The flight's primary objective will be to deploy the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the third of NASA's Great Observatories. Collins and her crew of four will carry Chandra, the heaviest payload ever deployed from the shuttle, into orbit and deploy it approximately seven hours after launch. An upper stage will carry the observatory to its final orbit, more than one-third of the way to the Moon. Chandra will allow scientists to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of exploding stars, black holes and other exotic environments to help them understand the structure and evolution of the universe. The first two briefings will provide an overview of mission operations and science to be conducted by Chandra. The NASA Television Video File will follow at noon. The crew press conference will begin at 2 p.m. EDT. The briefings will be carried live on NASA Television, with question-and-answer capability for reporters covering the event from participating NASA centers. NASA Television is available on transponder 9C of the GE-2 satellite at 85 degrees West longitude, vertical polarization, frequency 3880 MHz, audio of 6.8 MHz. Media planning to attend the briefings must notify the Johnson Space Center newsroom by June 28 to ensure proper badging. Each reporter's name, affiliation and country of citizenship should be faxed to the newsroom at 281/483-2000. IMPORTANT NOTE: Reporters can schedule in-person or telephone interviews STS-93 crew. These interviews will begin at about 3:15 p.m. EDT. Media

  15. 20-micron transparency and atmospheric water vapor at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, G. L.; Gehrz, R. D.; Hackwell, J. A.; Freedman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The atmospheric transparency at 19.5 and 23 microns from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory over the past six years has been examined. It is found that the transparency is largely controlled by the season. Four months: June, July, August, and September have very poor 20-micron transparency. During the rest of the year the transparency is usually quite good at 19.5 microns and moderately good at 23 microns. Using rawinsonde data and theoretical calculations for the expected infrared transparency, the measures of 20-micron transparency were calibrated in terms of atmospheric water-vapor content. The water vapor over the Wyoming Infrared Observatory is found to compare favorably with that above other proposed or developed sites: Mauna Kea, Mount Graham, and Wheeler Peak.

  16. 20-micron transparency and atmospheric water vapor at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, G. L.; Gehrz, R. D.; Hackwell, J. A.; Freedman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The atmospheric transparency at 19.5 and 23 microns from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory over the past six years has been examined. It is found that the transparency is largely controlled by the season. Four months: June, July, August, and September have very poor 20-micron transparency. During the rest of the year the transparency is usually quite good at 19.5 microns and moderately good at 23 microns. Using rawinsonde data and theoretical calculations for the expected infrared transparency, the measures of 20-micron transparency were calibrated in terms of atmospheric water-vapor content. The water vapor over the Wyoming Infrared Observatory is found to compare favorably with that above other proposed or developed sites: Mauna Kea, Mount Graham, and Wheeler Peak.

  17. Future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Phillip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice; Bolcar, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC and STScI study team has used community-developed science goals to derive mission needs, design parameters, notional instruments, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, noncryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system dynamic stability that supports coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2-m aperture telescope that stows within a 5-m diameter launch vehicle fairing. This paper presents results from the latest cycle of integrated modeling through January 2016. The latest findings support the feasibility of secondary mirror support struts with a thickness on the order of an inch. Thin struts were found not to have a significant negative effect on wavefront error stability. Struts with a width as small as 1 in. may benefit some coronagraph designs by allowing more optical throughput.

  18. Footprint Database and web services for the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebélyi, Erika; Dobos, László; Kiss, Csaba

    2015-08-01

    Using all telemetry and observational meta-data, we created a searchable database of Herschel observation footprints. Data from the Herschel space observatory is freely available for everyone but no uniformly processed catalog of all observations has been published yet. As a first step, we unified the data model for all three Herschel instruments in all observation modes and compiled a database of sky coverage information. As opposed to methods using a pixellation of the sphere, in our database, sky coverage is stored in exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. Indexing of the footprints allows for very fast search among observations based on pointing, time, sky coverage overlap and meta-data. This enables us, for example, to find moving objects easily in Herschel fields. The database is accessible via a web site and also as a set of REST web service functions which makes it usable from program clients like Python or IDL scripts. Data is available in various formats including Virtual Observatory standards.

  19. Monitoring CO2 sources and sinks from space : the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) will make the first space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize the geographic distribution of CO2 sources and sinks and quantify their variability over the seasonal cycle. OCO is currently scheduled for launch in 2008. The observatory will carry a single instrument that incorporates three high-resolution grating spectrometers designed to measure the near-infrared absorption by CO2 and molecular oxygen (O2) in reflected sunlight. OCO will fly 12 minutes ahead of the EOS Aqua platform in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation (A-Train). The in-strument will collect 12 to 24 soundings per second as the Observatory moves along its orbit track on the day side of the Earth. A small sampling footprint (<3 km2 at nadir) was adopted to reduce biases in each sounding associated with clouds and aerosols and spatial variations in surface topography. A comprehensive ground-based validation program will be used to assess random errors and biases in the XCO2 product on regional to continental scales. Measurements collected by OCO will be assimilated with other environmental measurements to retrieve surface sources and sinks of CO2. This information could play an important role in monitoring the integrity of large scale CO2 sequestration projects.

  20. Solar System Studies with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the final element in NASA's 'Great Observatories' program. It consists of an 85-cm cryogenically-cooled observatory for infrared astronomy from space. SIRTF is scheduled for launch in late 2001 or early 2002 on a Delta rocket into a heliocentric orbit trailing the Earth. Data from SIRTF will be processed and disseminated to the community through the SIRTF Science Center (SSC) located at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) at Caltech. Some 80/% of the total observing time (estimated at a minimum of 7500 hours of integration time per year for the mission lifetime of about 4 years) will be available to the scientific community at large through a system of refereed proposals. Three basic instruments are located in the SIRTF focal plane. The Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS), the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), taken together, provide imaging and spectroscopy from 3.5 to 160 microns. Among the solar system studies suited to SIRTF are the following: 1) spectroscopy and radiometry of small bodies from the asteroid main belt, through the Trojan clouds, to the Kuiper Disk; 2) dust distribution in the zodiacal cloud and the Earth's heliocentric dust ring; 3) spectroscopy and radiometry of comets; and 4) spectroscopy and radiometry of planets and their satellites. Searches for, and studies of dust disks around other stars, brown dwarfs, and superplanets will also be conducted with SIRTF. The SORTIE web site (http://ssc.ipac.caltech.edu/sirtf) contains important details and documentation on the project, the spacecraft, the telescope, instruments, and observing procedures. A community-wide workshop for solar system studies with SIRTF is in the planning stages by the author and Martha S. Hanner for the summer of 1999.

  1. Calibration and first light of the Diabolo photometer at the Millimetre and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, A.; Zagury, F.; Coron, N.; De Petris, M.; Désert, F.-X.; Giard, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Dambier, G.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; De Luca, A.; de Marcillac, P.; Jegoudez, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Leblanc, J.; Lepeltier, J.-P.; Leriche, B.; Mainella, G.; Narbonne, J.; Pajot, F.; Pons, R.; Puget, J.-L.; Pujol, S.; Recouvreur, G.; Serra, G.; Soglasnova, V.; Torre, J.-P.; Vozzi, B.

    2000-02-01

    We have designed and built a large-throughput dual channel photometer, Diabolo. This photometer is dedicated to the observation of millimetre continuum diffuse sources, and in particular, of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and of anisotropies of the 3 K background. We describe the optical layout and filtering system of the instrument, which uses two bolometric detectors for simultaneous observations in two frequency channels at 1.2 and 2.1 mm. The bolometers are cooled to a working temperature of 0.1 K provided by a compact dilution cryostat. The photometric and angular responses of the instrument are measured in the laboratory. First astronomical light was detected in March 1995 at the focus of the new Millimetre and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) Telescope. The established sensitivity of the system is of 7 mKRJ\\ s1/2. For a typical map of at least 10 beams, with one hour of integration per beam, one can achieve the rms values of y_SZ =~ 7\\ 10-5 and the 3 K background anisotropy {Delta T/ T} =~ 7\\ 10-5, in winter conditions. We also report on a novel bolometer AC readout circuit which allows for the first time total power measurements on the sky. This technique alleviates (but does not forbid) the use of chopping with a secondary mirror. This technique and the dilution fridge concept will be used in future scan-modulated space instrument like the ESA Planck mission project.

  2. Science Promise and Conceptual Mission Design for SAFIR - the Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, D.; Benford, D. J.; Blain, A.; Bradford, M.; Dragovan, M.; Langer, W.; Leisawitz, D.; Lawrence, C.; Mather, J.; Moseley, S. H.; Mundy, L.; Rieke, G.; Stacey, G.; Yorke, H.; Young, E.

    2003-12-01

    SAFIR is a large (10m-class), cold (4-10K) space telescope for wavelengths between 20μm and 1mm. It will provide sensitivity of a factor of a hundred or more over that of SIRTF and Herschel, leveraging their capabilities and building on their scientific legacies. Covering this scientifically critical wavelength regime, it will complement the expected wavelength performance of the future flagship endeavors JWST and ALMA. This vision mission will probe the origin of stars and galaxies in the early universe, and explore the formation of solar systems around nearby young stars. Endorsed as a priority by the Decadal Study and successive OSS roadmaps, SAFIR represents a huge science need that is matched by promising and innovative technologies that will allow us to satisfy it. In exercising those technologies it will create the path for future infrared missions. Efforts are underway to refine the scientific goals of the mission, explore promising approaches for it's architecture, and sharpen understanding about remaining technological challenges that will recommend optimal strategic investments. We show how SAFIR responds to the scientific challenges in the OSS Strategic Plan, and how the observatory can be brought within technological reach.

  3. Exoplanet discoveries with the CoRoT space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammer, H.; Dvorak, R.; Deleuil, M.; Barge, P.; Deeg, H. J.; Moutou, C.; Erikson, A.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Tingley, B.; Bruntt, H.; Havel, M.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J. M.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barbieri, M.; Benz, W.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Ciardi, D.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Gillon, M.; Gondoin, P.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; den Hartog, R.; Hasiba, J.; Hatzes, A.; Hidas, M.; Hébrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Kabath, P.; Léger, A.; Lister, T.; Llebaria, A.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Mura, A.; Ollivier, M.; Ottacher, H.; Pätzold, M.; Pepe, F.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rabus, M.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Schneider, J.; Shporer, A.; Stecklum, B.; Steller, M.; Street, R.; Udry, S.; Weingrill, J.; Wuchterl, G.

    2010-12-01

    The CoRoT space observatory is a project which is led by the French space agency CNES and leading space research institutes in Austria, Brazil, Belgium, Germany and Spain and also the European Space Agency ESA. CoRoT observed since its launch in December 27, 2006 about 100 000 stars for the exoplanet channel, during 150 days uninterrupted high-precision photometry. Since the The CoRoT-team has several exoplanet candidates which are currently analyzed under its study, we report here the discoveries of nine exoplanets which were observed by CoRoT. Discovered exoplanets such as CoRoT-3b populate the brown dwarf desert and close the gap of measured physical properties between usual gas giants and very low mass stars. CoRoT discoveries extended the known range of planet masses down to about 4.8 Earth-masses (CoRoT-7b) and up to 21 Jupiter masses (CoRoT-3b), the radii to about 1.68 × 0.09 R Earth (CoRoT-7b) and up to the most inflated hot Jupiter with 1.49 × 0.09 R Earth found so far (CoRoT-1b), and the transiting exoplanet with the longest period of 95.274 days (CoRoT-9b). Giant exoplanets have been detected at low metallicity, rapidly rotating and active, spotted stars. Two CoRoT planets have host stars with the lowest content of heavy elements known to show a transit hinting towards a different planethost-star-metallicity relation then the one found by radial-velocity search programs. Finally the properties of the CoRoT-7b prove that rocky planets with a density close to Earth exist outside the Solar System. Finally the detection of the secondary transit of CoRoT-1b at a sensitivity level of 10-5 and the very clear detection of the "super-Earth" CoRoT-7b at 3.5 × 10-4 relative flux are promising evidence that the space observatory is being able to detect even smaller exoplanets with the size of the Earth.

  4. Progress Toward a Space-Based Gravitational Wave Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Stebbins, Robin T.

    The discovery of binary pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse & Taylor in 1974 established the existence of gravitational waves, for which the 1983 Nobel Prize was awarded. However, the measurement of astrophysical parameters from gravitational waves will open an entirely new spectrum for discovery and understanding of the Universe, not simply a new window in the electromagnetic spectrum like gamma ray telescopes in the 1970s. Two types of ground-based detectors, Advanced LIGO/Virgo and Pulsar Timing Arrays, are expected to directly detect gravitational waves in their respective frequency bands before the end of the decade. However, many of the most exciting sources are in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic and gravity gradient noise on Earth. The European Space Agency (ESA) has chosen the 'Gravitational Universe' as the science theme for its L3 Cosmic Visions opportunity, planned for launch in 2034. NASA is planning to participate as a junior partner. Here we summarize progress toward realizing a gravitational wave observatory in space.

  5. Orbiting Astronomical Observatory-1 Shroud Test in Space Power Chambers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-07-21

    Preparations for a shroud jettison test for the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory-1 (OAO-1) satellite in the Space Power Chambers facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The satellite was to be launched on an Atlas-Agena rocket in the spring of 1966. The 3900-pound payload was the heaviest ever attempted by Agena. The satellite was the first of three equipped with powerful telescopes to study ultraviolet data from specific stars and galaxies. In-depth observations were not possible from Earth-bound telescopes because of the filtering and distortion of the atmosphere. The OAO-1 satellite was wider in diameter than the Agena stage, so a new clamshell shroud was created to enclose both the satellite and the Agena. The clamshell shroud consisted of three sections that enclosed both the Agena and OAO-1: a fiberglass nose fairing and aluminum mid and aft fairings. The upper two fairings separated when the Atlas engines stopped, and the aft fairing fell away with the Atlas upon separation from the upper stages The large altitude tank in the Space Power Chambers could simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. Three shroud jettison tests were run in July 1965 and the first week of August at a simulated altitude of 20 miles. The April 8, 1966 launch from Cape Canaveral went smoothly, but the OAO-1 satellite failed after only 90 minutes due to a battery failure.

  6. Architectures for a Space-based Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2015-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) selected the science theme, the ``Gravitational Universe,'' for the third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has begun negotiating a NASA role. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, thereby augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described.

  7. The preliminary design of an orbiting observatory - The Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmons, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    The systems and subsystems of the Space Telescope proposed for an orbiting observatory to be launched by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s are described. The structural design is simple and based on existing technologies for high reliability. Provisions are made for on-orbit servicing and maintenance. All deployable appendages are designed for manual override to insure retrieval and return of the Space Telescope to earth for major refurbishing, which should occur at intervals of not less than six years. Low performance risk, passive techniques are used in the thermal control subsystem to provide a cold-biased design with thermostatically controlled heaters to adjust temperature. The electrical power system utilizes NASA Standard Hardware - 50 ampere hour nickel-cadmium battery cells, a standard power regulator unit, and a flight-proven flexible rollup solar array with high-efficiency (12.5 per cent) silicon solar cells. The communication subsystem is designed for compatibility with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. The pointing control system will have a maximum line of sight variation of 0.007 arc seconds. The telescope optics are a Ritchey-Chretien version of the Cassegrain configuration.

  8. Asteroid observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, B.; Wells, Eddie N.; Chapman, Clark R.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    The ways that the asteroids can be studied with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are examined. Spectrophotometry of asteroids and the study of asteroid surfaces, shape, spins, configuration, normal reflectance, and limb darkening of asteroids using the HST are addressed along with the detection of asteroid satellites and the discovery of small asteroids using the HST. The relation of the HST to its ground system is described, as are the spectrophotometric instruments of the HST. Imaging with the HST using the Faint Object Camera and the Wide Field and Planetary Camera is examined. Finally, the SIRTF observatory, instrumentation, and capabilities for solar system science are discussed.

  9. Space Weathering Investigations Enabled by NASA's Virtual Heliophysical Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Lal, Nand; Sittler, Edward C.; Sturner, Steven J.; Hills, Howard K.; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Kovalick, Tamara J.; Johnson, Rita C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Structural and chemical impact of the heliospheric space environment on exposed planetary surfaces and interplanetary dust grains may be generally defined as space weathering . In the inner solar system, from the asteroid belt inwards towards the Sun, the surface regolith structures of airless bodies are primarily determined by cumulative meteoritic impacts over billions of years, but the molecular composition to meters in depth can be substantially modified by irradiation effects. Plasma ions at eV to keV energies may both erode uppermost surfaces by sputtering, and implant or locally produce exogenic material, e.g. He-3 and H2O, while more energetic ions drive molecular change through electronic ionization. Galactic cosmic ray ions and more energetic solar ions can impact chemistry to meters in depth. High energy cosmic ray interactions produce showers of secondary particles and energetic photons that present hazards for robotic and human exploration missions but also enable detection of potentially useable resources such as water ice, oxygen, and many other elements. Surface sputtering also makes ejected elemental and molecular species accessible for in-situ compositional analysis by spacecraft with ion and neutral mass spectrometers. Modeling of relative impacts for these various space weathering processes requires knowledge of the incident species-resolved ion flux spectra at plasma to cosmic ray energies and as integrated over varying time scales. Although the main drivers for investigations of these processes come from NASA's planetary science and human exploration programs, the NASA heliophysics program provides the requisite data measurement and modeling resources to enable specification of the field & plasma and energetic particle irradiation environments for application to space weather and surface weathering investigations. The Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO), Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO), Lunar Solar Origins Exploration (Luna

  10. Heterodyne Receiver Requirements for the Single Aperture Far-Infrared (SAFIR) Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Kooi, Jacob; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In the next few years, work will commence in earnest on the development of technology for the next generation large cryogenic far-infrared telescope: the Single Aperture Far- Infrared (SAFIR) Observatory. SAFIR's science goals are driven by the fact that youngest stages of almost all phenomena in the universe are shrouded in absorption by cool dust, resulting in the energy being emitted primarily in the far-infrared. The earliest stages of star formation, when gas and dust clouds are collapsing and planets forming, can only be observed in the far-infrared. Spectral diagnostics in the far-infrared are typically quite narrow (approx. 1 km/s) and require high sensitivity to detect them. SAFIR is a 10 m-class telescope designed for cryogenic operation at L2, removing all sources of thermal emission from the telescope and atmosphere. Despite its limited collecting area and angular resolution as compared to the ALMA interferometer, its potential for covering the entire far-infrared band cannot be matched by any ground-based or airborne observatory. This places a new challenge on heterodyne receivers: broad frequency coverage. The ideal mixer would be able to detect frequencies over several octaves (e.g., 0.6 THz - 12 THz) with near quantum-limited performance at all frequencies. In contrast to ground-based observatories, it may not be necessary to strive for high instantaneous bandwidth, as direct detection spectroscopy is preferable for bandwidths of Delta v/ v greater than or equal to 10(exp -4) (e.g., 1 GHz at 10 THz). We consider likely directions for technology development for heterodyne receivers for SAFIR.

  11. The Near Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) At Gemini North Observatory (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Tracy L.; McGregor, P.

    2006-06-01

    During the 2005-2006 Fall/Winter observing term, The Near Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) was commissioned at the Gemini North Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. NIFS is a high spatial resolution, moderate spectral resolution near infrared integral field spectrograph designed to be used with Gemini's AO system, Altair. In this talk, we will discuss the NIFS instrument design and performance, and present some of the exciting results derived from the commissioning and System Verification observations.(1) - Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini Partnership: United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Chile, Australia, Brazil and Argentina.

  12. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Study Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Thronson, Harley A.; Feinberg, Lee; Redding, David; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    The scientific drivers for very high angular resolution coupled with very high sensitivity and wavefront stability in the UV and optical wavelength regime have been well established. These include characterization of exoplanets in the habitable zones of solar type stars, probing the physical properties of the circumgalactic medium around z < 2 galaxies, and resolving stellar populations across a broad range of galactic environments. The 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the 2013 NASA Science Mission Directorate 30-Year Roadmap identified a large-aperture UVOIR observatory as a priority future space mission. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI team has extended several earlier studies of the technology and engineering requirements needed to design and build a single filled aperture 10-meter class space-based telescope that can enable these ambitious scientific observations. We present here an overview of our new technical work including a brief summary of the reference science drivers as well as in-depth investigations of the viable telescope architectures, the requirements on thermal control and active wavefront control systems, and the range of possible launch configurations.

  13. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb groundbased observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  14. Infrared spectral measurement of space shuttle glow

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadijian, M.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared spectral measurements of the space shuttle glow were successfully conducted during the STS-39 space shuttle mission. Analysis indicates that NO, NO[sup +], OH, and CO are among the molecules associated with the infrared glow phenomenon. During orbiter thruster firings the glow intensities in the infrared are enhanced by factors of 10x to 100x with significant changes in spectral distribution. These measurements were obtained with the Spacecraft Kinetic Infrared Test (SKIRT) payload which included a cryogenic infrared circular variable filter (CVF) spectrometer (0.6 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]) and a number of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiometers (0.2 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]m and 9.9 [mu]m to 10.4 [mu]m). In addition, glow measurements were unsuccessfully attempted with the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) with its 2.5 [mu]m to 25 [mu]m Fourier transform interferometer. SKIRT CVF obtained over 14,000 spectra of quiescent shuttle glow, thruster enhanced shuttle glow, upper atmosphere airglow, aurora, orbiter environment, and deep space non-glow backgrounds during its eight day mission. The SKIRT radiometers operated almost continuously throughout the mission to provide a detailed history of the IR/VIS/UV optical environment associated with the operation of large spacecraft structures in low earth orbit. This dissertation will primarily address those measurements conducted by the SKIRT spectrometer as they relate to space shuttle glow in the infrared. The STS-39 Space Shuttle Discovery was launched from the NASA Kennedy Space Center on 28 April 1991 into a 57 degree inclination circular orbit at an altitude of 260 km.

  15. BIRCAM: A Near-Infrared Camera for the Red Buttes Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, Andy; Pierce, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    We describe the construction of a near-infrared camera for the University of Wyoming's 0.6m telescope at Red Buttes Observatory. BIRCAM (Buttes InfraRed CAMera) was developed as a temporary instrument to test the electronic and cryo-mechanical components of a more ambitious near-infrared imaging spectrograph currently under development. Our goal is to use BIRCAM as a test bed for the design and development of cryogenic opto-mechanics and near-infrared data reduction techniques. BIRCAM makes use of a Hawaii-2 array sensitive from 0.8-2.4 microns. Specific design elements that are shown and discussed include: an Offner relay optical design, stepper motor control of a filter wheel and system integration and communication. One of the science projects envisioned for BIRCAM is a photometric survey of northern Galactic Cepheids. Preliminary results are presented.

  16. TWINKLE - A Low Earth Orbit Visible and Infrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessenyi, Marcell; Savini, Giorgio; Tinetti, Giovanna; Tennyson, Jonathan; Dhesi, Mekhi; Joshua, Max

    2016-10-01

    Twinkle is a space mission designed for visible and near-IR spectroscopic observations of extrasolar planets. Twinkle's highly stable instrument will allow the photometric and spectroscopic observation of a wide range of planetary classes around different types of stars, with a focus on bright sources close to the ecliptic. The planets will be observed through transit and eclipse photometry and spectroscopy, as well as phase curves, eclipse mapping and multiple narrow-band time-series. The targets observed by Twinkle will be composed of known exoplanets mainly discovered by existing and upcoming ground surveys in our galaxy and will also feature new discoveries by space observatories (K2, GAIA, Cheops, TESS).Twinkle is a small satellite with a payload designed to perform high-quality astrophysical observations while adapting to the design of an existing Low Earth Orbit commercial satellite platform. The SSTL-300 bus, to be launched into a low-Earth sun-synchronous polar orbit by 2019, will carry a half-meter class telescope with two instruments (visible and near-IR spectrographs - between 0.4 and 4.5µm - with resolving power R~300 at the lower end of the wavelength scale) using mostly flight proven spacecraft systems designed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd and a combination of high TRL instrumentation and a few lower TRL elements built by a consortium of UK institutes.The Twinkle design will enable the observation of the chemical composition and weather of at least 100 exoplanets in the Milky Way, including super-Earths (rocky planets 1-10 times the mass of Earth), Neptunes, sub-Neptunes and gas giants like Jupiter. It will also allow the follow-up photometric observations of 1000+ exoplanets in the visible and infrared, as well as observations of Solar system objects, bright stars and disks.

  17. TWINKLE - A Low Earth Orbit Visible and Infrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessenyi, M.; Savini, G.; Tinetti, G.; Tennyson, J.; Dhesi, M.; Joshua, M.

    2017-07-01

    Twinkle is a space mission designed for visible and near-IR spectroscopic observations of extrasolar planets. Twinkle's highly stable instrument will allow the photometric and spectroscopic observation of a wide range of planetary classes around different types of stars, with a focus on bright sources close to the ecliptic. The planets will be observed through transit and eclipse photometry and spectroscopy, as well as phase curves, eclipse mapping and multiple narrow-band time-series. The targets observed by Twinkle will be composed of known exoplanets mainly discovered by existing and upcoming ground surveys in our galaxy and will also feature new discoveries by space observatories (K2, GAIA, Cheops, TESS). Twinkle is a small satellite with a payload designed to perform high-quality astrophysical observations while adapting to the design of an existing Low Earth Orbit commercial satellite platform. The SSTL-300 bus, to be launched into a low-Earth sun-synchronous polar orbit by 2019, will carry a half-meter class telescope with two instruments (visible and near-IR spectrographs - between 0.4 and 4.5μm - with resolving power R˜300 at the lower end of the wavelength scale) using mostly flight proven spacecraft systems designed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd and a combination of high TRL instrumentation and a few lower TRL elements built by a consortium of UK institutes. The Twinkle design will enable the observation of the chemical composition and weather of at least 100 exoplanets in the Milky Way, including super-Earths (rocky planets 1-10 times the mass of Earth), Neptunes, sub-Neptunes and gas giants like Jupiter. It will also allow the follow-up photometric observations of 1000+ exoplanets in the visible and infrared, as well as observations of Solar system objects, bright stars and disks.

  18. Space γ-observatory GAMMA-400 Current Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Topchiev, N. P.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Tavani, M.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Yurkin, Yu. T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    nuclei and gamma-quanta in energy range E>1.0 GeV. But using lateral aperture it is possible to detect low-energy gammas in the ranges 0.2 - 10 MeV and 10 MeV - 1.0 GeV with energy resolution 8% - 2% and 2% correspondingly accordingly to GAMMA-400 "Technical Project" stage results. Angular resolution in the lateral aperture provides only for low-energy gamma-quanta from non-stationary events (GRB, solar flares and so on) due segments of CC2 count rate analysis. GAMMA-400 γ-ray telescope will be installed onboard the Russian Space Observatory GAMMA-400. The lifetime of the space observatory will be at least seven years. The launch of the space observatory is scheduled for the early 2020s.

  19. The development of infrared detectors and mechanisms for use in future infrared space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The environment above earth's atmosphere offers significant advantages in sensitivity and wavelength coverage in infrared astronomy over ground-based observatories. In support of future infrared space missions, technology development efforts were undertaken to develop detectors sensitive to radiation between 2.5 micron and 200 micron. Additionally, work was undertaken to develop mechanisms supporting the imaging and spectroscopy requirements of infrared space missions. Arsenic-doped-Silicon and Antimony-doped-Silicon Blocked Impurity Band detectors, responsive to radiation between 4 micron and 45 micron, were produced in 128x128 picture element arrays with the low noise, high sensitivity performance needed for space environments. Technology development continued on Gallium-doped-Germanium detectors (for use between 80 micron and 200 micron), but were hampered by contamination during manufacture. Antimony-doped-Indium detectors (for use between 2.5 micron and 5 micron) were developed in a 256x256 pixel format with high responsive quantum efficiency and low dark current. Work began on adapting an existing cryogenic mechanism design for space-based missions; then was redirected towards an all-fixed optical design to improve reliability and lower projected mission costs.

  20. The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, H.; Bock, J.; Freund, M. M.; Guo, H.; Hirao, T.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Mcmahon, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is a cryogenically cooled small infrared telescope that will fly aboard the small space platform Space Flyer Unit. It will survey approximately 10% of the sky with a relatively wide beam during its 20 day emission. Four focal-plane instruments will make simultaneous observations of the sky at wavelengths ranging from 1 to 1000 microns. The IRTS will provide significant information on cosmology, interstellar matter, late-type stars, and interplanetary dust. This paper describes the instrumentation and mission.

  1. The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, H.; Bock, J.; Freund, M. M.; Guo, H.; Hirao, T.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Mcmahon, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is a cryogenically cooled small infrared telescope that will fly aboard the small space platform Space Flyer Unit. It will survey approximately 10% of the sky with a relatively wide beam during its 20 day emission. Four focal-plane instruments will make simultaneous observations of the sky at wavelengths ranging from 1 to 1000 microns. The IRTS will provide significant information on cosmology, interstellar matter, late-type stars, and interplanetary dust. This paper describes the instrumentation and mission.

  2. Telescopes for a Space-Based Gravitational Wave Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Shannon; Livas, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Telescopes are an important part of the science measurement for a space-based gravitational wave observatory. The telescopes should not introduce excess phase noise which might lower the signal-to-noise of the gravitational wave signal. This requirement constrains both the telescope stability and the phase noise due to scattered light. The photoreceiver senses a combination of a local beam, the received beam and scattered light. If the scattered light has significant spatial overlap, and if there is displacement noise in the scatter path, the signal-to-noise of the main measurement can be impacted. We will discuss our approach to addressing this concern. We model the scattered power from the telescope under expected conditions and use these models for evaluating potential telescope designs. We also determine allowable mirror surface roughness and contamination levels from the scattered light models. We implement the best designs by fabricating a series of prototype telescopes of increasing flight readiness, using eLISA as a reference mission for design specifications. Finally, we perform laboratory tests of the fabricated prototype telescope to validate the models and inform our understanding of the eventual flight telescopes.

  3. The World Space Observatory/Ultraviolet (WSO/UV) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamsteker, W.; Shustov, B. M.

    The World Space Observatory project model was first introduced in the 5th UN/ESA workshop. Over time, the original concept has been further developed to evaluate how such project could become a reality. An assessment study has been made of the WSO-Ultraviolet (WSO/UV) as this was considered the best implementation model since the world -wide need for such project in the astrophysics community clearly exists. Also in the developing world considerable expertise exists through the wide distribution of the ultraviolet spectroscopic archive INES from ESA. Therefore WSO/UV presents the best chance of success for the next stage in the accelerated BSS evolution needed for sustainable development in the pre -industrial countries. The WSO/UV Implementation Committee (WIC), composed of scientists from some 14 countries, is the leading organization in this project. We will here describe the implementation model for WSO/UV and highlight the scientific importance as well as the plans for the future.

  4. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-11-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas for laboratory study required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can be properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  5. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas where laboratory study is required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front, chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can he properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  6. Infrared monitoring of the Space Station environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Jennings, Donald E.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement and monitoring of infrared emission in the environment of the Space Station has a twofold importance - for the study of the phenomena itself and as an aid in planning and interpreting Station based infrared experiments. Spectral measurements of the infrared component of the spacecraft glow will, along with measurements in other spectral regions, provide data necessary to fully understand and model the physical and chemical processes producing these emissions. The monitoring of the intensity of these emissions will provide background limits for Space Station based infrared experiments and permit the determination of optimum instrument placement and pointing direction. Continuous monitoring of temporal changes in the background radiation (glow) will also permit better interpretation of Station-based infrared earth sensing and astronomical observations. The primary processes producing infrared emissions in the Space Station environment are: (1) Gas phase excitations of Station generated molecules ( e.g., CO2, H2O, organics...) by collisions with the ambient flux of mainly O and N2. Molecular excitations and generation of new species by collisions of ambient molecules with Station surfaces. They provide a list of resulting species, transition energies, excitation cross sections and relevant time constants. The modeled spectrum of the excited species occurs primarily at wavelengths shorter than 8 micrometer. Emissions at longer wavelengths may become important during rocket firing or in the presence of dust.

  7. Exploring New Spectral Windows with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergin, Edwin A.

    2011-06-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA cornerstone mission with NASA participation, has been in operation for over a year. I will briefly outline the overall capabilities of Herschel which has both photometric and spectroscopic coverage from 63 to 610 microns. Herschel offers unprecedented sensitivity as well as continuous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by the atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored wavelength regime to high resolution spectroscopy. In particular, I will present results from the guaranteed time key program: Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS). Our program is nearing completion of data acquisition and I will discuss the most complete molecular spectrum of star-forming gas ever obtained in the spectrum of Orion KL and the galactic center molecular cloud Sagittarius B2. These spectra have over 1.4 THz of bandwidth and a resolution of 1 MHz. We estimate that there are over 100,000 spectral lines alone in the Orion KL spectrum with numerous lines of water vapor, ammonia, sulfur-bearing molecules, and numerous organics. I will demonstrate the power of molecular spectroscopy in characterizing the physical state of dense gas near massive stars through the perspective offered by observations of hundreds of lines of a single molecule and are revealing a new tracer of active galactic nuclei. I will show how the spectra provide a near complete chemical assay and cooling census of star-forming gas. Ultimately the gains from Herschel have tremendous potential to extend our understanding of the physics of star birth and feedback while informing on the origin of water and organics in space.

  8. Investigating Near Space Interaction Regions: Developing a Remote Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, M.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Jaehnig, K.; Percival, J.; Harlander, J.; Englert, C. R.; Kallio, R.; Roesler, F. L.; Nossal, S. M.; Gardner, D.; Rosborough, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Investigating Near Space Interaction Regions (INSpIRe) effort will (1) establish an adaptable research station capable of contributing to terrestrial and planetary aeronomy; (2) integrate two state-of-the-art second generation Fabry-Perot (FP) and Spatial Heteorodyne Spectrometers (SHS) into a remotely operable configuration; (3) deploy this instrumentation to a clear-air site, establishing a stable, well-calibrated observatory; (4) embark on a series of observations designed to contribute to three major areas of geocoronal research: geocoronal physics, structure/coupling, and variability. This poster describes the development of the INSpIRe remote observatory. Based at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU), initiative INSpIRe provides a platform to encourage the next generation of researchers to apply knowledge gained in the classroom to real-world science and engineering. Students at ERAU contribute to the INSpIRe effort's hardware and software needs. Mechanical/optical systems are in design to bring light to any of four instruments. Control software is in development to allow remote users to control everything from dome and optical system operations to calibration and data collection. In April 2016, we also installed and tested our first science instrument in the INSpIRe trailer, the Redline DASH Demonstration Instrument (REDDI). REDDI uses Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectroscopy, and its deployment as part of INSpIRe is a collaborative research effort between the Naval Research Lab, St Cloud State University, and ERAU. Similar to a stepped Michelson device, REDDI measures oxygen (630.0 nm) winds from the thermosphere. REDDI is currently mounted in a temporary location under INSpIRe's main siderostat until its entrance optical system can be modified. First light tests produced good signal-to-noise fringes in ten minute integrations, indicating that we will soon be able to measure thermospheric winds from our Daytona Beach testing site

  9. NASA Space Observatories Glimpse Faint Afterglow of Nearby Stellar Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Intricate wisps of glowing gas float amid a myriad of stars in this image created by combining data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The gas is a supernova remnant, cataloged as N132D, ejected from the explosion of a massive star that occurred some 3,000 years ago. This titanic explosion took place in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a nearby neighbor galaxy of our own Milky Way. The complex structure of N132D is due to the expanding supersonic shock wave from the explosion impacting the interstellar gas of the LMC. Deep within the remnant, the Hubble visible light image reveals a crescent-shaped cloud of pink emission from hydrogen gas, and soft purple wisps that correspond to regions of glowing oxygen emission. A dense background of colorful stars in the LMC is also shown in the Hubble image. The large horseshoe-shaped gas cloud on the left-hand side of the remnant is glowing in X-rays, as imaged by Chandra. In order to emit X-rays, the gas must have been heated to a temperature of about 18 million degrees Fahrenheit (10 million degrees Celsius). A supernova-generated shock wave traveling at a velocity of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) is continuing to propagate through the low-density medium today. The shock front where the material from the supernova collides with ambient interstellar material in the LMC is responsible for these high temperatures. Chandra image of N132D Chandra image of N132D, 2002 It is estimated that the star that exploded as a supernova to produce the N132D remnant was 10 to 15 times more massive than our own Sun. As fast-moving ejecta from the explosion slam into the cool, dense interstellar clouds in the LMC, complex shock fronts are created. A supernova remnant like N132D provides a rare opportunity for direct observation of stellar material, because it is made of gas that was recently hidden deep inside a star. Thus it provides information on stellar evolution and the

  10. Gaussian beam measurement for HIFI instrument: Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleev, Miroslav G.; Ermisch, Karsten; Fredrixon, Mathias; Svensson, Magnus; Belitsky, Victor

    2004-09-01

    The Heterodyne Instrument (HIFI) is part of the ESA Herschel Space Observatory Project. The instrument is intended for high-resolution spectroscopy and has a frequency coverage from 480 to 1250 GHz band in five receiver bands and 1410 to 1910 GHz in two additional bands. HIFI is built based on a modular principle: the mixers together with their respective optics are integrated into Mixer Sub-Assemblies (MSA). Each frequency band has two MSAs allocated for horizontal and vertical polarization. In this paper, we present the work done on the design and construction of a Gaussian beam measurement range. One of the unique features of the developed method is a possibility to measure the beam parameters of the MSAs in the absolute coordinate system referred to the device under test. This along with other methods should allow integration of the entire HIFI with the best possible coupling of the antenna beam to the receivers and achieving ultimate performance in such a complicated optical system. The range houses the measured MSA, which is at 4 K ambient temperature, and a continuous wave source placed on a precise scanner entirely under vacuum. Developed triangulation system provides mechanical reference data on the MSA, in-situ, after the entire system is evacuated and the cooling is finished. We adopted a scalar measurement approach where the test source scans the receiver input beam and the mixer IF power is measured. The data collected from 3-4 planar scans are used to calculate the orientation and position of the optical axis. We present results from the first beam measurements for MSA HIFI bands 1 and 2 (480 and 640 GHz), the measurement system performance and accuracy analysis.

  11. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) - next step after Spitzer/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, Hans

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a Boeing 747B fitted with a powerful 2.5m infrared telescope that operates at altitudes of 12-14km and observes light from the near-IR to the far-IR wavelength range that is blocked to reach the ground by the Earth's atmosphere (mainly due to water vapor). SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Agency (DLR). This new airborne Observatory started early science observations in 2010 and has recently reached full operational capability, with a suite fo currently 4 instruments (and two more to be commissioned) in Cycle 2. Scientific highlights will be presented which include mid-IR broad-band imaging and far-IR high-resolution spectroscopic results which go beyond those of Spitzer and Herschel (star formation studies and astrochemistry). SOFIA will have a projected lifetime of 20 yrs and will be the premier mid- and far-infrared facility in the post-Spitzer and post-Herschel era for many years to come.

  12. Single Crystal DMs for Space-Based Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierden, Paul

    We propose to demonstrate the feasibility of a new manufacturing process for large aperture, high-actuator count microelectromechanical deformable mirrors (MEMS-DMs). These DMs are designed to fill a critical technology gap in NASA s plan for high- contrast space-based exoplanet observatories. We will manufacture a prototype DM with a continuous mirror facesheet, having an active aperture of 50mm diameter, supported by 2040 electrostatic actuators (50 across the diameter of the active aperture), spaced at a pitch of 1mm. The DM will be manufactured using silicon microfabrication tools. The strategic motivation for the proposed project is to advance MEMS DMs as an enabling technology in NASA s rapidly emerging program for extrasolar planet exploration. That goal is supported by an Astro2010 white paper on Technologies for Direct Optical Imaging of Exoplanets, which concluded that DMs are a critical component for all proposed internal coronagraph instrument concepts. That white paper pointed to great strides made by DM developers in the past decade, and acknowledged the components made by Boston Micromachines Corporation to be the most notable MEMS-based technology option. The principal manufacturing innovation in this project will be assembly of the DM through fusion bonding of three separate single crystal silicon wafers comprising the device s substrate, actuator array, and facesheet. The most significant challenge of this project will be to develop processes that allow reliable fusion bonds between multiple compliant silicon layers while yielding an optically flat surface and a robust electromechanical system. The compliance of the DM, which is required for its electromechanical function, will make it challenging to achieve the intimate, planar contact that is generally needed for success in fusion bonding. The manufacturing approach will use photolithography and reactive ion etching to pattern structural layers. Three wafer-scale devices will be patterned and

  13. A deployable, annular, 30m telescope, space-based observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Justin J.; Wirth, Allan; Jankevics, Andrew; Landers, Franklin; Rohweller, David; Chen, C. Bill; Bronowicki, Allen

    2014-08-01

    High resolution imaging from space requires very large apertures, such as NASA's current mission the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which uses a deployable 6.5m segmented primary. Future missions requiring even larger apertures (>>10m) will present a great challenge relative to the size, weight and power constraints of launch vehicles as well as the cost and schedule required to fabricate the full aperture. Alternatively, a highly obscured annular primary can be considered. For example, a 93.3% obscured 30m aperture having the same total mirror area (91m2) as a 10.7m unobscured telescope, can achieve ~3X higher limiting resolution performance. Substantial cost and schedule savings can be realized with this approach compared to fully filled apertures of equivalent resolution. A conceptual design for a ring-shaped 30m telescope is presented and the engineering challenges of its various subsystems analyzed. The optical design consists of a 20X annular Mersenne form beam compactor feeding a classical 1.5m TMA telescope. Ray trace analysis indicates the design can achieve near diffraction limited images over a 200μrad FOV. The primary mirror consists of 70 identical rectangular 1.34x1.0m segments with a prescription well within the demonstrated capabilities of the replicated nanolaminate on SiC substrate technology developed by AOA Xinetics. A concept is presented for the deployable structure that supports the primary mirror segments. A wavefront control architecture consisting of an optical metrology subsystem for coarse alignment and an image based fine alignment and phasing subsystem is presented. The metrology subsystem is image based, using the background starfields for distortion and pointing calibration and fiducials on the segments for measurement. The fine wavefront control employs a hill climbing algorithm operating on images from the science camera. The final key technology required is the image restoration algorithm that will compensate for the highly

  14. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Acoustical Resonance Technical Assessment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Kehoe, Michael W.; Gupta, Kajal K.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Ginsberg, Jerry H.; Kolar, Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    A request was submitted on September 2, 2004 concerning the uncertainties regarding the acoustic environment within the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) cavity, and the potential for structural damage from acoustical resonance or tones, especially if they occur at or near a structural mode. The requestor asked for an independent expert opinion on the approach taken by the SOFIA project to determine if the project's analysis, structural design and proposed approach to flight test were sound and conservative. The findings from this assessment are recorded in this document.

  15. Heterodyne Interferometry in InfraRed at OCA-Calern Observatory in the seventies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, J.; Rabbia, Y.

    2014-04-01

    We report on various works carried four decades ago, so as to develop Heterodyne Interferometry in InfraRed (10 μm) at Calern Observatory (OCA, France), by building an experiment, whose the acronym "SOIRDETE" means "Synthese d'Ouverture en InfraRouge par Detection hETErodyne". Scientific and technical contexts by this time are recalled, as well as basic principles of heterodyne interferometry. The preliminary works and the SOIRDETE experiment are briefly described. Short comments are given in conclusion regarding the difficulties which have prevented the full success of the SOIRDETE experiment.

  16. Charting the Winds that Change the Universe, II The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2003-01-01

    The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR) will study the birth and evolution of stars and planetary systems so young that they are invisible to optical and near-infrared telescopes such as NGST. Not only does the far-infrared radiation penetrate the obscuring dust clouds that surround these systems, but the protoplanetary disks also emit much of their radiation in the far infrared. Furthermore, the dust reprocesses much of the optical emission from the newly forming stars into this wavelength band. Similarly, the obscured central regions of galaxies, which harbor massive black holes and huge bursts of star formation, can be seen and analyzed in the far infrared. SAFIR will have the sensitivity to see the first dusty galaxies in the universe. For studies of both star-forming regions in our galaxy and dusty galaxies at high redshifts, SAFIR will be essential in tying together information that NGST will obtain on these systems at shorter wavelengths and that ALMA will obtain at longer wavelengths.

  17. Space-Borne Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Andrew E.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this grant is to develop the Far IR Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the IR Telescope in Space (IRTS). The IRTS was successfully launched in March 18, 1995 aboard the Japanese SFU platform. It surveyed the IR sky for approximately 40 days, and was eventually retrieved by NASA's STS. The FIRP succeeded in surveying approximately 5% of the sky in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400 and 700 microns. Several new technologies were developed using the funds from this grant, including: (1) a high performance gas-gap heat-switch, (2) a He-3 sorption refrigerator that is, to date, the only refrigerator to achieve sub-Kelvin temperatures in orbit, (3) high-sensitivity bolometric detectors with NEP less than 10-16 W(Hz(exp l/2)exp 1/2) when operated from a 300 mK heat sink, (4) readout electronics capable of providing DC stability for the bolometric detectors. Excess noise of unknown origin significantly reduced the sensitivity of the FIRP on orbit. Nevertheless, scientifically significant observations of the spectrum and temperature of the interstellar dust were made, and have been reported.

  18. Spatial distribution of water in the stratosphere of Jupiter from observations with the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, T.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Lellouch, E.; de Val-Borro, M.; Jarchow, C.; Moreno, R.; Hartogh, P.; Orton, G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Billebaud, F.; Dobrijevic, M.; Lara, L. M.; Gonzalez, A.; Sagawa, H.

    2013-09-01

    Water in the atmospheres of the outer planets has both an internal and an external source (e.g., [1] and [2] for Jupiter). These sources are separated by a condensation layer, the tropopause cold trap, which acts as a transport barrier between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Thus, the water vapor observed by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in the stratosphere of the giant planets has an external origin [3]. This external supply of water may have several sources: (i) a permanent flux from interplanetary dust particles produced from asteroid collisions and from comet activity [4], (ii) local sources from planetary environments (rings, satellites) [5], (iii) cometary "Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) type" impacts [6]. In the past 15 years, several studies suggested that water in the stratosphere of Jupiter originated from the SL9 comet impacts in July 1994, but a direct proof was missing. We will report the first high S/N spatially resolved mapping observations of water in Jupiter's stratosphere carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) [7] and Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) [8] instruments onboard the ESA Herschel Space Observatory [9]. These observations have been obtained in the framework of the Guaranteed Time Key Program "Water and related chemistry in the Solar System", also known as "Herschel Solar System Observations" (HssO) [10]. In parallel, we have monitored Jupiter's stratospheric temperature with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) to separate temperature from water variability. We will present the results recently published by our team [11]. Water is found to be restricted to pressures lower than 2mbar. Its column density decreases by a factor of 2-3 between southern and northern latitudes (see Fig. 1), consistently between the HIFI and the PACS 66.4μm maps. Latitudinal temperature variability cannot explain the global north-south asymmetry in the water maps. From the latitudinal and vertical

  19. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  20. WISPIR: A Wide-Field Imaging SPectrograph for the InfraRed for the SPICA Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Mundy, Lee G.

    2010-01-01

    We have undertaken a study of a far infrared imaging spectrometer based on a Fourier transform spectrometer that uses well-understood, high maturity optics, cryogenics, and detectors to further our knowledge of the chemical and astrophysical evolution of the Universe as it formed planets, stars, and the variety of galaxy morphologies that we observe today. The instrument, Wide-field Imaging Spectrometer for the InfraRed (WISPIR), would operate on the SPICA observatory, and will feature a spectral range from 35 - 210 microns and a spectral resolving power of R=1,000 to 6,000, depending on wavelength. WISPIR provides a choice of full-field spectral imaging over a 2'x2' field or long-slit spectral imaging along a 2' slit for studies of astrophysical structures in the local and high-redshift Universe. WISPIR in long-slit mode will attain a sensitivity two orders of magnitude better than what is currently available.

  1. Project of space research and technology center in Engelhardt astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Y.; Gusev, A.; Sherstukov, O.; Kascheev, R.; Zagretdinov, R.

    2012-09-01

    Today on the basis of Engelhardt astronomical observatory (EAO) is created Space research and technology center as consistent with Program for expansion of the Kazan University. The Centre has the following missions: • EDUCATION • SCIENCE • ASTRONOMICAL TOURISM

  2. Apache Point Observatory's All-Sky Camera: Observing Clouds in the Thermal Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. S. J.; Brinkmann, J.; Carr, M.; Woods, D.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Gunn, J. E.; Loomis, C. L.; Schlegel, D.; Snedden, S.

    2002-12-01

    Cloud cover at Apache Point Observatory is monitored by an all-sky camera system which images clouds in the thermal infrared. Even thin clouds, illuminated by thermal emission from the ground, can be detected. These same clouds are almost invisible at visual wavelengths, especially on moonless nights at this dark-sky observatory site. Our camera system uses an aluminum hyperboloidal mirror to provide a wide-angle view covering most of the sky; it is sensitive to radiation in the 8 to 12 micron wavelength interval. A cloud free atmosphere is fairly transparent in this window; clouds appear as bright structures against the darker sky background. Images are recorded at video rates, then summed and averaged in software to increase system sensitivity. Current all-sky images are available to on-site observers or through the Apache Point Observatory web pages. Cloud information is used to plan observing, make real-time observing decisions, and can provide useful estimates of atmospheric extinction and sky brightness at other wavelengths.

  3. The role of humans and robots in the assembly of large infrared observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Edward J.; Espero, Tracey

    2004-10-01

    Many authors have endorsed the concept of assembly of large optics in space and have pointed out the technology needs for astronauts, infrastructure, robots and the observatories themselves. In this paper, we consider the technical issues associated with the integration and test in space of large optics during the next 15 years or so, when human activity is largely confined to low Earth orbit (LEO). We identify technical areas that need development and define a first version of the processes that might be used to create successful telescope missions that are tested in space. We identify a pathway that supports scalable solutions for very large systems necessary for imaging planets in other solar systems and other magnificent science. The investment in space integration and testing technology will return important dividends to designers of large space optics of the future. This approach to space optics testing is attractive because it overcomes the limits of ground testing associated with large test chambers, star simulators and the effects of gravity. It also directly benefits from, and supports, the technology and infrastructure investments about to be made by the new NASA Exploration Systems Enterprise, allowing both observatories and exploration missions to be assembled.

  4. Fiber-coupled high resolution infrared array spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Reuter, D.; Mumma, M. J.; Chin, G.; Wiedemann, G.; Jennings, D.

    1990-07-01

    A novel cryogenic grating spectrometer (FCAS) is being designed for observations of volatiles in cometary and planetary atmospheres, and in newly forming planetary systems. The instrument features two-dimensional detector arrays coupled to a high-dispersion echelle by infrared fibers, and will achieve a spectral resolving power of about 40,000. The primary observational platform for this instrument will be the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, but it will also be configured for use at ground-based observatories. Initially, the spectrometer will use a 58 x 62, 1- to 5-micron InSb array. Larger-format IR arrays and arrays of different composition, will later be incorporated as they become available. The instrument will be used in two modes. The first uses a large format IR array in the spectral image plane for the customary one-dimensional spectral-one-dimensional spatial coverage. In the second mode, a massive, coherent bundle of infrared transmitting ZrF4 fibers will be installed after the dispersive element, to reformat the two-dimensional array into an elongated one-dimensional array for wide spectral coverage, allowing multiple lines to be measured in a single integration with high sensitivity. The overall instrument design is discussed, and the system sensitivity is estimated.

  5. Fiber-coupled high resolution infrared array spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Reuter, D.; Mumma, M. J.; Chin, G.; Wiedemann, G.; Jennings, D.

    1990-01-01

    A novel cryogenic grating spectrometer (FCAS) is being designed for observations of volatiles in cometary and planetary atmospheres, and in newly forming planetary systems. The instrument features two-dimensional detector arrays coupled to a high-dispersion echelle by infrared fibers, and will achieve a spectral resolving power of about 40,000. The primary observational platform for this instrument will be the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, but it will also be configured for use at ground-based observatories. Initially, the spectrometer will use a 58 x 62, 1- to 5-micron InSb array. Larger-format IR arrays and arrays of different composition, will later be incorporated as they become available. The instrument will be used in two modes. The first uses a large format IR array in the spectral image plane for the customary one-dimensional spectral-one-dimensional spatial coverage. In the second mode, a massive, coherent bundle of infrared transmitting ZrF4 fibers will be installed after the dispersive element, to reformat the two-dimensional array into an elongated one-dimensional array for wide spectral coverage, allowing multiple lines to be measured in a single integration with high sensitivity. The overall instrument design is discussed, and the system sensitivity is estimated.

  6. Infrared near-Earth-object survey modeling for observatories interior to the Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, M.

    2014-07-01

    The search for and dynamical characterization of the near-Earth population of objects (NEOs) has been a busy topic for surveys for many years. Most of the work thus far has been from ground-based optical surveys such as the Catalina Sky Survey and LINEAR. These surveys have essentially reached a complete inventory of objects down to 1 km diameter and have shown that the known objects do not pose any significant impact threat. Smaller objects are correspondingly smaller threats but there are more of them and fewer of them have so far been discovered. The next generation of surveys is looking to extend their reach down to much smaller sizes. From an impact risk perspective, those objects as small as 30--40 m are still of interest (similar in size to the Tunguska bolide). Smaller objects than this are largely of interest from a space resource or in-situ analysis efforts. A recent mission concept promoted by the B612 Foundation and Ball Aerospace calls for an infrared survey telescope in a Venus-like orbit, known as the Sentinel Mission. This wide-field facility has been designed to complete the inventory down to a 140 m diameter while also providing substantial constraints on the NEO population down to a Tunguska-sized object. I have been working to develop a suite of tools to provide survey modeling for this class of survey telescope. The purpose of the tool is to uncover hidden complexities that govern mission design and operation while also working to quantitatively understand the orbit quality provided on its catalog of objects without additional followup assets. The baseline mission design calls for a 6.5 year survey lifetime. This survey model is a statistically based tool for establishing completeness as a function of object size and survey duration. Effects modeled include the ability to adjust the field-of-regard (includes all pointing restrictions), field-of-view, focal plane array fill factor, and the observatory orbit. Consequences tracked include time

  7. Calculation of Precipitable Water for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Aircraft (SOFIA): Airplane in the Night Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Pey Chun; Busby, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the new generation airborne observatory station based at NASA s Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, Palmdale, CA, to study the universe. Since the observatory detects infrared energy, water vapor is a concern in the atmosphere due to its known capacity to absorb infrared energy emitted by astronomical objects. Although SOFIA is hoping to fly above 99% of water vapor in the atmosphere it is still possible to affect astronomical observation. Water vapor is one of the toughest parameter to measure in the atmosphere, several atmosphere modeling are used to calculate water vapor loading. The water vapor loading, or Precipitable water, is being calculated by Matlab along the planned flight path. Over time, these results will help SOFIA to plan flights to regions of lower water vapor loading and hopefully improve the imagery collection of these astronomical features.

  8. ESA's X-ray space observatory XMM takes first pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    functioning of the observatory. The Optical Monitor also simultaneously viewed the same regions. One RGS spectrometer obtained its first spectra on 25 January; the other will be commissioned at the start of February. This initial series of short and long duration exposures have delighted the Project management team and the scientists even more. First analyses confirm that the spacecraft is extremely stable, the XMM telescopes are focusing perfectly, and the EPIC cameras, Optical Monitor and RGS spectrometers are working exactly as expected. The Science Operations Centre infrastructure, processing and archiving the science data telemetry from the spacecraft, is also performing well. Initial inspection of the first commissioning images immediately showed some unique X-ray views of several celestial objects, to be presented on 9 February. The occasion will give Principal Investigators and Project management the opportunity to comment on the pictures and the excellent start of the XMM mission. The Calibration and Performance Verification phase for XMM's science instruments is to begin on 3 March, with routine science operations starting in June. Press is invited to attend to the press conference that will be held at the Villafranca/ Madrid- Vilspa facility (ESA's Satellite Tracking Station) Apartado 50727, E-2 080 MADRID, Spain. The press event will be broadcast to the other ESA establishments: ESA Headquarters, Paris; ESA/ ESTEC (Space Expo), Noordwijk, the Netherlands; ESA/ESOC, Darmstadt, Germany and ESA/ESRIN, Frascati, Italy. Media representatives wishing to attend the event are kindly requested to fill out the attached reply from and fax it back to the establishment of their choice.

  9. Near-Infrared Observations of Neptune's Tropospheric Cloud Layer with the Lick Observatory Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Henry G.; Gavel, Donald; Max, Claire; de Pater, Imke; Gibbard, Seran; Macintosh, Bruce; Baines, Kevin H.

    2001-09-01

    We provide one of the first constraints on the combined infrared single-scattering albedo and opacity of Neptune's upper tropospheric cloud layer. For the observations, we used the adaptive optics system on the Lick Observatory's 3 m Shane Telescope (Mount Hamilton, California). The cloud layer is thought to be composed of H2S and extend up to 3.5-4.5 bars. Previously, the single-scattering albedo was measured in the range 0.2-0.94 μm and found to be extremely high (>0.8), but decreasing with increasing wavelength. Assuming an optically thick cloud, we find the best-fit single-scattering albedo of a 3.5 bar layer to be 0.23+0.07-0.08 at 1.27 μm and 0.18+0.03-0.04 at 1.56 μm. Uncertainties in the column density of haze above the cloud layer, and from deconvolution to remove contaminating light scattered by the point-spread function from infrared-bright features, indicate that the cloud could be even darker, but it is unlikely to be brighter than we report. The cloud particles could be brighter than we report if the total near-infrared opacity of the cloud is very low or the cloud's scattering phase function is significantly more forward-scattering at 1.2-1.6 μm than at 0.75 μm.

  10. Mosaic Infrared Sensor for Space Astronomy (MIRSSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development of mosaic infrared detector/focal plane arrays for space astronomy is reported. The Mosaic IR Sensor for Space Astronomy (MIRSSA) Program is an effort to develop PV HgCdTe detector arrays with the spectral response of up to 5 micron and silicon CCDs for low temperature applications. Desired background-limited performance (BLIP) for space applications requires an extremely high R sub A product which can be achieved by selecting the detector materials and the operating temperature. The parameters were determined by measurement of HgCdTe PV detector arrays at various temperatures in the SW and MW spectral bands. It is demonstrated that high performance PV HgCdTe detectors can be fabricated for low temperature applications.

  11. Optical spectroscopy of comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) from the Mount Abu Infrared Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataramani, Kumar; Ghetiya, Satyesh; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Joshi, U. C.; Agnihotri, Vikrant K.; Baliyan, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Spectra of comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) were taken with a low-resolution spectrograph mounted on the 0.5-m telescope at the Mount Abu Infrared Observatory (MIRO), India during 2015 January to May, covering the perihelion and post-perihelion periods. The spectra showed strong molecular emission bands (C2, C3 and CN) in January, close to perihelion. We obtained the scale-lengths for these molecules by fitting the Haser model to the observed column densities. The variations of gas production rates and production rate ratios with heliocentric distance were studied. The extent of dust continuum and its variation with heliocentric distance was also investigated using the Afρ parameter. The comet is seen to become more active in the post-perihelion phase, thus showing an asymmetric behaviour about the perihelion.

  12. Aerodynamic and Acoustic Flight Test Results and Results for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Cliatt, Larry J.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy program, a 747SP airplane was modified to carry a 2.5-m telescope in the aft section of the fuselage. The resulting airborne observatory allows for observations above 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The open cavity created by the modifications had the potential to significantly affect the airplane in the areas of aerodynamics and acoustics. Several series of flight tests were conducted to clear the operating envelope of the airplane for astronomical observations, planned to be performed between the altitudes of 35,000 ft and 45,000 ft. The flight tests were successfully completed. Cavity acoustics were below design limits, and the overall acoustic characteristics of the cavity were better than expected. The modification did have some effects on the stability and control of the airplane, but these effects were not significant. Airplane air data systems were not affected by the modifications. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics and acoustic data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight-test results in the areas of cavity acoustics, stability and control, and air data.

  13. Aerodynamic and Acoustic Flight Test Results for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Cliatt, Larry James; Frederick, Michael A.; Smith, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) program, a 747SP airplane was modified to carry a 2.5 meter telescope in the aft section of the fuselage. The resulting airborne observatory allows for observations above 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The open cavity created by the modifications had the potential to significantly affect the airplane in the areas of aerodynamics and acoustics. Several series of flight tests were conducted to clear the airplanes operating envelope for astronomical observations, planned to be performed between the altitudes of 39,000 feet and 45,000 feet. The flight tests were successfully completed. Cavity acoustics were below design limits, and the overall acoustic characteristics of the cavity were better than expected. The modification did have some effects on the stability and control of the airplane, but these effects were not significant. Airplane air data systems were not affected by the modifications. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics and acoustic data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight test results in the areas of cavity acoustics, stability and control, and air data.

  14. Effect of jet engine exhaust on SOFIA straylight performance. [Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is being designed at NASA's Ames Research Center as a replacement for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). A 2.5-m Nasmyth telescope will be mounted in a Boeing 747 SP and flown at 41,000 ft, above most of the H2O in the earth's atmosphere. In the original SOFIA design, the telescope is located in front of the wings, as it is in the KAO. An alternative design with the telescope placed behind the wings is being studied as part of an effort to reduce cost and weight. In this location, the emission from the engines and the hot H2O molecules in the exhaust become significant straylight sources. The engines and exhaust radiate into the telescope cavity, and illuminate the primary and tertiary mirrors at low telescope elevation angles. The APART/PADE program was used to analyze the straylight at the SOFIA focal plane as a function of wavelength and telescope elevation angle. The emission from the engines and exhaust gas is compared to that from the earth and the telescope itself. Based on the results of this analysis, the SOFIA telescope has been moved behind the wings.

  15. Effect of jet engine exhaust on SOFIA straylight performance. [Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is being designed at NASA's Ames Research Center as a replacement for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). A 2.5-m Nasmyth telescope will be mounted in a Boeing 747 SP and flown at 41,000 ft, above most of the H2O in the earth's atmosphere. In the original SOFIA design, the telescope is located in front of the wings, as it is in the KAO. An alternative design with the telescope placed behind the wings is being studied as part of an effort to reduce cost and weight. In this location, the emission from the engines and the hot H2O molecules in the exhaust become significant straylight sources. The engines and exhaust radiate into the telescope cavity, and illuminate the primary and tertiary mirrors at low telescope elevation angles. The APART/PADE program was used to analyze the straylight at the SOFIA focal plane as a function of wavelength and telescope elevation angle. The emission from the engines and exhaust gas is compared to that from the earth and the telescope itself. Based on the results of this analysis, the SOFIA telescope has been moved behind the wings.

  16. First extragalactic detection of submillimeter CH rotational lines from the Herschel space observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Wilson, Christine D.; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira Santaella, Miguel

    2014-06-20

    We present the first extragalactic detections of several CH rotational transitions in the far-infrared in four nearby galaxies, NGC 1068, Arp 220, M82, and NGC 253, using the Herschel Space Observatory. The CH lines in all four galaxies are a factor of 2-4 brighter than the adjacent HCN and HCO{sup +} J = 6-5 lines (also detected in the same spectra). In the star-formation-dominated galaxies, M82, NGC 253, and Arp 220, the CH/CO abundance ratio is low (∼10{sup –5}), implying that the CH is primarily arising in diffuse and translucent gas where the chemistry is driven by UV radiation as found in the Milky Way interstellar matter. In NGC 1068, which has a luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN), the CH/CO ratio is an order of magnitude higher, suggesting that CH formation is driven by an X-ray-dominated region (XDR). Our XDR models show that both the CH and CO abundances in NGC 1068 can be explained by an XDR-driven chemistry for gas densities and molecular hydrogen column densities that are well constrained by the CO observations. We conclude that the CH/CO ratio may a good indicator of the presence of AGN in galaxies. We also discuss the feasibility of detecting CH in intermediate- to high-z galaxies with ALMA.

  17. Characterization of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) ability to serve as an infrared satellite intercalibration reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, David; Holz, Robert; Nagle, Fred; Revercomb, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a future mission employing an infrared spectrometer with unprecedented calibration accuracy and the ability to assess its calibration on-orbit using a novel verification system. Utilizing this capability for satellite intercalibration is a primary objective of the mission. This paper presents a new infrared intercalibration methodology that minimizes the intercalibration uncertainties and provides uncertainty estimates resulting from the scene variability and instrument noise. Results of a simulation study to characterize realistic spatial and temporal matching differences for simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs) of CLARREO and existing hyperspectral sounders are presented. This study, along with experience with intercalibration of real data, finds that intercalibration uncertainties are minimized when the SNOs are not screened for sky conditions but instead weighted based on the observed scene variability. Intercalibration performance is investigated for a 90° polar orbit mission and for a Pathfinder mission on the International Space Station, for various potential CLARREO footprint sizes, and as a function of mission length, scene brightness temperature, and wavelength. The results are encouraging and suggest that biases between CLARREO and sounder observations can be determined with low uncertainty and with high time frequency during a CLARREO mission. For example, the simulations suggest that a CLARREO footprint of 50 to 100 km in diameter is optimal for intercalibration, and that the 3 sigma intercalibration uncertainty is less than 0.1 K for channels at infrared window wavelengths using 2 months of accumulated SNOs, and for more absorbing channels with less scene variability the uncertainties are less than 50 mK.

  18. Observatory Improvements for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Robert A.; Jensen, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project between NASA and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German Space Agency. SOFIA is based in a Boeing 747 SP and flown in the stratosphere to observe infrared wavelengths unobservable from the ground. In 2007 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) inherited and began work on improving the plane and its telescope. The improvements continue today with upgrading the plane and improving the telescope. The Observatory Verification and Validation (V&V) process is to ensure that the observatory is where the program says it is. The Telescope Status Display (TSD) will provide any information from the on board network to monitors that will display the requested information. In order to assess risks to the program, one must work through the various threats associate with that risk. Once all the risks are closed the program can work towards improving the observatory.

  19. A simple model for coupled acoustic-structure resonance in Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Jerry H.

    2005-04-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project of NASA and the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt that has mounted a 2.5 m, 20 000 kg infrared telescope on a bulkhead of a specially modified Boeing 747-SP. A large sliding door will expose the observation bay to the exterior flow field at Mach 0.85 and 13 km altitude. In the open configuration the interaction of turbulence vortices generated at the leading and trailing edges of the opening has the possibility of inducing a strong acoustic signal. A concern has been raised that the peak frequencies of such a signal might coincide with the cavity resonances. The present work examines the transfer function for a known source in order to identify the cavity resonances. Simplistic reasoning argues that the worst case would occur if the cavity resonant frequencies are close to structural resonances. However, the structure's impedance is very low at its resonances, which means that the cavity resonant frequencies are shifted from their nominal values. The present work uses a simple one-dimensional waveguide model, in which one end is terminated by a damped single-degree-of-freedom oscillator, to explain the coupled-fluid structure resonance. The characteristic equation and formulas for the pressure and displacement transfer functions are derived. Analysis of these results leads to some surprising insights regarding the role of a structure's stiffness and mass. [Work supported by the NASA.

  20. Features Of Cavity Flow And Acoustics Of Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, G. R.; Klotz, S. P.; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The stratospheric observatory for infrared astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with a Nasmyth focus that will be housed in an open cavity in the Boeing 747-SP aircraft and operated at altitudes around 41,000 feet for infrared (IR) viewing of celestial events of astronomical nature. At these altitudes the IR viewing capability of SOFIA far exceeds that of any ground based system. To minimize IR transmission losses, SOFIA will operate with an open cavity. Such an open cavity during flight creates several challenging aerodynamic and aeroacoustic design problems. Foremost of these are: the shear layer over the cavity may cause unwanted resonance if the cavity is untreated; this might give rise to excessive sound pressure levels (SPL) in the cavity and thus affect the unsteady loads on the telescope; the unsteady flow within the cavity produces large dynamic loads and moments that will impact the pointing accuracy of the telescope; the open cavity and the shear layer control devices produce additional drag that will affect directly the time of flight of the mission; the aft location of the cavity down stream of port wing will affect the the flow on the aircraft control surfaces and thus the stability of the aircraft. Also, the highly turbulent shear layer over the cavity and the temperature gradients and 'hot spots' within the cavity can produce a wave front error of the image when it reaches the focal plane of the recorder.

  1. LST: The National Space Observatory concept - An observatory for future astronomer involvement in planning and use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.

    1974-01-01

    The Large Space Telescope (LST) will be a unique facility which must be designed to serve the needs of all potential users throughout the world. This requires that a representative group of astronomers work intimately with the engineers in the early design of the telescope and that astronomers continue to be closely involved in the planning throughout the life of the project. Forty scientists are now defining the auxiliary instruments and their operation. Later, others will build instruments and participate in assigning observing time on the telescope, on the basis of the scientific merit of the proposed observation.

  2. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  3. Solar System Observing with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleve, J. Van; Meadows, V. S.; Stansberry, J.

    2003-01-01

    SIRTF is NASA's Space Infrared Telescope Facility. Currently planned for launch on 15 Apr 2003, it is the final element in NASA's Great Observatories Program. SIRTF has an 85 cm diameter f/12 lightweight beryllium telescope, cooled to lekss than 5.5K. It is diffraction-limited at 6.5 microns, and has wavelengthcoverage from 3-180 microns. Its estimated lifetime (limited by cryogen) is 2.5 years at minimum, with a goal of 5+ years. SIRTF has three instruments, IRAC, IRS, and MIPS. IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) provides simultaneous images at wavelengths of 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns. IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) has 4 modules providing low-resolution (R=60-120) spectra from 5.3 to 40 microns, high-resolution (R=600) spectra from 10 to 37 microns, and an autonomous target acquisition system (PeakUp) which includes small-field imaging at 15 microns. MIPS (Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF)} does imaging photometry at 24, 70, and 160 m and low-resolution (R=15-25) spectroscopy (SED) between 55 and 96 microns. The SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers (GTOs) are planning to observe Outer Solar System satellites and planets, extinct comets and low-albedo asteroids, Centaurs and Kuiper Belt Objects, cometary dust trails, and a few active short-period comets. The GTO programs are listed in detail in the SIRTF Reserved Observations Catalog (ROC). We would like to emphasize that there remain many interesting subjects for the General Observers (GO). Proposal success for the planetary observer community in the first SIRTF GO proposal cycle (GO-1) determines expectations for future GO calls and Solar System use of SIRTF, so we would like promote a strong set of planetary GO-1 proposals. Towards that end, we present this poster, and we will convene a Solar System GO workshop 3.5 months after launch.

  4. Progress and Prospects toward a Space-based Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been much activity in the effort to produce a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. These efforts have enriched the understanding of the scientific capabilities of such an observatory leading to broad recognition of its value as an astronomical instrument. At the same time, rapidly developing events in the US and Europe have lead to a more complicated outlook than the baseline Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) project plan of a few years ago. I will discuss recent progress and developments resulting from the European eLISA study and the SGO study in the US and prospects looking forward.

  5. Luminous Infrared Galaxies Observed from the Ground and Space in the 2020s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inami, Hanae; Armus, L.; Packham, C.; Dickinson, M.

    2014-07-01

    The dust-penetrating power of infrared observations will allow us to reveal the physical and chemical properties in and around the dust enshrouded nuclei of galaxies. While current near-infrared spectroscopic observations with 8-10m class telescopes can access to z=1-3 regime, they are still very challenging and limited to luminous targets. For z=0 objects, these telescopes can resolve HII regions, but we still do not fully understand the properties of more extreme star formation environments (e.g., rich in gas), which are more prevalent at higher redshifts. Near- and mid-infrared TMT instruments (e.g., two of the first light instruments IRIS and IRMS, and a planned mid-infrared instrument MICHI) will exploit TMT's unprecedented high spatial resolution to constrain the physical processes in individual dusty, intense star-forming regions of local galaxies as well as obtain resolved spectra for z=2-3 star-forming galaxies. During the era of 2020, JWST and SPICA are also expected to be commissioned. The high sensitivity of these space-based infrared observatories will facilitate investigations of the properties of dusty galaxies at even higher redshifts (z > 3). Only with the combination of ground- and space-observatories, we will be able to obtain a complete picture of star formation and AGN activity to explore the evolution of LIRGs which dominate the peak of the galaxy growth in the universe.

  6. Proceedings of the Second Infrared Detector Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The workshop focused on infrared detector, detector array, and cryogenic electronic technologies relevant to low-background space astronomy. Papers are organized into the following categories: discrete infrared detectors and readout electronics; advanced bolometers; intrinsic integrated infrared arrays; and extrinsic integrated infrared arrays. Status reports on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) programs are also included.

  7. Need for a network of observatories for space debris dynamical and physical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio; Castronuovo, Marco; Portelli, Claudio; Cardona, Tommaso; Arena, Lorenzo; Sciré, Gioacchino; Seitzer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Space debris represents a major concern for space missions since the risk of impact with uncontrolled objects has increased dramatically in recent years. Passive and active mitigation countermeasures are currently under consideration but, at the base of any of such corrective actions is the space debris continuous monitoring through ground based surveillance systems.At the present, many space agencies have the capability to get optical measurements of space orbiting objects mainly relaying on single observatories. The recent research in the field of space debris, demonstrated how it is possible to increase the effectiveness of optical measurements exploitation by using joint observations of the same target from different sites.The University of Rome "La Sapienza", in collaboration with Italian Space Agency (ASI), is developing a scientific network of observatories dedicated to Space Debris deployed in Italy (S5Scope at Rome and SPADE at Matera) and in Kenya at the Broglio Space Center in Malindi (EQUO). ASI founded a program dedicated to space debris, in order to spread the Italian capability to deal with different aspects of this issue. In this framework, the University of Rome is in charge of coordinating the observatories network both in the operation scheduling and in the data analysis. This work describes the features of the observatories dedicated to space debris observation, highlighting their capabilities and detailing their instrumentation. Moreover, the main features of the scheduler under development, devoted to harmonizing the operations of the network, will be shown. This is a new system, which will autonomously coordinate the observations, aiming to optimize results in terms of number of followed targets, amount of time dedicated to survey, accuracy of orbit determination and feasibility of attitude determination through photometric data.Thus, the authors will describe the techniques developed and applied (i) to implement the multi-site orbit

  8. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA): Capabilities for Planetary and Exoplanetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, Dana E.; Reach, W. T.; Dunham, E. W.; Wolf, J.; Rho, J.; SOFIA Science Team

    2012-10-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) enables high angular and spectral resolution observations with its seven first-generation instruments: 3 cameras, 3 spectrometers, and a high-speed photometer. These capabilities make SOFIA a powerful facility for advancing understanding of planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres, star and planet formation processes, and chemistry of the protosolar nebula and protoplanetary disks. SOFIA's Early Science program, using the FORCAST mid-IR camera (PI Terry Herter, Cornell), the GREAT far-IR spectrometer (PI Rolf Guesten, MPIfR), and the HIPO occultation photometer (PI Ted Dunham, Lowell Observatory), is now complete. Some Early Science results were published in special issues of Ap.J.Letters (v.749) and Astronomy & Astrophysics (v.542). Regarding solar system targets, SOFIA obtained mid-IR images of Jupiter and of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 (the latter observations were part of Earth-based support for the EPOXI mission). On 23 June 2011, SOFIA intercepted the center of Pluto's shadow that crossed the Pacific at nearly 30 km/sec. The occultation light curve was observed from SOFIA simultaneously by the HIPO photometer and the Fast Diagnostic Camera (FDC; PI Juergen Wolf, DSI). HIPO is specifically intended for planetary science, including stellar occultations by solar system bodies and extrasolar planet transits. HIPO can be co-mounted with the near-IR camera FLITECAM (PI Ian McLean, UCLA) to provide simultaneous photometric coverage in two bands (0.3-1 and 1-5 microns); this was first demonstrated in October 2011. At longer wavelengths SOFIA will make unique contributions to the characterization of astrochemical processes and molecular contents of planets, exoplanets, and protoplanetary disks with a mid-IR spectrometer, a far-IR imaging spectrometer, and a far-IR camera with grism that are soon to be commissioned.

  9. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  10. Preliminary Parallaxes of 40 L and T Dwarfs from the US Naval Observatory Infrared Astronometry Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrba, F. J.; Henden, A. A.; Liginbuhl, C. B.; Guetter, H. H.; Munn, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    We present preliminary trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for 22 L dwarfs and 18 T dwarfs measured using the ASTROCAM infrared imager on the US naval Observatory (USNO) 1.55 m Strand Astrometric Reflector. The results presented here are based on observations obtained between 2000 September and 2002 November; about half of the objects have an observational time baseline of t 1:3 yr and half t 2:0 yr. Despite these short time baselines, the astrometric quality is sufficient to produce significant new results, especially for the nearer T dwarfs. Seven objects are in common with the USNO optical CCD parallax program for quality control and seven in common with the European Southern Observatory 3.5 m New Technology Telescope parallax program. We compare astrometric quality with both of these programs. Relative to absolute parallax corrections are made by employing Two Micron All Sky Survey and/or Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry for reference-frame stars. We combine USNO infrared and optical parallaxes with the best available California Institute of Technology (CIT) system photometry to determine MJ , MH, and MK values for 37 L dwarfs between spectral types L0 and L8 and 19 T dwarfs between spectral types T0.5 and T8 and present selected absolute magnitude versus spectral type and color diagrams, based on these results. Luminosities and temperatures are estimated for these objects. Of special interest are the distances of several objects that are at or near the L-T dwarf boundary so that this important transition can be better understood. The previously reported early to mid T dwarf luminosity excess is clearly confirmed and found to be present at J, H, and K. The large number of objects that populate this luminosity-excess region indicate that it cannot be due entirely to selection effects. The T dwarf sequence is extended to MJ 16:9 by 2MASS J041519 0935, which, at d 5:74 pc, is found to be the lluminous LOG (L=L )pa

  11. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a candidate NASA Origins Probe Mission. SPIRIT is a two-telescope Michelson interferometer covering wavelengths from 25-400 microns, providing simultaneously high spectral resolution and high angular resolution. With comparable sensitivity to Spitzer, but two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution, SPIRIT will enable us to address a wide array of compelling scientific questions, including how planetary systems form in disks and how new planets interact with the disk. Further, SPIRIT will lay the technological groundwork for an array of future interferometry missions with ambitious scientific goals, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer / Darwin, and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure.

  12. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a candidate NASA Origins Probe Mission. SPIRIT is a two-telescope Michelson interferometer covering wavelengths from 25-400 microns, providing simultaneously high spectral resolution and high angular resolution. With comparable sensitivity to Spitzer, but two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution, SPIRIT will enable us to address a wide array of compelling scientific questions, including how planetary systems form in disks and how new planets interact with the disk. Further, SPIRIT will lay the technological groundwork for an array of future interferometry missions with ambitious scientific goals, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer/Darwin, and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure.

  13. Exploring science and technology through the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.; Rouzé, M.

    2015-03-01

    Because modern astronomy associates the quest of our origins and high-tech instruments, communicating and teaching astronomy explore both science and technology. We report here on our work in communicating astronomy to the public through Web sites (www.herschel.fr), movies on Dailymotion (www.dailymotion.com/AstrophysiqueTV) and new ITC tools that describe interactively the technological dimension of a space mission for astrophysics.

  14. The Astrometric Imaging Telescope - A space-based observatory for extra-solar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the objectives, techniques, instrumentation, and mission of the planned Astrometric Imaging Telescope. This space-based observatory is designed to detect and characterize extra-solar planetary systems. Results will contribute to the understanding of the astrophysics of stellar and planetary formation and provide an impetus for the study of exobiology.

  15. 1400-1900 GHz local oscillators for the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J.; Maiwald, F.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Schlecht, E.; Maestrini, A.; Gill, J.; Mehdi, I.

    2003-01-01

    JPL continues to develop robust planar, all solid-state sources to cover the 1414 to 1908 GHz band. These sources will be used as local oscillators to drive hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne mixers on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe high resolution spectra in the interstellar medium. We report our current progress and present recent results.

  16. NASA X-Ray Observatory Completes Tests Under Harsh Simulated Space Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. "Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task." Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20. During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out. Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results. Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from

  17. Thermal Infrared Sky Background for a High-Arctic Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbring, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Nighttime zenith sky spectral brightness in the 3.3-20 μm wavelength region is reported for an observatory site nearby Eureka on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic. Measurements are derived from an automated Fourier-transform spectrograph that operated there continuously over three consecutive winters. During that time, the median through the most transparent portion of the Q window was 460 {Jy} {{arcsec}}-2, falling below 32 {Jy} {{arcsec}}-2 in the N band, and to sub-Jansky levels by M and shortward, reaching only 36 {mJy} {{arcsec}}-2 within L. Nearly six decades of twice-daily balloonsonde launches from Eureka, together with contemporaneous meteorological data plus a simple model, allows characterization of background stability and extrapolation into K band. This suggests that the study location has dark skies across the whole thermal infrared spectrum, typically sub-200 μ {Jy} {{arcsec}}-2 at 2.4 μm. That background is comparable to South Pole and more than an order of magnitude less than estimates for the best temperate astronomical sites, all at much higher elevation. Considerations relevant to future facilities, including for polar transient surveys, are discussed.

  18. Information Telecommunications of Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumsky, V.; Isaev, E. A.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Zaytcev, A. Yu.; Ovchinnikov, I. L.; Kornilov, V. V.

    Buffer data center was created in the territory of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory three years ago. The necessity of its creation was caused by the high requirements to the speed and quality of the transmission large amounts of scientific and telemetry data received by tracking station RT-22 from the space radio telescope of the international project "Radioastron". The transfer of this data is carried out over a long distance over 100 km from the Pushchino to Moscow center of processing and storage ASC FIAN. And now we use the data center as a center of local network of the Observatory.

  19. Surveying the Inner Solar System with an Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc W.; Reitsema, Harold J.; Linfield, Roger P.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of surveying the inner solar system for objects that may pose some threat to Earth. Most of the analysis is based on understanding the capability provided by Sentinel, a concept for an infrared space-based telescope placed in a heliocentric orbit near the distance of Venus. From this analysis, we show that (1) the size range being targeted can affect the survey design, (2) the orbit distribution of the target sample can affect the survey design, (3) minimum observational arc length during the survey is an important metric of survey performance, and (4) surveys must consider objects as small as D=15{--}30 m to meet the goal of identifying objects that have the potential to cause damage on Earth in the next 100 yr. Sentinel will be able to find 50% of all impactors larger than 40 m in a 6.5 yr survey. The Sentinel mission concept is shown to be as effective as any survey in finding objects bigger than D = 140 m but is more effective when applied to finding smaller objects on Earth-impacting orbits. Sentinel is also more effective at finding objects of interest for human exploration that benefit from lower propulsion requirements. To explore the interaction between space and ground search programs, we also study a case where Sentinel is combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and show the benefit of placing a space-based observatory in an orbit that reduces the overlap in search regions with a ground-based telescope. In this case, Sentinel+LSST can find more than 70% of the impactors larger than 40 m assuming a 6.5 yr lifetime for Sentinel and 10 yr for LSST.

  20. The Use of Closed Cycle Coolers on Space Based Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, T. W.; Orlowska, A. H.

    1995-10-01

    Many proposed space based observations will rely on the use of closed cycle and passive cooling systems to provide the thermal environment for high sensitivity. The use of closed cycle mechanical coolers on space telescopes poses particular integration problems; some of these difficulties are discussed in this paper. One of the major problems envisaged is that of exported vibration. This problem, and that of the heat sinking required, can be alleviated by siting the compressors of the Stirling cycle precooler further from the displacer unit. The effect of the separation between the compressors and the displacer on the performance of the Stirling cycle precooler has been measured. Increasing the separation from 170 mm to 565 mm decreases the cooling power at 25 K from 220 mW to 180 mW. In most applications this would be acceptable. The pre-cooler provides cooling at a single point. In situations where refrigeration of extended objects (e.g. telescope mirrors) is required, some distribution method has to be found. A scheme for achieving this is presented together with preliminary calculations on such a system. Temperatures in the region of 2.5 to 4K are required to meet the requirements for long wavelength detectors. We have demonstrated how these temperatures can be achieved in a continuously operating closed cycle cooler that has been engineered for space applications. This cooler consists of a two-stage Stirling cycle precooling a closed cycle Joule-Thomson (JT) stage. Temperatures in the region of 4K are achieved by the use of helium-4 in the JT system. The lighter isotope of helium is used to obtain temperatures down to 2.5 K. Under no-load conditions the precooler reaches a base temperature of 11.3K. The JT system achieves 4.3 K with a 10 mW heat load and 2.5 K with a heat load of over 3 mW. The input power to the cooler is approximately 126 W. The temperature stability of the cooler at low temperatures is important to keep detector drift to a minimum. The

  1. Finishing Touches for Space Infrared Telescope Facility SIRTF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-19

    Technicians put final touches on NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in Sunnyvale, Calif., which launched on August 25, 2003. The telescope is now known as the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  2. (abstract) Infrared Cirrus and Future Space Based Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gautier, T. N.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the known properties of the distribution of infrared cirrus is followed by a discussion of the implications of cirrus on observations from space. Probable limitations on space observations due to IR cirrus.

  3. HERO: a space based low frequency interferometric observatory for heliophysicsenabled by novel vector sensor technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-07

    HERO: A SPACE -BASED LOW FREQUENCY1 INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATORY FOR2 HELIOPHYSICS ENABLED BY NOVEL VECTOR3 SENSOR TECHNOLOGY4 M. Knapp∗, D. Gary†, M...hybrid ground and space7 interferometric instrument. The space segment (HeRO-S) covers low frequencies,8 100 kHz – 20 MHz, and is composed of 6 free...Heliophysics Radio Observer), a hybrid ground and space in-29 strument to map and track type II and III solar radio bursts as they propagate from the30 solar

  4. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 6: Space shuttle interfaces/utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the compatibility of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) with the space shuttle. The mechanical interfaces and provisions required for a launch or retrieval of the EOS by the space shuttle are summarized. The space shuttle flight support equipment required for the operation is defined. Diagrams of the space shuttle in various configurations are provised to show the mission capability with the EOS. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) structural and mechanical interfaces, (2) spacecraft retention and deployment, (3) spacecraft retrieval, (4) electrical interfaces, (5) payload shuttle operations, (6) shuttle mode cost analysis, (7) shuttle orbit trades, and (8) safety considerations.

  5. The Virtual Space Physics Observatory: Quick Access to Data and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornwell, Carl; Roberts, D. Aaron; McGuire, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO; see http://vspo.gsfc.nasa.gov) has grown to provide a way to find and access about 375 data products and services from over 100 spacecraft/observatories in space and solar physics. The datasets are mainly chosen to be the most requested, and include most of the publicly available data products from operating NASA Heliophysics spacecraft as well as from solar observatories measuring across the frequency spectrum. Service links include a "quick orbits" page that uses SSCWeb Web Services to provide a rapid answer to questions such as "What spacecraft were in orbit in July 1992?" and "Where were Geotail, Cluster, and Polar on 2 June 2001?" These queries are linked back to the data search page. The VSPO interface provides many ways of looking for data based on terms used in a registry of resources using the SPASE Data Model that will be the standard for Heliophysics Virtual Observatories. VSPO itself is accessible via an API that allows other applications to use it as a Web Service; this has been implemented in one instance using the ViSBARD visualization program. The VSPO will become part of the Space Physics Data Facility, and will continue to expand its access to data. A challenge for all VOs will be to provide uniform access to data at the variable level, and we will be addressing this question in a number of ways.

  6. The Virtual Space Physics Observatory: Quick Access to Data and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornwell, Carl; Roberts, D. Aaron; McGuire, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO; see http://vspo.gsfc.nasa.gov) has grown to provide a way to find and access about 375 data products and services from over 100 spacecraft/observatories in space and solar physics. The datasets are mainly chosen to be the most requested, and include most of the publicly available data products from operating NASA Heliophysics spacecraft as well as from solar observatories measuring across the frequency spectrum. Service links include a "quick orbits" page that uses SSCWeb Web Services to provide a rapid answer to questions such as "What spacecraft were in orbit in July 1992?" and "Where were Geotail, Cluster, and Polar on 2 June 2001?" These queries are linked back to the data search page. The VSPO interface provides many ways of looking for data based on terms used in a registry of resources using the SPASE Data Model that will be the standard for Heliophysics Virtual Observatories. VSPO itself is accessible via an API that allows other applications to use it as a Web Service; this has been implemented in one instance using the ViSBARD visualization program. The VSPO will become part of the Space Physics Data Facility, and will continue to expand its access to data. A challenge for all VOs will be to provide uniform access to data at the variable level, and we will be addressing this question in a number of ways.

  7. Nanosats for a Radio Interferometer Observatory in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Katsanevras, S.; Puy, D.; Bentum, M.

    2015-10-01

    During the last decades, astronomy and space physics changed dramatically our knowledge of the evolution of the Universe. However, our view is still incomplete in the very low frequency range (1- 30 MHz), which is thus one of the last unexplored astrophysical spectral band. Below 30 MHz, ionospheric fluctuations severely perturb groundbased observations. They are impossible below 10 MHz due to the ionospheric cutoff. In addition, man made radio interferences makes it even more difficult to observe from ground at low frequencies. Deploying a radio instrument in space is the only way to open this new window on the Universe. Among the many science objectives for such type of instrumentations, we can find cosmological studies such as the Dark Ages of the Universe, the remote astrophysical objects, pulsars and fast transients, the interstellar medium. The following Solar system and Planetary objectives are also very important: - Sun-Earth Interactions: The Sun is strongly influencing the interplanetary medium (IPM) and the terrestrial geospatial environment. The evolution mechanisms of coronal mass ejections (CME) and their impact on solar system bodies are still not fully understood. This results in large inaccuracies on the eruption models and prediction tools, and their consequences on the Earth environment. Very low frequency radio imaging capabilities (especially for the Type II solar radio bursts, which are linked with interplanetary shocks) should allow the scientific community to make a big step forward in understanding of the physics and the dynamics of these phenomena, by observing the location of the radio source, how they correlate with their associated shocks and how they propagate within the IPM. - Planets and Exoplanets: The Earth and the fourgiant planets are hosting strong magnetic fields producing large magnetospheres. Particle acceleration are very efficient therein and lead to emitting intense low frequency radio waves in their auroral regions. These

  8. CALET: High energy cosmic ray observatory on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masaki; CALET Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CALorimeteric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a Japanese-led international mission being developed as part of the utilization plan for the International Space Station (ISS). CALET will be launched by an H-II B rocket utilizing the Japanese developed HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle) in 2014. The instrument will be robotically emplaced upon the Exposed Facility attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF). CALET is a calorimeter based instrument which will have superior energy resolution and excellent separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays in the GeV to trans-TeV energy range. CALET will address many questions in high energy astrophysics, including (1) the nature of the sources of high energy particles and photons, through the high energy electron spectrum, (2) signatures of dark matter, in either the high energy electron or gamma ray spectrum, (3) the details of particle propagation in the Galaxy, by a combination of energy spectrum measurements of electrons, protons and highercharged nuclei. In this paper the outline and current status of CALET are summarized.

  9. TRW Ships NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory To Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Two U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy transport planes carrying the observatory and its ground support equipment landed at Kennedy's Space Shuttle Landing Facility at 2:40 p.m. EST this afternoon. REDONDO BEACH, CA.--(Business Wire)--Feb. 4, 1999--TRW has shipped NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory ("Chandra") to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), in Florida, in preparation for a Space Shuttle launch later this year. The 45-foot-tall, 5-ton science satellite will provide astronomers with new information on supernova remnants, the surroundings of black holes, and other celestial phenomena that produce vast quantities of X-rays. Cradled safely in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System (SCTS), NASA's newest space telescope was ferried on Feb. 4 from Los Angeles International Airport to KSC aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy transporter. The SCTS, an Air Force container, closely resembles the size and shape of the Shuttle cargo bay. Over the next few months, Chandra will undergo final tests at KSC and be mated to a Boeing-provided Inertial Upper Stage for launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. A launch date for the Space Shuttle STS-93 mission is expected to be announced later this week. The third in NASA's family of Great Observatories that includes the Hubble Space Telescope and the TRW-built Compton Gamma Ray observatory, Chandra will use the world's most powerful X-ray telescope to allow scientists to "see" and monitor cosmic events that are invisible to conventional optical telescopes. Chandra's X-ray images will yield new insight into celestial phenomena such as the temperature and extent of gas clouds that comprise clusters of galaxies and the superheating of gas and dust particles as they swirl into black holes. A TRW-led team that includes the Eastman Kodak Co., Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. designed and built the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The

  10. Spitzer Space Telescope Leads NASA's Great Observatories to Uncover Black Holes and Other Hidden Objects in the Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers unveiled the deepest images from NASA's new Spitzer Space Telescope today, and announced the detection of distant objects -- including several supermassive black holes -- that are nearly invisible in even the deepest images from telescopes operating at other wavelengths. Mark Dickinson, of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz., and Principal Investigator for the new observations, says, "With these ultra-deep Spitzer images, we are easily seeing objects throughout time and space, out to redshifts of 6 or more, where the most distant known galaxies lie. Moreover, we see some objects that are completely invisible to optical telescopes, but whose existence was hinted at by previous observations from the Chandra and Hubble Observatories." Seven of the objects detected in the Spitzer images may be part of the long-sought population of "missing" supermassive black holes that powered the bright cores of the earliest active galaxies. The discovery finally completes a full accounting of all the X-ray sources seen in one of the deepest surveys of the universe ever taken. This detective story required no less than the combined power of NASA's three Great Observatories in space -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Each observatory works with different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, from the high-energy X-rays that Chandra detects, through visible light with Hubble, and into the infrared with Spitzer. The combination of these telescopes yields far more information than any single instrument would. All three telescopes peered out to distances of up to 13 billion light-years toward a small patch of the southern sky containing more than 10,000 galaxies, in a coordinated project called the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (or GOODS, for short). Chandra images detected over two hundred X-ray sources believed to be supermassive black holes lying in the centers of young

  11. Site Selection and Deployment Scenarios for Servicing of Deep-Space Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willenberg, Harvey J.; Fruhwirth, Michael A.; Potter, Seth D.; Leete, Stephen J.; Moe, Rud V.

    2001-01-01

    The deep-space environment and relative transportation accessibility of the Weak Stability Boundary (WSB) region connecting the Earth-Moon and Sun-Earth libration points makes the Sun-Earth L2 an attractive operating location for future observatories. A summary is presented of key characteristics of future observatories designed to operate in this region. The ability to service observatories that operate within the region around the Lagrange points may greatly enhance their reliability, lifetime, and scientific return. The range of servicing missions might begin with initial deployment, assembly, test, and checkout. Post-assembly servicing missions might also include maintenance and repair, critical fluids resupply, and instrument upgrades. We define the range of servicing missions that can be performed with extravehicular activity, with teleoperated robots, and with autonomous robots. We then describe deployment scenarios that affect payload design. A trade study is summarized of the benefits and risks of alternative servicing sites, including at the International Space Station, at other low-Earth-orbit locations, at the Earth-Moon L1 location, and on-site at the Sun-Earth L2 location. Required technology trades and development issues for observatory servicing at each site, and with each level of autonomy, are summarized.

  12. Infrared monitoring of nuclear power in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David W.

    1988-12-01

    Using parameters for unclassified astronomical observatories based on Maui and on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, we have determined the level of confidence of monitoring a ban on nuclear power in earth orbit. Existing military and astronomical observatories can detect and identify operating nuclear power sources on satellites, such as the Soviet RORSAT and American SP100, with a very high level of confidence to distances beyond geosynchronous orbit. A cold reactor can be detected with a medium level of confidence with visual observations by close-flying reconnaissance satellites with medium confidence, and in the future with very high confidence with the interrogation of neutrons. The smaller thermal sources, RTG and DIPS, could be detected with medium level of confidence under certain conditions. Large pulsed reactors can be detected with a medium confidence level with visual observations from close satellites, and with a very high level of confidence with neutron interrogation.

  13. Space-shuttle interfaces/utilization. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The economic aspects of space shuttle application to a representative Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) operational mission in the various candidate Shuttle modes of launch, retrieval, and resupply are discussed. System maintenance of the same mission capability using a conventional launch vehicle is also considered. The studies are based on application of sophisticated Monte Carlo mission simulation program developed originally for studies of in-space servicing of a military satellite system. The program has been modified to permit evaluation of space shuttle application to low altitude EOS missions in all three modes. The conclusions generated by the EOS system study are developed.

  14. Erik Lindbergh unveils a plaque commemorating his grandfather to dedicate the 747 Clipper Lindbergh, a NASA airborne infrared observatory known as SOFIA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-21

    Erik Lindbergh, grandson of aviator Charles Lindbergh, unveiled a plaque commemorating his grandfather on the 80th anniversary of Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight. The event was a dedication of the 747 Clipper Lindbergh, a NASA airborne infrared observatory that is beginning test flights in preparation for conducting world-class airborne astronomy. The project is known as the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA.

  15. Exploration an the Search for Origins: A Vision for Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Alan (Editor); Brown, Robert A.; Davidsen, Arthur F.; Ellis, Richard S.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Green, Richard F.; Hauser, Michael G.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Lilly, Simon J.; Margon, Bruce H.; Porco, Carolyn C.; Richstone, Douglas O.; Stockman, H. S.; Thronson, Harley A., Jr.; Tonry, John L.; Truran, James; Weiler, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    Public support and enthusiasm for astronomy have been strong in the final decades of the twentieth century. Nowhere is this better demonstrated than with the Hubble Space Telescope (HCT), a grand endeavor, which is enabling astronomers to make giant strides in understanding our universe, our place in it, and our relation to it. The NASAs first infrared observatory, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), promises to take the crucial next steps towards understanding the formation of stars and galaxies. Toward their completion, the HST and Beyond Committee identifies major goals, whose accomplishment will justify a commitment well into the next century: (1) the detailed study of the birth and evolution of normal galaxies such as the Milky Way; (2) the detection of Earth-like planets around other stars and the search for evidence of life on them; (3) NASA should develop a space observatory of aperture 4m or larger, optimized for imaging and spectroscopy over the wavelength range 1-5 microns; and (4) NASA should develop the capability for space interferometry.

  16. Grand Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric W.

    2002-01-01

    Various concepts have been recently presented for a 100 m class astronomical observatory. The science virtues of such an observatory are many: resolving planets orbiting around other stars, resolving the surface features of other stars, extending our temporal reach back toward the beginning (at and before stellar and galactic development), improving on the Next Generation Space Telescope, and other (perhaps as yet) undiscovered purposes. This observatory would be a general facility instrument with wide spectral range from at least the near ultraviolet to the mid infrared. The concept espoused here is based on a practical, modular design located in a place where temperatures remain (and instruments could operate) within several degrees of absolute zero with no shielding or cooling. This location is the bottom of a crater located near the north or south pole of the moon, most probably the South Polar Depression. In such a location the telescope would never see the sun or the earth, hence the profound cold and absence of stray light. The ideal nature of this location is elaborated herein. It is envisioned that this observatory would be assembled and maintained remotely through the use of expert robotic systems. A base station would be located above the crater rim with (at least occasional) direct line-of-sight access to the earth. Certainly it would be advantageous, but not absolutely essential, to have humans travel to the site to deal with unexpected contingencies. Further, observers and their teams could eventually travel there for extended observational campaigns. Educational activities, in general, could be furthered thru extended human presence. Even recreational visitors and long term habitation might follow.

  17. The National Solar Observatory Digital Library - a resource for space weather studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F.; Erdwurm, W.; Branston, D.; McGraw, R.

    2000-09-01

    We describe the National Solar Observatory Digital Library (NSODL), consisting of 200GB of on-line archived solar data, a RDBMS search engine, and an Internet HTML-form user interface. The NSODL is open to all users and provides simple access to solar physics data of basic importance for space weather research and forecasting, heliospheric research, and education. The NSODL can be accessed at the URL www.nso.noao.edu/diglib.

  18. Great science observatories in the space station era and OWL efforts in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1998-06-01

    A concept of ``Space Factory'' on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) is described. By following the four great observatories that purposefully took advantage of the Space Transportation System (STS), the next generation of great observatories is considered. These new astronomical projects require a very large optical telescope whose diameter is of the order of 10 m. Space telescope of this size will require careful assembly and tuning by astronauts on orbit before deployment. Once built, it could visualize the universe to the earliest galaxies, and could explore the earth-like planet in other star-system. The ``Space Factory'' would permit other large-scale observatories for construction in space. A step-by-step advancement of the ``Space Factory'' is conceived by including four or five frontier astrophysics programs. Less demanding experiments would precede the construction project of the most demanding optical telescope. A study in Japan to observe the highest energy cosmic rays from space is synchronized with those being carried out by the OWL team in the USA and the AIRWATCH team in Italy. The Japanese efforts are coordinated in a larger program study of the Space SUBARU, which envisages a plan of orbital construction, fine-tuning and eventual deployment of large scale astrophysical instruments into the desired free-flying orbit. A space observatory of the highest energy cosmic rays can be maximized by a cluster of 6 or 7 units of the wide-angle OWL telescopes, each having a field-of-view (FOV) of ~60°. The ultimate viewing area could be up to 6,000 km×6,000 km, the entire horizon for a 1000 km orbit. Within this large detection area about 105 cosmic hadronic events at above 1020 eV would be observed in a year. It also makes possible to observe the highest energy neutrinos from the known source mechanisms; including cosmic photo-production. Neutrino events from Topological Defects, Gamma Ray Burst fireballs and Blazers are observable as frequently

  19. Report On Fiducial Points At The Space Geodesy Based Cagliari Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banni, A.; Buffa, F.; Falchi, E.; Sanna, G.

    At the present time two research groups are engaged to space-geodesy activities in Sardinia: a staff belonging to the Stazione Astronomica of Cagliari (SAC) and the To- pography Section of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale (DIST) of the Cagliari University. The two groups have a share in international campaigns and services. The local structure, consists of permanent stations of satellite observation both on radio and laser techniques. Particularly in the Cagliari Observatory a Satellite Laser Ranging system runs with nearly daily, low, medium and high orbit satellite tracking capability (e. g. Topex, Ajisai, Lageos1/2, Glonass); up to this time the Cagliari laser station has contributed towards the following international campaigns/organizations. Besides in the Observatory's site a fixed GPS system, belonging the Italian Space Agency GPS- Network and to the IGS-Network; and a GPS+GLONASS system, acquired by DIST and belonging to the IGLOS are installed and managed. All the above stations are furnished with meteorological sensors with RINEX format data dissemination avail- ability. Moreover a new 64 meters dish radio telescope (Sardinian Radio Telescope), geodetic VLBI equipped, is under construction not long away from the Observatory. The poster fully shows the facilities and furnishes a complete report on the mark- ers eccentricities, allowing co-location of the different space techniques operating in Sardinia.

  20. Diverse Electron-Induced Optical Emissions from Space Observatory Materials at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J.R.; Jensen, Amberly Evans; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers, Charles W.; Meloy, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Electron irradiation experiments have investigated the diverse electron-induced optical and electrical signatures observed in ground-based tests of various space observatory materials at low temperature. Three types of light emission were observed: (i); long-duration cathodoluminescence which persisted as long as the electron beam was on (ii) short-duration (<1 s) arcing, resulting from electrostatic discharge; and (iii) intermediate-duration (100 s) glow-termed "flares". We discuss how the electron currents and arcing-as well as light emission absolute intensity and frequency-depend on electron beam energy, power, and flux and the temperature and thickness of different bulk (polyimides, epoxy resins, and silica glasses) and composite dielectric materials (disordered SiO2 thin films, carbon- and fiberglass-epoxy composites, and macroscopically-conductive carbon-loaded polyimides). We conclude that electron-induced optical emissions resulting from interactions between observatory materials and the space environment electron flux can, in specific circumstances, make significant contributions to the stray light background that could possibly adversely affect the performance of space-based observatories.

  1. The World Space Observatory–UV Project as a Tool for Exoplanet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, Boris M.; Sachkov, Mikhail E.; Bisikalo, Dmitry V.; de Castro, Ana-Ines Gómez

    During last three decades, astronomers have had practically continuous access to the 100-300 nm spectral range that is unreachable with ground-based instruments but where astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied with unprecedented capability. The successful International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observatory, Russian ASTRON mission and successor instruments such as the COS and STIS spectrographs on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) demonstrate the major impact that observations in the UV wavelength range have had on modern astronomy. Many exoplanetary studies have been performed in the UV domain, both Far-UV and Near-UV. This spectral region contains many resonance lines of common elements, including Ly α, which provided a unique possibility to study physical and chemical properties of planetary atmospheres. Future access to space-based observatories is expected to be very limited. For the next decade, the post-HST era, the World Space Observatory UltraViolet (WSO-UV) will be the only large telescope class mission for UV observations, both spectroscopic and imaging. In its potential, the WSO-UV mission is similar to the HST, but all the observing time will be available for UV astronomy. In this chapter, we briefly outline the WSO-UV mission model, instrumentation description, science management plan as well as some of the key science issues that WSO-UV will address during its lifetime. This information should help exoplanet researchers to start to prepare their future observations with WSO-UV.

  2. Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Data and Implications for Miniaturized Space Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korde-Patel, Asmita (Inventor); Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing is a technique for simultaneous acquisition and compression of data that is sparse or can be made sparse in some domain. It is currently under intense development and has been profitably employed for industrial and medical applications. We here describe the use of this technique for the processing of astronomical data. We outline the procedure as applied to exoplanet gravitational microlensing and analyze measurement results and uncertainty values. We describe implications for on-spacecraft data processing for space observatories. Our findings suggest that application of these techniques may yield significant, enabling benefits especially for power and volume-limited space applications such as miniaturized or micro-constellation satellites.

  3. The international space station as an observatory for cosmic-ray physics and astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W. Vernon

    1999-01-22

    The International Space Station is an ideal platform for observing cosmic rays. Furthermore, it can readily accommodate the instrumentation needed to address all of the top-priority science objectives identified in 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences for 'Plasma Processes that Accelerate Very Energetic Particles and Control Their Propagation'. These objectives are synergistic in their pursuit of the illusive goal of understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of the cosmic radiation. A distributed observatory on the International Space Station may be the key to answering this long-standing question in the first decade of the new millennium.

  4. A Global Upper Atmosphere Observatory Using of Lidar on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemmons, J. H.; Beck, S. M.; Hecht, J. H.; Corey, C. F.; McLeroy, J. C.; Ferrone, K. L.; Spann, J. F.; Swenson, G. R.; Janches, D.; Giles, B.; Krainak, M.; Yu, A.; Jones, S.

    2014-01-01

    A concept for hosting a lidar facility for the upper atmosphere on the International Space Station (ISS) is presented and discussed. The concept is based on utilizing an existing Large Space Optics mirror having a 2.37-m aperture as the primary mirror in its receiver. This large aperture provides for hosting several transmitter systems to retrieve density, temperature, and wind measurements for several upper atmospheric species. Thus the concept provides for measurements over a wide altitude range (80-600 km), at various time and spatial resolutions, and hosting on the ISS provides nearly global coverage. The baseline concept includes transmitters and receivers for atomic oxygen (80-500 km), metastable helium (400-600 km), and sodium (80-110 km). The facility is conceived as being flexible such that other transmitter/receiver systems could be added to allow the possibility of other species to be studied, such as iron. The presentation discusses the transformative science that would be gained by such an observatory by combining the nearly global coverage afforded by the ISS orbit with the extension of powerful lidar techniques to high altitudes. The challenges in realizing such an observatory are discussed, as are current plans and partnerships to meet those challenges. The presentation also reports on the development status of several components, primarily various independent transmitter/receiver systems, that are under consideration for the baseline observatory. Several institutions are performing these developments.

  5. NASA Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Airborne Astronomy Ambassador Program Evaluation Results To Date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela K.; Backman, Dana E.; Clark, Coral

    2015-08-01

    SOFIA is an airborne observatory, capable of making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes, and inspires instrumention development.SOFIA is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), consisting of a modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a diameter of 2.5 meters (100 inches) reflecting telescope. The SOFIA aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Building 703, in Palmdale, California. The Science Program Office and Outreach Office is located at NASA Ames Research center. SOFIA is one of the programs in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division.SOFIA will be used to study many different kinds of astronomical objects and phenomena, including star birth and death, formation of new solar systems, identification of complex molecules in space, planets, comets and asteroids in our solar system, nebulae and dust in galaxies, and ecosystems of galaxies.Airborne Astronomy Ambassador Program:The SOFIA Education and Communications program exploits the unique attributes of airborne astronomy to contribute to national goals for the reform of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, and to the elevation of public scientific and technical literacy.SOFIA’s Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) effort is a professional development program aspiring to improve teaching, inspire students, and inform the community. To date, 55 educators from 21 states; in three cohorts, Cycles 0, 1 and 2; have completed their astronomy professional development and their SOFIA science flight experience. Cycle 3 cohort of 28 educators will be completing their flight experience this fall. Evaluation has confirmed the program’s positive impact on the teacher participants, on their students, and in their communities. Teachers have incorporated content knowledge and specific components of their experience into their curricula, and have given hundreds of presentations and

  6. The Infrared Hunter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-15

    NASA Spitzer Space Telescope and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory compare infrared and visible views of the famous Orion nebula and its surrounding cloud, an industrious star-making region located near the hunter constellation sword.

  7. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 6: Space shuttle interfaces/utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The impacts of achieving compatibility of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) with the space shuttle and the potential benefits of space shuttle utilization are discussed. Mission requirements and mission suitability, including the effects of multiple spacecraft missions, are addressed for the full spectrum of the missions. Design impact is assessed primarily against Mission B, but unique requirements reflected by Mission A, B, and C are addressed. The preliminary results indicated that the resupply mission had the most pronounced impact on spacecraft design and cost. Program costs are developed for the design changes necessary to achieve EOS-B compatibility with Space Shuttle operations. Non-recurring and recurring unit costs are determined, including development, test, ground support and logistics, and integration efforts. Mission suitability is addressed in terms of performance, volume, and center of gravity compatibility with both space shuttle and conventional launch vehicle capabilities.

  8. High-performance wobbling subreflector for the Millimetre and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory 2.6-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainella, Gianni; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; Mandiello, Alfonso; Perciballi, Maurizio; Romeo, Gianni

    1996-05-01

    The Millimetre and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory 2.6-m Cassegrain telescope has been designed to allow high-sensitivity observations in the millimeter spectral range. For this purpose, in order to reduce unwanted contributions from local foregrounds, we adopted a sky-chopping technique, by wobbling the telescope subreflector. We describe the design and performance of the wobbling system, which can endure external forced two and three fields square-wave modulation and includes features such as high frequency, high amplitude, high duty cycle, low microphonics, and high stability. millimeter-wave telescope.

  9. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  10. Space Infrared Astronomy in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Fisher, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New technology and design approaches have enabled revolutionary improvements in astronomical observations from space. Worldwide plans and dreams include orders of magnitude growth in sensitivity and resolution for all wavelength ranges, and would give the ability to learn our history, from the Big Bang to the conditions for life on Earth. The Next Generation Space Telescope, for example, will be able to see the most distant galaxies as they were being assembled from tiny fragments. It will be 1/4 as massive as the Hubble, with a mirror 3 times as large, cooled to about 30 Kelvin to image infrared radiation. I will discuss plans for NGST and hopes for future large space telescopes, ranging from the Space UV Optical (SUVO) telescope to the Filled Aperture Infrared (FAIR) Telescope, the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT), and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS).

  11. Space Infrared Astronomy in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Fisher, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New technology and design approaches have enabled revolutionary improvements in astronomical observations from space. Worldwide plans and dreams include orders of magnitude growth in sensitivity and resolution for all wavelength ranges, and would give the ability to learn our history, from the Big Bang to the conditions for life on Earth. The Next Generation Space Telescope, for example, will be able to see the most distant galaxies as they were being assembled from tiny fragments. It will be 1/4 as massive as the Hubble, with a mirror 3 times as large, cooled to about 30 Kelvin to image infrared radiation. I will discuss plans for NGST and hopes for future large space telescopes, ranging from the Space UV Optical (SUVO) telescope to the Filled Aperture Infrared (FAIR) Telescope, the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT), and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS).

  12. Cryogenic performance of the space infrared optical payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dawei; Tan, Fanjiao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Mingdong; Wang, Haipeng

    2016-10-01

    A model as well as the methodology is proposed to analyze the cryogenic performance of space infrared optical payload. And the model is established from two aspects: imaging quality and background radiation. On the basis of finite element analysis, the deformation of optical surface in cryogenic environment is characterized by Zernike polynomials, and then, the varying pattern of MTF of space cryogenic optical payload could be concluded accordingly. Then from the theory of thermal radiative transfer, the temperature distribution and the deformation of the optical payload under the action of inertial load and thermal load are analyzed based on the finite element method, and the spontaneous radiation and scattering properties of the optical surface and shielding factors between the opto-mechanical structure are considered to establish the radiation calculation model. Furthermore, the cryogenic radiation characteristics of the space infrared optical payload are obtained by the radiation calculation model. Finally, experiments are conducted using an actual off-axis TMA space infrared optical payload. And the results indicate that the background radiation of the space infrared optical payload is decreased by 79% while 33% for MTF at the thermal control temperature of 240K. In this circumstance, the system background radiation is effectively suppressed and the detection sensitivity of the optical payload is improved as well, while the imaging quality is acceptable. The model proposed in this paper can be applied to the analyzing cryogenic properties of space infrared optical payload, and providing theoretical guidance for the design and application of the space cryogenic optical payload.

  13. Commissioning ShARCS: the Shane adaptive optics infrared camera-spectrograph for the Lick Observatory Shane 3-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGurk, Rosalie; Rockosi, Constance; Gavel, Donald; Kupke, Renate; Peck, Michael; Pfister, Terry; Ward, Jim; Deich, William; Gates, John; Gates, Elinor; Alcott, Barry; Cowley, David; Dillon, Daren; Lanclos, Kyle; Sandford, Dale; Saylor, Mike; Srinath, Srikar; Weiss, Jason; Norton, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    We describe the design and first-light early science performance of the Shane Adaptive optics infraRed Camera- Spectrograph (ShARCS) on Lick Observatory's 3-m Shane telescope. Designed to work with the new ShaneAO adaptive optics system, ShARCS is capable of high-efficiency, diffraction-limited imaging and low-dispersion grism spectroscopy in J, H, and K-bands. ShARCS uses a HAWAII-2RG infrared detector, giving high quantum efficiency (<80%) and Nyquist sampling the diffraction limit in all three wavelength bands. The ShARCS instrument is also equipped for linear polarimetry and is sensitive down to 650 nm to support future visible-light adaptive optics capability. We report on the early science data taken during commissioning.

  14. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): The Mission Design Solution Space and the Art of the Possible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David; Hyde, T. Tupper; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Weiss, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Although the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was studied as a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission, the real world presents a broader set of options, pressures, and constraints. Fundamentally, SPIRIT is a far-IR observatory for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy designed to address a variety of compelling scientific questions. How do planetary systems form from protostellar disks, dousing some planets in water while leaving others dry? Where do planets form, and why are some ice giants while others are rocky? How did high-redshift galaxies form and merge to form the present-day population of galaxies? This paper takes a pragmatic look at the mission design solution space for SPIRIT, presents Probe-class and facility-class mission scenarios, and describes optional design changes. The costs and benefits of various mission design alternatives are roughly evaluated, giving a basis for further study and to serve as guidance to policy makers.

  15. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Key Technologies and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew Ryan; Stahle, Carl M.; Balasubramaniam, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Feinberg, Lee D.; Mosier, Gary E.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David C.; Rioux, Norman M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 20 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  16. Lessons Learned to Date in Developing the Virtual Space Physics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, C.; Roberts, D. A.; King, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-12-01

    We now have an operational Virtual Space Physics Observatory that provides users the ability to search for and retrieve data from hundreds of space and solar physics data products based on specific terms or a Google-like interface. Lessons learned in building VSPO include: (a) A very close and highly interactive collaboration between scientists and information technologists in the definition and development of services is essential. (b) Constructing a Data Model acceptable to a broad community is very important but very difficult. Variations in usage are inevitable and must be dealt with through translations; this is especially true for the description of variables within data products. (c) Higher-order queries (searches based on events, positions, comparisons of measurements, etc.) are possible, and have been implemented in various systems; currently we see these as being separate from the basic data finding and retrieval services. (d) Building a Virtual Observatory is often more a matter of the tedious details of product descriptions than an exercise in implementing fancy middleware. Paying a knowledgeable third party to build registries can be more efficient than working directly with providers, and automated tools can help but do not solve all the problems. (e) The success of the VO effort in space and solar physics, as elsewhere, will depend on whether the scientific communities involved use and critique the services so that they will come to meet a real need for the integration of resources to solve new scientific problems of perceived importance.

  17. Coordinated study of Solar-Terrestrial Observatory (STO) payloads on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1988-01-01

    Since the publication of the final report of the science study group in October 1984 on the Solar Terrestrial Observatory (STO), its science goals and objectives have been clearly defined and a conceptual design and analysis was carried out by MSFC/NASA. Plans for the possible placing of the STO aboard the Space Station were made. A series of meetings for the STO science study group were held to review the instruments to be placed on the initial STO at Space Station IOC, and the placement of these instruments on the manned space station, polar platform, and the co-orbiting platform. A summary of these initial STO instruments is presented in Section 2. A brief description of the initial plan for the placement of STO instruments is included in Section 3. Finally, in Section 4, the scenario for the operation of the STO is discussed. These results were obtained from the report of the Solar Terrestrial Observatory mini-workshop held at MSFC on 6 June 1985.

  18. Constraint-based integration of planning and scheduling for space-based observatory management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven F.

    1994-01-01

    Progress toward the development of effective, practical solutions to space-based observatory scheduling problems within the HSTS scheduling framework is reported. HSTS was developed and originally applied in the context of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) short-term observation scheduling problem. The work was motivated by the limitations of the current solution and, more generally, by the insufficiency of classical planning and scheduling approaches in this problem context. HSTS has subsequently been used to develop improved heuristic solution techniques in related scheduling domains and is currently being applied to develop a scheduling tool for the upcoming Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) mission. The salient architectural characteristics of HSTS and their relationship to previous scheduling and AI planning research are summarized. Then, some key problem decomposition techniques underlying the integrated planning and scheduling approach to the HST problem are described; research results indicate that these techniques provide leverage in solving space-based observatory scheduling problems. Finally, more recently developed constraint-posting scheduling procedures and the current SWAS application focus are summarized.

  19. Space-Borne Radio-Sounding Investigations Facilitated by the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fung, Shing F.; Bilitza,Dieter; Garcia, Leonard N.; Shao, Xi; Galkin, Ivan A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) is to provide userfriendly access to heliophysics wave data. While the VWO initially emphasized the vast quantity of wave data obtained from passive receivers, the VWO infrastructure can also be used to access active sounder data sets. Here we use examples from some half-million Alouette-2, ISIS-1, and ISIS-2 digital topside-sounder ionograms to demonstrate the desirability of such access to the actual ionograms for investigations of both natural and sounder-stimulated plasma-wave phenomena. By this demonstration, we wish to encourage investigators to make other valuable space-borne sounder data sets accessible via the VWO.

  20. High Stability Low Scatter Telescope for a Space-based Gravitational Wave Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey; Sankar, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    A laser interferometer space-based gravitational wave observatory requires an optical telescope to efficiently transfer laser light between pairs of widely-separated sciencecraft. The application is precision interferometric metrology, and therefore requires the telescope to have high optical pathlength stability, and low scattered light performance. We discuss the expected on-orbit environment and present the latest design, including materials choice trades, surface roughness and cleanliness requirements, and an optical prescription optimized to reduce scattered light. We will also discuss some of the remaining system-level trades. This work is supported by NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant 14-SAT14-0014.

  1. An analysis of water in galactic infrared sources using the NASA Lear Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.; Hilgeman, T.

    1979-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer system on the NASA Lear Jet Airborne Observatory is described as well as the data reduction procedures. The objects observed (standard stars, M stars, a nebula, planets, and the moon) are discussed and the observing parameters are listed for each flight date. The spectra obtained from these data flights are presented, grouped by class of object.

  2. A Technical Overview and Description of SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a technical overview of SOFIA, a unique airborne observatory, from an engineering perspective. It will do this by describing several of the systems of this observatory that are common with mountain top ground based observatories but mostly emphasize those more unique features and systems that are required to facilitate world class astronomy from a highly modified Boeing 747-SP flying at Mach 0.84 in the Stratosphere. This paper provides a technical overview of SOFIA by reviewing each of the performance specifications (the level one requirements for development) and describing some of the technical advancements for the telescope as well as the platform required to achieve these performance specifications. The technical advancements involved include mirror technologies, control system features, the telescope suspension system, and the aircraft open port cavity with associated cavity door that opens in flight and tracks the telescope elevation angle. For background this paper will provide a brief programmatic overview of the SOFIA project including the joint project arrangement between the US and Germany (NASA and DLR). Additionally, this paper will describe the up to date status of the development of SOFIA as the Observatory nears the date of the first test flight in the summer of 2004.

  3. The Footprint Database and Web Services of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, László; Varga-Verebélyi, Erika; Verdugo, Eva; Teyssier, David; Exter, Katrina; Valtchanov, Ivan; Budavári, Tamás; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory is freely available to the public but no uniformly processed catalogue of the observations has been published so far. To date, the Herschel Science Archive does not contain the exact sky coverage (footprint) of individual observations and supports search for measurements based on bounding circles only. Drawing on previous experience in implementing footprint databases, we built the Herschel Footprint Database and Web Services for the Herschel Space Observatory to provide efficient search capabilities for typical astronomical queries. The database was designed with the following main goals in mind: (a) provide a unified data model for meta-data of all instruments and observational modes, (b) quickly find observations covering a selected object and its neighbourhood, (c) quickly find every observation in a larger area of the sky, (d) allow for finding solar system objects crossing observation fields. As a first step, we developed a unified data model of observations of all three Herschel instruments for all pointing and instrument modes. Then, using telescope pointing information and observational meta-data, we compiled a database of footprints. As opposed to methods using pixellation of the sphere, we represent sky coverage in an exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. For easier handling of Herschel observation footprints with rather complex shapes, two algorithms were implemented to reduce the outline. Furthermore, a new visualisation tool to plot footprints with various spherical projections was developed. Indexing of the footprints using Hierarchical Triangular Mesh makes it possible to quickly find observations based on sky coverage, time and meta-data. The database is accessible via a web site http://herschel.vo.elte.hu and also as a set of REST web service functions, which makes it readily usable from programming environments such as Python or IDL. The web service allows downloading footprint data

  4. Sub-Femto-g Free Fall for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Observatories: LISA Pathfinder Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J. T.; Bassan, M.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Thorpe, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first results of the LISA Pathfinder in-flight experiment. The results demonstrate that two free-falling reference test masses, such as those needed for a space-based gravitational wave observatory like LISA, can be put in free fall with a relative acceleration noise with a square root of the power spectral density of 5.2 +/- 0.1 fm s(exp -2)/square root of Hz, or (0.54 +/- 0.01) x 10(exp -15) g/square root of Hz, with g the standard gravity, for frequencies between 0.7 and 20 mHz. This value is lower than the LISA Pathfinder requirement by more than a factor 5 and within a factor 1.25 of the requirement for the LISA mission, and is compatible with Brownian noise from viscous damping due to the residual gas surrounding the test masses. Above 60 mHz the acceleration noise is dominated by interferometer displacement readout noise at a level of (34.8 +/- 0.3) fm square root of Hz, about 2 orders of magnitude better than requirements. At f less than or equal to 0.5 mHz we observe a low-frequency tail that stays below 12 fm s(exp -2)/square root of Hz down to 0.1 mHz. This performance would allow for a space-based gravitational wave observatory with a sensitivity close to what was originally foreseen for LISA.

  5. Virtual Observatories for Space Physics Observations and Simulations: New Routes to Efficient Access and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    New tools for data access and visualization promise to make the analysis of space plasma data both more efficient and more powerful, especially for answering questions about the global structure and dynamics of the Sun-Earth system. We will show how new existing tools (particularly the Virtual Space Physics Observatory-VSPO-and the Visual System for Browsing, Analysis and Retrieval of Data-ViSBARD; look for the acronyms in Google) already provide rapid access to such information as spacecraft orbits, browse plots, and detailed data, as well as visualizations that can quickly unite our view of multispacecraft observations. We will show movies illustrating multispacecraft observations of the solar wind and magnetosphere during a magnetic storm, and of simulations of 3 0-spacecraft observations derived from MHD simulations of the magnetosphere sampled along likely trajectories of the spacecraft for the MagCon mission. An important issue remaining to be solved is how best to integrate simulation data and services into the Virtual Observatory environment, and this talk will hopefully stimulate further discussion along these lines.

  6. Sub-Femto-g Free Fall for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Observatories: LISA Pathfinder Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J. T.; Bassan, M.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Carbone, L.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciani, G.; Congedo, G.; Cruise, A. M.; Danzmann, K.; de Deus Silva, M.; De Rosa, R.; Diaz-Aguiló, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Flatscher, R.; Freschi, M.; García Marín, A. F.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Guzmán, F.; Grado, A.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Grzymisch, J.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johann, U.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C. J.; Lobo, J. A.; Lloro, I.; Liu, L.; López-Zaragoza, J. P.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Polo, L.; Martino, J.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Madden, S.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Monsky, A.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Raïs, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Rozemeijer, H.; Rivas, F.; Russano, G.; Sanjuán, J.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Shaul, D.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Stanga, R.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J. I.; Trenkel, C.; Tröbs, M.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wand, V.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Warren, C.; Wass, P. J.; Wealthy, D.; Weber, W. J.; Wissel, L.; Wittchen, A.; Zambotti, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2016-06-01

    We report the first results of the LISA Pathfinder in-flight experiment. The results demonstrate that two free-falling reference test masses, such as those needed for a space-based gravitational wave observatory like LISA, can be put in free fall with a relative acceleration noise with a square root of the power spectral density of 5.2 ±0.1 fm s-2/√{Hz } , or (0.54 ±0.01 ) ×10-15 g/√{Hz } , with g the standard gravity, for frequencies between 0.7 and 20 mHz. This value is lower than the LISA Pathfinder requirement by more than a factor 5 and within a factor 1.25 of the requirement for the LISA mission, and is compatible with Brownian noise from viscous damping due to the residual gas surrounding the test masses. Above 60 mHz the acceleration noise is dominated by interferometer displacement readout noise at a level of (34.8 ±0.3 ) fm /√{Hz } , about 2 orders of magnitude better than requirements. At f ≤0.5 mHz we observe a low-frequency tail that stays below 12 fm s-2/√{Hz } down to 0.1 mHz. This performance would allow for a space-based gravitational wave observatory with a sensitivity close to what was originally foreseen for LISA.

  7. Virtual Observatories for Space Physics Observations and Simulations: New Routes to Efficient Access and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    New tools for data access and visualization promise to make the analysis of space plasma data both more efficient and more powerful, especially for answering questions about the global structure and dynamics of the Sun-Earth system. We will show how new existing tools (particularly the Virtual Space Physics Observatory-VSPO-and the Visual System for Browsing, Analysis and Retrieval of Data-ViSBARD; look for the acronyms in Google) already provide rapid access to such information as spacecraft orbits, browse plots, and detailed data, as well as visualizations that can quickly unite our view of multispacecraft observations. We will show movies illustrating multispacecraft observations of the solar wind and magnetosphere during a magnetic storm, and of simulations of 3 0-spacecraft observations derived from MHD simulations of the magnetosphere sampled along likely trajectories of the spacecraft for the MagCon mission. An important issue remaining to be solved is how best to integrate simulation data and services into the Virtual Observatory environment, and this talk will hopefully stimulate further discussion along these lines.

  8. Earth Science Instrument Refurbishment, Testing and Recalibration for the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. C.; Lorentz, S. R.; Mobilia, J.; Sawyer, K.; Hertzberg, E.; Demroff, H.; Rice, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observer (DSCOVR) mission began in 1998 as Triana, the first Earth observing spacecraft mission to be stationed at the Earth-Sun first Lagrange point. From L1, Triana would image the entire sunlit side of the earth giving unprecedented temporal and spatial coverage of phenomena in Earth's atmosphere and on its surface. Following the environmental testing of the observatory, the mission was placed into stable suspension in November of 2001 while waiting to be manifested on a launch vehicle. Recently, NOAA has become interested in using the now named DSCOVR observatory to replace the aging Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft to provide an early warning for potentially damaging space weather events which can disrupt communications, degrade navigation signals and damage spacecraft and power grids. In addition to the Plasma-Magnetometer (PLASMAG) instrument suite, DSCOVR carried two Earth science instruments. The Earth Poly-Chromatic imaging Camera (EPIC) and the NIST advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). In early 2009, NASA was given direction to remove these two instruments from the DSCOVR spacecraft bus and perform a recalibration of the NISTAR and to perform a refurbishment of the EPIC instrument. This paper will describe these recent efforts to prepare EPIC and NISTAR for launch on the DSCOVR mission.

  9. Chalcogenide Glass Fibers for Infrared Sensing and Space Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, Bruno; Maurugeon, Sébastien; Charpentier, Frederic; Adam, Jean-Luc; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Zhang, Xiang-Hua

    This review deals with chalcogenide glasses and fibers. Chemical compositions and physical properties are given for specific glasses well suited for fiber drawing. Fabrication techniques of glass perform are described. Single-index and step-index single-mode fibers are characterized in terms of optical losses in the infrared. Examples of applications of chalcogenide fibers are given, as well as optical sensors in the fields of environment, microbiology and health, and as mode-filters for infrared interferometry in space.

  10. Space infrared telescope pointing control system. Automated star pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Vanbezooijen, R. W. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a free flying spacecraft carrying a 1 meter class cryogenically cooled infrared telescope nearly three oders of magnitude most sensitive than the current generation of infrared telescopes. Three automatic target acquisition methods will be presented that are based on the use of an imaging star tracker. The methods are distinguished by the number of guidestars that are required per target, the amount of computational capability necessary, and the time required for the complete acquisition process. Each method is described in detail.

  11. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  12. Plans for a Next Generation Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (NGO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Stebbins, Robin T.; Jennrich, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is currently in the process of selecting a mission for the Cosmic Visions Program. A space-based gravitational wave observatory in the low-frequency band (0.0001 - 1 Hz) of the gravitational wave spectrum is one of the leading contenders. This low frequency band has a rich spectrum of astrophysical sources, and the LISA concept has been the key mission to cover this science for over twenty years. Tight budgets have recently forced ESA to consider a reformulation of the LISA mission concept that wi" allow the Cosmic Visions Program to proceed on schedule either with the US as a minority participant, or independently of the US altogether. We report on the status of these reformulation efforts.

  13. Technology gap assessment for a future large-aperture ultraviolet-optical-infrared space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl M.; Thronson, Harley

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team identified five key technology areas to enable candidate architectures for a future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions." The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technology areas are internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescope systems, detectors, and mirror coatings. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current technology readiness level (TRL), thus identifying the current technology gap. We also report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  14. Charting the Winds that Change the Universe, II: The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Benford, D. J.; Harvey, P. M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Lester, D. F.; Mather, J. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Werner, M. W.; Yorke, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR will study the birth and evolution of stars and planetary systems so young that they are invisible to optical and near-infrared telescopes such as NGST. Not only does the far-infrared radiation penetrate the obscuring dust clouds that surround these systems, but the protoplanetary disks also emit much of their radiation in the far infrared. Furthermore, the dust reprocesses much of the optical emission from the newly forming stars into this wavelength band. Similarly, the obscured central regions of galaxies, which harbor massive black holes and huge bursts of star formation, can be seen and analyzed in the far infrared. SAFIR will have the sensitivity to see the first dusty galaxies in the universe. For studies of both star-forming regions in our galaxy and dusty galaxies at high redshifts, SAFIR will be essential in tying together information that NGST will obtain on these systems at shorter wavelengths and that ALMA will obtain at longer wavelengths.

  15. Sensor system development for the WSO-UV (World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet) space-based astronomical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes-Thakore, Chris; Spark, Stephen; Pool, Peter; Walker, Andrew; Clapp, Matthew; Waltham, Nick; Shugarov, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    As part of a strategy to provide increasingly complex systems to customers, e2v is currently developing the sensor solution for focal plane array for the WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) programme, a Russian led 170 cm space astronomical telescope. This is a fully integrated sensor system for the detection of UV light across 3 channels: 2 high resolution spectrometers covering wavelengths of 115 - 176 nm and 174 - 310 nm and a Long-Slit Spectrometer covering 115 nm - 310 nm. This paper will describe the systematic approach and technical solution that has been developed based on e2v's long heritage, CCD experience and expertise. It will show how this approach is consistent with the key performance requirements and the overall environment requirements that the delivered system will experience through ground test, integration, storage and flight.

  16. Building a new space weather facility at the National Observatory of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis; Belehaki, Anna; Tsiropoula, Georgia; Tsagouri, Ioanna; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    The PROTEAS project has been initiated at the Institute of Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing (IAASARS) of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). One of its main objectives is to provide observations, processed data and space weather nowcasting and forecasting products, designed to support the space weather research community and operators of commercial and industrial systems. The space weather products to be released by this facility, will be the result of the exploitation of ground-based, as well as space-borne observations and of model results and tools already available or under development by IAASARS researchers. The objective will be achieved through: (a) the operation of a small full-disk solar telescope to conduct regular observations of the Sun in the H-alpha line; (b) the construction of a database with near real-time solar observations which will be available to the community through a web-based facility (HELIOSERVER); (c) the development of a tool for forecasting Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events in relation to observed solar eruptive events; (d) the upgrade of the Athens Digisonde with digital transceivers and the capability of operating in bi-static link mode and (e) the sustainable operation of the European Digital Upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS) upgraded with additional data sets integrated in an interface with the HELIOSERVER and with improved models for the real-time quantification of the effects of solar eruptive events in the ionosphere.

  17. New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J. (Editor); Leisawitz, David T. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy aimed to highlight the groundbreaking opportunities available for astronomical investigations in the far-infrared to submillimeter using advanced, space-based telescopes. Held at the University of Maryland on March 7-8, 2002, the Workshop was attended by 130 participants from 50 institutions, and represented scientists and engineers from many countries and with a wide variety of experience. The technical content featured 17 invited talks and 44 contributed posters, complemented by two sixperson panels to address questions of astronomy and technology.

  18. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  19. Dusty Space Cloud

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-10

    This image shows the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy in infrared light as seen by ESA Herschel Space Observatory and NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. The brightest center-left region is called 30 Doradus, or the Tarantula Nebula.

  20. Snow and Ice in the Earth System Viewed by Space Scatterometer Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Neumann, G.

    2002-12-01

    Snow and ice have an important role in the Earth climate system due to their interactions with land, ocean, and atmosphere in complex feedback processes. This paper presents recent results from satellite scatterometer which serves as a space observatory to study the role of snow and ice from aggregation to hemispheric and global scales. Hemispheric snow cover is mapped on the daily basis by the QuikSCAT/SeaWinds scatterometer. The timing and duration of snowmelt process can be determined accurately to address snow impacts in both radiative and hydrologic balances. Extreme events such rapid snowmelt causing spring floods in cold land regions can be monitored leading to possible early detection or prediction of flooding conditions. Anomalous melt zones over the Greenland ice sheet and extreme warming events at McMurdo, Antarctica, have been detected and monitored with the space scatterometer observatory. Sea ice mapping by the scatterometer uncovers the mystery of the Svalbard sea-ice barrier, a rapid growth (1 day) of an elongated sea ice feature (100's km) that blocks off the sea route and traps fishing ship. Sea ice together with ocean wind mapping results show strong interactions among ice cover, atmosphere, and ocean currents which are related to ocean bottom bathymetry. In cold winter conditions, areas of seasonal and perennial sea ice are obtained to study the distribution and balance of new sea ice production and old sea ice export in different regions of the Arctic ocean. During seasonal transitions, the timing of sea ice surface albedo changes is determined. The albedo transition timing is important to accurately estimate solar radiation input into sea ice. In warm summer conditions, areas of positive and negative integrated energy absorption can be identified and mapped. Results present a clear impact of clouds as evident from cyclonic patterns of sea ice surface melt around an Arctic low pressure center. The space scatterometer observatory results affirm

  1. NASA's SOFIA infrared observatory in flight for the first of a series of test flights to verify the flight performance of the highly modified Boeing 747SP

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-11

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on May 31, 2007. The heavily modified Boeing 747SP was ferried to Dryden from Waco, Texas, where L-3 Communications Integrated Systems installed a German-built 2.5-meter infrared telescope and made other major modifications over the past several years. SOFIA is scheduled to undergo installation and integration of mission systems and a multi-phase flight test program at Dryden over the next three years that is expected to lead to a full operational capability to conduct astronomy missions in about 2010. During its expected 20-year lifetime, SOFIA will be capable of "Great Observatory" class astronomical science, providing astronomers with access to the visible, infrared and sub-millimeter spectrum with optimized performance in the mid-infrared to sub-millimeter range.

  2. NASA's SOFIA infrared observatory lifts off on the first of a series of test flights to verify the flight performance of the highly modified Boeing 747SP

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-11

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on May 31, 2007. The heavily modified Boeing 747SP was ferried to Dryden from Waco, Texas, where L-3 Communications Integrated Systems installed a German-built 2.5-meter infrared telescope and made other major modifications over the past several years. SOFIA is scheduled to undergo installation and integration of mission systems and a multi-phase flight test program at Dryden over the next three years that is expected to lead to a full operational capability to conduct astronomy missions in about 2010. During its expected 20-year lifetime, SOFIA will be capable of "Great Observatory" class astronomical science, providing astronomers with access to the visible, infrared and sub-millimeter spectrum with optimized performance in the mid-infrared to sub-millimeter range.

  3. Infrared Spectroscopic Data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), SDSS-III Data Release 10

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 10 is the first spectroscopic release from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), including spectra and derived stellar parameters for more than 50,000 stars. APOGEE is an ongoing survey of ~100,000 stars accessing all parts of the Milky Way. By operating in the infrared (H-band) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, APOGEE is better able to detect light from stars lying in dusty regions of the Milky Way than surveys conducted in the optical, making this survey particularly well-suited for exploring the Galactic disk and bulge. APOGEE's high resolution spectra provide detailed information about the stellar atmospheres; DR10 provides derived effective temperatures, surface gravities, overall metallicities, and information on the abundances of several chemical elements. [copied from http://www.sdss3.org/dr10/irspec/

  4. Infrared focal plane detector modules for space applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Dominique; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard; Gassmann, Kai-Uwe; Haiml, Markus; Weber, Andreas; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Ziegler, Johann; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Fick, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of this paper, AIM presents the actual status of some of its currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments for space applications covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP will be elaborated. Additionally dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC will be addressed.

  5. Monitoring the Near-infrared Volcanic Flux from Io's Jupiter-facing Hemisphere from Fan Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Nelson, Matthew J.; Schmidt, Carl

    2016-10-01

    Fan Mountain Observatory, near Charlottesville, Virginia, is a dark-sky site that supports a number of telescopes including a 31-inch reflecting telescope equipped with a 1024x1024 HgCdTe 1-2.5 um (YJHK) imager. Reflected sunlight ordinarily overwhelms Io's comparatively weak K-band (2.0-2.4 um) volcanic emission in unresolved observations, however when Io is eclipsed in Jupiter's shadow even a small infrared-equipped telescope can detect Io's volcanic emission. The Fan Mountain Infrared Camera observed Io in eclipse at regular intervals, typically weekly, during the few months before and after Jupiter's March 2016 opposition. When in eclipse Io's Jupiter-facing hemisphere is oriented toward Earth with sub-Earth longitudes at the time of observation ranging from 345 - 360 degrees (pre-opposition) to 0 - 15 degrees (post-opposition). A K-band filter (2.04-2.42 um) provided a bulk measurement of Io's volcanic flux weighted largely toward the 2.4 um end of this filter given the typical 500K color temperature of the volcanic emission. Most epochs also included observation in a narrowband filter centered at 2.12 um that, when combined with the broadband "long" wavelength measurement, provided a proxy for color temperature. The K-band flux of Io varied by more than 2 magnitudes during the 7 month observation interval. The [2.12 um - K-band] color of the emission strongly correlated with the K-band flux in the expected sense that the color temperature of the emission increased when Io's broadband volcanic flux was the greatest. One epoch of TripleSpec near-IR Io eclipse spectroscopy (0.90 - 2.45 um; R~3000) from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope provided ground truth for transforming the filter photometry into quantitative temperatures.

  6. Space applications of superconductivity - Microwave and infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth of a seven part series on the potential applications of superconductivity in space. The potential of superconducting microwave and infrared detectors for space applications is reviewed. The devices considered include bolometers, super-Schottky diodes and Josephson junctions operating as oscillators, mixers, and parametric amplifiers. In each case the description includes the physical mechanism, theoretical limits and the current state of the art for the superconducting device as well as its nonsuperconducting competitors.

  7. Space applications of superconductivity - Microwave and infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth of a seven part series on the potential applications of superconductivity in space. The potential of superconducting microwave and infrared detectors for space applications is reviewed. The devices considered include bolometers, super-Schottky diodes and Josephson junctions operating as oscillators, mixers, and parametric amplifiers. In each case the description includes the physical mechanism, theoretical limits and the current state of the art for the superconducting device as well as its nonsuperconducting competitors.

  8. The Next-Generation Infrared Space Mission Spica: Project Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Shibai, Hiroshi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kohno, Kotaro; Matsuhara, Hideo; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Onaka, Takashi; Roelfsema, Peter; SPICA Team

    2017-03-01

    We present project updates of the next-generation infrared space mission SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) as of November 2015. SPICA is optimized for mid- and far-infrared astronomy with unprecedented sensitivity, which will be achieved with a cryogenically cooled (below 8 K), large (2.5~m) telescope. SPICA is expected to address a number of key questions in various fields of astrophysics, ranging from studies of the star-formation history in the universe to the formation and evolution of planetary systems. The international collaboration framework of SPICA has been revisited. SPICA under the new framework passed the Mission Definition Review by JAXA in 2015. A proposal under the new framework to ESA is being prepared. The target launch year in the new framework is 2027/28.

  9. Report of the infrared, ultraviolet and space plasma panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, J.; Tanner, S. G. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The status of the payload bay and the needs of infrared, ultraviolet and space plasma experiments were discussed. Those measurements important in each area were reviewed. Issues of concern and how these environmental conditions might impact experiments were considered. Several common issues were revealed, and recommendations were made.

  10. LISA Pathfinder: An important first step towards a space-based gravitational wave observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, James

    2017-08-01

    ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission was launched on Dec 3rd, 2015 and completed earlier this Summer. During this relatively short mission, Pathfinder at its two science payloads, Europe's LISA Technology Package and NASA's Disturbance Reduction System, demonstrated several techniques and technologies that enable development of a future space-based gravitational wave observatory. Most notably, Pathfinder demonstrated that the technique of drag-free flight could be utilized to place a test mass in near-perfect free-fall, with residual accelerations at the femto-g level in the milliHertz band. Additionally, technologies such as precision bonded optical structures for metrology, micropropulsion systems, and non-contact charge control, were successfully tested, retiring risk for LISA. In this talk, I will present an overview of Pathfinder's results to date and some perspective on how this success will be leveraged into realizing LISA.

  11. Overview and initial results of the very long baseline interferometry space observatory programme

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi; Hirosawa; Kobayashi; Murata; Edwards; Fomalont; Fujisawa; Ichikawa; Kii; Lovell; Moellenbrock; Okayasu; Inoue; Kawaguchi; Kameno; Shibata; Asaki; Bushimata; Enome; Horiuchi; Miyaji; Umemoto; Migenes; Wajima; Nakajima; et

    1998-09-18

    High angular resolution images of extragalactic radio sources are being made with the Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy (HALCA) satellite and ground-based radio telescopes as part of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Programme (VSOP). VSOP observations at 1.6 and 5 gigahertz of the milli-arc-second-scale structure of radio quasars enable the quasar core size and the corresponding brightness temperature to be determined, and they enable the motions of jet components that are close to the core to be studied. Here, VSOP images of the gamma-ray source 1156+295, the quasar 1548+056, the ultraluminous quasar 0014+813, and the superluminal quasar 0212+735 are presented and discussed.

  12. The Distribution of Neutron Absorbing Time in the Neutron Detector of the GAMMA-400 Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnezdilov, I. I.; Mukhin, V. I.; Demichev, M. A.

    The neutron detectors (ND) have been designed for the future GAMMA-400 space observatory with 3He-counters and 6LiF/ZnS(Ag) scintillation screens. The ND contribution in the rejection factor for protons in the GAMMA-400 is considered with significantly different number of neutrons generated in the electromagnetic and hadronic cascades. The ND is predominantly made from polyethylene, it has sizes of 100×100×10 cm3. GEANT4 simulation was obtained by the differential distribution of neutron absorbing time as the function of the registration time for different 3He, 6Li concentration. Nomograms were constructed for determining neutrons miscount depending on the number of neutrons crossing the ND and time resolution of the ND. The simulation results showed that the ND with 33 3He-counters detected the neutron fluence 0.23 n/cm2 without neutrons miscount.

  13. Sub-Femto-g Free Fall for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Observatories: LISA Pathfinder Results.

    PubMed

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Auger, G; Baird, J T; Bassan, M; Binetruy, P; Born, M; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Caleno, M; Carbone, L; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Ciani, G; Congedo, G; Cruise, A M; Danzmann, K; de Deus Silva, M; De Rosa, R; Diaz-Aguiló, M; Di Fiore, L; Diepholz, I; Dixon, G; Dolesi, R; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L; Ferroni, V; Fichter, W; Fitzsimons, E D; Flatscher, R; Freschi, M; García Marín, A F; García Marirrodriga, C; Gerndt, R; Gesa, L; Gibert, F; Giardini, D; Giusteri, R; Guzmán, F; Grado, A; Grimani, C; Grynagier, A; Grzymisch, J; Harrison, I; Heinzel, G; Hewitson, M; Hollington, D; Hoyland, D; Hueller, M; Inchauspé, H; Jennrich, O; Jetzer, P; Johann, U; Johlander, B; Karnesis, N; Kaune, B; Korsakova, N; Killow, C J; Lobo, J A; Lloro, I; Liu, L; López-Zaragoza, J P; Maarschalkerweerd, R; Mance, D; Martín, V; Martin-Polo, L; Martino, J; Martin-Porqueras, F; Madden, S; Mateos, I; McNamara, P W; Mendes, J; Mendes, L; Monsky, A; Nicolodi, D; Nofrarias, M; Paczkowski, S; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Petiteau, A; Pivato, P; Plagnol, E; Prat, P; Ragnit, U; Raïs, B; Ramos-Castro, J; Reiche, J; Robertson, D I; Rozemeijer, H; Rivas, F; Russano, G; Sanjuán, J; Sarra, P; Schleicher, A; Shaul, D; Slutsky, J; Sopuerta, C F; Stanga, R; Steier, F; Sumner, T; Texier, D; Thorpe, J I; Trenkel, C; Tröbs, M; Tu, H B; Vetrugno, D; Vitale, S; Wand, V; Wanner, G; Ward, H; Warren, C; Wass, P J; Wealthy, D; Weber, W J; Wissel, L; Wittchen, A; Zambotti, A; Zanoni, C; Ziegler, T; Zweifel, P

    2016-06-10

    We report the first results of the LISA Pathfinder in-flight experiment. The results demonstrate that two free-falling reference test masses, such as those needed for a space-based gravitational wave observatory like LISA, can be put in free fall with a relative acceleration noise with a square root of the power spectral density of 5.2±0.1  fm s^{-2}/sqrt[Hz], or (0.54±0.01)×10^{-15}  g/sqrt[Hz], with g the standard gravity, for frequencies between 0.7 and 20 mHz. This value is lower than the LISA Pathfinder requirement by more than a factor 5 and within a factor 1.25 of the requirement for the LISA mission, and is compatible with Brownian noise from viscous damping due to the residual gas surrounding the test masses. Above 60 mHz the acceleration noise is dominated by interferometer displacement readout noise at a level of (34.8±0.3)  fm/sqrt[Hz], about 2 orders of magnitude better than requirements. At f≤0.5  mHz we observe a low-frequency tail that stays below 12  fm s^{-2}/sqrt[Hz] down to 0.1 mHz. This performance would allow for a space-based gravitational wave observatory with a sensitivity close to what was originally foreseen for LISA.

  14. Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory: System level science by large-scale space-ground coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.; Angelopoulos, V.; Moore, T. E.; Samara, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent multi-satellite and ground-based network measurements have revealed importance of cross-scale and cross-regional coupling processes for understanding key issues in geospace such as magnetic reconnection, substorms and particle acceleration. In particular, localized and fast plasma transport in a global scale has been recognized to play a fundamental role in regulating evolution of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling. Those results call for coordinated measurements multi-missions and facilities in a global scale for understanding global coupling processes in a system level. In fact, the National Research Council recommends to use NASA's existing heliophysics flight missions and NSF's ground-based facilities by forming a network of observing platforms that operate simultaneously to investigate the solar system. This array can be thought of as a single observatory, the Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory (H/GSO). Motivated by the successful launch of MMS and the healthy status of THEMIS, Van Allen Probes and other missions, we plan a strategic use of existing and upcoming assets in space and ground in the next two years. In the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 northern winter seasons, MMS will be in the dayside over northern Europe, and THEMIS will be in the nightside over North America. In the 2016 and 2017 southern winter seasons, THEMIS will be in the dayside over the South Pole, and MMS will be in the nightside in the Australian sector. These are favorable configurations for simultaneous day-night coupling measurements of magnetic reconnection and related plasma transport both in space and on the ground, and also provide excellent opportunities for cross-scale coupling, global effects of dayside transients, tail-inner magnetosphere coupling, and other global processes. This presentation will give the current status and plan of the H/GSO and these science targets.

  15. This inflight photo was taken during the first flight of the NASA and German Aerospace Center SOFIA airborne infrared observatory 747SP on April 26, 2007

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-26

    Christened "Clipper Lindbergh" when it flew for Pan American Airways in the 1970s, the SOFIA 747SP shows evidence of modification to its aft fuselage contours to accommodate a 16-foot-tall opening for a 45,000-pound infrared telescope. This inflight photo was taken on SOFIA's first flight since its modification to become an airborne observatory.

  16. The infrared camera prototype characterization for the JEM-EUSO space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Joven, E.; del Peral, L.; Reyes, M.; Licandro, J.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.

    2014-06-01

    JEM-EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory on Japanese Experiment Module) is an advanced observatory that will be on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and use the Earth's atmosphere as a huge calorimeter detector. However, the atmospheric clouds introduce uncertainties in the signals measured by JEM-EUSO. Therefore, it is extremely important to know the atmospheric conditions and properties of the clouds in the Field of View (FoV) of the telescope. The Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS) of JEM-EUSO includes a lidar and an infrared imaging system, IR-Camera, aimed to detect the presence of clouds and to obtain the cloud coverage and cloud top altitude during the observations of the JEM-EUSO main telescope. To define the road-map for the design of the electronics, the detector has been tested extensively with a first prototype. The actual design of the IR-Camera, the test of the prototype, and the outcome of this characterization are presented in this paper.

  17. First Year In-Flight and Early Science with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lario, P.

    2011-07-01

    Herschel, an ESA space observatory equipped with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia with important participation from NASA, was launched on 14 May 2009. With its 3.5m diameter primary mirror, Herschel is the largest telescope ever launched into space. Herschel carries three science instruments whose focal plane units are cryogenically cooled inside a superfluid helium cryostat. The PACS and SPIRE instruments provide broadband imaging photometry in six bands centered on 75, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm and imaging spectroscopy over the range 55-672 μm. The HIFI instrument provides very high-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy over the ranges 157-212 and 240-625 μm. The prime science objectives of Herschel are intimately connected to the physics of, and processes in, the interstellar medium (ISM) in the widest sense. Near and far in both space and time, they stretch from solar system objects and the relics of the formation of the sun and our solar system, through star formation in the ISM and the feedback material returned by evolved stars to the ISM, to the star formation history of the universe, galaxy evolution, and cosmology. The very first observational results from Herschel already show that it will have strong impact on research in all of these fields, as exemplified by the few observational results presented here, These are just the tip of the iceberg of what is yet to come in the remaining 2 years of operations.

  18. Comparison of precipitable water vapour measurements made with an optical echelle spectrograph and an infrared radiometer at Las Campanas Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querel, Richard R.; Naylor, David A.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Prieto, Gabriel; McWilliam, Andrew

    2008-07-01

    We present simultaneous precipitable water vapour (PWV) measurements made at the Las Campanas Observatory in late 2007 using an Infrared Radiometer for Millimetre Astronomy (IRMA) and the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) optical spectrograph. Opacity due to water vapour is the primary concern for ground based infrared astronomy. IRMA has been developed to measure the emission of rotational transitions of water vapour across a narrow spectral region centred around 20 μm, using a 0.1 m off-axis parabolic mirror and a sophisticated atmospheric model to retrieve PWV. In contrast, the MIKE instrument is used in conjunction with the 6.5 m Magellan Clay telescope, and determines the PWV through absorption measurements of water vapour lines in the spectra of telluric standard stars. With its high spectral resolution, MIKE is able to measure absorption from optically thin water vapour lines and can derive PWV values using a simple, single layer atmospheric model. In an attempt to improve the MIKE derived PWV measurements, we explore the potential of fitting a series of MIKE water vapour line measurements, having different opacities.

  19. Community Plan for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ade, Peter; Akeson, Rachel; Ali, Shafinaz; Amato, Michael; Arendt, Richard; Baker, Charles; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bock, James; Borne, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents the consensus view of the 124 participants in the Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy.We recommend that NASA pursue the vision for far-IR astronomy outlined in the NAS Decadal Survey, which said: A rational coordinated program for space optical and infrared astronomy would build on the experience gained with NGST1 to construct [a JWST-scale filled-aperture far-IR telescope SAFIR, and then ultimately, in the decade 2010 to 2020, build on the SAFIR, TPF, and SIM experience to assemble a space-based, far-infrared interferometer. SAFIR will study star formation in the young universe, the buildup of elements heavier than hydrogen over cosmic history, the process of galaxy formation, and the early phases of star formation, which occur behind a veil of dust that precludes detection at mid IR and shorter wavelengths. The far-infrared interferometer will resolve distant galaxies to study protogalaxy interactions and mergers and the processes that led to enhanced star formation activity and the formation of Active Galactic Nuclei, and will resolve protostars and debris disks in our Galaxy to study how stars and planetary systems form.

  20. Effect of space exposure on pyroelectric infrared detectors (A0135)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Clark, I. O.; Crouch, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of long-duration space exposure and launch environment on the performance of pyroelectric detectors which is important for the prediction of performance degradation, setting exposure limits, or determining shielding requirements was investigated. Air pollution monitoring and thermal mapping of the Earth, which includes the remote sensing of aerosols and limb scanning infrared radiometer projects, requires photodetection in the 6- to 20 micro m region of the spectrum. Pyroelectric detectors can detect radiation in the 1- to 100 micro m region while operating at room temperature. This makes tahe pyroelectric detector a prime candidate to fill the thermal infrared detector requirements.

  1. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Boeing 747SP flares for landing at Edwards AFB after a ferry flight from Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-31

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Boeing 747SP flares for landing at Edwards AFB after a ferry flight from Waco, Texas. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on May 31, 2007. The heavily modified Boeing 747SP was ferried to Dryden from Waco, Texas, where L-3 Communications Integrated Systems installed a German-built 2.5-meter infrared telescope and made other major modifications over the past several years. SOFIA is scheduled to undergo installation and integration of mission systems and a multi-phase flight test program at Dryden over the next three years that is expected to lead to a full operational capability to conduct astronomy missions in about 2010. During its expected 20-year lifetime, SOFIA will be capable of "Great Observatory" class astronomical science, providing astronomers with access to the visible, infrared and sub-millimeter spectrum with optimized performance in the mid-infrared to sub-millimeter range.

  2. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Boeing 747SP flies over NASA DFRC after a ferry flight from Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-31

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Boeing 747SP flies over NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center after a ferry flight from Waco, Texas. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on May 31, 2007. The heavily modified Boeing 747SP was ferried to Dryden from Waco, Texas, where L-3 Communications Integrated Systems installed a German-built 2.5-meter infrared telescope and made other major modifications over the past several years. SOFIA is scheduled to undergo installation and integration of mission systems and a multi-phase flight test program at Dryden over the next three years that is expected to lead to a full operational capability to conduct astronomy missions in about 2010. During its expected 20-year lifetime, SOFIA will be capable of "Great Observatory" class astronomical science, providing astronomers with access to the visible, infrared and sub-millimeter spectrum with optimized performance in the mid-infrared to sub-millimeter range.

  3. Instrumentation for Infrared Astronomy in the Collections of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVorkin, David H.

    2017-01-01

    The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution is responsible for preserving the material heritage of modern astronomical history. We place emphasis on American accomplishments, on both airborne and spaceborne instrumentation, and on ground based instrumentation that stimulated and supported spaceborne efforts. At present the astronomical collection includes over 600 objects, of which approximately 40 relate to the history of infrared astronomy. This poster will provide a simple listing of our holdings in infrared and far-infrared astronomy, and will highlight particularly significant early objects, like Cashman and Ektron cells, Leighton and Neugebauer's Caltech 2.2 micron survey telescope, Low's Lear Jet Bolometer, Harwit's first Aerobee IR payload and Fazio's balloon-borne observatory. Elements from more recent missions will also be included, such as instruments from KAO, an IRAS focal plane instrument, FIRAS from COBE, the payload from Boomerang and Woody and Richards' balloonsonde payload. The poster author will invite AAS members to comment on these holdings, provide short stories of their experiences building and using them, and suggest candidates for possible collection.

  4. U.S. Participation in the Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christl, Mark

    This is the lead Institution proposal submitted by the University of Chicago (Angela Olinto, PI) for the U.S. Participation in the Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module. We propose to discover the origin of extreme energy cosmic rays, those with energies in excess of 60 EeV, produced by the most powerful cosmic accelerators in the universe. We will use the Extreme-Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) instrument, which is to be attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). JEM-EUSO is being developed by an international collaboration for launch on the Japanese H2 Transfer Vehicle in 2017. This proposal is for the US contribution to the mission which consists of monitoring and calibration with a Global Light System (GLS) of lasers and xenon light sources, data acquisition and analysis software, data archiving, and science results for the first year of the mission. We also propose that NASA make a contribution to the upmass needed to launch JEM-EUSO and attachment point resources. The GLS for JEM-EUSO will be located at 12 sites around the world, supplemented with an aircraft system. The calibrated UV lasers and Xenon flash lamps will generate calibrated optical signatures in the atmosphere within the field of view of JEM-EUSO with similar characteristics to the optical signals of cosmic ray extensive air showers. Throughout its pioneering mission, JEM-EUSO will reconstruct the pointing directions of the lasers and the energy of the lasers and flash lamps to monitor the detector s triggers, and accuracy of energy and direction reconstruction. These are the critical parameters for identifying the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays and for evaluating the scientific performance of this pioneering instrument. Starting in 2014, a prototype of the JEM-EUSO instrument will be flown on a balloon to test its design. We propose to build prototypes of the GLS and use them to test and calibrate the

  5. Management of the camera electronics programme for the World Space Observatory ultraviolet WUVS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Gayatri; Clapp, Matthew; Salter, Mike; Waltham, Nick; Beardsley, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major international collaboration led by Russia and will study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph (WUVS) subsystem is led by a consortium of Russian institutes and consists of three spectrographs. RAL Space is contracted by e2v technologies Ltd to provide the CCD readout electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. The programme involves the design, manufacturing, assembly and testing of each Camera Electronics Box (CEB), its associated Interconnection Module (ICM), Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) and harness. An overview of the programme will be presented, from the initial design phase culminating in the development of an Engineering Model (EM) through qualification whereby an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) will undergo environmental testing to characterize the performance of the CEB against the space environment, to the delivery of the Flight Models (FMs). The paper will discuss the challenges faced managing a large, dynamic project. This includes managing significant changes in fundamental requirements mid-programme as a result of external political issues which forced a complete re-design of an existing CEB with extensive space heritage but containing many ITAR controlled electronic components to a new, more efficient solution, free of ITAR controlled parts. The methodology and processes used to ensure the demanding schedule is maintained through each stage of the project will be presented including an insight into planning, decision-making, communication, risk management, and resource management; all essential to the continued success of the programme.

  6. MEO and LEO space debris optical observations at Crimean Observatory: first experience and future perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, Vasilij; Biryukov, Vadim; Agapov, Vladimir; Molotov, Igor

    The near Earth space observation group of Crimean Observatory is performing the regular op-tical monitoring of space debris at GEO region within framework of the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON). During last years we also paid attention to objects on lower orbits due to increasing interest to LEO and MEO regions caused by several catastrophic events happened in the recent past. Optical observations provide high quality information about position and physical properties of space debris at LEO and MEO so they can be considered as another source of data comple-mentary to traditional radar measurements. We will discuss our observations of fragments from Briz-M upper stage (object 28944) and Block-DM ullage motor (25054) explosions. Results of observation of USA-193 debris will be presented. Then we will focus on observations and some photometric properties of FengYun 1C debris as well as Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 fragments. Radar cross-section versus optical photometry will be compared. Moreover, estimates of orbital parameters as well as area-to-mass ratio for some observed objects will be given. Most of our observations which we discuss in the paper represent just the first attempt to investigate capabilities of our optical system to observe MEO and LEO objects. But these results are very promising and show good perspectives for the future. We will briefly describe future perspectives of our optical observations of space debris and other objects in MEO and LEO region after the new wide-field telescopes will be put into operation.

  7. Status of a Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2015-08-01

    For over two decades, NASA has studied a flight project to build a gravitational-wave observatory, and partnered with the European Space Agency (ESA) to formulate and study such a mission. The spectacular science and the well-defined and well-studied Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission concept got high recommendations in the U.S. astrophysics decadal surveys of 2000 and 2010.In 2013, ESA selected the science theme, the “Gravitational Universe,” for the third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has begun negotiating a NASA role. The US research community has studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA.This talk will describe the current state of: mission concept studies, US participation in an ESA-led study, technology development, other relevant activities and preparation for the 2020 decadal survey.

  8. EPIC Radiance Simulator for Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, Alexei; Marshak, Alexander; Wang, Yujie; Korkin, Sergey; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) is a planned space weather mission for the Sun and Earth observations from the Lagrangian L1 point. Onboard of DSCOVR is a multispectral imager EPIC designed for unique observations of the full illuminated disk of the Earth with high temporal and 10 km spatial resolution. Depending on latitude, EPIC will observe the same Earth surface area during the course of the day in a wide range of solar and view zenith angles in the backscattering view geometry with the scattering angle of 164-172 . To understand the information content of EPIC data for analysis of the Earth clouds, aerosols and surface properties, an EPIC radiance Simulator was developed covering the UV -VIS-NIR range including the oxygen A and B-bands (A=340, 388, 443, 555, 680, 779.5, 687.7, 763.3 nm). The Simulator uses ancillary data (surface pressure/height, NCEP wind speed) as well as MODIS-based geophysical fields such as spectral surface bidirectional reflectance, column water vapor, and properties of aerosols and clouds including optical depth, effective radius, phase and cloud top height. The original simulations are conducted at 1 km resolution using the look-up table approach and then are averaged to 10 km EPIC radiances. This talk will give an overview of the EPIC Simulator with analysis of results over the continental USA and northern Atlantic.

  9. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow; Löschl, Philipp; Seifert, Bernhard; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Kraaikamp, Emil; Isha Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Philippe, Thomas; Spina, Sheila; Bröse, Malte; Massahi, Sonny; O'Halloran, Liam; Pereira Blanco, Victor; Stausland, Christoffer; Escoubet, Philippe; Kargl, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun. The spacecraft will be separated by an angle of 68° to provide optimum stereoscopic view of the solar corona. We study the feasibility of such a mission and propose a preliminary design for OSCAR.

  10. Co-location of Space Geodetic Instruments at the "Quasar" VLBI Network Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, A.; Ipatov, A.; Gayazov, I.; Shargorodsky, V.; Smolentsev, S.; Mitryaev, V.; Diyakov, A.; Olifirov, V.; Rahimov, I.

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the current status of creating the co-location stations at the observatories of the Russian VLBI network "Quasar". Satellite Laser Ranging systems "Sazhen-TM" manufactured by Research-and-Production Corporation "Precision Systems and Instruments" were installed at all observatories of the network in 2011. The main technical characteristics of the SLR system and the co-location of high-precision observational instruments at the observatories are presented in this paper.

  11. The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt): a project to measure the diffused sky polarization from the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortiglioni, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt), a project to measure the diffused sky polarization in the frequency range of 22-90 GHz from the International Space Station, is described in its current configuration. Some preliminary considerations about the general topic of polarization in radiometric observations are made, in order to introduce the importance of polarimetric measurements in the more general context of Cosmic Microwave Background observations. The International Space Station is also introduced as a quite good opportunity to address such problematics.

  12. A Review of Infrared Readout Electronics for Space Science Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A review of infrared readout electornics for space science sensors is presented. General requirements for scientific IR FPA readout are discussed. Specific approaches to the unit cell electronics are described with respect to operation, complexity, noise and other operating parameters. Recent achievements in IR FPA readout electronics are reviewed. Implementation technologies for realization of IR FPA readout electronics are discussed. Future directions for addressing NASA and other scientific users' needs are suggested.

  13. Constructing infrared finite propagators in inflating space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaraman, Arvind; Kumar, Jason; Leblond, Louis

    2010-07-15

    The usual (Bunch-Davies) Feynman propagator of a massless field is not well defined in an expanding universe due to the presence of infrared divergences. We propose a new propagator which yields IR finite answers to any correlation function. The key point is that in a de Sitter space-time there is an ambiguity in the zero mode of the propagator. This ambiguity can be used to cancel the apparent divergences which arise in some loop calculations in eternally (or semieternally) inflating space-time. We refer to this process as zero-mode modification. The residual ambiguity is fixed by observational measurement.

  14. Space-based hyperspectral technologies for the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeVan, Paul D.

    2013-06-01

    Various approaches now exist for obtaining spectral imagery over a broad range of infrared wavelengths. One approach involves the use of a single grating element in two grating orders with dualband focal plane array (FPA) technology. This approach offers greater efficiency over the mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared and eliminates the need for separate FPAs, dispersing elements, and optical beamsplitters. Another approach achieves similar results by exploiting an FPA which has a broad wavelength response with an innovative grating which has useable efficiency that extends beyond the single octave limits of traditional gratings. Significant advantages result, in either case, for space-based hyperspectral imagers, for which a reduction in cryo-cooled mass translates into prodigious savings in overall payload mass, cryo-cooling requirements, and waste heat removal. By contrast, longer term approaches might realize infrared "hyperspectral pixels" in two-dimensional imaging FPAs. In this case, each pixel would detect different wavelengths of radiation, at different depths, and the resulting "spectral photocurrents" would be transported to read-out circuitry through a vertical grid of electrical contacts. Although not yet realized in practice, the conceptual basis for accomplishing this, with the widely available HgCdTe detector material, has been described. With regard to employment, space-based thermal hyperspectral imaging is characterized by coarser ground resolution as a result of aperture diameter limitations and diffraction considerations at the longer infrared wavelengths. The resulting subpixel detections, based on spectral signature, are often complementary with higher resolution, shorter wavelength, panchromatic imagery.

  15. Development of low-noise CCD drive electronics for the world space observatory ultraviolet spectrograph subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Mike; Clapp, Matthew; King, James; Morse, Tom; Mihalcea, Ionut; Waltham, Nick; Hayes-Thakore, Chris

    2016-07-01

    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major Russian-led international collaboration to develop a large space-borne 1.7 m Ritchey-Chrétien telescope and instrumentation to study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm, exceeding the current capabilities of ground-based instruments. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph subsystem (WUVS) is led by the Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences and consists of two high resolution spectrographs covering the Far-UV range of 115-176 nm and the Near-UV range of 174-310 nm, and a long-slit spectrograph covering the wavelength range of 115-305 nm. The custom-designed CCD sensors and cryostat assemblies are being provided by e2v technologies (UK). STFC RAL Space is providing the Camera Electronics Boxes (CEBs) which house the CCD drive electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. This paper presents the results of the detailed characterisation of the WUVS CCD drive electronics. The electronics include a novel high-performance video channel design that utilises Digital Correlated Double Sampling (DCDS) to enable low-noise readout of the CCD at a range of pixel frequencies, including a baseline requirement of less than 3 electrons rms readout noise for the combined CCD and electronics system at a readout rate of 50 kpixels/s. These results illustrate the performance of this new video architecture as part of a wider electronics sub-system that is designed for use in the space environment. In addition to the DCDS video channels, the CEB provides all the bias voltages and clocking waveforms required to operate the CCD and the system is fully programmable via a primary and redundant SpaceWire interface. The development of the CEB electronics design has undergone critical design review and the results presented were obtained using the engineering-grade electronics box. A variety of parameters and tests are included ranging from general system metrics, such as the power and mass

  16. Primary mirror and mount technology for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melugin, Ramsey K.; Chang, L. S.; Mansfield, J. A.; Howard, Steven D.

    1989-01-01

    Candidate technologies for a lightweight primary mirror for the SOFIA telescope are evaluated for both mirror blank fabrication and polishing. Two leading candidates for the type mirror blank are considered: the frit-bonded, structured form, and the thin meniscus form. The feasible mirror is required to be very lightweight with an areal density of approximately 100 kg/sq m, have an f/ratio near 1.0, and have surface quality that permits imaging in the visible as well as the infrared. Also considered are the results of a study conducted to assess the feasibility of designing a suitable mounting system for the primary mirror. The requirements for the mount design are given both in terms of the environmental conditions and the expected optical performance. PATRAN and NASTRAN programs are used to model mirror and mounting. The sandwich-type mirror made of ultra low expansion silica with square cells in the core, is modeled using equivalent solid elements for the core. The design study produces primary mirror surface deflections in 1g as a function of mirror elevation angles. The surface is analyzed using an optical analysis program, FRINGE, to give a prediction of the mirror optical performance. Results from this analysis are included.

  17. ESA’s L3 mission: A space-based gravitational-wave observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Guido

    2016-04-01

    ESA selected the Gravitational Universe as the science theme for one of its future L-class missions. L3 will measure gravitational waves in the 10µHz to 100mHz window; probably the richest of all gravitational wave windows. Expected sources in this frequency band range from massive black hole mergers to extreme mass ratio inspirals to compact galactic binary systems.The L3 mission is expected to be based on the eLISA/LISA design which was submitted by the eLISA consortium as a notional mission concept. NASA started discussions with ESA how to join L3 and participates in ESA’s Gravitational Observatory Advisory Team. NASA is also in the process of setting up its own L3-Study team to look at potential US contributions to L3. This group will also act as the US partner for the eLISA consortium. In summary, the space component of the GW community has gained significant momentum over the last 12 months and a successful pathfinder mission and potential GW discoveries by Advanced LIGO and/or pulsar timing arrays should further strengthen the case for LISA.

  18. Measuring CO2 from Space: The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) was the first NASA satellite designed to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from space with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to detect CO2 surface fluxes. OCO was designed to collect 0.5 to 1 million soundings each day. Typical measurements over land were expected to have precisions of 0.3% within surface footprints smaller less than 3 square km. This project suffered a major setback in February 2009 when the OCO launch vehicle failed to achieve orbit and the satellite was lost. The U.S. Congress has since authorized a restart of the OCO project, and the President's 2010 budget proposal includes funding to develop and fly a replacement for OCO that could be ready for launch no later than February 2013. This mission has been designated OCO-2. While this mission will be a near "carbon copy" of OCO, some changes were needed to replace components that were no longer available. Here, we describe the capabilities, of the OCO-2 mission, highlighting its differences from OCO.

  19. High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) using WINERED at Koyama Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Ogawa, Sayuri; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Kondo, Sohei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya; Otsubo, Shogo; Kinoshita, Masaomi; Ikeda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Ryo; Izumi, Natsuko; Fukue, Kei; Hamano, Satoshi; Yasui, Chikako; Mito, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2014-11-01

    High resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) using the WINERED ( 3x10^4) spectrometer on the 1.3-m Araki telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory were carried out on UT 2013 November 30. The comet was at 0.91 AU from the Sun and 0.49 AU from the Earth at the observations. This comet was considered to originate in the Oort cloud and became bright in visible from October to December 2013. The newly developed instrument, WINERED, was a cross-dispersed Echelle spectrometer that can cover the wavelength range from 0.9 to 1.3 microns simultaneously. Many emission lines were recorded in the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of comet Lovejoy. We report the line assignment of the detected emission lines and present our preliminary analysis for CN Red-band system.This research program is supported by the MEXT --- Supported Program for the Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities, 2014 - 2018.

  20. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) high-resolution near-infrared multi-object fiber spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John C.; Hearty, Fred; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Majewski, Steven; Schiavon, Ricardo; Eisenstein, Daniel; Gunn, Jim; Blank, Basil; Henderson, Chuck; Smee, Stephen; Barkhouser, Robert; Harding, Al; Fitzgerald, Greg; Stolberg, Todd; Arns, Jim; Nelson, Matt; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Walker, Eric; Lam, Charles; Maseman, Paul; Barr, Jim; Leger, French; Carey, Larry; MacDonald, Nick; Horne, Todd; Young, Erick; Rieke, George; Rieke, Marcia; O'Brien, Tom; Hope, Steve; Krakula, John; Crane, Jeff; Zhao, Bo; Carr, Mike; Harrison, Craig; Stoll, Robert; Vernieri, Mary A.; Holtzman, Jon; Shetrone, Matt; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Johnson, Jennifer; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Gillespie, Bruce; Weinberg, David

    2010-07-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) will use a dedicated 300-fiber, narrow-band (1.5-1.7 micron), high resolution (R~30,000), near-infrared spectrograph to survey approximately 100,000 giant stars across the Milky Way. This survey, conducted as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III), will revolutionize our understanding of kinematical and chemical enrichment histories of all Galactic stellar populations. The instrument, currently in fabrication, will be housed in a separate building adjacent to the 2.5 m SDSS telescope and fed light via approximately 45-meter fiber runs from the telescope. The instrument design includes numerous technological challenges and innovations including a gang connector that allows simultaneous connection of all fibers with a single plug to a telescope cartridge that positions the fibers on the sky, numerous places in the fiber train in which focal ratio degradation must be minimized, a large (290 mm x 475 mm elliptically-shaped recorded area) mosaic-VPH, an f/1.4 sixelement refractive camera featuring silicon and fused silica elements with diameters as large as 393 mm, three near-within a custom, LN2-cooled, stainless steel vacuum cryostat with dimensions 1.4 m x 2.3 m x 1.3 m.

  1. Wireless infrared communications for space and terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimmins, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Voice and data communications via wireless (and fiberless) optical means has been commonplace for many years. However, continuous advances in optoelectronics and microelectronics have resulted in significant advances in wireless optical communications over the last decade. Wilton has specialized in diffuse infrared voice and data communications since 1979. In 1986, NASA Johnson Space Center invited Wilton to apply its wireless telecommunications and factory floor technology to astronaut voice communications aboard the shuttle. In September, 1988 a special infrared voice communications system flew aboard a 'Discovery' Shuttle mission as a flight experiment. Since then the technology has been further developed, resulting in a general purpose of 2Mbs wireless voice/data LAN which has been tested for a variety of applications including use aboard Spacelab. Funds for Wilton's wireless IR development were provided in part by NASA's Technology Utilization Office and by the NASA Small Business Innovative Research Program. As a consequence, Wilton's commercial product capability has been significantly enhanced to include diffuse infrared wireless LAN's as well as wireless infrared telecommunication systems for voice and data.

  2. Wireless infrared communications for space and terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, James W.

    1993-02-01

    Voice and data communications via wireless (and fiberless) optical means has been commonplace for many years. However, continuous advances in optoelectronics and microelectronics have resulted in significant advances in wireless optical communications over the last decade. Wilton has specialized in diffuse infrared voice and data communications since 1979. In 1986, NASA Johnson Space Center invited Wilton to apply its wireless telecommunications and factory floor technology to astronaut voice communications aboard the shuttle. In September, 1988 a special infrared voice communications system flew aboard a 'Discovery' Shuttle mission as a flight experiment. Since then the technology has been further developed, resulting in a general purpose of 2Mbs wireless voice/data LAN which has been tested for a variety of applications including use aboard Spacelab. Funds for Wilton's wireless IR development were provided in part by NASA's Technology Utilization Office and by the NASA Small Business Innovative Research Program. As a consequence, Wilton's commercial product capability has been significantly enhanced to include diffuse infrared wireless LAN's as well as wireless infrared telecommunication systems for voice and data.

  3. The large deployable reflector: A NASA submillimeter-infrared orbiting observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Paul N.

    1986-01-01

    The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) concept is outlined. The LDR telescope is based on a 20-m diameter reflector. The primary mirror is a filled aperture made up of 84 hexagonal panels, each 2 m edge-to-edge. The panels are based on lightweight structural composite materials. The optical configuration is a four mirror two stage system. The primary mirror is passive. The active optical elements for figure control are at the quaternary mirror. The primary mirror panels are supported by a deployable PAC truss backup structure at the vertices of each hexagon. The four focal plane instruments covering the range of 30 to 1000 microns are located near the vertex of the primary mirror. Some instruments will be cooled with stored cryogens to liquid helium temperatures, others to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The spacecraft functions will be located in a resource module behind the primary mirror. The LDR will be transferred to orbit by the space transportation system and assembled and tested at the space station. It will then be boosted to an orbit of greater than or = 700 km as a free flyer.

  4. Future space missions and ground observatory for measurements of coronal magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Gibson, Sarah; Bemporad, Alessandro; Zhukov, Andrei; Damé, Luc; Susino, Roberto; Larruquert, Juan

    2016-07-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the near-future perspectives for probing coronal magnetism from space missions (i.e., SCORE and ASPIICS) and ground-based observatory (ESCAPE). Spectro-polarimetric imaging of coronal emission-lines in the visible-light wavelength-band provides an important diagnostics tool of the coronal magnetism. The interpretation in terms of Hanle and Zeeman effect of the line-polarization in forbidden emission-lines yields information on the direction and strength of the coronal magnetic field. As study case, this presentation will describe the Torino Coronal Magnetograph (CorMag) for the spectro-polarimetric observation of the FeXIV, 530.3 nm, forbidden emission-line. CorMag - consisting of a Liquid Crystal (LC) Lyot filter and a LC linear polarimeter. The CorMag filter is part of the ESCAPE experiment to be based at the French-Italian Concordia base in Antarctica. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV)can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Space-based UV spectro-polarimeters would provide an additional tool for the disgnostics of coronal magnetism. As a case study of space-borne UV spectro-polarimeters, this presentation will describe the future upgrade of the Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment (SCORE) to include new generation, high-efficiency UV polarizer with the capability of imaging polarimetry of the HI Lyman-α, 121.6 nm. SCORE is a multi-wavelength imager for the emission-lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and visible-light broad-band emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009. The second lauch is scheduled in 2016. Proba-3 is the other future solar mission that would provide the opportunity of diagnosing the coronal magnetic field. Proba-3 is the first precision formation-flying mission to launched in 2019). A pair of satellites will fly together maintaining a fixed configuration as a 'large rigid

  5. Discrimination of ultra high energy cosmic rays with the extreme universe space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez Cano, G.

    2015-02-01

    This thesis is framed in the study of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) by space-based telescopes such as the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) that will be place on the International Space Station (ISS). After a brief summary of the main features of UHECRs in chapter 2, a description of the JEM-EUSO experiment has been carried out in chapter 3. In the following chapters, which are focused on my work, it has been studied how different clouds might affect the development of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) produced in the atmosphere by UHECRs and detected from space. This effect depends not only on the optical depth and on the altitude of the cloud, but also on some properties of the EAS (such as the arrival direction or the primary energy). In chapter 4 we have investigated how the EAS signal looks like depending on the part of the Field of View (FoV) where it is produced, analyzing the difference in the number of detected photons or in the duration of the shower development in the atmosphere. In chapter 5, a trigger efficiency in cloudy conditions, called cloud efficiency, has been calculated considering the maximum development visibility requirement. This is, the maximum of the shower must be visible. We have estimated how the shower geometry and the primary particle energy are modified by the cloud in comparison with the same case in a clear atmosphere. Also, a three dimensional photon propagation module has been developed to include a more complete model of the atmosphere for a deeper shower study. In chapter 6, the two methods to reconstruct the primary energy of the UHECR and the shower maximum of the EAS in a clear atmosphere have been modified to be used in stratus-like clouds: the Cherenkov method, that relies on the determination of the Cherenkov reflected bump on the top of the cloud, and the slant depth method, which relies on the previous geometry reconstruction of the shower.

  6. Infrared Free Space Communication - The Autonomous Testing of Free Space Infrared Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldman, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Fiber optics has been a winning player in the game of high-speed communication and data transfer in cable connections. Yet, in free space RF has been the repeated choice of communication medium of the space industry. Investigating the benefits of free space optical communication over radio frequency is worthwhile. An increase in science data rate return capabilities could occur if optical communication is implemented. Optical communication systems also provide efficiencies in power, mass, and volume over RF systems1. Optical communication systems have been demonstrated from a satellite in orbit with the moon to earth, and resulted in the highest data rates ever seen through space (622Mbps)2. Because of these benefits, optical communication is far superior to RF. The HiDRA (High Data Rate Architecture) project is researching Passive Misalignment Mitigation of Dynamic Free Apace Optical Communication Links. The goal of this effort is to enable gigabit per second transmission of data in short range dynamic links (less than 100 meters). In practice this would enhance data rates between sites on the International Space Station with minimal size, weight, and power requirements. This paper will focus on an autonomous code and a hardware setup that will be used to fulfill the next step in the research being conducted. The free space optical communications pointing downfalls will be investigated. This was achieved by creating 5 python programs and a top-level code to automate this test.

  7. Effect of space exposure of pyroelectric infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Pyroelectric detectors are one of many different types of infrared radiation detectors. The pyroelectric detectors are of interest for long term space use because they do not require cooling during operation. Also, they can detect at very long wavelengths and they have a relatively flat spectral response. A disadvantage is that the radiation must be chopped in order to be detected by a pyroelectric detector. The objective was to determine the effects of launch and space exposure on the performance of commercially available pyroelectric detectors. The approach was to measure certain detector parameters before and after flight and try to determine the amount and cause of the degradation. The experiment was passive: no data was taken during flight. It is concluded that lithium-tantalate and strontium-barium-niobate are suitable materials for pyroelectric detectors for long term space applications.

  8. Properties of Cathodoluminescence for Cryogenic Applications of SiO2-based Space Observatory Optics and Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Amberly; Dennison, J.R.; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers Charles W.; Meloy, Robert; Heaney, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Disordered thin film SiO2SiOx coatings undergoing electron-beam bombardment exhibit cathodoluminescence, which can produce deleterious stray background light in cryogenic space-based astronomical observatories exposed to high-energy electron fluxes from space plasmas. As future observatory missions push the envelope into more extreme environments and more complex and sensitive detection, a fundamental understanding of the dependencies of this cathodoluminescence becomes critical to meet performance objectives of these advanced space-based observatories. Measurements of absolute radiance and emission spectra as functions of incident electron energy, flux, and power typical of space environments are presented for thin (60-200 nm) SiO2SiOx optical coatings on reflective metal substrates over a range of sample temperatures (40-400 K) and emission wavelengths (260-5000 nm). Luminescent intensity and peak wavelengths of four distinct bands were observed in UVVISNIR emission spectra, ranging from 300 nm to 1000 nm. A simple model is proposed that describes the dependence of cathodoluminescence on irradiation time, incident flux and energy, sample thickness, and temperature.

  9. System Engineering the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tristram T.; Leisawitz, David T.; Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was designed to accomplish three scientific objectives: (1) learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks and how they acquire their inhomogeneous chemical composition; (2) characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. SPIRIT will accomplish these objectives through infrared observations with a two aperture interferometric instrument. This paper gives an overview of SPIRIT design and operation, and how the three design cycle concept study was completed. The error budget for several key performance values allocates tolerances to all contributing factors, and a performance model of the spacecraft plus instrument system demonstrates meeting those allocations with margin.

  10. A multistep approach for infrared face recognition in texture space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhloufi, Moulay A.; Bendada, Abdelhakim

    2013-05-01

    Face recognition is an area of computer vision that has attracted a lot of interest from the research community. A growing demand for robust face recognition in security applications has driven interesting advancements in this field. In this work, we introduce a new multistep approach for face recognition in the infrared spectrum. The proposed approach works in texture space using binary and ternary pattern descriptors. The approach operates in two steps. In the first step, dimensionality reduction techniques are used to classify the preprocessed infrared face image. This operation permits the selection of the highest score candidates. In the second step, a small set of these candidates are then classified using a correlation based approach. This last step permits the selection of the best matching candidate. The obtained results show a high increase in the face recognition performance when a multistep approach is used compared to dimensionality reduction face recognition techniques alone.

  11. Luciola hypertelescope space observatory: versatile, upgradable high-resolution imaging, from stars to deep-field cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Le Coroller, Hervé; Dejonghe, Julien; Lardière, Olivier; Aime, Claude; Dohlen, Kjetil; Mourard, Denis; Lyon, Richard; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2009-03-01

    Luciola is a large (1 km) “multi-aperture densified-pupil imaging interferometer”, or “hypertelescope” employing many small apertures, rather than a few large ones, for obtaining direct snapshot images with a high information content. A diluted collector mirror, deployed in space as a flotilla of small mirrors, focuses a sky image which is exploited by several beam-combiner spaceships. Each contains a “pupil densifier” micro-lens array to avoid the diffractive spread and image attenuation caused by the small sub-apertures. The elucidation of hypertelescope imaging properties during the last decade has shown that many small apertures tend to be far more efficient, regarding the science yield, than a few large ones providing a comparable collecting area. For similar underlying physical reasons, radio-astronomy has also evolved in the direction of many-antenna systems such as the proposed Low Frequency Array having “hundreds of thousands of individual receivers”. With its high limiting magnitude, reaching the m v = 30 limit of HST when 100 collectors of 25 cm will match its collecting area, high-resolution direct imaging in multiple channels, broad spectral coverage from the 1,200 Å ultra-violet to the 20 μm infra-red, apodization, coronagraphic and spectroscopic capabilities, the proposed hypertelescope observatory addresses very broad and innovative science covering different areas of ESA’s Cosmic Vision program. In the initial phase, a focal spacecraft covering the UV to near IR spectral range of EMCCD photon-counting cameras (currently 200 to 1,000 nm), will image details on the surface of many stars, as well as their environment, including multiple stars and clusters. Spectra will be obtained for each resel. It will also image neutron star, black-hole and micro-quasar candidates, as well as active galactic nuclei, quasars, gravitational lenses, and other Cosmic Vision targets observable with the initial modest crowding limit. With subsequent

  12. Luciola Hypertelescope Space Observatory. Versatile, Upgradable High-Resolution Imaging,from Stars to Deep-Field Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Le Coroller, Herve; Dejonghe, Julien; Lardiere, Olivier; Aime, Claude; Dohlen, Kjetil; Mourard, Denis; Lyon, Richard; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2008-01-01

    Luciola is a large (one kilometer) "multi-aperture densified-pupil imaging interferometer", or "hypertelescope" employing many small apertures, rather than a few large ones, for obtaining direct snapshot images with a high information content. A diluted collector mirror, deployed in space as a flotilla of small mirrors, focuses a sky image which is exploited by several beam-combiner spaceships. Each contains a pupil densifier micro-lens array to avoid the diffractive spread and image attenuation caused by the small sub-apertures. The elucidation of hypertelescope imaging properties during the last decade has shown that many small apertures tend to be far more efficient, regarding the science yield, than a few large ones providing a comparable collecting area. For similar underlying physical reasons, radio-astronomy has also evolved in the direction of many-antenna systems such as the proposed Low Frequency Array having hundreds of thousands of individual receivers . With its high limiting magnitude, reaching the mv=30 limit of HST when 100 collectors of 25cm will match its collecting area, high-resolution direct imaging in multiple channels, broad spectral coverage from the 1200 Angstrom ultra-violet to the 20 micron infra-red, apodization, coronagraphic and spectroscopic capabilities, the proposed hypertelescope observatory addresses very broad and innovative science covering different areas of ESA s Cosmic Vision program. In the initial phase, a focal spacecraft covering the UV to near IR spectral range of EMCCD photon-counting cameras ( currently 200 to 1000nm), will image details on the surface of many stars, as well as their environment, including multiple stars and clusters. Spectra will be obtained for each resel. It will also image neutron star, black-hole and micro-quasar candidates, as well as active galactic nuclei, quasars, gravitational lenses, and other Cosmic Vision targets observable with the initial modest crowding limit. With subsequent upgrade

  13. Space-based hyperspectral technologies for the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeVan, Paul D.

    2012-06-01

    Various approaches now exist for obtaining spectral imagery over a broad range of infrared wavelengths. One involves use of a single grating element in two grating orders with dualband focal plane array (FPA) technology -- an approach offering high efficiency over both the MWIR & LWIR, and obviating the need for separate focal plane arrays, dispersing elements, and optical beamsplitters. Another approach achieves similar results by exploiting an FPA having broad wavelength response with an innovative grating having useable efficiency extending beyond the single octave limits of traditional gratings. Significant advantages result in either case for space-based hyperspectral imagers, for which a reduction in cryo-cooled mass translates into prodigious savings in overall payload mass, cryo-cooling requirements, and waste heat removal. By contrast, longer term approaches might realize infrared "hyperspectral pixels" in 2-D imaging focal plane arrays. In this case, each pixel would detect different wavelengths of radiation at different depths, and the resulting "spectral photocurrents" would be transported to read-out circuitry through a vertical grid of electrical contacts. Although not yet realized in practice, the conceptual basis for accomplishing this with the widely-available HgCdTe detector material has been described. With regard to employment, space-based thermal hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is characterized by coarser ground resolution as a result of aperture diameter limitations and diffraction considerations at the longer infrared wavelengths. The resulting sub-pixel detections based on spectral signature are often complementary with higher resolution, shorter wavelength, panchromatic imagery. Overlapping fields-of-view between the two sensor types on the dayside of the earth enable simultaneous correlation of infrared spectral signatures with spatially-resolved scene features; data collects on the night-side are limited to the thermal hyperspectral images

  14. Space-based infrared near-Earth asteroid survey simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Muinonen, Karri; Price, Stephan D.

    2000-08-01

    We demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of using a satellite-based sensor with visual and infrared focal plane arrays to search for that subclass of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) with orbits largely interior to the Earth's orbit. A space-based visual-infrared system could detect approximately 97% of the Atens and 64% of the IEOs (the, as yet hypothetical, objects with orbits entirely Interior to Earth's Orbit) with diameters greater than 1 km in a 5-year mission and obtain orbits, albedos and diameters for all of them; the respective percentages with diameters greater than 500 m are 90% and 60%. Incidental to the search for Atens and IEOs, we found that 70% of all Earth-Crossing Asteroids (ECAs) with diameters greater than 1 km, and 50% of those with diameters greater than 500 m, would also be detected. These are the results of a feasibility study; optimizing the concept presented would result in greater levels of completion. The cost of such a space-based system is estimated to be within a factor of two of the cost of a ground-based system capable of about 21st magnitude, which would provide only orbits and absolute magnitudes and require decades to reach these completeness levels. In addition to obtaining albedos and diameters for the asteroids discovered in the space-based survey, a space-based visual-infrared system would obtain the same information on virtually all NEOs of interest. A combined space-based and ground-based survey would be highly synergistic in that each can concentrate on what it does best and each complements the strengths of the other. The ground-based system would discover the majority of Amors and Apollos and provide long-term follow-up on all the NEOs discovered in both surveys. The space-based system would discover the majority of Atens and IEOs and provide albedos and diameters on all the NEOs discovered in both surveys and most previously discovered NEOs as well. Thus, an integrated ground- and space-based system could accomplish

  15. Space Object Characterization Studies and the Magdalena Ridge Observatory's 2.4-meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory's (MRO) fast-tracking 2.4-meter telescope is located at 10,612 feet atop the Magdalena Mountains in Central New Mexico, and is presently transitioning to an operational status. The MRO 2.4-meter is one of the largest telescopes in the world that has as its primary mission the physical characterization of small bodies (both natural and artificial) in the Solar System. The 2.4-meter's control system is designed to provide convenient and accurate non-sidereal tracking, and the telescope is capable of rapid movement (slew rates are up to 15 degrees/sec) making it an ideal instrument for non-resolved imaging of low-Earth orbit (LEO) space objects. The 2.4-meter telescope can accommodate a wide variety of instrument systems, and support the fabrication, integration, and operation of new instrumentation as well as the development of new and innovative techniques in space object identification studies. Currently, we are investigating various methods to enhance and improve existing capabilities for unique discrimination of resident space objects. The temporal brightness variations (i.e., lightcurves) of unresolved targets such as artificial satellites can be used to develop a powerful tool for general characterization studies. Analysis of these temporal signatures permits the extraction of pertinent distinguishing features, and may also be an indicator for a change in general health status of a satellite. Payne (2005) and Gregory (2005) have demonstrated what can be obtained by adding multi-color information to traditional photometric intensity measurements for geosynchronous satellites. Our current focus is to introduce supplementary discriminators, including polarization data and simultaneously obtained spectral and temporal data. We will discuss new methods for incorporating such data, with a specific emphasis toward LEOs as our target objects. Our observing strategy will be to choose a statistically robust target set with know properties

  16. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-Ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Miller, J. Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz. Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ( soft , 100 500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth s magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (< 1 MeV) flux in Chandra s high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite at L1

  17. CIRiS: Compact Infrared Radiometer in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, D. P.; Collins, S.; Ferguson, J.; Good, W.; Kampe, T.; Rohrschneider, R.; Warden, R.

    2016-09-01

    The Compact Infrared Radiometer in Space (CIRiS) is a thermal infrared radiometric imaging instrument under development by Ball Aerospace for a Low Earth Orbit mission on a CubeSat spacecraft. Funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office's In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technology (InVEST) program, the mission objective is technology demonstration for improved on-orbit radiometric calibration. The CIRiS calibration approach uses a scene select mirror to direct three calibration views to the focal plane array and to transfer the resulting calibrated response to earth images. The views to deep space and two blackbody sources, including one at a selectable temperature, provide multiple options for calibration optimization. Two new technologies, carbon nanotube blackbody sources and microbolometer focal plane arrays with reduced pixel sizes, enable improved radiometric performance within the constrained 6U CubeSat volume. The CIRiS instrument's modular design facilitates subsystem modifications as required by future mission requirements. CubeSat constellations of CIRiS and derivative instruments offer an affordable approach to achieving revisit times as short as one day for diverse applications including water resource and drought management, cloud, aerosol, and dust studies, and land use and vegetation monitoring. Launch is planned for 2018.

  18. Miniature high-performance infrared spectrometer for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruzelecky, Roman V.; Haddad, Emile; Wong, Brian; Lafrance, Denis; Jamroz, Wes; Ghosh, Asoke K.; Zheng, Wanping; Phong, Linh

    2004-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy probes the characteristic vibrational and rotational modes of chemical bonds in molecules to provide information about both the chemical composition and the bonding configuration of a sample. The significant advantage of the Infrared spectral technique is that it can be used with minimal consumables to simultaneously detect a large variety of chemical and biochemical species with high chemical specificity. To date, relatively large Fourier Transform (FT-IR) spectrometers employing variations of the Michelson interferometer have been successfully employed in space for various IR spectroscopy applications. However, FT-IR systems are mechanically complex, bulky (> 15 kg), and require considerable processing. This paper discusses the use of advanced integrated optics and smart optical coding techniques to significantly extend the performance of miniature IR spectrometers by several orders of magnitude in sensitivity. This can provide the next-generation of compact, high-performance IR spectrometers with monolithically integrated optical systems for robust optical alignment. The entire module can weigh under 3 kg to minimize the mass penalty for space applications. Miniaturized IR spectrometers are versatile and very convenient for small and micro satellite based missions. They can be dedicated to the monitoring of the CO2 in an Earth Observation mission, to Mars exobiology exploration, as well as to vital life support in manned space system; such as the cabin air quality and the quality of the recycled water supply.

  19. Composite Image of the Cat's Eye From Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Left image: The x-ray data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) has revealed a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas in the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye. This CXO image, where the intensity of the x-ray emission is correlated to the brightness of the orange coloring, captures the expulsion of material from a star that is expected to collapse into a white dwarf in a few million years. The intensity of x-rays from the central star was unexpected, and it is the first time astronomers have seen such x-ray emission from the central star of a planetary nebula. Right image: An image of Cat's Eye taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing the CXO data with that from the HST, researchers are able to see where the hotter, x-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by the HST. The CXO team found that the chemical abundance in the region of hot gas (its x-ray intensity is shown in purple) was not like those in the wind from the central star and different from the outer cooler material (the red and green structures.) Although still incredibly energetic and hot enough to radiate x-rays, CXO shows the hot gas to be somewhat cooler than scientists would have expected for such a system. CXO image credit: (NASA/UIUC/Y. Chu et al.) HST image credit: (NASA/HST)

  20. Composite Image of the Cat's Eye From Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Left image: The x-ray data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) has revealed a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas in the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye. This CXO image, where the intensity of the x-ray emission is correlated to the brightness of the orange coloring, captures the expulsion of material from a star that is expected to collapse into a white dwarf in a few million years. The intensity of x-rays from the central star was unexpected, and it is the first time astronomers have seen such x-ray emission from the central star of a planetary nebula. Right image: An image of Cat's Eye taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing the CXO data with that from the HST, researchers are able to see where the hotter, x-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by the HST. The CXO team found that the chemical abundance in the region of hot gas (its x-ray intensity is shown in purple) was not like those in the wind from the central star and different from the outer cooler material (the red and green structures.) Although still incredibly energetic and hot enough to radiate x-rays, CXO shows the hot gas to be somewhat cooler than scientists would have expected for such a system. CXO image credit: (NASA/UIUC/Y. Chu et al.) HST image credit: (NASA/HST)

  1. Space Object Temperature Determination from Multi-Band Infrared Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-16

    equivalent isophotal emissions. Resident Space Objects; Infrared Observations UNL UNL UNL UNL 9 Kathleen E. Kraemer 781-377-7377 Reset INSTRUCTIONS FOR...show that the characteristic parameters are more consistent with the Planck function model when expressed as their equivalent isophotal emissions...Calculations. Sensor Band Minimum Wavelength (μm) Maximum Wavelength (μm) Isophotal Wavelength (μm) A 5.88 11.19 8.28 C 10.53 13.70 12.13 D 12.66

  2. Space Acquisitions: DOD’s Goals for Resolving Space Based Infrared System Software Problems are Ambitious

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Resolving Space Based Infrared System Software Problems Are Ambitious September 2008 GAO-08- 1073 Report Documentation Page Form...click on GAO-08- 1073 . For more information, contact Cristina T. Chaplain at (202) 512-4841 or chaplainc@gao.gov. Highlights of GAO-08- 1073 , a... 1073 SBIRS Software Abbreviations DOD Department of Defense FFRDC

  3. A Far Infrared Photometer (FIRP) for the infrared telescope in space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, M. M.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sato, S.; Watabe, T.; Brubaker, G. K.; Duband, L.; Grossman, B.; Larkin, N.; Lumetta, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 micrometers with spectral resolution lambda/(Delta lambda) approx. = 3 and spatial resolution Delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the approximately 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10(exp -13) W/((sq cm)(sr)) per 0.5 degree pixel.

  4. Far-Infrared Line Mapper (FILM) on the Infrared Telescope in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibai, Hiroshi; Yui, Masao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Okuda, Haruyuki

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a Far-Infrared Line Mapper (FILM) as one of the four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FILM is a grating spectrometer designed to simultaneously measure (C II) 158 microns and (O I) 63 microns line intensities and continuum emission near the (C II) line with spatial resolution of 8 arcmin. Very high sensitivity and accuracy are achieved by using stressed and unstressed Ge: Ga detectors at 1.8 K with a helium cooled telescope and by using a spectral scanner to distinguish the line emission from the continuum emission. Line intensities of the (C II) and the (O I) will be mapped over 10% of the sky with much higher sensitivity than the previous survey measurements.

  5. The Far-Infrared Photometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, A. E.; Freund, M. M.; Sato, S.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Watabe, T.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 microns with spectral resolution wavelength/wavelength spread is approximately 3 and spatial resolution delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10(exp -13) W per sq cm per sr per 0.5 degree pixel.

  6. A Far Infrared Photometer (FIRP) for the infrared telescope in space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, M. M.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sato, S.; Watabe, T.; Brubaker, G. K.; Duband, L.; Grossman, B.; Larkin, N.; Lumetta, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 micrometers with spectral resolution lambda/(Delta lambda) approx. = 3 and spatial resolution Delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the approximately 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10(exp -13) W/((sq cm)(sr)) per 0.5 degree pixel.

  7. OPTICAL POLARIMETRY OF THE BLAZAR CGRaBS J0211+1051 FROM MOUNT ABU INFRARED OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Sunil; Baliyan, Kiran S.; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Joshi, Umesh C.

    2012-02-10

    We report the detection of high polarization in the first detailed optical linear polarization measurements on the BL Lac object CGRaBS J0211+1051, which flared in {gamma}-rays on 2011 January 23 as reported by Fermi. The observations were made during 2011 January 30-February 3 using a photo-polarimeter mounted at the 1.2 m telescope of Mount Abu Infrared Observatory. CGRaBS J0211+1051 was detected to have a {approx}21.05% {+-} 0.41% degree of polarization (DP) with a steady position angle (P.A.) at 43 Degree-Sign on 2011 January 30. During January 31 and February 1, while polarization shows some variation, the P.A. remained steady through the night. Several polarization flashes occurred during February 2 and 3 resulting in changes in the DP by more than 4% at short timescales ({approx}17-45 minutes). The intra-night variability shown by the source appears to be related to the turbulence in the relativistic jet. A mild wavelength dependence of polarization is not ruled out during the nights of February 2 and 3. The source exhibited significant inter-night variations in the DP (changing by about 2%-9%) and P.A. (changing by 2 Degree-Sign -22 Degree-Sign ) during the five nights of observations. A sudden change in the P.A. accompanied by a rise in the DP could be indicative of the fresh injection of plasma in the jet. The detection of a high and variable DP suggests that the source is a low-energy peaked blazar.

  8. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Miller, S.; Minow, J. I.; Wolk, S.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth's radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (< 1 MeV) flux in Chandra's high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite at L1

  9. A Large Aperture Lidar Observatory for Exploring the Interaction of Our Atmosphere with Space (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, J. P.; Gardner, C. S.; Swenson, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    The mesopause region has been the subject of intensive study during the past decade because it is recognized as a critical region connecting our sensible atmosphere to the near-space environment. Processes in this region include a host of wave dynamics, heat and constituent transport, turbulence, polar mesospheric cloud formation, and the influx of meteoric material. Moreover, the neutral gas properties above the mesopause from 100 - 200 km altitude are poorly characterized and are influenced by additional processes that include solar EUV absorption / ionization, eddy to molecular diffusion, neutral wind dynamo action, and geomagnetic activity. Thus, this altitude region is a complex confluence of space and atmosphere processes that ultimately determine its properties. Fundamentally these processes are operating in any planetary atmosphere and must be understood in order to advance understanding of habitability and sustainability of a planetary system. While observational and modeling capabilities are evolving, progress in characterizing neutral properties and related processes in the mesopause region and above has been inhibited because they cannot be observed in sufficient detail and at high enough altitudes with existing instrumentation. This is especially true of the neutral atmosphere from 50 - 1000 km, where observations of its properties, dynamics and thermal structure are either sparse or nonexistent. A Large-Aperture Lidar Observatory (LALO) would enable significant progress by providing critical measurements of atmospheric constituents and parameters at greatly enhanced resolution and at much higher altitudes than is possible today. A large telescope in combination with modern high-power lasers, would enable observations of the neutral atmosphere to 1000 km altitude with a sensitivity and resolution approximately 1000 times better than can be achieved with the most powerful lidar systems in operation today. There are no technology barriers to realizing

  10. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (less than 1 MeV) flux in Chandra s high elliptical orbit. The only source of relevant measurements of sub-MeV protons is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE

  11. Space Weathering Radiation Environment of the Inner Solar System from the Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Papitashvili, N. E.

    2016-12-01

    The surfaces of Mercury, the Moon, the moons of Mars, the asteroids, and other small bodies of the inner solar system have been directly weathered for millions to billions of years by solar wind, energetic particle, and solar ultraviolet irradiation. Surface regolith layers to meters in depth are formed by impacts of smaller bodies and micrometeoroids. Sample return missions to small bodies, such as Osiris-REx to the asteroid Bennu, are intended to recover information on the early history of solar system formation, but must contend with the long-term space weathering effects that perturb the original structure and composition of the affected bodies. Solar wind plasma ions at keV energies penetrate only to sub-micron depths, while more energetic solar & heliospheric particles up to MeV energies reach centimeter depths, and higher-energy galactic cosmic rays to GeV energies fully penetrate through the impact regolith. The weathering effects vary with energy and penetration depth from ion implantation and erosive sputtering at solar wind energies to chemical and structural evolution driven by MeV - GeV particles. The energy versus depth dependence of such effects is weighted by the differential flux distributions of the incident particles as measured near the orbits of the affected bodies over long periods of time. Our Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (http://vepo.gsfc.nasa.gov/) enables simultaneous access to multiple data sets from 1973 through the present in the form of differential flux spectral plots and downloadable data tables. The most continuous VEPO coverage exists for geospace data sources at 1 AU from the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP-8), launched in 1973, through the present 1-AU constellation including the ACE, WIND, SOHO, and Stereo-A/B spacecraft. Other mission data, e.g. more occasionally from Pioneer-10/11, Helios-1/2, Voyager-1/2, and Ulysses, extend heliospheric coverage from the orbit of Mercury to that of Mars, the asteroid belt

  12. Effect of space exposure on pyroelectric infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Pyroelectric detectors are one of the many different types of infrared radiation detectors. Pyroelectric detectors are of interest for long-term space use because they do not require cooling during operation. Also, they can detect at very long wavelengths and they have a relatively flat spectral response. A disadvantage is that the radiation must be chopped in order to be detected by a pyroelectric detector. The objective of the experiment was to determine the effects of launch and space exposure on the performance of commercially available pyroelectric detectors. The approach was to measure performance parameters of the detectors before and after flight on the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and determine the loss of detector performance. The experiment was passive; no data was taken during flight.

  13. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  14. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    more strange than the energetic radiation coming from the centre of distant galaxies are flashes of extremely powerful radiation that suddenly appear somewhere on the gamma-sky and disappear again after a short time. These gamma-bursts seem to be the biggest observed explosions in the Universe. But nobody knows their source. Integral will help to solve this long-standing mystery. ESA, the pioneer in gamma-ray astronomy The satellite as it can now be seen at ESA's test centre is five meters high and weighs more than four tonnes. Two main instruments observe the gamma-rays. An imager will give the sharpest gamma-ray images. It is provided by a consortium led by an Italian scientist. Gamma-rays ignore lenses and mirror, so INTEGRAL makes its images with so-called coded-masks. A coded-mask telescope is basically a pinhole camera, but with a larger aperture, i.e. many pinholes. A spectrometer will gauge gamma-ray energies extremely precisely. It is developed by a team of scientists under joint French-German leadership and will be a 100 times more sensitive than the previous high spectral resolution space instrument. It is made of a high-purity Germanium detector that has to be cooled down to minus 188 degree Celsius. These two gamma-ray-instruments are supported by two monitor instruments that play a crucial role in the detection and identification of the gamma-ray sources. An X-ray monitor developed in Denmark will observe X-rays, still powerful but less energetic than gamma-rays. An optical telescope provided by Spain will observe the visible light emitted by the energetic objects. Switzerland will host the Integral Science Data Centre which will preprocess and distribute the scientific data. The mission is conceived as an observatory led by ESA with Russia contributing the launcher and NASA providing tracking support with its Deep Space Network. Alenia Aerospazio in Turin, Italy is ESA's prime contractor for building INTEGRAL. Launch by a Russian Proton rocket from

  15. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    more strange than the energetic radiation coming from the centre of distant galaxies are flashes of extremely powerful radiation that suddenly appear somewhere on the gamma-sky and disappear again after a short time. These gamma-bursts seem to be the biggest observed explosions in the Universe. But nobody knows their source. Integral will help to solve this long-standing mystery. ESA, the pioneer in gamma-ray astronomy The satellite as it can now be seen at ESA's test centre is five meters high and weighs more than four tonnes. Two main instruments observe the gamma-rays. An imager will give the sharpest gamma-ray images. It is provided by a consortium led by an Italian scientist. Gamma-rays ignore lenses and mirror, so INTEGRAL makes its images with so-called coded-masks. A coded-mask telescope is basically a pinhole camera, but with a larger aperture, i.e. many pinholes. A spectrometer will gauge gamma-ray energies extremely precisely. It is developed by a team of scientists under joint French-German leadership and will be a 100 times more sensitive than the previous high spectral resolution space instrument. It is made of a high-purity Germanium detector that has to be cooled down to minus 188 degree Celsius. These two gamma-ray-instruments are supported by two monitor instruments that play a crucial role in the detection and identification of the gamma-ray sources. An X-ray monitor developed in Denmark will observe X-rays, still powerful but less energetic than gamma-rays. An optical telescope provided by Spain will observe the visible light emitted by the energetic objects. Switzerland will host the Integral Science Data Centre which will preprocess and distribute the scientific data. The mission is conceived as an observatory led by ESA with Russia contributing the launcher and NASA providing tracking support with its Deep Space Network. Alenia Aerospazio in Turin, Italy is ESA's prime contractor for building INTEGRAL. Launch by a Russian Proton rocket from

  16. Queen Jadwiga Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wszołek, Bogdan

    2016-06-01

    Private Astronomical Observatory was open in June 2015. The main aim of the observatory is to provide and share astronomical and space knowledge. It collects research instruments and expands didactic infrastructure. Continuously, there is an open call for specialists to join the Honorary Staff of the Observatory.

  17. Experimental and Metrological Basis for SI-Traceable Infrared Radiance Measurements From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P. J.; Dykema, J. A.; Anderson, J. G.; Leroy, S. S.

    2007-12-01

    In order to establish a climate benchmark record and to be useful in interdecadal climate forecast testing, satellite measurements of high spectral resolution infrared radiance must have uncertainty estimates that can be proven beyond a doubt. An uncertainty in radiance of about 1 part in 1000 is required for climate applications. This can be accomplished by appealing to the best measurement practices of the metrology community. The International System of Units (SI) are linked to fundamental physical properties of matter, and can be realized anywhere in the world without bias. By doing so, one can make an accurate observation to within a specified uncertainty. Achieving SI-traceable radiance measurements from space is a novel requirement, and requires specialized sensor design and a disciplined experimental approach. Infrared remote sensing satellite instruments typically employ blackbody calibration targets, which are tied to the SI through Planck's law and the definition of the Kelvin. The blackbody temperature and emissivity, however, must be determined accurately on- orbit, in order for the blackbody emission scale to be SI-traceable. We outline a methodology of instrument design, pre-flight calibration and on-orbit diagnostics for realizing SI- traceable infrared radiance measurements. This instrument is intended as a component of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Earth Observatory (CLARREO), a high priority recommendation of the National Research Council decadal survey. Calibration blackbodies for remote sensing differ from a perfect Planckian blackbody; thus the component uncertainties must be evaluated in order to confer traceability. We have performed traceability experiments in the laboratory to verify blackbody temperature, emissivity and the end-to-end radiance scale. We discuss the design of the Harvard standard blackbody and an intercomparison campaign that will be conducted with the GIFTS blackbody (University of Wisconsin, Madison) and

  18. James Webb Space Telescope Core 2 Test - Cryogenic Thermal Balance Test of the Observatorys Core Area Thermal Control Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Paul; Parrish, Keith; Thomson, Shaun; Marsh, James; Comber, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, will be the largest astronomical telescope ever sent into space. To observe the very first light of the early universe, JWST requires a large deployed 6.5-meter primary mirror cryogenically cooled to less than 50 Kelvin. Three scientific instruments are further cooled via a large radiator system to less than 40 Kelvin. A fourth scientific instrument is cooled to less than 7 Kelvin using a combination pulse-tube Joule-Thomson mechanical cooler. Passive cryogenic cooling enables the large scale of the telescope which must be highly folded for launch on an Ariane 5 launch vehicle and deployed once on orbit during its journey to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. Passive cooling of the observatory is enabled by the deployment of a large tennis court sized five layer Sunshield combined with the use of a network of high efficiency radiators. A high purity aluminum heat strap system connects the three instrument's detector systems to the radiator systems to dissipate less than a single watt of parasitic and instrument dissipated heat. JWST's large scale features, while enabling passive cooling, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone of most space missions' thermal verification plans. This paper describes the JWST Core 2 Test, which is a cryogenic thermal balance test of a full size, high fidelity engineering model of the Observatory's 'Core' area thermal control hardware. The 'Core' area is the key mechanical and cryogenic interface area between all Observatory elements. The 'Core' area thermal control hardware allows for temperature transition of 300K to approximately 50 K by attenuating heat from the room temperature IEC (instrument electronics) and the Spacecraft Bus. Since the flight hardware is not available for test, the Core 2 test uses high fidelity and flight-like reproductions.

  19. Transient Astrophysics Observatory (TAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racusin, J. L.; TAO Team

    2016-10-01

    The Transient Astrophysics Observatory (TAO) is a NASA MidEx mission concept (formerly known as Lobster) designed to provide simultaneous wide-field gamma-ray, X-ray, and near-infrared observations of the sky.

  20. Space infrared telescope pointing control system. Infrared telescope tracking in the presence of target motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schneider, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of charge-coupled-devices, or CCD's, has been documented by a number of sources as an effective means of providing a measurement of spacecraft attitude with respect to the stars. A method exists of defocussing and interpolation of the resulting shape of a star image over a small subsection of a large CCD array. This yields an increase in the accuracy of the device by better than an order of magnitude over the case when the star image is focussed upon a single CCD pixel. This research examines the effect that image motion has upon the overall precision of this star sensor when applied to an orbiting infrared observatory. While CCD's collect energy within the visible spectrum of light, the targets of scientific interest may well have no appreciable visible emissions. Image motion has the effect of smearing the image of the star in the direction of motion during a particular sampling interval. The presence of image motion is incorporated into a Kalman filter for the system, and it is shown that the addition of a gyro command term is adequate to compensate for the effect of image motion in the measurement. The updated gyro model is included in this analysis, but has natural frequencies faster than the projected star tracker sample rate for dim stars. The system state equations are reduced by modelling gyro drift as a white noise process. There exists a tradeoff in selected star tracker sample time between the CCD, which has improved noise characteristics as sample time increases, and the gyro, which will potentially drift further between long attitude updates. A sample time which minimizes pointing estimation error exists for the random drift gyro model as well as for a random walk gyro model.

  1. Stressed photoconductive detector for far-infrared space applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, J Q; Richards, P L; Beeman, J W; Haller, E E

    1987-11-15

    An optimized leaf-spring apparatus for applying uniaxial stress to a Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor has been designed and tested. This design has significant advantages for space applications which require high quantum efficiency and stable operation over long periods of time. The important features include adequate spring deflection with relatively small overall size, torque-free stress, easy measurement of applied stress, and a detector configuration with high responsivity. One-dimensional arrays of stressed photoconductors can be constructed using this design. A peak responsivity of 38 A/W is achieved in a detector with a cutoff wavelength of 200 microm, which was operated at a temperature of 2.0 K and a bias voltage equal to one half of the breakdown voltage.

  2. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility structural design requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macneal, Paul D.; Lou, Michael C.; Chen, Gun-Shing

    1991-01-01

    An effort is currently being carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to study mission feasibility and to define functional requirements for various subsystems of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). As a major part of this effort, structural design requirements have been derived based on the stated mission objectives. Design concerns addressed by these requirements include the limits on mass and location of the center of gravity, launch stiffness and dynamic characteristics, design loads and analysis criteria, survivability of the TITAN IV/Centaur launch environment, thermal control for maintaining a near absolute-zero operating temperature, and helium cryogen volume and storage for a five-year mission. To illustrate how the structural design requirements can be met, a point design of the SIRTF flight hardware system was developed, modeled, and analyzed. A description of the key features of this point design, along with pertinent modeling and analysis results, are discussed in this Paper.

  3. Far-infrared spectroscopy of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    Far infrared (FIR) spectral line emission from galaxies is discussed with respect to past, present and near future observations. A review of the importance of the FIR lines as probes of the interstellar medium is presented. The various fine structure emission lines detected from the archetypal starburst galaxy M82, and the (C II) line radiation which is now observed toward a large variety of external galaxies are discussed. The improvements allowed by the advent of the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are underlined.

  4. Astro-Mineralogy: The Comparison of Infrared Spectra from Astrophysical Environments with those from Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J. A., III; Molster, F. J.; Sitko, M. L.; Bradley, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    The infrared spectral properties of interplanetary dust particles are directly compared with those of astronomical dust in several astrophysical environments as measured by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. ASTRO-1: a 1.8m unobscured space observatory for next generation UV/visible astrophysics and exoplanet exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Egerman, Robert; Morse, Jon A.; Wilkes, Belinda

    2016-07-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has been a scientific marvel that has provided unimaginable imagery and scientific discovery. Its exquisite UV/Visible imaging performance is unmatched from the ground. In NASA's future planning, the earliest possible successor mission would be in the 3030s, well beyond the expected lifetime of Hubble. The ASTRO-1 space telescope is a 1.8m off-axis (unobscured) observatory that looks to fill this critical void with Hubble-like performance to continue the scientific quest while also providing the possibility for exoplanet research with a coronagraphic instrument and/or a free flying starshade. BoldlyGo Institute seeks to reach beyond NASA funding to leverage the high public interest in space research and exploration, and the search for life beyond Earth.

  6. Infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

  7. The possibilities of simultaneous detection of gamma rays, cosmic-ray electrons and positrons on the GAMMA-400 space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galper, A. M.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaya, I. V.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Farber, M. O.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gecha, V. Ya.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kaplin, V. A.; Mazets, E. P.; Menshenin, A. L.; Picozza, P.; Prilutskii, O. F.; Rodin, V. G.; Runtso, M. F.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.; Yurkin, Yu. T.; Zampa, N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2011-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 space observatory will provide precise measurements of gamma rays, electrons, and positrons in the energy range 0.1-3000 GeV. The good angular and energy resolutions, as well as identification capabilities (angular resolution ~0.01°, energy resolution ~1%, and proton rejection factor ~106) will allow us to study the main galactic and extragalactic sources, diffuse gamma-ray background, gamma-ray bursts, and to measure electron and positron fluxes. The peculiar characteristics of the experiment is simultaneous detection of gamma rays and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons, which can be connected with annihilation or decay of dark matter particles.

  8. Optical design and verification of a 4mm receiver for the 20m telescope at Onsala Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, George W.; Kalinauskaite, Eimante; McCarthy, Darragh N.; Trappe, Neil A.; Murphy, Anthony; Helldner, Leif; Pantaleev, Miroslav G.; Flygare, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    The work of this research is the design, analysis and verification of the optical performance of a 4mmreceiver channel for the 20 m telescope at Onsala Space Observatory, Onsala, Sweden. The 4 mm (75 GHz) receiver is a newly proposed channel designed to be installed parallel to the existing 3 mm (100 GHz) channel targeting new science at that longer wavelength. Gaussian beam mode analysis is used to produce the fundamental optical design of the system. The design is then analysed more accurately with the physical optics approximation. We report on the comparison of simulation and measurement and verification of the system design.

  9. Computation of the Fluid and Optical Fields About the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the Coupling of Fluids, Dynamics, and Control Laws on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    The June 1992 to May 1993 grant NCC-2-677 provided for the continued demonstration of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as applied to the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). While earlier grant years allowed validation of CFD through comparison against experiments, this year a new design proposal was evaluated. The new configuration would place the cavity aft of the wing, as opposed to the earlier baseline which was located immediately aft of the cockpit. This aft cavity placement allows for simplified structural and aircraft modification requirements, thus lowering the program cost of this national astronomy resource. Three appendices concerning this subject are presented.

  10. Prototype secondary mirror assembly design for the space infrared telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, M.; Duffy, M.; Gullapalli, S.; Rockwell, R.; Sileo, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the design of a liquid helium temperature prototype secondary mirror assembly (PSMA) under developement for the NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program. The SIRTF secondary mirror assembly must operate below 4 K and provide highly precise two-axis dynamic tilting (chopping) in addition to the conventional functions needed by the SIRTF observatory. The PSMA design uses a fused quartz mirror kinematically attached at its center to an aluminum cruciform. The mirror/cruciform assembly is driven in tilt about its combined center of mass using a unique flexure pivot and a four-actuator control system with feedback provided by pairs of differential position sensors. The voice coil actuators are mounted on a second flexture-pivoted mass, enhancing servo system stability and isolating the telescope from vibration-induced disturbances. The mirror/cruciform and the reaction mass are attached to opposite sides of an aluminum mounting plate whose dimensional characteristics are nominally identical to those of the aluminum flexure pivot material. The mounting plate is connected to the outer housing by a six-degree-of-freedom focus and centering mechanism using pivoted actuation levers driven by lead screw/harmonic drive/stepper motor assemblies.

  11. Space Weathering Effects in the Thermal Infrared: Lessons from LRO Diviner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Song, E.; Arnold, J. A.; Lemelin, M.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Glotch, T. D.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    We quantify the degree to which space weathering affects the thermal infrared Christiansen Feature measured by LRO Diviner, and presents techniques to normalize space weathering effects and enable examination of the underlying composition.

  12. Molecular Shocks Associated with Massive Young Stars: CO Line Images with a New Far-Infrared Spectroscopic Camera on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Dan M.

    1997-01-01

    Under the terms of our contract with NASA Ames Research Center, the University of Rochester (UR) offers the following final technical report on grant NAG 2-958, Molecular shocks associated with massive young stars: CO line images with a new far-infrared spectroscopic camera, given for implementation of the UR Far-Infrared Spectroscopic Camera (FISC) on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and use of this camera for observations of star-formation regions 1. Two KAO flights in FY 1995, the final year of KAO operations, were awarded to this program, conditional upon a technical readiness confirmation which was given in January 1995. The funding period covered in this report is 1 October 1994 - 30 September 1996. The project was supported with $30,000, and no funds remained at the conclusion of the project.

  13. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  14. Direct conversion of infrared radiant energy for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed technology to convert the earth radiant energy (infrared albedo) for spacecraft power is presented. The resultant system would eliminate energy storage requirements and simplify the spacecraft design. The design and performance of a infrared rectenna is discussed.

  15. Direct conversion of infrared radiant energy for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed technology to convert the earth radiant energy (infrared albedo) for spacecraft power is presented. The resultant system would eliminate energy storage requirements and simplify the spacecraft design. The design and performance of a infrared rectenna is discussed.

  16. Test method on infrared system range based on space compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen-xing; Shi, Sheng-bing; Han, Fu-li

    2016-09-01

    Infrared thermal imaging system generates image based on infrared radiation difference between object and background and is a passive work mode. Range is important performance and necessary appraised test item in appraisal test for infrared system. In this paper, aim is carrying out infrared system range test in laboratory , simulated test ground is designed based on object equivalent, background analog, object characteristic control, air attenuation characteristic, infrared jamming analog and so on, repeatable and controllable tests are finished, problem of traditional field test method is solved.

  17. Mission and Instrument Design Trades for a Space-based Gravitational Wave Observatory to Maximize Science Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey; Baker, John; Stebbins, Robin; Thorpe, James; Larson, Shane; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    A space-based gravitational wave observatory is required to access the rich array of astrophysical sources expected at frequencies between 0.0001 and 0.1 Hz. The European Space Agency (ESA) chose the Gravitational Universe as the science theme of its L3 launch opportunity. A call for mission proposals will be released soon after the completion of the LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission. LPF is scheduled to start science operations in March 2016, and finish by the end of the year, so an optimized mission concept is needed now. There are a number of possible design choices for both the instrument and the mission. One of the goals for a good mission design is to maximize the science return while minimizing risk and keeping costs low. This presentation will review some of the main design choices for a LISA-like laser interferometry mission and the impact of these choices on cost, risk, and science return.

  18. Review of black surfaces for space-borne infrared systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persky, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    Low reflectivity (``black'') surface treatments for space-borne infrared systems are reviewed. The uses of black surfaces in general, as well as for specific space-borne applications are discussed. Compositions of a wide variety of surface treatments with examples of experimental data to characterize performances are provided. Specific treatments included are: Ames 24E paint; AZKO 463 (Sikkens, Cat-A-Lac) paint; Ball IR black paint; Chemglaze (Aeroglaze) Z306 and Z302 paints; Eccosorb 268E paint; Parsons Black paint; black anodize; black Hardlub; black Hardcoat; Martin Black; InfraBlack; Enhanced Martin Black; Ebonal C; Teflon; ion beam textured; appliqués black chrome; black etched beryllium on beryllium; plasma sprayed boron on beryllium; plasma sprayed beryllium on beryllium; boron carbide on POCO graphite; and Kapton. Data presented for some but not all of the surfaces include: spectrally integrated, 5-25 μm hemispherical-directional reflectance; spectral reflectance at wavelengths between 2 and 500 μm for a variety of incident angles from 5° to 80° and bidirectional reflectance at a number of wavelengths between 5 and 300 μm for a variety of incident angles from 0° to 80°. The instrumentation employed to obtain these data is briefly described. Long term stability of optical performance, as well as manufacturing reproducibility is demonstrated for several of the surfaces. Outgassing and atomic oxygen interaction information is also included. Methodology for calorimetric measurement of hemispherical emittance as an alternative to optical measurements is given.

  19. Structural design considerations for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macneal, Paul D.; Lou, Michael C.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the design feasibility of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and to identify parameters that might impose constraints on performance such as frequencies of vibration, structural concepts for both the telescope and spacecraft are developed and evaluated. Trade studies of key design features are carried out using FEM and analysis. In most cases, the margin of safety was greater than 0.50. An example of stress in the octagonal equipment bus panels is shown. The strap-supported mass is predicted to deflect 6 mm relative to the outer shell when subjected to 8.0 G in the X direction, and to deflect about 5 mm in the Y and Z directions when subjected to 10.0 G. Deflections for the top of the solar panel are predicted to be about 35 mm when subjected to the 10.0 G quasi-static load in the Z direction. The liquid helium tank, thermal isolation, and primary mirror and mount are discussed.

  20. An infrared high resolution silicon immersion grating spectrometer for airborne and space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Powell, Scott; Jiang, Peng; Uzakbaiuly, Berik; Tanner, David

    2014-08-01

    Broad-band infrared (IR) spectroscopy, especially at high spectral resolution, is a largely unexplored area for the far IR (FIR) and submm wavelength region due to the lack of proper grating technology to produce high resolution within the very constrained volume and weight required for space mission instruments. High resolution FIR spectroscopy is an essential tool to resolve many atomic and molecular lines to measure physical and chemical conditions and processes in the environments where galaxy, star and planets form. A silicon immersion grating (SIG), due to its over three times high dispersion over a traditional reflective grating, offers a compact and low cost design of new generation IR high resolution spectrographs for space missions. A prototype SIG high resolution spectrograph, called Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST), has been developed at UF and was commissioned at a 2 meter robotic telescope at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. The SIG with 54.74 degree blaze angle, 16.1 l/mm groove density, and 50x86 mm2 grating area has produced R=50,000 in FIRST. The 1.4-1.8 um wavelength region is completely covered in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array. The on-sky performance meets the science requirements for ground-based high resolution spectroscopy. Further studies show that this kind of SIG spectrometer with an airborne 2m class telescope such as SOFIA can offer highly sensitive spectroscopy with R~20,000-30,000 at 20 to 55 microns. Details about the on-sky measurement performance of the FIRST prototype SIG spectrometer and its predicted performance with the SOFIA 2.4m telescope are introduced.

  1. Metrology of the Solar Spectral Irradiance at the Top Of Atmosphere in the Near Infrared using Ground Based Instruments. Presentation of the PYR-ILIOS campaign (Mauna Loa Observatory, June-July 2016).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cessateur, G.; Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.

    2016-12-01

    The availability of reference spectra for the Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) is of the most importance for the solar physics, the studies of planetary atmospheres and climatology. The near infrared (NIR) part of these spectra is of great interest for its main role for example, in the Earth's radiative budget. However, some large and unsolved discrepancies (up to 10 %) are observed in the 1.6 μm region between recent measurements from space instruments and modelling. We developed a ground-based instrumentation dedicated to SSI measurements of the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA), obtained through atmospheric NIR windows using the Bouguer-Langley technique. The instruments are a double spectroradiometer designed by Bentham (UK) and a 6-channels NIR filters radiometer. Both were radiometrically characterized at the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. In the following they were calibrated against a high-temperature blackbody as primary standard for spectral irradiance at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany). The PYR-ILIOS campaign carried out in June to July 2016 at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii, USA, 3396 m a.s.l.) is a follower of the four-month IRESPERAD campaign which was carried out in 2011 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (Canary Islands, 2367 m a.s.l.). We present here the results of the 3 weeks PYR-ILIOS campaign and compare them with the outcome from IRESPERAD as well as from other ground-based, airborne or space experiments will be presented. The standard uncertainty of the PYR-ILIOS results will be discussed.

  2. About using wide field lens optics for Space Surveillance Systems in Odessa Astronomical observatory (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Volkoff, S. K.; Karpenko, G. F.; Titenko, V. V.; Yamnitsky, V. A.; Tkachenko, A. A.

    2007-08-01

    On base results of the observations in Odessa astronomical observatory, is shown obvious fact. The possibility of the using domestic wide field lens optics for monitoring high orbital artificial Earth satellite objects for the calculations elements of orbits. With wide field lens optics "Tair-19 5003", limited magnitude consist 15m.5 per 10 seconds of the accumulation, average square-error (ASE) of the measurements of the coordinates slowly move GSS consist not more than 2 arcsec. Beside 90% measurements has ASE not more 1 arcsec. At surveillance of the area of the equator by width 5° areas 500 deg2 are discovered all 40 active "standing" GSS, 12 passive GSS and 2 high elliptical orbital satellites (HEO). Is shown perspective possibility of the use WFO for monitoring LEO height before of 2 000 km. 90% of 39 object LEO fixed in mode "beam-park" (the still telescope) in current 1 hour, surelay are identified using catalog NORAD.

  3. RadioAstron and millimetron space observatories: Multiverse models and the search for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardashev, N. S.

    2017-04-01

    The transition from the radio to the millimeter and submillimeter ranges is very promising for studies of galactic nuclei, as well as detailed studies of processes related to supermassive black holes, wormholes, and possible manifestations of multi-element Universe (Multiverse) models. This is shown by observations with the largest interferometer available—RadioAstron observatory—that will be used for the scientific program forMillimetron observatory. Observations have also shown the promise of this range for studies of the formation and evolution of planetary systems and searches for manifestations of intelligent life. This is caused by the requirements to use a large amount of condensedmatter and energy in large-scale technological activities. This range can also be used efficiently in the organisation of optimal channels for the transmission of information.

  4. ESA switches its infrared space telescope off and will clean its orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    already working on one of ISO's successors, the Far Infrared and Submillimetre Space Telescope, FIRST. Footnote about ISO ISO was put into orbit in November 1995, by an Ariane 44P launcher at Europe's Spaceport at Kourou in French Guiana. As an unprecedented observatory for infrared astronomy, able to examine cool and hidden places in the Universe, ISO has successfully made more than 26,000 observations. A supply of liquid helium, used to cool the telescope and instruments close to the absolute zero of temperature, lasted more than 30% longer than expected, but ran out on 8 April 1998 (see ESA Press Information Note No.11-98 of 9 April).

  5. Exploring Star Formation in Cluster Galaxies with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, Tim; Rex, M.; Egami, E.; Chung, S.; Fadda, D.; Lensing Survey, Herschel

    2011-05-01

    Nominally designed to locate high-redshift galaxies magnified by 44 massive foreground clusters, the ``Herschel Lensing Survey'' (HLS; PI: Egami) also provides deep 5-band, far-infrared (FIR) imaging of the galaxies contained within those clusters. For sources at these redshifts (z 0.2-0.4), Herschel photometry spans the peak of the dust component, allowing us to constrain the dust properties, measure total infrared luminosity and hence derive obscured star formation rate. Although a large fraction of galaxies in massive clusters are quiescent early-types and therefore remain undetected by Herschel, the far-infrared highlights regions of activity within the system. The FIR effectively probes the transitional phases of cluster galaxy evolution, exposing starburst mechanisms such as tidal interactions and mergers, as well as the remnants of the as-yet un-quenched in-fall population. Here we focus on two particular, contrasting clusters at z 0.3: the famous merging system known as the Bullet Cluster, and a relatively undisturbed cluster MS2137. We locate the FIR-bright cluster members and characterize their dust component, allowing us to study the distribution of star formation in the two systems as a function of morphology and local environment. In addition, we investigate an intriguing subpopulation of FIR-luminous galaxies with dust component SEDs that do not conform to the templates derived from local field galaxies, yet are also unlike any sources observed at higher redshift.

  6. The chromosphere of α Cen A as seen by the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, B.; Liseau, R.; DUNES Team

    2015-05-01

    Chromospheres and coronae are common phenomena on solar-type stars. Understanding the heating of those layers requires the direct access to the relevant empirical data. In particular, the chromospheric temperature minimum, i.e. the region of the atmosphere where the temperature undergoes a reversal and starts increasing to reach values of the order of MK in the corona, can be observed directly in the far infrared and in the submillimetre spectral regime. In this paper we present the results of the observations obtained in those ranges of the solar twin α Cen A. Similar to the Sun, the far infrared emission of this star originates in the temperature minimum above the stellar photosphere. To our knowledge, this is the first time a temperature minimum has been directly measured on a main-sequence star other than the Sun. This contribution is a summary of the the results presented in ``α Centauri in the far infrared. First measurements of the temperature minimum of a star other than the Sun'' (Liseau et al 2013, A&A, 549, L7) based on results from the Herschel} Open Time Key Project DUNES and APEX/LABOCA observations.

  7. Scientific and Mission Requirements of Next-generation Space Infrared Space Telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Ichikawa, Takashi; Takami, Michihiro; Sakon, Itsuki

    SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology Astrophysics) is a next-generation space tele-scope for mid-and far-infrared astronomy, based on the heritage of AKARI, Spitzer, and Her-schel, Here we introduce Mission Requirement Document (MRD), where scientific and mission requirement of SPICA are described. The MRD clarifies the objectives of the SPICA mission. These objectives are more concretely expressed by various scientific targets, and based on these targets, the mission requirements, such as required specifications of the mission instrumenta-tions, scientific operations etc. are defined. Also the success criteria, by which the evaluation of the mission achievement will be addressed, are clearly described. The mission requirements described here will give the baseline of the study of the system requirements. In the future, The MRD will also be used to confirm the development status, system performance, and operational results on orbit etc. are well in-line with the mission requirements. To summarize, the most important mission requirement of SPICA is to realize a large, mono-lithic (not segmented) 3-m class or larger mirror cooled down below 6K, in order to perform extremely deep imaging and spectroscopy at 5-210µm.

  8. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    techniques such as attenuated total reflectance [6]. The two final papers deal with what seem to be wholly different scientific fields [7, 8]. One paper describes SOFIA, an aeroplane-based astronomical observatory covering the whole IR range [7], while the other represents a small review of the quite new topic of terahertz physics at the upper end of the IR spectral range, from around 30 µm to 3 mm wavelength, and its many applications in science and industry [8]. Although artificially separated, all these fields use similar kinds of detectors, similar kinds of IR sources and similar technologies, while the instruments use the same physical principles. We are convinced that the field of infrared physics will develop over the next decade in the same dynamic way as during the last, and this special issue may serve as starting point for regular submissions on the topic. At any rate, it shines a light on this fascinating and many-faceted subject, which started more than 200 years ago. References [1] Mangold K, Shaw J A and Vollmer M 2013 The physics of near-infrared photography Eur. J. Phys. 34 S51-71 [2] Vollmer M and Möllmann K-P 2013 Characterization of IR cameras in student labs Eur. J. Phys. 34 S73-90 [3] Ibarra-Castanedo C, Tarpani J R and Maldague X P V 2013 Nondestructive testing with thermography Eur. J. Phys. 34 S91-109 [4] Shaw J A and Nugent P W 2013 Physics principles in radiometric infrared imaging of clouds in the atmosphere Eur. J. Phys. 34 S111-21 [5] Möllmann K-P and Vollmer M 2013 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in physics laboratory courses Eur. J. Phys. 34 S123-37 [6] Heise H M, Fritzsche J, Tkatsch H, Waag F, Karch K, Henze K, Delbeck S and Budde J 2013 Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products Eur. J. Phys. 34 S139-59 [7] Krabbe A, Mehlert D, Röser H-P and Scorza C 2013 SOFIA, an airborne observatory for infrared astronomy

  9. NASA's future plans for space astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Mike

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of plans for the future NASA astrophysics missions called SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility), SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy), SMIM (Submillimeter Intermdiate Mission), and AIM (Astrometric Interferometry Mission), the Greater Observatories, and MFPE (Mission From Planet Earth). Technology needs for these missions are briefly described.

  10. NASA's future plans for space astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Mike

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of plans for the future NASA astrophysics missions called SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility), SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy), SMIM (Submillimeter Intermdiate Mission), and AIM (Astrometric Interferometry Mission), the Greater Observatories, and MFPE (Mission From Planet Earth). Technology needs for these missions are briefly described.

  11. An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hâkan; Koschny, Detlef

    2010-05-01

    Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30µm pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 µm. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the

  12. Great Observatories Present Rainbow of a Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer, Hubble and Chandra space observatories teamed up to create this multi-wavelength, false-colored view of the M82 galaxy. The lively portrait celebrates Hubble's 'sweet sixteen' birthday.

    X-ray data recorded by Chandra appears in blue; infrared light recorded by Spitzer appears in red; Hubble's observations of hydrogen emission appear in orange, and the bluest visible light appears in yellow-green.

    About the Movie M82 is shown in all its wavelength glory. Dissolving from Chandra X-ray Observatory images of three X-ray energy bands to images in three bands of the infrared spectrum taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope, and ending with the Hubble Space Telescope's visible- and near-infrared-light image. The three observatories' images were composited to reveal the galaxy's stars, as well as gas and dust features.

    Note: The size of the Full-Res TIFF for the still image is 4299 samples x 3490 lines.

  13. Flight Results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Inertial Upper Stage Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillotson, R.; Walter, R.

    2000-01-01

    Under contract to NASA, a specially configured version of the Boeing developed Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster was provided by Boeing to deliver NASA's 1.5 billion dollar Chandra X-Ray Observatory satellite into a highly elliptical transfer orbit from a Shuttle provided circular park orbit. Subsequently, the final orbit of the Chandra satellite was to be achieved using the Chandra Integral Propulsion System (IPS) through a series of IPS burns. On 23 July 1999 the Shuttle Columbia (STS-93) was launched with the IUS/Chandra stack in the Shuttle payload bay. Unfortunately, the Shuttle Orbiter was unexpectantly inserted into an off-nominal park orbit due to a Shuttle propulsion anomaly occurring during ascent. Following the IUS/Chandra on-orbit deployment from the Shuttle, at seven hours from liftoff, the flight proven IUS GN&C system successfully injected Chandra into the targeted transfer orbit, in spite of the off-nominal park orbit. This paper describes the IUS GN&C system, discusses the specific IUS GN&C mission data load development, analyses and testing for the Chandra mission, and concludes with a summary of flight results for the IUS part of the Chandra mission.

  14. Progress Towards a Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Since 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA): Focus of all work since 1993; Unchanged since 1997; Project in Phase A since 2004; Extensive formulation work and products; Reviewed and recommended in many major reviews: AANM (NRC, 2001), TRIP (HQ, 2003), Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos (NRC, 2003), AETD (GSFC, 2005). Beyond Einstein Program: (NRC, 2007), NWNH (NRC, 2010): Second in large space projects after WFIRST. Recommended for a new start. Contingent on Lisa Pathfinder success and a roughly 50-50 European partnership.

  15. infra-red view of Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    infra-red view of Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center, Florida, (28.5N, 80.5W). Compare this scene with STS030-76-042. In infra-red color imagery, the chlorophyl in vegetation is depicted as shades of red, the intensity varying with the amount and health of the vegetation. This photo shows that color infra-red imagery provides additional information when compared to normal color film and also penetrates atmospheric haze for a sharper image.

  16. On The Origins Of Cosmic Dust And The Evolution Of Nearby Galaxies With The Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Christopher Jonathan Redfern

    2015-04-01

    Using multiwavelength observations, centred around the unique far-infrared and submillimetre window provided by the Herschel Space Observatory, this thesis investigates the origins and evolution of cosmic dust in the local Universe – by examining individual sources of dust in our own galaxy, and by studying dust in nearby galaxies. I search Herschel observations of the remnants of Kepler’s (SN1604) and Tycho’s (SN1572) supernovæ, both Type-Ia explosions, for evidence of dust creation by these events. Being the only Type-Ia supernovæ known to have occurred in our Galaxy within the past 1,000 years, these remnants are the only ones both close enough to resolve, and young enough that they are dominated by their ejecta dynamics. There is no indication of any recently manufactured dust associated with either supernova remnant. It therefore appears that Type-Ia supernovæ do not contribute significantly to the dust budgets of galaxies. The Crab Nebula, the result of a Type-II supernova (SN1054), is also investigated using Herschel and multiwavelength data. After accounting for other sources of emission, a temperature of Td = 63.1 K and mass of Md = 0.21 M⊙ is derived for the Crab Nebula’s dust component. I create a map of the distribution of dust in the Crab Nebula, the first of its kind, by means of a resolved component separation, revealing that the dust is located in the dense filamentary ejecta. We can be confident that this dust will survive in the long term, and be injected into the galactic dust budget. This is the first detection of manufactured supernova dust for which this can be said. Next I use the Herschel-ATLAS to assemble HAPLESS: the Herschel- ATLAS Phase-1 Limited Extent Spatial Sample – a blind, volume-limited, dust- selected sample of nearby galaxies. The majority of this sample is made up of curious very blue galaxies. Often irregular and/or flocculent in morphology, with extremely blue UV-NIR colours, these galaxies appear to be

  17. NASA's SOFIA infrared observatory and F/A-18 safety chase during the first series of test flights to verify the flight performance of the modified Boeing 747SP

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-11

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on May 31, 2007. The heavily modified Boeing 747SP was ferried to Dryden from Waco, Texas, where L-3 Communications Integrated Systems installed a German-built 2.5-meter infrared telescope and made other major modifications over the past several years. SOFIA is scheduled to undergo installation and integration of mission systems and a multi-phase flight test program at Dryden over the next three years that is expected to lead to a full operational capability to conduct astronomy missions in about 2010. During its expected 20-year lifetime, SOFIA will be capable of "Great Observatory" class astronomical science, providing astronomers with access to the visible, infrared and sub-millimeter spectrum with optimized performance in the mid-infrared to sub-millimeter range.

  18. Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory 1. NOAA global monitoring for climatic change measurements with a nondispersive infrared analyzer, 1974--1985

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W. D.; Harris, T. B.; Waterman, L. S.; Chin, J. F. S.; Thoning, K. W.

    1989-06-20

    Atmospheric CO/sub 2/ measurements made with a nondispersive infrared analyzer during 1974--1985 at Mauna Lao Observatory, Hawaii, are described, with emphasis on the measurement methodology, calibrations, and data accuracy. Monthly mean CO/sub 2/ data, representative of global background conditions, are presented for the period of record. The monthly means were derived from an all-data base of CO/sub 2/ hourly averged archived at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) facility in Boulder, Colorado; at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and in the microfiche version of this paper. Flags in the all-data base identify CO/sub 2/ hourly averages that have been deemed unreliable because of sampling and analysis problems or that are unrepresentative of clean background air because of influences of the local environment, for example, CO/sub 2/ uptake by nearby vegetation or contamination and pollution effects. The select NOAA GMCC monthly mean data are compared with similar data obtained independently at Mauna Loa Observatory by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The averge difference of corresponding monthly mean CO/sub 2/ values for the two data sets is 0.15/plus minus/0.18 ppm, where the indicated variability is the standard deviation. Careful scrutiny of the NOAA GMCC measurement, calibration, and data processing procedures that might have caused the small bias in the data has revealed no unusual errors. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  19. Advancing the Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Levenson, Nancy A.

    2012-11-01

    Gemini Science and User Meeting; San Francisco, California, 17-20 July 2012 More than 100 astronomers gathered in San Francisco to discuss results from the Gemini Observatory and to plan for its future. The Gemini Observatory consists of twin 8.1 meter diameter optical/infrared telescopes located on mountaintops in Hawai'i and Chile. Gemini was built and is operated by an international partnership that currently includes the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Chile, Australia, Brazil, and Argentina.

  20. Concepts for a Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (SGO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2012-01-01

    The low-frequency band (0.0001 - 1 Hz) of the gravitational wave spectrum has the most interesting astrophysical sources. It is only accessible from space. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept has been the leading contender for a space-based detector in this band. Despite a strong recommendation from Astro2010, constrained budgets motivate the search for a less expensive concept, even at the loss of some science. We have explored the range of lower cost mission concepts derived from two decades of studying the LISA concept We describe LlSA-like concepts that span the range of affordable and scientifically worthwhile missions, and summarize the analyses behind them.

  1. Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (SGO) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey; McNamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a space-based gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return.

  2. Research in space physics at the University of Iowa. [astronomical observatories, spaceborne astronomy, satellite observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanallen, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Various research projects in space physics are summarized. Emphasis is placed on: (1) the study of energetic particles in outer space and their relationships to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with the earth, the sun, the moon, the planets, and interplanetary medium; (2) observational work on satellites of the earth and the moon, and planetary and interplanetary spacecraft; (3) phenomenological analysis and interpretation; (4) observational work by ground based radio-astronomical and optical techniques; and (5) theoretical problems in plasma physics. Specific fields of current investigations are summarized.

  3. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Observatory report, January - June 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a description of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Vector Magnetograph Facility and gives a summary of its observations and data reduction during Jan. to Jun. 1992. The systems that make up the facility are a magnetograph telescope, and H-alpha telescope, a Questar telescope, and a computer code.

  4. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Observatory report, March - May 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a description of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Vector Magnetograph Facility and gives a summary of its observations and data reduction during March-May 1994. The systems that make up the facility are a magnetograph telescope, an H-alpha telescope, a Questar telescope, and a computer code.

  5. Astronomy and space sciences studies - use of a remotely controlled robotic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priskitch, Ray

    Trinity College in Perth, Western Australia, has designed a self-paced online astronomy and space science course in response to the Earth & Beyond strand of the State's Curriculum Framework learning environment. The course also provides senior physics students the opportunity to undertake research that contributes towards their school-based assessment. Special features of the course include use of the first remotely controlled robotic telescope in a secondary school within Australia, and direct real time links to NASA's Johnson Space Centre. The quantum leap in telescope design and control technology introduces users, especially school students, to a means of data collection and processing that hitherto was in the realm of the professional astronomer. No longer must students be, both in time and space, located at the telescope when an event is taking place. Convenience of use and the high quality of data allows students to undertake scientific investigations that were impractical or of dubious quality beforehand. The Astronomy and Space Sciences course at Trinity offers students the opportunity to explore the solar system and the universe beyond whilst also incorporating a wide range of subjects other than science per se such as mathematics, computing, geography, multimedia, religious education and art. Skills developed in this course are of practical value, such as image processing, and the context of the studies serve to illuminate and stimulate student awareness of our unique environment and its finiteness.

  6. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Observatory Report, July to December 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides a description of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Vector Magnetograph Facility and gives a summary of its observations and data reduction during July-December 1992. The systems that make up the facility are a magnetograph telescope, an H-alpha telescope, a Questar telescope, and a computer code.

  7. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center solar observatory report, January - June 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides a description of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Vector Magnetograph Facility and gives a summary of its observations and data reduction during January-June 1993. The systems that make up the facility are a magnetograph telescope, an H-alpha telescope, a Questar telescope, and a computer code.

  8. Results from the Two-Year Infrared Cloud Imager Deployment at ARM's NSA Observatory in Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. A.; Nugent, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Ground-based longwave-infrared (LWIR) cloud imaging can provide continuous cloud measurements in the Arctic. This is of particular importance during the Arctic winter when visible wavelength cloud imaging systems cannot operate. This method uses a thermal infrared camera to observe clouds and produce measurements of cloud amount and cloud optical depth. The Montana State University Optical Remote Sensor Laboratory deployed an infrared cloud imager (ICI) at the Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring North Slope of Alaska site at Barrow, AK from July 2012 through July 2014. This study was used to both understand the long-term operation of an ICI in the Arctic and to study the consistency of the ICI data products in relation to co-located active and passive sensors. The ICI was found to have a high correlation (> 0.92) with collocated cloud instruments and to produce an unbiased data product. However, the ICI also detects thin clouds that are not detected by most operational cloud sensors. Comparisons with high-sensitivity actively sensed cloud products confirm the existence of these thin clouds. Infrared cloud imaging systems can serve a critical role in developing our understanding of cloud cover in the Arctic by provided a continuous annual measurement of clouds at sites of interest.

  9. Lessons from a High-Impact Observatory: The Hubble Space Telescope’s Science Productivity between 1998 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, Dániel; Lagerstrom, Jill; Reid, Iain Neill; Levay, Karen L.; Fraser, Elizabeth; Nota, Antonella; Henneken, Edwin

    2010-07-01

    Almost two decades of continuous operation of the versatile and productive Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provide uniquely well-documented, robust statistics to study the scientific impact of a major astronomical observatory. We compiled a detailed database of refereed articles that use HST data for analysis and show it to be >95% complete. This HST Publication Database is publicly available and searchable: it contains more than 8700 articles, cited more than 300,000 times in the literature. By cross-linking this data set with our extensive proposal database and NASA’s ADS service, we are able to trace the evolution of ideas from the proposal stage through the observations and publication steps to the final impact on the astronomical literature. Here we present a detailed study of HST’s performance, including the temporal evolution of the publication rate, the citation statistics, the relative contributions from different program types, the time allocation strategy, and the relative contributions of the HST instruments. We also discuss the properties of typical and very highly-cited articles. By analyzing this complete and well-characterized database, we identify five key features that contribute to the productivity and high impact of the observatory: (1) the time allocation policies; (2) the well-characterized HST archive; (3) the breadth of science projects ranging from the solar system to cosmology; (4) the Director’s Discretionary time allocations; (5) the large international user community and its involvement in the observatory’s functions. In addition, we find the following general characteristics. Following its launch, HST’s productivity has been steadily increasing; 8 yr after launch, HST reached equilibrium between the incoming data volume and the number of published articles that are based on those data. The overall productivity, however, is still steadily increasing due to the increasing number of archival articles. We find that small programs

  10. Coordination of Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) Science Working Group (SWG) for the study of instrument accommodation and operational requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.

  11. Solar-Heliospheric-Interstellar Cosmic Ray Tour with the NASA Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory and the Space Physics Data Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Johnson, Rita C.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.

    2015-04-01

    NASA now has a large collection of solar, heliospheric, and local interstellar (Voyager 1) cosmic ray particle data sets that can be accessed through the data system services of the NASA Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) in collaboration with the NASA Space Physics Data Facility SPDF), respectively led by the first and last authors. The VEPO services were developed to enhance the long-existing OMNIWeb solar wind and energetic particle services of SPDF for on-line browse, correlative, and statistical analysis of NASA and ESA mission fields, plasma, and energetic particle data. In this presentation we take of tour through VEPO and SPDF of SEP reservoir events, the outer heliosphere earlier surveyed by the Pioneer, Voyager, and Ulysses spacecraft and now being probed by New Horizons, and the heliosheath-heliopause-interstellar regions now being explored by the Voyagers and IBEX. Implications of the latter measurements are also considered for the flux spectra of low to high energy cosmic rays in interstellar space.

  12. HIRDES - The high-resolution double-echelle spectrograph for the World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO/UV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Wso/Uv-Hirdes Team

    The World Space Observatory Ultraviolet WSO UV is a multi-national project grown out of the needs of the astronomical community to have future access to the ultraviolet range of the electromagnetic spectrum The development of the WSO UV S C and the telescope is headed by the Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos The mission is scheduled to be launched in 2010 into the L2 orbit The WSO UV consists of a single Ultraviolet Telescope incorporating a primary mirror of 1 7 m diameter feeding UV spectrometer and UV imagers The UV spectrometer comprises three different single spectrographs two high resolution echelle spectrographs - the High Resolution Double Echelle Spectrograph HIRDES - and a low dispersion long slit instrument Within the HIRDES the spectral band 102 - 310 nm is separated to feed two echelle spectrographs covering the UV range between 174 and 310 nm UVES and the Vacuum-UV range between 102 and 176 nm VUVES with a very high spectral resolution of 50000 Each spectrograph encompasses a stand-alone optical bench structure with a fully redundant high-speed MCP detector system the optomechanics and a network of mechanisms with different functionalities The fundamental technical concept is based on the heritage of the two previous ORFEUS-SPAS missions The phase B1 development activities are described in this paper under consideration of performance aspects design drivers the related trade offs e g mechanical concepts material selection MCP detector efficiency etc and the critical functional and environmental test

  13. Proceedings of the Third Infrared Detector Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, Craig R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    This volume consists of 37 papers which summarize results presented at the Third Infrared Detector Technology Workshop, held February 7-9, 1989, at Ames Research Center. The workshop focused on infrared (IR) detector, detector array, and cryogenic electronic technologies relevant to low-background space astronomy. Papers on discrete IR detectors, cryogenic readouts, extrinsic and intrinsic IR arrays, and recent results from ground-based observations with integrated arrays were given. Recent developments in the second-generation Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared spectrometer and in detectors and arrays for the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) are also included, as are status reports on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) projects.

  14. Maximum Expected Wall Heat Flux and Maximum Pressure After Sudden Loss of Vacuum Insulation on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Liquid Helium (LHe) Dewars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft-based Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a platform for multiple infrared observation experiments. The experiments carry sensors cooled to liquid helium (LHe) temperatures. A question arose regarding the heat input and peak pressure that would result from a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation. Owing to concerns about the adequacy of dewar pressure relief in the event of a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation, the SOFIA Program engaged the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). This report summarizes and assesses the experiments that have been performed to measure the heat flux into LHe dewars following a sudden vacuum insulation failure, describes the physical limits of heat input to the dewar, and provides an NESC recommendation for the wall heat flux that should be used to assess the sudden loss of vacuum insulation case. This report also assesses the methodology used by the SOFIA Program to predict the maximum pressure that would occur following a loss of vacuum event.

  15. Trigger and Reconstruction Algorithms for the Japanese Experiment Module- Extreme Universe Space Observatory (JEM-EUSO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Andreev, Valeri; Christl, M. J.; Cline, David B.; Crawford, Hank; Judd, E. G.; Pennypacker, Carl; Watts, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO collaboration intends to study high energy cosmic ray showers using a large downward looking telescope mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station. The telescope focal plane is instrumented with approx.300k pixels operating as a digital camera, taking snapshots at approx. 1MHz rate. We report an investigation of the trigger and reconstruction efficiency of various algorithms based on time and spatial analysis of the pixel images. Our goal is to develop trigger and reconstruction algorithms that will allow the instrument to detect energies low enough to connect smoothly to ground-based observations.

  16. Trigger and Reconstruction Algorithms for the Japanese Experiment Module- Extreme Universe Space Observatory (JEM-EUSO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Andreev, Valeri; Christl, M. J.; Cline, David B.; Crawford, Hank; Judd, E. G.; Pennypacker, Carl; Watts, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO collaboration intends to study high energy cosmic ray showers using a large downward looking telescope mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station. The telescope focal plane is instrumented with approx.300k pixels operating as a digital camera, taking snapshots at approx. 1MHz rate. We report an investigation of the trigger and reconstruction efficiency of various algorithms based on time and spatial analysis of the pixel images. Our goal is to develop trigger and reconstruction algorithms that will allow the instrument to detect energies low enough to connect smoothly to ground-based observations.

  17. Space Active Optics: toward optimized correcting mirrors for future large spaceborne observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gérard; Liotard, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Wave-front correction in optical instruments is often needed, either to compensate Optical Path Differences, off-axis aberrations or mirrors deformations. Active optics techniques are developed to allow efficient corrections with deformable mirrors. In this paper, we will present the conception of particular deformation systems which could be used in space telescopes and instruments in order to improve their performances while allowing relaxing specifications on the global system stability. A first section will be dedicated to the design and performance analysis of an active mirror specifically designed to compensate for aberrations that might appear in future 3m-class space telescopes, due to lightweight primary mirrors, thermal variations or weightless conditions. A second section will be dedicated to a brand new design of active mirror, able to compensate for given combinations of aberrations with a single actuator. If the aberrations to be corrected in an instrument and their evolutions are known in advance, an optimal system geometry can be determined thanks to the elasticity theory and Finite Element Analysis.

  18. Detector arrays for low-background space infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The status of development and characterization tests of integrated infrared detector array technology for astronomy applications is described. The devices under development include intrinsic, extrinsic silicon, and extrinsic germanium detectors, with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Laboratory test results and successful astronomy imagery have established the usefulness of integrated arrays in low-background astronomy applications.

  19. Detector arrays for low-background space infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The status of development and characterization tests of integrated infrared detector array technology for astronomy applications is described. The devices under development include intrinsic, extrinsic silicon, and extrinsic germanium detectors, with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Laboratary test results and successful astronomy imagery have established the usefulness of integrated arrays in low-background astronomy applications.

  20. Selection of infrared black(s) for the Space Infra-Red Telescope Facility (SIRTF): a surface-by-surface performance comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinger, Ann S.

    1994-10-01

    SIRTF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, is planned to be the final one of NASA's four great observatories. It is a cryogenically cooled telescope designed to perform background- limited observations at all wavelengths between 2 and 220 micrometers . This stringent straylight requirement necessitates the use of infrared black coatings on all non-optical telescope surfaces. In order to make an informed decision, the SIRTF Study Office supported a long- range program to characterize the performance of a variety of black coatings over the full SIRTF wavelength range. Measurements of both specular reflectance and BRDF made by Sheldon Smith were incorporated into a model that predicts the blacks' BRDF coefficients at other wavelengths. The restrahlen reflectance peaks of Martin Black and Martin Infrablack at 2.2 and 5.4 micrometers are included in the model. An APART analysis of the current SIRTF telescope design was performed at wavelengths of 2.2, 3.5, 12.5, 60, and 200 micrometers . Evaluation of the relative performances of Martin Optical Black and Ames 24E2 on several critical surfaces led to the conclusion that the SIRTF straylight rejection could be enhanced by selecting different coatings for different surfaces. A very diffuse black is best on the mirror stops and secondary support struts, while a specular black could be a better choice for the vaned telescope barrel. Many coatings that are black and diffusely scattering at short wavelengths become quite bright and specular at long wavelengths. Extreme caution must be taken when using a black that becomes specular on any surface that can be seen from the telescope plane.

  1. Space-based observatories providing key data for climate change applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Sentinel-1 & 3 mission are part of the Copernicus program, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), whose overall objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. This European Earth Observation program is led by the European Commission and the space infrastructure is developed under the European Space Agency leadership. Many services will be developed through the Copernicus program among different thematic areas. The climate change is one of this thematic area and the Sentinel-1 & 3 satellites will provide key space-based observations in this area. The Sentinel-1 mission is based on a constellation of 2 identical satellites each one embarking C-SAR Instrument and provides capability for continuous radar mapping of the Earth with enhanced revisit frequency, coverage, timeliness and reliability for operational services and applications requiring long time series. In particular, Sentinel 1 provides all-weather, day-and-night estimates of soil moisture, wind speed and direction, sea ice, continental ice sheets and glaciers. The Sentinel-3 mission will mainly be devoted to the provision of Ocean observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. Among these data, very accurate surface temperatures and topography measurements will be provided and will constitute key indicators, once ingested in climate change models, for identifying climate drivers and expected climate impacts. The paper will briefly recall the satellite architectures, their main characteristics and performance. The inflight performance and key features of their images or data of the 3 satellites namely Sentinel 1A, 1B and 3A will be reviewed to demonstrate the quality and high scientific potential of the data as well as their

  2. Recent Radar Observations of Potentially Hazardous Near-Earth Asteroids With the Arecibo Observatory and the Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, M.; Benner, L.; Naidu, S.; Brozovic, M.; Taylor, P. A.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Richardson, J. E., Jr.; Virkki, A.; Giorgini, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Radar astronomy is one of the most powerful techniques to characterize the near-Earth object population and to predict the trajectories of potentially hazardous asteroids. The vast majority of asteroid radar observations use the Arecibo Observatory or the DSS-14 Goldstone Deep Space Network antenna. A new radar transmitter on DSS-13, a 34-m antenna at Goldstone, is now used to observe asteroids in bistatic configurations. The Green Bank Telescope is important as a receive station for bistatic observations of asteroids passing very close to Earth. In 2015, the DSS-43 antenna near Canberra and the Parkes Observatory were used to observe asteroids for the first time. About 100 near Earth asteroids are observed with radar each year. Recent radar astrometry has ruled out potential future impacts by the asteroids 2001 BB16, 2016 HD3, and 2016 LG. Radar imaging targets in the past year have included 1998 WT24, 2015 TB145, and 2016 BA14. WT24 was observed with radar in 2001 (Busch et al. 2008); the new radar images have five times finer spatial resolution. TB145 and BA14 may represent transition objects between comets and asteroids: both are on comet-like orbits; only BA14 is known to be outgassing. TB145 and BA14 have complex surfaces with 100-m-scale facts and prominent concavities. TB145 is 400 m wide; BA14 is >1 km in diameter. Upcoming radar targets include slowly-rotating asteroid 2003 TL4 and binary asteroid 2003 YT1, which has a basaltic V-class composition. Results of these observations will be presented at the meeting. The current rate of radar observations could in principle be increased to observe roughly three times as many asteroids each year (Naidu et al. 2016). Many of these potential radar targets are newly discovered potentially hazardous asteroids for which radar astrometry would be especially valuable. The continued availability of Arecibo in particular is crucial to mitigate the asteroid impact hazard and support small-body space missions.

  3. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.

    2011-01-01

    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  4. Mission Architecture Study Results for a Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (SGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; SGO Mission Concept Development Team

    2013-01-01

    The low-frequency band (0.0001 - 1 Hz) of the gravitational wave spectrum has a rich collection of astrophysical sources, and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept has been the key mission to cover this science for over twenty years. Although highly ranked in the 2010 Decadal Survey for the spectacular science return, tight budgets have forced NASA to consider a reformulation of the LISA mission concept at a lower cost point, even if at the expense of some of the science. We report the results of a mission architecture study that considered various options according to cost, risk, technical readiness, and the ability to address the Decadal-endorsed science goals.

  5. Developing an Efficient Planetary Space Weather Alert Service using Virtual Observatory Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Benson, Kevin; Le Sidaner, Pierre; André, Nicolas; Tomasik, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this Task is to identify user requirements, develop the way to implement event alerts, and chain those to the 1) planetary event and 2) planetary space weather predictions. The expected service of alerts will be developed with the objective to facilitate discovery or prediction announcements within the PSWD user community in order to watch or warn against specific events. The ultimate objective is to set up dedicated amateur and/or professional observation campaigns, diffuse contextual information for science data analysis, and enable safety operations of planet-orbiting spacecraft against the risks of impacts from meteors or solar wind disturbances. OBSPARIS and UCL will study and adapt VOEvent to those purposes. CNRS-IRAP and SRC will study the way to implement VOEvent as a service for the PSWD tools.

  6. Restoration, Enhancement, and Distribution of the ATLAS-1 Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) Space Science Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The primary goal of the funded task was to restore and distribute the ISO ATLAS-1 space science data set with enhanced software and database utilities. The first year was primarily dedicated to physically transferring the data from its original format to its initial CD archival format. The remainder of the first year was devoted to the verification of the restored data set and database. The second year was devoted to the enhancement of the data set, especially the development of IDL utilities and redesign of the database and search interface as needed. This period was also devoted to distribution of the rescued data set, principally the creation and maintenance of a web interface to the data set. The final six months was dedicated to working with NSSDC to create a permanent, off site, hive of the data set and supporting utilities. This time was also used to resolve last minute quality and design issues.

  7. Developing an Efficient Planetary Space Weather Alert Service using Virtual Observatory Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Benson, K.; Le Sidaner, P.; André, N.

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this project is to identify user requirements, develop the way to implement event alerts, and chain those to the 1) planetary event and 2) planetary space weather predictions. The expected service of alerts will be developed with the objective to facilitate discovery or prediction announcements within the PSWD user community in order to watch or warn against specific events. The ultimate objective is to set up dedicated amateur and/or professional observation campaigns, diffuse contextual information for science data analysis, and enable safety operations of planet-orbiting spacecraft against the risks of impacts from meteors or solar wind disturbances. OBSPARIS and UCL will study and adapt VOEvent to those purposes. CNRS-IRAP and SRC will study the way to implement VOEvent as a service for the PSWD tools.

  8. Cooled infrared filters and dichroics for the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Gary; Sherwood, Richard

    2008-05-01

    The cooled infrared filters and dichroic beam splitters manufactured for the Mid-Infrared Instrument are key optical components for the selection and isolation of wavelengths in the study of astrophysical properties of stars, galaxies, and other planetary objects. We describe the spectral design and manufacture of the precision cooled filter coatings for the spectrometer (7 K) and imager (9 K). Details of the design methods used to achieve the spectral requirements, selection of thin film materials, deposition technique, and testing are presented together with the optical layout of the instrument.

  9. NASA's Great Observatories: Paper Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational brief discusses observatory stations built by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for looking at the universe. This activity for grades 5-12 has students build paper models of the observatories and study their history, features, and functions. Templates for the observatories are included. (MVL)

  10. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-01-01

    Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by TRW, the second High Energy Astronomy Observatory was launched November 13, 1978. The observatory carried the largest X-ray telescope ever built and was renamed the Einstein Observatory after achieving orbit.

  11. CNES detector development for scientific space missions: status and roadmap for infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffray, H.; Boulade, O.; Fièque, B.; Gravrand, O.; Rothmann, J.; Zanatta, J. P.; Tauziède, L.; Bardoux, A.

    2014-07-01

    CNES (French Space Agency) continuously drives the development of detectors for Space based Astronomy. Several promising infrared HgCdTe technologies are being developed at CEA and Sofradir. This paper gives a status on these developments as well as an overview of the associated roadmap.

  12. Type II strained layer superlattice: a potential infrared sensor material for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Tidrow, M. Z.; Novello, A.; Weichel, H.; Vohra, S.

    2008-02-01

    The Missile Defense Agency's Advanced Technology Office is developing advanced passive electro-optical and infrared sensors for future space-based seekers by exploring new infrared detector materials. A Type II strained layer superlattice, one of the materials under development, has shown great potential for space applications. Theoretical results indicate that strained layer superlattice has the promise to be superior to current infrared sensor materials, such as HgCdTe, quantum well infrared photodetectors, and Si:As. Strained layer superlattice-based infrared detector materials combine the advantages of HgCdTe and quantum well infrared photodetectors. The bandgap of strained layer superlattice can be tuned for strong broadband absorption throughout the short-, mid-, long-, and very long wavelength infrared bands. The electronic band structure can be engineered to suppress Auger recombination noise and reduce the tunneling current. The device structures can be easily stacked for multicolor focal plane arrays. The III-V semiconductor fabrication offers the potential of producing low-defect-density, large-format focal plane arrays with high uniformity and high operability. A current program goal is to extend wavelengths to longer than 14 μm for space applications. This paper discusses the advantages of strained layer superlattice materials and describes efforts to improve the material quality, device design, and device processing.

  13. Next space solar observatory SOLAR-C: mission instruments and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Hara, H.; Ichimoto, K.; Kubo, M.; Kusano, K.; Sakao, T.; Shimizu, T.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.

    2012-12-01

    SOLAR-C, the fourth space solar mission in Japan, is under study with a launch target of fiscal year 2018. A key concept of the mission is to view the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona as one system coupled by magnetic fields along with resolving the size scale of fundamental physical processes connecting these atmospheric layers. It is especially important to study magnetic structure in the chromosphere as an interface layer between the photosphere and the corona. The SOLAR-C satellite is equipped with three telescopes, the Solar UV-Visible-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV/FUV High Throughput Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVS/LEMUR), and the X-ray Imaging Telescope (XIT). Observations with SUVIT of photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields make it possible to infer three dimensional magnetic structure extending from the photosphere to the chromosphere and corona.This helps to identify magnetic structures causing magnetic reconnection, and clarify how waves are propagated, reflected, and dissipated. Phenomena indicative of or byproducts of magnetic reconnection, such as flows and shocks, are to be captured by SUVIT and by spectroscopic observations using EUVS/LEMUR, while XIT observes rapid changes in temperature distribution of plasma heated by shock waves.

  14. Infrared single mode chalcogenide glass fiber for space.

    PubMed

    Houizot, P; Boussard-Plédel, C; Faber, A J; Cheng, L K; Bureau, B; Van Nijnatten, P A; Gielesen, W L M; Pereira do Carmo, J; Lucas, J

    2007-09-17

    An important measuring technique under study for the DARWIN planet finding mission, is nulling interferometry, enabling the detection of the weak infrared emission lines of an orbiting planet. This technique requires a perfect wavefront of the light beams to be combined in the interferometer. By using a single mode waveguide before detection, wavefront errors are filtered and a virtually perfect plane wavefront is obtained. In this paper the results on the development and the optical characterisation of suitable infrared transmitting chalcogenide glasses and mid-IR guiding optical fibers are reported. Two different perform techniques for manufacturing core-cladding chalcogenide fibers are described. Two types of step index fibers, prepared with Te(2)As(3)Se(5) chalcogenide glasses, offer single mode guidance at 10.6 mum.

  15. Cloud vertical distribution from combined surface and space radar–lidar observations at two Arctic atmospheric observatories

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yinghui; Shupe, Matthew D.; Wang, Zhien; ...

    2017-01-01

    Detailed and accurate vertical distributions of cloud properties (such as cloud fraction, cloud phase, and cloud water content) and their changes are essential to accurately calculate the surface radiative flux and to depict the mean climate state. Surface and space-based active sensors including radar and lidar are ideal to provide this information because of their superior capability to detect clouds and retrieve cloud microphysical properties. In this study, we compare the annual cycles of cloud property vertical distributions from space-based active sensors and surface-based active sensors at two Arctic atmospheric observatories, Barrow and Eureka. Based on the comparisons, we identifymore » the sensors' respective strengths and limitations, and develop a blended cloud property vertical distribution by combining both sets of observations. Results show that surface-based observations offer a more complete cloud property vertical distribution from the surface up to 11 km above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.) with limitations in the middle and high altitudes; the annual mean total cloud fraction from space-based observations shows 25–40 % fewer clouds below 0.5 km than from surface-based observations, and space-based observations also show much fewer ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds, and slightly more liquid clouds, from the surface to 1 km. In general, space-based observations show comparable cloud fractions between 1 and 2 km a.m.s.l., and larger cloud fractions above 2 km a.m.s.l. than from surface-based observations. A blended product combines the strengths of both products to provide a more reliable annual cycle of cloud property vertical distributions from the surface to 11 km a.m.s.l. This information can be valuable for deriving an accurate surface radiative budget in the Arctic and for cloud parameterization evaluation in weather and climate models. Cloud annual cycles show similar evolutions in total cloud fraction and ice cloud

  16. Cloud vertical distribution from combined surface and space radar–lidar observations at two Arctic atmospheric observatories

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yinghui; Shupe, Matthew D.; Wang, Zhien; Mace, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Detailed and accurate vertical distributions of cloud properties (such as cloud fraction, cloud phase, and cloud water content) and their changes are essential to accurately calculate the surface radiative flux and to depict the mean climate state. Surface and space-based active sensors including radar and lidar are ideal to provide this information because of their superior capability to detect clouds and retrieve cloud microphysical properties. In this study, we compare the annual cycles of cloud property vertical distributions from space-based active sensors and surface-based active sensors at two Arctic atmospheric observatories, Barrow and Eureka. Based on the comparisons, we identify the sensors' respective strengths and limitations, and develop a blended cloud property vertical distribution by combining both sets of observations. Results show that surface-based observations offer a more complete cloud property vertical distribution from the surface up to 11 km above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.) with limitations in the middle and high altitudes; the annual mean total cloud fraction from space-based observations shows 25–40 % fewer clouds below 0.5 km than from surface-based observations, and space-based observations also show much fewer ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds, and slightly more liquid clouds, from the surface to 1 km. In general, space-based observations show comparable cloud fractions between 1 and 2 km a.m.s.l., and larger cloud fractions above 2 km a.m.s.l. than from surface-based observations. A blended product combines the strengths of both products to provide a more reliable annual cycle of cloud property vertical distributions from the surface to 11 km a.m.s.l. This information can be valuable for deriving an accurate surface radiative budget in the Arctic and for cloud parameterization evaluation in weather and climate models. Cloud annual cycles show similar evolutions in total cloud fraction and ice cloud fraction

  17. Cloud vertical distribution from combined surface and space radar-lidar observations at two Arctic atmospheric observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yinghui; Shupe, Matthew D.; Wang, Zhien; Mace, Gerald

    2017-05-01

    Detailed and accurate vertical distributions of cloud properties (such as cloud fraction, cloud phase, and cloud water content) and their changes are essential to accurately calculate the surface radiative flux and to depict the mean climate state. Surface and space-based active sensors including radar and lidar are ideal to provide this information because of their superior capability to detect clouds and retrieve cloud microphysical properties. In this study, we compare the annual cycles of cloud property vertical distributions from space-based active sensors and surface-based active sensors at two Arctic atmospheric observatories, Barrow and Eureka. Based on the comparisons, we identify the sensors' respective strengths and limitations, and develop a blended cloud property vertical distribution by combining both sets of observations. Results show that surface-based observations offer a more complete cloud property vertical distribution from the surface up to 11 km above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.) with limitations in the middle and high altitudes; the annual mean total cloud fraction from space-based observations shows 25-40 % fewer clouds below 0.5 km than from surface-based observations, and space-based observations also show much fewer ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds, and slightly more liquid clouds, from the surface to 1 km. In general, space-based observations show comparable cloud fractions between 1 and 2 km a.m.s.l., and larger cloud fractions above 2 km a.m.s.l. than from surface-based observations. A blended product combines the strengths of both products to provide a more reliable annual cycle of cloud property vertical distributions from the surface to 11 km a.m.s.l. This information can be valuable for deriving an accurate surface radiative budget in the Arctic and for cloud parameterization evaluation in weather and climate models. Cloud annual cycles show similar evolutions in total cloud fraction and ice cloud fraction, and lower liquid

  18. Cloud vertical distribution from combined surface and space radar-lidar observations at two Arctic atmospheric observatories

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yinghui; Shupe, Matthew D.; Wang, Zhien; ...

    2017-05-16

    Detailed and accurate vertical distributions of cloud properties (such as cloud fraction, cloud phase, and cloud water content) and their changes are essential to accurately calculate the surface radiative flux and to depict the mean climate state. Surface and space-based active sensors including radar and lidar are ideal to provide this information because of their superior capability to detect clouds and retrieve cloud microphysical properties. In this study, we compare the annual cycles of cloud property vertical distributions from space-based active sensors and surface-based active sensors at two Arctic atmospheric observatories, Barrow and Eureka. Based on the comparisons, we identifymore » the sensors' respective strengths and limitations, and develop a blended cloud property vertical distribution by combining both sets of observations. Results show that surface-based observations offer a more complete cloud property vertical distribution from the surface up to 11 km above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.) with limitations in the middle and high altitudes; the annual mean total cloud fraction from space-based observations shows 25-40 % fewer clouds below 0.5 km than from surface-based observations, and space-based observations also show much fewer ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds, and slightly more liquid clouds, from the surface to 1 km. In general, space-based observations show comparable cloud fractions between 1 and 2 km a.m.s.l., and larger cloud fractions above 2 km a.m.s.l. than from surface-based observations. A blended product combines the strengths of both products to provide a more reliable annual cycle of cloud property vertical distributions from the surface to 11 km a.m.s.l. This information can be valuable for deriving an accurate surface radiative budget in the Arctic and for cloud parameterization evaluation in weather and climate models. Cloud annual cycles show similar evolutions in total cloud fraction and ice cloud fraction, and lower liquid

  19. Infrared astronomy takes center stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick C.; Gatley, Ian; Hollenbach, David

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of infrared astronomy, including the ability to detect cool matter, explore the hidden universe, reveal a wealth of spectral lines, and reach back to the beginning of time are outlined. Ground-based infrared observations such as observations in the thermal infrared region are discussed as well as observations utilizing infrared telescopes aboard NASA aircraft and orbiting telescopes. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy are described, and it is pointed out that infrared astronomers can penetrate obscuring dust to study stars and interstellar matter throughout the Milky Way galaxy. Application of various infrared instruments to the investigation of stars and planets is emphasized, and focus is placed on the discovery of clouds or disks of particles around mature stars and acquisition of high-resolution spectra of the gaseous and solid materials orbiting on the fringes of the solar system.

  20. The Physical Characteristics of the Gas in the Disk of Centaurus A Using the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkin, T. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Baes, M.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Cormier, D.; Galametz, M.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Lebouteiller, V.; De Looze, I.; Madden, S. C.; Roussel, H.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.

    2014-05-01

    We search for variations in the disk of Centaurus A of the emission from atomic fine structure lines using Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy. In particular, we observe the [C II](158 μm), [N II](122 and 205 μm), [O I](63 and 145 μm), and [O III](88 μm) lines, which all play an important role in cooling the gas in photo-ionized and photodissociation regions (PDRs). We determine that the ([C II]+[O I]63)/F TIR line ratio, a proxy for the heating efficiency of the gas, shows no significant radial trend across the observed region, in contrast to observations of other nearby galaxies. We determine that 10%-20% of the observed [C II] emission originates in ionized gas. Comparison between our observations and a PDR model shows that the strength of the far-ultraviolet radiation field, G 0, varies between 101.75 and 102.75 and the hydrogen nucleus density varies between 102.75 and 103.75 cm-3, with no significant radial trend in either property. In the context of the emission line properties of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 and the elliptical galaxy NGC 4125, the gas in Cen A appears more characteristic of that in typical disk galaxies rather than elliptical galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.